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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century.  The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later,  where the dry compass was invented around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works
A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide
• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
g. more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north. as they are relatively inexpensive. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. east and west. because of continental drift. so that the compass shows true directions. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction. and require no power supply. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. usually an aircraft. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. However. which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). Close to the equator. Some GPS receivers have two antennas. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation). possibly using astronomical observations e. and adjust the compass accordingly. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass. fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. magnetic compasses remain popular. which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning. Often. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. relative to the earth's rotational poles.filled magnetic compass. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia change of its position. A recent development is the electronic compass. rather than to its direction of movement. and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement. and changes with time. the directions of the true poles also shift. or moving in a fluid. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. south. How a magnetic compass works en. usually to the south. especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading.  Other. (Over millions of years. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface. used with a sextant to calculate latitude. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. especially in remote areas. durable.  The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. as opposed to magnetic north). there is an angle. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. which will be different if there is a crosswind.Wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . of the Pole Star. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD. It was initialized by hand. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees. and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. Significant movements happen in a few years. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 . A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north.
Since opposite poles attract (. In navigation. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land. On cloudy days. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. When the compass is held level. the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth. History The first compasses were made oflodestone. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. destination. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. or an arrowhead. called magnetic declination can vary widely. so it can turn easily. luminous paint. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. the direction of the North magnetic pole. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum. Later compasses were made of iron needles.Wikipedia. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north. and contributing to the Age of Discovery. after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. The needle is mounted on a low. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. a naturally. supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless. so other instruments must be used for navigation. it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles). in northern Canada. called a "compass card". magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. located in northeastern Canada. the rotation axis of the Earth. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north. Instead of a needle.  For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. Better compasses are "liquid-filled". and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps. position.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . one end points toward the North magnetic pole. increasing sea trade.friction pivot point. the needle turns until. in better compasses a jewel bearing. a compass does not point to true north.12/04/12 Compass .'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass. en.
radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century. Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279). These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron.wikipedia. (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed. and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass. China Further information: Four Great Inventions. and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented. who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass. the scholar Wang 5/24 en.org/wiki/Compass . but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui.Wikipedia.5 degrees west of north. The artifact now consistently points 35. which if proven true.. Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. but for geomancy and furtune. Later the compass appeared in Europe. and East Africa.The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer". Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese. India.telling by the Chinese.12/04/12 Compass . 47): "A lodestone attracts a needle. the Middle East. not for navigation.Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage. Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation.. ) Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. a method of divination. In 1948. but may have pointed north-south when whole. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). sinan. List of Chinese inventions. These early compasses were made using lodestone.
when it is dark and cloudy.org/wiki/Compass 6/24 . the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117: The navigator knows the geography. contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. he watches the compass. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass. but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117.. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry.This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). or 52. The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~.5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel  en. Thus. However. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century. or the south-pointing fish. There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water.5 degree SW. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time.12/04/12 Compass . with the lodestone sealed in by wax. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600.Wikipedia...they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. also known as ''The Mao Kun Map". sometimes north. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. watches the sun at day. aligning itself to the south. a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board. Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs'). "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights.. when his ship set sail from Wenzhou. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. 'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion. although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~. the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position. The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan.. known today as thermoremanence. After they arrived at Baria. . The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass. However. which is equivalent to 22. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle". and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century. when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088.mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250. The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. The Dream Pool Essays. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail.wikipedia. and the directions of space could not be distinguished . he watches the stars at night. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo. the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing. and if rotated. ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250.  According to Needham. The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44.
 Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century. and end in December.  At the same time. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas). ''barring the discovery of new evidence. possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass.known Epistola de magnete. 1242. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. The additional few months were of considerable economic importance. and the development ofPortolan charts. Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. there are questions over diffusion. In the Arab world. scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years. While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese. but sustained increase in shipping movement. critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods.Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232. according to Kreutz. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. and 1282). by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February. At present. There is also a slightly earlier non. according to Kreutz. However. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things).org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) .  At present.  However. In the Mediterranean. the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. in his well.Wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. it seems clear the first Chinese reference en. the introduction of the compass. For instance. instead of one. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly. the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual.wikipedia. it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant.
There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows.wikipedia.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater .  Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232. whereby ''the en. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_ India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil.. This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly. Like Peregrinus' compass. and 1282).12/04/12 Compass . He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes. The earliest Arabic reference to a compass . Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers. however. Navigational sailor's compass rose. there are questions over diffusion. Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms. 1242. Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card. This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water.org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years.However.comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. In the 14th century.Wikipedia. The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose.  In 1300. .
the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. First patented in 1902. thus creating the prismatic compass.the compass could also function as a protractor. thus giving the compass its familiar appearance. In 1885. Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then  Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380.ignoring the needle . 1302).This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror. while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318). It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it. By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses.12/04/12 Compass .  en. by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269. a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks. supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia. compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship. traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl. Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn. and the four men modified Tillander's design In December 1932. Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument. The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability. In 1928. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line. and Alvar Kjellstrom. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. and army officers. a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi. indicating always what course the ship was on". which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking.org/wiki/Compass 9/24 .Wikipedia. Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. who were selling basic compasses. Alvid. Gunnar Tillander. and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300.  Bearing compass (18th century). outdoorsmen.wikipedia. invented a new style ofbearing compass. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. Moreover. Later. and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers.
. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas. and subject to damage. ... fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances. In 1909. but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type. A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway . In the latter year.. Captain F. with two thin and relatively short needles. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing. Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model for individual use by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty.org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry.  Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft. their main advantage was aboard ship. while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel. as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted. The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860. the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration. After the success ofthis invention.  Despite these advances. but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. However. Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. Capt. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well. Creagh-Osborne. Navy. the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass .)4] However.. receiving a patent in 1915.S. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card.wikipedia.Wikipedia. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other . improving readability while reducing wear. and after widespread adoption by other navies. and with the centre of gravity. introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass. O. the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 . centre ofbuoyancy. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well.12/04/12 Compass ..
 Most of these churches were built in the 12th century.org/wiki/Compass 11/24 . the newly. some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result.Wikipedia. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time. the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. purified kerosene.filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle. In the 14th century. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version.12/04/12 Compass .wikipedia. mineral oil. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers.  In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion  Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ.  History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west. the free encyclopedia In December 1932. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today.  Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248) In the 1300s. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. however. white spirits. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box. en. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525). or ethyl alcohol is common). a surveyor by profession.  Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_In the second half of the 15th century. The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle. Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil. While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. Ibn Sim'un's compass.founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then.
M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism. The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool. The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map. hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels.12/04/12 Compass .  en. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.S.Wikipedia. and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule. etc. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. prism. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles. adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic. Liquid filled lensatic compass  The military forces ofa few nations. The use of air. or prismatic sight. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent. "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. As induction forces provide less damping than liquid. or self-hnninous materials to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card. notably the United States Army. lensatic. many ordinary liquid. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6] The U. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo). a land navigation technique known as terrain association.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass . 'baseplate'. various sighting mechanisms (mirror.filled induction compasses has declined over the years. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability.filled designs. Key points on the compass. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical. A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy. a transparent base containing map orienting lines. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision.filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths. as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress.  A liquid.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. photohnninescent. 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs.
via radio luminescent tritium illumination. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs). These move freely on a pivot. Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card. M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium. steel. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass.S. (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal. A lubber line. although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering.wikipedia. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north.12/04/12 Compass . which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light. trees.  The U. Increasingly. are comparatively cheap. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron. mobile phones. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses. and unlike GPS. e. often easier to use than GPS. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor.Wikipedia. and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors.S.g. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt. cobalt. the Silva 4b Militaire. like the U. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass. are not affected by objects. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. require no energy supply. although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass. using the magnetic compass only as a backup. nickel. as opposed to magnetic north. most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. The correct heading relative en.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass. ie. that can block the reception of electronic signals. Consequently. However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small. This preserves the horizontal position. the direction of Earth's rotational axis.. use simple reliable technology.
the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles. en. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy. foresters. because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases. and render simple compasses useless after time. )and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. While ships. they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings.Wikipedia. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width. and geologists. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo. which is not particularly strong. date back several centuries. They were used for land surveying.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . Also. often to fractions of a degree.g. or sent to a display unit. A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile. drivers rarely take such a step. This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight. the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift.50 in heading accuracy (e.wikipedia. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. most often used by surveyors. Cars may be mostly steel. Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. which is fur from ''magnetic north". All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. but also by cave explorers. As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth.  • Trough compasses. These include: • Qibla compass. submarines. Often. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. which may pick up their own fields. the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry.12/04/12 Compass . and later degaussed. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. particularly with plane tables.
N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. etc. are more stable in such situations. where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead.wikipedia. In the modem era. Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. often by being painted red. in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. Magnetometers. Later. south.12/04/12 Compass . For example. this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred. Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. the 360-degree system took hold. This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses.Wikipedia. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). in China into 24. Each of these was divided into 100 en.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. east. However. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. these were divided. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. For a table of the thirty-two points. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer. laying artillery. Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. the needle becomes magnetized. see compass points. or to the four cardinal points (north. west). It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius.
that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 . This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. usually translated as ''mils''. First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically. called deviation. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union.Wikipedia. caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment.) as that can affect their accuracy_ Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle. This is still in use in Russia.ferromagnetic component. GDR etc. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass). then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units. Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device.aI. The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line. compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft. called a 'rider'. the free encyclopedia spaces. eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip. and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. ranging from zone 1. The ship is swung. giving a circle of600.12/04/12 Compass . Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes. At sea. etc. steel pitons. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors. b2 the non. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors.wikipedia. A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. while .). bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. points on the shore. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. automobile engines. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways.
they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing. the en. which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired. Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more). the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth. this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances. casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map). graphing their results. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading. a different method. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line). which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations.12/04/12 Compass . compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain). To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true.the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule. In this way.  Turning the compass scale on the map (D . ignoring the compass needle entirely. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole.Wikipedia.000 miles from the true geographic North Pole.org/wiki/Compass 17/24 .travel (DOT) line.wikipedia. correction tables could be created. however. hence. Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements. one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. which is approximately 1.  The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation.
Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. Exposure to strong magnets. if used at a tilt. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination.wikipedia.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals. if adjusted correctly. causing interference. if one is using "true" or map bearings. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately.  In the given example.Wikipedia. and see if the needle on the compass moves. The modem hand. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided. Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination. If the hiker has been following the correct path. fur example.org/wiki/Compass .5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. measuring at 0. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. lengthwise.12/04/12 Compass . like Magnetite. Again. the large mountain). and the compass does not have preset. overpowering the compass needle. This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster. avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. get out of the area. pre-adjusted declination. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass. If the needle tilts to one direction. the needle might hit the casing on the compass. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. To see if the needle is well leveled. and hence. To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate. This will give a faulty reading. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass. not move. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing. If it does. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites. look closely at the needle. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing.
367 3. Florida State University.google. David..: . c ..:. Planet Earth: Cosmology. A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www.. Ronald T. the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1.magnet.~T'1 l\/f"l4-. 7.google. __ T A_ . /\ a b Merrill.eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass.. . /\ abc Lane.. ISBN 0-7503-0718-8...2010.1098/rstb. (1983).wikipedia.fsu. The Earth's magnetic field: Its history... 56....google..html) . £"'\1 __ _ .comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight". Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass"..4. doi:10.. http://www. The Geographical Journal.... it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid.magnet. especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable... Chris Vuille (2006)..1098%2Frstb. /\ abc d Kreutz. Paul. A Emiliani.doi.. .. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782. The Essential Wilderness Navigator. Essentials of college physics (http://books.. 10.google.. and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books ...)... and requires no separate electrical power supply..--t... Geology. p. No. it is not. /\ Seidman.:.. durable.... p. en.. /\ abc d W..~_ ...fsu..Wikipedia. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books....com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) ... 8.eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass.3 (1920)....html... .google... A Manners... 6. so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles. http://books.. ISBN 0-07-136110-3.2010.. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). If it were exactly dipolar. USA: CRC Press. origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed. ISBN 0-521-40949-7.:_l. p..... 493.orgIl0. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole. 228. 238-239 5. Cesare (1992). 148. p.:_ .google. A Serway. Michael W... _1 liT ... ISBN 0-12-491242-7....12/04/12 Compass .. £"'1 .. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. http://books . USA: Cengage Learning. n_. £"'11.... UK: Cambridge University Press.. 1.....0194) .. McElhinny. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) .. A T.. pp...l.. however.. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole. San Francisco: Academic press... p. .. and Cleveland. £"'\1__......:_ . A Gabor Horvath et al (2011). the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles.... http://books .... Vol...0194 (http://dx.1 . c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. p.. 615 4..org/wiki/Compass 19/24 ..comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false. 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple._ n ~ . 1.. Joy (2000). H. .. ISBN 0-495-10619-4.. 11. Raymond A... __ l_y . _ . Retrieved 2009-02-05.. 2. p.. 9..
gutenberg. Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). 23. 190 20. /\ abc Kreutz. rlilllCll. p. 753-760 (1975) 13.htm 17. A Lane. p. p. p. 176 21. 1919. A Taylor 46.Y! IVIUIllUllSl.google. Science.. pp.). p. p.Google Books (http://books. A Needham.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap. L-ClnlSUll. A a b G. 51-53 (2004) 16. Vol. 182f. p. UI Uilllt. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). -- Compass . Petra G. 156. 50.uib. 252 22. Steven Hirsch. 4205 (5 September 1975). p. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet. Robert (2007). ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. 616 47.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS. 369 32. p. 28. 290 A Zhou A Ma.000 years of science. 368 31. A Temple.12/04/12 lL. A http://www. 26. 24. Guimaraes. 381 (http://books.htm#_ftn4 34. 255 A Needham. 27.dartmouth. A Kreutz. 608 & 613 39. 180 18. Vol. c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22. Mexico". Veracruz. p. 608 & 610 38. p. "Mexico and the early history of magnetism". A Lane. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine". A Lane. 606f.google. A Needham p. A Li Shu-hua. A abc d e Kreutz. A a b Li Shu-hua. A Needham. 162-166. pp.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 .%203. A a b (King 1983.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . No.org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209. 373 25. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43. Lyman John. 370 33. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". (1996-1997). discovery & invention (3rd ed. New Series. 374 en.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. /\ abc d Kreutz. p. 368-369 35. pp. Daniel Headrick. 189. 15. Pamela Kyle Crossley. 29. /\ abc Needham p. p. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt. A Kreutz. London: Andre Deutsch. p. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo.wikipedia. Tibbetts (1973).l. p.google. A a b Needhamn. A Kreutz. A A P. p. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. 547-8) 42. The genius of China: 3. Appendix 2 30. 14. /\ abc d Kreutz. http://books . pp. p. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. /\ abc d efTemple. A Lane. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass". ALi Shu-hua. p. /\ abc d e Schmidl.htm1 19.lSt. Revista Mexicana de Fisica. p. R. 44.L-lllllt. A Lane.Wikipedia. A http://www. A The American journal of science . p. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. World Scientific. 36. 289. 21.l. pg. Joseph. Isis 79 (2): 246-266  41. 372-373 40. 608 37. Retrieved 200906-30.
1885). and Jacobson. 9781402039928. pp. pp. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. 71.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N.co. pp. c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. Suunto Company History. 66. ISBN 0-07-139303-X. AE. 49. p. pp.htm) 1\ Barnes. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum. p. p. 62. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering.westmarine. 1-10 1\ Warner. 68. 76. Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. Transactions of The Optical Society 16. patented in 1915 in Great Britain. 216 50. Sophia. Archaeometry. 51. 54.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. Globe Pequot Press (2002).. London: The Optical Society (1915).htm. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. Article (http://www.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide). 55. Obituaries. Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty. pp.nemoto. Ltd. Department of the Admiralty (1986).htm) .westmarine. pp. No. Scott. p. 9781585744909.2 (1992). 2004. 118 (Mar. p. 58.comlwristlwrist_1. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.. pp. Vol. 27 52. 1\ Hughes. 67. James.. 60. p. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism.htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. 72. 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www. If. 64. No. p. Churchill. Rittenhouse. their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649.. No. The Bezard Compass. Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass.com/hand/bezard. 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. Frank. Ritchie. Springer Press (2007). Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S.compassmuseum. Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain. British Journal for the History of Science. 68 1\ Kjellstrom. p. Persifor. 73.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. p. AE. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. 65. 110. 56. 1-10 1\ Gubbins. http://www . 32. David. 1\ Barnes.compassmuseum.Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation.2 (1992).Wikipedia. ISBN 1-40203992-1. 1 (1994). Retrieved 2007-12-28.wikipedia. p. abc d Litsky. Inc. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". Vol 9. The New York Times. Mark (2003-03-26). pp. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins. West Marine. (1918). 27 1\ 53. 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. OceanMountainSky. Vol 32. Sports Illustrated. December 2001 Article (http://www. 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. Article (http://www. 63. 67 1\ Fanning. 59. No. 67 1\ Fanning. 17-43 1\ 70. 64 1\ Taylor. a b Suunto Oy. published online by Cambridge University Press. p. pp. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne. McGraw-Hill Professional en. 69. the free encyclopedia 48. 293-303 (293) 1\ N.suunto. Vol 22. G.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . 1-22 1\ Colvin. Fred H. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. Archaeometry. HMSO. 61. Deborah. 1\ Hughes. Henry A. a b The Compass Museum. 75. Bjorn. Article (http://www. Cliff. 15 Jul2008. 1\ Davis. Bjorn Kjellstrom. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1-24 1\ Gubbins. 1\ Frazer. 57.12/04/12 Compass . 74. 84. Henry A.
45 (2: July). ISBN 011-772611-7. Patent No.sciencemag. which uses magnetic induction damping. 80.Verl. 12. 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth. Springer Press (2007)..org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. Joseph (1994) Cathedral. p. Propylaen Technikgeschichte. 8. Retrieved 2009-06-30.1086/353360 (http://dx. (1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". of the Army. C: Us.Wikipedia. Veracruz. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11. Isis 74 (4): 531-555.. David A. Most Probable Position. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. 1126/science. http://www. G. 164-170: In 1989.S.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia 78. Oregon Institute Press (1996).orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo. 1972. Technology and Culture.. ch.. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. 175-196 • Ludwig. and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. Riverton. is an exception. London: HMSO. (7 May 1993).doiorgl10. D. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003). Orau.7 References • Admiralty.org. Wyoming: The Brunton Company. N ew York: Harcourt. Lawrence. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Jungle Snafus . (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins. 31 October 2003. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www. And Remedies.com. 26. ISBN 1-884067-10-7. Mexico". Camden. 525 p. rev. • Aczel. p. 1914.com/gps-satellite-compass/).. http://www. Dept. ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King. D. 189. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson. Map Reading and Land Navigation.htm. Frederic C. Washington. 39. 1st Ed. U.1086%2F353360) • Kreutz. Berlin: Propylaen. Amir D.org/wiki/Compass 22/24 . The American Historical Review.9780117726116. 81. 189 (4205 : 5 September). New York: HarperCollins. Melvin G. of Defense A Kearny. sec. ISBN 0-15-600753. Monte. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600. London: Norton.C.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass.753 • Gies. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. pub. ISBN 14020-3992-1.orau. 11.htm) .12/04/12 Compass .pdf) . Aimant et Boussole". 68 (3: April). 83. 367-383 • Lane. A Kramer. Mark. Barbara M. p. Cresson H. (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". Science. 6-7. 84. p. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass. A Ministry of Defence. Army. 4175333. p.9781402039928 • Gurney. 2006-0810. Isis. ch.Psicompany. Forge. DOl 10. 753-760. A Wright. one U. pp.com/gps-satellite-compass/.orau. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World. 82. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation".psicompany. 1st Ed. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. sec. 14 (3: July). Headquarters. ch. PM 21-26. University Press of Kansas. Magnetic Compass. John B. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen.psicompany. doi:1D. Retrieved 2009-06-30.S. 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit.3 • Carlson. Washington. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation. Dept. 79. David. (1983). Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation. p.4205.S. A U. 85. pp. pp. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988). Frances and Gies.
com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102.chemnyu.62. (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen. Joseph and Ronan. • Arrick Robots. David Pheifer  (http://www. Colin A.A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA.v. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941. Paul. With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster.htm!) • How a tilt sensor works.works. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). (1986).robotics.) and Mills. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)].comlarticlesI05001120Imain.html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday. Ch'eng-chGn (ed. Gilman d'Arcy Paul. Gans. 8.comltraveloutdoor. prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993). ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright. Cambridge University Press.fSu.shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology". Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou.edu/tekpages/compass.sciencefriday.rmgnet. Phnom Penh: Indochina Books. ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www.org/wiki/Compass 23/24 .E.htm) • Travel Island (http://www. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass.rnaps. Discovery. • Williams.sensorsmag. Bangkok: White Lotus Press.compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork. Inc.Wikipedia. ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham.D.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www. The University Press of Kansas.odoo. The Essential Wilderness Navigator. Refers to compass correction by Fourier series. • Paul 1.comlUsingCompass. (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle". 1: ''Physics''. 2002). and Invention. (transl). and Cleveland. Oxford University Press.000 Years of Science. Robert. translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J.comlthe-thumb-compass) . ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman.gearslhow. originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962). (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. The Genius of China: 3. Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity".wikipedia.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel. "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www. David. Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia.0.html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday. Robotics. E.G.html?&L=1) . the free encyclopedia • Ma. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www. 1882  (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides. August 25. Vol 3.edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index.12/04/12 Compass . 1. 1-7 • Temple. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China.compass. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www.Imago Mundi.html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.G. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text. Taipei: Caves Books.html) . Pt.R. p.travel-island.tv/The-good-Compass. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar. J. Feng. ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor.comlarobot!compass. first broadcast on NPR on May 31.
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