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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century.  The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later,  where the dry compass was invented around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works
A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide
• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
 Other. fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. so that the compass shows true directions. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. magnetic compasses remain popular. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. relative to the earth's rotational poles. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation).  The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. or moving in a fluid. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass.filled magnetic compass. especially in remote areas.wikipedia. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. usually an aircraft. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees. and changes with time. usually to the south. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). durable. It was initialized by hand. Often. However. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia change of its position. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD.g. A recent development is the electronic compass. which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 . and adjust the compass accordingly. Close to the equator. east and west. Some GPS receivers have two antennas. especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading. as they are relatively inexpensive. used with a sextant to calculate latitude. there is an angle. as opposed to magnetic north). A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. possibly using astronomical observations e.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface. south. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards. and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement. which will be different if there is a crosswind. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. (Over millions of years. How a magnetic compass works en. and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. the directions of the true poles also shift. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). Significant movements happen in a few years.12/04/12 Compass . of the Pole Star. Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. and require no power supply. rather than to its direction of movement. because of continental drift. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields.
the direction of the North magnetic pole. Later compasses were made of iron needles. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless.Wikipedia. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north. pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land.wikipedia. In navigation. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. History The first compasses were made oflodestone.  For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. so other instruments must be used for navigation. supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. destination. or an arrowhead. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. one end points toward the North magnetic pole. On cloudy days. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. The needle is mounted on a low.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely. Instead of a needle. position. and contributing to the Age of Discovery. in better compasses a jewel bearing. en.friction pivot point. When the compass is held level. Since opposite poles attract (. so it can turn easily. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. a compass does not point to true north. called a "compass card". In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . Better compasses are "liquid-filled". luminous paint. and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. located in northeastern Canada. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps. in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. the rotation axis of the Earth. the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. called magnetic declination can vary widely. the needle turns until. increasing sea trade. A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth.12/04/12 Compass .'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. in northern Canada. directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. a naturally. it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles). after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field.
47): "A lodestone attracts a needle.telling by the Chinese. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy. Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica. Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers. Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese. and East Africa.. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium.The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer". which if proven true.. Later the compass appeared in Europe.12/04/12 Compass . (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed. who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass.Wikipedia. List of Chinese inventions. the scholar Wang 5/24 en. China Further information: Four Great Inventions. not for navigation. In 1948. sinan. Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279). a method of divination. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe. These early compasses were made using lodestone. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass. radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used.org/wiki/Compass . but for geomancy and furtune. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. India. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. but may have pointed north-south when whole. and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented. Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala.5 degrees west of north. The artifact now consistently points 35. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation.Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage.wikipedia. the Middle East. These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron. ) Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui.
when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088. but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117. or 52. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600. although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass. and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle.5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. The Dream Pool Essays. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry. or the south-pointing fish. known today as thermoremanence. The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass.mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing..Wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 6/24 . The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night.. with the lodestone sealed in by wax. The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. 'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion. contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel  en. which is equivalent to 22. also known as ''The Mao Kun Map".they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen.  According to Needham. After they arrived at Baria.. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. when it is dark and cloudy. and if rotated. "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117: The navigator knows the geography.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs'). The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~.. and the directions of space could not be distinguished . when his ship set sail from Wenzhou.. The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~. contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. However.12/04/12 Compass . ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250.This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). Thus. the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position. the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044. aligning itself to the south.wikipedia. he watches the compass. watches the sun at day. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle".5 degree SW. . a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board. sometimes north. he watches the stars at night. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass. There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time. However. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century.
 The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things).Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232. However. and 1282). leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century. For instance. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese. Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. but sustained increase in shipping movement. Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years. and end in December. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly. In the Arab world. 1242.wikipedia.Wikipedia. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas).known Epistola de magnete. it seems clear the first Chinese reference en.  However. While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods. The additional few months were of considerable economic importance.  At the same time. in his well. according to Kreutz. the introduction of the compass. by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February.org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) . instead of one.12/04/12 Compass . possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass. with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century. it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant. according to Kreutz. and the development ofPortolan charts. ''barring the discovery of new evidence. traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. At present. In the Mediterranean. critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass. the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. there are questions over diffusion.  At present. the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual. There is also a slightly earlier non.
The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose. there are questions over diffusion. Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier.12/04/12 Compass . Navigational sailor's compass rose. however. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300.  Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232..Wikipedia. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. 1242.However. Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card. This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater .wikipedia. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years. another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. .org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . and 1282). because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_ India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra. Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms. There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows. whereby ''the en. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly.comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. In the 14th century. Like Peregrinus' compass. The earliest Arabic reference to a compass .  In 1300. This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design. He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes.
compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship.This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror. who were selling basic compasses.  en. Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument. Later. and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300.  Bearing compass (18th century). Alvid. In 1885. while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318). a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering. by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability.org/wiki/Compass 9/24 . traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl. While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269.the compass could also function as a protractor.ignoring the needle . and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers. and the four men modified Tillander's design In December 1932. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line. the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. Gunnar Tillander. First patented in 1902. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia. thus creating the prismatic compass. 1302).Wikipedia. the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it.wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . and army officers. invented a new style ofbearing compass. which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks. In 1928. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses. Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then  Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. outdoorsmen. indicating always what course the ship was on". Moreover. Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi. A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking. thus giving the compass its familiar appearance. Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. and Alvar Kjellstrom. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks.
org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry. fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances.S. However. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted. Captain F.. . In 1909.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass . the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass. In the latter year. and subject to damage..  Despite these advances. Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model for individual use by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 . Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. receiving a patent in 1915.Wikipedia. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas.. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well.. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other . The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card. Creagh-Osborne. A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690. but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type.. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing.. Capt. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well. while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel. the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway . but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration. After the success ofthis invention. Navy.wikipedia. and with the centre of gravity. centre ofbuoyancy.  Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft. their main advantage was aboard ship. improving readability while reducing wear.)4] However. with two thin and relatively short needles.12/04/12 Compass . as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty. and after widespread adoption by other navies. O. introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass.
 Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_In the second half of the 15th century. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle.founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box. or ethyl alcohol is common). The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version.wikipedia. Ibn Sim'un's compass. en. white spirits. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then.  History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west.  Most of these churches were built in the 12th century. purified kerosene. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers. mineral oil. a surveyor by profession.Wikipedia. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass.org/wiki/Compass 11/24 . some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525).  In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca.12/04/12 Compass . the free encyclopedia In December 1932. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today. While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. however. applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion  Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ. the newly. Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil. In the 14th century.filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle.  Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248) In the 1300s.
or prismatic sight. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients. 'baseplate'. The use of air.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. Key points on the compass. etc.filled induction compasses has declined over the years. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'. prism. or self-hnninous materials to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent. The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map. As induction forces provide less damping than liquid. M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo).  A liquid. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule. notably the United States Army. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. a land navigation technique known as terrain association.wikipedia. A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6] The U.filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles.filled designs. Liquid filled lensatic compass  The military forces ofa few nations. and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision.S. various sighting mechanisms (mirror. "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. many ordinary liquid. 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.  en.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass .Wikipedia. hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels.12/04/12 Compass . as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress. adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic. photohnninescent. The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool. a transparent base containing map orienting lines. lensatic. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical.
although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass.12/04/12 Compass . and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors. trees.Wikipedia. A lubber line. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass. (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal. electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels.wikipedia. M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium. cobalt. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. steel. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass.  The U. However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering.S. Consequently. require no energy supply. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. like the U. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. mobile phones. Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt. most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. often easier to use than GPS. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light. and unlike GPS. as opposed to magnetic north. the direction of Earth's rotational axis. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. These move freely on a pivot. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. using the magnetic compass only as a backup. e. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses. are comparatively cheap. ie.g. the Silva 4b Militaire. The correct heading relative en. via radio luminescent tritium illumination. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north. nickel. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . Increasingly. This preserves the horizontal position. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs).S. although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. that can block the reception of electronic signals. are not affected by objects.. use simple reliable technology.
Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. Cars may be mostly steel. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings. Also.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . most often used by surveyors. )and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases. which is not particularly strong. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. date back several centuries. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. which may pick up their own fields. foresters. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. particularly with plane tables. because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. and render simple compasses useless after time. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. often to fractions of a degree. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy.  • Trough compasses.wikipedia. drivers rarely take such a step. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications. en. They were used for land surveying. and geologists. but also by cave explorers. which is fur from ''magnetic north". This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight.g. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. While ships.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry. These include: • Qibla compass. and later degaussed. Often. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo. or sent to a display unit. All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses.50 in heading accuracy (e. submarines.12/04/12 Compass .
Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. etc.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . east. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred. N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. often by being painted red. Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. the needle becomes magnetized. where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. or to the four cardinal points (north. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. Each of these was divided into 100 en. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood. in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. west).12/04/12 Compass .Wikipedia. see compass points.wikipedia. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses. Later. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer. The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead. laying artillery. are more stable in such situations. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius. However. south. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). For example. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. In the modem era. the 360-degree system took hold. in China into 24. This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. Magnetometers. these were divided. For a table of the thirty-two points.
compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces.12/04/12 Compass . called a 'rider'.) as that can affect their accuracy_ Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. usually translated as ''mils''. The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line. b2 the non. bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. The ship is swung. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union. eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings. steel pitons. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass). caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment. then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass. automobile engines. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units.Wikipedia. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. GDR etc. At sea.aI. while . Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones. This is still in use in Russia. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 .). Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. called deviation. that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass. etc. giving a circle of600. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip.wikipedia. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways. A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings. points on the shore. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level. with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically. Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes. ranging from zone 1.ferromagnetic component. the free encyclopedia spaces.
casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North.org/wiki/Compass 17/24 .wikipedia. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. however.the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map).  Turning the compass scale on the map (D . a different method. hence. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole. the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth. correction tables could be created. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation. which is approximately 1.12/04/12 Compass . this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances.  The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain). the en. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. graphing their results. ignoring the compass needle entirely. Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more).travel (DOT) line. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line). Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements.Wikipedia. In this way. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading. one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled. they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing.000 miles from the true geographic North Pole. which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations. which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired.
and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass. and the compass does not have preset. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map. the needle might hit the casing on the compass. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en. like Magnetite. If the needle tilts to one direction.5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. The modem hand. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided. fur example.  In the given example. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass. lengthwise. This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster. Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. and see if the needle on the compass moves. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. If it does. get out of the area. and hence. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. the large mountain). This will give a faulty reading. not move. If the hiker has been following the correct path. if used at a tilt.org/wiki/Compass . Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination. To see if the needle is well leveled. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites. look closely at the needle. Again. avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields. overpowering the compass needle. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately. To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination.wikipedia. if one is using "true" or map bearings.12/04/12 Compass . Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle. Exposure to strong magnets. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. pre-adjusted declination. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. causing interference. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target. if adjusted correctly.Wikipedia. measuring at 0. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule.
. £"'11.. Michael W.1098/rstb.0194) .orgIl0.. San Francisco: Academic press.....--t.. n_. __ l_y ... Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books.. ISBN 0-12-491242-7..:_ ... USA: Cengage Learning. 148... http://books..... 367 3.. and Cleveland.google.. ISBN 0-7503-0718-8.. 615 4. _ ... c . A T. 6..~_ . and requires no separate electrical power supply....0194 (http://dx... £"'\1 __ _ . _1 liT ..3 (1920). it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid.. especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable.. A Manners.. ... Paul. No.. doi:10.. Chris Vuille (2006). UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-07-136110-3..:_ ... ..4... p. /\ a b Merrill.eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass.google.. 1. A Serway.. /\ Seidman.:.. however. __ T A_ .google.html) . Joy (2000)..wikipedia. Ronald T. £"'1 ..2010.eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass.1098%2Frstb. p.. McElhinny.:.. The Essential Wilderness Navigator._ n ~ . durable. USA: CRC Press. Florida State University. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole. 56. Geology. . The Earth's magnetic field: Its history. c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. A Gabor Horvath et al (2011).google.fsu... c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) .doi.. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false..comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false... Essentials of college physics (http://books. H...Wikipedia.. p.. 2. /\ abc d W. Raymond A. so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles.1 ....org/wiki/Compass 19/24 ... en. 238-239 5.. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole..l. ISBN 0-521-40949-7.. 7. the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles.).. 11.. (1983). and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books . 228.com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) .google.2010.google.magnet. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). it is not.... Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass".magnet. p. /\ abc Lane. 8.... /\ abc d Kreutz. The Geographical Journal. Cesare (1992)..~T'1 l\/f"l4-..: .. 493... 9. the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1. Vol... "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight"... Planet Earth: Cosmology. ISBN 0-495-10619-4..... David. pp. Retrieved 2009-02-05.. A Emiliani.. .. p.. 10.. p..:_l. If it were exactly dipolar.html.. p. £"'\1__. http://www.. 1... origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed... A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www.12/04/12 Compass . ... http://books ... 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple. http://books .comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) ...fsu....
wikipedia. 190 20. 27. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS.dartmouth. p. /\ abc d Kreutz. /\ abc Kreutz. 608 & 610 38. Vol. 176 21.htm1 19. p. 369 32. Science. p.Y! IVIUIllUllSl. 255 A Needham.google. 24. A a b (King 1983. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). 368-369 35. p. 370 33. p. A Temple. Robert (2007). pg. 36. 26. 616 47. 547-8) 42. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again. 608 & 613 39. A Kreutz. Guimaraes. p. A Lane. A The American journal of science .lSt. 4205 (5 September 1975). 29. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo. L-ClnlSUll. Tibbetts (1973). Petra G. Veracruz. p. A http://www. London: Andre Deutsch. 381 (http://books. 21. The genius of China: 3.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45. Pamela Kyle Crossley. No. /\ abc d efTemple. Joseph. A Kreutz. A Li Shu-hua.. 608 37. Mexico".org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209.Wikipedia. p.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. Lyman John. discovery & invention (3rd ed. 372-373 40. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. rlilllCll. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine". Appendix 2 30. A Kreutz. A abc d e Kreutz. p. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". New Series. Revista Mexicana de Fisica. "Mexico and the early history of magnetism". p. 373 25.%203. 23. 1919. 162-166. 606f. 368 31. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. A a b Li Shu-hua. 753-760 (1975) 13. 290 A Zhou A Ma. 156. 252 22. Retrieved 200906-30. A Lane. A Lane.l.Google Books (http://books.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap. A a b Needhamn. 15. p. R. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History.htm#_ftn4 34. -- Compass . p.htm 17.l. p. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass". 14. A A P. 180 18. 189. 374 en. Steven Hirsch. A http://www. 44. 51-53 (2004) 16. A Lane. 50.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . http://books . Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). A Lane. A a b G.google. A Taylor 46. A Needham.uib. A Needham. /\ abc Needham p. /\ abc d e Schmidl. p. ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. UI Uilllt. pp. p.). Vol.12/04/12 lL. /\ abc d Kreutz. ALi Shu-hua. Daniel Headrick.L-lllllt. 289. (1996-1997). c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22. 182f. p.gutenberg. pp. Isis 79 (2): 246-266  41. A Needham p. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 . p. p. p.000 years of science. World Scientific. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43.google. 28. p. pp. pp.
65. Deborah. 63. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. 1\ Davis. Archaeometry. 55. Frank. 27 1\ 53.comlwristlwrist_1. and Jacobson. Vol 22. Mark (2003-03-26). Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering.compassmuseum. 67 1\ Fanning. 69. pp. Article (http://www. If. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. 58. AE. Obituaries. pp. 75. No. Scott. ISBN 1-40203992-1.wikipedia. 1\ Frazer. p.htm) . 84. No. p. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. pp. a b The Compass Museum.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. 1-22 1\ Colvin. Suunto Company History. brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. 27 52. p. pp. abc d Litsky. ISBN 0-07-139303-X. Springer Press (2007). Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism.htm) 1\ Barnes. pp. Bjorn. Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty.nemoto. p. The New York Times. David.Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. Retrieved 2007-12-28. Persifor. Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain. Inc. 9781402039928. 64 1\ Taylor. Churchill.westmarine. Bjorn Kjellstrom. p. Sophia. 1-10 1\ Gubbins. 15 Jul2008. Globe Pequot Press (2002).2 (1992). 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www. Sports Illustrated. 293-303 (293) 1\ N.12/04/12 Compass . 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. Archaeometry. 51. Vol 9. c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. 1885). 2004. Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. Fred H.com/hand/bezard. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. p. 68. the free encyclopedia 48. 71. 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. 66. p. 76.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N. 110. West Marine. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins. patented in 1915 in Great Britain. p. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". p.westmarine.Wikipedia. (1918). Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. 56. No.htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. 72. 73. Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S. OceanMountainSky. a b Suunto Oy. Article (http://www. Ritchie.htm. Vol 32. 61. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation. p.2 (1992).co.. http://www . McGraw-Hill Professional en. 1\ Hughes. 1-24 1\ Gubbins. 59.compassmuseum. pp. 54. British Journal for the History of Science. 17-43 1\ 70. Department of the Admiralty (1986). 60. Transactions of The Optical Society 16. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Cliff. 118 (Mar. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum. 1\ Hughes. 74. 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . Rittenhouse. No. Article (http://www. 68 1\ Kjellstrom. pp. 32. pp.. their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649. 216 50.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. 57. pp. Henry A. 1 (1994). Ltd. 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. 9781585744909. 67. 49. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. 64. p. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen.suunto. AE. December 2001 Article (http://www.. 67 1\ Fanning. 62. London: The Optical Society (1915). 1-10 1\ Warner. The Bezard Compass. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". published online by Cambridge University Press. James. G. HMSO. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. Henry A. 1\ Barnes.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide)..
S. 1914.orau. Magnetic Compass. Retrieved 2009-06-30. doi:1D. 68 (3: April). 1st Ed. Orau. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins. http://www. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass. Oregon Institute Press (1996).org/wiki/Compass 22/24 . The Ultimate Desert Handbook. John B.doiorgl10. pp. Technology and Culture. 2006-0810. 525 p. Cresson H. 8.sciencemag. p. sec. ch.Wikipedia.orau. p. 26. p. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. Washington. C: Us. Frances and Gies.9781402039928 • Gurney. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www. p. Patent No. Amir D. one U. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988). (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". 367-383 • Lane. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. Camden.7 References • Admiralty. ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King. pp. G. (1983). 175-196 • Ludwig. Berlin: Propylaen. Wyoming: The Brunton Company. 82. 11. 84.wikipedia. 12. 45 (2: July). Frederic C. http://www. ISBN 0-15-600753. Dept. 81.com..htm) . A U. the free encyclopedia 78. Mark. A Ministry of Defence. 1972.3 • Carlson. ch. which uses magnetic induction damping. Jungle Snafus . pub.Psicompany.753 • Gies. Riverton.. Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation. 80. Propylaen Technikgeschichte.S. ISBN 14020-3992-1. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003). 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11. Retrieved 2009-06-30. Isis. U. A Wright. Most Probable Position. New York: HarperCollins.pdf) .org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks". London: Norton. pp. DOl 10. Isis 74 (4): 531-555. ch. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation. 1126/science. rev. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation.S. Lawrence. Melvin G. 189 (4205 : 5 September). Veracruz. The American Historical Review.Verl. • Aczel. 14 (3: July). 83. 39. Headquarters. is an exception. p.htm. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World.1086/353360 (http://dx. Washington.1086%2F353360) • Kreutz. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson. Forge. 753-760. A Kramer. N ew York: Harcourt. 6-7. 4175333.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass.com/gps-satellite-compass/.com/gps-satellite-compass/). sec.12/04/12 Compass . (1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". Army. 1st Ed. (7 May 1993). of the Army.psicompany. And Remedies.. 85. p.org.. Science. Mexico". ISBN 011-772611-7. ISBN 1-884067-10-7. D. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation".C. David. Monte. Barbara M.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600.. David A.psicompany. and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. PM 21-26. 164-170: In 1989. Map Reading and Land Navigation.9780117726116. Aimant et Boussole". 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth. (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www. Springer Press (2007). D.orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. Joseph (1994) Cathedral. 79. University Press of Kansas. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen. 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit. 189. of Defense A Kearny.4205. 31 October 2003. London: HMSO. Dept.
ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)]. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www. the free encyclopedia • Ma.html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups.edu/tekpages/compass.sciencefriday. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology". Phnom Penh: Indochina Books.tv/The-good-Compass. J. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www.fSu. 1: ''Physics''. (transl).E.v. 1.wikipedia. • Williams. ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman. E. Inc. Gilman d'Arcy Paul.gearslhow. (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen.shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie. Taipei: Caves Books. (1986). Paul.odoo. (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle". Colin A.comlarticlesI05001120Imain. Robert.rnaps.A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA. Discovery.comlarobot!compass. ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham. David Pheifer  (http://www.62. Pt. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Feng. and Invention.org/wiki/Compass 23/24 .000 Years of Science. Joseph and Ronan.comlthe-thumb-compass) . August 25. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text.works. Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity". and Cleveland. The Essential Wilderness Navigator. ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright. originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962). "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www.htm) • Travel Island (http://www. The University Press of Kansas. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar. 1882  (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides.html) .compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork. prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993). David. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass.comlUsingCompass. Oxford University Press. 2002). Ragged Mountain Press (2001).html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday.html?&L=1) . • Arrick Robots.sensorsmag. Gans.com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102. Cambridge University Press. With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www. Vol 3. Refers to compass correction by Fourier series. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel.htm!) • How a tilt sensor works. Ch'eng-chGn (ed.R. Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia.D.G. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China.travel-island.) and Mills. first broadcast on NPR on May 31.robotics.compass. 8.Imago Mundi. The Genius of China: 3. • Paul 1.Wikipedia.0.G. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham. p. Robotics.edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index.html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday.comltraveloutdoor. ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www. 1-7 • Temple. translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J.chemnyu.rmgnet.12/04/12 Compass . ISBN 0-671-62028-2.
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