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# :

1:
F=500kN.
,
,
B =24kN/m3.

1-1:

N11 = (F + G1 )
G1 = 0.5 0.5 3 24 = 18 kN
N11 = (500 + 18 ) = 518 kN

11 =


N11
518 10 3
=
= 2.07 MPa
A1
0 .5 0 .5

2-2:

N 22 = (F + G1 + G2 )
G2 = 1.0 1.0 0.75 24 = 18 kN
N 22 = (500 + 18 + 18 ) = 536 kN

22 =

N 2 2
536 10 3
=
= 0.536 MPa
A2
1 .0 1 .0

. -

2:
.
q1=40kN/m, q2=35kN/m
q3=25kN/m.
16 kN/m3, a
24 kN/m3.
: 25cm 38cm.
:
-
doz=0.8 MPa
- doz=1.8 MPa
- doz=0.2 MPa

.
)
)

. -

:

.


## G1 = 0.25 2.7 16 = 10.80 kN

G2 = 0.25 2.7 16 = 10.80 kN
G3 = 0.38 2.7 16 = 16.41kN

## G 4 = 0.38 3.0 16 = 18.24 kN

G5 = (1.40 0.45 + 0.90 0.45) 24 = 24.84 kN


1 =

:
q1 40 10 3
=
= 0.16 MPa < doz
A1
0.25 1

q1 + G1 + q 2 ( 40 + 10.8 + 35) 10 3
2 =
=
= 0.343 MPa < doz
A1
0.25 1

3 =

## q1 + G1 + q 2 + G2 + q 2 ( 40 + 10.8 + 35 + 10.8 + 35) 10 3

=
= 0.346 MPa < doz
A2
0.38 1

4 =

q1 + G1 + q 2 + G2 + q 2 + G3 + q 2 ( 40 + 10.8 2 + 35 3 + 16.41) 10 3
=
A2
0.38 1

## 4 = 0.482 MPa < doz

5 =

q1 + G1 + q 2 + G2 + q 2 + G3 + q 2 + G4 + q 3
=
A2

## ( 40 + 10.8 2 + 35 3 + 16.41 + 18.24 + 25) 10 3

0.38 1
5 = 0.595 MPa < doz
=

6 =

q1 + G1 + q 2 + G2 + q 2 + G3 + q 2 + G4 + q 3 + G5
=
A3

## ( 40 + 10.8 2 + 35 3 + 16.41 + 18.24 + 25 + 24.84) 10 3

=
1 .4 1
6 = 0.179 MPa < doz

,
. . )

.

. -

3: 5cm 30cm
. 32 kN,
0.03cm,
0.0015cm.
.

:


x =


z =


D x 0.0015
=
= 0.0003 cm / cm
D
5

L 0.03
=
= 0.001cm / cm
L
30

x 0.0003
=
= 0 .3
z
0.001

F
32
32
32
=
=
=
= 1.63 kN / cm 2 = 16.3 MPa
2
2
A d
19.625
5
4
4

:
E=

1.63

=
= 1630 kN / cm 2 = 16300 MPa
z 0.001

. -

4:
F=480kN.
.
,
G=160kN.
d=10cm
a = 4m
b = 2m
E = 2 . 105 MPa

:


:
:

Z = 0
Y = 0
M = 0
B

F S1 = 0
G S 2 S3 = 0
b
+ S3 b = 0
2
480 4 + 160 1 + S3 2 = 0

F a +G

S 3 = 1040 kN
S 2 = 160 + 1040 = 880 kN
S1 = 480 kN




d2

= 78.6 cm 2
4
:

1 =

A=

N1 S1 480 10 3
=
=
= 61 MPa
A
A
78.6 10 4

N1 l 1
0.48 2
=
= 0.00061m = 0.61mm
E A 2 10 5 0.00786
N
S
880 10 3
2 = 2 = 2 =
= 112.5 MPa
A
A
78.6 10 4
l 1 =

N2 l 2
0.88 2
=
= 0.00105m = 1.05mm
E A 2 10 5 0.00786
N3
S3
1040 10 3
3 =
=
=
= 133 MPa
A
A
78.6 10 4
l 2 =

l 3 =

N3 l 3
1.040 2
=
= 0.00123m = 1.23mm
E A 2 10 5 0.00786

. -

BB1 = = l 12 + l 22 = 1.21mm

5:
F.
F ,
doz = 150 MPa .
(1=8cm2 2=12cm2)
=2 . 105 MPa.

=30o

:


:
:

Z = 0 ; A + S sin = 0
Y = 0 ; A + S cos + S F = 0
M = 0;
z

S 2 10 S1 cos 30 5 + F 7.5 = 0
F 1.5 = S 2 2 + S1 0.866

:
:

=
l 2
=
10 5

l 1 =

l 2 = 2 = 2 1.1547 l 1 = 2.3094 l 1

S1 l 1 S1 3.464
=
;
E A1 E 8 10 4

l 2 =

S2 3
S 3.464
= 2.3094 1
4
E 12 10
E 8 10 4

. -

l 1
= 1.1547 l 1
cos 30

S2 l 2
S2 3
=
E A2 E 12 10 4

S 2 = 3.992 S1
S1 =

1.5F
= 0.16949F
8.85

S 2 = 0.6766F


1 =

S1
150 MPa
A1

0.16949F
= 150
8 10 4

2 =

S2
150 MPa
A2

0.6766F
= 150
12 10 4

: F = 260kN

. -

F = 0.708 MN = 700kN

F = 0.266 MN = 266kN

6:
=5cm2.
=2 . 105 MPa
().
F1=40 kN
F2=60 kN
F3=20 kN

:


:
:
N 0 1 = F1 = 40 kN

N12 = F1 + F2 = 40 + 60 = 100 kN
N 2 A = F1 + F2 F3 = 40 + 60 20 = 80 kN
:
N
40 10 3
01 = 0 1 =
= 80 MPa
A1
5 10 4

12 =

N12 100 10 3
=
= 200 MPa
A1
5 10 4

1 A =

N1 A 80 10 3
=
= 160 MPa
A1
5 10 4

N 0 1 l 1
0.040 1
=
= 4 10 4 m = 0.4 mm
5
E A1
2 10 0.0005
N l
0.100 1
l 2 = 12 2 =
= 1 10 3 m = 1.0 mm
E A1
2 10 5 0.0005
N l
0.080 2
l 3 = 2 A 3 =
= 1.6 10 3 m = 1.6 mm
5
E A1
2 10 0.0005

l 1 =

## = l 1 + l 2 + l 3 = 0.4 + 1.0 + 1.6 = 3.0 mm

. -

7:
h=4m. , ,
F=200 kN.
d1=2cm d2=2.5cm =2 . 105 MPa.
.

:


Y = 0 ; S

= S 2 = F / 2 = 100 kN

A1 =

d1

= 3.14 cm 2

4
2
d2
A2 =
= 4.9 cm 2
4

:
N1 100 10 3
1 =
=
= 318.5 MPa
A1 3.14 10 4
N 2 100 10 3
2 =
=
= 204.1 MPa
A2 4.9 10 4

l 1 =

S1 l 1
0 .1 4
=
= 0.0064m
5
E A1 2 10 3.14 10 4

l 2 =

S2 l 2
0 .1 4
=
= 0.004m
5
E A2 2 10 4.9 10 4

= (l 1 + l 2 ) / 2 = (6.4 + 4 ) / 2 = 5.2 mm

. -

8: F=250 kN
.
( )
a=20cm
b=2cm
F=250kN
b=2 . 104 MPa
c=2 . 105 MPa

:



:
Y = 0 ; Fb + Fc = F = 250 kN

Fb = F Fc = 250 Fc

:
l c = l b -

Fc h
F h
= b
E c Ac E b Ab
Fc
(F Fc )
=
E b Ab
E c Ac
Ac = b 2 = 4cm 2
Ab = a 2 b 2 = 396 cm 2
Fc
0.25 Fc
=
2 10 5 4 10 4 2 10 4 396 10 4
Fc = 0.023 kN
Fb = 0.227 kN

c =

Fc
23 10 3
=
= 57.5 MPa
Ac
4 10 4

Fb
227 10 3
b =
=
= 5.73 MPa
Ab
396 10 4

. -

9: =6mm.

,
, =2 . 105 MPa, =3cm2, =30 .

:
:
X =0

F1 sin F3 sin = 0

F1 = F3

Y = 0
2F1 cos + F2 = 0 F2 = 2F1 cos = 1.73F1
:

= l 2 + y = l 2 +
l 1 =

F1 l 1
EA

0.6 10 3

F2 l 2
l
l1 = 2
EA
cos
F2 3
F1 3
=
+
5
4
5
2 10 3 10
2 10 3 10 4 cos 2
l 2 =

F1 = F3 = 3.9 kN ;

1 = 3 =
2 =

l 1
cos

F2 = 6.75 kN

F1 3.9 10 3
=
= 13 MPa ;
A
3 10 4

F2 6.75 10 3
=
= 22.5 MPa
A
3 10 4

. -

10: =1mm.
, F=150kN,
=2 . 104 MPa, 1=400cm2, 2=200cm2, t=40o, l1=1.5m, l2=1.0m, t=1.25 .
10-5.

:
l t = t t (l 1 + l 2 ) = 1.25 mm > = 1mm

,

,
.
:
Y = 0 A F + B = 0 A = B F




l 1 + l 2 + l t =

B l 2 ( B + F ) l 1
+
+ t t (l 1 + l 2 ) =
E A2
E A1
B 1
( B + 0.15) 1.5 + 1.25 10 5 40 2.5 = 0.001

+
4
2 10 0.02
2 10 4 0.04

B = 0.121MN = 121kN
A = 121 150 = 29 kN

1 =

A 29 10 3
=
= +0.725 MPa ;
A1
0.04

2 =

B
121 10 3
=
= 6.05 MPa
A2
0.02

B l2
0.121 1
+ t t l 2 =
+ 1.25 10 5 40 1 = 0.1975mm
4
E A2
2 10 0.02
(F B ) l 1
0.029 1.5
=
+ t t l 1 =
+ 1.25 10 5 40 1.5 = 0.8025mm
4
E A1
2 10 0.04
+ l C A = 0.1975 + 0.8025 = 1mm

l B C =
l C A
l B C

. -

11:

.
=2mm.
. =2.105 MPa, 1=2=10cm2, =2m.

:


= 0;

S 2 a S1 2a = 0
S 2 = 2S1

( l 1 0.707 ) : 2a = [( l 2 ) 0.707] : a
0.707 l 1 = 2 0.707( l 2 )
S1 l 1 4 S1
=
EA EA
S l
2 S2
l 2 = 2 2 =
EA
EA
4 S1
2 (2S1 )

0.707
= 2 0.707

EA
EA

l 1 =

S1 = 0.0665 MN = 66.5 kN
S 2 = 2S1 = 0.133 MN = 133kN

. -

12:

F=2.0kN l=6.0m
d=3.0mm.
: 2=4.0mm,
3=6.0mm. ,
. E = 2 10 5 MPa .

:

, F.
)

Y =0

N 1 + N 2 + N 3 = F = 2 10 3 MN

(1)

)
,

l1 = l 2 + 2

(2)

l1 = l 3 3

(3)

l =

N l
EA

N1 l N 2 l
=
+ 0.004
EA EA
N1 l N 3 l
=
0.006
EA EA
EA
l
EA
N1 = N 3 0.006
l
N 1 = N 2 + 0.004

A=

d 2 0.003 2
=
= 7.06858 10 6 m 2
4
4
EA
= 0.2356193 MN / m
l

N 2 = N 1 9.42477 10 4
N 3 = N 1 + 1.41371 10 3
N 1 = 0.509587 10 3 MN = 0.509587 kN

N 2 = 0.43289 kN
N 3 = 1.923294 kN
. -

N1
= 72.092 MPa
A
N
2 = 2 = 61.24 MPa
A
N
3 = 3 = 272.09 MPa
A

1 =