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Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Compass
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A compass is a navigational instrument that measures directions in a frame ofreference that is stationary relative to the surface of the earth. The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) north, south, east, and west. Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose, which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is marked on the compass. When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of reference, so, for example, the ''N'' mark on the rose really points to the north. Frequently, in addition to the rose or sometimes instead of it, angle markings in degrees are shown on the compass. North corresponds to zero degrees, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis ofrotation is parallel with the earth's. The magnetic compass was invented during the Chinese Cao Wei Dynasty between the 3nd century CE and 4th century AD)!] and was used for navigation by the 11th century. [2] The compass was introduced to medieval Europe 150 years later, [2] where the dry compass was invented around 1300_[3] This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid-filled magnetic compass.[4]

A simple dry magnetic pocket compass

Contents
• 1 Types of compasses • 1.1 Magnetic compass • 1.2 How a magnetic compass works

A smartphone that can be used as a compass because of the magnetometer ins ide

• 2 History • 2.1 Navigation prior to the compass • 2.2 Geomancyand feng shui • 2.3 Navigational compass • 2.3.1 China • 2.3.2 Medieval Europe • 2.3.3 Islamic world
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 1/24

12/04/12

Compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

• 2.3.4 India • 2.3.5 Medieval Africa • 3 Later developments • 3.1 Dry compass • 3.2 Bearing compass • 3.3 Liquid compass • 4 History of non-navigational uses • 4.1 Building orientation • 4.2 Mining • 4.3 Astronomy 5 Modem compasses • 5.1 Thumb compass • 5.2 Gyrocompass • 5.3 Solid state compasses • 5.4 Speciahy compasses • 5.5 Limitations of the magnetic compass 6 Construction of a compass • 6.1 Magnetic needle • 6.2 Needle-and-bowl device • 6.3 Points of the compass • 6.4 Compass balancing (magnetic dip) • 6.5 Compass correction 7 Using a compass 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links


• •

Types of compasses
There are two widely used and radically different types of compass. The magnetic compass contains a magnet that interacts with the earth's magnetic field and aligns itself to point to the magnetic poles.[5] Simple compasses of this type show directions in a frame of reference in which the directions of the magnetic poles are due north and south. These directions are called magnetic north and magnetic south. The gyro compass (sometimes spelled with a hyphen, or as one word) contains a rapidly spinning wheel whose rotation interacts dynamically with the rotation of the earth so as to make the wheel precess, losing energy to friction until its axis of rotation is parallel with the earth's. The wheel's axis therefore points to the earth's rotational poles, and a frame of reference is used in which the directions of the rotational poles are due north and south. These directions are called true north and true south, respectively. There are other devices which are not conventionally called compasses but which do allow the true cardinal directions to be determined. They are said to work ''like a compass", or "as a compass", without actually being a compass. For example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite receiver determines its own position on the ground, as true latitude and true longitude. If the receiver is being moved, even at walking pace, it can follow the
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 2/24

relative to the earth's rotational poles. called the magnetic declination (or magnetic variation).wikipedia. the free encyclopedia change of its position. which worked like a compass by directional dead reckoning. usually an aircraft. Significant movements happen in a few years.filled magnetic compass. and the positions of the magnetic poles change over time on a time-scale that is not extremely long by human standards.12/04/12 Compass . The exact latitudes and longitudes of the antennas can be determined sinrultaneously. A compass is any magnetically sensitive device capable of indicating the direction of the magnetic north ofa planet's magnetosphere. The compass was invented during the Chinese Han Dynasty between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD. durable. which detects the magnetic directions without potentially fallible moving parts. A much older example was the Chinese south-pointing chariot. which allows the directions of the cardinal points to be calculated relative to the heading of the aircraft (the direction in which its nose is pointing). [4] Other. rather than to its direction of movement. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north. The earth's magnetic poles do not coincide with the rotational poles. The magnetic declination is different at different points on the earth. nearby electrical power circuits or nearby masses offerrous metals. The compass greatly improved the safety and efficiency of travel. and require no power supply. and thenceforth counteracted every turn that was made to keep its pointer aiming in the desired direction. especially in remote areas. and thence the directions of the cardinal points relative to its direction ofmovement. more accurate devices have been invented for determining north that do not depend on the Earth's magnetic field for operation (known in such cases as true north. Often. which will be different if there is a crosswind. [1] The dry compass was invented in medieval Europe around 1300_[3] This was supplanted in the early 20th century by the liquid. the magnetic declination is no more than a few degrees. A magnetometer frequently appears as an optional subsystem built into hand-held GPS receivers. It was initialized by hand. used with a sextant to calculate latitude. magnetic compasses remain popular.) For an observer at any point on the earth's surface. and with a marine chronometer to calculate longitude.Wikipedia. and adjust the compass accordingly. compasses are built as a stand alone sealed instnunent with a magnetized bar or needle turning freely upon a pivot. The user of such a compass has to know the local value of the magnetic declination. while being unaffected by stray magnetic fields. A recent development is the electronic compass. as opposed to magnetic north). because of continental drift.org/wiki/Compass 3/24 . and hence determine the compass bearing of its direction of movement. It thus provides a much improved navigational capability that has only been recently supplanted by modem devices such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). especially ocean travel A compass can be used to calculate heading. so that the compass shows true directions.[6] How a magnetic compass works en. Some magnetic compasses include means to compensate fur the magnetic declination. and changes with time. the directions of the true poles also shift. between the directions of magnetic north and true north. south. Close to the equator. or moving in a fluid. of the Pole Star. A gyrocompass or astrocompass can be used to find true north. but in arctic and Antarctic latitudes it can be much greater.g. Some GPS receivers have two antennas. usually to the south. as they are relatively inexpensive. there is an angle. thus able to point in a northerly and southerly direction. However. fixed some distance apart to the structure ofa vehicle. east and west. Magnetic compass The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field. (Over millions of years. either a magnetometer or a fibre optic gyrocompass. possibly using astronomical observations e.

pulling one end or pole of the needle toward the Earth's North magnetic pole. so it can turn easily. Instead of a needle. but are not at the same locations as its geographic poles. the free encyclopedia A compass functions as a pointer to ''magnetic north" because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself with the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. the invention of the compass enabled the determination of heading when the sky was overcast or foggy. [10] For more southerly Europeans unacquainted with this technique. the needle turns until. their astronomical knowledge was sufficient to let them use this information to determine their proper heading. This enabled mariners to navigate safely fur from land. The needle is mounted on a low. increasing the further one is from the prime meridian of the Earth's magnetic field. called magnetic declination can vary widely. When the compass is held level. one end points toward the North magnetic pole. professional compasses usually have bar magnets glued to the underside of a disk pivoted in the center so it can tum. en. the rotation axis of the Earth. to allow the map to be oriented with a compass parallel to true north. with the cardinal points and degrees marked on it. The direction a compass points is called magnetic north. after a few seconds to allow oscillations to die out. a naturally. a compass does not point to true north. and the other toward the South magnetic pole. the Vikings may have used cordierite or some other birefringent crystal to determine the sun's direction and elevation from the polarization of daylight. supplemented with the observation of the position of celestial bodies. it would always point in the same direction (toward the magnetic poles).friction pivot point.magnetized ore of iron Ancient Chinese people found that ifa lodestone was suspended so it could turn freely. On cloudy days. variations in the Earth's magnetic field cause magnetic compasses to have such large errors that they are useless. Navigation prior to the compass See also: Polynesian navigation Prior to the introduction of the compass. The local magnetic declination is given on most maps. in northeastern Canada and Antarctica. Better compasses are "liquid-filled". directions on maps are expressed with reference to geographical or true north. destination.org/wiki/Compass 4/24 . the chamber containing the needle or disk is filled with a liquid whose purpose is to damp the oscillations of the needle so it will settle down to point to North more quickly. A magnet or compass needle's ''north'' pole is defined as the one which is attracted to the North magnetic pole of the Earth. the direction of the North magnetic pole. Since opposite poles attract (. Later compasses were made of iron needles.'north" to "south') the North magnetic pole of the Earth is actually the south pole of the Earth's magnetic fieldP][8][9] The compass needle's north pole is always marked in some way: with a distinctive color. In geographic regions near the magnetic poles. so other instruments must be used for navigation. position. the direction toward the Geographical North Pole. located in northeastern Canada. The magnetic field exerts a torque on the needle. in northern Canada. Depending on where the compass is located on the surface of the Earth the angle between true north and magnetic north.Wikipedia. called a "compass card". in better compasses a jewel bearing.wikipedia. luminous paint. and also to protect the needle or disk from shock. In navigation. or an arrowhead.12/04/12 Compass . magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. and direction at sea were primarily determined by the sighting of landmarks. History The first compasses were made oflodestone. Since the Earth's magnetic poles are near. increasing sea trade. and contributing to the Age of Discovery.

[19] sinan. but may have pointed north-south when whole. the Middle East. a special form of the mineral magnetite that aligns itself with the Earth's magnetic field. not for navigation. The artifact is part of a polished hematite (lodestone) bar with a groove at one end (possibly for sighting). These are noteworthy Chinese literary references in evidence for its antiquity: I The earliest Chinese I literature reference to magnetism lies in the 4th century BC writings of Wang Xu (*~-T): ''The lodestone attracts iron.5 degrees west of north. and East Africa.[11] Based on Krotser and Coe's discovery of an Olmec hematite artifact in Mesoamerica. )[17] Chinese work composed between 70 and 80 AD (Lunheng ch. Carlson's claims have been disputed by other scientific researchers.org/wiki/Compass . [14]Europeans and Arabs were first introduced to the compass through nautical contacts during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279). List of Chinese inventions. The artifact now consistently points 35. [14]Later the compass appeared in Europe. who began using it for navigation sometime between the 9th and 11th century. India. some authors suggest that this refers to early use ofthe Model of a Han Dynasty (206 BC220 AD) south-indicating ladle or compass.Wikipedia. [20]In 1948. the free encyclopedia Geomancy and feng shui Magnetism was originally used.12/04/12 Compass . who have suggested that the artifact is actually a constituent piece ofa decorative ornament and not a purposely built compass.[13][14] Several other hematite or magnetite artifacts have been found at pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico and Guatemala.telling by the Chinese. but for geomancy and furtune. (Historical existence is The first mention of the attraction of a needle by a magnet is a disputed.[12]Carlson speculates that the Olmecs used similar artifacts as a directional device fur astronomical or geomantic purposes but does not suggest navigational usage. China Further information: Four Great Inventions.. and History of science and technology in China There is disagreement as to exactly when the compass was invented. radiocarbon dated to 14001000 BC. predates the Chinese use of magnetism for feng shui by a millennium. but rather to order and harmonize their environments and buildings in accordance with the geomantic principles offeng shui.[18]The book also notes that the people of the state of Zheng always knew their position by means of a "southpointer". 47): "A lodestone attracts a needle.[15][16] Navigational compass The invention of the navigational compass is credited by scholars to the ancient Chinese. and the Middle East due to the formation of the Mongol Empire which effectly eliminated all previous national barriers within the empire and allowed the safe transfer and transportation of both people and intellectual knowledge across the silk road from China to Europe. the scholar Wang 5/24 en.. These early compasses were made using lodestone. which if proven true. astronomer John Carlson has hypothesized that the 0 lmec might have used the geomagnetic lodestone earlier than 1000 BC for geomancy. a method of divination.wikipedia." This passage ofLouen-heng is the first Chinese text concerning the attraction of a needle by a magnet. The earliest Chinese magnetic compasses were probably not designed for navigation.

and hung the magnetic needle with one single strain of silk with a bit of wax attached to the center of the needle.12/04/12 Compass . or 52. There is a description of an iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water." The Wujing Zongyao (:Llt~~~~.[24] The first recorded use of a 48 position mariner's compass on sea navigation was noted in a book titled "The Customs of Cambodia" by Yuan Dynasty diplomat Zhou Daguan. and the directions of space could not be distinguished .Wikipedia.[21]This was achieved by heating of metal (especially if steel). and if rotated.Tuo constructed a "compass" in the form of south-indicating spoon on the basis of this text. aligning itself to the south. with the lodestone sealed in by wax. [14][27]However. the mariner took a needle direction of "ding wei" position. the needle at the tail would always point in the northern cardinal direction [25]Although the European compass-card in box frame and dry pivot needle was adopted in China after its use was taken by Japanese pirates in the 16th century (who had in turn learned of it from Europeans))26] the Chinese design of the suspended dry compass persisted in use well into the 18th century. when it is dark and cloudy.org/wiki/Compass 6/24 .[17] The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44.. which is equivalent to 22. contains a large amount of detail ''needle records" ofZheng He's travel [29] en. the free encyclopedia I I The first incontestable Chen. The earliest explicit recorded use of a magnetic compass for navigational purposes is found in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks (~1JlfaJ~. Thus.. although this type never became as widely used in China as the wet compass. published in 1325 by Chen Yuanjing.[25] Evidence of this is found in the Shilin guangji ("Guide Through the Forest of Affairs').5 degree SW. and would have been capable of producing a weak state ofmagnetization[21] While the Chinese achieved magnetic remanence and induction by this time. when William Gilbert published his De MagneteP2] I reference to a magnetized needle in Chinese literature appears in 1088. sometimes north. Shen Kuo pointed out that a needle prepared this way sometimes pointed south. 'there is no explicit mention of a magnet in the Louen-heng" and that ''beforehand it needs to assume some hypotheses to arrive at such a conclusion.they made use of the [mechanical] south-pointing carriage. also known as ''The Mao Kun Map".[25] The dry compass in China was a dry suspension compass. After they arrived at Baria. ahhough its compilation had taken place between 1100 and 1250... the use ofa magnetic compass as a direction finder occurred sometime befure 1044.5 degree SWP8] Zheng He's Navigation Map. written by the Song Dynasty polymath scientist Shen Kuo. the mariner took ''Kun Shen needle". contained a detailed description of how geomancers magnetized a needle by rubbing its tip with lodestone. a wooden frame crafted in the shape of a turtle hung upside down by a board. when his ship set sail from Wenzhou. a similar discovery was not made in Europe until about 1600. The typical Chinese navigational compass was in the form of a magnetic needle floating in a bowl of water. and claims that there is no clear indication that Chinese mariners ever used anything but the floating needle in a bowl until the 16th-century. However. Pingzhou Ketan) and dates from 1117:[14] The navigator knows the geography. watches the sun at day. the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and continuing Yuan Dynasty did make use of a dry compass. or the south-pointing fish. he watches the compass. known today as thermoremanence.. according to Kreutz there is only a single Chinese reference to a dry. The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of the night.wikipedia. [24] According to Needham. "Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques') stated: 'When troops encountered gloomy weather or dark nights.[23] The Dream Pool Essays. . but incontestable evidence for the use ofthe compass as a navigational device did not appear until 1117. he described his 1296 voyage from Wenzhou to Angkor Thorn in detail. he watches the stars at night.mounted needle (built into a pivoted wooden tortoise) which is dated to between 1150 and 1250.

[33] In the Mediterranean. At present.wikipedia. but sustained increase in shipping movement. [37] At the same time. [38] However. [35]While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April. There is also a slightly earlier non.Mediterranean Muslim reference to an iron fish-like compass in a Persian talebook from 1232. 1242. in his well. probably written in Paris in 1190)30] Other evidence for this includes the Arabic word for "Compass" (al-konbas). and end in December. the introduction of the compass. with first evidence of direct commercial voyages from the Mediterranean into the English Channel coming in the closing decades of the 13th century. critics like Kreutz feel that it was later in 1410 that anyone really started steering by compass.[31] Since the author describes having witnessed the use of a compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier. by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February. it seems clear the first Chinese reference en. [39] At present. there are questions over diffusion. according to Kreutz.[31][32] The first European mention ofa magnetized needle and its use among sailors occurs in Alexander Neckam's De naturis rerum (On the Natures of Things). the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual.Wikipedia. and 1282).known Epistola de magnete. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance accordingly.[32] Medieval Europe In 1187 Alexander N eckam reported the use of a magnetic compass fur the region of the English Channel [33]In 1269 Petrus Peregrinus of Maricourt described a floating compass for astronomical purposes as well as a dry compass for seafaring. at first only known as a magnetized pointer floating in a bowl ofwaterp4] went hand in hand with improvements in dead reckoning methods. ''barring the discovery of new evidence. possibly being a derivation of the old Diagram of a Ming Dynasty mariner's Italian word fur compass. according to Kreutz. and one factor may be that the compass made traversal of the Bay of Biscay safer and easier. because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190)[30] than in the Muslim world (1232. In the Arab world. the earliest reference comes compass in The Book of the Merchants' Treasure. written by one Baylak alKibjaki in Cairo about 1282. due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter. [2]However. instead of one. For instance. traffic between the Mediterranean and northern Europe also increased. [36]The additional few months were of considerable economic importance. the free encyclopedia There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese. leading to more navigation during winter months in the second half of the 13th century.12/04/12 Compass . it enabled Venetian convoys to make two round trips a year to the Levant. and the development ofPortolan charts. scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years.org/wiki/Compass 7/24 Pivoting compass needle in a 14th century copy of Epistola de magnete of Peter Peregrinus (1269) .

another Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'un describes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla (Kabba) indicator" to find the direction to Mecca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass 8/24 . because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190)[30] than in the Muslim world (1232. because of the placement ofa metallic fish in a cup ofoil.comes from the Yemeni suhan and astronomer Al-Ashraf in 1282. 1242. The dry rmriner's compass consists of three elements: A freely pivoting needle on a pin enclosed in a little box with a glass cover and a wind rose.[31] He also appears to be the first to make use of the compass fur astronomical purposes. Later developments Dry compass The dry mariner's compass was invented in Europe around 1300. however.. [40]Since the author descnbes having witnessed the use ofa compass on a ship trip some forty years earlier.[31][32] This is countered by evidence of the temporal proximity of the Chinese navigational compass (1117) to its first appearance in Europe (1190) and the common shape of the early compass as a magnetized needle floating in a bowl of water. He invented it for the purpose offinding the times of Salah prayers. [32] In 1300. There is evidence that Swahili maritime merchants and sailors acquired the compass at some point and used them for navigation of Swahili versions ofdhows. Like Peregrinus' compass.12/04/12 Compass . and 1282). whereby ''the en.Wikipedia. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. Ibn Sim'un's compass did not feature a compass card. .[44] Navigational sailor's compass rose. [41]Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time_[42] India The compass was used in India for navigational purposes and was known as the matsya yantra.in the form ofmagnetic needle in a bowl ofwater . [30] Islamic world The earliest reference to an iron fish-like compass in the Islamic world occurs in a Persian talebook from 1232.[2]However.[43] Medieval Africa There is evidence that the distribution of the compass from China likely also reached eastern Africa by way of trade through the end of the Silk Road that ended in East African center of trade in Somalia and the Swahili city-state kingdoms. some scholars are inclined to antedate its first appearance in the Arab world accordingly. there are questions over diffusion.[14] The earliest Arabic reference to a compass .[33] In the 14th century.[32] This fish shape was from a typical early Chinese design. the free encyclopedia to" the compass "antedates any European mention by roughly 150 years.

[47] supporting the notion Bearing compass A bearing compass is a magnetic compass mounted in such a way that it allows the taking ofbearings of objects by aligning them with the lubber line of the bearing compass. the course bearing could be read at the lubber line.[49] Another sighting method was by means ofa reflective mirror. the free encyclopedia wind rose or compass card is attached to a magnetized needle in such a manner that when placed on a pivot in a box fastened in line with the keel of the ship the card would tum as the ship changed direction. [50][52] Bearing compass (18th century). outdoorsmen. While pivoting needles in glass boxes had already been described by the French scholar Peter Peregrinus in 1269.the compass could also function as a protractor.[33] traditionally Flavio Gioja (fl.[50][51]This arrangement enabled the user to align the compass with an objective while simultaneously viewing its bearing in the mirror.[3] Later.wikipedia. and the company began manufacturing and selling its Silva orienteering compass to Swedish orienteers. [48]A surveyor's compass is a specialized compass made to accurately measure heading oflandrmrks and measure horizontal angles to help with map rmking.[45] and by the Egyptian scholar Ibn Sim'un in 1300. has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card. Gunnar Tillander. Tillander decided to incorporate both instruments into a single instrument. compasses were often fitted into a gimbal mounting to reduce grounding ofthe needle or card when used on the pitching and rolling deck ofa ship. By rotating the capsule to align the needle with the orienting marks.ignoring the needle . and Alvar Kjellstrom. Moreover. invented a new style ofbearing compass. Dissatisfied with existing field compasses.[46] Such a compass with the needle attached to a rotating card is also descnbed in a connnentary on Dante's Divine that the dry compass was known in Europe by then [24] Early modern dry compass suspended by a gimbal (1570) Comedy from 1380. These were already in common use by the early 18th century and are described in the 1728 Cyclopaedia. Alvid. and army officers. 1302). Tillander took his design to fellow orienteers Bjorn. In 1928. indicating always what course the ship was on".org/wiki/Compass 9/24 . thus creating the prismatic compass. The bearing compass was steadily reduced in size and weight to increase portability. resulting in a model that could be carried and operated in one hand. an Italian pilot from Arnalfi. In 1885. [54][55][56][53] en. a Swedish unemployed instrument maker and avid participant in the sport of orienteering. while an earlier source refers to a portable compass in a box (1318). the Silva Company was formed with Tillander and the three Kjellstrom brothers. a patent was granted fur a hand compass fitted with a viewing prism and lens that enabled the user to accurately sight the heading of geographical landmarks.12/04/12 Compass . thus giving the compass its familiar appearance. by aligning the baseplate with a course drawn on a map . It combined a compass with a protractor built into the base His design featured a metal compass capsule containing a magnetic needle with orienting rnarks mounted into a transparent protractor baseplate with a lubber line (later called a direction of travel indicator). the Bezard compass consisted of a field compass with a mirror mounted above it. and the four men modified Tillander's design [53]In December 1932. who were selling basic compasses. which required a separate protractor in order to take bearings from a map. First patented in 1902.Wikipedia.

[57] However. the advantages of the liquid compass over the Kelvin compass became unavoidably apparent to the Admiralty. owing to comparative sluggishness on a large alteration of course through the drag on the card by the liquid in which it floated. O.The compass thus designed rectified the defects of the Admiralty Standard Compass .[67] .. the liquid inside the compass housing effectively damped shock and vibration. The first liquid mariner's compass believed practicable for limited use was patented by the Englishman Francis Crow in 1813)58][59] Liquid-damped marine compasses for ships and small boats were occasionally used by the A flush mount compass on a boat British Royal Navy from the 183 Os through 1860.[63][64] After the success ofthis invention. Navy.with the additional advantage of considerable steadiness under heavy gunfire and in a seaway . the liquid compass was not introduced generally into the Royal Navy until 1908 .wikipedia. [60]In the latter year. their main advantage was aboard ship. [4] Liquid compasses were next adapted fur aircraft.org/wiki/Compass 10/24 magnetic or infantry. and subject to damage. as early liquid compasses were fairly cumbersome and heavy. introduced his Creagh-Osborne aircraft compass. and later purchased by the Royal Navy as well.. Superintendent of Compasses at the British Admiralty. which used a mixture of alcohol and distilled water to damp the compass card. Creagh-Osborne. centre ofbuoyancy. and with the centre of gravity.. Capt. A rudimentary working model of a liquid compass was introduced by Sir Edmund Halley at a meeting of the Royal Society in 1690.Wikipedia. receiving a patent in 1915. the free encyclopedia Liquid compass The liquid compass is a design in which the magnetized needle or card is damped by fluid to protect against excessive swing or wobble.. but the standard Admiralty compass remained a dry-mount type. An early version developed by RN Captain Creak proved to be operational under heavy gunfire and seas. with two thin and relatively short needles. while eliminating excessive swing and grounding of the card caused by the pitch and roll of the vessel. In 1909. Protected in a binnacle and normally gimbal-rmunted. fitted with their poles at the scientifically correct angular distances. and the point of suspension in correct relation to each other . and after widespread adoption by other navies.S. with ship and gun sizes continuously increasing. Captain F. The one defect in the compass as developed by Creak up to 1892 was that "for manoeuvring purposes it was inferior to Lord Kelvin's compass.. the American physicist and inventor Edward Samuel Ritchie patented a greatly improved liquid marine compass that was adopted in revised form for general use by the U.)4][62] However. Creagh-Osborne adapted his design to a much smaller pocket model[65] for individual use[66] by officers of artillery Typical aircraft-mounted compass en. but was felt to lack navigational precision compared with the design by Lord Kelvin: Captain Creak's first step in the development of the liquid compass was to introduce a "card mounted on a float. [61] Despite these advances.. the liquid compass was generally adopted by the Royal Navy as well.12/04/12 Compass . improving readability while reducing wear.

Ibn Sim'un's compass. mineral oil. an Arabic treatise written by the Egyptian astronomer and muezzin Ibn Sim'im descnbes a dry compass for use as a "Qibla indicator" to find the direction to Mecca.[33] In the 14th century.Wikipedia. [53]The liquid-damped Silva took only four seconds for its needle to settle in comparison to thirty seconds for the original version. the Syrian astronomer and timekeeper Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375) invented a timekeeping device incorporating both a universal sundial and a magnetic compass. [72] Astronomy Three astronomical compasses meant for establishing the meridian were descnbed by Peter Peregrinus in 1269 (referring to experiments made before 1248)[73] In the 1300s. While older designs commonly incorporated a flexible rubber diaphragm or airspace inside the capsule to allow for volume changes caused by temperature or altitude. the new capsule design led directly to the lightweight liquid field compasses of today. Shortly afterwards the first detailed treatise dealing with the underground use of compasses was published by a German miner Riilein von Calw (1463-1525).[42] Modern compasses Modem compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid (lamp oil.org/wiki/Compass 11/24 . applied for a patent for a unique method offilling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion [68] Introduced in a wrist-mount model in 1936 as the Suunto Oy Model M-3JJ.wikipedia. thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. did not feature a compass card nor the familiar glass box. purified kerosene. or ethyl alcohol is common). the compass became standard equipment for Tyrolian miners. [68] History of non-navigational uses Building orientation Evidence for the orientation ofbuildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Rornanesque churches are rotated by 5-15 degrees clockwise from true east-west. the newly. indicating a fairly common usage ofmagnetic compasses in Europe by then. [53] In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen. however. the free encyclopedia In December 1932. en. [69] Most of these churches were built in the 12th century. a surveyor by profession.filled capsule to damp the swing of the magnetized needle. some modem liquid compasses utilize smaller housings and/or flexible capsule materials to accomplish the same result. He invented it for the purpose of finding the times of Salah prayers. [70] Mining The use of a compass as a direction finder underground was pioneered by the Tuscan mining town Massa where floating magnetic needles were employed for determining tunneling and defining the claims of the various mining companies as early as the 13th century_[71]In the second half of the 15th century.12/04/12 Compass . [74]The liquid inside the capsule serves to dampen the movement of the needle.founded Silva Company of Sweden introduced its first baseplate or bearing compass that used a liquid. white spirits. [41]Arab navigators also introduced the 32-point compass rose during this time.

a transparent base containing map orienting lines. A magnetic card compass is usually equipped with an optical. and are referred to variously as 'orienteering'.filled protractor or orienteering compass with lanyard Other features found on modem orienteering compasses are map and romer scales for measuring distances and plotting positions on maps. Many modem compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool. 'map compass' or 'protractor' designs. This type of compass uses a separate magnetized needle inside a rotating capsule.Wikipedia. an orienting 'box' or gate for aligning the needle with magnetic north.filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths. 'baseplate'. lensatic. [76]The capsule is mounted in a transparent baseplate containing a direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator for use in taking bearings directly from a map. and a bezel (outer dial) marked in degrees or other units of angular measurement. A "deep-well" design is used to allow the compass to be used globally with a card tih of up to 8 degrees without impairing accuracy. a land navigation technique known as terrain association. various sighting mechanisms (mirror.wikipedia. notably the United States Army. [79]As induction forces provide less damping than liquid. including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent. the free encyclopedia reducing oscillation time and increasing stability. etc. [76] A liquid. operated by the folding action of the rear sightllens holder. photohnninescent. Magnetic card compass designs normally require a separate protractor tool in order to take bearings directly from a mapV6][78] The U.S. many ordinary liquid.filled induction compasses has declined over the years.org/wiki/Compass 12/24 Cammenga air filled lensatic compass . prism. [76]The sport of orienteering has also resulted in the development of models with extremely fast-settling and stable needles fur optimal use with a topographic map. continue to issue field compasses with magnetized compass dials or cards instead of needles. As the compass fillliquid is noncompressible under pressure. as they may become inoperative or inaccurate in freezing temperatures or extremely humid environments due to condensation or water ingress. "global" needles for use in differing hemispheres. or self-hnninous materials[75] to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. and devices such as clinometers fur measuring gradients. M-1950 military lensatic compass does not use a liquid-filled capsule as a dampening mechanism. [80] en. but rather electromagnetic induction to control oscillation of it magnetized card. The use of air. hnninous rmrkings on the face or bezels. which allows the user to read the bearing or azimuth off the compass card while simuhaneously aligning the compass with the objective (see photo). or prismatic sight. Key points on the compass. Liquid filled lensatic compass [77] The military forces ofa few nations. a needle lock is fitted to the compass to reduce wear.12/04/12 Compass . adjustable declination for obtaining instant true bearings without resort to arithmetic.filled designs.) for taking bearings of distant objects with greater precision.

although modem compasses are marked in degrees rather than cardinal points. and the Suunto M-5N(T) contain the radioactive material tritium (3H) and a combination of phosphors. cobalt.. This preserves the horizontal position. Gyrocompasses are widely used on ships. via radio luminescent tritium illumination. as opposed to magnetic north. [81] The U. A lubber line. and other electronic devices are solid-state compasses. Thumb compasses are also often transparent so that an orienteer can hold a map in the hand with the compass and see the map through the compass.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Some military compasses. which can be a marking on the compass bowl or a srrall fixed needle indicates the ship's heading on the compass card. nickel. The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. However compasses are still widely in use as they can be small.12/04/12 Compass .S. which does not require the compass to be ''recharged'' by sunlight or artificial light.S. M-1950 equipped with self-luminous lighting contains 120 mCi (millicuries) of tritium. Gyrocompass Thumb compass on left Main article: Gyrocompass A gyrocompass is similar to a gyroscope. require no energy supply. most thumb compasses have minirml or no degree markings at all. electronic tluxgate compasses are used on smaller vessels. trees. are not affected by objects. ie. Thumb compass Main article: Thumb compass A thumb compas s is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering. the Silva 4b Militaire. a sport in which map reading and terrain association are pararmunt. that can block the reception of electronic signals. The purpose of the tritium and phosphors is to provide illumination for the compass. Consequently. like the U.org/wiki/Compass 13/24 . It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth.wikipedia. use simple reliable technology. and are normally used only to orient the map to magnetic north. and various alloys) in a ship's hull. M-1950 (Canmenga 3H) military lensatic compass. These move freely on a pivot. They have two main advantages over magnetic compasses: • they find true north. are comparatively cheap. Traditionally the card is divided into thirty-two points (known as rhumbs). (No compass is affected by nonferrormgnetic metal. and unlike GPS.g. although a magnetic compass will be affected by any kind of wires with electric current passing through them) Large ships typically rely on a gyrocompass.[82] Mariner's compasses can have two or more gimbaled magnets permanently attached to a compass card. steel. Solid state compasses Main article: Magnetometer Small compasses found in clocks. often easier to use than GPS. The correct heading relative en. using the magnetic compass only as a backup. • they are not affected by ferromagnetic metal (including iron. usually built out of two or three magnetic field sensors that provide data for a microprocessor. the direction of Earth's rotational axis. Increasingly. mobile phones. e.

As the compass is moved closer and closer to one of the magnetic poles of the Earth. This compasses ordinarily uses a liquid-damped capsule[84] and magnetized floating compass dial with an integral optical (direct or lensatic) or prismatic sight. and many are fitted for tripod mounting for additional accuracy. which is not particularly strong.Wikipedia. the device is a discrete component which outputs either a digital or analog signal proportional to its orientation. mounted in a rectangular box whose length was often several times its width. Specialty compasses Apart from navigational compases. submarines. and later degaussed. or sent to a display unit. These include: • Qibla compass. particularly with plane tables. foresters. they can also detect pitch and roll of ships. and spacecraft may be built from carefully-controlled materials. used photohuninescent or battery-powered ilhunination[76] Using the commonly by geologists optical or prism sight. GPS receivers using two or more antennae can now achieve 0. • Optical or prismatic hand-bearing compass. such compasses can be read with extreme accuracy when taking bearings to an object. While ships. often to fractions of a degree. Vehicles may contain ferrous metals. This signal is interpreted by a controller or microprocessor and used either internally. drivers rarely take such a step. the needle starts to point up or down when getting closer to the poles.g. Cars may be mostly steel. but also by cave explorers. Most of these compasses are designed for heavy-duty use. which is used by Muslims to show the direction to Mecca for prayers. en. [83])and have startup times in seconds rather than hours fur gyrocompass systems. which may pick up their own fields. Local environments may contain mineral deposits and human sources such as MRIs. most often used by surveyors. Limitations of the magnetic compass The compass is very stable in areas close to the equator. other specialty compasses have also been designed to acconnnodate specific uses. and render simple compasses useless after time. They were used for land surveying.12/04/12 Compass . date back several centuries. which is fur from ''magnetic north". the compass becomes more sensitive to crossing its magnetic field lines. [76] • Trough compasses. Often. At some point close to the magnetic pole the compass will not indicate any particular direction but will begin to drift. Also.wikipedia. because of the so-called magnetic inclination Cheap compasses with bad bearings may get stuck because of this and therefore indicate a wrong direction. The sensor uses highly calibrated internal electronics to measure the response of the device to the Earth's magnetic field. the free encyclopedia to the compass is calculated using trigonometry.org/wiki/Compass 14/24 . and geologists. All magnetic devices are subject to fields other than Earth's. Manufuctured primarily for maritime applications. A compass is also subject to errors when the compass is accelerated or decelerated in an airplane or automobile.50 in heading accuracy (e. with high-quality needles and jeweled bearings. often fitted with built-in A standard Brunton Geo.

in China into 24. This can be created by aligning an iron or steel rod with Earth's magnetic field and then tempering or striking it. For example.org/wiki/Compass 15/24 . This system is still in use today fur civilian navigators. This magnetised rod (or magnetic needle) is then placed on a low friction surface to allow it to freely pivot to align itself with the magnetic field. laying artillery. However. When one turns from a heading of east or west the compass will lag behind the turn or lead ahead of the turn. When it is inserted in a cork or piece of wood. double graduation: 60° (like a watch) and Most military forces have adopted the French ''millieme'' system This is an approximation ofa milli-radian (6283 per circle). Wrist compass of the Soviet Army with counterclockwise 360°. these were divided. It is then labeled so the user can distinguish the north-pointing from the south-pointing end. west). and in Europe into 32 equally spaced points around the compass card. and placed in a bowl ofwater it becomes a compass. in modem convention the north end is typically marked in some way. The degree system spaces 360 equidistant points located clockwise around the compass dial In the 19th century some European nations adopted the "grad" (also called grade or gon) system instead.Wikipedia. south. or to the four cardinal points (north. For a table of the thirty-two points. the needle becomes magnetized. etc. often by being painted red. Such devices were universally used as compass until the invention of the box-like compass with a 'dry' pivoting needle sometime around 1300. Dividing grads into tenths to give a circle of 4000 decigrades has also been used in armies. Another error of the mechanical compass is turning error. the free encyclopedia Depending on which of the Earth's hemispheres the compass is located and if the force is acceleration or deceleration the compass will increase the indicated heading or decrease the indicated heading. many compasses were marked only as to the direction of magnetic north.12/04/12 Compass . in which the compass dial is spaced into 6400 units or ''mils'' for additional precision when measuring angles. Points of the compass Main article: Boxing the compass Originally. the 360-degree system took hold. In the modem era. where a right angle is 100 grads to give a circle of 400 grads. Construction of a compass Magnetic needle A magnetic rod is required when constructing a compass. Later. and substitutes such as gyrocompasses. are more stable in such situations. Each of these was divided into 100 en. N eedle-and-bowl device If a needle is rubbed on a lodestone or other magnet. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circmnference ofa circle into chords of the same length as the radius. Magnetometers. The value to the military is that one angular mil subtends approximately one metre at a distance of one kilometer. this method produces only a weak magnet so other methods are preferred. see compass points. east.wikipedia. a magnetised rod can be created by repeatedly rubbing an iron rod with a magnetic lodestone.

b2 the non. Some compasses feature a special needle balancing system that will accurately indicate magnetic north regardless of the particular magnetic zone.org/wiki/Compass 16/24 . the free encyclopedia spaces. A compass deviation card is prepared so that the navigator with the two iron balls which can convert between compass and magnetic headings. automobile engines. to zone 5 covering Australia and the southern oceans.wikipedia. Compass balancing (magnetic dip) Because the Earth's magnetic field's inclination and intensity vary at different latitudes. bl the ferromagnetic effects and a"2. cars or other mechanized vehicles even when corrected for deviation by the use of built-in magnets or other devices. that is A binnacle containing a rotated about a fixed point while its heading is noted by alignment with fixed ship's steering compass.Wikipedia. usually translated as ''mils''. The compass can be correct the effects of corrected in three ways. then the effects of permanent magnets can be corrected for by small magnets fitted within the case of the compass. a ship's compass must also be corrected fur errors. GDR etc. A similar process is used to calibrate the compass in light general aviation aircraft. eliminating needle drag which can give inaccurate readings. covering most of the Northern Hemisphere.ferromagnetic component. points on the shore. This individual zone balancing prevents excessive dipping of one end of the needle which can cause the compass card to stick and give false readings. can be used for counter balancing the needle against the dip caused by inclination if the compass is taken to a zone with a higher or lower dip. compasses are affected by nearby ferrous materials as well as by strong local electromagnetic forces. while . with the compass deviation card often mounted permanently just above or below the magnetic compass on the instrument panel Fluxgate compasses can be calibrated automatically.). giving a circle of600. The effect offerromagnetic materials in the compass's environment can be corrected by two iron balls mounted on either side of the compass binnacle. Compass correction Main article: Magnetic deviation Like any magnetic device. called a 'rider'.aI. and can also be programmed with the correct local compass variation en. The Soviet Union divided these into tenths to give a circle of6000 units. Compasses used for wilderness land navigation should not be used in proximity to ferrous metal objects or electromagnetic fields (car electrical systems. caused by iron and steel in its structure and equipment. The coefficient 'Uo representing the error in the lubber line. At sea. The ship is swung. Most manufacturers balance their compass needles for one of five zones. often counterclockwise (see picture ofwrist compass).12/04/12 Compass . First the lubber line can be adjusted so that it is aligned ferromagnetic materials with the direction in which the ship travels. ranging from zone 1. This is still in use in Russia. Large amounts offerrous metal combined with the on-and-offelectrical fields caused by the vehicle's ignition and charging systems generally result in significant compass errors. This system was adopted by the former Warsaw Pact countries (Soviet Union. Other magnetic compasses have a small sliding counterweight installed on the needle itself This sliding counterweight. etc. steel pitons. compasses are often balanced during manufacture so that the dial or needle will be level. called deviation.) as that can affect their accuracy_[76] Compasses are particularly difficult to use accurately in or near trucks.

To take a map bearing or true bearing (a bearing taken in reference to true. provided the terrain is fairly flat and visibility is not impaired. ignoring the compass needle entirely. the free encyclopedia so as to indicate the true heading. casual users need not be concerned with differences between magnetic and true North. Using a compass A magnetic compass points to magnetic north pole. The orienting lines in the base of the compass dial are then rotated to align with actual or true north by aligning them with a marked line oflongitude (or the vertical margin of the map). hence. Variation values for most of the oceans had been calculated and published by 1914)85] Deviation refers to the response of the compass to local magnetic fields caused by the presence of iron and electric currents. not magnetic north) to a destination with a protractor compass.Wikipedia. A magnetic compass's user can determine true North by finding the magnetic north and then correcting for variation and deviation Variation is defined as the angle between the direction of true (geographic) north and the direction of the meridian between the magnetic poles. They then pointed their ship to the next compass point and measured again. graphing their results.000 miles from the true geographic North Pole. Mariners are concerned about very accurate measurements. which would be consulted when compasses were used when traveling in those locations. which is approximately 1.org/wiki/Compass 17/24 . By carefully recording distances (time or paces) and magnetic bearings traveled. correction tables could be created. one can partly compensate for these by careful location of the compass and the placement of compensating magnets under the compass itself Mariners have long known that these measures do not completely cancel deviation. the edge of the compass is placed on the map so that it connects the current location with the desired destination (some sources recommend physically drawing a line). Except in areas of extreme magnetic declination variance (20 degrees or more). [76] Turning the compass scale on the map (D . one can plot a course and return to one's starting point using the compass alone. In this way. however. which may be followed as an azimuth (course) to the destination Ifa magnetic north bearing or compass bearing is desired. this is enough to protect from walking in a substantially different direction than expected over short distances. they performed an additional step by measuring the compass bearing of a landmark with a known magnetic bearing.12/04/12 Compass . the degree figure on the Soldier using a prismatic compass to get an azimuth.wikipedia. the en. [76] The resulting true bearing or map bearing may then be read at the degree indicator or direction-of. compass ring at the direction-ofCompass navigation in travel (DOT) indicator gives the conjunction with a map magnetic bearing to the target (terrain association) requires (mountain). a different method.travel (DOT) line.the loc al magnetic dec lination) When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the bottom of the capsule.

like Magnetite. certain rocks which contain magnetic minerals. though declination is frequently given on the map itself or obtainable on-line from various sites. it means that the area or rock the compass was previously at/on is causing interference and should be avoided. and see if the needle on the compass moves. or magnetic interference can sometimes cause the magnetic poles of the compass needle to differ or even reverse. the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map. the compass' corrected (true) indicated bearing should closely correspond to the true bearing previously obtained from the map. After pointing the DOT arrow on the baseplate at the target. the free encyclopedia compass must be adjusted by the amount ofmagnetic declination befure using the bearing so that both map and compass are in agreement. the compass is oriented so that the needle is superimposed over the orienting arrow in the capsule. If the needle tilts to one direction. as to that the needle only rests or hangs on a bearing fused to the compass casing. avoiding it from pointing with the earth's magnetic fields. Some compasses allow the scale to be adjusted to compensate for the local magnetic declination. If it does. and the compass does not have preset. Exposure to strong magnets.12/04/12 Compass . get out of the area. The modem hand. Again. the large mountain). This is often indicated by a rock with a surface which is dark and has a metallic luster.travel (DOT) arrow or indicator inscribed on the baseplate. To see if the needle is well leveled. The earth's natural magnetic forces are considerably weak. [76] In the given example. one must additionally add or subtract magnetic declination to convert the magnetic bearing into a true bearing. lengthwise.5 Gauss and magnetic fields from household electronics can easily exceed it. measuring at 0. and tilt it slightly to see if the needle is swaying side to side freely and the needle not contacting the casing of the compass. pre-adjusted declination. the compass will give the true bearing instead of the magnetic bearing. look closely at the needle.wikipedia. or to ensure that the object in view is indeed the destination. This will give a faulty reading. a new compass reading may be taken to the target if visible (here. To check one's progress along a course or azimuth. if used at a tilt. The exact value of the magnetic declination is place-dependent and varies over time. and hence. See also • • • • • • • • • • • Absolute bearing Astrocompass Beam compass Boxing the compass Bnmton compass Coordinates Earth Inductor Compass Fibre optic gyrocompass Fluxgate compass Gyrocompass Hand compass 18/24 en. the needle might hit the casing on the compass. overpowering the compass needle. tilt the compass slightly and gently to the opposing direction until the compass needle is horizontal. not move. not all magnetic mineral bearing rocks have this indication. Items to avoid around compasses are magnets of any kind and any electronics. causing interference.org/wiki/Compass . If the hiker has been following the correct path. fur example. Magnetic fields from electronics can easily disrupt the needle. if adjusted correctly.Wikipedia. Compasses are to be laid down on a leveled surface so the needle could point to the magnetic north more accurately. The resulting bearing indicated is the magnetic bearing to the target. if one is using "true" or map bearings. To see ifa rock or an area is causing interference on a compass.held protractor compass always has an additional direction-of. Avoid iron rich deposits when using a compass.

£"'\1 __ _ . 148. 367 3. (1983). c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. No.. Florida State University. _ . A Emiliani.google... 1. http://books ... 10.. 1. Static Fields and Potentials (http://books... McElhinny..0194 (http://dx. durable...magnet. Chris Vuille (2006). 8. If it were exactly dipolar. and the Evolution of Life and Environment (http://books ... so these poles are not equivalent and the compass only points approximately at the geomagnetic poles..wikipedia. Essentials of college physics (http://books. p..google.. ISBN 0-7503-0718-8.... UK: Cambridge University Press.. __ l_y . Cesare (1992).. 2. The Geographical Journal...... and Cleveland.. Raymond A. 56. the free encyclopedia • • • • • • • • • Inertial navigation system Magnetic dip Marching line Magnetic Declination Pelorus (instrument) Radio compass Radio direction finder Relative bearing Wrist compass Notes 1. p.....google.org/wiki/Compass 19/24 . and requires no separate electrical power supply.... "On the trail of Vikings with polarized skylight"..). USA: Cengage Learning.Wikipedia.com/books? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P AI48&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false) .. /\ abc d W. ISBN 0-07-136110-3.... David...... /\ Seidman..4. it remains popular as a primary or secondary navigational aid. c .. which would be identical to the North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole... The Essential Wilderness Navigator.. 615 4..google. p.. Geology.2010..:_l. 6. 228. . H....~T'1 l\/f"l4-..comlbooks? id=v Jyq bRPsXYQC&pg=P A148&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north%2 Opole%22%20earth&f=false.12/04/12 Compass ... Vol. A T.. Paul. Creak: "The History of the Liquid Compass". San Francisco: Academic press..1098/rstb.:. . .fsu.google... p.:_ ...:. ISBN 0-495-10619-4... en..1098%2Frstb. n_.2010.orgIl0. ..: . 7. _1 liT . Ragged Mountain Press (2001)....... £"'1 .. The Earth's magnetic field: Its history.. 493. Michael W...0194) . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366 (1565): 772-782.magnet. it is not.html... especially in remote areas or where power is unavailable. http://books. the compass would point to the geomagnetic poles.3 (1920). p.. p.. c omlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=PA493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false. £"'11.doi. A Serway.. however. 238-239 5. origin and planetary perspective (2nd printing ed.html) . c omlbooks? id=MfAGpVq8gpQC&pg=PA228&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . Planet Earth: Cosmology.. /\ a b Merrill. http://www.l........ http://books . 147: Since the magnetic compass is simple. Ronald T. /\ The Earth's magnetic field is approximately that of a tilted dipole.. ISBN 0-12-491242-7. A Manners. __ T A_ . doi:10.. Retrieved 2009-02-05.. 11..google.~_ .:_ .. /\ abc d Kreutz. 9...... pp.. A Gabor Horvath et al (2011)..eduieducation/tutorials/museum/chinesecompass... .1 .eduleducationltutorials/museum/chinesecompass...--t. /\ abc Lane.fsu. p.. £"'\1__._ n ~ . A ''National High Magnetic Field Laboratory: Early Chinese Compass" (http://www... USA: CRC Press.. Joy (2000).comlbooks? id=8n4NCyRgUMEC&pg=P A493&dq=magnet+%22north+pole%22+earth#v=onepage&q=magnet%20%22north% 20pole%22%20earth&f=false) . ISBN 0-521-40949-7..

/\ abc d efTemple. Lyman John. A A P. p. (1996-1997). http://books . 381 (http://books.Wikipedia. Hematite Artifact from San Lorenzo. Revista Mexicana de Fisica. Veracruz. Science. A Needham. 190 20. p. p. p. /\ abc d Kreutz. pg.12/04/12 lL. /\ abc d e Schmidl. 373 25. 26.no/jais/v001htl01-081-132schmidll. Petra G. p.Google Books (http://books. /\ abc d Kreutz. A a b Needhamn. London: Andre Deutsch. p. A Lane.htm#_ftn4 34.google. A http://www..org/cache/epub/7209/pg7209. 608 & 610 38. pp. R. 29. Daniel Headrick. Tibbetts (1973). 616 47. The genius of China: 3. UI Uilllt. c om/? id=HUAPAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22.dartmouth. 368-369 35.%203. 162-166. "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques". A Lane. 15. A Needham p. pp.lPilllCllY j-\llClIYlSllS Ul an Uilllt. p. Isis 79 (2): 246-266 [263] 41. p. Vol. Pamela Kyle Crossley. 51-53 (2004) 16. 180 18. rlilllCll. Volume 2 By Richard Bulliet. A Li Shu-hua.Y! IVIUIllUllSl. 24. A Taylor 46. 608 37. the free encyclopedia JUllll D. 290 A Zhou A Ma. 255 A Needham.wikipedia. 608 & 613 39. Joseph. Vol. World Scientific. p. p. 372-373 40. p. A Temple. A Kreutz. Robert (2007). p. Retrieved 200906-30. A Lane. Trans-Pacific Echoes and Resonances: Listening Once Again. 182f.google. 28. 1919.coml? id=HUAP AAAAIAAJ &dq=%22matsya+yantra%22+%2B+compass&q=%22matsya+yantra%22) . /\ abc Kreutz. 36. p. A a b G.comlbooks?id=MMOFOfR7E4C&pg=PA381&lpg=PA381&dq=Swahili+sailors+compass&source=bl&ots=rgtf8_GUKY&sig=msc1KG5 VC9LyciOisMw &hl=en&ei=fbbPTsCDBaXVOQHc _bkf&sa= X&oi=book _result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=OCDA 45.edU/-izapa/CS-MM-Chap. 368 31. discovery & invention (3rd ed. No. 369 32. p.org/wiki/Compass 20/24 . L-ClnlSUll. ALi Shu-hua. pp. pp. 50. A abc d e Kreutz. 176 21. A The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History.uib. p. "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine".l.google. 14. p. 252 22. 4205 (5 September 1975). -- Compass . A Lane. A a b Li Shu-hua.lSt. 189. Louesurne L-UlllpCllSlS. A a b (King 1983.). ISBN 978-0-233-00202-6. 156. p. 370 33. A Kreutz. Lu Gwei-Djen (1985). p. "Two Early Arabic Sources On The Magnetic Compass".htm 17. 23.gutenberg. Guimaraes. Steven Hirsch. A Emilie Savage-Smith (1988). Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 1: 81-132 http://www. /\ abc Needham p. 44. A http://www. p.000 years of science.L-lllllt. Appendix 2 30. 27. 21. 606f. A Kreutz.htm1 19. 753-760 (1975) 13. "Mexico and the early history of magnetism". 374 en. A Lane. 289. A Needham. A The American journal of science . Mexico".l. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] 43. New Series. p. 547-8) 42.

65. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". pp. 1-22 1\ Colvin. it proved too bulky and heavy in this form. Raising The Aerocompass In Early Twentieth-century Britain.suunto. and Jacobson. 2004.westmarine. 1 September 1995 1\ Seidman. 62-64 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen. pp. pp. Abrahamsen: "Evidence for Church Orientation by Magnetic Compass in Twelfth-Century Denmark". 27 1\ 53. 19th Hole: The Readers Take Over: Orienteering.comiwebapp/wcs/stores/servletlWestAdvisorDisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. pp. 56. The Bezard Compass. Article (http://www. West Marine. Article (http://www. 347-348 1\ The Compass Museum. 15 Jul2008. Frank.2 (1992). Vol 22. pp. Vol 9.. Press Release 28 April 2000 1\ Gubbins. Compasses and Coils: The Instrument Business of Edward S. 1-10 1\ Warner. p. Retrieved 2007-12-28. ISBN 0-07-139303-X. 3 March 1969 1\ Silva Sweden AB. a b Suunto Oy. London: The Optical Society (1915). Orienteer and Inventor of Modern Compass. 67 1\ Fanning. 67. Sports Illustrated. 110. p. Bjorn Kjellstrom. Silva Sweden AB and Silva Production AB Become One Company: History. Ritchie. British Journal for the History of Science. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. p. 59. 9781402039928. G. Vol. Globe Pequot Press (2002). Henry A. p. Archaeometry. ISBN 1-40203992-1.nemoto. 17-43: The first liquiddamped compass compact enough for pocket or pouch was the Creagh-Osborne. 63.. pp. The New York Times. Rittenhouse. c om/webapp/wc s/stores/servletlW estAdvisor DisplayView? storeId=30003&1angId=-1&catalogId=10001&advisor=bearing. 293-303 (303) 1\ Ludwig and Schmidtchen.comlwristlwrist_1. No. 1\ Frazer. 68 1\ Kjellstrom. The Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Navigation. 1\ Hughes. Aircraft Mechanics Handbook: A Collection of Facts and Suggestions from Factory and Flying Field to Assist in Caring for Modern Aircraft. 76. 62. pp. pp. ISBN 1-58574-490-5. published online by Cambridge University Press. p. Article (http://www. p. p.htm. Deborah. AE.Com 1\ Nemoto & Co. 54. December 2001 Article (http://www. Ltd. 69. 1\ "Hand Bearing Compass" (http://www. If. 1\ Davis.wikipedia.12/04/12 Compass . 32. 9781585744909.. 74.. Fred H.co.com/hand/bezard. A Convenient Device to be Applied to the Hand Compass. 84. 75. 64. 58. 67 1\ Fanning. 60. AE. (1918). 1\ Hughes.jp/eniproducts/luminova/luminova. 216 50.Wikipedia. 64 1\ Taylor. Cliff. 73. No. 1\ 1\ abc d efg hi j Johnson. Persifor. No. David.compassmuseum. Henry A. 1\ Barnes.htm) 1\ Barnes. Department of the Admiralty (1986). their use in drymount marine compasses was pioneered by navigation officers of the Dutch East India Company as early as 1649.html) : In addition to ordinary phosphorescent luminous paint (zinc sulfide). 1885). brighter photoluminescent coatings of strontium aluminate or isotopes of self-luminous tritium are now being used on modern compasses. 61.2 (1992). 57. McGraw-Hill Book Co. the free encyclopedia 48. 66. 1\ Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass. Transactions of The Optical Society 16.htm) . abc d Litsky. a b The Compass Museum. Inc. McGraw-Hill Professional en. 68. 1-10 1\ Gubbins. Obituaries.htm#C-O) : Though the Creagh-Osborne was offered in a wrist-mount model. 1 (1994). The Ultimate Desert Handbook. No.comisuunto/Worlds/outdoor/mainioutdoor_article_normaljsp?) 1\ N. 71. HMSO. James. Suunto Company History. Bjorn. Sophia. Improvements in prismatic compasses with special reference to the Creagh-Osborne patent compass. 118 (Mar.org/wiki/Compass 21/24 . OceanMountainSky. 49. http://www . Scott. 1-24 1\ Gubbins. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. p. 55. Archaeometry. patented in 1915 in Great Britain. 27 52. 67: The use of parallel or multiple needles was by no means a new development. 72. Churchill. 293-303 (293) 1\ N. Vol 32. Steady As She Goes: A History of the Compass Department of the Admiralty.westmarine.compassmuseum. pp. p. Springer Press (2007). p. Mark (2003-03-26). 51. 17-43 1\ 70. p.

Verl. Melvin G. Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. 1972. David. Dept.C. University Press of Kansas. 4175333. Berlin: Propylaen. London: Norton. (1963) 'The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass". 8. 1914.3 • Carlson. p.7 References • Admiralty. Orau. ISBN 3-549-05633-8 en. 189 (4205 : 5 September)...orau. The American Historical Review. 14 (3: July). of the Army.. pp.wikipedia. ISBN 1-884067-10-7. 175-196 • Ludwig. U. Mexico". D. PM 21-26. DOl 10. 753-760. pp. 45 (2: July).1086%2F353360) • Kreutz.Psicompany. (1975) ''Lodestone Compass: Chinese or Ohnec Primacy? (http://www. Washington. Aimant et Boussole".9781402039928 • Gurney. p.Wikipedia. 82..org. Lawrence. A Ministry of Defence. 39. 27 November 1979: The Brunton Pocket Transit. 6-7. ISBN 0-39332713-2 • Johnson. ISBN 0-06-016590-1 • Gubbins. Karl-Heinz and Schmidtchen. 1-3: Any 'floating card' type compass with a straightedge or centerline axis can be used to read a map bearing by orienting the map to magnetic north using a drawn magnetic azimuth.org/Documents/Compass%20Mil%20Specs. 84.orglcgi/contentiabstracti189/42051753) : Multidisciplinary analysis of an Olmec hematite artifact from San Lorenzo. of Defense A Kearny.753 • Gies. 605-617 • Li Shu-hua (1954) "Origine de la Boussole 11.com/gps-satellite-compass/. sec. p. pp. 31 October 2003. Dept.org/PTP/collection/radioluminescent/armycompass. 26. Jungle Snafus . and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Age. Propylaen Technikgeschichte. N ew York: Harcourt. Amir D. Headquarters. Patent No. Frederic C. New York: HarperCollins. 1st Ed. Most Probable Position. http://www.htm. 81. 68 (3: April). Cresson H.S. Map Reading and Land Navigation. Wyoming: The Brunton Company. D. Great Britain (1915) Admiralty manual of navigation.12/04/12 Compass . John B. ISBN 14020-3992-1. ISBN 0-07-139303-X • King. ch. 4 A "Military Compass" (http://www.pdf) . A Kramer. ch. Frances and Gies.com. 79. but the process is far simpler with a protractor compass. Barbara M. Manual of Map Reading and Land Navigation. rev. ISBN 0-15-600753. London: HMSO. Chapter XXV: 'The Magnetic Compass (continued): the analysis and correction of the deviation". Retrieved 2009-06-30. HMSO Army Code 70947 (1988). Isis 74 (4): 531-555. 1st Ed. (1973) ''Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass". pub. http://www. sec. Veracruz.org/wiki/Compass 22/24 .sciencemag.psicompany. Mark. 1126/science. (7 May 1993). (2001) The Riddle of the Compass: The Invention that Changed the World. doi:1D. (1983). Joseph (1994) Cathedral. • Aczel. which uses magnetic induction damping. Maine: McGraw-Hill (2003). 12. A 'Article MIL-PRF-I0436N (http://landnavigation. Magnetic Compass. ch.orau. ISBN 011-772611-7. Forge. Volker (1997) Metalle und Macht: 1000 bis 1600. p. p. 80. Alan (2004) Compass: A Story of Exploration and Innovation. Oregon Institute Press (1996). the free encyclopedia 78. G. C: Us.1086/353360 (http://dx.psicompany.9780117726116. Technology and Culture.S. Washington.com/gps-satellite-compass/).htm) . Army. A U. Science. 85. David A.4205. Camden. A "GPS Satellite Compasses" (http://www. Isis. 525 p. 189. is an exception. Monte. 11. Army jungle infantry instructor reported that about 20% of the issue lensatic compasses in his company used in a single jungle exercise in Panama were ruined within three weeks by rain and humidity. A Wright. p. Springer Press (2007). 164-170: In 1989. 367-383 • Lane. 83. And Remedies.. The Ultimate Desert Handbook. 2006-0810. 'The Astronomy of the Mamluks".S. Retrieved 2009-06-30.doiorgl10. Riverton. one U.

Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Joseph (1986) Science and civilisation in China.Imago Mundi.comlthe-thumb-compass) . ISBN 0-52105802-3 • Needham.rnaps.rmgnet. Colin A.0. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-79318 • Zhou. David.62.htm) • Travel Island (http://www. Pt.works. Monte Duane (1972) Most Probable Position: A History of Aerial Navigation to 1941. Paul. first broadcast on NPR on May 31. Robert. ARobot Digital Compass App Note (http://www.fSu. the great virtual Compass Museum (http://www. 8. ISBN 974-8298-25-6 External links • How to Make a Compass (http://www. • Arrick Robots.12/04/12 Compass . Cambridge University Press. Taipei: Caves Books.G. the free encyclopedia • Ma. Oxford University Press. The Essential Wilderness Navigator. com Example implementation for digital solid-state compass.tv/The-good-Compass. The Genius of China: 3. Robotics.sensorsmag.htm!) • How a tilt sensor works. ISBN 0-521-25272-5 • Seidman. Gans. Ragged Mountain Press (2001).html) . Daguan (2007) The customs of Cambodia.html) • Compass whistles Seven types and subgroups.G.htm!) "(interview with Amir Aczel. Ch'eng-chGn (ed. p. August 25. The Medieval Technology Pages: Compass (http://scholar.robotics. translated into English from the French version by Paul Pelliot ofZhou's Chinese original by J. 1-7 • Temple. E.comlarticlesI05001120Imain.v.edu/tekpages/compass.gearslhow. (1951) ''The South-Pointing N eedle".html) Audio slideshow from the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory • Science Friday.sciencefriday. Vol 3.shtm!) • The Gear Junkie (http://thegearjunkie.html) • The Tides By Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) • Evening Lecture To The British Association At The Southampton Meeting on Friday.org/wiki/Compass 23/24 . (transl). Chapter 1: ''Magnetism and Electricity". 1.Wikipedia. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China: an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 • Needham. (http://whistlemuseumcornl2009/05/30/compass-whistlesen.comlarobot!compass.odoo.review of two orienteering thumb compasses • The good compass video (http://www. prev publ by Bangkok: Siam Society (1993).) and Mills. Huan (1997) Ying-yai sheng-Ian [The overall survey of the ocean's shores (1433)].R. The University Press of Kansas.comltraveloutdoor. (1992) From Sails to Satellites: the origin and development of navigational science. Feng.chemnyu. Joseph and Ronan. Discovery. (1986).A video about important abilities a compass should have • COMPASSIPEDIA. David Pheifer [2] (http://www. Refers to compass correction by Fourier series.com/pagesI2002IMay/hour2_053102. • Paul 1.000 Years of Science. J. 1882 [1] (http://zapatopinet/kelvin/papers/the_tides. Inc. ISBN 0-07-136110-3 • Taylor.comlUsingCompass. originally publ by Cambridge University Press (1962).compass. Phnom Penh: Indochina Books. 1: ''Physics''. and Invention.wikipedia. Vol 4: ''Physics and physical technology". With a foreword by Joseph Needham New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-19-856387-6 • Wright. Gilman d'Arcy Paul. "The Riddle of the Compass (http://www.D.html?&L=1) . 2002).edu/mediacenter/slideshows/compass/index.travel-island. and Cleveland. • Williams.compassmuseumcorn/) gives comprehensive information about all sorts of compasses and how to use them • Geography fieldwork (http://geographyfieldwork.E. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.

a non-profit organization. en. aspxrref=rss) Retrieved from ''http://en. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.strauss.-subgroups. • Text is available under the Creative Conmons Attribution-ShareAlike License.wikipedia.php?title=Compass&oldid=486300831" Categories: Chinese inventions I Magnetic devices I Navigation • This page was last modified on 8 April 20 12 at 19 :08. Inc.12/04/12 Compass .a.orglw/index..2.org/wiki/Compass 24/24 . the free encyclopedia seven.types. additional terms may apply.Wikipedia.wikipedia. See Terms of use for details.

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