'T'op'-iic '11; iG'ranhsl below p-r'ovide the Ilatest~-,,----!i -- --' -- --v.,-. ' ,.,--' ,--' '," ---'. '----,- - 'fig,"ure~ about 'th~ demlg--:ra(~hi:>:-f th ,- -- --- ',.

-& --,', o: p __s 0 -e c

'U'inilea'S'la:les, h1dUjding ;elhnJeaJ group.s and·the [POPU'I'Btion,·t)·ase·d on
I '

'\

I·'

'.

I.

I

cen,su:sc'that

I

waa;·,cflr·r~ed oulandadm'h'listered 'by IU·S, 'Censt.l.s'Blulreau iln 2006~ ..llg-:-'n~- -~"·,l S'U'· 'm:-Im' -a' -r:"1'8, t,h·e-- .11:'-nlfo--·r'm'~···'a,··t··· .... b'-"I,:"S-DI-aofl!lOt'"'I'n g','-:-' "~'n'd', .'·,·rD-p:-'D:-·rt-';i~n,~·,g~·-"I":h'-le':m---B-~III-'-n- ":e'-.........!III.lI·A~ -a-'n-·:'-"d-':·m'~'~a:-·Lr,U"_,_:_.--- ... ·a,',Ur~'D '_
1 .• ..'
_"" 1-.-_,-.",~,,~

-',6

1

! .~,~ '_

I

.

..

,..... '

.-.'

'-_.·1,

.,1""-:,-_,-"1

~-.I!IJ~~-

__ _:__ U

It

__

,~_'_

,-,_I'

_"

..

I

_ _:_

_""~

,I

Wh~te
1H66;

Aslanand
P:ac1fii.o Ilsll,andelr 2.2.3 m iUii10n

:(2:0:0' Imil~~on )
2'00.6
I

1 tS,7.2 m UUon

B.5 mUUon

(300ImUlion)

201 million II 38.7 million

44.,7 rnllilon
IU' ,_"S<'. P-:::',·o'p.-.c " _ .c.,

14.3,lminion

'UI~*,'I,nn nr,iI"iIi,wt· ,,~."__ 'h-_.d'~l_V. __ ~!I Yo'

Decade: totals P,opula.6cm (mil ]I~o:n:s)

35

15

5
O~=~~~-'-~~--"-~~_'_~::i....-JI-....l:5::..:......1l~--=~~~~~

'1990~,lO

11~20 .. 2~..3,O

3,1..40

41..50

51..60'

61-70'

71..80

81-90

~n-l0110

The table, combined, with the bar chart, provides an overview of demographics, of the United States from the early mastcentury to thepresent,

It can be seen in 'the table that thetotal Uf population is now 300 r.niUion,1.5 times larger than 40
years ago, 2.00 million, Hispanics and Asian Americans
expanded much faster fhan other races,

According to the census, 44.7 million Americans are currently Hispanic, more than five times higher
than in I 966" while the Asian population is as large as .~.4JmfIHon" a ten-fold increase over' the 19 661
1

level. By comparison, although white Americans are still in 'the majority, accounting for two thirds of the current US populationcthe growth rate was lower than the general population. Afro~'Am:ericans~ who made 'up'the second largest ethnical group ill 1'966 with a population of 22.,3 million, dropped to
number three". behind whites and Hispanics ..Other ethnical groups take up the remaining 1.3 million.

In the first half of the 20tbcentury,.

the US population grew at different ra tes, ranging fro,':'_'_

million to 20 million a decade, the bar chart suggests. Itaccelerated

since 'the middle of the

I

sotceo n

'with adding at least 20 million to the overall population every ten years ..'The 19908 alone experienced a
growth of more than 30min~on.

To summarise, the US population continued to swell since the early last century and thegreatest
increases occurred to Hispanicsand Asian Americans
{rOI11.

1.966to 2006 ..

sons where releva.ious vi'o. 3.aggrs'V'sted assault and ho!m'i c'ide . (rver 1.2 and 2. .eJltureSi and ...5 offences in a thous and ..8.s frrom 197..u$ v"i'Q.As to crimes recorded by policeand arrests far 'violent crime.. as well aaviorimisations reported to police.low shows seria.I' comparl.000.5- -0 I~----=--_----:.. The arrest rate was the lowest. both dropped slightly in the last five years and the figureswere 1.although.lent crim:es 'include :fap.. levelling offbelow 0.llinachart. around 4. .5 offences over the same period.S and 0.umim. lower level between . SOl did victimisations reported to police. t11~6 totalvielent crime level declined gradually.len. there were fluctuations in the total crime level.. S. robbery_!! . out of a.5 offences per thousand Americans.aiin f.etheinfo:rmiati'on by le'l:ec:ling and 'rep'onin'g the m. Overall. while .__~~~~~. by the end of the cenmry.olent crime ~Gvelsin the US Offenses 5 4".9~.. by police showed From 1"98:8onwards. crimes recorded and arrests fOJ: violentcrimev was not subject to strong fluctuations in the final twc decades of the last century.mak. reaching its highest in the year 1994.nt Se:nious Vi. crimes. half the figure in 1980 (slig'hUy .t erlme Ile\l'el. many victims were reported te-thepolice. In 200Q.5 offences respectively in 2000.over 3 offences). steady increase. rose to it Victirnisations rose and fell at B .5 ~ 3' 2 Crimes recorded by police I D.. recorded. while half as. thousand Americans committed violentcrime.. there was a trend toward lower violent crime levels.5'- jn t~~)'UsandEi.'Topllc 2:: The .. the violent crime rate.arts.e.8 to 2000 in the USii Ser..5 offences per I .By about 198._~~~-~-~~~~ t9iB 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1'992 1994 ] 996 1998 :2000 In fhe firstten years. bel. the lowest ever recorded during fhe given period..___-l. . 3.1 recordhigh. but the overall trend was upbeat.

.8 UJJ3 major producer of 'carbon dioxide" rising to more than 1'0 billion tons in 20]0. While industry is responsible for the. future data concerningworldwide carbon dioxide.rii:se the inllQ'rmatio.n.s' p..s. Next comes the consumer sector.o. Industry will continue to be emissions from less than 4 billion to .io'ln.[ssions. emission.h. he col umn . developing countries will overtake DECO countries to become the major carbon dioxideemission producer by 203n." 'waste combustion.em.•. 2002 • DEeD Transition economies 1m Developin.se· Igasem:iss.n biysei~ecli~n!g and repcn1i.S co'mpar. The bar chart reveals that carbon dioxide emissions will expand to varying degrees in different sectors by 2030.gl.nd mi2i. the third largest producer.ie~.ho. . and other sectors make up amuch tower proportion.Sumlma.0~. eountri es Watrll..snt .T'olpiiD 3: Th.. consumer and transportation experience the greatest increases.de .ohartsho. b:y sector I • 2'00(2' Illi 20.r.ss.~. ·43%.8Ir'QUn d theworld" T ..In contrast. Countries 'with transition eccnomies are estimated 10 take up the remaining 9% in 2030. each producing an estimated 1 billion carbon dioxide. W'Qlr'~dwld'e in.By comparison. '2010'2 anld ·the fiONeast for 203. triple the amount in 2002 .m:ldn 'f~~·tur.e. OECD' countries are projected to make up a lower proportion.s __ s. As can be seen in the two pie charts. 1% less than in 2002 . which is projected to more than double its billion or more tons.~ 9% down 'Over the same period. 'Iransportaricu. developing couctries are expected to.30 'I t Waste combustion Transportation I 'B HUon tons 0 6 lO 12 The graphs give past and..n'QI th'e .dwiide Cc!ubon Dicl)dde Etm..K.ws eerben diio:xi.8:p. account flora bigger share of emissions in 2030~ 48%~ compared to 38% in 200Q. highest amount of carbon dioxide emissions. To summarise.w greenlho1u..s8ii. will see a hugegrowth to 6 billion.:lsons wlhe:re r'elev.

.) H:ydra~9Iec:tric 6 % Nucle..ar 60/0 . J n. From 2003 onwards.g: for 37'~o of the 'energy consumed worldwide..D'U prhJe$ from 2000 to 2.Venezuela.e lrelevant.. followed by coal and natura] gas..e~.Iran.fU]Counnn.eatu:re. oil is very likely to remain as all important energy source. Nuclear power and hydro-electricity evenly contributed to the remaining 12%. .k.i.0 I -.. . .. .0/0 Unlted Arab a~/o.3 dollars per barrel.. the oil price. respectively .rabla n . I :0 .har. and . Sum'm...sand ma. the cClunlr:ie. 5CXb The line chart shows a wide variation in the world oil 'prices in the first decade of'the 21 st century..2'%. down to 48 dollars in 20 level throughout the rest .. Russia and the United States. As suggested above. each having 8 1:0 10% of the global reserves ... 'grs'phs.east countries. .s. 'wher. . are on the: list as weU. 2000~ oil cost a mere 3..S-=:ro'LIId. is unlikely 1~(): return to its low levels: in the earlliy.c:4:: The..QII res~rves and tile world' . 2000 Thetwo pie charts.taking up 28%.0 fthe givenperiod. Iraq.. In the two decades to come. Energy cOlnsiumpti:on by type (2DI[)!5. / r>«: _'__-" . According to the firstpie chart.bout worlldwii'deene~gy c:on. Kuwait and United Arab follow behmd~. WOlrld Oil Prices (2000-.:Jj Canada 14. Saudi Arabia and Canada are the t\VO countries with the largest oil reserv.200108.6%" and . pr.0'215 w .20. I! cam pa!fisonl:s. - -.26) Dollars per barrel 70 so 40 30 I"~ 2:0 1.e'vide i.T'op'i:. the price had surged markedly and finally hit a peak of 60 dollars in about 2006" -Sinee In"€in~ the oil price is 'expected to drop for 'three years or longer. the consumption of oil was thehighest in 2005.. ..n II A.. with 1110rethan half theglobal 011 reserves being located in Mid. 2005 .es-20% versus 14°AJ. with the nne chart. or even less in the following three years. give an overview of some aspects of the energy market.'s iith..n'for'matlon a. ..sumlptlo1n. In.23'% separately.arlae the lrrtormatlen by selee'lIng and re'portiing the main f. ~u-ro I!OUII.but account for a smaller . combined.. Four Mid-east countries.

it slowed remarkably...: T'he d'i:agra:ms: b'e.0" .9.--~------~--~--~----~ ____.nd p'f. doubling tile: figure fifty years earlier. .. growth of world population. to..ising to 4 bUUQn in 197Uand remaining constant a:t that level til11980.s. he as low as 0. . .I I The two charts presentan overall Vi~N (if how world population did and will change over the period.ojec:liion's ol'WQ.th~ first 10 yeal·sfi'o:rII.l. there was a wide range in. In .rlld popull:atianfro'm the US Census B'ureaul Sumlm!arise tlhe 'inflorma. continue throughout much of the first half ot the 21 st century.950 '£0..ssl. 1. the growth accelerated. 205. 250/0. 7~------~-------------------~----~~------------------~ 6--~~--------~~----------~-1 511~----------~-~~------------------1 ~I--------~-. Since then. ic i.he !estiim'stes . The first chart shows the sustained.5'%~ In summary" population growth tends. the population was flat at ..ion by sel~ectlng and re'porting the main features and Imake CIQm~p. before r. the world. n lnbillloas World P'opul!atlon (19.-. although the rate at which the population growswill decline.T10lpic 5. By the middle of this.= .l.-. averaged out at around I._---_---:~'970 i980 o~--~----~--~--~~--~----~--~----~--~----~--~ 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2Q50 Growth rite (percent) Wodrl PopulafonG rowth Rate (1t950·. n _. Uke]y to.----. As shown in the second chart. pattern is projected to persist by 20.o'w pr.n'l I.sestimated tha~ the planet will home a population of at. population growth rate in the second half of the last century.1950 to I I '960.3 billion.5·0~2050) lO~~~~~~--~--------~---===~~~~~~~~--~---' 91------------------------~---~-.50" when the growth rate is.~--~=-=-~-~~-~-~3 .riisons.least 9 billion. Growth first fluctuated dramatically and then surged to 2'% in 19'10" a l OO-year high . century. In .Fr01l1 then on.--.a. ==--------===--------------------------1 ]1-----1.. This.-~~ Sl~~~---~.50 1960 _--_-..5 21----- ___ a_. 2050) 2.--. and by 2005. 2000'" the population topped 6 billion.where Irele'V8!nt. adding another z billion withintwenty years. 1 11~1-------------------------------------~~---------------1 .

aged 100°1 9m):'". :Su'm:m:ar1is1e the inlolr'mati'on by sel:ec.Top'ic 6:: 'The' gra..sHm.~ 20.. }! 4001--~.phs below .summarise ther'eisu Its of .ntholt1::~ands) 700 ~--~~~ 6{JO~-~ 500i1 -~~ .ling .0 I---------'-i}: lOO'I-~~ O"b~~"""':::'.r'es8'nd make comparhs.:"'" Boys . ~ I Obese: 'peopI1e. 300!---ilf.I.ln the UK (e.8 survey carri.o:rt:i:nlg tihle· maln ". 15 (i..s!.estim:ia1ed) Number orcbi~dren.tilon in Br~taj:nwit'h IPlroje~tiion.ea..elevanrt .':.tu.nl1d: rep.----~~-~~~-----~---~ BOO I IL=-----~~~-~ 2.Bited) Number ·ofpeop~e aged 16+ (h~Jl1jl1ion~) 8 iO 1--------- 51-~~~---f 31---21--11--- Obese children in the U'K (.B.ed Q'url by the Department o.e r.:..ons wher.opull.fHeaJthabaut thecl¥'BiMieight p..

:50/0 1--- Both parents obese One parent obese Neither parent obese The first two graphs show a marked rise inobesity in Britain by 2010" The number of men who . from 4. Whilemen are expected to outnumber women by 2010. over 50~/{)higher than in 2003.690 thousand. Overall. over As shown in the third graph.7 million to 6 million. . 5%) and. five times as t110sn with parents having a healthy weight (5'~o). although in 2003. boys than girls suffering obesity. obese ( 12. In children. there were 700 thousand versus about .20~/o1---------- 10%1---- . it is another picture.. - The increase in the women who have the same problem tends to be smaller. 900 thousand. including both children and adults.. children in households where both parents. are obese are twice as likely t-o be obese as those in households where one parent is. The survey suggests that girls who are overweight greaterincrease during the period 2003-2010 to 1110re thSJ1 will see 8. girls will surpass boys . 'The children with at least on parent having a weight problem are ITIOre likely toobe obese than those with parents havinga healthy weight. 100 thousand more than boys [DOle who have the same problem. have a weight problem is estimated to be as high as 0. UK's obese population will grow in size. 'rising almost 30%.8 million in 2010.

. %. compared to its 3.8Iri:sons where.. . ..pan:SOD.% increase in the: first halfof 1'9'908! To recap.mp. and a 4% in Beijins~ years.a.g the mai'nlealures and lmakl! ICQ.. frOID 1990bO 1995... rr'ty . was connnuousr . The housing price slipped 6. there were significant differences. The cnanges 8% '0 !.. in subsequent period..ain in the previous five years .refl. at' rzITId ae in at 'nearly' 0)5 .""""'.:':1 in an reeession. .. Og.. and from 1995 to 200().. the rest we're subject to price fluctuations. 2 per cent only.' ected ar average 3.=.sOlm. The decrease in the bousing price in Sydney was narrower. Hong Kongand Sydney experienced a similar shrmp between 1995 and 200D. San Francisco Beijing -.2% -6% 6% 2% . . in the housing market in those five cities in the last decade of the last century....a-n-f ' COiufjly.. a 2% rise was recorded in San Francisco.. '0:': fiiv'e eiti:es around:the wodd nom 1'990 .'f!) S an Praneiseo Beijing The given tables offer !3! glimpse of the real estate market in five major cities around the world saw housing prices climb throughout the ten-year c over twoperiods.o.. ..ein'f:ormiJ.n 'by selectling and' reponin. with a 3% gain. the first five years.'TapiiC: 7': 'Tlh.di:agra'm:s: pr.f·' R'- .av~:i:de... .ti.to 2000.g . ·t'b'·· •.. . as against its. SUimmarise the inlfcnimiatio..' ". While some experienced a IODS period ofgrowth..priice. seen in San Francisco 'iF . Ir.. but still disappointing.. In. $0/0 g.rOI 4% 2%1 0% j-..n a!l)out 'the housi.'I .'e property market··t . ottine ' B Y COln.5 per cent drop.el t-o the housing prices in fi'VB: ctf!es (between 1990 and 1995) r==~~==~-~-----~~~~==~----~=='--------~__".el..vanl~. in Hong Kong.n...-cession re __:. San Francisco and Beijing are two citieswhich increase accelerated Beijing.

In 2000.comparedto females. higher percentage of smokers by the end of the mastcentury than in the early 1970s ..d te.. with only 10 per cent of males smoking.siles (betwee'n 'Iheag.abl'.to. 10 2..lmOiker.20 interest in smoking" pushing the smoking rate first to 34% in 1985~ and then to 37'0/0 in 1990~even outmatehing their male counterparts .e.20 group abated. li980~. Over the period between 1980 and 19'90. lower than previous years.and reporting 'the malin ". an estimated 27 (jib to 28'% of Pieople in this age group' were reported as smokers. of 1... Britons in the period I 97'0 to 20100. growing . smoking remained a slower growth in popular among young males.ealures anld make c. it is clear that the lS-to-20-year-old 'man 30 years earlier".ompalfisQ. In 1'970.e b.sln ma1les 8:n. population in Britain bad a much. accounting for over a third of the 15'..1 smoking was not very popular ~unong youngsters age-d IS to 20.' 34°. Over the final years ofthe last century. The following decade saw a dramatic change: the smoking rate among males leapt nearly 13°X.. male population while young females showed a.every five years to 3:5% in.nt.m. the smoking craze inthe 1.5~. 1980 Females 50/0' 1985 1990 32% 13o/Q /'. rising approximately 8% every five years to 220/0 in 1'980.. and 5'0/0 in females.elow desor'ible~slhe: p'ropcl1ian: of 'S.5and 20) in Bri'tain~ Sum:misr'ise the i1nformati:on by ~el:ectiln. . albeit still more than three times higher From the table.g .s.. either for age males or for females.'To'piic 8:: The I.ns where rellev..70/0 The table reveals how smoking evolved into a fad among I S~to-20-year-old.

2 to 46. AI.. million more than tell years earlier.7 1994 _O~ 01.es to the total emissions ' withinten years.6. 34. 43. As shown in the table. road transport was responsible for the majority of .sis..04:". ..5million tonnes over the same period.car!b'IDln diiiolxlde lem~. civil aviation and shipping] ( and Germany in 1994 and 2004 . tran :eU3 g:n: 1 [European 'U:n'~oln Unite:d King'd:oml 199."countries lin 19~94'and -.. France 'Germany. saw the amount decrease slightly from. 0.in COJi1h~8Jst to the decrease in Germany.iSS~ODS. both UK and France failed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 'transport sources during the period 1994 to 2004~. except civil aviation.4 1. by contrast" was the only country of the three to experience ::1 drop in road transport emissions.'i 0.se·.4 30'.7 million in 1994~while the United Kingdom had a smaller growth. COW" main transport in the United Kingdom. Road transport continued to account for the biggest source of emissions .1 10.en1.2 10..~e belD.In the .d-tr ans. while other three transport sources did not show any remarkable growth.2million.2 32.:1 47 .c~ompar'isonlswh-ers r-ellevant:.0 'tt.'S 2:004 1: . although having higher emissions than either the United Kingdom..T'op_ic 9: Tlhe: 'tab..2 0. with the amount rising to :~.I~ dOlmesUr. . Germany.e 11.W shc. Other three transport sources had a lower emission volume as well..2 QlrrM'any 10.. 7 200.2 ttg· IF'I~anrc.4 1 ~D !D~5 0. France recorded an increase offour million tonnes from 34.6 32.eleclin... or France did.2 ' 3111:. s. rt RO:CI.. ..2.mrna~i. In all the three countries.pc. railways. 47. United Kingdom. by' ..6milIiontonD.. 2. road transport.where roadtransport added 3.. .3 C). A similar pattern was seen in France. !I--. By comparison.O.9 and rep'ot1i~_ng'JI'he mainfes'tU're..ws.lons 'from tr'llnspo'rt in Ihi'r'&:e Eu. road transport produced emissions up to 32..6 1.4.43~9 20014 32~6 :3fl.g '~nd make MUlij'on ronnel! 'of' carbon _.6 million tonnes in 2004~ 2. 5 35'0:.rdlpearl.7 The given table provides an overview of carbon dioxide emissions from SOUI-cetS namely.'hle'lnfDrmiation .7 million tonnes. 2 Su..~• ' L.7 46.

speed limit offences and licence particular attention because it surged exponentially. In 1994. 23 ISO 41 874 11 1-001 -~ -- I 18 1. 232 2". Ancthertwo types of offences.g the." ''1etiiClle UC'i!I. after a ten-year period of fluctuations .w'ee.231 thousand".nc:e" ~1n1. were the least To summarise. Dangerous.4. 962 188 144 18 I~ ~87' 111 1'11 1I Ac'c:. and Wales Ibel.and .391 11 . Neglect of traffic signs and directions carne third.fl'po.rtln.DI. and: make onenee ty'p.'!. in England and Wales from 1994 to 2004.nge't"C ul" a~olleStB 1 or drunke'n. recording a.041 2'iaT'li Un:!ut:i1oris:ed taking er theft of melo. 1346 1919 22 100 21. offences were two main types of motor vehicle offences in England and. enmperlsons wherere. insurance and record keeping offences were themostcommon type of offences and rose to 957 thousand in 2004.mari:se th.nd 2E: 272: 27'6 :211 245 21:B 213 ' ' 264 ~ The table presents an overall VI lew of various motor vehicle offences. Speed limit offences. ten-year high at 2. me]ln featur"es. anrdl 2:004" Sum. initially ranked second in ] 994 but became the main type: of offences by 2004.- 23'1· 18: eo~ 4S 872 881 1I n -1 52 7m.sultam::::le and 37 129 282.838 1 . 1~lmftQ1Terlce'~ 2. licence.ldentofflenC8IS Spered.076 thousand.e info"rmation by Ilelect~ng . all-time high at .careless or drunken drivingwas the fourth main type of offences.: 190 199 1 UU 22 762 40.. more than three times the figure ten years earlier.levant.e: . Wales during the period 1994 to 2004 and speed limit offences deserved . accident offences and unauthorised taking (or theft ) of motor vehicle.at around 250 thousand per year. 37 a:1"l 36 moT' 13:1 Ta8 32 B111 30 :963 21 951' 269 record kee:ping directions om.n '1994.lopic 10: 'The tabl'e Ibe'low shows motor vehicle olffences ln IEnglla:nd.. also declining gradually. driving fit. dropping in much of ShU the period 1994 to 2004 but finally hitting common. averaging .mees Nlogl~ICIort~raffI:cIlig'nl :I.

Qvrs.f. the it creates within two hOUrl5LInside the pupa. embryo.grovm.d ilQ. until in the natural world.of: the butte~. this period talkies two to three weeks.~ke·c=o'mlparisQ'ns. ilnf'Q. the pupa is. fo:r twomonths caterpillars are ready for the pupal stage.p'nosisl occurs - Theadullt bu~.the adult butterfly wUl break the pupa] case. m!ain fllatulr8S :ar.an adult butterfly.~.shedding. a p:roc. This stage lasts.ant. The pupal stage is possibly one. The next stage is.ss known as motamorphosie takes place. wings and take the flight time.a.n.expand fOI" the first its. In general.bvseIIICli'"91 eod 'n!iPQI~i. will emerge from the egg. Ithe .yihg e:g!gs S~.(two monln5.rmatiQ'. TIle female butterfly normally lays eggs on a plant that it thinks is suitable for accommodating and feeding caterpillars.)' skin .:gl the.lhe ~iife cycle .: la. It marks the end of metamorphosis..r. \ ~- S'tage 4: :P'upmil s~:agf! (2 lNGleks) Ime~eJmo. The fully . transformed intc .. skin. In each egg" an embryo develops gradually. of the greatestwonders caterpillar wrapsitself in . At the final stage. called "the caterpillar".T'o. Flying around for new food p~nts butterflies are ready to matefor a new cycle. whJere ~ellev. 'They feed on the food plants where they live. .apupa" a creature at most. In twoweeks.n . ..I'V"A!Su:mrn·ari. Caterpillars wil] shed their skin several times throughout this stage..erfly The life cycle of a butterfly starts from egg laying..shedding' \ .pic11:: 'The 'diagr~mbe'~Dw stl. At this stage. Stag~. '..age '~roWth of a oate:rpiil'lla!fs .

~ Uise t. pa.rEl 11oa.aslic."..oper (buyers of glass or pl. ..ef'use is assloned for recycllng." ~=:.__ _ __' known as further-processing stage.o::..~.r! vari . Forexample.:1 __ .ses. For example.1. Newspapers and paper towels can b e sent to'..J]e:s I Stagethreei:furt'h.-.. P'roc 8EH3edi reeyclab~es bus inesses I Eng.. engineering companies are regular buyers of aluminium.m dif1:er. . Icleia!ns~~._ "'. different .di.p:Euty d'evgl.r"9cy'ct81bles fro. '. develop . it is expected thathousebolds win put tbem 1:0 appropriate rubbish bins .J .p . a O." U! ~oJi.ateri a~ recove:ryfacillities - -~- II Durablss Stage two: sort out recycla. -. Bottles (plasUe ~ass) I S:tage! ens: coillecnng . _.sr Iproc:ess~ing. Once those. . ..·ers will buy' glass r. Threemain types.. _ . Part of recyclables will be sent to some customers for their own use. 1l.bles by using material "'lOt'· Irecover~t' f aC!I._ .. used hy households daily. _.rlms (buyers o. . Put in the right bjns Collecting andprocessing recyclables plays..) iRocydab~es.. wiU become part of 'the itetllis.of' recyclables are bottles (plastic or glass )" p.aper and durables . '_".n of h.iIL~ .1. If recyclables have already been put in the right rubbish bins.E! "'~.. an important role in the treatment of urban refuse.he .It is how the recycling loop keeps operating. clasElify and smash r:ecydables I sori drink Newspiapers. l' paper and pulpmills.o.ag1flll:m land w!rile a desCf'ilpti. At the fm811~~age).Q.f":r. soft drink companies have then-own recycling facilities to take advantage of the soft drink containers collected.f ahirnlnlurn) Pro.ent Paper rubbish bins M....aIl 'the recycled lna'terials..lneanr1'Q fi. The recycled materials produced are sold t businesses.. hl. .n 'o:I'lhls prccesa.·r·plastic . Items are disposed. material recovery facilities win sortthe reeyclables more carefully.be cleaned.w urban r. ~eparatedand smas~ed as ]OOPjj me third part of the n~~yclin:.. &..T'Opiic 2: WlrHe a dissclrilptiio.~nfo'rm'anonin the. The first step is collecting recyclables frOID rubbish bins. it will save plenty of time that is otherwise required for the second stage."1. the second stage.U.L __ "u Pj3 . The rest of recyclables win . !( i.pe!r towels I comJ:)sny I.

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