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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century.  The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later,  where the dry compass was invented around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.
A simple dry magnetic pocket compass
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works
A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide
• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
usually an aircraft. especially in remote areas.wikipedia. relative to the earth's rotational poles. magnetic compasses remain popular. It was initialized by hand. A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north. and require no power supply. Close to the equator. because of continental drift. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards. durable. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. and changes with time. so that the compass shows true directions. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. there is an angle. fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). rather than to its direction of movement. the directions of the true poles also shift. as opposed to magnetic north). Often.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction.filled magnetic compass. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater. more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields. used with a sextant to calculate latitude. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously. usually to the south. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning.g. as they are relatively inexpensive. and adjust the compass accordingly. especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading. south.  Other. which will be different if there is a crosswind. A recent development is the electronic compass. (Over millions of years. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. However. How a magnetic compass works en. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement.  The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_ This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation). possibly using astronomical observations e. Some GPS receivers have two antennas.Wikipedia. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude. of the Pole Star. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass.12/04/12 Compass . A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. or moving in a fluid. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. the free encyclopedia change of its position. Significant movements happen in a few years.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 . east and west.
 For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. History The first compasses were made oflodestone. called a "compass card". magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. Since opposite poles attract (. In navigation. When the compass is held level. a compass does not point to true north.12/04/12 Compass . the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. position. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land. directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. increasing sea trade. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. On cloudy days.friction pivot point. the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth. supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. luminous paint. so it can turn easily. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. one end points toward the North magnetic pole. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . in northern Canada. pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. Better compasses are "liquid-filled". the rotation axis of the Earth. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. Instead of a needle. and contributing to the Age of Discovery. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. Later compasses were made of iron needles. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north. in better compasses a jewel bearing. called magnetic declination can vary widely. or an arrowhead. The needle is mounted on a low. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless. so other instruments must be used for navigation. a naturally. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles).Wikipedia. located in northeastern Canada.'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north. and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. the needle turns until. after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. destination. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. the direction of the North magnetic pole. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. en. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely.wikipedia.
and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented.. who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium.. 47): "A lodestone attracts a needle. Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass. not for navigation. China Further information: Four Great Inventions." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used. but may have pointed north-south when whole. List of Chinese inventions. but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui. Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy. In 1948.org/wiki/Compass . the Middle East.12/04/12 Compass . Later the compass appeared in Europe.The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer". radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC.telling by the Chinese. and East Africa. Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala. Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279). the scholar Wang 5/24 en. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation. a method of divination. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century.Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. ) Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. sinan.wikipedia. and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe. which if proven true. These early compasses were made using lodestone. The artifact now consistently points 35.Wikipedia.5 degrees west of north. but for geomancy and furtune. These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). India. Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese.
contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel  en. The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~. However. a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board... also known as ''The Mao Kun Map". the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position.This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle".org/wiki/Compass 6/24 . or the south-pointing fish.12/04/12 Compass . The Dream Pool Essays. when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail. Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs'). However. and the directions of space could not be distinguished . when it is dark and cloudy.Wikipedia. The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass.. known today as thermoremanence. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. 'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion. with the lodestone sealed in by wax. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~.. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century. The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass. and if rotated. aligning itself to the south.mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250. There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117: The navigator knows the geography. he watches the compass.  According to Needham. sometimes north. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time. "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights. . ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250. the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry. he watches the stars at night. and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle. The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44.wikipedia. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. Thus. contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. or 52. but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen. which is equivalent to 22.5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. when his ship set sail from Wenzhou.they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing. watches the sun at day.5 degree SW. The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night. After they arrived at Baria..
critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass. the introduction of the compass.12/04/12 Compass . the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. instead of one. leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century. 1242.known Epistola de magnete. traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese.  However. While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April.Wikipedia. Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. according to Kreutz. At present.wikipedia. The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things). with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century. possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass. For instance. the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual. there are questions over diffusion. However. Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods. it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant. There is also a slightly earlier non. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232.Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. and 1282). according to Kreutz. it seems clear the first Chinese reference en. in his well. scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years. by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February.  At present. In the Mediterranean.org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) . In the Arab world. The additional few months were of considerable economic importance. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. but sustained increase in shipping movement. and end in December. ''barring the discovery of new evidence. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas). and the development ofPortolan charts.  At the same time.
1242. There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows. The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose. The earliest Arabic reference to a compass .comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_ India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra.However.. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater . some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly. .wikipedia. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass.  Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232. Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. In the 14th century. Like Peregrinus' compass.Wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers. He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes. another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. and 1282).org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . however. This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design.  In 1300. there are questions over diffusion. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years. Navigational sailor's compass rose. Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300. whereby ''the en. This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water. Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms.
which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. Gunnar Tillander. In 1928. Alvid. While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269. and Alvar Kjellstrom.org/wiki/Compass 9/24 . Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks. invented a new style ofbearing compass. thus creating the prismatic compass. and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300. Later. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line. indicating always what course the ship was on". by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318).ignoring the needle .wikipedia. 1302). and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers. Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn.Wikipedia.This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror. and army officers. The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability. traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl. Moreover. Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then  Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380. outdoorsmen. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia. who were selling basic compasses. thus giving the compass its familiar appearance.  en. A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. In 1885. It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks. compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship.the compass could also function as a protractor. the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. First patented in 1902. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses.  Bearing compass (18th century). the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it. a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering.12/04/12 Compass . and the four men modified Tillander's design In December 1932. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi.
the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty. centre ofbuoyancy. In 1909. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well. but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration.. Creagh-Osborne.  Despite these advances. In the latter year. A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690. the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted. and with the centre of gravity. as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. Capt. After the success ofthis invention. the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble.S. and subject to damage.  Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft. and after widespread adoption by other navies. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas. Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model for individual use by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well. while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel. Navy. . fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass . their main advantage was aboard ship. Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. However. introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass. O. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass.Wikipedia. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated.. Captain F. receiving a patent in 1915. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other ..12/04/12 Compass .)4] However.. but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway .wikipedia. the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 . with two thin and relatively short needles.org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry.. improving readability while reducing wear.. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing. The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860.
wikipedia. en.12/04/12 Compass . While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. the newly. Ibn Sim'un's compass. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today.  Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248) In the 1300s. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box.org/wiki/Compass 11/24 .founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid.filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle. The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle. The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version. applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion  Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ. a surveyor by profession. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca. Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil. mineral oil. some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result. white spirits. the free encyclopedia In December 1932. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525).Wikipedia.  Most of these churches were built in the 12th century. however.  Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_In the second half of the 15th century. Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time.  In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. In the 14th century. or ethyl alcohol is common). He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers. purified kerosene.  History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west.
A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy.wikipedia. notably the United States Army. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision. Key points on the compass. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent.  A liquid. many ordinary liquid. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients. prism. Liquid filled lensatic compass  The military forces ofa few nations. lensatic. and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress. or self-hnninous materials to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass . hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels. "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. a land navigation technique known as terrain association. 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs. or prismatic sight. continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool. etc. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card.  en.12/04/12 Compass . The use of air.filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths. various sighting mechanisms (mirror. The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map.S. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo). adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'. 'baseplate'. a transparent base containing map orienting lines.filled designs.filled induction compasses has declined over the years. As induction forces provide less damping than liquid. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6] The U. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. photohnninescent.
Wikipedia. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. like the U. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light. ie. e. The correct heading relative en. However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering. and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors. (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal.S. and unlike GPS. use simple reliable technology. trees. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass. electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels.g. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass. most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card.S. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. via radio luminescent tritium illumination. although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt. steel. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses. mobile phones. are comparatively cheap. A lubber line.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. These move freely on a pivot. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north. that can block the reception of electronic signals. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs). as opposed to magnetic north.12/04/12 Compass . are not affected by objects. using the magnetic compass only as a backup. cobalt. often easier to use than GPS.  The U. Increasingly. the Silva 4b Militaire.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium. Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card. Consequently.. require no energy supply. nickel. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. This preserves the horizontal position. the direction of Earth's rotational axis.
Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. foresters.  • Trough compasses. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry. All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. but also by cave explorers. Also. the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. date back several centuries. and render simple compasses useless after time. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth. drivers rarely take such a step.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile.g. This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight. )and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. they can also detect pitch and roll of ships.12/04/12 Compass . because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo. en. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings. Often.Wikipedia. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. which is not particularly strong. They were used for land surveying. often to fractions of a degree. most often used by surveyors. and later degaussed. which may pick up their own fields. which is fur from ''magnetic north". While ships.wikipedia. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications.50 in heading accuracy (e. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. particularly with plane tables. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. submarines. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials. or sent to a display unit. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. and geologists. These include: • Qibla compass. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases. Cars may be mostly steel. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses.
Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. Each of these was divided into 100 en. Magnetometers. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. For example. etc. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. these were divided. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius. Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. often by being painted red.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . west). this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred. laying artillery. or to the four cardinal points (north. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses. For a table of the thirty-two points.12/04/12 Compass . east. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. Later. This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. the 360-degree system took hold. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood.Wikipedia. where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. the needle becomes magnetized. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. see compass points. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone. However. In the modem era. the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). south. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. in China into 24. are more stable in such situations. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer.
cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices.aI. that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass. The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line.). then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass. and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union. eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings. while . with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically. GDR etc. bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. called deviation. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones.) as that can affect their accuracy_ Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone. etc. steel pitons.12/04/12 Compass .Wikipedia. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors. points on the shore. Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device. called a 'rider'. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways. First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip. The ship is swung. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle.ferromagnetic component. This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. ranging from zone 1. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft. compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes. the free encyclopedia spaces. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass). giving a circle of600. b2 the non.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 . A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings. This is still in use in Russia. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level. usually translated as ''mils''. caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment.wikipedia. automobile engines. At sea. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units.
They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass. which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map). which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired. this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole.wikipedia. correction tables could be created.  The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing. In this way. the en. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. graphing their results. hence. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line). By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled.travel (DOT) line.org/wiki/Compass 17/24 .000 miles from the true geographic North Pole. one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. however. Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more). which is approximately 1. a different method. To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading. Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements. the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth.Wikipedia. compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain). ignoring the compass needle entirely.12/04/12 Compass .the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule.  Turning the compass scale on the map (D . casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North.
avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields. measuring at 0. This will give a faulty reading. and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. Exposure to strong magnets. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target.12/04/12 Compass . if adjusted correctly.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. like Magnetite. fur example. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate.  In the given example. the large mountain). See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en. get out of the area. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map. If it does. If the hiker has been following the correct path. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. the needle might hit the casing on the compass. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing. and see if the needle on the compass moves. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately. To see if the needle is well leveled. To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. The modem hand.5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. not move. Again. if one is using "true" or map bearings. pre-adjusted declination. and hence. lengthwise. look closely at the needle. certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals. If the needle tilts to one direction. This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites.org/wiki/Compass . overpowering the compass needle. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. if used at a tilt. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided. Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication.Wikipedia. causing interference.wikipedia. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass. and the compass does not have preset. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing.
... c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) .. 493... David... /\ a b Merrill.:_ .. _ . c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. ISBN 0-7503-0718-8. Geology.... ISBN 0-495-10619-4.. "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight".. /\ Seidman....:_l.12/04/12 Compass .... If it were exactly dipolar.... /\ abc d W. p..google. http://books . McElhinny.google... £"'11..4. . and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books .:. ISBN 0-12-491242-7. __ l_y .google. 367 3. doi:10..orgIl0.1098/rstb.--t.. so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles. 615 4.. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782.:_ .. p. Ragged Mountain Press (2001).. http://www...). 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple... 1... en. c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false.....html.. UK: Cambridge University Press. Planet Earth: Cosmology.. A T... Ronald T.~_ .. and Cleveland. Vol.. ISBN 0-521-40949-7. and requires no separate electrical power supply. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books. The Geographical Journal.. /\ abc Lane. The Earth's magnetic field: Its history. 8..2010..google. Essentials of college physics (http://books.... USA: CRC Press.comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole. 228. /\ abc d Kreutz. it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid. 148.. Joy (2000).... Chris Vuille (2006). p.~T'1 l\/f"l4-.: . 7.3 (1920).:... pp. 56. Cesare (1992). ISBN 0-07-136110-3..2010.. Michael W. 10. H.. origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed.. _1 liT . .... A Emiliani... £"'\1__.. No.l.magnet..eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass. A Serway..magnet. A Gabor Horvath et al (2011).. p.fsu.. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole... USA: Cengage Learning.html) ...1 . A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www.. £"'1 ..1098%2Frstb....... San Francisco: Academic press. . £"'\1 __ _ . it is not.. however.. Raymond A. 2.0194) . 238-239 5.. the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1.. __ T A_ .. Paul.0194 (http://dx... http://books.. p.google. p.wikipedia..doi. The Essential Wilderness Navigator..com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) .Wikipedia... http://books .._ n ~ . .. especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable.. (1983). the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles. p. c ..google...fsu.. durable. 1. Retrieved 2009-02-05. ..org/wiki/Compass 19/24 . Florida State University.....comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . n_.. 6..eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass. 11. Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass". A Manners. 9.
A abc d e Kreutz. 27. A Lane. ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. 28. 372-373 40. 255 A Needham. 369 32.Y! IVIUIllUllSl. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. 608 37. A Temple. 373 25. L-ClnlSUll. p. 14. p. 368 31.Wikipedia. A a b (King 1983. UI Uilllt. p. pp. p. rlilllCll. (1996-1997). 36. Veracruz.htm 17. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS. 29. p. Vol. p. A Kreutz. /\ abc d Kreutz. "Mexico and the early history of magnetism".lSt. /\ abc Needham p. The genius of China: 3. 24. 162-166. Petra G. p. p. pg.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. pp.gutenberg. Science. 190 20. pp. 252 22. c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22.).google. Daniel Headrick. 368-369 35.l. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again.google..12/04/12 lL. 370 33. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). Revista Mexicana de Fisica. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet. 180 18. A Taylor 46. 26. Pamela Kyle Crossley. London: Andre Deutsch.htm#_ftn4 34. A Needham. Vol.wikipedia. Appendix 2 30. 290 A Zhou A Ma.org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209. World Scientific. http://books . 176 21. Joseph.uib. p. A Kreutz. 189. A Needham p. p. A Lane.google. A http://www. discovery & invention (3rd ed.dartmouth. 23. 182f. 21. p. A a b Needhamn. Robert (2007). A Lane.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . p.htm1 19. p. 156. New Series. 374 en. Guimaraes. Tibbetts (1973). A a b Li Shu-hua. A Lane. 608 & 613 39. 753-760 (1975) 13.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 . Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. 547-8) 42. 616 47.L-lllllt. 606f. A Li Shu-hua. /\ abc d efTemple. 44. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass". Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). A Needham. A A P. 50. /\ abc d Kreutz. Lyman John. p. 608 & 610 38. -- Compass .000 years of science. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". ALi Shu-hua. /\ abc d e Schmidl. p. Isis 79 (2): 246-266  41. R. p. 381 (http://books. No.%203. pp. p.Google Books (http://books. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine". A Kreutz. p. A http://www. 289. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43. A Lane. 15.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap.l. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. 4205 (5 September 1975). p. 1919. p. /\ abc Kreutz. A a b G.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt. A The American journal of science . Steven Hirsch. Mexico". Retrieved 200906-30. 51-53 (2004) 16.
pp. Transactions of The Optical Society 16. 27 52. If. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. p. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. 64. pp. No. 64 1\ Taylor. 1\ Davis. 1\ Barnes. 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. McGraw-Hill Professional en. Ritchie. 61. OceanMountainSky.htm) 1\ Barnes. Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. Springer Press (2007). Archaeometry. (1918). 73. 67. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 55. 74.htm. p. Persifor.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins. British Journal for the History of Science. Deborah. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. 1\ Frazer. 15 Jul2008.2 (1992). pp. 63.2 (1992). 9781585744909. p. 59. The New York Times.co. patented in 1915 in Great Britain. Archaeometry. Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. 1\ Hughes. 1885). AE. 66. http://www . Rittenhouse. The Bezard Compass.westmarine. p. ISBN 0-07-139303-X. a b Suunto Oy. 57. Churchill. 9781402039928. 118 (Mar. No. 49. Bjorn. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. 58. No. 17-43 1\ 70. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. Sophia.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . December 2001 Article (http://www. Fred H. Henry A. ISBN 1-40203992-1. 56. p.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide). Cliff. pp. 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. 69. Vol 32. 1-10 1\ Gubbins. 68 1\ Kjellstrom. 65. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. p.com/hand/bezard.comlwristlwrist_1. West Marine. Mark (2003-03-26). Ltd.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N. c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. Obituaries. p. 62. p.Wikipedia. pp. Scott. 1-22 1\ Colvin. 27 1\ 53. 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. AE.nemoto. HMSO.suunto. Article (http://www. 67 1\ Fanning. a b The Compass Museum. 293-303 (293) 1\ N. pp. Inc. abc d Litsky. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 84...Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. 60. pp. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. pp.compassmuseum. 51. James. Sports Illustrated. David. 76. Article (http://www. Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass. p. brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. Globe Pequot Press (2002). 1-24 1\ Gubbins. published online by Cambridge University Press. Vol 22. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649.htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. Bjorn Kjellstrom.htm) . Frank. 216 50.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum. p. 2004. Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty. p. 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. 68. 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www..compassmuseum. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne. Vol 9. 67 1\ Fanning. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen.wikipedia. London: The Optical Society (1915). Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Article (http://www. 1-10 1\ Warner. 1 (1994). 110.westmarine. pp. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Suunto Company History. the free encyclopedia 48. 54.12/04/12 Compass . Vol. 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S. Department of the Admiralty (1986). No. 75. 71.. G. 72. 32. 1\ Hughes. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation. Henry A. and Jacobson.
pp. one U.9781402039928 • Gurney. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600. http://www.1086%2F353360) • Kreutz. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988). A Kramer. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass. 1972. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003). D. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation. 39. 80.orau. Dept.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. p. University Press of Kansas. Army. ch. ISBN 011-772611-7. Mark. Retrieved 2009-06-30. DOl 10.Verl. Washington. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www.doiorgl10. 189. ISBN 0-15-600753. • Aczel.. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www. (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www. Magnetic Compass. A U. Monte. pp. D. 164-170: In 1989. 1st Ed. 85.psicompany. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks". 189 (4205 : 5 September). 26. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen. The American Historical Review. Melvin G.orau.S. the free encyclopedia 78. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. Joseph (1994) Cathedral. p. 4175333. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation". sec. Lawrence. A Ministry of Defence.sciencemag. Cresson H. 68 (3: April). Jungle Snafus . (1983). 1st Ed. C: Us.12/04/12 Compass . London: Norton.1086/353360 (http://dx. David A.htm) . 175-196 • Ludwig. ISBN 14020-3992-1. Most Probable Position. U. John B. http://www. London: HMSO.. 6-7. N ew York: Harcourt. Mexico".7 References • Admiralty. of Defense A Kearny.. is an exception. Berlin: Propylaen..S. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. pub.3 • Carlson.wikipedia.org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. Springer Press (2007). Science. p. Patent No. p. Frederic C. 8.Wikipedia. (1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King.753 • Gies.psicompany. Headquarters. PM 21-26. (7 May 1993). Amir D. p. 79. 84. 2006-0810. Aimant et Boussole". Veracruz. Barbara M. ch. Wyoming: The Brunton Company.com/gps-satellite-compass/. Propylaen Technikgeschichte.com. Riverton. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson.htm. Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation. p. Retrieved 2009-06-30. of the Army. rev. Frances and Gies. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth. Forge. 45 (2: July).org. sec. G.. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. 1914. 525 p.com/gps-satellite-compass/). Washington. doi:1D. (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". 367-383 • Lane. which uses magnetic induction damping. 11. Oregon Institute Press (1996).9780117726116. 81. 12. 31 October 2003. Isis. 753-760. Camden.C. 1126/science. 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11. 83. pp. 82.4205. Map Reading and Land Navigation. The Ultimate Desert Handbook.S.pdf) . 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit. 14 (3: July). Technology and Culture.Psicompany. ch. Isis 74 (4): 531-555. And Remedies. David. Dept.org/wiki/Compass 22/24 . New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 1-884067-10-7. Orau. A Wright.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass.orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation. and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World.
the free encyclopedia • Ma. Colin A.org/wiki/Compass 23/24 . 1: ''Physics''.com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102. Phnom Penh: Indochina Books.comltraveloutdoor.html?&L=1) . p. Inc.Wikipedia.comlthe-thumb-compass) . • Paul 1. ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman.compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork.html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel.comlUsingCompass.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology".htm!) • How a tilt sensor works. • Williams. and Invention. Taipei: Caves Books. first broadcast on NPR on May 31.) and Mills. ISBN 0-671-62028-2. Oxford University Press.travel-island.G. Paul. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China. 1-7 • Temple.chemnyu. 2002). ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright.62. (transl). August 25. Feng.v. David Pheifer  (http://www.comlarticlesI05001120Imain.000 Years of Science. The University Press of Kansas.edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index. Cambridge University Press. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass. ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)]. Joseph and Ronan.sensorsmag.A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA.12/04/12 Compass .wikipedia. translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J.htm) • Travel Island (http://www.html) . Robert.Imago Mundi.works. originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962).html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday. 1882  (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides. (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen. • Arrick Robots. Vol 3. 1.0. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. and Cleveland. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www.E. The Genius of China: 3. "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www. ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www. Discovery. David.shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie.odoo. Refers to compass correction by Fourier series.comlarobot!compass. 8.G. With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou.D.robotics. Ch'eng-chGn (ed.rnaps.edu/tekpages/compass. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text. E. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar. Ragged Mountain Press (2001). prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993).compass.R. The Essential Wilderness Navigator.html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday. Pt. Gans. (1986). ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham. Bangkok: White Lotus Press.sciencefriday. Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity".rmgnet. J.tv/The-good-Compass.fSu. Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia.gearslhow. (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle". ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham. Robotics. Gilman d'Arcy Paul.
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