'T'op'-iic '11; iG'ranhsl below p-r'ovide the Ilatest~-,,----!i -- --' -- --v.,-. ' ,.,--' ,--' '," ---'. '----,- - 'fig,"ure~ about 'th~ demlg--:ra(~hi:>:-f th ,- -- --- ',.

-& --,', o: p __s 0 -e c

'U'inilea'S'la:les, h1dUjding ;elhnJeaJ group.s and·the [POPU'I'Btion,·t)·ase·d on
I '

'\

I·'

'.

I.

I

cen,su:sc'that

I

waa;·,cflr·r~ed oulandadm'h'listered 'by IU·S, 'Censt.l.s'Blulreau iln 2006~ ..llg-:-'n~- -~"·,l S'U'· 'm:-Im' -a' -r:"1'8, t,h·e-- .11:'-nlfo--·r'm'~···'a,··t··· .... b'-"I,:"S-DI-aofl!lOt'"'I'n g','-:-' "~'n'd', .'·,·rD-p:-'D:-·rt-';i~n,~·,g~·-"I":h'-le':m---B-~III-'-n- ":e'-.........!III.lI·A~ -a-'n-·:'-"d-':·m'~'~a:-·Lr,U"_,_:_.--- ... ·a,',Ur~'D '_
1 .• ..'
_"" 1-.-_,-.",~,,~

-',6

1

! .~,~ '_

I

.

..

,..... '

.-.'

'-_.·1,

.,1""-:,-_,-"1

~-.I!IJ~~-

__ _:__ U

It

__

,~_'_

,-,_I'

_"

..

I

_ _:_

_""~

,I

Wh~te
1H66;

Aslanand
P:ac1fii.o Ilsll,andelr 2.2.3 m iUii10n

:(2:0:0' Imil~~on )
2'00.6
I

1 tS,7.2 m UUon

B.5 mUUon

(300ImUlion)

201 million II 38.7 million

44.,7 rnllilon
IU' ,_"S<'. P-:::',·o'p.-.c " _ .c.,

14.3,lminion

'UI~*,'I,nn nr,iI"iIi,wt· ,,~."__ 'h-_.d'~l_V. __ ~!I Yo'

Decade: totals P,opula.6cm (mil ]I~o:n:s)

35

15

5
O~=~~~-'-~~--"-~~_'_~::i....-JI-....l:5::..:......1l~--=~~~~~

'1990~,lO

11~20 .. 2~..3,O

3,1..40

41..50

51..60'

61-70'

71..80

81-90

~n-l0110

The table, combined, with the bar chart, provides an overview of demographics, of the United States from the early mastcentury to thepresent,

It can be seen in 'the table that thetotal Uf population is now 300 r.niUion,1.5 times larger than 40
years ago, 2.00 million, Hispanics and Asian Americans
expanded much faster fhan other races,

According to the census, 44.7 million Americans are currently Hispanic, more than five times higher
than in I 966" while the Asian population is as large as .~.4JmfIHon" a ten-fold increase over' the 19 661
1

level. By comparison, although white Americans are still in 'the majority, accounting for two thirds of the current US populationcthe growth rate was lower than the general population. Afro~'Am:ericans~ who made 'up'the second largest ethnical group ill 1'966 with a population of 22.,3 million, dropped to
number three". behind whites and Hispanics ..Other ethnical groups take up the remaining 1.3 million.

In the first half of the 20tbcentury,.

the US population grew at different ra tes, ranging fro,':'_'_

million to 20 million a decade, the bar chart suggests. Itaccelerated

since 'the middle of the

I

sotceo n

'with adding at least 20 million to the overall population every ten years ..'The 19908 alone experienced a
growth of more than 30min~on.

To summarise, the US population continued to swell since the early last century and thegreatest
increases occurred to Hispanicsand Asian Americans
{rOI11.

1.966to 2006 ..

over 3 offences). while . recorded.1 recordhigh. S. 3. rose to it Victirnisations rose and fell at B .etheinfo:rmiati'on by le'l:ec:ling and 'rep'onin'g the m..__~~~~~.e.5 ~ 3' 2 Crimes recorded by police I D.. the violent crime rate.t erlme Ile\l'el.. there was a trend toward lower violent crime levels..u$ v"i'Q.2 and 2.umim. In 200Q. there were fluctuations in the total crime level.len. 3. both dropped slightly in the last five years and the figureswere 1.. the lowest ever recorded during fhe given period.5'- jn t~~)'UsandEi. thousand Americans committed violentcrime..eJltureSi and .5 offences per thousand Americans.S and 0. .By about 198. levelling offbelow 0.aiin f.5 offences respectively in 2000.s frrom 197.As to crimes recorded by policeand arrests far 'violent crime.8.I' comparl.although.llinachart.___-l.nt Se:nious Vi. The arrest rate was the lowest.5- -0 I~----=--_----:.lent crim:es 'include :fap. robbery_!! .sons where releva.5 offences per I .8 to 2000 in the USii Ser..olent crime ~Gvelsin the US Offenses 5 4".9~.mak. many victims were reported te-thepolice. out of a. reaching its highest in the year 1994.. as well aaviorimisations reported to police. by the end of the cenmry.5 offences in a thous and . (rver 1. but the overall trend was upbeat. SOl did victimisations reported to police.000. by police showed From 1"98:8onwards. crimes recorded and arrests fOJ: violentcrimev was not subject to strong fluctuations in the final twc decades of the last century.low shows seria.aggrs'V'sted assault and ho!m'i c'ide . Overall. . half the figure in 1980 (slig'hUy .. around 4. ._~~~-~-~~~~ t9iB 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1'992 1994 ] 996 1998 :2000 In fhe firstten years.. steady increase.ious vi'o. t11~6 totalvielent crime level declined gradually.... bel.. while half as. lower level between .5 offences over the same period.arts. crimes.'Topllc 2:: The .

triple the amount in 2002 .h.se· Igasem:iss.~ 9% down 'Over the same period.s8ii. highest amount of carbon dioxide emissions.8:p.de .n biysei~ecli~n!g and repcn1i.snt . developing couctries are expected to.o. and other sectors make up amuch tower proportion. 2002 • DEeD Transition economies 1m Developin. Industry will continue to be emissions from less than 4 billion to .Sumlma. ·43%.S co'mpar. While industry is responsible for the.. future data concerningworldwide carbon dioxide. Countries 'with transition eccnomies are estimated 10 take up the remaining 9% in 2030. 'Iransportaricu. W'Qlr'~dwld'e in. The bar chart reveals that carbon dioxide emissions will expand to varying degrees in different sectors by 2030.T'olpiiD 3: Th.dwiide Cc!ubon Dicl)dde Etm.8 UJJ3 major producer of 'carbon dioxide" rising to more than 1'0 billion tons in 20]0. ....rii:se the inllQ'rmatio. As can be seen in the two pie charts.ohartsho.ss..:lsons wlhe:re r'elev.w greenlho1u.0~.s.io'ln. consumer and transportation experience the greatest increases.s __ s. Next comes the consumer sector.8Ir'QUn d theworld" T .e.ws eerben diio:xi.ie~.In contrast. emission. which is projected to more than double its billion or more tons. account flora bigger share of emissions in 2030~ 48%~ compared to 38% in 200Q." 'waste combustion.s' p. will see a hugegrowth to 6 billion. each producing an estimated 1 billion carbon dioxide.r.n'QI th'e . developing countries will overtake DECO countries to become the major carbon dioxideemission producer by 203n. To summarise. he col umn .ho.K. b:y sector I • 2'00(2' Illi 20.em.gl.By comparison...30 'I t Waste combustion Transportation I 'B HUon tons 0 6 lO 12 The graphs give past and. the third largest producer..~.•.m:ldn 'f~~·tur. OECD' countries are projected to make up a lower proportion. eountri es Watrll.[ssions.n.nd mi2i. '2010'2 anld ·the fiONeast for 203. 1% less than in 2002 .

.T'op'i:.s. As suggested above. combined. 2000~ oil cost a mere 3...e lrelevant..200108. 'wher. .6%" and . with the nne chart. I! cam pa!fisonl:s. I :0 .east countries. In.n II A. give an overview of some aspects of the energy market.eatu:re..ar 60/0 . Saudi Arabia and Canada are the t\VO countries with the largest oil reserv.S-=:ro'LIId.fU]Counnn. Nuclear power and hydro-electricity evenly contributed to the remaining 12%. 5CXb The line chart shows a wide variation in the world oil 'prices in the first decade of'the 21 st century.D'U prhJe$ from 2000 to 2. the oil price.taking up 28%. In the two decades to come.. oil is very likely to remain as all important energy source. is unlikely 1~(): return to its low levels: in the earlliy.Iran. . ~u-ro I!OUII. J n.2'%. 2000 Thetwo pie charts. Energy cOlnsiumpti:on by type (2DI[)!5.e~..) H:ydra~9Iec:tric 6 % Nucle.:Jj Canada 14. ...rabla n .i.26) Dollars per barrel 70 so 40 30 I"~ 2:0 1..es-20% versus 14°AJ. Kuwait and United Arab follow behmd~.. WOlrld Oil Prices (2000-.23'% separately. followed by coal and natura] gas. are on the: list as weU.0'215 w .bout worlldwii'deene~gy c:on.but account for a smaller ..sumlptlo1n. with 1110rethan half theglobal 011 reserves being located in Mid.'s iith.. Iraq.g: for 37'~o of the 'energy consumed worldwide. and . . the price had surged markedly and finally hit a peak of 60 dollars in about 2006" -Sinee In"€in~ the oil price is 'expected to drop for 'three years or longer.Venezuela.3 dollars per barrel.. each having 8 1:0 10% of the global reserves .n'for'matlon a.0/0 Unlted Arab a~/o.. From 2003 onwards.arlae the lrrtormatlen by selee'lIng and re'portiing the main f.20. 'grs'phs. or even less in the following three years.har.. / r>«: _'__-" .sand ma. Russia and the United States.k. pr.c:4:: The. Sum'm.. down to 48 dollars in 20 level throughout the rest . .QII res~rves and tile world' .. ..0 I -. According to the firstpie chart. the cClunlr:ie... . - -. Four Mid-east countries.0 fthe givenperiod. 2005 . respectively . the consumption of oil was thehighest in 2005..e'vide i. ..

-~~ Sl~~~---~. Since then.50 1960 _--_-.ising to 4 bUUQn in 197Uand remaining constant a:t that level til11980._---_---:~'970 i980 o~--~----~--~--~~--~----~--~----~--~----~--~ 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2Q50 Growth rite (percent) Wodrl PopulafonG rowth Rate (1t950·. the growth accelerated.. adding another z billion withintwenty years.50" when the growth rate is. n _. before r. ic i. 7~------~-------------------~----~~------------------~ 6--~~--------~~----------~-1 511~----------~-~~------------------1 ~I--------~-. 1. This. .rlld popull:atianfro'm the US Census B'ureaul Sumlm!arise tlhe 'inflorma..= .s.ojec:liion's ol'WQ. he as low as 0.nd p'f. growth of world population.. As shown in the second chart. In .least 9 billion.-.he !estiim'stes . Growth first fluctuated dramatically and then surged to 2'% in 19'10" a l OO-year high .--~------~--~--~----~ ____. . 2000'" the population topped 6 billion. 2050) 2.. 250/0.sestimated tha~ the planet will home a population of at. averaged out at around I.o'w pr.9. continue throughout much of the first half ot the 21 st century.~--~=-=-~-~~-~-~3 ..riisons.5 21----- ___ a_.a.--. doubling tile: figure fifty years earlier. n lnbillloas World P'opul!atlon (19. pattern is projected to persist by 20.ion by sel~ectlng and re'porting the main features and Imake CIQm~p. although the rate at which the population growswill decline. population growth rate in the second half of the last century. there was a wide range in.where Irele'V8!nt. and by 2005. to. ==--------===--------------------------1 ]1-----1..----.th~ first 10 yeal·sfi'o:rII.3 billion.l.n'l I.5·0~2050) lO~~~~~~--~--------~---===~~~~~~~~--~---' 91------------------------~---~-. . By the middle of this. it slowed remarkably.I I The two charts presentan overall Vi~N (if how world population did and will change over the period. the population was flat at . century.--. The first chart shows the sustained. In . the world..ssl.5'%~ In summary" population growth tends. 1 11~1-------------------------------------~~---------------1 .Fr01l1 then on..0" . 205. Uke]y to.1950 to I I '960.l.950 '£0.: T'he d'i:agra:ms: b'e.T10lpic 5.-.

ling .Bited) Number ·ofpeop~e aged 16+ (h~Jl1jl1ion~) 8 iO 1--------- 51-~~~---f 31---21--11--- Obese children in the U'K (.tilon in Br~taj:nwit'h IPlroje~tiion. :Su'm:m:ar1is1e the inlolr'mati'on by sel:ec. ~ I Obese: 'peopI1e.aged 100°1 9m):'".elevanrt .----~~-~~~-----~---~ BOO I IL=-----~~~-~ 2..phs below .fHeaJthabaut thecl¥'BiMieight p.8 survey carri.ln the UK (e.opull.s!.ed Q'url by the Department o.ntholt1::~ands) 700 ~--~~~ 6{JO~-~ 500i1 -~~ .:"'" Boys .ons wher.summarise ther'eisu Its of . 300!---ilf..I.B.Top'ic 6:: 'The' gra.r'es8'nd make comparhs.':..e r.nl1d: rep.:.estim:ia1ed) Number orcbi~dren.~ 20. }! 4001--~.o:rt:i:nlg tihle· maln ".ea. 15 (i.tu....0 I---------'-i}: lOO'I-~~ O"b~~"""':::'.sHm.

The survey suggests that girls who are overweight greaterincrease during the period 2003-2010 to 1110re thSJ1 will see 8. 'rising almost 30%. boys than girls suffering obesity.690 thousand. obese ( 12..7 million to 6 million. 5%) and. - The increase in the women who have the same problem tends to be smaller.:50/0 1--- Both parents obese One parent obese Neither parent obese The first two graphs show a marked rise inobesity in Britain by 2010" The number of men who . In children. 100 thousand more than boys [DOle who have the same problem. children in households where both parents. have a weight problem is estimated to be as high as 0. it is another picture. Whilemen are expected to outnumber women by 2010. over 50~/{)higher than in 2003. Overall. from 4.. . girls will surpass boys . over As shown in the third graph.20~/o1---------- 10%1---- . UK's obese population will grow in size. including both children and adults. 900 thousand. five times as t110sn with parents having a healthy weight (5'~o). although in 2003. there were 700 thousand versus about . 'The children with at least on parent having a weight problem are ITIOre likely toobe obese than those with parents havinga healthy weight. are obese are twice as likely t-o be obese as those in households where one parent is.8 million in 2010.

The decrease in the bousing price in Sydney was narrower.refl. seen in San Francisco 'iF .'TapiiC: 7': 'Tlh.8Iri:sons where.'f!) S an Praneiseo Beijing The given tables offer !3! glimpse of the real estate market in five major cities around the world saw housing prices climb throughout the ten-year c over twoperiods.'e property market··t .5 per cent drop. In.n a!l)out 'the housi.. as against its..ein'f:ormiJ. in the housing market in those five cities in the last decade of the last century. Hong Kongand Sydney experienced a similar shrmp between 1995 and 200D.. and a 4% in Beijins~ years. with a 3% gain.. The cnanges 8% '0 !.ain in the previous five years . rr'ty . ..pan:SOD. '0:': fiiv'e eiti:es around:the wodd nom 1'990 .. . ottine ' B Y COln. was connnuousr ..rOI 4% 2%1 0% j-..% increase in the: first halfof 1'9'908! To recap. $0/0 g. %. San Francisco and Beijing are two citieswhich increase accelerated Beijing.=. 2 per cent only.2% -6% 6% 2% .""""'.. The housing price slipped 6.to 2000.f·' R'- .a-n-f ' COiufjly.. Og.' ".vanl~..'I . a 2% rise was recorded in San Francisco. compared to its 3. the rest we're subject to price fluctuations.o. but still disappointing.ti.el. While some experienced a IODS period ofgrowth. in Hong Kong. ·t'b'·· •... . and from 1995 to 200().di:agra'm:s: pr... .el t-o the housing prices in fi'VB: ctf!es (between 1990 and 1995) r==~~==~-~-----~~~~==~----~=='--------~__"..-cession re __:...:':1 in an reeession...n. the first five years.sOlm. SUimmarise the inlfcnimiatio.a. .' ected ar average 3.g the mai'nlealures and lmakl! ICQ.g ... Ir. there were significant differences... at' rzITId ae in at 'nearly' 0)5 .. in subsequent period. ... San Francisco Beijing -..n 'by selectling and' reponin.. frOID 1990bO 1995.priice.av~:i:de.mp. .

5and 20) in Bri'tain~ Sum:misr'ise the i1nformati:on by ~el:ectiln... In 1'970.5~. accounting for over a third of the 15'.20 interest in smoking" pushing the smoking rate first to 34% in 1985~ and then to 37'0/0 in 1990~even outmatehing their male counterparts ..70/0 The table reveals how smoking evolved into a fad among I S~to-20-year-old. 10 2.m. an estimated 27 (jib to 28'% of Pieople in this age group' were reported as smokers.1 smoking was not very popular ~unong youngsters age-d IS to 20. higher percentage of smokers by the end of the mastcentury than in the early 1970s .' 34°. and 5'0/0 in females. male population while young females showed a.every five years to 3:5% in.. Britons in the period I 97'0 to 20100.lmOiker. population in Britain bad a much. the smoking craze inthe 1.. lower than previous years.abl'. The following decade saw a dramatic change: the smoking rate among males leapt nearly 13°X. of 1.and reporting 'the malin ".. either for age males or for females. Over the period between 1980 and 19'90. smoking remained a slower growth in popular among young males.e.s. Over the final years ofthe last century. it is clear that the lS-to-20-year-old 'man 30 years earlier".20 group abated. albeit still more than three times higher From the table.g . growing .'To'piic 8:: The I.. rising approximately 8% every five years to 220/0 in 1'980.elow desor'ible~slhe: p'ropcl1ian: of 'S.. with only 10 per cent of males smoking.ealures anld make c.siles (betwee'n 'Iheag. In 2000. ..to.sln ma1les 8:n. 1980 Females 50/0' 1985 1990 32% 13o/Q /'.nt..ompalfisQ.ns where rellev. li980~.d te.e b.comparedto females.

7 46.04:".6 1. 43.d-tr ans. Road transport continued to account for the biggest source of emissions . 5 35'0:.ws.. civil aviation and shipping] ( and Germany in 1994 and 2004 .3 C).In the .mrna~i.. rt RO:CI. France 'Germany. . or France did.in COJi1h~8Jst to the decrease in Germany.4 30'.2 QlrrM'any 10.2 to 46.5million tonnes over the same period.43~9 20014 32~6 :3fl.pc.T'op_ic 9: Tlhe: 'tab.'S 2:004 1: .2 32. s.9 and rep'ot1i~_ng'JI'he mainfes'tU're.O. France recorded an increase offour million tonnes from 34. 2 Su. 7 200. by contrast" was the only country of the three to experience ::1 drop in road transport emissions. by' . million more than tell years earlier.. AI. Germany. while other three transport sources did not show any remarkable growth.I~ dOlmesUr.. both UK and France failed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 'transport sources during the period 1994 to 2004~..4.rdlpearl..es to the total emissions ' withinten years.2 ttg· IF'I~anrc. 2. road transport was responsible for the majority of .. . COW" main transport in the United Kingdom."countries lin 19~94'and -..7 million tonnes..6milIiontonD.7 million in 1994~while the United Kingdom had a smaller growth. with the amount rising to :~.. road transport. .4 1 ~D !D~5 0.2million....~e belD. A similar pattern was seen in France.0 'tt.lons 'from tr'llnspo'rt in Ihi'r'&:e Eu. Other three transport sources had a lower emission volume as well.4 1.2 ' 3111:. tran :eU3 g:n: 1 [European 'U:n'~oln Unite:d King'd:oml 199.2 10.where roadtransport added 3.~• ' L. By comparison. railways. saw the amount decrease slightly from..:1 47 .W shc.1 10.'hle'lnfDrmiation . road transport produced emissions up to 32.7 The given table provides an overview of carbon dioxide emissions from SOUI-cetS namely.. 0.eleclin. .. !I--.7 1994 _O~ 01.6.iSS~ODS... 47. United Kingdom. except civil aviation.6 32.sis.car!b'IDln diiiolxlde lem~. 34.e 11.g '~nd make MUlij'on ronnel! 'of' carbon _.en1. In all the three countries. although having higher emissions than either the United Kingdom. As shown in the table.2..'i 0.c~ompar'isonlswh-ers r-ellevant:.6 million tonnes in 2004~ 2.se·.2 0.

4.fl'po. dropping in much of ShU the period 1994 to 2004 but finally hitting common.n '1994. averaging .careless or drunken drivingwas the fourth main type of offences. 23 ISO 41 874 11 1-001 -~ -- I 18 1.lopic 10: 'The tabl'e Ibe'low shows motor vehicle olffences ln IEnglla:nd.076 thousand. initially ranked second in ] 994 but became the main type: of offences by 2004.at around 250 thousand per year. more than three times the figure ten years earlier.e info"rmation by Ilelect~ng . 1~lmftQ1Terlce'~ 2. offences were two main types of motor vehicle offences in England and.nge't"C ul" a~olleStB 1 or drunke'n.sultam::::le and 37 129 282. all-time high at . insurance and record keeping offences were themostcommon type of offences and rose to 957 thousand in 2004. Speed limit offences.w'ee. enmperlsons wherere.041 2'iaT'li Un:!ut:i1oris:ed taking er theft of melo.e: . and: make onenee ty'p.mees Nlogl~ICIort~raffI:cIlig'nl :I." ''1etiiClle UC'i!I.mari:se th. 37 a:1"l 36 moT' 13:1 Ta8 32 B111 30 :963 21 951' 269 record kee:ping directions om. Dangerous.. 232 2".DI.nc:e" ~1n1.and . and Wales Ibel.- 23'1· 18: eo~ 4S 872 881 1I n -1 52 7m. in England and Wales from 1994 to 2004. Wales during the period 1994 to 2004 and speed limit offences deserved .ldentofflenC8IS Spered.231 thousand".: 190 199 1 UU 22 762 40.levant.838 1 . accident offences and unauthorised taking (or theft ) of motor vehicle.nd 2E: 272: 27'6 :211 245 21:B 213 ' ' 264 ~ The table presents an overall VI lew of various motor vehicle offences.391 11 .g the. me]ln featur"es. after a ten-year period of fluctuations . anrdl 2:004" Sum. driving fit. recording a. ten-year high at 2.. 1346 1919 22 100 21. 962 188 144 18 I~ ~87' 111 1'11 1I Ac'c:. Neglect of traffic signs and directions carne third.'!. licence. also declining gradually. In 1994. speed limit offences and licence particular attention because it surged exponentially.rtln. were the least To summarise. Ancthertwo types of offences.

the pupa is. '.shedding' \ . .yihg e:g!gs S~.I'V"A!Su:mrn·ari. Ithe .~. m!ain fllatulr8S :ar. this period talkies two to three weeks. The next stage is.(two monln5. Flying around for new food p~nts butterflies are ready to matefor a new cycle.grovm. At the final stage. This stage lasts.apupa" a creature at most.r.T'o. Stag~..Qvrs. skin.lhe ~iife cycle ..the adult butterfly wUl break the pupa] case. . \ ~- S'tage 4: :P'upmil s~:agf! (2 lNGleks) Ime~eJmo.bvseIIICli'"91 eod 'n!iPQI~i.ant. 'They feed on the food plants where they live.a. will emerge from the egg. fo:r twomonths caterpillars are ready for the pupal stage. of the greatestwonders caterpillar wrapsitself in .n . Caterpillars wil] shed their skin several times throughout this stage.shedding.n.an adult butterfly. The pupal stage is possibly one. embryo.expand fOI" the first its. It marks the end of metamorphosis.p'nosisl occurs - Theadullt bu~.)' skin . transformed intc . TIle female butterfly normally lays eggs on a plant that it thinks is suitable for accommodating and feeding caterpillars. until in the natural world.age '~roWth of a oate:rpiil'lla!fs .of: the butte~.ss known as motamorphosie takes place. The fully . In each egg" an embryo develops gradually. ilnf'Q. In twoweeks. called "the caterpillar".rmatiQ'.~ke·c=o'mlparisQ'ns..:gl the. At this stage.: la.. whJere ~ellev. In general.pic11:: 'The 'diagr~mbe'~Dw stl.erfly The life cycle of a butterfly starts from egg laying. the it creates within two hOUrl5LInside the pupa.d ilQ. wings and take the flight time..f. a p:roc..

pa. _. .".L __ "u Pj3 .r"9cy'ct81bles fro. different . Part of recyclables will be sent to some customers for their own use.aper and durables ..p .Q. wiU become part of 'the itetllis. develop .aslic.ent Paper rubbish bins M. material recovery facilities win sortthe reeyclables more carefully."1. Once those..~nfo'rm'anonin the. '...ag1flll:m land w!rile a desCf'ilpti.__ _ __' known as further-processing stage. .U.he .T'Opiic 2: WlrHe a dissclrilptiio. The recycled materials produced are sold t businesses.1. an important role in the treatment of urban refuse. The first step is collecting recyclables frOID rubbish bins.ef'use is assloned for recycllng.....rEl 11oa. Threemain types._ "'.It is how the recycling loop keeps operating. At the fm811~~age). used hy households daily.~ Uise t.~...:1 __ ." U! ~oJi. the second stage.aIl 'the recycled lna'terials.·r·plastic .di. Put in the right bjns Collecting andprocessing recyclables plays. 1l.J .1.rlms (buyers o. . it will save plenty of time that is otherwise required for the second stage. . _ .-.iIL~ .ses. For example._ ..lneanr1'Q fi. P'roc 8EH3edi reeyclab~es bus inesses I Eng..pe!r towels I comJ:)sny I.·ers will buy' glass r.E! "'~. Forexample. . clasElify and smash r:ecydables I sori drink Newspiapers. it is expected thathousebolds win put tbem 1:0 appropriate rubbish bins . Icleia!ns~~.w urban r.be cleaned.. ~eparatedand smas~ed as ]OOPjj me third part of the n~~yclin:..J]e:s I Stagethreei:furt'h. Bottles (plasUe ~ass) I S:tage! ens: coillecnng .bles by using material "'lOt'· Irecover~t' f aC!I. !( i. -.m dif1:er. a O.p:Euty d'evgl. hl.. '_".r! vari . .o::. soft drink companies have then-own recycling facilities to take advantage of the soft drink containers collected..of' recyclables are bottles (plastic or glass )" p.n of h. Items are disposed.f":r.sr Iproc:ess~ing." ~=:. engineering companies are regular buyers of aluminium. If recyclables have already been put in the right rubbish bins.oper (buyers of glass or pl. l' paper and pulpmills. Newspapers and paper towels can b e sent to'..) iRocydab~es.f ahirnlnlurn) Pro.. The rest of recyclables win .n 'o:I'lhls prccesa. _.o.. &.ateri a~ recove:ryfacillities - -~- II Durablss Stage two: sort out recycla.

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