Está en la página 1de 12

T . T H O M P SL OJ .NL ,E V AY N, DE .E . .

W E S T E R F IE L D

T h SAT R A C K s t De e v : e l oa pn Ad p e pn l it c a t i o n s e Sy m m
T h o Tm h ao sm L prra syJ .oL ney,, v a n Ed d wE i. We s t e r f i e l d n

S
IN T R O D U C T IO N

A T R A h Ca b s e ea n i g n ci f oi c n a t nrt iottb h ude t eo vr e l oa pn om p ee nrs at u t ci ocone ftash lsTe r i d We ne ta p oy n t ae nm idt ,c o n t itno pu re o s v iud ne i q u ae K s d S s

m o n if tu o nr ictnht giaos ctn r i t ioct ha mle a i n t oe tfn h aUn . S se. e a - bs at r sa e t de g Ti c h adi s re t rti ece vlr erit eeh bne ats .c k ga rn oeduv no dl ou tft hi oui sn i qG ul oe b a l i e c w P o s i t Si o y ns iutnesgm pr p l i( ct a f tiericos otn m mu si teat rn )dd i s c ui t s su ep osp f oo tr hts ey rs t oe fm a s t i o mn ap lo r It t asc no cn e n . e t co A i P L p s i o n e e r i n g ae h e n i t o n c o n t r i b t uh dte i eo vn es l oot pfto hmt eee cn h t na on lmo ge yt h os du o lpos oug rcyt ci ne ges ps fl o o yl tf m s e e na t- bs at rs a de t dee tg ei isrc re e v ni etB wa ces odc n. ca en pd t s d p d u h i i m p l e m s ep ne tcoa i tffthii ceoe svn o l sv yi ns d ee ms ai gr dn e s c ra i nb i dete sdx , t e un sdae en pdd e r f o ir mm pa r no cvoeev meh rpe an2st 5y e a rpes r e s (e K n e t ye w .o r d s : g t e t ts d G P tSr a n sM l ai st sso yir l se tt, ee asmnt e d v a l uS aa tt ipeo olnl si ,t i et i o n i n g . )

SAT R A C Kad s e v e tl o v p a e l idd n m e o n hi tTro i d em n i ts gs ui l ie d a ron rmod e i nl t h e p o ros ct pe s s a i n ga cl y a s p iy.sa A b d i l di t iy,t it oh Ae P L l a t et rl al i tc feka i cn hi gl ai tosy p e raa sat eb da c k u p w a a td t e r e r ce n a ls S y s Ft el i mTeh stPro g r aI t ms t .h pe r rym i n rus m e na tn a dt i o n p s r yo sc rtee sms p i nof gn a rs ci bc ul e r a SAT R A C K o rs d i tif neo agr lE l a Cs to at es fts l ti gs ihn t1s e 7 8 . g t i i a t s o cy re c c9 e v aa ltui o- tfn h Ne a sv Sy t r a We ag p cSo yn s tI e rus -m . e n ta an tpdi or on c e s s i an vg a wi l ah sbey l nes t e SATs R A C u Kl l y a ilmtl gs eu ti d sa un bc se ey vs a el umea qt iuo i nr e ma l esp onr ot sv wi ad ene ads py os nt e m te i n mt m f t r t h Tre i d eD n e t v e l o pP m o eg bnr eat g ca on u nl do mt et eh tn s e e Ad P. Lc o n c ea i nv ldee ddt h e erro rmod ei nl s i tg h h wt sto un lodht a v ee pe on s sw i bi t lhiet ous un ti qa ub ei l di t ey t ae tncoadt l lco a - st em a l l r m i a b d e v e l oo tpf h mSAT R tA C yK s t oe f m lt f hi lrel s q u i r eP m to oe- tn yi tnp. se t r u m r e qn ut ai rt hei o de n e r frcooo rr n t r ti bo mu ti do sirss t a o n b c s e ei snr t vh efe ldi gt eh pst tr o g SAT m A. C K t v oa nl i l- y t dh ae t e d een s u i r s ra R n o m i s as nlged r o us n ad dt i ao tn a cf uo nl l ce wtc i toe idnor en vo ep l e-a dtA P L o v a l i td hace toe n c ae np dt , Tr i d es yn st ta ec mc y,u br au t cth tee s t - d e -r vi va el idd aa t nerrodd rmod s e yhl s a t ve eml o tw h ceeod m m a n d i t s t e al w eg e n es rp a e t ce i df ci co a n t ti tor hondel sl ei nv ge l o pf mot phe -nr at m i ni sga s ni lgde r o us tn a d ht rdao wre a. a u t ht ooc ro i tn yf i ad se s nai gtnl nayd l l ot ca ar tgt oese et sa - bs at rs aer tee s g o i uc r c e s . ee t i n d We a l d oe v e a o n pod e p de r aSAT R tAh Cp K o c e a sy,s iwl ni hg i nc h l ua du en si q p u r ee p r o c e s s Ti nh gne e sx et c wt i od l nli s c tu h sbe sa c k g l er oai und n-t odSAT R A sC dK e v e l oa psa mn ae tn u t r a l s l te e r f c i t c i g h a wr d a -ar en sd o f t cw o an r f ei g au n r ad nt ei ox nt e n s i v e e x t se i nfron mA Ps ro l ien t h de e v e l o ptf hmFe l e ne t o - L

180

J O H NH SO P K A NP S E C H N DC I A LE V T , L U 1 9E,N U M B4E( R 9 9 8 ) I T L I G SO M 1

T H S A T R AS C K T E M E YS

B a l lMi s i ts iEsc vi l ea l uS ay ts i oa ennmtdh Ne a vN ya ivg - a tS i ao nt Se yl l is t te(Tr ma n T iht )ef. n ,l l o a w i n i gn t e r re i mp o u r bt l i ns l ha 1 ed9 7 f1o r m u l a t e d ta h n emd ti sra asn cigldker oi n su gt na cdt aoi po -nan cb e i lpi tt i se s t e s o p et d i s c u o s ft sh i bo an sc ioc n c te h pai tsrst wi c ti l lrel at hc se y s st e vm o l u t i o n : e , n e e dt oes u p T IoVTr ta nm s ie t a s uo r fS L B efMl ni gt seh st Ht so . wr, eb vyme i d - 1 9 t w 2ac ls e a r d p r em i 7 t h na ot no eft h t eh e n - p D oNp SocSso en dcw e op ut sled e v e lao np tdeh me , i s t sr ia l ec c k oi nn gw ea ps t r b d c S A T R AI KAt e c h np or lo otj eo d cy et v ea lnod dpe m o tn h si ent rs a t tr eu ma e pn rt oa ct ieo sn s i n g C g nd t e m pf o r ga or i tl yt e n . s y t se - m s i tn h gTe r i d I em n i ts (s1i 9e 7 3 1 9 8 3 ) u l I n a p a r c a h l laeo i efln v e tn htNes a sv Sy t r a S t ye sg t Pec rmo gs or ar gm a snw i zaaas st ki to eo n d d d r e s s , i a S A T R AI ICK T oh pe e r as yt iso dneeamsl i gt om ee sdey t s rt e m u i rf eo tmh Te r ni dtI se mn it s s i l e t n q r I t h se u i t oa tfb hi Tri t i yd We a p So yn s tf e mmreoa c c tu a r ra g tr e tq i nu ig r Se em v seet nur atd sl i i.en si t iwa et er ed le e n t o r (1 9 8 3 p re s e n t) t o c o n st ih dqi es u r e s Tt hopenr i. mi s as cru yoe ns c ep r on se s di b l iem ps ry o s vtt eoa mc he ti nhe dtev see s i r e d i O t ha ep rp l i c a t i oo fS A RU As oCArKr m dny r i F oe m c ei st ets a si lp p lsi (c 1a 9t i8o 3n p r e s e n t ) nsT f es a A r a c c y.u A anicm p os ret ca ryn nct od nrn cre erd ae tdh m od t bh yw h ti ch ae c c u o r fta h cneye swy s t e m r o a g e e h S A T R AI ICI C us ry rs eu np tmg a an df du e ta u p r pe l i c a t i o n s K te r w o b evd a l i d a t e d . ul I t w as so oe nv i dt eh tna h t i em p a c t t e cn hi sq- c uuo esr seif nodPgr o l a rn iPd o s e ei dv oa nl u a t i o n s s BACKGROUND w o nu olbdt ea d e q Au na et m . e t oh l o hg pay rt o vi ni ds ei ign htmot s a e j or crr oo rn t r wi b i u thth oi f nlr i sg h t e od t w d t e F r o 1 9 6 7 h r o eu ag 1 l 9 7 1A, P L o n d u ac s t ee rdoi ef s s t u dt oi es us p pc o n t c e p t te es n v i r o n m b en n e t e dw oet ohd uaa lctd c up r ao cj eyc c o t u o l db sa s obe neda h i g h - c o un nf i -d e n c e m t rh y c r t s i n d e v e l oo pft m De ee nf et Nn as v i gS aa tt i eo lnl i t e ( D N S S t)he. esm st ue da ide ds r ea sv sa er oide f t y d e r s t a tfn h due inn dg e sr yl y s i mod me l s .t e T c hh eno ifcq ou me p o ab r si ne tgre v is mt d p s a t ca tw i si tt hi c s h e S y sT o tn e g e t c o n f i g cu ar pa a imbo lnee se Dt iN S rSe q u i rae n med ve en nt st u a c l ol yn cproe pd ot st ao Tw oc -a I nl e- red s uc lot sm p f ur ot mem do du es lefs odd r e v em l oe (pni -.te . s, h ao n sd c o ar ep p r o aaucs nh a) c c e p t to f ng le l l ot w Vi e w( T I V Tr) a nT sh i nte . a mw eac sh o s oei nn d i ct ha D etN S rSe q m i e ec -ot sub l em ew t i t h a b A e s . s e sp rferomn g nmod ee il ns t h fe l i gt eh e st nt v i r o r ne m uge iunr eitd s a n c e - imn de ea ps u n ed - e n t t at u r n d l si a c q er o n tl w vo i s is b a l te e( il n i ot en st ort ah sae tl t e cr on na ct teeh pa t t s fr oe vuq i sru isibra el e de al lni t deh isat )t c o u ml d e n tisst uh f f i c i e nt ots ep pr eoa cur t aiths t ei eort niam n cpt o o n t r itb o us ty os rt isen ma c y.c u h eae xc i s t i n g y cl t w Tr e v o nl v a e t fur or tamhl al ey l r e o a p d e y r aTr ta i ons nsy ai st lt Wemc h. ot hs ce so n cb ee pc tai t wu sat ehs l eo w e s tr -a n i ng se t r u m( me ni stt rsaai tl ceaok nnit ndr ag j e sc t io mrwya al tasi or gn e) l y b pyr ar osd vya isrd t ea dn i dt w , a s e i i m s c o as pt p rt oma ec he Dt iN S rSe q u i r e m e n t s . ng n o c t l e a tr h ce toy h upa l rdt o tv h inde ee e m e e d a s ua rce c muo rer a n cct y o i nv t eh br ear ogo aec de t ae nas rt e a s . d T h a e b i l pi t ry o tv thiodr e e - d pi mo se i nt iso i ni tt -nhh raieen l qg ua icr ce ud r a tc wy s o a t ei spul l ois t siens s gi b l e I n e a 1 l9y 7 3 , ei n i t iaa t es tdt ouc o m cp r-a re n r ta n r ga edw a i T hI VTr a n m s ietrea m u e n t wo r w d yre u tr s o n bl y e c at uh m ei ro t r i eo ln at ot ai vu es i ses ri g n i Tf i hc ae l nt et c.r no na ct we p btr ase s oe nsd i m u l t a n ce a o pbu ai sl -i tn ir ee sl a tni oe ne S L oB aMc c ue r va act liyuo oan b- j e cT t hi vse te u s d. y s h o rtweh eosa udt al ty s se a e e ded t n ra n g e m t eo f ao su uar r t ee Sml li inet ctenhest e.s s e cw o en r coebet ep nt seb fyhi t i egr edh l am t i ov te ti oh ne ,y s a t e l l imt e e - ab sa us rey eds mt eo emm l dte e t re q f uu i tr ueArme L n s t es nt. ht SAT R A C oK n tc oe p t s c un P pre e ee d c i n c o r ps oa rt cae otl leni t sdte it oe anl lhtsa i -g ah l et i rt Tu hd hee i gr-. ah let ic t ou nd l sae t tei ol - ns se l we b ce etr ece adt hu es ye t h Ne a sv Sy t r a St ey g ti Pce rmo gs s r ftaia nmM sa y s a c h i te h vr eee qd ug il ro ce b od a v l e w r aiat sgh me a l l e ro sf na ut emT l hlbi cti es h rso .wi c aep s a m t loy t i bv yat ht ee d 1 9 7 3T .h pe r o p so ys se twde ams a s oe nda c us sa t t ode mel l is tpiega nt t ea rf n e e VTr a ns sa i t e l l i t e s , r b tT I r d i n c o ar rs es ce t s ts h msa ye sn tcteo msi nt sc r e a a sts hereedqre u dn u m o b fs e a r t e i nl reci ta e s sH do .wr, e v eb u s ti m p b l ytf hi e e d r oe af m n roye v q a u l i rf eo r m ae l n-p t toi ms i et si oe nr vi Ai cgs ei x. - s ca ot en lstl it toee nl l a t i l e i re n f e ew sr - a t ew l le iptr eeo s s i b l e t h ae r etb hae ea c at asc ueh sr ve ex d a inn d er d ec l ta t to ti oh rnee d u c t i w no us lud p p wo fo l i gt eh w t i n d po ewd ry. T h e c s o e n c w pe tr se p t rom p i no iscmeo disM t esi s. s i l e p i re o rt t st sa e o z i nt h ne u m o bsf ea rt e a l n i ctd eo sf o,t sr s ei g r nvt eia cnlteodhs a va e d r i er el a c t t ti o s n e s r hva irpcene aot ,ot h a r d a wn gd r eo u un pd cp ao pr ta wb ieul irtn ei ce hs af rn o gt mecedo n c de ep f tii snn 1 9 7 1 . l a s h ed t h ne u m o b fs ea r t e Tol iat fe i rs rd. te a or p p r ot i xo ipnm o, a i- t si oa nt sei nyl lgsi ttc eeo msa t rsi en d e p oe fn d e n tT h pe r o pw o a s sca cl e a p n tpde r de l i dm e i vo ep lm ywe ani nst i t i aH toe wr, e1 v9 e7 w aa s l st ho e l s s n a rd . 3 c o n s t ae l tl ai t Ftu iuod rnedt h.i s e c r u os fts hi oet nos pe ai cn stdh pe r e v va i lee own ft sth tei m i sea v a fi rl ao bm l e y e t h ra G lt oh Pbe oa sl i t iS o y n s i tn eGg mP S )e v eml o epbn-et g Wint ht. h ee mrg e n oc fG P Sw, e a t ( d a e R e 1s . 3 . f w reea s k t eo c d o n s i ti dsu es e p l ai onc tfeh se p e c s i a tl icez olel ni dt se t O l ul sar t t ui odi nni ed. si c t ah t ahe t ed r e T h el a ps te r f o r sm t ua odn ftych e T I VTr a ns ys si tat ed md r iet s s et a odpb r i lo i tvty ri da ej em c et oa r- y e s u r e m fSe Ln Bt tsMe fs l ti g Th ht se t. u sd h y o w h Sa Lt B mM e a s u o r be j m c e to ni uvbt leedms ea t n, d o t ed e an

T . T H O M P SL OJ .NL ,E V AY N, D E . E . W E S T E R F I E L D .

G P S o ub l ea p p tl oi te h dS L B aM c c u e r va ac lysu ya s t tw eo i nm ho m c e a n t got eh se am n ids s b l ee g i no ntf hi nTr gi d eF lni gTeh sP t r o ga rs a h mw p a s ef od r o w n r a n ng oe twh s asu tu p pipsp o or r ort t- ; c d e i st h i e t t i u g r o su t na ddt i eo sn i Tg hn esw r. aea st e c h cn oi cn acr le rg nan rg d a-e v a is l ia g bpn l oea wa en irdo n o s p h ve irdi be yad l a ns dt a Tt i ho men .i sh s a i lr edw w a aas rl ale et rd a n t so el a mt o p r ht ha nas osz ieg tn r a lcf uk ni n c gt i o n s i th l c c ti c o r tr i eo c cna- p a a b swi l iet lai ep sar os g r ac m nm rc ee grt nact rh dne i un m o b fs ea r t et hl l wt teo su ead v a i l - a r ae c c o m ipn l i s m t ehi sde( si .i le et. h s ei g na ar e l s s it mr a pn ltsyoSl a- bt eaadnnrdde t r a n s -T hm e i t t e d ) . l o a i g ia b l h , a b fl oe e r a Tr l iyd et e n fs tl ti g bh uto st trwh ei st eh G,e P S a p a wb ieleirt xei ep se t co bt ea dd e q I u J au tl ye . e v o l uo tf i o n t rs ay ns ts iels adm ti ocss -ur s isn e cd o m p aa rn t bii ocy nl e T h o am n We s so t nee rl sf i ee w d h e r e r , c n a pd l 1 9 7 4t h, Iem p r Ao cv ce ud Pr ra oc gywr aa i m i t i ta oct oe nd st ihd iem r p l i co afmodi oi fny Tri ni dg et on t i n t h ii s s u e .re c T h v qi nu gi p a mt h eLe nA t S aS n D R Sa Sl sd o o e so p t r vo i -da SAT R A C K ns e t s e ie e d n e s u pp rto- a ni m ro pv ea dc c ur re are c umy i SAT tR. A d eK v e l ow p aimns i et inao tst eu dp tp h ope rr to g r a m i g, n a l f u tn r ca( taci okt nhtn o g ueD gR h S dS o e p s r o va i dl o e r- a ec c ure r aa lc-t yr i am c cek a i np gat b i l i t y q en C t s l i h w t o a n i dn S e p t e 1 9 b7 e4D, o DR e s e a a n r dcE hn g i n d e i er er itc nht geN da vt y u s G P Sf o r s u p rp a o n rs gt a e f eT thy te)r .a l na sts e- i gd nr ea cl se a i tv ebs doi tatehrsse a m ap at lhe i dge hn o ur ag tt hec a p t u r e m r o e o SAT R A Cm K a, ikt t i hn f egi rc s ot m mG Pt S es sde y r s t e m . i ut t h de e s i r e d s p et c u- sPmi rg e n c ati srl ai oc onk fti h G P S i g ni saa lcs t au ca c l o y m a p t lhi sA hP eL d r . n eg s l e p o s t fr lai gc f hka ticnt ihgl i rt oyp u l ag yh ob tfa h cr e ek c o t r r da en sds i g a nt ao lr s . l A f tt eh rse i g tn r a lc d k ai nt agr e c a o r vae en srde vd se y r sa t l ec m r ar e ai c r taei p p tsl ihe dede , r i v e d o t on B A S ICCO N C E P T S s a t e l l i t e( l -i tn ro ka- )mag insei dn it l e gD r oa pt dep adl ae arrue s ei nda l a r Kg ae l mf i al t neh pra rt o v i d e s n s t T h SAT R A C o n ci ses ph to iwn Fn i g1. . S i g n r ao Gs P S a t ea l rl rie te e l as by yet hd te e s t e cK f lm s e s t i mo fta r t ae j se c t o r y - o b s e r v a b l e m i s ts ori lee c e iev qi nu gi p ma ate l n tu n c sh u- ap srp eho (ai rLt A S a n ad d o w n sr u np gsp iet re t a p S) a o m o d e l ( t pht reams r ia n mo yilesout - es rebs d e c a n u o s t emod ea l l l i g ( D R S A )tt .h e S p a r a mp ode u ecoresbrvs ae b s l iegn - a t u ar en s y p e i tnc r i af i jce c t o r y r t g e o m T eh t er y ) .p rm o ec od hos -sl oi nge gyv e al oAp Pe Ld pr- e te d t pro l y c o m ba i pn reimos r o i d a alt an t dr a j e c rvt oa modl e-edo l a f tos aer e rb y b e a cf l hi gt eh st t . S i g n y,i f ti hc cae rni ttmil c eas alu - r e m r pe n ot vs bi dyc ea dr r i e r a e r
All-in-vi G PS satellites ew (L-band signals) L-band low noise am plifier First IF and GPS signal filter S-band power am plifier

M1

M2

M issile Translator

O scillator and frequency synthesi zer (S -band signals)

p h at sr ae co k f i nG ghP eS -mt o i -s s i l e T hs ei g Pn Sa i lgspn. ha al s e t G s m e a s u (r ie. emi .n, et ene gt dsD a o t p- ps lee nr )s e c h ra a n n lgog ene s g r a e a cs hi g lni na oel fs i g t ho at s m f ar al l c o t fiao wn a v e (l ie . ea .g , t h n f e m i l l i m T eh tems r ees )a .ms ue r ne t - s ,a rc e o wm h piwca ihtrt heh ed i r w e v a l uc oe m pf ru otgmud i d s e

a n cs e n d s ao t r a s a npedol lsi ti ate i no dn e vs et il mp c raiot ye is d, e t o v m o os ft h ien f o r mR a nt mo ene .a s u r e i m t he ren ct re vnd eo i s e ig n o G P S a n od e s - i cg n a l s r g

(Signal Telem et ry Station Recordin g equipm ent data) APL postprocessing facility

i s o fs e c o n d a r y I niems sp eotnrh tceae n, sci ene ne. spr tor ivoa si -ld e r h i g h - f r m qo uti nieo fnnom c ya t bi oe nt ht eat rhn s e i g pn ra col e- s s e s , e rt h e o p p le r D in fo r m a t io n s e n ts he sesy s t ee mr r aao str sscao t cw i -dit t hhi ne e r t i a al nst dh ne s o r s , i e e r a n dg a ept ar o va i ndi n e i t i a l

Figure 1. SATRACK measurement concept. Signals transmitted from the Global Positioning System satellites are received at the missile, translated to another frequency, and relayed to the telemetry station, where they are recorded for later playback and postprocessing at APL.

c o n d f io ta ir ol l n d t yh ne a mm e i c s u rT eh mef ore erne-at , sn n.g oe i (s i e. e n. , o i is n et h e tr ra a n c gk ei n c ga rep st h f eu bl la n d ow tf ih dse te h l e rc a t ne od ee - c u l a t i o n ) . a r u gd mod l o o pc sa )b e s m o o o t vh teeh rdeu f l li g i nh tt eT r hv reaa l n. ng oe irse e m a a i n t i ehn pir gs r o ci ses sm s a l l e r T h t ee l e m a eat tar rey r e a c l so ofr odp r eo ds at fn l i ag Tl hy hts ei ds s .ae t a , w i G h lPo Sn pg h e amn ed r i s n f f d ta e t h ao nt hb ei ar s u - nl i kc e r t t ha sai ett th il ei ms o inat b s po lo u s t aet ci oc nu( re a. gs y.a , t pe ol l is t i et i o n ) . c l o dc ak ta a r u,e s et od p rt ro av ciadk i edi fn os tg rh p e o s rt fe l ci g ea h invt mde er a s ue r se t m m oet arh mtee i ss s i l e n i c i f nt T h SAT R A C K s tc eo mn f i g i us sr ha ot iwo n 2 . iSn i g Fnti g a .l sn s bm yGi tPt S da t ea l rl iet e pro c er. sR s ao twr a c d k ai nrf to agmt h pe o s rt ef l ci gea hir cvet oe r r ef oc rt ek dns yo sw t ne mr r( aoe tr. isgac .n, t e n n a e sy ra es s e t r a cb kyt eh dG P S r a c nk ei nt wgf o os r re k v de ar ay usl r r oi n u g nh de - i s t se i fsl e ti g T h h t te. r a c dk ai nt ag l e va er rmb e) f bo er ei pn ag s ts oe dm t hi s epro i lce er. sT s h o em i s pro i lc e e si ss o l raa rKg a e l mf i lat nh ra t e t s t m l s s e f r o t mh o i sp e r aa r tpei or on c et osd s ee r sdi va et e lpl iht ee m ne dcr il od e ks t i m t ha hat eta sv e h i g h t he soe tp e ro ant he resa gw u i d a en ncmse oe rera m ude an stt au p pb l yime di s t se i l ry. mWi et thth e d s ae at an d a c s s e p o s as ci bc l ue r a c ty h me i s f sl di gli eunh rt tien Tr gvh eae p . eh m e ar ind cdel os ec sk t i ma raue t se ebs dyt h e s a t e lpl i ht e am n ecd lr oi sec sk t i mt h a pe t re o s c , ce os m o prt hu ete ex sp e s c a t te emd l l ei t ae ms ue r ne tl s d a ta . p o s rt ef lci ge hi vm e irsp sar inol ed t eop s r so otv hi Se A T R A C K pt odar u cf to es r a fc l hi g h t . t c rd ed a T h e e s x e p e d c a tate acde o m pt ota hr e d as ac t ue al leilretae m u ea nn t dsh ,oe brvs eed d ir-f ef e n care s u s e d r m s e D u r t i hn mg i s sf l i i l ge h i tn , - v Ge PwSl al t s e i gl l inat ar rel es c e ai vt h m i s ts r i al e n , st ol Sa -t e d t od r it vh feei l mod ret oal b e e s st -i m o a ft th eue n d e gr uy i idn modn ecerro r s . e i as e ed e te l ag e l b a na dn ,rde t r a n t os t mh sei u t refs adt ca etTi oh ner . a ne sdGa Pt S i g na ar rel es c o vw e i tr he sed a m e A s s u m h itanh tgde a pt ar o c eh s a snsi on i tdg e n t si fy i es td ea ma i l.t e a. ,n e r rc oo r m p w ne el l n t t t l -s t f u( o s t a t t r i ao cn ak ni nt eg un sn efa od r t h am l l i s ts e i l e smi g e nTt arh ylt esr .a n G lPa S ei g ddn a tl as e p a a r re a ot eu dt si t ei sd x ep e p c et er f do r m h pae rn o c c e ed ) s,a st ea ed af f rcl oihgt meh ast rtu e s et od p r o v i do m a j oe rs t i m a t e s e s st t fe i n tr oa n s ga efa e n t ady c c uo r pa ec ry aT th i ro a n nss ga. ef eu tn y cprot i co en s s l eo r-w a ec ct uhG rePa S i yg -a l s c o n r - i b tu o it m r ps ma ci sFt si g. 3 rs eh o a wh sy p o dt hi a eg tu ri sca eam oda l l o cc oa nt et r i b oiu m t i po an cs t e s sc n t o u tl t t op r o va ri de ea l -t tr iam c s keo i nl u fg tot i ho r ena n c go em m T ah need a. l a- t ci m u fe ru a n c c iy st i op nr ob vy i d em d i Ts h m e ti hs b a s oe nd r o j ee ca t cei nhr crg o rn ut rt aiobnr -i d us n c e ir nt at ohi ni emt y p da oc m a i n . r r c s .e od p t t s i m s pa l m ap nl ir dne gc o r dGi nP gsS i g n(t iha. el bs. ,y s a m pt hl isen i g na ata lrs a tt he a t y T hf er s ta - l el o v c iesaal tt i ho s enu b s ly e s v(t e n lmi to i an ld ig t iu o i nd sa ,nn dcd e p l o ay nmr de e e n nat t r y ) ; i i c ,

Real time GPS satellites GPS tracking network Orbit/clo ck determination facility

Postflight

Epheme ris and clock estimates Test missile Postflight receiver Tracking antenna System models Preamplifier Tracker corrections Missile processor

Range safety system

Translator receiver

Telemet ry receiver

SATRACK recorder

Translator recorder

Telemet ry processor

Guidance data Estimated initial conditions

Figure 2. Basic SATRACK configuration. For a number of days surrounding the missile flight, GPS signals are received, tracked, and recorded at the GPS tracking sites. During the missile flight, GPS signals are received by the missile, translated in frequency, and transmitted to the surface station(s). A tracking antenna at the station receives the missile signals, separates the various components, and records the data. The postflight process uses the recorded data to give satellite ephemerides and clock estimates, tracked signal data from the postflight receiver, and missile guidance sensor data. After the signal tracking data are corrected, all the data elements and the system models are used by the missile processor to produce the flight test data products.

Uncertainty in initial conditions estimate

Velocity Initial conditions Crossrange miss Guidance Observed impact

( 1 )g a i n i inn sg i g h wt hw a i antn st eo e df oei rm p r ao cv ce ud r a c y d a n d d 2e )v e a o na di n e gqa uc a ut er va ac y us a ts itoS nA - . ( l p c l y em T R A Ca Ksi t,e v o l ivs teh df eu, f li -l l m e n s t e c o mfn da otj hb reo j e c t SATe R. A CI pK r o v e i dtc o up lr dot hav adi dte e qe us ta i t- e m a t e s iv o fg u i d sa un bc se ye sr tr e m s o r

Impact uncertainties Uncertainty in guidance estimate

Total SATRACK uncertainty Downrange miss

Estimated SATRACK impact

Figure 3. Hypothetical example of SATRACK impact evaluation. Each error estimate provided by the SATRACK process is projected into the impact domain, showing its downrange and crossrange contribution to impact miss (the center of the coordinate system is the aim point). Uncertainties for each estimate are also projected. The estimated errors and their uncertainties are tested for statistical consistency with system models and other independently measured results (e.g., the initial conditions derived from launch area instrumentation).

f o i n d i v f il d g uI htw t lsa a .sp i r i a o n e ee rf ifinn gtr ht ba ot t h e o t r a c mk i od tgsha n td h lerag e en K a l m f i al t ne rr o c e t se s c i n -g p h n i q uw e e ps r ue s h i sn tga t e -t oh fe th e -a rt. T h se e c o n d( SAT pR hAa Cs K e I I )w aa sm a uj op rg ir nar d e p o n s e es t ot h se t r i nm g e an st ur er e- m e n t q u i r e sm e bet ynt ht sAe c c u r a c y E v a l u S a y t si ot sen tmu 5 d T h e y. s t u ed sy t a bt hl i tseo h wea edl a s py os intne s mt r u m e eqe-numt i are t ni o t n t r s f o t r h Tr i d eI I n( D 5 m iss i-l ei n e t ) a c c wo ir tsdhp a e n c c i fe i e d a c c u er v ac yl u a t i o i n c lo u bd j ei nR gtAi vCa eKsws , e l l a s o t h e r a SAT c p r e l a i un n- f clai hgnreed tn , at rr yei n a s t r u m SA-n t a t i o n . ,h e

I s 1e s e c ol en vd e r lo v d i d feoamr a ej or rg o r ro w pi tesh a i n h s ( ue b. gsa .yc, sc t ee l m rAo t mh liere dt ve er sl , T . R A CI hK a b s e eo np e r a it ni oc n9 a8 l7 . p a t s u c e ) n o s t h o iwn t nh f ei re u,pro d u ce es st i mo f au t ne mds ae -ne tr atr reom r os f g t uh ied a n c (ee . ga . n, m o d eA l g e n ue pr ag lrh aa bds e ei nn i t it ao rt ee pd l a c e g l a c c e l e sr co am la eec et eor rr Io n r ) . a S A Tt Ro An C, K o v ai dp eo sien st t i m t ah itene i ct ioa nl o - f a g i cn og m p oo nft h D 5st e s yt s t Te hmne e w f d d i- i p r eet n . d i t i oa n sda pre - d e p l oe ys m i mhe ona wr,e ei ;t pvs re i n pc ui p r api slo est veo a gl uu ai dt sea un bc se ey rr. rt oe mSAT R A C Ku nre dc o r ed qi nu gi p i mc ree rn t l y t t s gro s u T h r ee s f ur ol et ms a fc l hi gare hc th e cf oks ret tadi s- tc i oc n sl i w t iietnhnd ce y p em n ed ae osnifum rp e- a s ci nt ,i t i a li n t h f ei n s at al og cf e h s e c uk po gu rtaa, ttdh pi eno gs t a s t c o n d a t n osd ne sv o,e t rhf aae l cr t o r s . i i f l i gf ah c ti si wl i t eay ll lo an n pd, r e l i m ei ns oiagf r ny g d A s n o t pe rde y, il oi mu si t l oa tf ie o gs n e s o m i el l t rp oy r bo sh e i br ovi atfa el tl ri ori nna r snss yi n f gl i lgte eh s t t . re p l a c m mi s t ese ncsl etot m p oi snb e ng ti sn F nr- i n g . v t w o e i u H o wr, e ivn eec a fc l hi gp hr ot vo i bdr-sev esa t ioo ft nh sue n d e mr l yi s igsn uigl ied a n mod r -e l s , d at ht ae t h e r m f of hr are t vs e ef on c u f so terh dl ea s et v e r a l s e e r r co e e o b , f r o mm a f nl i ygt eh ct a sbn ec o m bT i h f ei n dc a.u l m ua l na ta i lv yf elsi git seh dst at pto arfdo u- ca eg s u i d a n cy ee oa nras n e G P S r a n s s y l sa tt oeos mru p Tr oi - r t st n w t p erro rm o d o et r hl Tr i d eWe a pS oy ns t I et cmo m bo ibn se es r fvr ao tmi o f nl i esgt aodh cet hr ai vt ae c t i c a dl l ey ren etry nbod yt e s tT i nh uge p. g r sa yd s ew ed i ml f e n t . t t l r e p r e s me ni s tgsa ult ei d ea n cb e a sme o d md epol n f tl ieg t l ehy dst ta tT a h . mod ei s lu s e d o t h e wr n i to oh t n mod e r tn h i fzea e c hi rdai twy aa n sd o f t w a r e i v c o e is ly l re s i m i l a r sl yu b ds emodi tveet eol dmd e v ep l oa pn fna i cn tg o tr osa su sswi eg edn a s py os n ae rmg e t s . y rs s t f u n c ti ti wo nai l sl ss, ou b s te a x n t teSATldRy A C K ia l n SAT R A Ch K es v o lov ve aed qr rt eac r e y. tTu hro e r i g di ne av le l of op t mh eTr ind t eI m t i s s i l p e r f o rc ma pa an bc iel i t i e s . a u n r e n e 4 ( C 4 b) e g i a en a r ni n e1 s9t 7. 4T h C 4 v e r s( SATnR A C) K a as t e c h n d o el ov ge yl o p m e n t n e io I w p r o g a r i am ma e t d

S A T R AECVKO L U T I O N
S A T R AI C K

T h C 4 m i s ds ei l se wi g anw s eu l nl dw e arb y e f i otw r ead s e c i tdo iemd p l et m SATn Rt A C K e h ee s y s t Te hm er . o p do es se idg n am p ipn ri om ar i ecz qhe u i r dtehi dm ai sdes dl iel i etc i toar non aindt dl i ci ds a k e p e t a d v a o n tf th aee gx ei s St -i nb ga an nd t e hn on wr, e;a nv e G P S n t e hn ant doab e a d dCe 4d . a w a T h e d e s ci go n s ht re atl d nGt P S n t e c no nn af i g t uo f ro aue t lri eo ms pe an cu sen di f oa r m ut l hyn md i s s i l e h e s a i n t o e c irc u m fe re n c e . Wi t ht h we i d pe a cb ien tgwa en et ee nl en ma s e g n sn tuas mw so uc la d u s s t er oi nn t ge r f e r o m e t e r n u l l s n i ,l

p arnt s To m i n i m h ipez re o b la e s ms os cw i airet thm do av n nt g p n h n aea sf ef ei n c t th spe o s t pr, r o c e r se s q o u eM ne c ai es us o.r etf h e tesw nesoti sg ny ai e l sal dm e ed a o s rfu e r fer aa cl ot tinoh gsne i g pn aa btl he t w e e n t e. t e i e f m o p p op s a i ti rae s n t eo wfn ne sarues m tmof oe rdm eo l -e mi n e t ne tr f eo rr oi em 9 e0 etf erd or esm a co ht r.h e t h me i s as ni ltdeh pe s e u d oT sh aedt seaeglt l aa t ve en s t i m tf ah ete el e c t r o pn r oi nf tidlh eer e en gso i fot yn tw nt i a. o T h t er a n s l aw t aot isr m mi ne up lut it b e e t xwt ehetdew inno t e r f e Tr ho tmi m em et eu rl tsr i .pa wtl e as x e h t i g h t h m i s f sl ii glpe ha ttT hh . pe r o wf i al te sh eu ns et od d j ou usb rt e as vt a i loa nb orees modh e wl , h wc a s p l e e s e a l p i h e n o ut og b h e to hu bet as in d d e w fti h s e i hg tn r aa lc l ok ion sp gost h a t i nb po uct hot su bl det r a c k e t dh ea np p t l oi e de st th ir me f ar at ec t i o f no e r ac cG hrPr S ac t ei o l lni t eL1- st oi g - pm a i tslT hsh .i e e rmi - a r y o dt e o se n lp s i m u l t a n e t oh use is g l ynw a e lssr tewr eh ne gn uH g o hwr,. et hv te r a c dk ai nut ags eb d y t h se y s -s t e mp s e u d so isg ainstsae i lml i ti te ah G P t S1 s i g n a ls . e c Top hn s ede u d so i sg aw taaes lslelai ttt e o n e - f o u r t h o o l l re L o n K a l mf i latwn er s r ee l e tco it ne cd l o n tery a i cn kg - f r do t ah rteea g oi o ef n a s ac hn t e wn hn teah p e h a s e t h Le1 s i g fn r ae lq u ( et hnL1ec/ 4 s i g na an li d)t w a mod u l aw t e at dh2 0 0 - Kb Ha zn d rwa ind gt h- i n g e udl m r y , s i eff e cw trese w eu l nl d od (r is. e ao. ,w frao ymt h e r ne ug li loA nl tsh ) o.t hu wi gs aha sr e a s oc no am bmpl eri so e- cod e A. n o nt ha et uur sr oe fl L1t /h4 se i g wn aaf olsSr L B rMa n s ga y.f eB tya d d ei nx gL1r/ a4 p s e u d o e t a e t w i t t hh isen ec t o n s ti tr a itl neo atd na , n t ed ne ns wa g ia tnv h e p r oy go ar o i nv a el a r r g e ( i r. et h.g ,sei op ne c i f i e ad t ea lst l ie t el e sr c a t ne s gdi te te hs ree, q u (i lr oer-wda ec c u rr ea ac lyt- tr) iamryj eme c etreoa ms uei snd ter- tme i n e d s i s g a wn a ms o t rhe a1n4 d B b e l a nwi d ei s a o l t ra on pt ec n0 nd aB , io, v 1 5 % o ft h ce o v e r a ign er e l a t to it oh nte h r oe rm o pr e e u d l o c a tTei ohl lnir i sats en. s g a e f se yt sy twe amq s u a d i fu i ere idna gr l y i o i er e s s l r e g i To hn pi)s.o g a icn o , u pw l et d l e v oe fGs P S a t se i g l inrt ea pl s r ,e a s ec nh ta ecl doe n dgf oi tnri o C 4 f l i g wh th s w,c eh er q u i pw pi bte hod t rh a l na st ao- nr Csd - b a r na ddt r aa r n s p ( oA nl t dh eto hruseag. nh g e or i h l s l l gn i e r s i g tnr a lc k i n g . s a f se yt sy ts e h ma c r oe m p o wn ieS hA tTs R A Ci tKi s,n o r mt r ae laal ytsae s d e p as yr as ta e n wd e s tn m S i g nr ea f l r a c t ito h ni eo nt ho rs opa uth hgGehrPe S r i m r e q u (L1 n=c 1 5 7 5 . 4 2H izs ) w ni l lo d t i s c i ut f rust hr. )e e p f e y M s s i g cn ai fnai -tn, i dt m u b s ect o r r ef ocprt re e d c pi so i so i nt i o n i n G Pa Sp r po lvia cisdae et ciso n sd . f r e qT uh Leea n b c oy pr ar ot ov ori dyv ee dr a l l d ti re teci och f-nno t ri hc SAT R A Cs K s ta en md e v e lao np de d g p ea l y s i g (L2 a=l 1 2 2 7 . M 0 t zh )i as ut s ew d i t hh pe r i m r qee u- e nt oc yo m p un tee e dc e t dhr e c t ci oo nn t itn oou pe est r ha et e u p n o i sq pu f rleiog c h se tus sb isn yM s it sehs mai l e.r d d we av re e l o p pm a oe rt fnth t e n 6 H f or t g w as f o s r i g ren f ar al Mod i uo lna . t i o nt ose a cprf ehpq l ui e e d nr oc vyt hi dbe ea sf oiesr p o mc he a s u ur es et od e n Nt sa sv m i s ds ei l ve e l o c p o mn tw r nai Ltcho t ch ke - eM d i s sa i nl e S s p a C eo m y,p aa nn td h ge r o u n d ct p m y e t d c d e t e tr m de i ins et at one ca ecs ah t (e r l al i ntmeg ees au - r e m Twe nr at sn ) g. e mod o dl a eat ir oae np spt loi e d r e c o ar dn irdn a gn s ga efe e qt uy i p d me ve en ltw paam d ed tneo ttdh Ne a sv cy o n tw r ai It nch t e rE s l e ac t - e h o -c u o s t t h Le1 f r e q y,u oe nn hec a v ai n g M Hb z n d aw n i a st eh c oh na dv ai n2 g0 - M bH a z n d T hi de t ht r. o nC ioc rs p o r a t i o n . 2a d w L2 f r e q y,u he on wr, ei s mode u l a o t ne wld y i t h 2 0 M H bz a n d r wa ni d gc t ohn d g e . c v e i A n o tmh e c rj h a l l e SAT R A CidnK v em l oe wn - ai m p l e m o eft hn leta a r Ktg i aoe lnm f i al t ne r a or ng e e p t s T h se t r o G gP eS is g t in s t a h l ne a r r o w -Lb1 sa i ng dnt hw Lel2i ;ds ti gh ins aa tol n e - ft oh pe ro t wh e rp r o c et es cs h n nToi qg uea eth .e sa rtt do nd e v ei nl otg h re- e q uCi 4ep do s tp f rl iog ch est so sf it nw hg ae r e , n s a u i g a p r t l e vo fet hl Le1 s i g nT ah we. i db ea n d aw n il do twhp eo r w he ar r a co tft eh rLe2i s s t i i gc nc a lm, b wi n i te h d p r o p o sode od l ow gmay spe pt thl oirea ddd aa crt ao l el - c tf eo P dr o s e (i C 3 mn i s f s l i glt eeh stWes re c l c s o a do) t . t h a e n t e c n o n n a s ft or C 4n ,pt sr e c li u sud sei endt h SAT R A C sKy s t Te hrf roe . ,t h C 4t r a n s l ao t go nr f i rz oet mdo e u t sh ea rtt a td h a ew tr ao b e n a d eb qe uc aao tusf e hs eo i rn st fy a s lgtl se m m nevdt er yl o c i t y ar i t e I m e h u il d o a w ad se s i gt onu es ode n tl h ne a r r o w - G aP ns idg w- Ti ndh anehrro. wb a n d cod ieds it gh ins rea rrflee d m e a s u a r ce cmu hre aon cwtr,y ev; va el u a b il ne s iaag nnh apdt lsr ya s c i ts i c a l w e o x ubp lede ar i en n tcdh e e i n y b S t la w g e t oa s t h ce l e a r / a c( C /u Ai cs) oi t di oe n, t h w ai dn ed -n d cod i edi stnhrm a rel lrrfye dt o a st h e p r o c Te hs C .3 p r o c ew s os uib nledg p p t l oi de ad at av a if l ra o bsmel e l e ec at erDldi ee m s ot n a-at ni o dn q e ba w o e es a r r p r o t oe prc rt e cd (i P cod ne S. o m et th iPmc o dis s ce a lt l he Ped / Ycod et o i n d i tc ha tat het Pe c o d e S h a k eOd po ew r (nDt Ao Sn Ol i)tg e h sat t ns ad lsl u b s e C 3 D A tS O as f M e ar r c h s i) o e e a i f quen ( t i s e nry cp t e d . 1 9 7 5u )n t t hi lbe e g i no nft hi nCg4 M i s Fs li il geTeh sPt tr o g D aA mS O se s r ee l e bc te e c da t uh se e e r .w S i n c eC 4 t r t ah n ews loa bt eloud r s i on ng l y G Pt SL1e C / As i g na an lo, mt h ee aw n asn s e e d e rda dg aeo r- m ew t arv yse wr y e i an tk h oe p e r at et aiso rt ne a l. u h r t oc o r rf oe i orc nt o s rp e hf re a r ci c t i o on of. ud Br eve- ec lao up osmfe n od pt e r ae tx i p n w i lei Trnh ac ne s i t , A ni m p r to r va eccdka i n agw b asi slui t by s e aq du det encdt ol yl De oc pt pd lae ft r ao mm i s t se i l e m e t r y aen oea t r p o l w he a a d ne x t e n s i v e i n i bo an co kssgpc rehi o-ne ucrWed. h a dd e v e lao np ede v d a l moda et el sd h e s i g nt osa ul s p p lteh mea ed na trT h dci sa tp y,a c. ba i l tli eth dTe l e mD o pt rMy l ee tMr iec a s uS rye s mt e e mn t niec u o ft r a e e p r i o n ores ,ap nh wde e u n tdh elei rmi sr t i ot aoWei to h n e s rd. e e f co itrdoepe r do va gi d r eo u n d s -ab t ael si lklei etde (- T D M Mw Sab) s,a s oe nd h ue s oe ft e l e smi g eDn t ar yp dp il fe f er ra e so n b c s e e as r tv e md r uec l- et i ipv l i en g td t o l t r a n s ( m . e i at. ,t pe sr e u d ow s iat hw e ol l i t e ) i t s i t eT h he a r d t wr ea cr toe h r edd s aef t o a r s. o

p o s p f rl iog c hewt s asi nsi pn lga t cose u p tpw oCor 3 t t D A S Oe sa t ns C 4 t e sb t es g i nw n i iCnh 4 X - 1 3 . t d t g ( T h eX fl i gd he ts i g a n pa pt ilode n s v e l o p m e n t a l oi e f l i gt eh sct to s n d uf rc o ta ml ad u np ca hdI n. a) lsl ,i x e C 3r a r,d t aw C 3r a d a r / T t D Co 4M XSa r,,d s a i x o wM r C 4 X a d a r / T s Di CM 4 M- PS E,PM u c Et i vo an l u r x ( rod a t i M ni s sr ai l d )a r / T aD nMtdhM rC 4 - D A S O o e S ,e e r a d a r / T f Di gMeh Mstw tSse pr er o c ew s i st he ed l t m o d SATeRd A Cp K s tp f rl iog ch est so s f it nw g a r e . ifi o T h l ea ts ht rCe 4 Xf l i g a h n t ads lt l h C 4 - P E M / D A S O e e f l i gp hr ot sc ew s i tst hher ead d a r / Ts D sMwt eMe mS e y r a l s pro c e s ws ei ttd hh G P SATSR A C s Ky s t e m . o e / T D M M rSo c ew s ais mi n pg r oo nvCe 4df l i g b h e t -s p s y o nC d4 X - 1b 9yu s i an t gr a n s s i lg a nkt an lro, aw st nh e o p i lco atr,r fr oi te rh De o p m l ee ar s ur ra et tmh e ae r nn t p h t h t ee l e sm i ge nt ra y l . T h oe v e or rfl a pd a r / Ta Dn G PM S S e a s u r e M m d m e wn taes s x t e tn ood ve ed r tc hol eimm eni t ue m b e r d o G P S a t ea lvl i at eti lhas rb ot l hue e eg a hC l4t e s t s ; f s r y i t a l sp or o v ai dno e p d p o tr otc u o n mi t tpyh aG r P S e e p r o c er es s wiun il rtg ahs da an rda d a r / T r D -M M S e s u Il n ts h. e e s a eC l4t e st ht sf ei,n b a e le s st t i m a t e s t r y o fm i s ss yi lse p ee mr f o rwm e adr ne cr i evr eo ad t f m p r o ct eh ca sot m b t ihn dee ad ft ra o m a v a ai l al l b l e s m e t shH. o wr, e v ect he se a t se ul l rt t re oa c h e d od on pi pe t h ee x p e l ec tv eiet da s c, c u w r a s csu y f f i sc u e pn e t -l y ls i r i ot ort h rea d a r / Tt D taMh t M r Saen s ol o n ag ne yr h ew b e n f re of t imht ce o m b p i nr oi ncRge as ds .a r / T D M M S p r o c ey si es ilod nge aldyp a o r tft h t eo vt aa l l i d a t i o n n a c t ai v s i st yo w i iaSAT R A C K v e l o p m e n t . c t th e d d e I t i s e a ns yo two f o r hg oe mt u oc fth h ti es c h n o l o g y w w ay set otb ep r o vw e h nSAT R A C K v e l o p m e n t e n de s t a rGt P S . ai nsa c o n cd e e pmt o np sh t ar as e i ,o n e dw t t h me i s t s r ial en a s nl add ti go p ir to a s l t fr l ai gc hk ti n g c a p a wb ei ul ir tne i et esas nt tedh dKe ,a l mf i lapt ner o r c e s st ei n c gh nw i qe bur ee i en xg t e sn i dg en di f i c a n t l y s b e y ot hn eed x i ss t t i an tg e - oT f h- SATe R- aA rCt .K te h D e v e l oP pr om gienr nc mua ds e db s et af ftnoo t r i ta l a tl u v a l i ad al l st ep eo cfi t tas s c c u ( ri .a e cw. y, eh a tdo v a l i td h ave t a e l i d s ay ts i ot6 enI nma )d . d ti toti oh n e r a d a r / T wD o MSAT , R A Ca K c u w r a v csa y l i r kM S c d a twe idat hc o m p r es h me n ssl ayi vts ieaoennmdh e i u t t u s oe af u n i qSATe R A C eKss at t e l l i t e . u t A h a r d w a r e s - ii m - ut hl aae ct -iwli oloi ntao ysp n f d e v e t l ho papodrte ud c s e i m ud l a i tn aep df uo at rsl l d t h m a pj or or c ee s l e imn oge ft nh tse sy s tf re om m e s s o f t sw i ma r ue lo a G iP S as t m l loi tt eai on nad s f t o sn e t e ms t i s f sl i i gtl erh a t y.e T c ht soe o r f t sw i ma rue l a t i o n j p od u cGe P S a t te r l al i ct dek ai fnt i agl ei ns c, l u d i n g r ds s i m u e l ar r taoe isrfdts h , w yep r re o v i dt he Gd P S b y e e t r a c f ka icn i Tg i ht i es ssi m. u l a wt ee sdr ee tndo t a t a l e t h Ne a vS au l r fWarfcraee C e n ( tNe S W f Cpro a r o )r c e s s ( iun sg i pn rg o t os o yf tp bwe ea i rd eg v e l o p e d t ne f o SAT R A C pK e r aNt SoW tCh. eprod u cs ea dt r o i n) n e l lpi t oe s ai t ni ovd ne l oe cs i tt i ym i .aeet. ep sh e m e r i ( , d e sa )n cd l o f ci lkte h s wa te r r ee t u t r ont he Ad P L e

p o s t p r fo a cy.e Tsl ihst me n i gs f sl i glse hi mt uprod u i co seni m u t lea l trye md u e i td d n tic nae c, l ue dr ri n rg s , ci i la t d e g aa o a n t dh e s e f wo re wr ea t r hdape el os dso ct pet ors osf -ai ny. gi l i t c T h me i s as ni lsde a t te r l al i jt ee ci nt co lr uisedi mun, l -ga et er rdf oo srr as t pe ol l si t i eat ino cdn l os cwk esa ,r l es o si u s et odd r i sv ae t es il gl i gn eea nl e t ro prod ou r scs iem u Ga Pt Ss d g n a l s . i n t Tu hr wne e per ea, s s e d t a t l ei ,s t h r o d u i g ciht oa nl l typr oh l al se shde i af t ne drt si m a e m su wl t it pocel ehm x ui tn h agme t ei s G iPl eS n t e n - n a t l s a n e t wT oh ai skn . t e n n e n t as i om r kuw l a c tsoo nr -e c t t oae md i s t sr ia l en h s a l ar dt sowi rma ru e l prodt ou r c e d t h a t r w a t h te r a n sG l P S e i gd na atS l -s b a A nS. -b a na dn t eh n a nrre a s wi m a u oda ut oc tre h doe pu prt u t s , a ts nd d l w h wc eh r re e c o br dyp er o t to et ly e p met ae -t rr teyi co en inv rdee r c o er dq iun i gp Tm h he a rt ds wm a ur el a t o r i d s a en . i d r i vw e er scr eo n d i t ti o e n n e c do m ap alal ns ts i c e p f af et e td s , s ii ng cn l au old pi nat g ra ott iuho gen h i c pr h i o n o s ap nhtdre or e o T ph rhee e c r oed r.adptodra du c be ytdh i s s i cm a up l aw reteei ol qi nt uy i v at hl ede na t a t o p s e ab t h wa to u lrde c ebf irevo aem de l e sm i tTee ht. redy s a e t oa w,o , e s r ee tn ott h pe o prot c- e sf sa y.n i gl i t t s ic T h pe o s t p r fo a c c e i lsoi shwyiana dgl l i nt hp eeu x t ps ef oc atr ea dc t f ul i agt elh sG t P S p h e m ne dr i d e s n t n t : e a c l o f ci lkfe r so N S W Ce , l e m e a t nr tydh t er da an ts a il g,a dtn ea dttl aa p T e h . f ea c t i hl i epynr o c te h s e s se ed m t t d a at asi f t h eh ya cd o mf r eo a mn fal icgt tehu asta n lprod u ca ened s t i m tf ah ute en d e mody ei nl rg s t d o r l erro t h ca ot ub l ec o mre pt a t h m o d e r lus s te oprod u c e s i m ut dhl aae tT eah d. pe r o cp er so sva i d e d d d o e erro d c o m tp e l oes tf e pe r o c es sy ss i tnoe tgm ee x tt eh tna h tts e i m u lwa et vi ro ae n l isd h h r e op tf rh er e s ae ln t a t i o n s w o rS l ed g. m o eft hn set ism u cl a tp i oaw nb eui lrsi et eiyn d mt e ass nut yp ap co t r i atv si t s i eo sw i ia t th e d e v e l o p i n g c t h pe r o c eh s a s ri d a wn sad or ef t wt haper oeros cta pet s fs a i y. iTwi t oc o m pf ol er m e noa slft h se i m u l a t o r n g nc g l rtu w e u r se et odc o n c t l hu eidsl e mo t feh SAT R A C yK s vt ea m i d a t i o n . ne t s l A s e c ov ne idrmy p o t re t asa ntn vdt a l i de al m i-oe nc ot ,n c eb iytv he Ad P L R A C K s i g n et n e SAT de t e a wm ab,s a s oe ndt r a c ak s i an g ec ol l n t fe i tg o au cr l eit kad eC 4m i s i sn ii tl ce o ap sh t a Tr ae n. ws a ts t i s s prod u cb eymd o d ia f Tr ian nsg sa i t et hl lwi t taei ns s t a ns d ob rayaA g P eL .h me o d i f i n ac tl ui to dh n e s d y a t t T c a d td i oi -on f s t ar u ec xt ut er ant hs cia oot nm p ar iC 4t dr a n ps rl ao t o( a rt yc tptu w af ool lryr e d u n d a n c y ) l se e a n a dna n t e arrn a nt yha m t a t ct hh pe rfedom a nc chr-ea c t e or ifs t iCt 4 ce o n f i g O rn a c ti en o n . a r c sh u i o r bTri ta , n pro av t i dr e d ua lv a a r il ma bi s l se i tl e o-s lpti kp eo r f t ouSATi tRi eA sC K s ta e n mhdrda w a s g ly rn sy re v ai dl - a t i o nTr a n ta eivts i tg s ay. ts i to ean mp a wbreei mi t ai e i ns ti na Tri na en sdsota h t iat ct o us led rav as e n s c l a d d iot ipo en r aa l ta i vo ings aa l t weo l hnl i eit twn an so b t e i un sg ef o dSAT R A C eKps u r p To hsTre a s n. s i t n i e r t t c a p a wb reie lai t l iste oh sbe a sf oi isrn d e p e n d e n t

s a t et r l al i tj e mc teo ar sy u tr he camot eb nect so m a- r we id t hr a r- ds el a r ti vor ae jde m c te o a r sy u f ro e r m pe r no tvst i hd eei nx gp e a c ct cey.ud Irnat h ee a dr lay yw s ce, r o s s - c eh pe hc ek dm adfet r aro iN S W wC i t h u ld p n c e sm d a f rt ao m G P tSh ea sC t oe nr St rt oa lt( it oh one f f si c y i sa tl e m a n wds oi dt uha rptc ar eo )v b i dyA e e d r o s p a c e M v a l i d p a ut ri op no s e s . r de e e Tr a n ws al ast u n icn hO ec dt o1b9e7rb7 e fao nrGey P S a t ew l le iatr eve sa i Il an e b a l Ner loy v er, m b Ce o r p o A ac ta i or aen nf .ua ol l yfa s lt il hs ae v a idl aa i bnt alde i c t ah ta eht G P S p h e em r rewo r rei sar b o u t s . 3 t i m l ea sr tg h e aer nx p e fco t re pd e r i o d C c4 oXv- 1( 8iwnGo P Ss a t e Cl i4 eX s- 1(, 9 h r e e he e rt g l t ) t t h s ea t w l al ci sthe e co k u e n dt h Tr a n ms iot td o e e r i if ty wtr hea as t tdos yu p op po er t r an t ai ov ni g a a l t i o n e it e v G P S a t e al l ni t de s4 ) X - 2( 1o G P Ss a t e f l l l i gt e h 7s tTt) sh .l ei m nt u m o bfs ea rt ea l nl i tdhe es s C , f ur i e d t u s e I rt ws .a t h es nw i t ct oht he Trd a n ms ao t da en i ,nd i t ei a sw l t es cr oe n d u ci tt heAd P t ph se e u d o sl raga r-et -t h a n - e e p eh ce etmer rdewo r eri tsrh e e d mi fc faui -j lot air el l s o;a ts hp eeo r tcf ht sse y s pt ee mr f oa r s m e d s e w L x e l l Ti t roe u. g ha 1y 9 7 8 ,a n ws a p ts r i m u as tre oi d ye es tq u i p a mt he een a t s at en rwdn e s tt ee sr tn e x p e c t e d . h M Tr lt r a ne gs T .- h et se eps tr so v i d c e a d p at obc i hl ti het ryce ska y l s dt ea mt a iun s t iepn rsgf ea uc d os s w ti et hl l i t e T s hi gp nr oa close fes vs a l us o u i rn c gee ps h ee omr fr ceo orr inss t i n hu r eo du eg nh od 1t 9 8 18; t o e a e at t f he s w W i i a ne m p oh nar as inss g a ef se y t sy t e m tTri na gsn a.a- t l sp or o vt oeb dea ne f f e tc o t foi ovcl reh e co ktf o u t 1 0d i f f e r e n c t o n of i fg t uw r aea rret eei vo an l su a ht t ehl edei s.v a l uw a atb si oe ncn og n d ut ch tiene idt i, a l s he io i a t T D M MH So . wr, e a e i d o a fGt iPo Sn r a c ko inn cgwe p uth slad tv oew au i nt at itl le at w ts o a t w l el i rt e bs a s e lpi nh ee gm e en re issr oa ft tww anba ser emn g i n t ha ir noa eulf dll g i ght eh st ot t sh ta i m He o. ew vr,- ei n vvl t o s e J a nry u1 a9 8 2a ,n e b a s ew l ians se l e tc h tpaeodtd u c ae nid m ro pv e mo f e n ata bf ao cuo tt f2 r. To w r o a v a ila b le . m a i nc to a n i ns p s rt oe cn etr se ss i aun lpgtl rs e, v p i or ou cs elCs 4 D dA S O n do p e r a t te i os tn a l f l i g h t s i y se a I n J u n1 e9 7 8 h, f ei r ms t i s ts r i al e n f sl il gat eht Ct tr4, X - 1o7c ,c u Or rne ol d n . G P S a t w l al i st e ( a b 2 0 )w e r r ee p r o cw e i tts h s ee d bn ae swee pl i hn e gm e e n r ei sr a ft ti ow n a t r he be. a so i fts h e t os y e s e out o On a v a b l f-l oe t r h ti se sa t n, td h te r a n fsa l ai la et fodtare s r h po eod tr oi fo p e r a Ht i oo wnr, .et hv te e w t a s l i m i t oa tf hi oee na C l4 X l i g h tSATt R sA t Cs rKo c er se ss iun l gct so mw pet oar ea ed da r / Tr eD s Mu Mt sS i r s sr y f e p , r r l s i g n ti fo i c SAT etR A C K v e bl oe pc eai trw s sat esh f ei rt si mt t he wa tew e a r b l e d e mt o o tn h s at rt a i n ett oh ee a or lpy e r at et 8soAt nsf t.at ehl rbe a sl i en we a s aCd4j tu r sa t j eea dcc ,t co u ra ry ca hc iye ivt e d at hn de u e t i w h e t a c t ur aa nl sGl P tSse i g nc ao lusb l es u c c e t sr as cf aukttl ehl yA P L o s tt f r l ai g c fhka ti cn ui gl si t i yd g t a SAT R A CI sK y s tbe ams oe, ntd h f e i r3s 1 a d d de p na a a i r e c ob r yd e od ft h re a n t ge el e m i t eeT t shr .C 4 X - 1f l8i tg e hi snt At u g 1u 9s 7 w8 as su p p bo yr t e D A S O n od p e r a f tl i og nh at hl a t ade ps ot ss ,ui t ni oc ne or t f3 5nf t ta y n ad v e l ou c n i tc ye or t f a i n t y one s ye t d 9 t w Go P S a t e la- nl i dt he es , t mr a i ns ws il olae rt kpo eer dr tf eh rc ot luyt gh fhel iog Su h it nt . c he e t nr a, n s l a 0 o. 0r f9t /a s bod yd e p l o. y m e n t s t t s t f na i h a pv ee r f os ru mc ce ed s as fl lui gtl lehy s tT tohs n.it se ps rt o v t i hd fei r dos pt p o rt ot cu on mi t yp fl eu mlt le i s s i l e S o m i nr-e ge r i am i np r o vi nee mp he enwmt ess eru er bi ss e aq cu h e i be yvt ldey d a i na gd d Gt iPo dSn aa t l a a d rt F e v a l uw aiSATo Rn A C n i nd i t ti ah f tei ero sdp t p o r ft ou Trn ai t nei es v saa t l u oa ftt hi oGn Ps cS a p a b i l i t ci eo sl l. e sc i ttaieotA n P L a, n Tr a n s s u a pt epr dao n s g a e ft ee ts y at i slna gat esM a1y9 8 2 o. t rh me op sa t r t , tt hi aK r e t h SAT R A C pro j e wc at c so m pa l let ht teor , au g sch loa nt to it rnos u u e p ap loC r4t f l i gt eh st I tnsa .l l , e I K n l T h SAT R A C K o c ef as cs wi nl iantg syo w pr- ea t i an atg ni n t e l n sv Tr al .n v s aa l ti d a a c t t i iov ni t ti er as n h l aa vt oe rc sc es su sp f pu r ol al yr nts eg a dea e n tady c c u p r ra o c cy er e sq i un igr f eo 1r 5e4C 4sf l i g h t e pr o e e s su f s m nt w e jr ue sg t e t ts i tn a g r rt ae dd a, r / T C 4 p Mr oS c ew s as csi o n t i nn uo i n mSAT lR A CCK4 t e ts ht sr ot hu ege nh od 1 9 9 7 . D M ng r g ,a f pro c e sw s aib nse gg i n s n y i sn vtgea , mi d a w i oe c nr oe nr uc nlausnd wi newg e, f ri rebs et g i nt ne i n ag l u a t e t h e l t d o v a c te u p a h l e am c ec ru i sr aG c Py S a t e Tfl olhi troee r si g. e i sn tai mf o at r ht e e s r er r o e r f sl ei nc ttr oea dn ag ne d s l S A T R AI IC K r a nr ag ute en c e rf to a r ian sc t ahi et lesi nl ol ei stf ei g w h et r e e 1 2f ta n 0 . 0 0 f 5t / r se , s p y.e c t i v e l d T h ed e v e l o op ft mh Tr i nd teI I n( D 5 m i sb s e i lgei an n 9 8 1To. s u rt t ph odi s e v e l o p m e n t , ee t ) 1 p A P cL o n d ut hc et e Ad c Ec vu ar la uSc ayy ts i tso etny. Td h sa t u sd u y p p do er tv ee dl o o p ft m ee n t e c h n i c a l u m h To d rei c at lsy s t eh sve sa lou tf eh e errso er ds u r i n g o b j e c t gi vu ei ds e a l inn de t sh d adet of itcnhu eemd ae cen cvt ua r l aur eca qyt iuo i nrf eo m Det 5nM et si sF sl i glTeh st t r h e e a Tr ha n o s rma t i s f sl i glt eeh pst te r id o ad wt ,ree c a P r o g Tr ah m . R A CI I Ke q u i r e m e bn yt sh ,e d Ae cf Ecn v e ar dal uS ay ts i tosent m idn c l u d e d SAT e r i u c y, u c o l l e a ca t nea dc c u s rrvua et ey l loey cd a Weo r ne . t ti s i g n ip f ie c raf on rte mn h a nc ec e m e n t s . a n f e r t r oet hddi sa ct ao l l e a c st si n t gm t i sc t se i sl et s . a I t w a s t h tach ltD a5rr e q u i rce o mun leob ntem s ew t i t ha do uu at l - f r G q S ieg nnr ca ycl k i n g e d t e P su t T h e t se esp tr so v a i d ier oed bc st e ro vtf ah l tei n o k n i r a n ag nerda n r ga et er r r oe rl sa t ot ti h eoc so e m p u t e d v f r o t mh se a t e pl l h t e Tm h efe or irs sm. i ma l u l a t i o n i v a l i dr u tw i soe cnr oe m pi nl Jea t ne u1 a9 r7y 9 n d a n d a, a f or- us a tTre al l ni vt seaa l ti d t ae wts i toac nso n d u c t e d i n M rca h1 9 7 9 .h Tr ta n t se aas tn tdh se t a mt i ic s s i l e T a t r e s i un ldt si c t ah t taeht dG P Se p h e wm a nes or its e

c a p at obp i el i tr iym ni to s cp o h r er er Tcc ht iG P S i. g sn t ar ul cw t eu r ree v s i ei nwa se ed ro i efm s e e t i n ag ns dt e l e m e ht ray r d sr wet aq t rui eoi rnw mu repe nd ta ts to e d i n t ch lm do ed i f i ca an tdti ho A P ,L o i eo n s a e e eu en s w i t h G P So i pn rt o gs rt aaUm nf . l ti k L1 s i g tnh aLe2 l s, i g cn oa ul l d b em o on dl yub l yae ti te th dh e e r s i m u f la a c twi loaiutnsyp d at ot e sd ud pe pv oemrl toe opn ft-t h pe o s t p r o a c ce i sT i sth i den esg v e l o fp hm e e n t e j f he f l . t n ro rw b Ca /nAcd o d o e rt h we i d e bP ac no dd Te h.p e o s so i fb i tl ei t m p o rt aot hr Cel y/ Ac os dw e i t cu hp ign rgpa od se t dp r o a c cewi sl iast ysihn eb ne g Tu hnne. e m i s hs ia l er d t we eas qrt eu i p cmo ne fnti git o u n r a a y i f g w m o d uo l nL2t ti o s nu p Tr oi d r et en swt t ac so n es ri dei m-d p r ab ce t c i cao autf lhs ee f f oe nco tt hu es re r s .w a a s g ap i rn o v wi d i te thdh i Le o c k h ei se asd nl Sed p a Cc o m pd ae nv ye l o c po mn tear na tcd t , t h e a p s n M i s e n F u t su a r te em l l ii gt eah sbtv e e n t mi n oc dlt uhi fdei eu da l -c ca o p d aoe bnbi l oi t ftreh q u e n co i w er,e . v - t e l e m eu tp r yg rwsa tedpa r erteoiso v wn i d i tte h dI inen t e Er sl et ac t Cer oo nr pi c ocs ro a nt ti or an c t . h o y H es t h j eo i pro t g r sa fft ms u g g ae nsa tl e ed r t nh waa tot i vu els ad et h Gr dP Sr e q u(Le) .nT ch yti rs a n ss i m ni s - T h m ah j a r d w a r e e d f efa ovAr eP lfLo pc mo s nea nre t d e s SATn R A C K s t fr l ai gc hk ti n g n a t i f o e o t t u e d ig e d p o 3 s e r va en do n p o sp i ut i ro pnI ot iwns egu s. s eo dn i nl yrm e i ty,t ei t w tald s e r ifrvo emtd h se a mf r e q u e nc co yn f i gt ue r na ht iao nn c e a n td ha rc oc uuT grh ahtercp ayu c t k. i n gw a u s ps yg sr at oedt me a 1c 2 d u a l a t n o r d k s o u ar cst eh pe o s i t si oi gn ni ana ngl isdt c, o uh l a vt heCe / Ac o dmod u l aa t pi op nl i e n e we dfh oe r d f r e q u l ien nfk rcso yr mi g ah nt -d d e d n cl ei r f ct pu h ol a l arn tl rdry i az n ds l a t( ei . de 4. ,8s r iag nn ga elas- nc orra d e e r e cdi Tr i d et en st u p .pT oh ai s p p r wo a acs gh r te oea, dn i tdb e c at m e e b G P eS li g n cne oa nl c f eo pr t t r a c l ko ion pSg si my, itl ha tre rl a c d k aect dao r e c at i no edn d i ts i on fgtww ae sn eh a t noi n e ldau ud t eo m a t i c t rt h as s i ). rar cc SAT R A CI I K . e d i tai n agd n a l y s t c- i an pt ea Trbahi cl eipt oi ve s est .f l i g sh o t f t twwr aaa scsruke bi n s git m np t ri oa vl l ye ad a u s in g T h i em p l e m ea n t da ut iao l n- Gr P S oa pf-e a n b nc i yla i t yua rf fa e la lcoyl tl te ha d se pr oe fc st yhs t se - m m o d au r l ca hr i at en cdb t eu mte eo r d te e l ic nh g n Hi qo uwr,e ets hv. me o ss i tg n di f ei cv a e n l ota pc m io v ef i n y t f ecu q tr e t t h a r d c wo a rf ieg Tu hr ae dt i do oint afi. on no t h e hr as nti gont nhe mel l i s t sr ial en cs ol aui tnl odc r r t eh aoe su et p u SAT R A CI I K a t sh ie m pml e e - n to a ftt hi oce nu m u f l ai g t ihe v tsae tc c u er a uac y - t i oc an p y.a b i l i t n a c a t w v la b a n d rwe iqd ut hi ra e n mad fe f ten h tcte te l e- m se t ta r rte i oc o r r de i qn ug i rHe om wr,e ewn vrte e. c o gt hn ai z t e d y n At el td h o u g h d cu orSATcgRe A C udK ae lvi ze el oda pf rom ea nl t , t bh ae f so i srt esd tei cs ai gn nidt s inn p tI l t h te w G P S i g nc ao lusb l eo v e i rn laa ci do m m r o n cs hl aa t noT nrh ese li .g nc ao lusb l es e p a r a o s d t a d s u b s e i m u p e l en m w e ecn roteam t ipao l spne rtat oe tfdh SAT R A C I dK e v e l po rp omg e an mt . q t e I r d u r i n s gi g t nr ta h lcoek p i ne grb a yvtr-i ot un oe tf h deff iree n c i ne t sh ce oi r ds et r reu scb ,t uua ttt h ee x p eo nf s e T h e p a d -e l av u n o cDh 5ef ldei gtn ehtbsa et l s g i an J na n u 9 r8y(7D 5 X a 1n )ed n d i n d el pm t 1a e i n c r en ao s i esn ed a sc ihg nA an l o. b t h ne o re tf hf i ote v e wr l at hy a tSATt hR eA C rKec -o r wd o nru o d t e s I e l n e em d o d i f We aa t l isro eon a .t l hi z taeh t rde a n s ga e f te r ta y c c k a i np gac bo iulbi lt eb a so en tdh te r a n s l a J tae nd u a r y ic dy G P Ss i g n t ah lias t, h ci sh ow i co eu l d m t i hn nea et ef odt rh Le1/ 4 t r a n s il ga c nhe aadl nT nh ieen l .i t i a l1 9 8 (9D 5 X - 2D 0u ) r. ti nh tga i m Ge P, S a t se ul l ppi t o-ew r ta s y ec nto on tt i an nu ndo oau ttl sle sc to s u l d e i t t s s y s dt ee ms wi g abn sa s e td h c eo om n m h o a n n nP eS l p p r ow ah cwi ch eth, e s t A P LH . ao twr, e v e b e c o n wd iut thc h ti tnei m p eeod r pro v i dm i na gx is ma tuce ml l vi t ee r a g e . o n t l hy FBe ul or I ctI shk ae t r - m o r e , c G a ed at e d i o t h ce o m p o l fte h tpei or en ryi dm e i sn pi agh na s eSAT R tAh CIe I K a s ew l a e s se tl ai s bh w- e i dat hs e p a r a t e l , b in el l l ih t ae tdsh de u rea ql - uf e s ni gc cny aa ply.a Tb hi l eli it sm e i t wa te imor eni t s i gb ayn t e dd u a l - f r p s eu ue -n c y w eq c h a nL1/L3ec l o n f i g au nrt ah ter i ao n sg, ae f se yt ys t we m bs a s eo dn G Pt hS1e C / As i g n a n d a L d o s a tb e u tl tlhy,t eet os o,w ree b e i innrodt u c oe ndt h r ea n dg ue r ti hn D 5 X e s et r De es s. tp h i te e i , g g t e i a lo n e . c o v el i rm a igt e t i sot srn ai lsryje ,e ucrt tna o ic n eat bit e o sdd ey p l o f yo m f ei rfnsi hvtt ee w t es f r eo 1m 3t o2 0f t am r t s A n o t mh ea rej o f rf ion re t s t a b t l hi s S A n- g eh i i n p o s iat no 0n . 0 3 o 0 . 1 2 t /i sn v e y.o Hc iot wr, fe r vo etm h se e v e t ne tosh tn t, h ue n c e r t a i n t i e s i d t f l T R A CI I K a s ec loi n ec et rh nme e i ds a s ni l te e n n a b i m p rt o 4v teo 1 1 f t i n p o s at ni o0n. 0 0 t6o 0 .0 1 f 4t /i nv e y.o1 0cT i th pe o s ai t ni ovd ne l o c i t y d i d s l c o n f i g Au cr a tr sieot funuod.l ft yh pe h an s o e ics hr- a e re qre um i e s nef tot s r SAT hR e A CI I K y s twereem2 0 f t a n 0 . 0 1t /r se , s p y.e Wc trehi vae es t l h e s e t s d f a c t e or ifs s et iv ccesa r na dl ci do a tf eg eu vr a n i o un - s n i et t re qre um i ew n e tmrs eea dt e p l o yt hm ew ey enb r te , i en xg c e ien d eb tdoh oe s t Cr err eg y,ni ot thnl ses y. s t e m u a l ley td ot h c e h o o i acf we r ro p an dn t earrny.n a a u a i s pro v i dv i en l goa ccci -tu y r ba ec y0 .w0 1 t /i n a lf l l i gr eh gt i toh npe so ; s ai tc i o uni sr na oc lwe ts hs a3 n lo f s c y T h di s e s wi g asn se l e bc et ce aid t u s i en i m hi za es de m p f t T. h pi s e r f o rg ma wian an p sc r ei m a rt iol G P Sm u p e r o v ( m mos ea entl ett slea- sn dm o ar ec c u r a t e y id e r i v a r i ai n tt iho men is s r so pi l el a na ep f,a r ro ts mm a l l e p h e m e r id e s ) . a n g r ue lga i rno t nh ne o sa en td a d i li r e cT t hi o i sn s . s T h f ei r c s ut m ue l va at ilvuo eatf ht Do 5nM i sF s l i glTeh stP t r o g w r a b ma s oe nd 9 t e st ht sha at d ie e s 1 c h o wi c aae sl si mo p o t rot t har ena nt s ga efc e o t ny f i g u s re d r e s pe odn ut ac tg i vuo eind sa yn sc t eT h si se .t p r em s u r a tn i o bnt e, c ao uf s ea c cc ou nr sa icd ybe ur at t i o n s b e c ai tua sl leo fw o ser m or, om t reo ce o n t i n u o u s d h p e r f o ro mtf h ar een ac le-s ti ig mtn r ea lcl o on p g s . ki T h ew s e i me p ob r utr ate nl at st ti vr ae il gy h t f o r w a r d r u p g rt aot dh SAT R A C sKy s tAe ltmh me. i s s i l e ee s I l

i n c l u4 do etf hd e d e s5c Xrl i bg a ehn dt1ds 5l a P eE rMD ,A S Oa ,n Cd o m m i n -nC dEhevi ea f l u a t t i ho t ines s t e x dp ee mr i eo nn t csh est er u a pt e o drGi oP r Sio t vy er ar d f oa er v a l u i na te i m t giea al s u rn e i tm e n t D f t r- a f rn Te s f tl i g.1 1 E t xs c e re l lse uw l t esor b t a wi n i te h d i s e va er lsry ya m ea psn lst d u , b s ee qv ua el unh ata t vi oe n hs a r d e w r raIonr rae s d . d i i tt wo anc so n c lt uh Ga et dw o u lr do vh i dg aeh cl yc ui nr as tt ae n itma p n-a e c ot u s h n e t e i , d PS p c o n t r si bi g u n t ieft idoci ma np tr l oy vi ne t mu een nd te swr l e ai nsp gyo s nterro m e As c. o m p a a r nt ii co l nep o idn at f to ar ra n s g a y.f1e2 ,1A3 l t h so u cg wh eaa sscs h i w vi t ehSAT hR eA C K p r to h aP ece ha ,c e k e e p e r h y e rmod l e t c e dt ap ( C o l e am n Sd nm kt hi ni i ss s, ud e )s c t rhis bei ge ns i f i c a n at c ch oi ben yvt hre ci edbu um t i uo lna st i v e p r o gcw re asm m ei n e igt soi n b g j e cw t i tv hea sv t ah irel a db al e r i n s t Tr u em r et hnfAoet iraFr eto ,i rohc nae .nd o ai ss h m e t hy.o d o l o g m o t i vt oa c t hi oa nni t gse ev a l a aro tp ai ocHnh o. wr, eA vi Fre o rrec prt so r e c o gt nh t iahz tSAT R A C K up e ed m od t oh l ou gn ycre o d va pe r e v ui on ud se lityn e i ct itoaenl dderror. i To n fi isn d l ei ntdoag re a s s e os fst hm e e n t e it h g r a mv i ot yidn e hl l ea u nare c ah n i dt is n f l u oe nnt hc Pe e a c e gk ue i ed pmod rce el . t a en O t hA ep r p l i c a t i o n s A at b ot hus eta mt i m SAT aR sA CIdKe v em l oe pn -tab s e g i n t nh iRen ag n, Ag pe p l i cJ o it ni ot n s e e I w a P r o gO r fa f mcR eA J Pi nO i t) ida et ev de l oo pfa tmr a e n n s gt l ae tn ome r ri asf tosl eri als ept p l i cAa Pt pL or o v .i d eSd A T R AI ICI K (i i ns t e c h sn u i cp atp ol oR rAt J P aO n , tdh ee yv et un -a l l y a c i no in t itwar atiI tenc h dt e rE s l et ac tt er o n i c t so C o r p To hr Ne ta i ow y ic l lo n t it no tue eas nt ed v a tl uh Trae i td e eWe a p So yn s twe im h pe r i mg oa aor ylf s a vn n t t p od u ca eb a l l i s t ti cr a m ( sBls Ms t isTlo ey)r s tf eo gm e n e r a rl -a p n ug pepp ol iscTeah tBei oM nTp s r. o v i d ed det -e c c i hn ag nt ogs ey s tp ee mr f o rc ma ua bsn eyca deg c no gm p o n ae sn s tes s s i modg i f i sc ya st it oe nm s r n i a r ar t i a d n a n i m p o t r et as tn t cf aon pr u a mb ieNl irtaoy t ui Ms ni saD l iel ef e ( nN sM D e) fs l ti gt hh wt steh a vb e e n n e ee dd t - oe x t ei t ns d l iI fnet ht ri ims g e w. r ede , c o t gh nSAT e A C K a l ui s ao tn i ol yn perta o f o s e t a e a r a i tz R e v s u p p so irnt cti nhe ge a 1 l 9 9 0As s. p e ac di a a l p ot aft ht iBo M w a a s l s u o s ef od t r w A o iFr o r c e s y s at ec cm ua r sa s ce y s s m a ec nc tua, r sa s ca y n i sdomn a el py n a to r ft t to h twea el a ps yo sn te ev ma l u a t i o n . r y e n T es P e a c e I C eB eMp gt eeh rts tht tsah Lt ea b o s r ua pt op roy r t e d . k fli E q du ial i l g i esnn ec ee di n ea dal l s p e mc t os n iato onfmrdi na g n tt ah Trn i id n esg yn st t e m . i ie T h fei r N tM D e s ut p w oep r rt o v wi d ae so dt r w o e x o - a r te me inon tstrpey hrs ceu erbp cs t y s t e m C o n t i nDu5ea dc c u re a v c a y l u sa ut ipo pnw o rerl tlm at hi npe r i m o ab rj ey fc o tSAT eR A C K . s t p f i i ri v ( E R tI S )fs l ti g i hn Jt as n u1 a9 r9y a n d 1M9 a9 r2c .h et es esd t es m o nt hs tda r tiaf ft ee G e PnS t i a Hl o w er, v n-p a r wa il tl eh al c y,t i w i ehts a vi d e e n a tn i fa i et eu dxr at el no SAT R A C aK p a tb h i lai tt i e s e 1 T rd ei t hv sf i o n c m e a s u r e m a eninn tt se rbac en tpdw t re ge e ea n ce ,hq u i pw piateth d a r, cs lo a utr loed s to hl iven e t e r c e cp a ts nu p p or er tc i n it oe nre c v e a p l ut a nt iao tnaos nntdha el fao t re mr i s dsb ieal efl el i fsnl itsgit eceh st Tt h .i s e a o r t r n s i s v e cg t eo or e mt wr -y i ts hu b m a ec ct y.u Trr h e re cf to dl li o p wr o- oj efn c tp o s t fal i ng adh n t a s l tu r spa i pcs ok irrnte ga l i gz ar eto iwou o tn fo u Er R If Sl i g t he e tx p e ar ine don ucs reu p tp oto h r Set t r a t e g i cI n iDt iea ft ei vn es e e ac y st t oN M Ds c o n t i nw ui ti n m , o r se t c ien nt te rt ec s es e tp r ti e s i np tl1o 9 9 9 .dh Ee R I tSe s t s O r g a nf oi tz r ha det e o v n e l oo pfa m r ee nc itinsr-ti coe en tp e tcs at p a f ob t rih l Bi et ry i l Pl i e nb b l e sB o P t rh o g r a m . i hg e a n n eT i p a t a c t e ads p r ai ns tg oabs oe aor irfe d sd e p ree ns dea eandnrdcet hv e l o( IpR m& aeDcn) t t i dv i tr ie e c sat ec h i e v ai ont ftgh ep s r eo jae nc tdths e c o s n u t pi nop ufo eMtd D e s t o hb aj e v wc e t i ,Nvh ae vc yo n c u tr ar ek n c e , n d Nr t it s en i n t e rv c e e c p t teo ro ma ce ct ru yor afl e c sy s 2 c hmaT .nh ae b it l oi at yc h it eh vlaeet v o e fa l c c u wr aa cs y a d v a no tft ah ge en i q Au P L a c i dl i te i veo esp l e- f d Tr i d eA n s t n. o t ien da c o m p aartn i ci ol en g t u ef o r d e m n - s twr aiat t hneI Rd & pDr o bj ea csote nt dh u e s o e af r e cd ee nv te l SATp Re A C n Ks m e n t a t i o( Tn h. o m t ph isissos nuo ,en ) h i ga h - p sr el etc edi sw it oes, n c c ec so smf u pa l yneI R e&d pD r o dj e e c v t o t e d o yl o d i ru t u l t T h U . S A. i Fr o rPc ee a c e t ke es eut p ep roaard t i r es pc ti n o- oft hf fNe a vTryi d ew n o tTr kh . e t od e m o nt sh tmr ae t ai ns gu c r ae pm aneb eni eti tdf yoe r d e c ii ns ti oe ntr ec es vtp at l u Aa ne i oa nrI Ri e.& r D e w s e l pr t ls p o fs l ti g-t rh a t c ak ni and ng a wl y oshri sa t dh se a mg e ne ev ra a l uo ab tj ieo c n t i inv de i sv i d uHf oao rl wr, e v eep s rt os j. e c t a dt r e a vn d s eloas pti ogoe rnrdp tu h r i tps howas atet hs be a fs oia srn e Tr i d te r na t n s sy l sa utt eso em od r k l t e l f w fr w i t h t wo Pno el ya c e fkl ieg eeh vptae l ruu as iSATd R A Cn Kob, a sf oi cs r u m u a l an ta ievl yxe si siAst P Ld . s u rt i pn sog p e rec eiryanbl t o d ey s t s . s t ne g e p t a n td h Ce h a Sr lt ea Dsr kr a Lp ae br o sr au tp o e r dyP r et - a c e kc eo en pt re(aTRWt a n s d po rc o r IRn o- c k w eT lhl ue p g r SAT R A C K s t fr l ai gc f hka ticnt iygl - s uw pi l epl xo ir stC i4 a g n D 5 t r a n a lna dt o r s aded p o t n d s t e r n a i nt ai o un ca cl t)ee s c s h f ut rlo a l on tgs h fN e ar vg yu fi d ea vn ac le uc a p i ao.1 bn2 ,1l 3 t i e s s n y o t i i re ery nbod y t r a n sa lsa t eoa l rslt sh re p l a c t er am n teso nbl atest e rl e f co t re nd te h De 5t e m t i sk si ti .l e t w o w s A l ol b j e co t tf i hv e s p w r oe mr er eaO tmf.p a ru t il icam-r p o tr ht taewnt oce es ,t s ts hht aho Gw Pe Sd W h ec n m p wl e e t eir l dle ,tf eo t rh ci s o n f ti g o uan rsSAT R A C I Kw h wc hti l al kf ue al l d v a on f t a g e g te o w i aI I, i e s t i mu n tc i eo rn t ae bi rne t t i te e ts rh bet eha sav tna ir laar-dbb alae se ev da l ua a tp i ro Son pa e y, i. f i c a l l t e c h ng or ol owpg tryho ci neh sa sr ida wns do r f et t woprad r ue ca e o r k s t a f ta i oc t inhl i-at byt a s e d a w p c hc n ga o w

i s e a rs ei l cy o n t f ois g u u p r pew od ir drt ae n o gatf e sT thsce. a p a bt h lnietei ecw os n o f fi g a un rt dah e te xi o p n e c t ue sdo etf h i s t e tc oah w n iodr laeo nrog gwy e e a s py os etn ev m l u a t i o n s . i f a r e d u t ce ets edt m o p fTr i d ef l n gtt eh nst at s t pr dor au lcal ye p c e sc sa i pn tagh c a iattby e x t e tn osd u e p d p o r t o i u ro n c r i t i c a i n t eb tra ec l les i stpoit ntti chg e or f h d i ge fh ep- npr osr iego Or ai utsmyrt us i d.n ide i stc ha at cet a t ph ai s b ir l ei t qy u i r e d l REFEREN C ES t oa d e q s u u a p t pmody e v l a l i d o a fprei oc ni smi o i n i sn rctl e sp yt s t e m ws ,eh a vca on nd f i tgh u e r e d rt e ol t s i e 1 K e r s R .nB e. ,r ,L o Aw l t i tN u a d v e i gS aa t t i Seo ylnl si t te ei nmE l ,e c at rn oAd ne ir co Ss p sa E eAmS T C O 9C o n v Re en d,ct Wo r na s h i n g t o n , h y tc e s 6 N io p o s t rf a i gcn khg u-t b s ay rs c t he timtobe ec ta ues rxi lepy a tn oed v e e d ns t uu pa spl uloy ctr eht s t s . l s D C p p 1. 7 4 1 (7199 6 9 ) . , T h oe f f ri ce es p o n g s ei bn lr ea r na agl pe fpot l ri oc n -sA , J P i O , d e v ae t lro a pnr- i bsn laga Gt eoP dS 2 E a s tRo . ,n M, i d - AN l ta i vt ui gSd aae tt ieo il nl iEt lee s c ,at rn oAd ne irc o s p a c e R a s s t A 6N o ng n, r a n s gy es t( e m R t S )ian t c l u d c ea sp a bi ni l tiate y rs cu ep pfmo t or i sr ts Ti oh nsi ssy .s ti sei nm t e nt od e d S( 1y 9s 6E e9 m)S. Ts C O 9C o n v Re en d,ct iWo rna s h iD C p,t op 1. 8 0 1 8 3 TG h p 3 , t .n s e rb v o ert ah n s ga efa e ntpd o s t f l i g ho t bj e-e c v tfai oval ruev as rt i oer ant yn u g s ee M r fsa .n ey aw p p al i t- i o n s W o o dJ .fBo . rMd e, l Wo C ., ,a n Dd u t cR h.Le. ,r ,S a St ey l sl ittf eeo mr s y o c vi 2 r d s a r ee x p e t cout es Te G Rd Si g t ir t aa nl as nl atd ht oeg rir sr o us tn a d rt ei o c no er dq iun i gp A n e enuwtp . g r a d eN Aa S TgUCasOti in9oCg4no - nH vOo Reur enbrd,cit tniWosE r,nales chat iDnnoACn ept, i orcpon.1,sS py8 as4 tc(ee1m9 6 9 ) . d m E 6N o g 89 4 L e vL y.J ., , S A T R DA e vK e l o i pn A P eL ne tv , e l oi n Sp cm i eea nn c tdes C m D t ot h Ae P L o s t fr l ai gc fhka ti cnwi glpi lt rl yo av n dn et e fr ofTar Gc Rd Sa p t a o c ei nst hs n iene fgau r t u r e . p i e r
T e c hy, nJ Ho Uo / gAD PS LT -L6a , u Mr eD lp, p 4. 6 4(9 9 7 8 ) . l 1 L e vL y. J ,. , R e qS ut iurf do aym T er i nd IteI sAn c t c u Er a ac yl u a t i o n e r v S y s t e n m P, D e v e l oi n pS m i eea nn cTtdsee c hy, nJ Ho Uo / gAD PSLT - 1 0 , i A L c l L a u Mr eD lp, p 1. 0 4 1 (0179 8 2 ) . 6 D u v D n.J ., , V a l i do taf ht Sie oA nT R AP C oK c eF sa s c i in lni gA yP ,L e r t SAT R A C Kb s e e sn i g n aci f oi c n a t nrt oit bh use ut oc rc de e sv feu l loa pn m p ee nr tas ut i co con efa s l s D e v e l oi npS mc i e an n tcTdsee c hy, nJ Ho lUo /gAD PSLT - L6 a, u Mr eDl ,, h a s od t h Tr i d e yn st t I etc mo n. t it nopu r eo sv ui d n ei m u oae n i ft uo nr i cnt tg i ioas cnt r i tt ioct ha m a inn at e -c e 7 p p 4. 9 5(21 9 7 8 ) . e s q h el n n o tf h Ne a sv sy t r a wt ee ga sipcy o s ntAe sm un. r a t mo no vt e w a h r idg rh eae l ir ao nn m e i sd s ei lfee n s e Ao, nfS dA eTRrRs.J A.oS,LCye ,KsvLPt y.eeJ .,mr,T f ho or mmn ATapP.nsa,LDcon enHdv,,e e s Rtoi ne.BpS r.mc, iEeeavnnnactdlseu a t i o n o i os c i l t h ne e e t do e s t a e bq l ius i hv l ea vl ee an l st s uo ir nat n co c es a e p a wb ir l eil t qi esu si imr es i kl ai lnl sfda c i l i t i e s T .e c hy, nJ Ho Ul o / gAD PSLT -476, 4(91 9 7 9 ) . f h r 8 T h o m T .s, oP ne ,r f o o rtfmh SeaA n T c Re A C K o/ Gs il toSi by as lit ne gm p P on A l t h oTr ui dg ehen as t tn ed v a l ui soa utp iror i nm a ir ny t h e e fv o o c l ou tfts hi SAT R A C yK s t we em r ,e t oe n s a a t t e mt oa ct icn og m em mrgo eidnr ag tq e u i r ae sms oe cn i tams t ei s d s ei l feews nyi tsshtet ee asmn ed v a l u a t i o T nr i ,dI eM ni st Ts ri lae c Sk yi ns tg ei nmP r ,oI cE .E PE o s Li t oi oc naa tn i od n p e t i , a sa pro pp r iSAT eR . A Cw Kci lol n t it no su u e p tp h oNer a sv sy t r a wt e e ga ispc yotsn - m p e r a t i o n s9 TN ha ovamiSgnTypa dmts.,,ioAoSpntnAl,aCT nRt NiAy c ,JCp Kp 4a. 4n R5d e-p4vd(4i1ae99 e8H,n0 os) .p Ak Pi n Ls at t e o . U J ow h t e v o lf uo ttrhi of eon r e s feu te-u a Tr beh lL. e a b o r a ft oo r r wty oca o r nld o t os nu upp eo- odr tf h N M D r o g r a m T , e cD h i .g4(. ,2 )1, 1 8 1 (2169 8 3 ) . iks e p 10 V e t J t . R r. ,S c h w Ve . L .k,a , n Hd a t T o. M ., A n m p r G vP eS d B a s e d e n t x , I o a n wd e o pt oe x t et hn ed h T r a c Sk yi ns gtf eo Hrm i g A h c c u Tr ar i cd IyeI Mn it s Ns ial ev i g a a nt di o n G u i ed a E nv ca l u in t Fi oo nu h,r tB e i e l n G nt ui aie d aT ne csS y m p a t ., H o l l oAmF BN ,nM p, p 6. 7 8(6 9 8 9 ) . a 1 11 H u n e J y. Ec .u,P t at y D e. A, . ,a n Sd i m kL i .nS s. , E n s eB ma lbl il se t i c , n M i s Gs ul ei d aA nc cc eu Er a ca yl uU as ti nGo gPn S i, n F i f t eB ei e n n t hn i a l i v i G u i d Ta enSs cyt em H p o l l oAmF BN ,nM p, p 2. 3 3 2 (4179 9 1 ) . ., a 12 P e a c e k eE ex pe ecS ru u/ tGmvP eRS e a prGoy Tr t0, 6 PT AR , W p a ac ne d i m S T e c h nG o r loo Sg py B,n e r n aCr A (i 1 9 9 1 ) . ua d no, 13 P e a c e k eE ex pe ecS ru u/ tGmvP eRS e a prGoy Tr t0, 7 PT AR , W p a ac ne d i m S T e c h nG o r loo Sg py B,n e r n aCr A (i 1 9 9 2 ) . ua d no,
5

SU M M ARY

A C K N O W L E D G iM ict ieN T eS pa tb i o2 n5 yt e a g som , u oc Sfh A T R Aa C iKt as p p l i ch a tb i oe nea sjno i en f t f oo ft r ht Se p a c e S n E sn c : u r nd v a n Sd t r aS t ye sg t Dec m p sa r M ma e nP tL st .am f fe m Nb ae vsr y ,o n as no cdr os m m i r emh r acs v a e la sd i eg n icf oi c na t nr it bo t uh t eiaosc net si v i t i e s . i e t Ay s n sp , f m i W ew o u sl dp e i kct ieoa lcl yk n o s wo lme tfdeh ge e ea ar lny pd, e r ho av pe sr l co oo nk te r Pdi b.,S u a t m Sr usu ego l gA P L S st r a St y gs tiDce e p sa ir st m e n t e l o o . f e m t h se i n p e e r sm o on es ts p of on t rs h i obe rl ei g v i in s ai ol ner . e c o gt hn aiwz t e srd uk p p a dr t vi na s gna ct en da l iv t ieg a t i os nt u di n i te h s Sse yp sa tc e e m gl r H o o l D e p a hr ta amd ni m n p t o r t a n t toT a r p d p e l asn c naedt vi oa nl uo a tj ei o cHnt eisv u e gs g. t eh sce to e n dicn e p hrt li yg h N l a vm ye el e tt hi nlae gttd so t h e e i t i t b a - e o r i g Si nA aT lR Ap Cr oK pa on shd aei ln , i t it a h t i ene dt e r d e dp ias rc t umtsh se pinort tona ds l tu h c pa e rt do pR o .B a. H l .e sw t ea t rsh pe r o gm r aa mn wa g o r a s he s k i l l lef utd hl lSey A T R Ap Cr oK tg h r ra omi ut scg rh i t ei ca ard l ey v e l op ph ma Me e.nB. t r o da sn kC i o m mO a. En vd ee( rSre t t r ta S t ye sg t Pec r mo gs r a m s s d i I n s t r u mB er an ntSac Pth 2,o 5n )r o vo i ud tes gdtl ea a dp aei nnrc so h n i s eied ne cr o u tlrt ah gr oet S A ehT noR uA fCo K m sy a e t ai Ivnr esr e. t r o as bp oe a vc l elt , i p n d ab um g r o t h te h r esf os, eus hr o bu erl de c o ga tns hi pze e i dm eo vf oea r rlt sl h fa o t l l o W ea dr s e. i n c ge rr ae f tloyet rhf u u l nr i a n i dm p oc rot na tn r ti b u t i o n s . r w ei que

THE THORS AU

T H O MTAHSO M P rSe Oc Na iBv .e S d. Ed . E g. f r eo L ma f aC y o e l tli en eg e e e e t 1 9 6 a0 n ad nM . S . Ed . eE g.f r oe T mh J eo h Hn os p Uk inn i sv i en 1 s9 i 6 y8 .e e r t H i s a m e m o bfA eP r L P sr i n Pc ri po af el Ss ts ai i nof t f nh Sae tl r a St e sg ti ce m s y D e p a rH t emo ie nAn ePt d.LS s a D c ee p a irn t1m9 6 a0 nts d e r av sae gd r o u p j p e n s u p e ra v b i sr a ns , cu hp e ra v n i sd ho cer ,h iee nf g i n e r T. h . o m p s o n or t M er p a r t i ic n ia pw a i tdr eae dno gsf ea t de el l vi t ee l ao cp tmibv ei t nboeters ec o m i n g fi t h l ee as dy s te en mg i fn o Sr A rT R Ad Ce Kv e l oi n p1 m 7e 3nn. 1 9 8 3 ,e ee 9 I t h j o i n Se yd s tPe l a n nC ion rgp o w a h t eiho re nee , dt h de e v e l o o p f m e n t m r l s p e c r i a dil ni za s ert dr u mb ee fnr oet rat eut tir oA n iPniLng1 9 9 2 .tA P Lh , e n A h a l es td h d e e v e l oo pif mm pe oun r ptt ag nt aot d Set A T R As C sK ft oe rm r hs e y T r i d r e ne btn ot rd yl y gt eh est tv a l u a a n t IdiRo & asD c, t i tv odi t ei e ms o n s t r a t e f i n n e G P S e a s u c ra e p m af obmr in l itst ys i l e e v ai nl u t Hae itresci -o emn p sa t . i l w m e a d d i rs te h s os m a s . t h o m p s o n @ j h u a p l . e d u .

L A R JR. LY E Vi sYt h Ce h Si e c f i e o n fAt iPs Lt S st r a St ye sg tiDe em p sa H t erme e enh itivP.s eh d. Dn e. l e ce t nr igc ian fl er oeI om iwS ag aU t ne i v ien r s i t y c r c i r n t 1 9 7 1 . r L. e vh ya ws o r ok nea dp p Kl iae l dmf i lat enf or oir n v g3 0 y e aH r esw . ta hs e c o - od tf eh Ge eP l So r pa en crs ol an tci oneSr pA t T R A( a K D e r v t C G P S - bm a is s tesr dia l ec i nk is n t gr u ms ye sn t taea nmt di o) n w a isn d e i vn es t lthoreeup n mnd g-e t nomt - aee l nt hd of odT r or il do I eIga nyc t c u e r va ac ly u H a et i o n . i t e a cg hr ae ds u a ti ne K a c l om f ui al rt nse aer nis nsd gy s it de em n t iaf tiT c ha Jeto i h H n os p U i nn i sv W r hs i St iycn h goo f o El n g ai nn eKd ea rl mfn i lat en r i n g o k e i g s e m fi on N ra ar vs tS e e c mh iHn iaes r- m a. ad i dl i rs l ea sr sr y . l e v y @ j h u a p l . e d u . s

E D W E N. W E S T Ea R t Fe I tnEh dLUe Dn di v oe M s ai t r yyw l ah nhe drer ee c ea iBv .eS d. E d . E .gi nr1e 9e 5 a2 n ad nM . S . Ed . eE gi nr 1e 9e 6 3 . I t e fr e . H ei sa m e m o A eP LP s i n Pc ri po af el S s ts a i tof hnSeiant rl a S t ye sg ti ec m s HD ee o p i naA e Ptdmn 1e 9n 5t a n wd ai ns v o wl v i dte hed v e l o p m e n t bf r r f j r iL .4 f t h e gT ua il do sas y n s cat een lmde td h de e v e l o afp l am rt ee nel e t fma ce I inl ir ty y . g t 1 9 6 h0 et r a n st of t eh Se r pe adDc e p a rw t m he e erl ne td h de e v e l o p m e n t r h , f a r e l an ta i vv ei gs ay st iuo esn mi sn i g nf ra o tl m Ne a vN ya v i gS aa tt ieo l nl i t e t sh S y s t O ni n . i t i oa ftt hi oSe nA T R Ap Cr o g h r eb m c , ar em s ep of ont rsh ieb l e em K ae d e v e l o pfm m u oec tfh h the a r d a wn ad lr sse oe r av ea g r o s uu pp e Hr ve i s o r . n s d t r a n ts oft eh Sr e r t er ad St ye sg tDec em p sa ir nt1m9 e9 n0 t, h e ri seG r o h u e p i w S u p e o r ftv h i Se o rT R A C KS /yGs PtGeS rmo M prW. e s ts e e r rf avi eset lhsd e sA u s P r o gM r a m oa tfg h eNe r a t iMo ni s aDs l iel ef eP nr e ec Mi s ii soTsnri lae c k i n g n s P r o ga rn aod tm h Ge P R a n A g p e p l i cJ oa iPtni rot o n g H r iaes m m a. ad idl r e s s f S s i se d w i n . w e s t e r f i e l d @ j h u a p l . e d u .