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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century.  The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later,  where the dry compass was invented around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works
A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide
• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
 Other. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass.Wikipedia. of the Pole Star.  The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. A recent development is the electronic compass.wikipedia. the directions of the true poles also shift. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation). more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north. there is an angle. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. However.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface. rather than to its direction of movement. and changes with time. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. east and west. and adjust the compass accordingly. Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. durable.12/04/12 Compass . (Over millions of years. which will be different if there is a crosswind. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). south. and require no power supply. used with a sextant to calculate latitude. possibly using astronomical observations e. as opposed to magnetic north). which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading. or moving in a fluid. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees. the free encyclopedia change of its position. as they are relatively inexpensive. especially in remote areas. It was initialized by hand.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 . A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. How a magnetic compass works en. A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north. Some GPS receivers have two antennas. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. usually to the south. and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. Close to the equator. Significant movements happen in a few years. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. Often. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards. magnetic compasses remain popular. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement. because of continental drift.g. so that the compass shows true directions. usually an aircraft.filled magnetic compass. relative to the earth's rotational poles.
Later compasses were made of iron needles. the direction of the North magnetic pole. luminous paint.wikipedia.friction pivot point. or an arrowhead. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. the rotation axis of the Earth. Better compasses are "liquid-filled".12/04/12 Compass . magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. and contributing to the Age of Discovery. In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. one end points toward the North magnetic pole. called a "compass card". it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles). a compass does not point to true north. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . in better compasses a jewel bearing. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless. located in northeastern Canada. the needle turns until. the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. called magnetic declination can vary widely.  For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. In navigation. the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. When the compass is held level. in northern Canada. after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. Instead of a needle. supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies.'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. a naturally. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. en. so it can turn easily. History The first compasses were made oflodestone. Since opposite poles attract (. On cloudy days. increasing sea trade.Wikipedia. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth. destination. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely. The needle is mounted on a low. so other instruments must be used for navigation. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. position. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field.
 sinan. In 1948. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century. who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass. Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese. Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers..wikipedia. but for geomancy and furtune. but may have pointed north-south when whole. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy. not for navigation. 47): "A lodestone attracts a needle. China Further information: Four Great Inventions.12/04/12 Compass . (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed. which if proven true. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used. the Middle East. Later the compass appeared in Europe.org/wiki/Compass .. the scholar Wang 5/24 en. radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC.The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer". ) Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass. and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe. Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica.Wikipedia. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium.5 degrees west of north.telling by the Chinese. These early compasses were made using lodestone. Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala. and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented. a method of divination." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). List of Chinese inventions. and East Africa.Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage. Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279). The artifact now consistently points 35. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation. but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. India.
There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water. and the directions of space could not be distinguished .mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250. the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen. The Dream Pool Essays. which is equivalent to 22. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time. However.12/04/12 Compass .wikipedia. or 52... However. contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. when it is dark and cloudy.. he watches the compass. The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~. The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night.  According to Needham. and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117: The navigator knows the geography. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century. contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel  en.5 degree SW. sometimes north. After they arrived at Baria. he watches the stars at night. with the lodestone sealed in by wax. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing. ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250. the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position.org/wiki/Compass 6/24 . aligning itself to the south. The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. 'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion. although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass.Wikipedia. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600. and if rotated.5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century. The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan. also known as ''The Mao Kun Map". when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088. when his ship set sail from Wenzhou. Thus. .This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs').. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail. a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle".they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. known today as thermoremanence. the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass. "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights. or the south-pointing fish. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. watches the sun at day.. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry. but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117. The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~.
org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) . it seems clear the first Chinese reference en. Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. In the Mediterranean.Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. according to Kreutz. While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April. instead of one. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods. The additional few months were of considerable economic importance. it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant. the introduction of the compass. traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. However.known Epistola de magnete.  At present. critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly.  At the same time. according to Kreutz. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese.  However. in his well. the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. ''barring the discovery of new evidence. Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual. At present. and the development ofPortolan charts. In the Arab world. scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years. There is also a slightly earlier non. For instance. but sustained increase in shipping movement. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. and end in December.wikipedia. and 1282). 1242. The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things). possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass. with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas). leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century.12/04/12 Compass . there are questions over diffusion.Wikipedia.
because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. and 1282). whereby ''the en.12/04/12 Compass . In the 14th century.However. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years.org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design. He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly.comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. Like Peregrinus' compass. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil. . There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows. Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card.wikipedia. Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes. The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose.Wikipedia. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_ India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra. there are questions over diffusion. 1242. another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass.. The earliest Arabic reference to a compass .  Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater . This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water. however. Navigational sailor's compass rose. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300.  In 1300. Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms.
thus creating the prismatic compass. and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300.12/04/12 Compass . By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses. In 1885. which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia. A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking.ignoring the needle .Wikipedia.the compass could also function as a protractor. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks. the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it. traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl.This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror. indicating always what course the ship was on". 1302).  en. First patented in 1902. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. who were selling basic compasses.org/wiki/Compass 9/24 . Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. Gunnar Tillander. In 1928. and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers. It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). thus giving the compass its familiar appearance. Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument.  Bearing compass (18th century). invented a new style ofbearing compass.wikipedia. and Alvar Kjellstrom. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi. the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line. while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318). Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then  Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380. Later. outdoorsmen. compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship. and the four men modified Tillander's design In December 1932. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. Alvid. supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269. a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering. by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn. and army officers. Moreover.
org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass. However. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing..)4] However. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration. and with the centre of gravity..S.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway . while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass . but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type.. A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690. the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 ..  Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft. In 1909. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas. In the latter year.Wikipedia. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated.. the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble. Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. . and after widespread adoption by other navies.  Despite these advances. centre ofbuoyancy. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other . introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass. as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model for individual use by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. Navy. The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860.. their main advantage was aboard ship. After the success ofthis invention. improving readability while reducing wear. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card. with two thin and relatively short needles. O. the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty. Creagh-Osborne.12/04/12 Compass . receiving a patent in 1915. the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U. and subject to damage. but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well. Captain F.wikipedia. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well. fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances. Capt.
 Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_In the second half of the 15th century. purified kerosene. The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version.wikipedia. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction.founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid. the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. or ethyl alcohol is common). mineral oil. applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion  Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ. however.12/04/12 Compass .org/wiki/Compass 11/24 . some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today. Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then. a surveyor by profession. In the 14th century. The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle.Wikipedia. While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525). Ibn Sim'un's compass. white spirits.filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box. the free encyclopedia In December 1932. the newly.  Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248) In the 1300s.  In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. en.  History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west.  Most of these churches were built in the 12th century. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass.
as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card. a land navigation technique known as terrain association. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo). "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent. 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs. photohnninescent. M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism.filled designs. The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'.Wikipedia.S. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool.  en. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical. Key points on the compass.  A liquid. notably the United States Army. many ordinary liquid. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear. etc. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients. or prismatic sight. or self-hnninous materials to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles. The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map.filled induction compasses has declined over the years.wikipedia. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass . and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. a transparent base containing map orienting lines. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels. Liquid filled lensatic compass  The military forces ofa few nations. various sighting mechanisms (mirror. 'baseplate'.12/04/12 Compass .filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths. A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy. The use of air. adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. prism.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6] The U. lensatic. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. As induction forces provide less damping than liquid.
g. This preserves the horizontal position. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks.Wikipedia. are not affected by objects.wikipedia. via radio luminescent tritium illumination. require no energy supply. often easier to use than GPS. use simple reliable technology.S. These move freely on a pivot. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass. the Silva 4b Militaire. although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass. like the U. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering. which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light. (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal. Consequently. trees.S. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. nickel. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass. although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass. the direction of Earth's rotational axis. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs). M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium. as opposed to magnetic north. electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. e.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. cobalt. A lubber line. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron.  The U. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt. and unlike GPS. and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors. steel. Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth.. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. that can block the reception of electronic signals. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. using the magnetic compass only as a backup.12/04/12 Compass . ie. are comparatively cheap. mobile phones. The correct heading relative en. Increasingly.
or sent to a display unit. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. particularly with plane tables. most often used by surveyors. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile. because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. which may pick up their own fields. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses. the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight. drivers rarely take such a step. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials.50 in heading accuracy (e. )and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. but also by cave explorers. the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry. en.g. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases.  • Trough compasses. and geologists. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass.12/04/12 Compass . and render simple compasses useless after time. Often. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width. and later degaussed. Also.wikipedia. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications. foresters. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings. submarines. All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. which is fur from ''magnetic north". often to fractions of a degree.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. which is not particularly strong. the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles. They were used for land surveying. While ships.Wikipedia. Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. These include: • Qibla compass. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. date back several centuries. Cars may be mostly steel.
12/04/12 Compass . often by being painted red. the needle becomes magnetized.wikipedia. Magnetometers. this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . Each of these was divided into 100 en. are more stable in such situations.Wikipedia. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood. west). This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. For a table of the thirty-two points. In the modem era. Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. see compass points. etc. laying artillery. east. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. For example. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius. in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north. N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. in China into 24. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. these were divided. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. south. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. Later. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. the 360-degree system took hold. or to the four cardinal points (north. Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. However. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead.
while . and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones. with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 . Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device.wikipedia. etc. bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways. cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings.) as that can affect their accuracy_ Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks. The ship is swung. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle. ranging from zone 1. First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass). b2 the non. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units. This is still in use in Russia. points on the shore. called deviation. the free encyclopedia spaces. A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings.12/04/12 Compass . A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors. usually translated as ''mils''. The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line. automobile engines.aI. then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings. At sea. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors.ferromagnetic component. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union. compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass. caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. giving a circle of600. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level. GDR etc. steel pitons. called a 'rider'. Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes.).
casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North.000 miles from the true geographic North Pole.Wikipedia. Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more). they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing. ignoring the compass needle entirely.12/04/12 Compass . A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. however. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line).the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule. the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole.  Turning the compass scale on the map (D .travel (DOT) line. Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements. By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled. a different method. hence. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading.org/wiki/Compass 17/24 . which is approximately 1.wikipedia. one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances. the en. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass. To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true.  The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. graphing their results. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map). which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations. correction tables could be created. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation. In this way. compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain).
Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule.Wikipedia. look closely at the needle.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. not move. Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. To see if the needle is well leveled. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. if one is using "true" or map bearings.wikipedia. and hence. like Magnetite. If the hiker has been following the correct path. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites. Exposure to strong magnets.5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing. To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. and see if the needle on the compass moves. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. If the needle tilts to one direction. causing interference. Again. If it does. The modem hand. and the compass does not have preset. measuring at 0. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en.12/04/12 Compass . overpowering the compass needle. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. if used at a tilt. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields. the large mountain). fur example. get out of the area. This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster. the needle might hit the casing on the compass. lengthwise. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map.  In the given example. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination. certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle. This will give a faulty reading. pre-adjusted declination.org/wiki/Compass . if adjusted correctly. and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass.
A Emiliani. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782. Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass". 2. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false.google. p. 228. . 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple...eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass. Geology. If it were exactly dipolar... p.. pp. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) .org/wiki/Compass 19/24 ..3 (1920).. _ . 1. Cesare (1992). A Gabor Horvath et al (2011). http://www. The Essential Wilderness Navigator.... Paul.0194 (http://dx. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole.magnet. Florida State University........ 367 3.:.. doi:10. McElhinny. H... __ l_y .. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole. and requires no separate electrical power supply. /\ abc d Kreutz. and Cleveland.... en.. /\ Seidman. 8. Raymond A.fsu. http://books . £"'\1__. £"'11. Michael W..: .. it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid. Ronald T.. A Manners.. /\ abc Lane._ n ~ . 7.google.. it is not.magnet.0194) . UK: Cambridge University Press. /\ a b Merrill..).. http://books . durable. A Serway.. c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false.:_ ...... the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1.. A T.1098/rstb.. p. 1.....google...google.html) ..4.... 11..2010. n_.orgIl0.. 615 4. 56....... 238-239 5.. and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books . ISBN 0-7503-0718-8. p.... £"'1 ...html.. USA: Cengage Learning.. ISBN 0-07-136110-3..google..1 .google... A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www. 10. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books. _1 liT .. origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed.. Vol.doi.. Joy (2000).. The Geographical Journal.comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . ISBN 0-521-40949-7.. .. Planet Earth: Cosmology. .. p.2010.... p..--t. especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable... David.Wikipedia. 493.com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) ..~_ ... . "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight". Essentials of college physics (http://books... ......eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass. c . http://books...1098%2Frstb. however. /\ abc d W.fsu...:_l. Retrieved 2009-02-05... ISBN 0-12-491242-7.l.:_ . Chris Vuille (2006). No... the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles. 6.12/04/12 Compass .. 9. __ T A_ ..~T'1 l\/f"l4-. so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles.. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). £"'\1 __ _ .. The Earth's magnetic field: Its history....comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false. USA: CRC Press.. ISBN 0-495-10619-4..wikipedia.. San Francisco: Academic press..:. p. (1983). 148.
New Series. 15. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". 14. Science. pp.google. Revista Mexicana de Fisica. p.l. 27. p. London: Andre Deutsch. Robert (2007). (1996-1997). p. 50. Appendix 2 30.org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. Isis 79 (2): 246-266  41. 373 25. p.Y! IVIUIllUllSl. 28. p. A Lane. A Taylor 46.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . R.google. A The American journal of science . 616 47. c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22. 369 32. pg. 370 33. 372-373 40. /\ abc Kreutz. Guimaraes. 381 (http://books. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. World Scientific. /\ abc d efTemple. ALi Shu-hua. 23.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45. No. 606f.htm#_ftn4 34.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt. /\ abc d Kreutz. A a b Li Shu-hua. 289. discovery & invention (3rd ed. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet.L-lllllt. 51-53 (2004) 16. p. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine". "Mexico and the early history of magnetism". 189.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 . p. 374 en. Daniel Headrick. pp. Veracruz. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. p. p. p. UI Uilllt.gutenberg. p. A Temple. 26. 1919. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo. A a b Needhamn. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again.Google Books (http://books. A A P. A Lane. Petra G. Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). /\ abc Needham p. 368 31. A Lane. 608 37. The genius of China: 3.000 years of science.htm1 19. A http://www. L-ClnlSUll. /\ abc d Kreutz. pp. 290 A Zhou A Ma. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS. p. A Needham. A Lane.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). Vol. Joseph. p. rlilllCll. p. Steven Hirsch. A Kreutz. p. 176 21.Wikipedia. Mexico". A Lane. http://books . p.). 29. 368-369 35. A a b (King 1983. 753-760 (1975) 13. 608 & 613 39. Lyman John.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap.htm 17. 608 & 610 38. A Needham p. 21. 36. A a b G. pp. 162-166. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43. p. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass".dartmouth.google. 547-8) 42. 255 A Needham. 182f. 156.wikipedia. A Li Shu-hua. ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. A Needham. A abc d e Kreutz.. 44. p. 4205 (5 September 1975). Tibbetts (1973).%203.lSt. 190 20. Vol.12/04/12 lL. /\ abc d e Schmidl.l. -- Compass . A Kreutz. 24. 252 22. A http://www. p. p. 180 18. Pamela Kyle Crossley. A Kreutz.uib. Retrieved 200906-30.
No. The New York Times. 27 1\ 53. HMSO. 55. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www. Churchill. Article (http://www. 1\ Hughes.Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. London: The Optical Society (1915). 49. Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. pp. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. 216 50. Article (http://www. Deborah. 1 (1994). brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 293-303 (293) 1\ N. patented in 1915 in Great Britain. 51.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass. 60. Vol 9. 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. No. 73.2 (1992). 67 1\ Fanning. Sophia. 56. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty. 69.2 (1992). Inc. a b The Compass Museum. p. David. 54. Ltd. p. 32. Springer Press (2007). ISBN 0-07-139303-X. 68. 72. 1\ Davis. 63. If. Scott.compassmuseum. 74. Obituaries. Henry A. pp. published online by Cambridge University Press. p. G. their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne. 84. 71.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. 57.nemoto. Bjorn. 9781585744909. 76. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. Bjorn Kjellstrom. Department of the Admiralty (1986). Frank. 27 52. c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. 62. pp.wikipedia. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering.htm) 1\ Barnes. 75.suunto. p. 66. 64 1\ Taylor. No. p. 61.westmarine. 1\ Frazer. Vol. the free encyclopedia 48. Archaeometry.. 68 1\ Kjellstrom. Article (http://www. ISBN 1-40203992-1.12/04/12 Compass .. 9781402039928.comlwristlwrist_1. Vol 22.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. p. pp. (1918).htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. Mark (2003-03-26).htm. No.Wikipedia. Vol 32. 1-24 1\ Gubbins. and Jacobson. 1-10 1\ Warner. 1\ Barnes. Sports Illustrated. p.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide). p. James. Archaeometry. abc d Litsky. Globe Pequot Press (2002). pp. Ritchie.. AE. Henry A. 110. Transactions of The Optical Society 16. http://www . a b Suunto Oy. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation. 59. 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. 1-22 1\ Colvin. pp.htm) . 118 (Mar. British Journal for the History of Science. Fred H. Rittenhouse. Suunto Company History. 67. 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. The Bezard Compass. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 15 Jul2008. Persifor. 67 1\ Fanning. OceanMountainSky. 64. 65. 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. 17-43 1\ 70.westmarine. p. pp. Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum. 1885). Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain.com/hand/bezard. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins.. 1-10 1\ Gubbins. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. Cliff. AE. December 2001 Article (http://www.compassmuseum. pp.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N. West Marine. 58.co. 2004. p. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. p. pp. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. 1\ Hughes. McGraw-Hill Professional en.
Riverton.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. 189 (4205 : 5 September). Monte. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. Wyoming: The Brunton Company. David. (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www.sciencemag. Cresson H. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. of the Army. ch. Berlin: Propylaen. one U. 39. 189. David A. Science. 1126/science.3 • Carlson. 8. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World. A Wright. University Press of Kansas.S. Amir D. Springer Press (2007). the free encyclopedia 78. 68 (3: April). Headquarters. 164-170: In 1989. Joseph (1994) Cathedral. Retrieved 2009-06-30. (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". ch. doi:1D. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks". p. Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation. 4175333.com/gps-satellite-compass/).htm) . 1st Ed. John B. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www.C. ISBN 0-15-600753. 525 p.psicompany. Isis 74 (4): 531-555. which uses magnetic induction damping. G. Barbara M. 367-383 • Lane. Dept.orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo. 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit.org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. Camden. 45 (2: July). Veracruz. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation.Verl. 1972.4205. 83. Washington. Most Probable Position. 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth. 175-196 • Ludwig.9781402039928 • Gurney. PM 21-26. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass.orau. 753-760. Orau. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. 80. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen. p. (1983). Isis. 84. 31 October 2003. pp. pub.9780117726116.. And Remedies. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins.1086%2F353360) • Kreutz. rev. Dept. sec. p.. The American Historical Review. http://www..htm. Lawrence. p. DOl 10. http://www. • Aczel. U. Propylaen Technikgeschichte. ISBN 14020-3992-1. pp.wikipedia. Map Reading and Land Navigation. Retrieved 2009-06-30. is an exception. 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11.com. Magnetic Compass.7 References • Admiralty. London: HMSO. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation". 11. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. ISBN 1-884067-10-7.12/04/12 Compass . ch. Technology and Culture.org. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988).1086/353360 (http://dx.S. Oregon Institute Press (1996). 1st Ed. Frederic C.753 • Gies. A Ministry of Defence. (7 May 1993).. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. Mark. 12.pdf) . (1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. 14 (3: July). sec. 81. D. 79. C: Us. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003).Psicompany. 82. p. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600. 2006-0810. 85. Aimant et Boussole".psicompany. D. Jungle Snafus . Forge. Washington. 26. Patent No. N ew York: Harcourt. A U.Wikipedia. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson. Frances and Gies. Mexico". ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King.S. London: Norton.doiorgl10.orau.com/gps-satellite-compass/. p. ISBN 011-772611-7. Army.. pp. 6-7. 1914. A Kramer. New York: HarperCollins. Melvin G. of Defense A Kearny.org/wiki/Compass 22/24 .
E.odoo.html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday. Gilman d'Arcy Paul. Robert. ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham. the free encyclopedia • Ma. • Paul 1. Inc. ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor.comlthe-thumb-compass) . translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). 1. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China.comltraveloutdoor.edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index.compass. Cambridge University Press.chemnyu.Imago Mundi. Gans. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. Taipei: Caves Books.0. David Pheifer  (http://www. 2002). The Essential Wilderness Navigator. ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright.shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie.62.G. Pt.fSu.compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)].org/wiki/Compass 23/24 . (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle".robotics. 1882  (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides.gearslhow. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www.v.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham.tv/The-good-Compass.sciencefriday. Refers to compass correction by Fourier series. and Invention. With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster. David.12/04/12 Compass . (transl). "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www. The Genius of China: 3.D. Vol 3.comlarticlesI05001120Imain. and Cleveland. August 25.htm!) • How a tilt sensor works. E. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941. Discovery. (1986).comlarobot!compass. 1: ''Physics''.000 Years of Science. Bangkok: White Lotus Press.works. Colin A. • Williams. Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia. Oxford University Press. Joseph and Ronan. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou.G. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology". originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962). ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www. (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen. • Arrick Robots. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.rmgnet.wikipedia.comlUsingCompass. Ch'eng-chGn (ed. 8. Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity".html) .com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102. Paul. p.) and Mills.sensorsmag. Robotics.rnaps. The University Press of Kansas.edu/tekpages/compass.htm) • Travel Island (http://www. Feng.Wikipedia.html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups. prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993). ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text. first broadcast on NPR on May 31.html?&L=1) .html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday. J.travel-island. 1-7 • Temple. Phnom Penh: Indochina Books. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel.A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA.R. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www.
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