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Basic Technical SOP for Cutting Section in Apparel Mfg Facility This research paper is relevant to Indian Apparel

manufacturing sector.

SOP Designed under guidance of Mr. Jayashantha Perera

Inputs Details related to Fabric such as face side /Shade bands etc..

Shade swatches along with the face side swatch approved by the buyer should be received from the Go down and Merchandising dept respectively. Shade segregation should be complying with the approved swatches. Verify whether the shade segregation is matching to the standard. Approval from H/office mandatory if the received lots of fabric are not matching to standards. The approval must have a checklist form for all the tests & approval standards w. r. t colour, wash, embroidery, printing, hand feel Shade band details (Shade A, B, C, D) after verification should be received from fabric inspector & spreading team also should be given a copy for reference. Shade grouping also must be received from the fabric godown. Fabric details such as to face/back, nap direction; hand feel should be received from the godown duly approved by the merchant. Shade wise/widthwise segregated rolls only should be received, checked & then should proceed for laying. Both ends of every roll should have sticker consisting details of shade no, roll no, width and other relevant detail to enable easy identification of rolls. Cutting Forecast shade wise

Cuttable quantities from each lot and shade should be informed to marketing, QA, & Buyer QA in advance for approval. Cutting of rolls/bales should be done shade wise as per the breakdown of the PO

Note: Rolls should be allotted in such a way that no of shades included in a single lay or shipment or size range is minimized. Spreading of fabric for Relaxation

Unroll the fabric from rolls & lay on table/flat area in concentric folds. Allow for free relaxation without any obstruction the period should be studied and pre determined by the Go down and the factory Fabric Inspector Record the time of unrolling and ready time laying of each roll Relaxation of the lay should be pre determined and will be around 3-6hrs (for stretch fabrics if necessary especially for knitted fabcrics Fusing-Study of Fusing Shrinkage

Cut fabric swatches with square template of size 18 X18(or 12x 12) Fuse the fabric & specified interlining at specified temperature, pressure & time. Allow for cooling of the fused parts. Check for fusing shrinkage and record same ---this should be incorporated into the patterns as allowance for fusing. Check for shade variation if any due to fusing. If you observe any shade variation, report to the Cutting In Charge and initiate corrective action. Check the fusing for defects like peel off, bubbles etc. Inform deviations/defects if any to the concerned for necessary corrective action. QA team has to educate/specify area of fusing, and temperature and pressure to be set for fusingFusing tests must be carried out twice a day, once at the start of the machine then in the afternoon. Fusing Machine-- Tests & Daily Maintenance: >> Fusing validation trial tests must be carried out regularly, when the new style begins fusing parameters has to be finalised (temperature, time & pressure). >>Check the fusing machine pressure rollers nip, affecting the fusing quality, by passing a fabric strip through the machine & by pulling it backward --the need for re alignment of the rollers pressure can be identified when this is done at three points i.e left/center/right of the belt.

>>By passing a carbon paper placed on top a white paper through the machine the impression on the white paper can be observed. This would also will help us to determine any inconsistence of the roller pressure at left>center> Right >>Cleaning of the belt thoroughly and check for the required temperature and pressure when the fabric/colour changes. Washing Shrinkage

Percentage of washing shrinkage lengthwise and widthwise should be received from fabric section and recordedthe suppliers should ensure that the shrinkages are as specified by the buyers (international standard limits are 3% lengthwise and 3% -widthwise ) Identify the face & reverse side as per the swatch . Mark the roll no, PO, Style, QC, Taka No etc If the washing shrinkage % is more that 1.5% then the shrinkage test to be conducted for all the rolls/bales received (100% of rolls) If there is a big variation in shrinkage, multiple markers to be prepared. For Example: For absolute shrinkage % range of 3.0 4.5 % marker/pattern#1 & for shrinkage of 4.5% 6% - Marker/Pattern # 2 like that.

>>Color codification should be done to trace rolls of shrinkage groups , if the range is too large or inconsistent. Cutting of Pilot Run

Objective: carried out in order to make the necessary amendments in patterns/laying procedure/cutting procedure /cutting allowance/ marker changes/panel inspection/numbering area/bundling size. Cutting incharge, production manager & IE shall plan for the pilot & bulk cutting. Pilot run cutting shall be done as per the colour/size/quantity advised by FM/PM/IE.-the selection of the rolls should cover all the shades and shrinkage groups Make a report of observations, comments, suggestions, amendments, simplification, risk analysis, corrective action plan based on the above analysis. Obtain feed back from the sewing & buying QA and then act upon the necessary corrective action. Marker drawing & Preservation of patterns

Carbon Papers could be used for duplication of markers in case of non-CAD markers.In case of Nike orders it is not allowed---efforts be made to obtain computer markers from a close by plant.. The pattern/marker being suggested by HO team is only a starting point for the cutting incharge to work on better fabric utilisation. Cutting incharge should try out different markers to maximize fabric A Parts Checklist has to be maintained by the marker drawer to ensure coverage of all parts in the lay. Pattern should be verified for required allowances, tolerances, notches and embellishment placement marks, grain line, nap direction indications before marking. Constant usage of patterns results in wear & tear of pattern, this has to be regularly monitored and worn out patterns to be replaced even daily if the case demands to ensure cutting quality. Cello tape could be used to preserve the edges of the pattern boards for big quantities plastic boards could be used to duplicate the pattern for marker drawing If the patterns are worn out, it has to be replicated & cross-verified for required measurements, allowances and tolerances. On satisfying these factors the worn out pattern has to be replaced. Worn out patterns are to be destroyed after conformation on the correctness of the specifications mentioned in tech pack. Lay sheet on which the marker is drawn is torn in the middle & stickers are pasted consisting details like PO no, Serial no, Fabric code no, Lot no. Hence easy identification of cut panels. Lay Preparation:

Layers shall collect lay slip, cutting job card, lay sheet from the minusing person. Layers shall lay the fabric according to the lay slip details. Layers shall collect rolls of only one shade and one width for the lay at a time ,if any shade change is noticed then use separators- i.e. lay sheet has to be placed for identification. The cutting incharge has to decide upon the kind of lay such as face-to-face, face to back, face up, face down, grain line, nap direction during the PP meeting stage upon the analysis of the garment. Use lay separator sheets to separate rolls of different shades if used in the same laythe shade category should be mentioned on every lay separator sheet also. Lay Precaution:

During laying the layers should check the lay-to-lay shade variation & also center to selvedge variation as a part of online check procedure. QC shall inspect the lay for lay tension, width, length, grain line, nap direction etc. End wastage for laying of fabric shouldnt be more than 1 cm. Bulk Cutting

Lay wise manpower requirement must be planned. Cutters must be trained on the methods of accurate cutting, especially for parts with deep curves. If possible diagrammatic representation of the direction of movement of the cutter needs to be illustrated. Cutters shall inspect the cutting machine for oil leakage, straightness of the blade, sharpening quality, evenness in sharpening of the blade, dust accumulation before cutting. Cutters shall cut lay as per the mark up using straight knife m/c and move the parts to band knife as per the discussion in PP meeting. QC shall inspect all the cut parts using patterns and initiate corrective action upon the detection of defect. Prepare 1st cut bundle inspection report; notify fabric defects and cutting defects to FM/PM. QC should have a cutting checklist against which 1st bundle audit has to be conducted. Checklist should have details of allowances, tolerance included in pattern, notches and embellishments placement markings details. The size of the straight knife for cutting lightweight fabrics should be 6 only. Straight knife must be uniformly sharpened from top to bottom as frequently required,. This ensures even sharpening along the full length of the knife/blade. Note:If sharpening of blade is uneven/inconsistent, it would result in uneven depth of notch marks and variation in cutting too.. For Band knife cutting , patterns preferably made of tin should be used. The patterns used for band knife must be changed regularly upon monitoring the wear and tear on the pattern, due to frequent usage. Numbering

Numbering plan must be given by the numbering incharge, specifying the style #, colour, P.O No., Serial No., No. Of garments cut, sizes. All the parts shall be numbered in a pre determined sequence and at pre determined location. Numbering stickers gum strength (Light/Medium/Heavy) has to be decided keeping in mind the kind of fabric being cut. Panel Checking

The checkers carried out panel checking by placing the cut panels on the pattern and checking for accuracy of notches, grain lines, nap direction, crocked cutting, measurements & tolerance. Mark the pattern on a board (Acrylic. Card Board) along with +/- tolerance as dotted lines around the outline marked. Place the cut panel (component) on this marked area. It becomes easier to asses if the cut panel is within or out of tolerance. This inspection board has to verified and approved by pattern maker before usage. Once the fabric is cut, they shall be bundled and marked with inspection status. When a bundle is checked, they shall be marked with green as c. When cut panels are inspected they shall be marked with green as I. All panels shall be checked for fabric defects. Bundling & Sorting

Cuts shall be bundled in to a pre determined bundle size and will be segregated size wise as well as lot wise and stored in bags. Bags shall be stored in racks batch wise. Issues of cut bundles to batches be done out as per the loading plan Bundle tags will have details such as lot no, serial no, size, bundle no. Mention shade category (A, B, C) on the cut panels for easy identification and tracking. Re cutting & End bit Control: Layers shall mark both end bits with roll number, cut-lot number, meter age --all the bits every lay shall be bundled and given to recutting department.

End-bits should be always laid face-up, no change in laying procedure without prior information from the incharge End-bits should be placed separately (Shade wise) to avoid discrepancies, the roll & taka number should be written and stacked separately Re-Cutting should be done from the same lot of fabric, matching the shade, to avoid shade variation.

The Objective of this research paper is to:

I. Procedure for Setting up of Sewing Training Section in factory

II. Procedure for Recruitment of Trainee Operators (Tentative)

III. Training Syllabus for Trainee Operators

Scientific Approach to NEED BASED TRAINING in 2 simple Steps

1. Primary Training: Basic Sewing & Machine Control Training

2. Secondary Training: Adding on Skills to Existing Operators & Improving the Efficiency of Low Performing Operators

I. Procedure for Setting up of Sewing Training Section in factory

A. Analysis to be made before setting up of the Training Section

1. The Output capacity of training section needs to be determined before setting up of a training section in the factory.

2. To determine the Output of the training section following factors need to be considered:

a. Present Operator Strength in the Factory & Grade wise % contributing to the strength.

b. Line wise, Grade wise Operators % available in every line

c. % Labour Turnover in the factory & Grade Wise % Split in the total Turn Over

d. % Absenteeism in Factory (Should also be analysed line wise) & Grade wise % Split in the overall Absenteeism

e. Complexity of styles running in the factory & Operation wise Skill Set requirement for the style needs to be analysed. This would tell use what should be the ideal mix of Skill Set that needs to be allocated to the line

f. Analysis of most frequently running styles in the factory & Operation wise Skill Set requirement for the style. Needs to be analysed. This would tell use what should be the ideal mix of Skill Set that needs to be allocated to the line

g. Style/Operation Specific Skill set availability

Considering the above said factors, the factory IE has to co-ordinate with the training supervisor in training of Operators

B. Planned Strategy:

1. Training Instructors need to be recruited depending on the size of the training section and the trained operator output planned out of the training section.

2. There will be two categories of instructors required in training of the operators. One is training section instructor who will train the trainees within the training section and the other instructor will render ON JOB TRAINING instructor who will train the existing operator or the newly trained operator.

II. Procedure for Selection of Trainee Operators (Tentative)

1. Personal interview:

Discuss & fill the relevant information in the Trainee Operator Recruitment Slip by HR Department

2. Selection tests:

Peg board tests Pin board test Ball &tube test Visual Accuracy test Colour Perception test Objective: Assessment of Basic Skills for making successful Sewing Operators

These tests are very important for assessment of basic Skills such as Manual dexterity (Speed of Hand Movements), Finger Dexterity (Speed of hand movements), and Hand Eye Co-ordination & Sewing tests

(Only for experienced operator, these basic skills are very Important for making successful Sewing Operators).


A. Peg Board Dexterity Test A (PBDA):

In this test, we can assess the ability of applicants Hand & Arm movements, Two Hand Co-ordination

Apparatus Reqd: Peg Board, Metal pegs (120), Stopwatch

Grade: 1to 5 (Grade 5(75 sec); Grade 4(76-80 Sec); Grade3 (81- 86Sec); Grade 2(87-90sec) Grade1 (Above 90 sec).

Target: 75 seconds

Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest

B. Peg Board Dexterity Test B (PBDB):

In this test we can assess the ability of finger movements, & two hand Co-Ordination.

Apparatus Reqd: Peg Board, Metal pegs (120) one end painted red, & Stopwatch

Grade: 1to5 (Grade 5(82 sec); Grade 4(83-90 Sec); Grade3 (91-100Sec); Grade 2(101-105 sec); Grade1 (Above 105 sec)

Target: 82 seconds

Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest


In these tests, we can tests the ability to do the fine work with the fingers. It tests the ability to make rapid finger movements, neatly, accurately & sensitivity.

Apparatus Reqd: Standard Pin board, 135 pins, & Stopwatch,

Target: 90 seconds

Test: Right Hand & Left Hand

Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest


In this test, we can measure the main manual Co-ordination together with the Finger dexterity

Apparatus Reqd: Ball tube Stand & Boxes with one lid, 25 balls & Stopwatch

Target: 25 Seconds

Test: Right Hand & Left Hand


In this test, we can measure the visual Accuracy & Speed

Apparatus Reqd: Visual forms, pencils, & Stopwatch.

Target: 48 Seconds

Grade: 1to5 (Grade 5(17-20); Grade 4(13-16); Grade3 (10-12); Grade 2(7-9); Grade1(less than 7))

Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest


This test is conducted to analyze the colour sensitivity of the operator. In this test operators are asked to differentiate and rank different shades of the same colour in Ascending Order. We also can give them some cones of thread of different colours and blocks of same or nearly same colours and asked to match the thread to the block of colours.

After passing of above tests by trainees, then only they are eligible for to entering the training department

Resources Required:

Sewing Machines

Single Needle Lock Stitch 10 Nos Double Needle Lock Stitch 1 No Over Lock Machine 3Thd 1 No Over Lock Machine 5Thd 1 No Flat Lock Machine 3Thd - 1 No Manpower Sewing Instructor 1 Person Continuous Availability of Fabric, Thread & Needle for Sewing Training Cupboard of Documentation 1 No Soft Board 4X4 1 No While Board 4X4 1 No Duster - 1, White Board Marker 4, Permanent Marker 1, Measuring Tape 5 Stop Clock 2 Nos Peg Boards 1 No & Metal Pegs 120 Nos Pin Board 1 No & Pins 135 Nos Ball & Tube Stand 1 No & Marble Balls 25 Nos III. Training Syllabus for Trainee Operators STEP 1:

Approx Duration: 1 Day


1. General idea of other departments in the factory.

2. Different types of Sewing Machines

3. Sewing Machine and its parts.

4. Threading sequence for different types of Sewing Machines (S/N,O/L,D/N,F/L,FOA)


Approx Duration: 3 Days


1. Treadle movement, Treadle Control PART-I

a. Running the machine at high Speed

b. Running the machine at low Speed

c. Running the machine at very low speed,

d. Needle up & Needle down.

e. Full speed & stop at stop points.

f. Roughing exercises.Theory

2. Different kinds of Stitches.

3. Different kinds of Fabric, and its general use.

4. Different kinds of Needles, Threads and their use.

5. Stitches per Inch (SPI) & Stitches per Cms (SPC) and adjustments.


Approx Duration: 3 Days


Adjusting Sewing conditions - SPI, Thread tension, Presser Foot, Feed dog etc. Needle change, Tension adjustment. Selection of Needle, Thread and SPI for given Fabric. Folders, Attachments and their use. Importance of Daily Machine Cleaning and Preventive Maintenance check-up. Practical

Treadle movement, Treadle Control PART-II Fabric Exercises (Single ply) with threaded machine.

1. Straight line (single ply)

2. Square (single ply)

3. Triangle (single ply)

4. Curve. (Single ply)

5. Circle or oval shape (single ply)

6. Zigzag Exercises.


Approx Duration: 3 Days


Exercises to improve handling & increase M/c time 1. Long burst practice on waste fabric

2. Practice of Run stitch, Edge stitch, pointed stitch, Precision Start & Stop & various other sewing exercises.

3. Two ply attaching by Run stitch, Turn & stitch pointed or edge (kinari).


Structure and Principle of Assembly of Cloths. Sewing Defects, Cause and Effect diagram, Trouble shooting. Importance of Alignment while stitching and its importance to Quality. Quality Requirement, Quality Control and Reliability. Work place Layout & Principles of Motion economy: In this Session we particular train operators on better handling techniques, arranging their work place according to the sequence of motion to reduce handling & increase machine time. STEP 5:

Approx Duration: 2 Days


1. Practical Exercise - To consolidate all the above steps.

2. Common Operations in Garmenting of Different Styles

a. Collar operation (collar run stitch, collar top or edge or pointed stitch)

b. Sleeve operations (placket attach by using folder)

c. Hemming Operations

3. Quality Exercises

Objective: To make more Quality awareness to all trainees by showing & explaining the different types of defects showing in the readymade board. Here we should make job cards showing correct method (it shows good quality) & wrong method of sewing (it shows defects).


Released to Production Line & Follow up

Once the training instructor has been satisfied about trainee performance during training, then he /she can been released into the production line using Trainee Operator Release Slip. While releasing the operator to production line, performance report of the operator during training, detailing the skill level, the recommendation of the instructor & the strength & weakness of the operator is given to IE team for their reference. Newly trained operators have to be constantly monitored by the Training instructor seeking the help of the work analyst & Online training instructor in the line and the industrial engineer of the factory.

Staff DGM->1 Prod.Manager->1 Asst. Manager->1 Accounts->1 Store Manager->1 Line Supervisors->3 Maintenance Cutting Cutting-in-charge->1 Cutter->2 Helpers->13 Fabric Dispatch Supervisor->1 Helpers->3 Checkers Feeding Operators Salary-> 36 Pc/rate-> 45 Training-> 08 Helpers Fusing->5 Front-> 5 Back->8 Assembly->10 Stores->2 Sweeper

2 15

3 4

7 1 89


Which payment system is better for sewing operators in garment manufacturing - Piece Rate or Salary based? Home > Apparel Production By OCS Team

When entrepreneurs start business in garment manufacturing and garment exports, they look for a fair payment system that would motivate their workers as well as factory can save good money out of the business. Whether payment system is salary based, piece rate or incentive system. Researchers and experts say that all payment systems have good things with certain challenges. After all, employers have to understand what motivates their employee. Is it money, Job satisfaction, Position and/or recognition?

In this article I am discussing about sewing operators and get motivated by money only. When operators are paid according to the work done (pieces) by them with an agreed rate only then they will work with maximum effort. In other way it may be said that factory will only able to produce target quantity of garments when their employees are fully motivated.

Prior to choosing a pay system, following factors must be considered. In the following table, comparison of the piece rate and salaried system has been explained on eight parameters.

Parameters Salaried Piece rate Labor rate per pieces Lower Higher up to 45% Cost per piece depends on

Work content Marketplace Operator focused on Quality Quantity Attrition rate Lower Higher Capacity Fixed Varies with Labor availability Product Change No. problems Price negotiation Advance Technology Welcome Restricted Work study Welcome Restricted Source: Presentation by Methods Apparel at OGTC conference, 2011

Now factory management has to decide how they want to run their business. What their priority is? Is it quality or quantity? Are they wanted to run the factory with fixed or varied capacity? Do they want stable operators or it does not matter to them?

In the context of Indian exporters, they are still quantity conscious than quality, though they are losing lot of money due to poor product quality every day. Indian exporters mostly prefer to have Piece Rate System. Benefits of Piece rate employees: Piece rate employees are highly motivated. Piece rate employees have no obligation about their employer. When factories have no work, they do not have to pay operators.

Challenges for having piece rate employees: There are few challenges when company hires piece rate employees. Design a fair rate for piece rate employees is most critical. Most of the factories dont have system to establish fair rate or standard time. Generally rate is decided by negotiation employee and employer. Until rate is fixed nobody work at their normal pace and company loses capacity What is an SOP? THE PARTS OF A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) Text Authors: Noreen Warren and Lisa A. Seidman, Ph.D. SOP authors: Michael Barazia (Identification Methods for Copper Sulfate) and Jay Bucher, Senior Metrologist, Promega Corporation (Balance and Scale Calibration Procedure) E-Mail: Madison Area Technical College Madison, WI 53704 July 18, 2000 This page describes Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and their component sections and provides examples of a SOP for students to review.

Documentation, that is, a system of written records, is essential in all laboratories and production environments. A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a certain type of document that describes in a step-by-step outline form how to perform a particular task or operation. Everyone in a company must follow the same procedures to assure that tasks are performed consistently and correctly. Most companies have a wide variety of SOPs that describe how to do different tasks. In many companies technicians and operators are trained in how to follow individual SOPs and their training record specifies which SOPs they are trained on and are authorized to use.

There is no federally approved format for a SOP but there are expectations within the industry how a SOP should be written. The SOP is written in imperative sentences rather than a narrative style. A cookbook format is used and sentences should start with a task specific verb that tells what to do. The instructions are numbered in the order that they will be followed.

There are certain sections and types of information that are typically included in an SOP. These sections are illustrated in the SOP below entitled "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure". Print out this SOP and look for the following components:

TITLE or SUBJECT. The title of the procedure, "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure", is clearly written at the top of the procedure.

ID NUMBER. Each procedure should be also contain a unique identification number. The SOP ID number SOP11C002 is written at the top of the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure".

EFFECTIVE DATE AND/OR REVISION NUMBER. When a procedure becomes outdated and is revised, the new procedure should reflect the difference with an updated revision number or date. It is essential that companies have systems in place to prevent operators from using outdated revisions of an SOP. A revision number and effective date are shown at the top of the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure". This SOP also includes a history of the various revisions in Section 8.

PAGE NUMBER. Each page of the procedure should be numbered. The usual format is to say p. x of p. xx where x is the page number and xx is the total number of pages. This pagination is not illustrated in the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure", however, you can see it in another SOP, "Identification Methods for Copper Sulfate".

PURPOSE. A statement of the purpose of the procedure should be clearly indicated on the SOP. The purpose of the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure" is "To describe the responsibilities of the Metrology Department as they relate to the calibration of all balances and scales".

SCOPE. A statement of what the SOP covers. The "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure" "applies to all balances and scales that impact the quality of the goods supplied by Acme Widget Corp., Eatmorecheese, WI."

RESPONSIBILITY. The persons who are responsible for the procedure should also be included. These persons may require specialized education or training for using the procedure. In the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure", the responsibilities are defined in Section 3.1.

DEFINITIONS. Any important words or abbreviations are defined. In the "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure", definitions are in Section 4.

HAZARD COMMUNICATION. SOPs should inform operators of any hazards associated with the materials or the completion of the procedure and how to protect themselves from dangers. This information is included in Section 3.2 of "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure", but would often be included in a separate safety information section.

REFERENCES. A list of references or other document required to complete the task should also be included as well as any forms or calculations necessary for completion of the task. The "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure" lists a Related Procedure in Section 6.2.

ASSOCIATED FORMS. The SOP should include any required forms associated with the task. The "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure" lists an associated worksheet entitled "Balances and Scale Calibration Worksheet" in Section 6.1 (although it might place this information in Section 7). The worksheet is a form that is filled out by the analyst as the calibration procedure is performed.

PROCEDURE. The core of the SOP details the procedure in full in a step-by-step chronological manner. The following associated information will also be present:

A materials list indicating the materials or reagents needed.

If equipment is needed to complete the task, a list of the equipment is included. Details may be necessary to include the manufacture or location of the equipment.

The "Balances and Scale Calibration Procedure" has an incomplete procedure because it illustrates the overall format and the types of information that are important in a calibration SOP. A more complete procedure with all the steps can be found in another SOP, "Identification Methods for Copper Sulfate".

For more information about writing a good SOP see:

1. DeSain, Carol, and Charmaine Vercimak Sutton, Documentiation Practices, AVANSTAR Communications, Duluth, 1996.

2. Seidman, Lisa A., and Cynthia Moore, Basic Laboratory Methods for Biotechnology: Textbook and Laboratory Reference, Prentice Hall, 2000. See especially Chapter 5.

3. Nilsen, Clifford L., "Writing SOPs: Keep it Simple", Food Quality, Volume 6, Number 3, April 99, pp. 5051.

4. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Writer's Guide, Los Alamos National Laboratory.