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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century.  The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later,  where the dry compass was invented around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works
A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide
• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
used with a sextant to calculate latitude. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading. the directions of the true poles also shift. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards. Often.filled magnetic compass. as opposed to magnetic north). (Over millions of years. the free encyclopedia change of its position. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. usually an aircraft. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass. Significant movements happen in a few years. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction. and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. there is an angle. Close to the equator. because of continental drift. A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north. as they are relatively inexpensive.g.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 .  The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. especially in remote areas. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. east and west. and require no power supply. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD. more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north.  Other.12/04/12 Compass . It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. relative to the earth's rotational poles. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. south. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. magnetic compasses remain popular. possibly using astronomical observations e.Wikipedia. Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. and changes with time. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. rather than to its direction of movement. Some GPS receivers have two antennas. How a magnetic compass works en. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater. usually to the south. durable. or moving in a fluid. However. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. A recent development is the electronic compass. which will be different if there is a crosswind. so that the compass shows true directions. which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning. and adjust the compass accordingly. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field.wikipedia. It was initialized by hand. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. of the Pole Star. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation). which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface.
wikipedia. the rotation axis of the Earth. Better compasses are "liquid-filled". luminous paint. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. called magnetic declination can vary widely. called a "compass card". so other instruments must be used for navigation. it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles). A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth. History The first compasses were made oflodestone. Since opposite poles attract (. and contributing to the Age of Discovery. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone.  For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless. The needle is mounted on a low. in better compasses a jewel bearing. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass.friction pivot point.Wikipedia. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps. Instead of a needle. in northern Canada. the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. When the compass is held level. In navigation. a naturally. position. pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. Later compasses were made of iron needles. On cloudy days. increasing sea trade. a compass does not point to true north. and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. or an arrowhead.12/04/12 Compass . in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. destination. one end points toward the North magnetic pole. the direction of the North magnetic pole. directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. the needle turns until. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north. located in northeastern Canada.'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land. so it can turn easily.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum. en.
In 1948. the Middle East." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used. the scholar Wang 5/24 en. China Further information: Four Great Inventions. Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese. The artifact now consistently points 35. radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC. ) Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica.5 degrees west of north.org/wiki/Compass . which if proven true. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy.. not for navigation. These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron. and East Africa. (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed.. Later the compass appeared in Europe. India. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium. who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass.wikipedia. and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe. but for geomancy and furtune. sinan. a method of divination. but may have pointed north-south when whole. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation. List of Chinese inventions.Wikipedia. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). 47): "A lodestone attracts a needle.12/04/12 Compass . Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass. and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented. These early compasses were made using lodestone. Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala. but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui.The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer".telling by the Chinese.Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century. Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279).
'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion.. The Dream Pool Essays. the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044..This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). he watches the compass. However. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass. After they arrived at Baria." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~. when his ship set sail from Wenzhou. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century. "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights. the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen. Thus. ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250. The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail.. with the lodestone sealed in by wax. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo. or 52.. sometimes north.  According to Needham..they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. when it is dark and cloudy.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass. or the south-pointing fish. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. aligning itself to the south. contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel  en. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088. Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs').12/04/12 Compass . also known as ''The Mao Kun Map".5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117: The navigator knows the geography.Wikipedia. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle".5 degree SW. and if rotated. the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing. . contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. which is equivalent to 22. he watches the stars at night.org/wiki/Compass 6/24 .wikipedia. known today as thermoremanence. There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water. However. and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle. and the directions of space could not be distinguished . The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night. a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry. watches the sun at day.mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600. The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan. but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117. The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~. although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass.
there are questions over diffusion. Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly.known Epistola de magnete. instead of one. In the Mediterranean.  However.org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) . critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass. ''barring the discovery of new evidence. by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February. it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant. Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. according to Kreutz.  At present. and the development ofPortolan charts.wikipedia. the introduction of the compass. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. in his well. possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass. leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. In the Arab world. While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April. However. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. At present. according to Kreutz. with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century.12/04/12 Compass . and 1282). but sustained increase in shipping movement. For instance. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods. it seems clear the first Chinese reference en. The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things). scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas). There is also a slightly earlier non.Wikipedia.Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232.  At the same time. and end in December. 1242. The additional few months were of considerable economic importance. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese.
 In 1300. Like Peregrinus' compass. There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater . and 1282). there are questions over diffusion.12/04/12 Compass . Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card.Wikipedia. Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. 1242. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. . In the 14th century.comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly.org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers.  Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232.wikipedia. The earliest Arabic reference to a compass . however. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_ India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years.. He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil. The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose. Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms. Navigational sailor's compass rose. This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design. whereby ''the en.However. This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water.
 and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300. a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering.  Bearing compass (18th century). by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . thus creating the prismatic compass. supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses. The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability. Alvid. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi. compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship. Later. while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318).the compass could also function as a protractor. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. Moreover. invented a new style ofbearing compass. Gunnar Tillander. In 1928. and army officers. outdoorsmen. 1302). traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl. Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then  Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380. Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument. In 1885. and the four men modified Tillander's design In December 1932. First patented in 1902. a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks.  en. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. indicating always what course the ship was on".12/04/12 Compass .Wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 9/24 . Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn. and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line.ignoring the needle . who were selling basic compasses. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia.This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror. It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269. the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it. the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking.wikipedia. and Alvar Kjellstrom. By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks. thus giving the compass its familiar appearance.
Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model for individual use by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway . improving readability while reducing wear. Navy.)4] However. their main advantage was aboard ship. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing. as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. and with the centre of gravity. the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 . However. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other . the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble.wikipedia. but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. centre ofbuoyancy. introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass.  Despite these advances. The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860. Creagh-Osborne..  Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft. Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. . A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690. the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty. while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel. Captain F. and subject to damage. After the success ofthis invention.. receiving a patent in 1915. with two thin and relatively short needles.. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass. In 1909. the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U.. Capt. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass . but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type. In the latter year. O.. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted.org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry..12/04/12 Compass . fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances.Wikipedia. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated.S. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration. and after widespread adoption by other navies.
the newly.Wikipedia.  History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. the free encyclopedia In December 1932.12/04/12 Compass . or ethyl alcohol is common).wikipedia. While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca.  Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248) In the 1300s. a surveyor by profession.  Most of these churches were built in the 12th century. white spirits. mineral oil. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time. The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box. Ibn Sim'un's compass. The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle. purified kerosene. however.org/wiki/Compass 11/24 .  Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_In the second half of the 15th century.founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid. Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then. applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion  Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ. the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers.  In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. en. some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525).filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. In the 14th century.
wikipedia. many ordinary liquid.filled induction compasses has declined over the years. notably the United States Army. photohnninescent. adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass . As induction forces provide less damping than liquid. prism. or prismatic sight. a land navigation technique known as terrain association. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map. lensatic. The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.  en. The use of air. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. or self-hnninous materials to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. a transparent base containing map orienting lines. 'baseplate'. as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear.filled designs. Key points on the compass.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism.filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths.  A liquid. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'. various sighting mechanisms (mirror. A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy.Wikipedia. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients. hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule.S. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card.12/04/12 Compass . continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles. Liquid filled lensatic compass  The military forces ofa few nations. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo). 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6] The U. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool. "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. etc.
nickel. ie. A lubber line. This preserves the horizontal position. that can block the reception of electronic signals. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. the direction of Earth's rotational axis. are not affected by objects.. M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium.wikipedia. most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron.S. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass.g. the Silva 4b Militaire. like the U. although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs). However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small. steel. via radio luminescent tritium illumination.Wikipedia. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. trees. although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. e.12/04/12 Compass . electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels. using the magnetic compass only as a backup. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card.  The U. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal. which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light. often easier to use than GPS. These move freely on a pivot. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. mobile phones. The correct heading relative en. cobalt. Consequently. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks. are comparatively cheap. require no energy supply. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt.S. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass. Increasingly. and unlike GPS. as opposed to magnetic north. use simple reliable technology.
which is not particularly strong. date back several centuries. Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials.  • Trough compasses. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. While ships. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. foresters. )and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. often to fractions of a degree.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. which is fur from ''magnetic north". As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth.g. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses. and later degaussed. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. submarines. most often used by surveyors. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy. These include: • Qibla compass. which may pick up their own fields. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications. but also by cave explorers. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases. Also. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. Often. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. Cars may be mostly steel. or sent to a display unit. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. and render simple compasses useless after time. the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. en. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width.wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry. particularly with plane tables. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo. they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. drivers rarely take such a step. A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile. They were used for land surveying. and geologists.50 in heading accuracy (e. This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight. the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles.Wikipedia.
This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses. the needle becomes magnetized. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. see compass points.12/04/12 Compass . and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. Magnetometers. or to the four cardinal points (north. east. However. Later.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead.wikipedia. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius. in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. west). etc. often by being painted red. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood. this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred. Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. these were divided. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. For example. For a table of the thirty-two points. In the modem era. are more stable in such situations. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. in China into 24.Wikipedia. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer. south. the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. Each of these was divided into 100 en. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). laying artillery. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. the 360-degree system took hold.
eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings.) as that can affect their accuracy_ Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks. GDR etc. caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment. ranging from zone 1. Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device. and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways. that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass).ferromagnetic component. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. etc. This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. steel pitons. The ship is swung. while . The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 . with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically. b2 the non. Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes.Wikipedia. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. This is still in use in Russia.12/04/12 Compass . compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. points on the shore. usually translated as ''mils''. giving a circle of600. automobile engines.). bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. the free encyclopedia spaces. At sea. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level.wikipedia. A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors. cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. called deviation. then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass.aI. called a 'rider'.
To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map). which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations.  Turning the compass scale on the map (D . Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more).org/wiki/Compass 17/24 . casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation. By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing.Wikipedia. the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth. which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole. this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances.  The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired.wikipedia. which is approximately 1. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain). a different method. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line). In this way. ignoring the compass needle entirely.the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule. Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements.12/04/12 Compass . correction tables could be created. one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass. however.travel (DOT) line. hence.000 miles from the true geographic North Pole. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading. the en. graphing their results.
 In the given example. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en. if one is using "true" or map bearings.Wikipedia. pre-adjusted declination. avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields.5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately. Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination.12/04/12 Compass . certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. the large mountain). To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. If it does. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target. if used at a tilt. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. causing interference. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. overpowering the compass needle. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. Exposure to strong magnets. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. If the hiker has been following the correct path. and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass. measuring at 0. get out of the area. and see if the needle on the compass moves. and hence. look closely at the needle. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule. if adjusted correctly.wikipedia. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. fur example. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map. and the compass does not have preset. not move. This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster.org/wiki/Compass . the needle might hit the casing on the compass. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites. lengthwise.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate. If the needle tilts to one direction. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. The modem hand. like Magnetite. This will give a faulty reading. To see if the needle is well leveled. Again.
USA: Cengage Learning.. Raymond A. "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight".. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). 148. ... http://books .. http://www. USA: CRC Press.google....... A Manners.. Planet Earth: Cosmology. p.wikipedia. The Geographical Journal.. 6..... and Cleveland... the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1. especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable.comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . 1. 238-239 5. p.org/wiki/Compass 19/24 .)..magnet.eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass. £"'\1 __ _ . Joy (2000)... origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed.. and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books . San Francisco: Academic press. McElhinny. http://books ..:_ .. /\ abc d Kreutz.... 8... ISBN 0-521-40949-7.:_ . Essentials of college physics (http://books. _ . A Serway.. 56.html. n_. _1 liT . David... /\ a b Merrill. .google.2010....:..--t...l. 11. /\ abc Lane.com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) .1 .. 367 3. Vol.. UK: Cambridge University Press.0194 (http://dx... p. Retrieved 2009-02-05...~_ . ISBN 0-7503-0718-8. 1. Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass".html) .eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass.3 (1920).google. . No.. pp. p. A T.... so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles. /\ abc d W.. 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple...magnet. ISBN 0-12-491242-7.doi. A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www.Wikipedia..1098/rstb.... 2. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole. (1983). it is not.. durable.. and requires no separate electrical power supply.1098%2Frstb. en..4. ISBN 0-495-10619-4.. The Essential Wilderness Navigator... p... 228.~T'1 l\/f"l4-. 7... __ T A_ . Chris Vuille (2006).: .. If it were exactly dipolar. Ronald T... 10.. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole... The Earth's magnetic field: Its history.. Cesare (1992).2010._ n ~ ... c .... Michael W. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782. 9.:.:_l. c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false.. Florida State University. 493..google. c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) .. £"'1 ..fsu... 615 4.12/04/12 Compass .0194) . H...orgIl0... p.. doi:10... Paul. the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles.... /\ Seidman.. A Emiliani. A Gabor Horvath et al (2011). £"'11. Geology... it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid. __ l_y ..... .google.google.. £"'\1__. http://books. however.. ISBN 0-07-136110-3.... p.fsu....comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books... ..
google. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". 252 22. 372-373 40. p. 608 & 613 39.org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209. A abc d e Kreutz. Vol. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). p.htm1 19. Petra G.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . No. p. 182f.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45. Revista Mexicana de Fisica. Guimaraes. "Mexico and the early history of magnetism". p. pp. 21. Steven Hirsch. 4205 (5 September 1975). "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine". UI Uilllt. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo. 15. p. pg. A a b (King 1983. 606f. -- Compass . 36. 547-8) 42.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 . A Needham. p. p.. 28. /\ abc d Kreutz. A http://www. (1996-1997). rlilllCll. p.l. Vol. ALi Shu-hua. A Li Shu-hua. /\ abc Needham p. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS. c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22. London: Andre Deutsch. 24. Veracruz. p. Appendix 2 30. 190 20. A a b Li Shu-hua. p.000 years of science. A Lane. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. Lyman John. 381 (http://books. Daniel Headrick. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. /\ abc d Kreutz. 156. 180 18.Google Books (http://books. 374 en.l. /\ abc Kreutz.wikipedia.Wikipedia. R.Y! IVIUIllUllSl.htm 17. A Lane. p. A a b Needhamn. Pamela Kyle Crossley. 608 & 610 38. p. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass". A http://www. A Kreutz. The genius of China: 3. Robert (2007). 290 A Zhou A Ma. Isis 79 (2): 246-266  41. /\ abc d e Schmidl. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43. pp. 616 47. 368 31. p. 1919. Tibbetts (1973). A Taylor 46.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap. 27.dartmouth. /\ abc d efTemple.google. p. A Lane.%203. 753-760 (1975) 13.). 162-166. A Lane. 369 32.uib.google.12/04/12 lL. 44. ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. 608 37. p. Retrieved 200906-30. A The American journal of science . Mexico". p. A a b G. p. L-ClnlSUll.gutenberg. A Kreutz. Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). Joseph.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. discovery & invention (3rd ed. 51-53 (2004) 16. 26. World Scientific. 370 33. 23. p. 255 A Needham.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt. Science. A Lane.lSt.L-lllllt. 50. A Temple. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet. New Series. A Kreutz. 368-369 35. A A P. pp. 14. A Needham. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again. pp. p. 373 25. 29. p. http://books . 176 21. A Needham p. 189. 289.htm#_ftn4 34.
68 1\ Kjellstrom. 84. Henry A. 1-10 1\ Warner. 2004. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation. p.co. 110. pp. Article (http://www. Fred H. Henry A.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. 1\ Frazer. patented in 1915 in Great Britain.westmarine. 64. 17-43 1\ 70. 1\ Barnes. 1 (1994). 61. pp. 27 52. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. 68.Wikipedia.wikipedia. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. HMSO. and Jacobson. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum.htm) . 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. pp. Ritchie.htm. OceanMountainSky. No. Ltd. London: The Optical Society (1915). 73. published online by Cambridge University Press. 1-10 1\ Gubbins.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. p.comlwristlwrist_1. 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www. 63.12/04/12 Compass . 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. Sophia. 60. 293-303 (293) 1\ N. AE. Department of the Admiralty (1986). Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain. their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649.. Article (http://www. 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. pp. Vol 22. p. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.nemoto. the free encyclopedia 48. 1\ Davis. 76.2 (1992). c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S. p. 1-24 1\ Gubbins. 71.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. Mark (2003-03-26). Cliff. pp. 67 1\ Fanning. Globe Pequot Press (2002). 69. ISBN 1-40203992-1. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne. Suunto Company History. 58. 67. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 56. Scott. David. Frank. 1\ Hughes. a b The Compass Museum. http://www . Inc.htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. 9781585744909.com/hand/bezard.Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. 216 50. pp. The New York Times. Vol.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide). Churchill. No. No. p. 62. Transactions of The Optical Society 16. Bjorn Kjellstrom. British Journal for the History of Science. 59. (1918). 118 (Mar. p. Archaeometry.compassmuseum. Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. 72. 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. 49. pp.htm) 1\ Barnes. 1885). pp. 27 1\ 53. pp.. 64 1\ Taylor. p. 1-22 1\ Colvin. Article (http://www. West Marine. 9781402039928. brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. p.. ISBN 0-07-139303-X. James. Vol 9. McGraw-Hill Book Co.suunto. Rittenhouse. Springer Press (2007). Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass. p. Sports Illustrated.2 (1992). 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. Bjorn. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. 75. 57. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 54. December 2001 Article (http://www. 55. p. Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty. AE. 1\ Hughes. Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. McGraw-Hill Professional en. a b Suunto Oy. 51.. Retrieved 2007-12-28. Vol 32. The Bezard Compass. Archaeometry. G. Deborah. abc d Litsky.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . If. 65. No. 67 1\ Fanning. 15 Jul2008. p. 74.compassmuseum. 66. 32.westmarine. Persifor. Obituaries.
(1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". D. 31 October 2003.com/gps-satellite-compass/.C. 39. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600. Springer Press (2007).orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo.S. C: Us. Isis 74 (4): 531-555. 85. David A. pub. ISBN 14020-3992-1.. The Ultimate Desert Handbook.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass.7 References • Admiralty. ch. 80. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003).wikipedia. pp. p. 1126/science.3 • Carlson. • Aczel. Technology and Culture. 1972..Wikipedia. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988). Cresson H.. p. 12. 14 (3: July). London: Norton. John B. Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation. Jungle Snafus .doiorgl10. sec. David. p. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. ch.. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit. Science.Verl.psicompany. Headquarters. 1st Ed. Oregon Institute Press (1996). 6-7. 79. DOl 10. and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. Isis. ISBN 011-772611-7. PM 21-26. Dept. pp.orau. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins. Map Reading and Land Navigation. Mexico".com/gps-satellite-compass/). 2006-0810. A Kramer. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www. D. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. (1983). 175-196 • Ludwig. 753-760. Dept. (7 May 1993). Retrieved 2009-06-30. Washington. Veracruz. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks". ISBN 1-884067-10-7. Most Probable Position. rev. Washington. (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www.753 • Gies. 525 p. Orau. University Press of Kansas. sec. And Remedies.S. G. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation". Frederic C. 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth. 45 (2: July).9781402039928 • Gurney. ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King. Joseph (1994) Cathedral.Psicompany.org. is an exception.4205. Patent No. one U. Berlin: Propylaen. Mark. Propylaen Technikgeschichte. Aimant et Boussole". Magnetic Compass. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen. The American Historical Review. of the Army. 8. Frances and Gies.pdf) . Army. Monte. 164-170: In 1989. 11.12/04/12 Compass . the free encyclopedia 78. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation. Retrieved 2009-06-30.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. Riverton. which uses magnetic induction damping. Lawrence. of Defense A Kearny. Forge. ISBN 0-15-600753. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson. 83. U. pp. 4175333. 189 (4205 : 5 September).htm.. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. p. http://www. 1914. A Ministry of Defence. New York: HarperCollins.9780117726116.S. 68 (3: April).psicompany. 367-383 • Lane. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www.org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. Barbara M.sciencemag.1086/353360 (http://dx. N ew York: Harcourt. http://www. ch. A U. A Wright. 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11. 189. p.htm) . Camden. 81. 84. p. 26. (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". doi:1D. Wyoming: The Brunton Company.com. 82.org/wiki/Compass 22/24 . Amir D. 1st Ed.orau.1086%2F353360) • Kreutz. Melvin G. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World. London: HMSO. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation.
html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups. Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity".0. The Essential Wilderness Navigator.R. Vol 3.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel.compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork. Paul. 1882  (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides.edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China. Phnom Penh: Indochina Books. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou.comlarticlesI05001120Imain. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar. prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993).000 Years of Science.) and Mills.rmgnet.D. Colin A.comlthe-thumb-compass) . David Pheifer  (http://www.htm) • Travel Island (http://www.com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham.comlarobot!compass.rnaps.compass. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology". Refers to compass correction by Fourier series. ISBN 0-671-62028-2. Robert. ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham.sensorsmag.62. E.12/04/12 Compass .G. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). p. Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia. Discovery. and Invention.html) . ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright. Gilman d'Arcy Paul. ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www. The University Press of Kansas. Inc. J. • Paul 1. Feng. • Arrick Robots.htm!) • How a tilt sensor works.comlUsingCompass. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)].html?&L=1) .Imago Mundi. ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman. "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www. 1-7 • Temple. The Genius of China: 3.html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday.org/wiki/Compass 23/24 . With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster.odoo. August 25. (1986). ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor. Gans. Robotics.E.G.tv/The-good-Compass. • Williams. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www.comltraveloutdoor.html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday. Ch'eng-chGn (ed. 1: ''Physics''.sciencefriday.Wikipedia.edu/tekpages/compass. Oxford University Press.works. first broadcast on NPR on May 31. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www.A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA.gearslhow.wikipedia.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www.v. (transl). Taipei: Caves Books. Joseph and Ronan. 2002). (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen. translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J.robotics. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass. Pt. originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962).travel-island. David. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text.fSu. the free encyclopedia • Ma. 1.chemnyu. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. Cambridge University Press. and Cleveland. (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle".shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie. 8.