'T'op'-iic '11; iG'ranhsl below p-r'ovide the Ilatest~-,,----!i -- --' -- --v.,-. ' ,.,--' ,--' '," ---'. '----,- - 'fig,"ure~ about 'th~ demlg--:ra(~hi:>:-f th ,- -- --- ',.

-& --,', o: p __s 0 -e c

'U'inilea'S'la:les, h1dUjding ;elhnJeaJ group.s and·the [POPU'I'Btion,·t)·ase·d on
I '

'\

I·'

'.

I.

I

cen,su:sc'that

I

waa;·,cflr·r~ed oulandadm'h'listered 'by IU·S, 'Censt.l.s'Blulreau iln 2006~ ..llg-:-'n~- -~"·,l S'U'· 'm:-Im' -a' -r:"1'8, t,h·e-- .11:'-nlfo--·r'm'~···'a,··t··· .... b'-"I,:"S-DI-aofl!lOt'"'I'n g','-:-' "~'n'd', .'·,·rD-p:-'D:-·rt-';i~n,~·,g~·-"I":h'-le':m---B-~III-'-n- ":e'-.........!III.lI·A~ -a-'n-·:'-"d-':·m'~'~a:-·Lr,U"_,_:_.--- ... ·a,',Ur~'D '_
1 .• ..'
_"" 1-.-_,-.",~,,~

-',6

1

! .~,~ '_

I

.

..

,..... '

.-.'

'-_.·1,

.,1""-:,-_,-"1

~-.I!IJ~~-

__ _:__ U

It

__

,~_'_

,-,_I'

_"

..

I

_ _:_

_""~

,I

Wh~te
1H66;

Aslanand
P:ac1fii.o Ilsll,andelr 2.2.3 m iUii10n

:(2:0:0' Imil~~on )
2'00.6
I

1 tS,7.2 m UUon

B.5 mUUon

(300ImUlion)

201 million II 38.7 million

44.,7 rnllilon
IU' ,_"S<'. P-:::',·o'p.-.c " _ .c.,

14.3,lminion

'UI~*,'I,nn nr,iI"iIi,wt· ,,~."__ 'h-_.d'~l_V. __ ~!I Yo'

Decade: totals P,opula.6cm (mil ]I~o:n:s)

35

15

5
O~=~~~-'-~~--"-~~_'_~::i....-JI-....l:5::..:......1l~--=~~~~~

'1990~,lO

11~20 .. 2~..3,O

3,1..40

41..50

51..60'

61-70'

71..80

81-90

~n-l0110

The table, combined, with the bar chart, provides an overview of demographics, of the United States from the early mastcentury to thepresent,

It can be seen in 'the table that thetotal Uf population is now 300 r.niUion,1.5 times larger than 40
years ago, 2.00 million, Hispanics and Asian Americans
expanded much faster fhan other races,

According to the census, 44.7 million Americans are currently Hispanic, more than five times higher
than in I 966" while the Asian population is as large as .~.4JmfIHon" a ten-fold increase over' the 19 661
1

level. By comparison, although white Americans are still in 'the majority, accounting for two thirds of the current US populationcthe growth rate was lower than the general population. Afro~'Am:ericans~ who made 'up'the second largest ethnical group ill 1'966 with a population of 22.,3 million, dropped to
number three". behind whites and Hispanics ..Other ethnical groups take up the remaining 1.3 million.

In the first half of the 20tbcentury,.

the US population grew at different ra tes, ranging fro,':'_'_

million to 20 million a decade, the bar chart suggests. Itaccelerated

since 'the middle of the

I

sotceo n

'with adding at least 20 million to the overall population every ten years ..'The 19908 alone experienced a
growth of more than 30min~on.

To summarise, the US population continued to swell since the early last century and thegreatest
increases occurred to Hispanicsand Asian Americans
{rOI11.

1.966to 2006 ..

s frrom 197.___-l. around 4. robbery_!! .5 offences per I . 3..mak.5 offences respectively in 2000. thousand Americans committed violentcrime.although. by police showed From 1"98:8onwards.__~~~~~. there was a trend toward lower violent crime levels.nt Se:nious Vi.t erlme Ile\l'el. out of a.S and 0. The arrest rate was the lowest. while . levelling offbelow 0. rose to it Victirnisations rose and fell at B . Overall.low shows seria.aiin f.umim.arts.lent crim:es 'include :fap. crimes.etheinfo:rmiati'on by le'l:ec:ling and 'rep'onin'g the m. the violent crime rate. while half as. t11~6 totalvielent crime level declined gradually. many victims were reported te-thepolice.olent crime ~Gvelsin the US Offenses 5 4".1 recordhigh. (rver 1. steady increase. . .over 3 offences).5 offences in a thous and . but the overall trend was upbeat..2 and 2. bel.8. S. half the figure in 1980 (slig'hUy .By about 198.eJltureSi and .5 offences per thousand Americans.000.5 ~ 3' 2 Crimes recorded by police I D.5- -0 I~----=--_----:. reaching its highest in the year 1994...5 offences over the same period. In 200Q..I' comparl... crimes recorded and arrests fOJ: violentcrimev was not subject to strong fluctuations in the final twc decades of the last century. 3._~~~-~-~~~~ t9iB 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1'992 1994 ] 996 1998 :2000 In fhe firstten years. lower level between .8 to 2000 in the USii Ser.u$ v"i'Q..e. as well aaviorimisations reported to police. recorded.aggrs'V'sted assault and ho!m'i c'ide ..'Topllc 2:: The . by the end of the cenmry... the lowest ever recorded during fhe given period.9~.llinachart.5'- jn t~~)'UsandEi...As to crimes recorded by policeand arrests far 'violent crime.sons where releva.len. both dropped slightly in the last five years and the figureswere 1. . SOl did victimisations reported to police. there were fluctuations in the total crime level.ious vi'o..

and other sectors make up amuch tower proportion. ·43%.Sumlma.In contrast.By comparison..s8ii.dwiide Cc!ubon Dicl)dde Etm.n'QI th'e .. developing couctries are expected to." 'waste combustion. 2002 • DEeD Transition economies 1m Developin. Countries 'with transition eccnomies are estimated 10 take up the remaining 9% in 2030.ho.e.gl. developing countries will overtake DECO countries to become the major carbon dioxideemission producer by 203n. eountri es Watrll..w greenlho1u..ohartsho. Industry will continue to be emissions from less than 4 billion to . 'Iransportaricu. The bar chart reveals that carbon dioxide emissions will expand to varying degrees in different sectors by 2030.30 'I t Waste combustion Transportation I 'B HUon tons 0 6 lO 12 The graphs give past and.ie~..8:p.snt .s __ s. the third largest producer.. 1% less than in 2002 .de . '2010'2 anld ·the fiONeast for 203. W'Qlr'~dwld'e in. emission. future data concerningworldwide carbon dioxide..m:ldn 'f~~·tur.ws eerben diio:xi.0~.o.h. highest amount of carbon dioxide emissions.ss.se· Igasem:iss. While industry is responsible for the.nd mi2i. which is projected to more than double its billion or more tons. he col umn .:lsons wlhe:re r'elev.rii:se the inllQ'rmatio. triple the amount in 2002 .8 UJJ3 major producer of 'carbon dioxide" rising to more than 1'0 billion tons in 20]0.s' p. OECD' countries are projected to make up a lower proportion.r.s. account flora bigger share of emissions in 2030~ 48%~ compared to 38% in 200Q.em.K. consumer and transportation experience the greatest increases.n.n biysei~ecli~n!g and repcn1i. b:y sector I • 2'00(2' Illi 20.~. each producing an estimated 1 billion carbon dioxide.•. As can be seen in the two pie charts.S co'mpar.8Ir'QUn d theworld" T .~ 9% down 'Over the same period.io'ln.[ssions. To summarise.T'olpiiD 3: Th. will see a hugegrowth to 6 billion. .. Next comes the consumer sector.

bout worlldwii'deene~gy c:on.e lrelevant..:Jj Canada 14.. In the two decades to come. ~u-ro I!OUII. is unlikely 1~(): return to its low levels: in the earlliy. the cClunlr:ie.east countries.c:4:: The..D'U prhJe$ from 2000 to 2. In. give an overview of some aspects of the energy market. - -.har. . / r>«: _'__-" . . 2000~ oil cost a mere 3.n'for'matlon a... Energy cOlnsiumpti:on by type (2DI[)!5.. the price had surged markedly and finally hit a peak of 60 dollars in about 2006" -Sinee In"€in~ the oil price is 'expected to drop for 'three years or longer.T'op'i:..2'%. J n... . As suggested above.. combined.20. the oil price. 5CXb The line chart shows a wide variation in the world oil 'prices in the first decade of'the 21 st century.. pr. . 'wher. followed by coal and natura] gas.eatu:re. I! cam pa!fisonl:s.arlae the lrrtormatlen by selee'lIng and re'portiing the main f.23'% separately.es-20% versus 14°AJ.0/0 Unlted Arab a~/o. each having 8 1:0 10% of the global reserves .QII res~rves and tile world' ..26) Dollars per barrel 70 so 40 30 I"~ 2:0 1..200108.Venezuela.rabla n . Nuclear power and hydro-electricity evenly contributed to the remaining 12%. are on the: list as weU..0 fthe givenperiod. 'grs'phs.0'215 w .'s iith.. From 2003 onwards.ar 60/0 .. and . I :0 ..fU]Counnn. Iraq.6%" and . . . 2005 .0 I -.) H:ydra~9Iec:tric 6 % Nucle..sumlptlo1n..taking up 28%.e~. down to 48 dollars in 20 level throughout the rest . Saudi Arabia and Canada are the t\VO countries with the largest oil reserv. ..e'vide i.. with the nne chart. 2000 Thetwo pie charts. Four Mid-east countries. According to the firstpie chart.k.i. respectively .n II A.Iran.3 dollars per barrel. the consumption of oil was thehighest in 2005.. oil is very likely to remain as all important energy source. Russia and the United States.g: for 37'~o of the 'energy consumed worldwide. with 1110rethan half theglobal 011 reserves being located in Mid.sand ma.s. .but account for a smaller .. or even less in the following three years.S-=:ro'LIId. Sum'm. Kuwait and United Arab follow behmd~. WOlrld Oil Prices (2000-.

In . doubling tile: figure fifty years earlier. and by 2005.0" .ising to 4 bUUQn in 197Uand remaining constant a:t that level til11980. n _. there was a wide range in.I I The two charts presentan overall Vi~N (if how world population did and will change over the period. century. adding another z billion withintwenty years. before r. As shown in the second chart.T10lpic 5. . This.5'%~ In summary" population growth tends. growth of world population. n lnbillloas World P'opul!atlon (19..least 9 billion._---_---:~'970 i980 o~--~----~--~--~~--~----~--~----~--~----~--~ 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2Q50 Growth rite (percent) Wodrl PopulafonG rowth Rate (1t950·.9.a. ==--------===--------------------------1 ]1-----1. 205.where Irele'V8!nt.o'w pr. continue throughout much of the first half ot the 21 st century. population growth rate in the second half of the last century. ic i.l.1950 to I I '960.----. averaged out at around I.5 21----- ___ a_.. pattern is projected to persist by 20.rlld popull:atianfro'm the US Census B'ureaul Sumlm!arise tlhe 'inflorma. 1.-~~ Sl~~~---~. to..ojec:liion's ol'WQ.. In . 2000'" the population topped 6 billion.ssl. although the rate at which the population growswill decline. the population was flat at . 1 11~1-------------------------------------~~---------------1 .: T'he d'i:agra:ms: b'e.~--~=-=-~-~~-~-~3 .-.. the world.3 billion. he as low as 0. Uke]y to.. Growth first fluctuated dramatically and then surged to 2'% in 19'10" a l OO-year high .--.50" when the growth rate is.l. By the middle of this. 250/0. Since then.sestimated tha~ the planet will home a population of at.th~ first 10 yeal·sfi'o:rII.s.= .n'l I..riisons.--.--~------~--~--~----~ ____. 2050) 2. 7~------~-------------------~----~~------------------~ 6--~~--------~~----------~-1 511~----------~-~~------------------1 ~I--------~-.-. .nd p'f.5·0~2050) lO~~~~~~--~--------~---===~~~~~~~~--~---' 91------------------------~---~-.he !estiim'stes .ion by sel~ectlng and re'porting the main features and Imake CIQm~p.. it slowed remarkably.950 '£0. the growth accelerated.Fr01l1 then on. The first chart shows the sustained.50 1960 _--_-. .

tu.~ 20.:"'" Boys .8 survey carri.aged 100°1 9m):'"..s!.ed Q'url by the Department o.e r. :Su'm:m:ar1is1e the inlolr'mati'on by sel:ec.summarise ther'eisu Its of .0 I---------'-i}: lOO'I-~~ O"b~~"""':::'...I..ling .o:rt:i:nlg tihle· maln ".ln the UK (e.ea.Bited) Number ·ofpeop~e aged 16+ (h~Jl1jl1ion~) 8 iO 1--------- 51-~~~---f 31---21--11--- Obese children in the U'K (.:.estim:ia1ed) Number orcbi~dren.----~~-~~~-----~---~ BOO I IL=-----~~~-~ 2..tilon in Br~taj:nwit'h IPlroje~tiion.. }! 4001--~.sHm.ons wher. ~ I Obese: 'peopI1e.elevanrt .ntholt1::~ands) 700 ~--~~~ 6{JO~-~ 500i1 -~~ .Top'ic 6:: 'The' gra. 300!---ilf. 15 (i.B.':.phs below .fHeaJthabaut thecl¥'BiMieight p.opull.nl1d: rep.r'es8'nd make comparhs.

In children. five times as t110sn with parents having a healthy weight (5'~o). over 50~/{)higher than in 2003. including both children and adults. it is another picture. - The increase in the women who have the same problem tends to be smaller. boys than girls suffering obesity. are obese are twice as likely t-o be obese as those in households where one parent is. from 4.. Overall.:50/0 1--- Both parents obese One parent obese Neither parent obese The first two graphs show a marked rise inobesity in Britain by 2010" The number of men who . over As shown in the third graph. 100 thousand more than boys [DOle who have the same problem.690 thousand.7 million to 6 million. have a weight problem is estimated to be as high as 0.20~/o1---------- 10%1---- . 'rising almost 30%. there were 700 thousand versus about . . children in households where both parents.8 million in 2010. UK's obese population will grow in size. Whilemen are expected to outnumber women by 2010. 'The children with at least on parent having a weight problem are ITIOre likely toobe obese than those with parents havinga healthy weight. The survey suggests that girls who are overweight greaterincrease during the period 2003-2010 to 1110re thSJ1 will see 8. although in 2003. obese ( 12.. girls will surpass boys . 900 thousand. 5%) and.

el t-o the housing prices in fi'VB: ctf!es (between 1990 and 1995) r==~~==~-~-----~~~~==~----~=='--------~__". 2 per cent only. and from 1995 to 200().ti.. .:':1 in an reeession. the rest we're subject to price fluctuations.2% -6% 6% 2% .a. .n 'by selectling and' reponin.. .' ected ar average 3. but still disappointing..""""'. The decrease in the bousing price in Sydney was narrower. and a 4% in Beijins~ years. $0/0 g.. San Francisco and Beijing are two citieswhich increase accelerated Beijing. was connnuousr . .av~:i:de. at' rzITId ae in at 'nearly' 0)5 .mp.rOI 4% 2%1 0% j-... the first five years.o. '0:': fiiv'e eiti:es around:the wodd nom 1'990 .. in Hong Kong...'I ...g the mai'nlealures and lmakl! ICQ. in subsequent period.ain in the previous five years .. ottine ' B Y COln.f·' R'- ..di:agra'm:s: pr. .el.. While some experienced a IODS period ofgrowth. frOID 1990bO 1995.8Iri:sons where.sOlm. seen in San Francisco 'iF .n a!l)out 'the housi. a 2% rise was recorded in San Francisco.'TapiiC: 7': 'Tlh. %. with a 3% gain. compared to its 3.n.. ·t'b'·· •...% increase in the: first halfof 1'9'908! To recap. there were significant differences. SUimmarise the inlfcnimiatio. Og....... San Francisco Beijing -. The cnanges 8% '0 !.=.'e property market··t .pan:SOD.to 2000.-cession re __:.ein'f:ormiJ.. Hong Kongand Sydney experienced a similar shrmp between 1995 and 200D...refl. as against its. ..vanl~. rr'ty .. The housing price slipped 6. .g .priice. Ir.a-n-f ' COiufjly.' ".5 per cent drop..'f!) S an Praneiseo Beijing The given tables offer !3! glimpse of the real estate market in five major cities around the world saw housing prices climb throughout the ten-year c over twoperiods. In. in the housing market in those five cities in the last decade of the last century.

ealures anld make c.'To'piic 8:: The I.comparedto females..20 interest in smoking" pushing the smoking rate first to 34% in 1985~ and then to 37'0/0 in 1990~even outmatehing their male counterparts ... rising approximately 8% every five years to 220/0 in 1'980.1 smoking was not very popular ~unong youngsters age-d IS to 20. 1980 Females 50/0' 1985 1990 32% 13o/Q /'.lmOiker. smoking remained a slower growth in popular among young males.e. In 2000.nt. either for age males or for females.every five years to 3:5% in.ompalfisQ.d te..elow desor'ible~slhe: p'ropcl1ian: of 'S.e b. The following decade saw a dramatic change: the smoking rate among males leapt nearly 13°X.. Over the period between 1980 and 19'90.70/0 The table reveals how smoking evolved into a fad among I S~to-20-year-old. albeit still more than three times higher From the table.and reporting 'the malin ".m.. with only 10 per cent of males smoking.20 group abated. population in Britain bad a much. male population while young females showed a. it is clear that the lS-to-20-year-old 'man 30 years earlier".abl'.g . the smoking craze inthe 1. accounting for over a third of the 15'. and 5'0/0 in females. 10 2. of 1.siles (betwee'n 'Iheag.to.. . Over the final years ofthe last century...5and 20) in Bri'tain~ Sum:misr'ise the i1nformati:on by ~el:ectiln. an estimated 27 (jib to 28'% of Pieople in this age group' were reported as smokers. li980~. higher percentage of smokers by the end of the mastcentury than in the early 1970s . In 1'970. lower than previous years.5~.' 34°.sln ma1les 8:n.ns where rellev.s. growing . Britons in the period I 97'0 to 20100..

ws.car!b'IDln diiiolxlde lem~. or France did.2 QlrrM'any 10. by contrast" was the only country of the three to experience ::1 drop in road transport emissions. As shown in the table. In all the three countries.43~9 20014 32~6 :3fl.7 1994 _O~ 01.7 million tonnes. million more than tell years earlier."countries lin 19~94'and -.e 11.2.04:". Germany.. 2 Su.In the ..es to the total emissions ' withinten years. 0. road transport was responsible for the majority of .. road transport.~e belD. A similar pattern was seen in France.. 2. with the amount rising to :~.7 The given table provides an overview of carbon dioxide emissions from SOUI-cetS namely.1 10....6. 5 35'0:.2 ttg· IF'I~anrc..2 to 46.d-tr ans. United Kingdom.2 32. 34. By comparison. s. France 'Germany.2 0.W shc..iSS~ODS.6 million tonnes in 2004~ 2.2 ' 3111:. .. AI. . COW" main transport in the United Kingdom.'hle'lnfDrmiation . railways.. civil aviation and shipping] ( and Germany in 1994 and 2004 .c~ompar'isonlswh-ers r-ellevant:.se·.where roadtransport added 3.. .'S 2:004 1: . tran :eU3 g:n: 1 [European 'U:n'~oln Unite:d King'd:oml 199.en1. both UK and France failed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 'transport sources during the period 1994 to 2004~. . 43.T'op_ic 9: Tlhe: 'tab.g '~nd make MUlij'on ronnel! 'of' carbon _.pc. by' .mrna~i.4.O.3 C)..rdlpearl.0 'tt.2million. !I--.I~ dOlmesUr. although having higher emissions than either the United Kingdom.4 1 ~D !D~5 0. except civil aviation. 7 200.in COJi1h~8Jst to the decrease in Germany. while other three transport sources did not show any remarkable growth.6 32. Other three transport sources had a lower emission volume as well.. Road transport continued to account for the biggest source of emissions ..sis. 47.7 million in 1994~while the United Kingdom had a smaller growth...5million tonnes over the same period. saw the amount decrease slightly from.eleclin.:1 47 .'i 0..2 10..4 30'.6 1. rt RO:CI.9 and rep'ot1i~_ng'JI'he mainfes'tU're. France recorded an increase offour million tonnes from 34.6milIiontonD.lons 'from tr'llnspo'rt in Ihi'r'&:e Eu.~• ' L. road transport produced emissions up to 32.7 46.4 1.

4.careless or drunken drivingwas the fourth main type of offences. also declining gradually. initially ranked second in ] 994 but became the main type: of offences by 2004. accident offences and unauthorised taking (or theft ) of motor vehicle.. driving fit.sultam::::le and 37 129 282.DI. me]ln featur"es.e: . more than three times the figure ten years earlier. speed limit offences and licence particular attention because it surged exponentially. averaging .fl'po. Dangerous.mari:se th.w'ee. recording a. 23 ISO 41 874 11 1-001 -~ -- I 18 1. anrdl 2:004" Sum.- 23'1· 18: eo~ 4S 872 881 1I n -1 52 7m. enmperlsons wherere.: 190 199 1 UU 22 762 40.nd 2E: 272: 27'6 :211 245 21:B 213 ' ' 264 ~ The table presents an overall VI lew of various motor vehicle offences. Speed limit offences. 1~lmftQ1Terlce'~ 2.391 11 . ten-year high at 2.nge't"C ul" a~olleStB 1 or drunke'n.and . in England and Wales from 1994 to 2004. insurance and record keeping offences were themostcommon type of offences and rose to 957 thousand in 2004. 232 2".mees Nlogl~ICIort~raffI:cIlig'nl :I.at around 250 thousand per year." ''1etiiClle UC'i!I. were the least To summarise.nc:e" ~1n1.g the.231 thousand".e info"rmation by Ilelect~ng .n '1994. and: make onenee ty'p.lopic 10: 'The tabl'e Ibe'low shows motor vehicle olffences ln IEnglla:nd. and Wales Ibel.076 thousand. licence. Wales during the period 1994 to 2004 and speed limit offences deserved . Neglect of traffic signs and directions carne third.041 2'iaT'li Un:!ut:i1oris:ed taking er theft of melo. offences were two main types of motor vehicle offences in England and. 962 188 144 18 I~ ~87' 111 1'11 1I Ac'c:.838 1 ..ldentofflenC8IS Spered. Ancthertwo types of offences. In 1994.rtln. 37 a:1"l 36 moT' 13:1 Ta8 32 B111 30 :963 21 951' 269 record kee:ping directions om. all-time high at . dropping in much of ShU the period 1994 to 2004 but finally hitting common. after a ten-year period of fluctuations .'!. 1346 1919 22 100 21.levant.

m!ain fllatulr8S :ar.rmatiQ'. ilnf'Q. of the greatestwonders caterpillar wrapsitself in . wings and take the flight time. TIle female butterfly normally lays eggs on a plant that it thinks is suitable for accommodating and feeding caterpillars. a p:roc.bvseIIICli'"91 eod 'n!iPQI~i.T'o.ss known as motamorphosie takes place. The pupal stage is possibly one. skin. until in the natural world.the adult butterfly wUl break the pupa] case. this period talkies two to three weeks.shedding' \ .p'nosisl occurs - Theadullt bu~.f. At this stage.age '~roWth of a oate:rpiil'lla!fs .expand fOI" the first its. transformed intc .~ke·c=o'mlparisQ'ns.yihg e:g!gs S~. 'They feed on the food plants where they live.. .an adult butterfly..erfly The life cycle of a butterfly starts from egg laying.. embryo.of: the butte~.shedding. the pupa is.. It marks the end of metamorphosis.~.: la.n . whJere ~ellev. will emerge from the egg. In general. In each egg" an embryo develops gradually. Flying around for new food p~nts butterflies are ready to matefor a new cycle. In twoweeks.grovm.d ilQ. Caterpillars wil] shed their skin several times throughout this stage. \ ~- S'tage 4: :P'upmil s~:agf! (2 lNGleks) Ime~eJmo..apupa" a creature at most. called "the caterpillar".)' skin . the it creates within two hOUrl5LInside the pupa. At the final stage.a.ant.I'V"A!Su:mrn·ari.Qvrs. The fully .r.n.lhe ~iife cycle .(two monln5. This stage lasts.pic11:: 'The 'diagr~mbe'~Dw stl. The next stage is.:gl the. fo:r twomonths caterpillars are ready for the pupal stage.. . Stag~. '. Ithe .

he .p . !( i.J .oper (buyers of glass or pl. . .bles by using material "'lOt'· Irecover~t' f aC!I.lneanr1'Q fi.1.~ Uise t...Q.of' recyclables are bottles (plastic or glass )" p. Newspapers and paper towels can b e sent to'... The first step is collecting recyclables frOID rubbish bins. At the fm811~~age).rEl 11oa." ~=:... develop ._ . wiU become part of 'the itetllis.di.J]e:s I Stagethreei:furt'h..L __ "u Pj3 . material recovery facilities win sortthe reeyclables more carefully.) iRocydab~es.1.o. it is expected thathousebolds win put tbem 1:0 appropriate rubbish bins .:1 __ . '_"..ses. The rest of recyclables win .o::. Part of recyclables will be sent to some customers for their own use. Once those. Forexample. the second stage.. _. _ .m dif1:er._ "'.~nfo'rm'anonin the.ateri a~ recove:ryfacillities - -~- II Durablss Stage two: sort out recycla.__ _ __' known as further-processing stage.. a O.sr Iproc:ess~ing. an important role in the treatment of urban refuse.ef'use is assloned for recycllng. soft drink companies have then-own recycling facilities to take advantage of the soft drink containers collected. engineering companies are regular buyers of aluminium.aIl 'the recycled lna'terials.. ~eparatedand smas~ed as ]OOPjj me third part of the n~~yclin:. used hy households daily. . l' paper and pulpmills.~.w urban r.ent Paper rubbish bins M.ag1flll:m land w!rile a desCf'ilpti. Put in the right bjns Collecting andprocessing recyclables plays.n 'o:I'lhls prccesa. '."1.. . it will save plenty of time that is otherwise required for the second stage. -. The recycled materials produced are sold t businesses.T'Opiic 2: WlrHe a dissclrilptiio.. 1l.r"9cy'ct81bles fro..be cleaned.". For example. pa. Threemain types.U.aper and durables ..E! "'~.·r·plastic ." U! ~oJi.rlms (buyers o.r! vari .f":r. Items are disposed. Bottles (plasUe ~ass) I S:tage! ens: coillecnng ..n of h. If recyclables have already been put in the right rubbish bins.·ers will buy' glass r... &. P'roc 8EH3edi reeyclab~es bus inesses I Eng..aslic.p:Euty d'evgl.-. . .f ahirnlnlurn) Pro. Icleia!ns~~. hl. _.It is how the recycling loop keeps operating.pe!r towels I comJ:)sny I. different .iIL~ . clasElify and smash r:ecydables I sori drink Newspiapers.

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