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Bulleh Shah I Know Not Who I Am

Bulleh Shah I Know Not Who I Am

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I know not who I am I am neither a believer going to the mosque Nor given to non-believing ways Neither clean

, nor unclean Neither Moses not Pharoah I know not who I am I am neither among sinners nor among saints Neither happy, nor unhappy I belong neither to water not to earth I am neither fire, not air I know not who I am Neither do I know the secret of religion Nor am I born of Adam and Eve I have given myself no name I belong neither to those who squat and pray Nor to those who have gone astray I know not who I am I was in the beginning, I’d be there in the end I know not any one other than the One Who could be wiser than Bulleh Shah Whose Master is ever there to tend? I know not who I am. ==========================================================

Bulleh Shah
Bulleh Shah‘s real name was Abdullah Shah, was a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet, a humanist and philosopher. Born: 1680 Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Died: 1757 (aged 77) Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan -

Early life and background
Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, now in Pakistan. His ancestors had migrated from Bukhara in modern Uzbekistan. When he was six months old, his parents relocated to Malakwal. There his father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a preacher in the village mosque and a teacher. His father later got a job in Pandoke, about 50 miles southeast of Kasur. Bulleh Shah received his early schooling in Pandoke, and moved to Kasur for higher education. He also received education from Maulana Mohiyuddin. His spiritual teacher was the eminent Sufi saint, Shah Inayat Qadiri. Little is known about Bulleh Shah’s direct ancestors, except that they were migrants from Uzbekistan. However, Bulleh Shah’s family was directly descended from the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH). -

Career
A large amount of what is known about Bulleh Shah comes through legends, and is subjective; to the point that there isn’t even agreement among historians concerning his precise date and place of birth. Some “facts” about his life have been pieced together from his own writings. Other “facts” seem to have been passed down through oral traditions. Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538 – 1599), Sultan Bahu (1629 – 1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640 – 1724). Bulleh Shah lived in the same period as the famous Sindhi Sufi poet , Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai (1689 – 1752). His lifespan also overlapped with the legendary Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722 – 1798), of Heer Ranjha fame, and the famous Sindhi Sufi poet Abdul Wahad (1739 – 1829), better known by his pen-name, Sachal Sarmast

(“truth seeking leader of the intoxicated ones”). Amongst Urdu poets, Bulleh Shah lived 400 miles away from Mir Taqi Mir (1723 – 1810) of Agra. -

Poetry Style
The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi, a style of Punjabi, Sindhi and Siraiki poetry used not only by the Sufis of Sindh and Punjab, but also by Sikh gurus. Bulleh Shah’s poetry and philosophy strongly criticizes Islamic religious orthodoxy of his day. -

A Beacon of Peace
Bulleh Shah’s time was marked with communal strife between Muslims and Sikhs. But in that age Baba Bulleh Shah was a beacon of hope and peace for the citizens of Punjab. While Bulleh Shah was in Pandoke, Muslims killed a young Sikh man who was riding through their village in retaliation for murder of some Muslims by Sikhs. Baba Bulleh Shah denounced the murder of an innocent Sikh and was censured by the mullas and muftis of Pandoke. Bulleh Shah maintained that violence was not the answer to violence.Bulleh Shah also hailed Guru Tegh Bahadur as a ghazi (Islamic term for a religious warrior) and incurred the wrath of the fanatic muslims at the time. Banda Singh Bairagi was a contemporary of Bulleh Shah. In retaliation for the murder of Guru Gobind Singh’s two sons by Aurangzeb, he sought revenge by killing common Muslims. Baba Bulleh Shah tried to convince Banda Singh Bairagi to renounce his campaign of revenge. Bulleh Shah told him that the same sword which fell upon Guru Gobind Singh’s sons and innocent Sikhs also fell upon innocent Muslims. Hence killing innocent Muslim was not the answer to Aurangzeb’s reign of oppression. -

Humanist
Bulleh Shah’s writings represent him as a humanist, someone providing solutions to the sociological problems of the world around him as he lives through it, describing the turbulence his motherland of Punjab is passing through, while concurrently searching for God. His poetry highlights his mystical spiritual voyage through the four stages of Sufism: Shariat (Path), Tariqat (Observance), Haqiqat (Truth) and Marfat (Union). The simplicity with which Bulleh Shah has been able to address the complex fundamental issues of life and humanity is a large part of his appeal. Thus, many people have put his kafis to music, from humble street-singers to renowned Sufi singers like the Waddali Brothers, Abida Parveen and Pathanay Khan, from the synthesized techno qawwali remixes of UK-based Asian artists to the rock band Junoon. Bulleh Shah’s popularity stretches uniformly across Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, to the point that much of the written material about this philosopher is from Hindu and Sikh authors. -

Modern Renditions
In the 1990s Junoon, Asia’s biggest rock band from Pakistan, rendered such poems as Aleph (Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar) and Bullah Ki Jaana. In 2004, Rabbi Shergill successfully performed the unlikely feat of turning the abstruse metaphysical poem Bullah Ki Jaana into a Rock/Fusion song, which became hugely popular in India and Pakistan. The 2007 Pakistani movie Khuda Kay Liye includes Bulleh Shah’s poetry in the song Bandeya Ho. A 2008 film, ‘A wednesday’, had a song, “Bulle Shah, O yaar mere” in its soundtrack. In 2009, Episode One of Pakistan’s Coke Studio Season 2 featured a collaboration between Sain Zahoor and Noori, “Aik Alif“. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulleh_Shah

==========================

Bulleh Shah’s Poetry
- Makkeh Gaya, Gal Mukdee Naheen (Going to Makkah is not the ultimate) - Bulleya Ki Jana Main Kaun (Bulleya to me, I am not known) - Verhe Aa Varh Mere (Do come to me) - Main Jana Jogi De Naal (I’m going together with Jogi) - Aa Mil Yaar (Come my love) - Uth Gaye Gawandon Yaar (There goes my Love!) - Bas Karjee Hun Bas Karjee (Enough is enough, my friend) - Tere Ishq Nachaya (Your love has made me dance) - Ilmoun Bas Kari O-Yaar (Aik Alif) (Enough of learning, my friend!) - Ishq De Naween Naween Bahar (Love is ever new and fresh) - Ghoonghat Ohle Na Luk Sajna (Hide not behind the veil, my love) - Gharyali Diyo Nikal Ni (Sack the gongman) - Meri Bukkal De Vich Chor Ni (There is a thief in the folds of my arms.) - Ek Nukte Wich Gal Mukdi Ae (At this one point, all talk ends.) - Ek Nukta Yaar Parhaya Ae (I have learnt a secret) ============================================

Ek Nukta Yaar Parhaya Ae | Bulleh Shah
November 25, 2009 by qausain

Translation: I have learnt a secret A secret I’ve learnt He is the same From this end to that. It’s only we Who fuss like a brat I have learnt a secret A secret I’ve learnt To win over Sass He comes as Punnun I am wedded to Innayat Who cares not for caste. I have learnt a secret A secret I’ve learnt ===========================================

Ek Nukte Wich Gal Mukdi Ae | Bulleh Shah
November 25, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal It’s all in One contained. Understand the One and forge the rest. Shake off your ways of an apostate pest Leading to the grave to hell and to torture Rid your mind of dreams of disaster This is how is the argument maintained It’s all in One contained. What use is it bowing one’s head? To what avail has prostrating led?

Reading Kalma you make them laugh Absorbing not a word while the Quran you quaff The truth must be here and there sustained It’s all in One contained. Some retire to the jungles in vain Others restrict their meals to a grain Misled they waste away unfed And come back home half-alive, half-dead Emaciated in the ascetic postures feigned It’s all in One contained Seek your master, say your prayers and surrender to God. It will lead you to mystic abandon And help you to get attuned to the Lord It’s the truth that Bulleh has gained It’s all in One contained _______________________________________________________ Another Translation: by Suman Kashyap At this one point,all talk ends. Hold tight to this point, forget your calculations, Leave the miserable state of unbelief, Do not torment yourself with the fear of death and hell, For these are imaginary fears. Only into such a house will the truth enter. At this one point, all talk ends. For no reason you abrade your forehead on the ground, You display reverence at the mehraab, You recite the Kalma to entertain a listener. But knowledge does not enter your heart. Can the truth ever remain hidden? At this one point, all talk ends. Many return from Mecca as hajjis, Blue shawls across their shoulders. They profit from the merit earned by haj. Who can admire such behavior? Can the truth ever remain hidden? At this one point, all talk ends. Some withdraw to the forest, Eat a single grain a day. Bereft of understanding, they exhaust the body, And return home in bad shape, Their life sucked dry with useless fasting and prayer. At this one point, all talk ends Hold fast to your murshid Become a devotee of all creation, Intoxicated, carefree, Without desire, indifferent to the world. Let your heart be fully clean. Bulla asks, can the truth then be stopped? At this one point,all talk ends

=========================================== -==Meri

Bukkal De Vich Chor Ni | Bulleh Shah

November 24, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal There is a thief in the folds of my arms. Whom shall I tell? There is a thief in the folds of my arms He has, of late, escaped on the sky No wonder there is a stir in the sky And the world there is a hue and cry. Whom shall I tell? The Muslims are afraid of fire And the Hindus dread the grave Both of them have their fears And keep on sharpening their staves. Whom shall I tell? Ramdas here and Fateh Muhammad there This has kept them emitting spleen Suddenly their quarrel came to an end When someone else emerged on the scene. Whom shall I tell? There was furore in the flushed sky It reached Lahore, the capital town It was Shah Inayat who crafted the kite It’s he who moves it up and down. Whom shall I tell? He who believes, he alone has known Everyone else id floundering All the wrangling came to an end When Bulleh came to town. Whom shall I tell?

============================================= ==Gharyali

Diyo Nikal Ni | Bulleh Shah

November 23, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Gharyal diyo nikal ni Aaj pe ghar ay nikal ni Sack the gon-gman My love has come home today Gharri gharri gharyal bajavey Rain wisal di piya ghatawey Merey man di baat jey pawey Hathoon chasey gharyal ni He strike the gong time and again And shortens my night of dance and song If he were to listen to me He would throw away the gong Gharyal diyo nikal ni Sack the gong-man Ikahd baja bajey sohana Matrab sukhrra maan sohana Bhlla soam, salat, dogana Mudh piyalla deen klaal ni Here is the unstruck melody With a master player and a colorful hue I’ve forgotten, my prayers and fasts The barman offering cups of brew Gharyal diyo nikal ni Sack the gong-man Dukh diledar uth gaya sara Mukh dekhaan tey ajab nazara Rain wadhi kuch karo pasara Din aggey dharo diwal ni Seeing him is an enchanting sight One forgets all aches of life Let the night spread out long And the morn wait a strife Gharyal diyo nikal ni Sack the gong-man Toneey kaman kesey batry Sehrey aaye wadey wadeerey Taan jani ghar aya merey Ranh likh warehey is naal ni I have indulge in magic a lot

With necromancers and many a seer Now that he has comeback home We’ll live together a million years Gharyal diyo nikal ni Sack the gong-man Bulleya shah di seej pyaari Ni main taar noharey tari Kiweain Kiweainmeri aai waari Hin wichran hoya mhaal ni He has saved me from many a hazard Bulleh’s bed is cosy and warm After much wait my turn has come No happenstance may do us harm Sack the gong-man Gharyal diyo nikal ni Aaj pe ghar ay nikal ni Sack the gong-man My love has come home today ============================================ =Ghoonghat

Ohle Na Luk Sajna | Bulleh Shah

November 21, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Ghonghat ohley na luk sajna Main mushtaq dedar de haan Hide not behind the veil, my love, I long to have a glimpse of you. Terey bajh dewani hoi Tokaan kardey luk sbhoi Jeker yaar karey diljoi Taan faryaad pukaar de haan Without my love, I feel like mad, People around me laugh at me. He should come and cheer me up, This alone remains my plea, Ghonghat ohley na luk sajna Main mushtaq dedar de haan Hide not behind the veil, my love, I long to have a glimpse of you. Muft dukandi jandi bandi Mil mahi jind aweien jand Eik dam hijr nahi main sahndi Bulbul main gulzar de haan Your slave is being auctioned free

Come my love and rescue me No longer can I perch elsewhere I am the Bulbul of your tree Ghonghat ohley na luk sajna Main mushtaq dedar de haan Hide not behind the veil, my love, I long to have a glimpse of you. Bulleh Shah owh kon utam tera yaar Ows dey hath Quraan hey owsey gul zanaar Bulleh! Who is He? A queer type friend! He has the Quran in His hand and And in the same the holy thread ===========================================

Ishq De Naween Naween Bahar | Bulleh Shah
November 20, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Ishq dee naween naween bahar Love is ever new and fresh Jaan main sabq Ishq da parhya Masjid kolon jeyorra darya poch poch thakur dowrey warrya Jithey wajdey naad hazaar The day I learn the lesson of Love I was scared of the mosque and dreaded fasts I looked around and entered a temple Where sounded many a drum-blast Ishq dee naween naween bahar Love is ever new and fresh Ved, Quran parh parh thakey Sajdey kardiyaan ghis gaye mathey Na Rab Tayrath, na Rab Makkeh Jis paya tas nur anwaar Tired of reading the Vedas and Quran Kneeling and prostrating my forehead shorn At Mathura or Mecca He does not dwell He who has found Him, only he can tell Ishq dee naween naween bahar Love is ever new and fresh Phok musaleh, bhun sat lota Na parh tasbeh, aasa, sota

Ashiq kehndey dey dey hoka “Tark hlaalon, kha murdar” Burn the prayer mat, break the water pot Quit the rosary, threw away the staff Lovers say at the top of their voice Leave the kosher and eat the shot Ishq dee naween naween bahar Love is ever new and fresh Heer Ranjhey dey hogaye meeley Bholi Heer dhondi beley Ranjhan yaar baghal wich kheyley Surt na rahya, surt sanbhaar Heer and Ranjha have already met In vain she looks for him in the orchard Ranjha lies in the folds of her arms Having her love, she has gained him hard =============================================

Ilmoun Bas Kari O-Yaar (Aik Alif) | Bulleh Shah
November 22, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Eko Alif terey darkar Enough of learning, my friend! An alphabet should do for you Ilm n awey wich shumar Jandi umer, Nahi aytebar Eko Alif terey darkar Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar To it there is never an end An alphabet should do for you It’s enough to help you fend. Enough of learning, my friend! Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Enough of learning, my friend! Parh parh, likh likh ladain dher Dher kitabaan, cho pheyr Kerdey chanan, Wich unheyr Pecho: “Rah?” tey khabar n satar You’ve amassed much learning around The Quran and its commentaries profound There is darkness amidst lighted ground Without the guide you remain unsound

Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Enough of learning, my friend! Parh perh shekh mashaikh khawein Ultey masley gharoon bata dein Bey ilmaan noon lut lut khawein Jhotey Sachey karain aqrqr Learning makes you Sheikh or his minion And thus you create problem trillion You exploit oyhers who know not what Misleading them with wild opinion Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Enough of learning, my friend! Parh parh nafal namaz guzarien Achian bangaan changha mari Manber tey chaRRh waaz pukarein Keeta teeno ilm khawar You meditate and you say your prayers You go and shout at the top of the stairs You cry reaching the high skies It’s your avarice which ever belies Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Enough of learning, my friend! Jed main sabaq Ishq da parhaya Derya dekh Wahedat da warria Ghuman gheraan dey wich uRRia Shah Inayat laya paar The day I learnt love’s lesson I plunged into the river of devine passion An overwhelming gale. I was confused and lost When Shah Inayat cruised me across Ilmoun bas kari oo yaar Enough of learning, my friend! ============================================

Tere Ishq Nachaya | Bulleh Shah
November 19, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa Your love has made me dance like mad Tere Ishq ne dera mere andar keeta Bhar ke zeher payala main taan aape peeta, Jhabde wahudi tabiba nahin te main mar gaiyaan

Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa Falling in love with you Was like taking a sip of poison Come my healer, forsaken, I am sad. Your love has made me dance like mad Chupp giyah ve suraj bahar reh gayi laali Ve main sadqey hova, Devein murrjey wikhali Peera main bhul gaiyaan tere naal na gaiyaan Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa The sun has set, its flush only is left I’ll give my life for a glimpse of you My fault I came not when when you bade Your love has made me dance like mad. Ais Ishq de kolon mainu hatak na maaye Laahu jaandre berrey kehrramorlaya Meri aqal jun bhulli naal mhaniyaan dey gaiyaan Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa Dissuade me not from the path of love Who can hold the boats on the move? Stupid, I joined the boatman’s squad Your love has made me dance like mad Ais Ishq Di Jhangi Wich Mor Bulenda Sanu Qibla Ton Qaaba Sohna Yaar Disenda Saanu Ghayal Karke Pher Khabar Na Laaiyaan Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa A peacock calls in the grove of passion It’s Qibla, It’s Kaaba where lives my love You asked not once after you stabbed Your love has made me dance like mad Bullah Shah na aounda mainu Inayat de buhe Jisne mainu awaye chole saave te suhe Jaan main maari aye addi mil paya hai vahaiya Tere Ishq nachaiyaan kar key thaiyaa thaiyaa Bulleh Shah Sits at Inayat’s door Who has dressed me in green and red And caught me the instant I flew from the pad Your love has made me dance like mad =============================================

Bas Karjee Hun Bas Karjee | Bulleh Shah
November 18, 2009 by qausain

-

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal

Bas ker jee hun bas ker jee Ek baat asaan naal hans ker jee Enough is enough Talk to me with smile Tusi dil wich merey wasdey-o Aywein sathoon door kion nasdey-o Naaley ghaat jadoo dil khasdey-o Bas ker jee hun bas ker jee You live in my heart And yet you me beguile I am charmed with your name on my lip You try as usual and give me a slip Enough is enough Tusi moyiaan noo maar mukadey se Naat khaddoon wang kuthandey se Gal kardia da gala gutheey se Hun teer lagaya kas ker jee Bas ker jee hun bas ker jee You killed the ones who was already dead Tossed like a ball with your baton on head You choked my words in my throat Your arrow hit the quarry and smote Enough is enough Tusi chupdey-o asan pakrrey-o Asaan naal zulf dey jukrrey-o Tusi ajey chupan toon takrrey-o Hun jaan na milda nas ker jee Bas ker jee hun bas ker jee Trying to hide, I’ve caught you Tied you with the lock of my hair You are yet trying to flee This time I’ll allow no plea Enough is enough Bulleh Shah mai teri bardi-aan Tera mukh wekhaan noo mardi-aan Nit so so mintan kardi -aan hun beth hijr wich dhas ker jee Bas ker jee hun bas ker jee Says Bulleh, I am your slave, my Master I long to have a glimpse of you I plead with you time and again Make ky heart your shell of an oyster Enough is enough ============================================

Uth Gaye Gawandon Yaar | Bulleh Shah
November 17, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Uth gaye gawandon yaar

Rabba hun ki kariye There goes my Love! What do I do, my Lord? Uth chaley hun rahinde nahin Hoya saath tiyar Rabba hun ki kariye He’s already made a move His staying back is hard With his wayfarers all packed What do I do, my Lord? Dhandh kaleje bal bal uthdi Bin dheke deedar Rabba hun ki kariye My heart is afire Like half-backed shard What do I do, my Lord? Bulle Shah piyare bajhon Rahe uraar na paar Rabba hun ki kariye My love having gone I am in midstream hauled Wwhat do I do, my Lord? ============================================

Aa Mil Yaar | Bulleh Shah
November 16, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal Aa mil yaar saarley, Meri jaan dikhaan ney gyheri Come my love take care of me, I am in great agony.

Ander khawab vchora hoya, Khabar na payndi teri Soni ban wich luti saiyaan, Soor palang ney gheyri Ever separated, my dreams are dreary, Looking for you, my eyes are weary. All alone I am robbed in a desert, Waylaid by a bunch of way words.

Mullan Qazi rah batawaan, Deen dharam dey pherey Aye taan thag jugat dey jhaar, lawaanjaal chufereey The Mullah and Qazi show me the way, Their maze of Dharma that is in sway. They are the confirmed thieves of time, they spread their net saintly crime.

Karam sharo dey dharam batawan, Sangal pawan pereen Zaat mazhab yeh ishq na pochdaa, Ishq shara da weri Their time-worn norms are seldom right, With these they chain my feet so toght.

My love cares not for caste or creed, To the rituals faith I pay no heed.

Nadioon paar aye mulk sajan da, lehar lobh ney gheri Satgor beri perhi khalotey, ten kion lai aweri My Master lives on yonder bank, While I am caught in the gale of greed. With boat of anchor, He stands in wait, I must hasten, I can’t be late.

Bulleh Shah sho tenoon milsi. Dil noo dey dileyri Pritam pass tey tolna kis noon? bhlioon shaker dopheri Bulleh Shah must find his love, He needn’t have the last fright. His love is around, yet he looks for Him, Misled in the broad daylight.

Aa mil yaar saarley, Meri jaan dikhaan ney gyheri Come my love take care of me, I am in great agony. ============================================

Main Jana Jogi De Naal | Bulleh Shah
November 2, 2009 by qausain

Lyrics with Translation: translation by Fazeel Azeez Chauhan 1) Makeh gaya gal mukde naheen 2) Pawain so so jummay parrh aeey Going to Makkah is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of prayers are offered

3) Ganga gaya gal mukde naheen 4) Pawain so so gotey khaeey Going to River Ganges is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of cleansing (Baptisms) are done

5) Gaya gaya gal mukde naheen 6) Pawain so so pand parrhaeey Going to Gaya is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of worships are done

7) Bulleh Shah gal taeyon mukdee 8 ) Jadon May nu dilon gawaeey Bulleh Shah the ultimate is When the “I” is removed from the heart

9) Parrh parrh alam fazal hoya 10) Kadee apnay aap nu parrhaya ye naeen [He] Read a lot and became a scholar But [he] never read himself

11) Ja ja warrda mandir maseetey 12) Kadi man apnay which warrya ye naeen [He] goes enters into the temple & mosque But [he] never entered into his own heart

13) Aewaien roz shaitan naal larrdaan 14) Kadee nafs apnay naal larrya ye naeen He fights with the devil every day for nothing He never wrestled with his own ego

15) Bulleh Shah asmani udeeyan pharrda 16) Jayrra ghar baitha onu pharrya ye naeen Bulleh Shah he grabs for heavenly flying things But doesn’t grasp the one who’s sitting at home

17) Ratee jagayn tay shaikh sada wayn 18) Parr raat nu jaagan kutay, tay to utay Religious scholars stay awake at night But dogs stay awake at night, higher than you

19) Ratee bhonkon bass na karday 20) Fayr ja larraa which sutay, tay to utay They don’t cease from barking at night Then they go sleep in yards, higher than you

21) Yaar da buha mool na chhad-dey 22) Pawain maro so so jutay, tay to utay They [dogs] don’t leave the beloved’s doorstep Even if they’re beaten hundreds of times, higher than you

23) Bulleh Shah utth yaar mana lay 24) Naien tay bazi lay gaay kutay, tay to utay Bulleh Shah get up and make up with the beloved Otherwise dogs will win the contest, better than you

25) Raanjha chaak na aakho kurryo 26) Nee aynu chaak kehndee sharmawan O friends, don’t call Ranjha a shepherd I shy away from calling him a shepherd

27) May jaee aan lakh heeraan iss nu 28) Tay may kiss gintee which aawan I am like a thousand Heers to him Who am I, like countless others

29) Takht hazaray da eh malik 30) Tay may Heer sayal sada waan He’s the ruler of Hazara’s throne And I am forever the plain Heer

31) Bulleh Shah Rub kook sunay 32) Tay may chaak dee chaak ho jawan Bulleh Shah may God hear my wail And I’ll become shepherded by the Shepherd

33) Raanjha jogi aa ban aya 34) Aey ney anokha bhayche wataya Ranjha became a Jogi and arrived He exchanged into a unique disguise

35) Ahdo-n Ahmad naam dharaya 36) Nee may jana Jogi dey naal He changed his name from Ahad (One God) to Ahmad (Prophet Mohammad PBUH) I’m going together with Jogi

37) Koi kissay day naal koi kissay day naal 38) May jogi day naal naal Someone’s with someone else, this one’s with that one I’m together with Jogi

39) Jidoon dee may jogi dee hoyee 40) May which may na reh gayee koi Since I have become Jogi’s I have no “I” left in me

41) Ranjha Ranjha kardee 42) Nee may aapay Ranjha hoee Repeating Ranjha Ranjha I became Ranjha myself

43) Sadyo nee maynu Peedo Ranjha 44) Heer na akho koi Call me Ranjha Nobody call me Heer

45) May naheen woh aap hay 46) Apney aap karay dil joi It’s not me, it’s he himself He amuses his own self

47) Jiss day naal may neun lagaya 48) Ohdey wargee hoye sayyon The one with whom I connected my heart I became just like him, O friends

49) Jogi meyrey naal naal 50) May jogi day naal naal 51) Nee may jana jogi day naal Jogi is with me I am with Jogi I’m going together with Jogi

52) Kannee mundaran pa kay 53) Mathay tilak laga kay After putting earrings in my ears and decorating my forehead with Tilak

54) Nee aye jogi naeen 55) Koi roop hay Raab da Hey he’s not [a] Jogi He’s some form of God

56) Bhayce jogee da iss nu phab-da 57) Iss jogi mayra joorra khassya He’s disguised as Jogi This Jogi has attracted me

58) Aye jogi mayray munn which wasya 59) Such aakhan aye qasmay Quran ay This Jogi has established residence in my heart I swear by the Quran it’s true

60) Jogi mayra deen eman ay 61) Iss jogi maynu keeta rogee Jogi is my belief and faith This Jogi has marked me

62) Nee may iss jogi 63) Hun hore na jogee Hey I belong to him Now I’m not worth any one else (Now there’s no other Jogi)

64) Tarr gaye way may tarr gayee loko 65) Akh jogi nal larr gaye loko I’m floating, I’ve drifted across, O people My eyes inter-meshed with Jogi’s, O people

66) Maynu jogan jogee dee aakho 67) Heer salayte mar gaye loko Call me Jogi’s female Jogi Heer is dead, O people

68) Khayrray karday koorriyan gallan 69) Jogi dey mayrrhay may cir tay jhallan In Khayrray they have deep talks I have to listen to accusations about

70) Hore kissay nu kuj na janan 71) Janan tay jogi nu janan I don’t know anything about anyone else If I know anything, I only know Jogi

72) Iss da paya kissay na paya 73) Iss da hay do jug uttay saya No one has attained what he has attained His shadow is on both worlds

74) Iss diyan dhumman do jug dhummiyan 75) Iss diyan juttian arsh nay chummian

His fame is celebrated in both world His shoes were kissed by Heaven

76) Aye jogi jogi mat wala 77) Hath which Ill’Allah dee mala This Jogi is full of wonders In his hand is the rosary of “There is Nothing But One God”

78) Nee naam hay iss da kamli wala 79) Jay jogi ghar away mayray Hey, his name is [Mohammad] “The One With The Shawl” If Jogi comes to my home

80) Muk jawun sub jhagray tayray 81) Nee may lavan seenay naal 82) Lakhan shagan mana kay All your fights will end I will embrace him And celebrate a million praises

83) Bulleh Shah ik jogi aya 84) Dar saday aynay dhuan paya Bulleh Shah a Jogi came To our door….(… ?… )

85) Aynay lut layee Heer sayal 86) Aya bhayce wata kay He stole away Heer of Sayal He came in a disguise ============================================

Verhe Aa Varh Mere | Bulleh Shah
November 2, 2009 by qausain

Translation: by Kartar Singh Duggal You may not take notice of me But do come to me I am a sacrifice unto you Do come to me I’ve looked around in fields and forest There is none like you Do come to me Cowherd you are to others You are my faith, my beau Do come to me Leaving my parents, I am tied to you, Oh Shah Inayat, my beloved teacher Do come to me Bulleh enterd the great palace

And had a spledid treat What have we gained in the world A black face and blue feet? ============================================

Bulleya Ki Jana Main Kaun
November 1, 2009 by qausain

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Bulleya Ki jaana main Kaun
Bulleya to me, I am not known Na main momin vich maseetaan Na main vich kufar diyan reetaan Na main paakaan vich paleetaan Na main moosa na firown Not a believer inside the mosque, am I Nor a pagan disciple of false rites Not the pure amongst the impure Neither Moses, nor the Pharoh Bulleya Ki jaana main Kaun Bulleya! to me, I am not known ============================================

Makkeh Gaya | Bulleh Shah
November 1, 2009 by qausain

Makkay gayaan, gal mukdee naheen Pawain sow sow jummay parrh aaeey Going to Makkah is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of prayers are offered Ganga gayaan, gal mukdee naheen Pawain sow sow gotay khaeeay Going to River Ganges is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of cleansing (Baptisms) are done Gaya gayaan gal mukdee naheen Pawain sow sow pand parrhaeeay Going to Gaya is not the ultimate Even if hundreds of worships are done Bulleh Shah gal taeeyon mukdee Jadon May nu dillon gawaeeay Bulleh Shah the ultimate is When the “I” is removed from the heart!
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Bulleh Shah: The Mystic Voice of Punjab

Me no believer—no believe in mosque And me no pagan, no ritual no task Me is no pure amongst the impure, Me no believer—no believe in mosque And me no pagan, no ritual no task Me is no pure amongst the impure, And me no Moses, no Pharaoh endure, But Me no knoweth. Who isseth Thee! O’ Bulleya, Me no knoweth, Who issethMe!

by Umair Ghani

Farida Breuillac, a practicing Sufi from France, now living in Turkey, is sitting beside me on a stool in Lahore’s Regale Inn, discussing Sufism over a cup of desi tea. Dazzled as she is by the beauty and stark truth of Bulleh Shah’s verse, I recite to her the poetry of the great saint of Qasur, verse by verse as she whirls around in a trance. A week later I was standing outside the Darbar or the shrine of Bulleh Shah in the heart of Qasur city. Dhol beats echoed loud in the air with chants of ‘Ya Ali’ and ‘Dam Mast Qalandar’ as a multitude throngs to the shrine of, one of the greatest Sufi souls of Punjab. Bulleh Shah’s real name was Abdullah Shah, that later transformed into Bulleh Shah out of sheer reverence and affection of the common citizenry of Punjab who ardently adhered to his rebellious message of love, hope and wisdom. Its widely believed he was born around 1680 at Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur; later migrated to Malakwal and finally settled in Pandoke Bhatian, about 14 miles southeast of Qasur. It was here that Bulleh Shah got his formal education from Maulvi Ghulam Murtaza, who was the Imam of the main mosque in Qasur. Later, after completion of his formal education Bulleh Shah started teaching at the same mosque, but spiritually he chose to follow the path of his mentor, Inayat Shah Qadri, who was a famous saint of the Qadirya chain of Sufis in Lahore. Bulleh’s rebellious yet highly rhythmic and appealing utterances attracted intense criticism from his family as well as friends; for his blindly following the Sufi order much different and opposite to that of the Syeds, [the Muslims who claim their lineage from the Holy Prophet Muhammad, PBUH] However, this criticism added even more spur to his rebellious mind. He revolted against those so called hierarchs of spirituality. Bulleh Shah remained steadfast to his master’s philosophy till his death in 1729. Bulleh Shah’s attachment to his mentor’s philosophy was so strong that under the sheer spell of his devotion, he addressed his master as

god, guide, lord, spouse, husband, beloved and friend. His teacher’s guidance made him experience the spiritual ecstasies and a vision that helped him explore the unfathomable realms of inner self. In this process of self realisation, he began his journey into a metaphysical learning process which was unique to have enabled him grasp the reality of things on one hand, and yet felt blessed and obsessed by revelations from within. The journey to the path laid down by his master continued to be so intense, so self sacrificing that rapture of being away from his spiritual master, the qualms, the torment his soul faced, never ceased till the end. So intense was this Ishq (a process to find God through an intense longing, fonding and attachment with one’s mentor) that he expressed the fire in him through these words. He listeneth to my tale and lisseneth to my woe Shah lnayat my guide my teacher is so, He leads me to places high and low Shah Inayat my Master honoureth me, Gives riddance of wrangles and of me, My master, my Shah is with me, Then who can dare put strife to me, Who dare anyone harm to me, Shah Inayat graces me, Gives riddance of wrangles and of me, My master, my Shah is with Me.

Thus found Bulleh Shah’s spiritual quest in the finest expression of his poetry, the Kafis. His tone is satiric, razor sharp that acts like the precision of a surgeon’s lancet, his verses bleeding with pain, the anguish, the qualm of separation and unprecedented genius of his thought process, mercilessly cutting into the social norms, the taboos and established dogmas in the name of religion. He sets out his own aesthetics of the divine love, guidance, faith, virtuosity, love and forgiveness. Like all other Sufis, he preaches negation of the “self” while seeking unity with the divine. His poetry sets liberal standards with strong intonations of religious tolerance and communal harmony. Realizations of truth transformed Bulleh Shah into a true mystic. He purified his heart with the fountain of truth gushing deep inside his soul. Overwhelmed with an obsession of spiritual knowledge, like wine intoxicates the body and mind and thus becomes the principal driving force, Bulleh Shah heroically voiced his wisdom in his following verse. Put fire to thy prayer rug and break even thy water mug, then quit even thy rosary And let thy staff to the tug Me tired of reading the Veda book, Me tired of reading the Quran And Me no kneeling, me no prostrating, Nor me forehead down For God liveth in holy Mecca Nor he in Mathura resides

For only those who find Him Who see the light with self besides.

With this verse Bulleh Shah stands tall in the Sufis’ lineage, a stalwart of the Sufis’ school of thought led by Mansoor who was penalized by clerics of the day, declaring his chantings of “Ana-al Haque” (I am the Truth, I am the God) as ‘Kufr’ (negation of God) oblivious of the ecstasies that torment and thus cleanse the soul of a Sufi or saint is a unique phenomenon hardly perceptible or understood by clerics and dogmatists; who go by mere words and not the meanings and context of a scripture. This happened with Mansoor Hallaj and this too happened with Bulleh Shah who met a similar torment to his soul, his inner self. Bulleh Shah spent rest of his life in total self denial; he did not care at all of the concern and hostility that orthodox mullahs unleashed at him for his rebellious poetry. He danced ecstatically, fearlessly, perpetually and thus treaded the path of spiritual realization and atonement. He preached love and humanism with a firm rejection of any formal religious authority on the affairs of the people. So it was no surprise that on his death in 1758, he was denied a burial in Muslim cemetery and was thus laid to rest in isolation outside the main city of Qasur. But his massage of love, his fight against religious bigots, the traditional hierarchs of different theological schools in the subcontinent, made him a people’s wali or saint. That isolated grave is now a darbar where all including the clergy, the rich and the poor all throng to pay homage to that great soul of Punjab who treaded the path of Sufism, the non traditional mystic way of finding God and a solace for one’s soul. Me the first, me is the last, Me don’t know, no one else, Me the wisest, no one else, But Bulleya, Me no knoweth Who isseth Thee! O’ Blleya, Me no knoweth who isseth Me! Me know no secret, to me no religion, Not one to me not known From Adam and Eve, me not me was born Me don’t know even the name me own Me don’t know the people who bow and pray Me don’t know the people who go astray O’ Bulleya! Me no knoweth who isseth Thee! Me no knoweth who isseth Me!

Me no Arab, nor Lhori, Me no Hindu, nor Nagauri, Me no Turkic, nor Pishauri, Me don’t live in infinity, Yet, O’ Blleya! Me no knoweth Who isseth Thee! Me no knoweth Who isseth Me!

Credits: The Photography by Umair Ghani, Bullah Shah painting by Saeed Art, Lahore. ===============================================================

Bulleh Shah and Kasur

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emembering the mystic whose message transcended caste, religion and power in seventeenth century Punjab. Born in 1680 and named Abdullah Shah in a Syed family, he found a Murshid (spiritual master) in Shah Inayat, a man from a lower caste.

Na Raindee Hai, a Kalam by Bulleh Shah. The world is a slippery place; Tread carefully for ‘tis dark; Go inside see who’s there; Why do the people search outside; What’s on the tongue must be said; Bullah, the beloved is not separate from us; Besides the beloved there is naught; But the discerning eye is missing; Therefore life endures separation; What’s on the tongue must be said; Learning through the rote of books you call yourself a scholar; Grasping the sword in your hand you call yourself a warrior; Having visited Mecca and Medina you call yourself a pilgrim; Bullah, what have you accomplished if you have not remained true to your friend!

Photographs taken by Hoshyaar contributor Bushra Shehzad and packaged by Hosh media, a volunteer-based organization that aims to bring youth voices on to the mainstream media.

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The central courtyard outside the shrine of the great Sufi poet Bulleh Shah (1680–1758) in Kasur, Punjab. A lot of what is known about Bulleh Shah comes from legends. Historians still debate the precise date and place of his birth, but it is believed that he was born around 1680, in the village of Uch, in Bahawalpur. It is also believed that he received his early schooling in Pandoke, a village in Gujranwala, before he moved 50 miles southwest to Kasur for his higher education.

A malang sitting in the courtyard of the shrine. Malangs are disciples of saints who have given up worldly pleasures for inner spirituality. They often play music and dance outside shrines.

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A stall in the outer courtyard of Bulleh Shah’s shrine with sacred ritual items like mannat ke karay (ritual wish bracelets) rings and pamplets with Bulleh Shah's poetry. Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, and Shah Sharaf.

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A sign by the Punjab Auqaf, Religious & Minority Affairs Department, posted outside the main building housing Bulleh Shah’s tomb, forbidding women from entering the tomb. Bulleh Shah’s poetry and philosophy strongly criticizes Islamic religious orthodoxy of his day. His poetry or kalām always seeks theological knowledge through debate and argument.

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A woman is seen praying outside the tomb of Bulleh shah. She is tying a mannat ka dhaga (a ritual wish string) to the wall, available outside the tomb.

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A malang dancing to a Sufi kalām being sung by other malangs at Bulleh Shah's shrine. Music and dance are acts of devotion to the patron saints and are representative of how the malangs have surrendered everything material to find inner peace.

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Devotees at the resting place of Bulleh Shah. The appeal of Bulleh Shah’s verses has transcended generations and centuries because it breakdowns complex existential questions of life and society into simple solutions grounded in humanity.

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Young boys at the shrine offer Fateha. The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi, a style of Punjabi, Sindhi and Siraiki Sufi poetry, that is also used by Sikh gurus. Many musicians have drawn inspiration from his Kafis, including renowned singers Abida Parveen, Arif Lohar, Arieb Azhar, and Sain Zahoor, and bands Junoon and Noori. http://www.dawn.com/2011/06/23/rumin...id=26529#mgimg ========================================

Re: Bulleh Shah and Kasur
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Dia's outside the tomb of Bulleh Shah. People come and light these dias after praying at the tomb. The oil is said to have healing powers and people smear it over their hair. Bulleh Shah lived in the same period as the Sindhi Sufi poet, Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai Punjabi poet Waris Shah of Heer Ranjha fame, and the Sindhi Sufi poet Abdul Wahab better known by his pen-name, Sachal Sarmast (“truth seeking leader of the intoxicated ones”).

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A Malang outside the shrine of Bulleh shah with his alms bowl. Bulleh Shah's time was marked with communal strife between Muslims and Sikhs. Legend says, while Bulleh Shah was in Pandoke, Muslims killed a young Sikh man who was riding through their village in retaliation for murder of some Muslims by Sikhs. Bulleh Shah denounced the murder of an innocent Sikh, maintaining that violence was not the answer to violence. He was later censured by the Mullas and Muftis of Pandoke. He also hailed the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur as a Ghazi, or religious warrior, which caused controversy among scholars of that time.

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A view of the graveyard at the shrine of Baba Kamal Chisti. Kamal Chishti was a contemporary and a friend of Bulleh Shah and his shrine of is a couple of miles from Bulleh Shah's tomb.

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A beggar on the stairs of the shrine of Baba Kamal Chisti in Kasur. Ruminations from Kasur | Media Gallery | DAWN.COM

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Dargah Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah (R.A.)
Dargah of the Sufi Saint Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah (R.A.), Pakistan

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Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah (R.A) - - Master of 'Kafi', Respected Scholar and Sufi Poet of Punjab

Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah (1680 – 1757) whose real name was Abdullah Shah, was a Punjabi Sufi poet. Baba Bulleh Shah himself became a respected scholar, but he longed for true inner realization. Against the objections of his peers, he became a disciple of Inayat Shah, a famous master of the Qadiri Sufi lineage, who ultimately guided his student to deep mystical awakening.

Biography
Baba Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, now in Pakistan. His ancestors had migrated from Bukhara in modern Uzbekistan .

At the age of six months, his parents relocated to Malakwal. There his father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a preacher in the village mosque and a teacher. His father later got a job in Pandoke, about 50 miles southeast of Kasur. Baba Bulleh Shah received his early schooling in Pandoke, and moved to Kasur for higher education, to become a student of the prominent professor, Ghulam Murtaza. He also received education from Maulana Mohiyuddin. His spiritual teacher was the eminent Sufi saint, Shah Inayat Qadri.

Baba Bulleh Shah was a direct descendant of Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) (S.A.W), through the progeny of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Gillani of Baghdad. A large amount of what is known about Baba Bulleh Shah comes through legends, and is subjective; to the point that there isn’t even agreement among historians concerning his precise date and place of birth. Some "facts" about his life have been pieced together from his own writings. Other "facts" seem to have been passed down through oral traditions. Baba Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538 – 1599), Sultan Bahu (1629 – 1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640 – 1724). Baba Bulleh Shah lived in the same period as the famous Sindhi Sufi poet, Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai (1689 – 1752). His lifespan also overlapped with the legendary Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722 – 1798), of Heer Ranjha fame, and the famous Sindhi Sufi poet Abdul Wahad (1739 – 1829), better known by his pen-name, Sachal Sarmast (“truth seeking leader of the intoxicated ones”). Amongst Urdu poets, Baba Bulleh Shah lived 400 miles away from Mir Taqi Mir (1723 – 1810) of Agra.

He died in 1758, and his tomb is located in Kasur.

Poetry Style
The verse form Baba Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi, a style of Punjabi, Sindhi and Siraiki poetry used not only by the Sufis of Sindh and Punjab, but also by Sikh gurus. Baba Bulleh Shah’s poetry and philosophy strongly criticizes Islamic religious orthodoxy of his day. At the time worldly corruption had been taken over as oppose to the true teachings of Islam.

Poetry Translated in English:

Bulleh! to me, I am not known
Not a believer inside the mosque, am I Nor a pagan disciple of false rites Not the pure amongst the impure Neither Moses, nor the Pharaoh

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

Not in the holy Vedas, am I Nor in opium, neither in wine Not in the drunkard`s intoxicated craze Niether awake, nor in a sleeping daze

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

In happiness nor in sorrow, am I Neither clean, nor a filthy mire Not from water, nor from earth Neither fire, nor from air, is my birth

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

Not an Arab, nor Lahori Neither Hindi, nor Nagauri Hindu, Turk, nor Peshawari Nor do I live in Nadaun

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

Secrets of religion, I have not known From Adam and Eve, I am not born I am not the name I assume Not in stillness, nor on the move

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

I am the first, I am the last None other, have I ever known I am the wisest of them all Bulleh! do I stand alone?

Bulleh! to me, I am not known

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One more from Baba Bulleh Shah:

Chal Way Bullehya Chal O’thay Chaliyay Jithay Saaray Annay Na Koi Saadee Zaat PichHanay Tay Na Koi Saanu Mannay *** O’ Baba Bulleh Shah let’s go there Where everyone is blind

Where no one recognizes our caste (or race, or family name) And where no one believes in us *** Ab to jaag Musaffir pyare Raeen gayi latke taare Kar le aj karni da weera Mod na ho si aawen tera *** Awake, dear traveller, you’ve got to move on. Trailing its stars, the night is gone. Do what you have to do, do it today. You will never be back this way. Your companions are calling. Let us go. *** Awake, dear traveller, you’ve got to move on. Trailing its stars, the night is gone. A pearl, a ruby, the touchstone and dice With all that you thirst by the waterside. Awake, dear traveller, you’ve got to move on. Trailing its stars, the night is gone.

Abida Baba Bulleh Shah Best Price $8.99 or Buy New $8.99 Privacy Information

A Beacon of Peace
Baba Baba Bulleh Shah's time was marked with communal strife between Muslims and Sikhs. But in that age Baba Baba Bulleh Shah was a beacon of hope and peace for the citizens of Punjab. While Baba Bulleh Shah was in Pandoke, Muslims killed a young Sikh man who was riding through their village in retaliation for murder of some Muslims by Sikhs. Baba Baba Bulleh Shah denounced the murder of an innocent Sikh and was censured by the mullas and muftis of Pandoke. Baba Bulleh Shah maintained that violence was not the answer to violence. Baba Bulleh Shah also hailed Guru Tegh Bahadur as a ghazi (Islamic term for a religious warrior) and incurred the wrath of the mullas.

Modern Renditions
In the 1990s Junoon, Asia's biggest rock band from Pakistan, has also rendered such poems as Aleph (Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar) and Bullah Ki Jaana. Baba Bulleh Shah's verses have also been adapted and used in Bollywood film songs. In 2004, Rabbi Shergill successfully performed the unlikely feat of turning the abstruse metaphysical poem Bullah Ki Jaana into a Rock/Fusion song, which became hugely popular in India and Pakistan. Another version was performed by Lakhwinder Wadali titled simply Bullah. Examples include the songs Chhayya Chhayya and Thayya Thayya in the movie Dil Se.. In the 1990s Junoon, Asia's biggest rock band from Pakistan, has also rendered such poems as Aleph (Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar) and Bullah Ki Jaana. Baba Bulleh Shah's verses have also been adapted and used in Bollywood film songs. In 2004, Rabbi Shergill successfully performed the unlikely feat of turning the abstruse metaphysical poem Bullah Ki Jaana into a Rock/Fusion song, which became hugely popular in India and Pakistan. Another version was performed by Lakhwinder Wadali titled simply Bullah. Examples include the songs Chhayya Chhayya and Thayya Thayya in the movie Dil Se..

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Adil Najam’s post on Bulleh Shahhas a great selection of links to audio recordings of Bulleh’s poetry and also some of his beautiful verse. I love this one paRh paRh ilm hazaar kitaabaN qaddi apnay aap nou paRhiya naee jaaN jaaN waRhday mandir maseedi qaddi mann apnay wich waRhiya naee aa-vaiN laRda aye shaitan de naal bandeaa qaddi nafss apnay naal laRiya naee [yes, yes, you have read thousands of books but you have never tried to read your own self you rush in, into your Mandirs, into your Mosques but you have never tried to enter your own heart futile are all your battles with Satan for you have never tried to fight your own desires] Here are a few more translations that I found here.

Being cleansed, I am withdrawing From my head, feet and hands I even got rid of my eyes I have attained my goal It has ended so well. O Bulleha! Lord prevails everywhere Now none appears a stranger to me. Quazi and mullah stray away And paddle their religion like hawkers They are like bird trappers Of this world And throw away their nets Everywhere to catch innocents. Source of translations please click [here] I will conclude with these immortal lines: jay rabb milda naataiN dhotaiN tay rabb milda daddouaN maachiaN nou

jay rabb milda jungul phiraiN atay rabb milda gaayaN wachiaN nou way Bullayaa, rabb unnaaN nou milda attay dilaiyan sachiyaN aachiyaN nou A literal and evidently inadequate translation by me: If God was found by bathing and cleansing He would have been found by frogs and fish If God was found by wandering in the jungles Stray animals would have found him O Bulleh, the Lord can only be found By loving hearts – true and pure.. =========================================================================

Shah Inayat Qadiri
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search Shah Inayat Qadiri Shatari (Punjabi: ‫ , ﺷﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺎﯾﺖ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻱ‬also called Enayat Shah) was a Sufi saint of the Qadiri-Shatari lineage (silsila) who lived in Qasur, in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan. Shah Inayat Qadiri is famous as the spiritual guide of the Punjabi poet Bulleh Shah. Shah Inayat belonged to the Arain community and earned a living through agriculture or gardening. He also lived in Kasur for some time but, due to the animosity of the ruler of Kasur, moved to Lahore and remained there until the end of his life. His mausoleum is situated near Lahore. [edit]

Poetic references
In the "Song of the Saints of India" (Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind) occurs the following reference; "From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat, He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah. He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana. The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy. From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore; Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation. It is at this place that we find his tomb. In 1141 he departed from this world." Bulleh Shah says about his beloved teacher Enayat Shah: “Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord. He has given his life and body as earnest. His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat who has captivated his heart.” Shah Inayat wrote "Dasdtur al-Amal" in which he describes various methods Hindus employed for attainment of salvation in ancient times. According to him, this knowledge was acquired and carried by the Greeks after Alexander's invasion of India, from where it was borrowed by ancient Iranians and subsequently adopted by the mystics of Islamic countries. ========================================================================================================================== Historically the city of Kasur was named by ancient Aryan tribe of Kambojas who migrated from Mittani and Kussara and belonged to Ancient King Pithana of Mesopotamian Kussara. This fact is also endorsed by renowned folk Baba Bulay Shah that all Pathans of Kasur would become weavers very soon. =================================== Bulleh Shah was a famous poet of Pakistan and he was born in 1680 in Bahawalpur and he was died in 1758. He was a Punjabi Sufi poet and his real name was Abdullah Shah. His tomb is situated in Kasur it is near the city of Lahore. Structure of the Tomb The shrine of Bulleh Shah is in a shape of a mosque. Green and white tiles are used in the construction of the mosque. Many lovers and fans of Bulleh Shah visit his tomb and they pray to God by giving him the sake of Bulleh Shah. It is said that Baba Bulleh Shah was the descendent of the Holy Prophet Mohammad Peace Be upon Him. On the grave of Bulleh Shah People put red roses and burn incenses. Recently the shrine of Baba Bulleh Shah was reconstructed and it is said that Rs 60 million are used and the half of the cost was given by the Punjab Government. Among all the Sufi poets his Urs is the most celebrated one. The new shrine of Bulleh Shah was designed in a modern style and it was completed by Auqaf Department. There are two entrance gate or doors and a library, and a small corner where people burn candles, incenses and diya when their wish or dream come true. The grave of Baba Bulleh Shah is covered with a maroon and green colored cloth and all around the tomb many verses of Bulleh are written. The work of architecture was done by Mohammad Shabbir Malik. He is expert in the reconstruction of ancient shrines architecture and designs. The shrine is illuminated with candles, lamps and lights on different ceremonies and it enhance the beauty of the shrine and the city of kasur as well. The poetry of Bulleh Shah depicts the social and moral values and new generation is very impressed by his poetry and many songs are also released on his poetry. The tomb of Baba Bulleh was always crowded with people because he was the most impressive personality of Pakistan. ================================================================================================================

Master of both worlds :: Baba Bulle Shah
Posted by Varun | Posted in | Posted on Saturday, March 27, 2010

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Amid the smell of incense and rose petals, Muhammad Amin wipes the dust off his face and refills empty oil lamps that are flickering to their death. A custodian at the shrine of Sufi Saint Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah, Amin curses visitors who steal kerosene from the oil lamps. In the same light of the oil lamps, an expectant Mukhtara Begum sits in eerie chilly silence. With her only child, a frail daughter, clasped tightly in her lap, she prays for a son. It’s clearly written all over her face. She believes the Saint listens to all. In the distance, another devotee interrupts their silence and utters a kafi from Bulleh Shah’s poetry. With a broken harmonium, he is here along with thousands of devotees at the 252nd Urs of Baba Bulleh Shah. Bulleh Shah witnesses the activity from under a large green dome, in a shrine built along a mosque and a graveyard. A million wishes are made in the three day Urs, which is a mystical journey into a timeless world, reminiscent of a medieval fair. Devotees from distant lands spend nights at the shrine, eat free food, beat drums and sing poems.

Malang Men and women dressed in saffron robes and cheap jewellery are a visual retreat. I met two fakirs who had travelled from different shrines and claimed to be devotees of Bulleh Shah. Baba Lal Pari Jhooley Lal, an old fakir, defined a dervaish as “someone who owned nothing, not even himself, but in reality, he owned everything, and nothing and no one in this world owned him”. He said that since the inception of Islam, hardliners had always complicated religion, whereas Sufi saints had simplified the link between God and man. Their teachings still continued to break all barriers, and preached not only oneness of God, but also oneness of mankind. It’s true that Sufi saints not only unite people of different sects and religions, but also eliminate gender discrimination.

...men and women performing ablution (wuzuu) together... I saw for the first time in my life, women performing ablution along with men in the same line. But since women are not allowed to enter the grave chamber of the tomb, they swarm and surround the tomb’s square. Many spurious ’saints’ had erected little ‘healing’ corners where they were fooling people and accepting rewards in the form of food, money and other gifts. One of them would hold illiterate men and women in his arms, and slap them really hard on their necks and backs to ‘heal’ them. The shrine authorities took notice and got rid of them by dragging them out of the shrine.

Tiles

Baba Bulleh Shah’s 250 years old shrine is simple yet beautiful. Elaborate tile work with aqua colours and a highly detailed roof are the highlights of the shrine. Different verses from his poetry are calligraphed around the tomb. Ignorant people tend to litter blindly and none bother to dispose their garbage properly. Due to security concerns, all roads leading to the tomb are blocked during the Urs. A typical smell of, rose flowers and human sweat amalgamate, giving an ancient aroma. People swarm to get their hands on free food at the shrine like flies, fighting for every strand of rice and piece of bread. It illustrates a sordid state of affairs. People from all over the country come to give their respect to the saint. The irony is that Bulleh Shah, now revered by people of all religions and culture, never got the recognition or respect he deserved during his lifetime. It’s not surprising, simply tragic, that when Bulleh Shah passed away, his dead body lay on the road in front of the house for almost a week (other accounts say 10 days). He had been refused by the mullahs to be buried after his death in the community graveyard because of his unorthodox views. Hence he was thrown on the garbage outside the boundary of Kasur. After the occurrence of such an ignorant and inhuman treatment, his friend from a distant place arrived and buried him.

Bulleh Shah’s real name was Abdullah Shah and is commonly believed to have lived from 1680 to 1758. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Syed Jallalluddin Bokhari came to Multan from Bokhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and settled down. Thus Bulleh Shah’s family, being Syed, was related to Prophet Mohammed on one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions for centuries. Bulleh Shah’s father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed Arabic, Persian and Islamic scholar. The tomb of Bulleh Shah’s father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an Urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah’s kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate their memory.

There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah too was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian. From his compositions we can find many references to Islamic thought and mystic literature. Scholars and dervishes title Bulleh Shah as, ‘The Sheikh of Both the Worlds’. He is regarded as the greatest Punjabi mystic poet and his work is considered to be “the pinnacle of Sufi literature.”

After attaining mystical realisation, his learning acquired a new significance. But he had to pass through difficult tests before he could attain inner knowledge. Only contact with his Murshid or Master Inayat Shah, a well-known Qadiri Sufi of his time, could make this attainment possible. Inayat belonged to the Arain caste and earned his living through agriculture or gardening. Bulleh Shah’s coincidental meeting with Inayat Shah melted his heart and he knew he had found his master. Bulleh Shah held onto Inayat Shah’s cloak tightly for the rest of his life. A majority of Bulleh Shah’s poetry is a tribute to his Master. His life had become moments of madness and strange ecstasy. In the presence of his Master and with the practice of the path he had just been offered, Bulleh Shah’s spiritual condition and realisation metamorphosed into strong belief. For a distinguished scholar and descendant of Prophet Mohammed, to accept an ordinary vegetable grower as his Master was a very extraordinary event in the social conditions of Bulleh Shah’s times. Bullah had to suffer the taunts and ridicule not only of men of his religion, clan and caste, but also of all members of his family.

He eventually did succumb once to family pressure. In those days, ‘Syeds’ were the elite Muslim ‘Brahmans’ of the Indian Subcontinent. This discrimination went upto the extent that a non-Syed could never be invited to a Syed’s wedding. Bulleh Shah became the worst victim of this caste discrimination, when on his sister’s wedding; his family pressurized him and convinced him not to invite Inayat Shah, because he wasn’t a Syed. Bulleh Shah’s fate wasn’t with him, as Inayat Shah felt disrespected when he learnt that his disciple hadn’t invited him. The Saint replied, “How dare Bullah behave like this?” And then added, “What have we to get from this useless man? We shall change the direction of the flow of water.” These words brought calamity to Bulleh’s life. His visions vanished, leaving him silent and lost. Inayat Shah disappeared for a long time, devouring Bulleh’s sanity and peace of mind. Suddenly, a well versed grown up man transformed into a restless wanderer, eyes that wouldn’t shut even while sleeping at night. Day and night, he searched for Inayat Shah, but he couldn’t find him. It is during these days that Bulleh Shah wrote poetry extensively. As the period of separation became longer, Bulleh’s condition became worse. On one hand there was the pain of separation, on the other, the ridicule of people. Bulleh was full of repentance over his blunder. He was keenly desirous to be forgiven by his Master.

Gone with the wind... It is said that Bulleh disguised himself as a woman, and with a drummer and a harmonium player went to the tomb of a holy man. Shah Inayat was also one of the attendees. While all other dancers and singers got tired and sat down, Bulleh, in ecstasy, continued to dance. His voice was extremely doleful and heart-rending. Bulleh sang many kafis on the occasion and at last, Inayat Shah’s heart melted. With a voice full of compassion he said, “Are you Bullah?” Bullah ran and fell at his Master’s feet. Inayat Shah realized that the fire of repentance and separation had cleansed Bulleh and turned him into pure gold; he forgave him and embraced him. The reason why Inayat Shah put Bulleh Shah to such a hard test was to enable him to receive invaluable wealth of the Word of God. With this spiritual treasure he was not only to become rich himself, but also to make other seekers the recipients of this wealth. Bulleh Shah faced immense opposition from his family, when he re-inducted himself under the teachings of his spiritual guide. In response to his family’s concerns, Bullah explained fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realisation, and the caste of the Master did not matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain crucial. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Syed would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven. Bulleh Shah’s ‘disloyalty’ to his family and ‘failure’ to respect the caste barriers made him a social outcast, where everyone distanced himself. It is said that as a result of disgust from people’s attitude, Bulleh Shah purchased a few donkeys so that people should ridicule him. They started calling him “The man with donkeys.”

Whirl... One day Bulleh, wrapped in ecstasy, danced to bewitching music. News reached Bulleh Shah’s father, an orthodox Muslim, and he was told all that had happened. His son had also started to dance with eunuchs. Greatly distressed and enraged, the saint’s father, with a rosary in one hand and a staff in the other, raced to the place where his son was dancing. “Ah! It is you, father” said Bulleh Shah as he heard his name called. He looked at his father intently and began to sing: “People have only chaplets but my father has a rosary. The whole of his life he has toiled hard, But has not been able to uproot a single hair. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar . Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend !” Bulleh Shah, filled with spiritual ardour, gazed at his father, whose inner eye opened and had a divine vision. With a serene and radiant smile on his face, .he joined his son in the ecstatic dancing and singing. Filled upto the brim with the love of God, Bulleh became the epitome of compassion and forgiveness. He saw God’s manifestation in every being, and distinctions of caste and religion, friend and foe, ceased to have any meaning for him. His life illustrated how needless and futile sectarian, caste, social, cultural and religious barriers were. In his life, he liberated himself from the bondage of caste, religion and country. Bulleh Shah emphasises that like the Lord, the soul had no caste or faith. All these distinctions are born out of time and space, but the soul is unborn and timeless. It has neither a start, nor a conclusion, nor is it restricted by the limitations of caste and religion. Bulleh Shah’s life and work is complete with delicate secrets of the path. They strengthen true lovers and motivate them to withstand the severest hardships for reaching spiritual goals. Bulleh Shah’s immortal work shall continue to enlighten true seekers of divine insight. ====================================================================================================================
(Saad Ahmad Baksh, Lahore)

Hazrat Baba Bulleh Shah

Baba Bulleh Shah (1680-1758) was the great humanist, philosopher, rebel, internationalist, teacher and Sufi poet of all times. Baba ji was the disciple of Enayat Shah Lahori, who himself was a great Sufi of his time. Baba ji was born in a noble and aristocratic Saye’ad family but, as a result of Enayat’s teachings, he left the life of nobility and luxury and led quite simple and humble life. Baba ji was a great poet and use to sing his poetry in the streets of his city Kasur. He was a keen supporter of poor and at all fronts he opposed oppression and exploitation of public by capitalistic class. Due to his anti-extremist and revolutionary behavior, he was given the ‘Fatwa’ of Kafir (Infidel) by religious authorities. Several times, he was bitten by the extremists but ‘he never bowed his neck’. When he died he was thrown on the garbage outside the boundary of Kasur because he wasn’t allowed to bury in the Kasur. But as the time passed, with the increase in population Kasur also expanded and thus, at last, Baba ji’s grave got its place in his Kasur. After the death of Baba Bulleh Shah, the Government and Muslim Ulmas used their force strongly to destroy the Kalam (poetry) and reputation of Baba ji. Qawals (Asian classical singers) were strictly prohibited to sing the Kalam of Baba ji publicly. In British India, for about 100 years his Kalam was not allowed to be published. It was after the ‘partition of 1947’ that Baba ji’s Kalam was published for the first time, when some Sikhs and Hindus disclosed some remnants of Baba ji’s Kalam. No doubt, a lot of his verses have been disappeared from the world but still we’ve his many beautiful verses which are famous all over the world and people of all castes and religions love and admire this remarkable poet of history. =================================================

He was a keen supporter of poor and at all fronts he opposed oppression and exploitation of public by capitalistic class. Due to his anti-extremist and revolutionary behavior, he was given the ‘Fatwa’ of Kafir (Infidel) by religious authorities. Several times, he was bitten by the extremists but ‘he never bowed his neck’. When he died he was thrown on the garbage outside the boundary of Kasur because he wasn’t allowed to bury in the Kasur. But as the time passed, with the increase in population Kasur also expanded and thus, at last, Baba ji’s grave got its place in his Kasur. After the death of Baba Bulleh Shah, the Government and Muslim Ulmas used their force strongly to destroy the Kalam (poetry) and reputation of Baba ji. Qawals (Asian classical singers) were strictly prohibited to sing the Kalam of Baba ji publicly. In British India, for about 100 years his Kalam was not allowed to be published. It was after the ‘partition of 1947’ that Baba ji’s Kalam was published for the first time, when some Sikhs and Hindus disclosed some remnants of Baba ji’s Kalam. No doubt, a lot of his verses have been disappeared from the world but still we’ve his many beautiful verses which are famous all over the world and people of all castes and religions love and admire this remarkable poet of history. =================================================

Description Baba Bulleh Shah (1680-1758) was the great humanist, philosopher, rebel, internationalist, teacher and Sufi poet of all times. Baba ji was the disciple of Enayat Shah Lahori, who himself was a great Sufi of his time. Baba ji was born in a noble and aristocratic Saye’ad family but, as a result of Enayat’s teachings, he left the life of nobility and luxury and led quite simple and humble life. Baba ji was a great poet and use to sing his poetry in the streets of his city Kasur. He was a keen supporter of poor and at all fronts he opposed oppression and exploitation of public by capitalistic class. Due to his anti-extremist and revolutionary behavior, he was given the ‘Fatwa’ of Kafir (Infidel) by religious authorities. Several times, he was bitten by the extremists but ‘he never bowed his neck’. When he died he was thrown on the garbage outside the boundary of Kasur because he wasn’t allowed to bury in the Kasur. But as the time passed, with the increase in population Kasur also expanded and thus, at last, Baba ji’s grave got its place in his Kasur. After the death of Baba Bulleh Shah, the Government and Muslim Ulmas used their force strongly to destroy the Kalam (poetry) and reputation of Baba ji. Qawals (Asian classical singers) were strictly prohibited to sing the Kalam of Baba ji publicly. In British India, for about 100 years his Kalam was not allowed to be published. It was after the ‘partition of 1947’ that Baba ji’s Kalam was published for the first time, when some Sikhs and Hindus disclosed some remnants of Baba ji’s Kalam. No doubt, a lot of his verses have been disappeared from the world but still we’ve his many beautiful verses which are famous all over the world and people of all castes and religions love and admire this remarkable poet of history.

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The Life of Bulleh Shah
By: J.R. Puri and T.R. Shangari
Mysterious is the turn of time. The man who had been refused by the mullahs to be buried after his death in the community graveyard because of his unorthodox views, today enjoys worldwide reverence and recognition. The tomb of Bulleh Shah in Qasur and the area around it is today the only place free of collective refuse, and the privileged of the city pay handsomely to be buried in the proximity of the man they had once rejected. "This radical change has been possible because people have been impressed in the course of time by the holy way of Bullah's life and the efficacy of his teachings. "The greatest Sufi poet of the Punjab was Mir Bulleh Shah Qadiri Shatari. " Because of his pure life and high spiritual attainments, he is equally popular among all communities. Scholars and dervishes have called him "The Sheikh of Both the Worlds," "The man of God," "The Knower of Spiritual Grace" and by other equally edifying titles. Considered as the greatest mystic poet of the Punjab, his compositions have been regarded as "the pinnacle of Sufi literature." His admirers compare his writings and philosophy to those of Rumi and Shams-iTabriz. At present, he is held in equally great esteem in Northern India and Pakistan. Bulleh Shah's real name was Abdullah Shah. From Abdullah Shah it changed to Bullah Shah or Bul1 Shah. "Out of affection some call him Baba Bulleh Shah, Sain Bulleh Shah and some others mer Bullah. "The 40th Knot" gives evidence of his t] name. "Invoking the name of God, now pray to Hi the Lord pervades everywhere Abdullah exists more." There is some difference of opinion among research scholars about the time of his birth and death. Majority, however, believes that he lived from 1680 1758. Even about his birthplace there is some controversy. Some researchers hold the view that he was born in the village Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur St (Pakistan). They believe that Bulleh Shah remained in this village up to the age of six months, when parents were residing here, but who shifted to village Malakwal (Tehsil Sahiwal, Dist. Multan) for sc reason. They had not been in Malakwal for a long time when the owner of village Pandoke felt the need (preacher for the village mosque. On the recommendations of the people of Malakwal, he approached Bu Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, took to Pandoke where he performed the duties not only of the preacher but also of the village teacher for children. All researchers agree on the point that the ancestors' village of Bulleh Shah's parents was Uch Gilaniyan, it is from there that they shifted first to Malakwal later to Pandoke. However, some researchers hold view that Bulleh Shah's birth took place after his parents had shifted to Pandoke. Today it is known as Pandoke Bhatian. It is about 14 miles southeast of Qasur and is quite well-known. In fact, Bulleh Shah's contribution to make it famous is considerable. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Sayeed Jallalluddin Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Sheikh Ghaus Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and here eventually he settled down. Bulleh Shah's grandfather, Sayyiad Abdur Razzaq, descended from the same line. Thus Bulleh Shah's family, being of Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Mohammed on the one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions, for centuries. Bulleh Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura'n. He was a noble soul with spiritual leanings. It is said that out of the whole family, Bulleh Shah's sister had the greatest love for him, who, like her brother, remained celibate all her life, and spent much of her time in meditation. Both, brother and sister, had been greatly influenced by the high moral character of their father who, out of respect for him, had been given the title "Dervish. " The tomb of Bulleh Shah's father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah's kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both, father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate theirmemory. Bulleh Shah's childhood was spent under the care of his father at Pandoke. He received his early education, like that of other children, from his father. Later, for higher education he was sent to Qasur, which was a well-known educational

Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Sheikh Ghaus Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and here eventually he settled down. Bulleh Shah's grandfather, Sayyiad Abdur Razzaq, descended from the same line. Thus Bulleh Shah's family, being of Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Mohammed on the one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions, for centuries. Bulleh Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura'n. He was a noble soul with spiritual leanings. It is said that out of the whole family, Bulleh Shah's sister had the greatest love for him, who, like her brother, remained celibate all her life, and spent much of her time in meditation. Both, brother and sister, had been greatly influenced by the high moral character of their father who, out of respect for him, had been given the title "Dervish. " The tomb of Bulleh Shah's father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah's kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both, father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate theirmemory. Bulleh Shah's childhood was spent under the care of his father at Pandoke. He received his early education, like that of other children, from his father. Later, for higher education he was sent to Qasur, which was a well-known educational center those days. In Qasur there were eminent teachers such as Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza and Maulana Mohiyuddin. Their fame had spread far and wide. Bulleh Shah too became a pupil of Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza. With his native intelligence and moral inclination, he gained much from his contact with his teacher. There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian. From his own compositions we can find many references to Islamic thought and mystic literature. Later, when he attained mystic realization, his erudition and learning acquired a new significance. But Bulleh Shah had to pass through a hard struggle before he could attain the inner knowledge. This attainment was possible only through his contact with his Murshid or Master, Inayat Shah. The study of scriptures and other holy books had only aroused his interest and curiosity about spiritual realization. His longing for union with the Lord reached its consummation only after he met a perfect Master in the person of Shah Inayat Qadiri. Inayat Shah was a well-known Qadiri Sufi of his time. From the historical point of view the Qadiri Sufis can be traced back to the Sufi Saint Abdul Qadri Jilani of Bagdad. Jilani is also known by the names Pir Dastgir and Piran-i-Pir. Bulleh Shah himself has also given a hint that his "Master of Masters" was born in Bagdad but his own Master belonged to Lahore: My Master of Masters hailed from Bagdad, but my Master belongs to the throne of Lahore. It is all the same. For He himself is the kite and He himself is the string. Two collections of Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani's sermons, al Fathal Rabbani, comprising 62 and the Futuh al-Ghaib, containing 78 of them, are well known to Islamic readers. In one of the sermons, he strongly denounced his contemporaries for their materialistic way of life. In another sermon he said, "Good and evil were two fruits emerging from two branches of a single tree. One of the branches yielded sweet fruit and the other bitter; it would be wise, therefore, for people to move to areas where the sweet fruits were to be found." Also, " A jihad fought against self-will was, to Sheikh Abdul-Qadir far superior to that waged with the sword. Through this struggle the idolatory of the self and the worshi p of created things ( the hidden shirk) could be vanquished. Sheikh Jilani "advised his audience that seekers of God had to be indifferent towards even the life hereafter and to cultivate pleasure only in the thought of annihilation and abiding poverty in this life. "4 In India the influence of the Sufi Qadiri thought was,  felt after three centuries in 1432 through the person of Mohammed Ghaus, a Sufi dervish. Mohammed Ghaus first settled in Bahawalpur, but later his teachings reached far and wide. The Sufi saint of Punjab, Mian Mir (1550-1635 A. D.) was also connected with the Qadiri tradition. It is well-known that Guru Ram Das got the foundation of Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar laid by Mian Mir. The story is also current that at the time of the Mughul emperor Jahangir's persecution of the fifth Guru, Shri Arjun Dev, Mian Mir sought the approval of Guru Arjun Dev to raze the town of Delhi to the ground if he so permitted. The Guru replied that he could also do it, but under all conditions one must live in the will of God. It is obvious from this that there was great love between Mian Mir and the Gurus, and that he was held in great esteem by them. The date of birth of Inayat Shah Qadiri (died 1728 A.D.) is not known. But, from one of his own hand-written manuscripts, it is evident that he was enjoying good health in 1699 A.D. He was an eminent Sufi saint of the Qadiri tradition and is said to be a scholarly author. He wrote a number of Persian books on mysticism, from among which Dastur-ul-Amal, Islah-ul-Amal, Lataif-i-Ghaibya, and Ishartul Talibin are particularly well-known. In Dastur-ul-Amal he has made a mention of seven spiritual stages. The ancient Hindu rishis considered passing through these stages as necessary for God-realization. Inayat Shah lived in Lahore, so he was called Inayat Shah Lahori. He belonged to the Arain caste and earned his living through agriculture or gardening. He also lived in Qasur for some time, but due to the animosity of the ruler of Qasur he shifted to Lahore, where he remained till the end of his life. His tomb is also situated near Lahore. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind we find the following reference about him: From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat, He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah. He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana. The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy. From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore; Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation. It is at this place that we find his tomb. In 1141 he departed from this world. It is said that even before coming in contact with Inayat Shah, Bulleh Shah used to do some spiritual practice, and had acquired certain miraculous powers. When Bulleb Shah, the seeker, passed near the small field of Inayat Shah, he saw fruit laden trees on both sides of the road. Inayat Shah himself was engaged in planting onion seedlings. It occurred to Bulleh Shah to test Inayat Shah of his spiritual power. Invoking the name of God, Bullah looked at the trees, and the fruit started falling on the ground. Inayat Shah looked back and saw that unripe fruit was falling from the trees without any reason. He immediately realized that it was due to the mischief played by the young man passing by. He looked towards Bulleh Shah and said, "Well, young man, why have you brought down the unripe fruit from the trees?" This is what Bulleh Shah wanted, to find an opportunity to

The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy. From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore; Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation. It is at this place that we find his tomb. In 1141 he departed from this world. It is said that even before coming in contact with Inayat Shah, Bulleh Shah used to do some spiritual practice, and had acquired certain miraculous powers. When Bulleb Shah, the seeker, passed near the small field of Inayat Shah, he saw fruit laden trees on both sides of the road. Inayat Shah himself was engaged in planting onion seedlings. It occurred to Bulleh Shah to test Inayat Shah of his spiritual power. Invoking the name of God, Bullah looked at the trees, and the fruit started falling on the ground. Inayat Shah looked back and saw that unripe fruit was falling from the trees without any reason. He immediately realized that it was due to the mischief played by the young man passing by. He looked towards Bulleh Shah and said, "Well, young man, why have you brought down the unripe fruit from the trees?" This is what Bulleh Shah wanted, to find an opportunity to talk to Inayat Shah. He went up to him and said, "Sir, I neither climbed up the trees, nor did I throw any stones at the fruit, how could I tear it from the trees ?" Inayat Shah cast a full glance at Bulleh Shah and said, "0, you are not only a thief, you are also being clever! " Inayat's glance was so penetrating that it touched Bullah's heart and he instantly fell at his feet. Inayat Shah asked him his name and the purpose for coming to him. Bullah replied, "Sir, my name is Bullah and I wish to know how I can realize God." Inayat Shah said, "Why do you look down? Get up and look at me." As soon as Bullah raised his head and looked at Inayat Shah, the Master again cast at him a full glance, laden with love, shaking him all through. He said "0 Bullah, what problem is there in finding God ? It only needs to be uprooted from here and planted there." This was enough for Bulleh Shah. He got what he had wished for . Inayat Shah had poured the essence of spirituality in these few words. He conveyed to Bulleh Shah that the secret of spiritual progress lay in detaching one's mind from the world outside and attaching it to God within. In Bang-iAuliya-i-Hindthis instance has been describedas below: "In the city of Qasur Pathana it happened to a man of God, a descendent of prophet Mohammed, the grandson  of Pir Jilani, that he achieved greatness from Hazrat Shah Inayat whose tomb lies in Lahore, south of the city. Bulleh Shah said to himelf, "I must get my Master after testing him. I must fully satisfy myself, I must drink water after straining it." In his intense search for his Master he first looked towards Lahore, then he came there and took his residence, where the garden of Shah Inayat was situated. There he saw a mango on a tree at that time, he looked at it, invoked the name of God, and the mango fell on the ground. Shah lnayat gave a call to him and said, "Listen, you wayfarer, you have stolen my mango. Give it back to me." Bulleh Shah replied, "I did not climb up the tree; your mangoes are far from my reach. It is with the wind that the mango broke from the branch and came into my lap. Invoking the name of God, you got the mango. You have committed a theft. " Bulleh Shah realized the spiritual power and knowledge of Inayat Shah. He fell at his feet, was graced by initiation from the Master and attained the secret knowledge."

 
Bulleh Shah's meeting with the Master, getting initiation from him and being deeply impressed has been described by a scholar in these words : "Bulleh Shah had all those virtues in him which Shah Inayat was looking for in a disciple. He opened his inner treasure and placed it before him. .-.He got the vision, he became oblivious of his surroundings, and in that state of rapture he proclaimed the gift of his inner grace in the manner of Mansur. "

 
Bulleh Shah started to pass his time in a state of strange ecstasy. In the company of his Master and with the practice of the path he had been shown, Bulleh Shah's spiritual condition started changing day by day. His kafi, "Whatever color I am dyed in " makes it clear how great was the effect of his Master on him. In it he mentions that his inner eye had been opened, all his doubts had been removed, and he had been blessed with the light of Realization. Through the grace of his Master he had the vision of the Lord within and that for him no difference existed between his Master and the Lord. The effect of his master was so profound that but for his Master nothing else mattered for him. He became strangely selfless and impervious to affairs of the world.  Prof. Purn Singh has described an interesting incidence of this phase of Bulleh Shah's life in his book The Spirit of Oriental Poetry. One day he saw a young girl whose husband was expected to come home, and in whose preparation she was putting plaits in her hair.  A strange desire arose in his mind.  He also dressed himself like that woman, put the same type of plaits in his hair, and went in this guise to meet his Master.  For the worldly people such an act would look ridiculous, but it shows not only the great love for his Master but also his unconcern with public opinion and his desire to sacrifice himself for his beloved.  In the manner of true lovers he shed his mescaline pride and assumed the form of a helpless women who renounces her ego and surrenders herself completely to her lord. Whatever questions or doubts Bulleh Shah had in his mind before he met his Master, were all drowned in the experience of inner light.  When he had made up his mind to come to Inayat Shah, people had dissuaded him from doing so, saying, "You are a great scholar, a master of miraculous powers and a descendent of prophet Mohammed.  Does it seem right to you to go to an ordinary gardener of low caste and become his disciple? Is it not shameful?"  But his Master was true to his name.  HE showered such grace on Bulleh Shah that a single glance of his made him saturated with spiritual light. In ecstatic gratitude Bullah proclaimed: "O Bullah, if you seek the pleasure of a garden in spring, go and become a servant of the Arain." Bulleh Shah held the hem of his Master's cloak so firmly that he never let it go from his hand for the rest of his life. All of Bulleh Shah's compositions are suffused with love and gratitude for his Master. In this love he identified his Master with the Lord. He has addressed Shah Inayat with such words as guide, as one who unites people with God, besides calling him spouse, husband, Lord, friend, and beloved. 1.    He listens to my tale of woe;       Shah lnayat guides me and takes me across.  (Week) 2 a.  Shah Inayat is my Master, who has come to grace me.  All my wrangles and strife's are over.  Who can now delude me ?      (Acrostic)   b. Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord.      He has given his life and body as earnest.

with such words as guide, as one who unites people with God, besides calling him spouse, husband, Lord, friend, and beloved. 1.    He listens to my tale of woe;       Shah lnayat guides me and takes me across.  (Week) 2 a.  Shah Inayat is my Master, who has come to grace me.  All my wrangles and strife's are over.  Who can now delude me ?      (Acrostic)   b. Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord.      He has given his life and body as earnest.      His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat      who has captivated his heart.      (Baran Maha)   c. He pervades in everyone.      Shah lnayat himself showed it, And then alone I could see.     (Baran Maha) 3 a. Inayat will come to my nuptial couch;      I am in great delight.     (Knot)   b. My friends have come to congratulate me.      Shah Inayat, my Lord, has fulfilled my hopes.     (Baran Maha)  c. I left my parents to take your shelter,     O my beloved King Inayat!     Now honor this bond of love,     for I am entirely in your hands.     Pray, walk into my courtyard !    (Kafi)  d. Come Love, fold me in your arms,     Why this estrangement ? Says Bullah:     Ever since I found Shah Inayat, The Lord has taken abode in me.    (Kafi)  e. Bulleh Shah has no caste ;     He has found Shah Inayat.    (Kafi) He calls his Master the Lord of the soul and the philosopher's stone, which can turn iron into gold. O Bullah, my Lord Inayat knows God, He is the Master of my heart. I am iron, he is the philosopher's stone. Again, "The Master is an adept in swimming,  he can take across an inept and helpless woman." Bullah also calls him the one who can embellish t soul with spiritual apparel and jewelry and transform widow into a bride. O Bullah, the Lord brought me to the door of Inayat, Who embellished me with clothes green and red. For a distinguished scholar, who belonged to the line of prophet Mohammed, to accept an ordinary vegetable grower as his Master was a very extraordinary event in the social conditions of Bulleh Shah's times. It was like an explosion which shook the prevailing social structure. Bullah had to suffer the taunts and ridicule not only of men of his religion, clan and caste, but also of all members of his family. He says : 1. 0, what has love done to me?    People hurl at me taunts and rebukes. 2. For the sake of my true friend,    I have to bear the reproaches of people. 3. To admonish Bullah came his sisters and sisters-in-law,    "Why have you brought disgrace to the prophet    and to the progeny of Ali? Listen to our advice, 0 Bullah, and leave the hem of the Arain's skirt. Bullah preached fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realization, and the caste of the Master did not at all matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain indispensable. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Sayyiad would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven.

   People hurl at me taunts and rebukes. 2. For the sake of my true friend,    I have to bear the reproaches of people. 3. To admonish Bullah came his sisters and sisters-in-law,    "Why have you brought disgrace to the prophet    and to the progeny of Ali? Listen to our advice, 0 Bullah, and leave the hem of the Arain's skirt. Bullah preached fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realization, and the caste of the Master did not at all matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain indispensable. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Sayyiad would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven. Let anyone, who calls me a Sayyiad,  be punished with tortures of hell, And let him revel in the pleasures of heaven,  who labels me an Arain. If you seek the pleasures of the spring season,  become a slave of the Arain. An interesting incident of this period in the life of Bulleh Shah presents a graphic picture of his ecstasy, generosity and fearlessness of public opinion. It is said that as a result of disgust from people's attitude, Bulleh Shah purchased a few donkeys so that people should ridicule him. They started calling him "The man with donkeys." During those days, a poor man's wife was abducted by a Muslim Chieftain. In despair, the husband went to Bulleh Shah, and asked for his help in recovering his beloved wife. After a few moments spent in thought, Bulleh Shah told the man, "Go and see, my friend, if there is any music or dance going on somewhere near about." The man soon came back and reported that a group of eunuchs was dancing in the village nearby, accompanied by a band of musicians. "That is good, " said Bulleh Shah. "Come now and sit on one of my donkeys, and we shall both go to watch the dance. " As soon as the saint arrived at the dance, he joined the group and also started dancing. He got into an ecstasy and asked the man, "Where does the Muslim Chieftain live ?" The man told him that he lived in a certain part of the city near the orchard of dates and the grove of mangoes. Then Bulleh Shah called out withdirected attention : There is a mango grove, it is said, and an orchard of dates. The owner of donkeys calls you, Wake up, if you are asleep. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar, Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend! The moment he uttered these words, the abducted woman ran out from the nearby garden and came to Bulleh Shah. Bulleh Shah stopped dancing and called to the husband, "Here is your beloved wife, brother! Take her home and guard her well." Then once more wrapped in ecstasy, he continued to dance to the bewitching music. The gossips lost no time in going to Bulleh Shah's father, an orthodox Muslim, and told him all that had happened. Not only was his son now hiring out donkeys, but he had also started to dance with the eunuchs. Greatly distressed and enraged, the saint's father, with a rosary in one hand and a staff in the other, hastened to the place where his son was dancing. " Ah! it is you, father"  said Bulleh Shah as he heard his name called. He looked at his father intently and began to sing : People have only chaplets but my father has a rosary. The whole of his life he has toiled hard, But has not been able to uproot a single hair. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar . Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend ! As the son, filled with spiritual ardor, gazed at his father, the inner eye of the father was opened and he had a divine vision. With a serene and radiant smile on his face, .he joined his son in the ecstatic dancing and singing, and as he danced, he sang over and over again : Blessed are the parents whose sons are dyed in such divine color ! They bring salvation even to their parents. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar. Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend ! The beginning of love is fascinating, but its path is difficult and its destination far. Even a small error or omission on the part of the lover can become a cause of great annoyance for the beloved. 'That creates a mountain of calamities for the lover. Such a thing happened to Bulleh Shah, when his Master got annoyed with him for an omission on his part. Some writers have attributed the reason for his Master's annoyance to Bulleh Shah's open criticism of rituals and customs practiced by Muslims, and this was not to the liking of Inayat Shah. This reason, however , does not appear plausible, because criticism of external observance .is common to all Sufi saints, and it was not unknown in the Qadiri tradition. They were certainly not the worshippers of this system. The second reason given for the annoyance is quite different in nature. It is said that once Bulleh Shah invited his Master on the marriage of one of his relatives, The Saint deputed one of his disciples to represent him at the function. This disciple belonged to the Arain caste and was poorly clad. Now, Bulleh Shah's family was proud of belonging to the clan of Sayyiads. They did not give proper attention in receiving this poorly clad man. Even Bullah happened to make this omission. At least he should have shown proper respect to the representative of his Master, But under the pressure of his family or the fear of public opinion, he

The beginning of love is fascinating, but its path is difficult and its destination far. Even a small error or omission on the part of the lover can become a cause of great annoyance for the beloved. 'That creates a mountain of calamities for the lover. Such a thing happened to Bulleh Shah, when his Master got annoyed with him for an omission on his part. Some writers have attributed the reason for his Master's annoyance to Bulleh Shah's open criticism of rituals and customs practiced by Muslims, and this was not to the liking of Inayat Shah. This reason, however , does not appear plausible, because criticism of external observance .is common to all Sufi saints, and it was not unknown in the Qadiri tradition. They were certainly not the worshippers of this system. The second reason given for the annoyance is quite different in nature. It is said that once Bulleh Shah invited his Master on the marriage of one of his relatives, The Saint deputed one of his disciples to represent him at the function. This disciple belonged to the Arain caste and was poorly clad. Now, Bulleh Shah's family was proud of belonging to the clan of Sayyiads. They did not give proper attention in receiving this poorly clad man. Even Bullah happened to make this omission. At least he should have shown proper respect to the representative of his Master, But under the pressure of his family or the fear of public opinion, he did not give the guest due honor. When the disciple returned from the marriage, the Saint asked him how the marriage was celebrated. He told his Master the whole story , and complained that because of his low caste and tattered clothes, neither Bulleh Shah nor his family showed him due respect. The Saint replied, "How dare Bullah behave like this ?" And then added, "What have we to get from this useless man ? We shall change the direction of the flow of water from his fields to yours !" He had only to utter these words to bring a calamity in Bullah's life. As soon as the Master changed the direction of his grace, his spring turned into autumn. His inner visions vanished, leaving him dry and barren. Light changed into darkness and bliss into mourning. It was a stunning blow to Bullah. One who has never experienced inner bliss and who has never had a glimpse of the divine glory of his Master within, his case is quite different. But the one who has enjoyed the wealth of inner experience and who is suddenly deprived of this treasure, he alone knows the pangs of such a torture. In fact, the lord of spiritual wealth is the perfect Master, and there is nothing in the hands of the disciple. Apparently, the disciple is himself seeking the Master, and with his own effort treads the path and progresses on it, as shown by the Master. But, in reality the disciple cannot search for the Master with his mind and meager intellect, nor can he find the true path with his own power and cleverness. N or can he rise to spiritual realms with his own endeavor. Finding the true path and achieving spiritual progress are all gifts of the Master's grace. Bulleh Shah has himself written, "The Guru does whatever he wills." But to realize this he had to suffer the annoyance of his Master and cross the frightening ocean of the fire of separation. As soon as his spiritual experiences were stopped, Bullah hastened to his Master, but the Master turned his back on him and asked him to leave the place. For one thing, the annoyance of his Master '. for another the command not to see him! What greater torture could there be for a disciple ? Bullah was miserable. He began to burn in the fire of repentance, and his condition waslike that of a fish out of water . In the compositions of Bullah, many references can be found of this heartrending state of his mind. In many of his kafis there is a touch of his personal life. No one can say with certainty when these kafis were written. But the descriptions in these poems bespeak of such a mental state. The pain of separation erupts in them like turbulent waves. "In poignancy of emotion, sincerity of feeling, ardor and longing, these kafis are matchless. " From the kafi given below it is evident; that the memory of the bliss of union with the beloved and the pain of separation from him are continuing to burn Bullah to ashes like a house on fire. He cannot give up love, but in the separation of his beloved, he can find peace neither by day nor by night. He is not blessed with the sight of his beloved, but without seeing him, fire rages within his breast, and his heart is breaking. It is hard to bear such a state of mind, but it is also impossible to relinquish love. So he hangs between life and death : I have been pierced by the arrow of love,  what shall I do ? I can neither live, nor can I die. Listen ye to my ceaseless outpourings, I have peace neither by night, nor by day. I cannot do without my Beloved even for a moment. I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ? The fire of separation is unceasing ! Let someone take care of my love. How can I be saved without seeing him? I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ?

 
O Bullah, I am in dire trouble ! Let someone come to help me out. How shall I endure such torture ? I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ? I can neither live, nor can I die. In another kafi he describes his pain thus : He left me, and himself he departed; What fault was there in me ?

 
Neither at night nor in the day do I sleep in peace; My eyes pour out tears !

How shall I endure such torture ? I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ? I can neither live, nor can I die. In another kafi he describes his pain thus : He left me, and himself he departed; What fault was there in me ?

 
Neither at night nor in the day do I sleep in peace; My eyes pour out tears ! Sharper than swords and spears are the arrows of love ! There is no one as cruel as love ; This malady no physician can cure. There is no peace, not for a moment, So intense is the pain of separation ! O Bullah, if the Lord were to shower His grace, My days would radically change ! He left me, and himself he departed. What fault was there in me ? As the period of separation became longer, Bullah's condition became worse. On the one hand~ there was the pain of separation, on the other, the ridicule of people. He prostrates before the memory of his Master, and repeatedly entreats him to show his face to him at the earliest. Why do you tarry , my Beloved ? O Bullah, now narrate your love story. He alone knows who has experienced love. There are rebukes within, taunts without Such is the comfort I have found in love ! My eyes have taken to the habit of weeping. For one, it is death, for another, reproach from the world. The pain of separation has tightly squeezed my life. O Love, I have cried out my heart in anguish ! Bullah was full of repentance over his blunder. He was keenly desirous to be forgiven by his Master. In his mind he pleads to his Master to heal his wound of separation, and to apply. balm to his heart by showing his face to him. I suffer from the pain of my mad love. Come, dear Ranjha, cast a glance at me, and forgive me my faults. From the throne of Hazara set out Ranjha, the Master of artless Heer. The bridegroom visits the homes of all others; What is the flaw that vitiates Bullah? Bullah does not only describe the state of his suffering, but also hurls complaints at his Master. On the one hand, he regrets his own lack of wisdom, on the other, he reproaches his Master, who, after piercing his heart with the arrow of love, has hidden himself and has never inquired after him. Inflicting a wound you hid your face; Who has taught you such thefts, my Love? With your fancy you captivated my heart, But then you never showed your face. This cup of poison I have drunk myself ; Indeed I was unripe in wisdom! He calls his Master "the beloved Thug of Lahore" and complains that he has robbed him with his love, and made him useless for the world. Never be taken in by its guiles ; It gives not peace in forest or city. When the traveler left after casting a glance, Suddenly a noose was hung round my neck. He then showed no concern for me. Oh, I have met the "beloved Thug of Lahore" ! To be incessantly weeping in separation of his Master had become the usual routine for Bullah. This separation of his had assumed the proportions of madness, and he started roaming in streets and lanes. The intense longing to see his Master produced a kind of fire within him, to extinguish which he began to think out some plans. "I He knew that his Master was a lover of music. It is said that Bulleh put on the garb of a woman, got hold of a sarangi  and went to the house of a dancing girl. He learnt dancing from her and became an adept in it. He then took along with him a drummer and a harmonium player and went to the tomb of a holy man in whose memory an annual function was being celebrated. Shah Inayat had also come to attend it. While all other dancers and singers got tired and sat down, Bullah, in ecstasy, continued to dance. His voice was extremely doleful and heart-rending. It is .said that Bullah sang many kafis on the occasion. At last even Inayat Shah's heart melted. With a voice full of compassion he said, " Are you Bullah ?" Bullah ran and fell at his Master's feet

When the traveler left after casting a glance, Suddenly a noose was hung round my neck. He then showed no concern for me. Oh, I have met the "beloved Thug of Lahore" ! To be incessantly weeping in separation of his Master had become the usual routine for Bullah. This separation of his had assumed the proportions of madness, and he started roaming in streets and lanes. The intense longing to see his Master produced a kind of fire within him, to extinguish which he began to think out some plans. "I He knew that his Master was a lover of music. It is said that Bulleh put on the garb of a woman, got hold of a sarangi  and went to the house of a dancing girl. He learnt dancing from her and became an adept in it. He then took along with him a drummer and a harmonium player and went to the tomb of a holy man in whose memory an annual function was being celebrated. Shah Inayat had also come to attend it. While all other dancers and singers got tired and sat down, Bullah, in ecstasy, continued to dance. His voice was extremely doleful and heart-rending. It is .said that Bullah sang many kafis on the occasion. At last even Inayat Shah's heart melted. With a voice full of compassion he said, " Are you Bullah ?" Bullah ran and fell at his Master's feet and replied with his eyes full of tears, "Sir, I am not Bullah put Bhulla. " I The Master is never indifferent to his disciple. When he realized that the fire of repentance and separation had purified Bullah and turned him into pure gold, he forgave him his lapse and pressed him to his heart. The reason why the Master put Bulleh Shah to such a hard test -the torture of burning in the fire of separation and longing ~ was to make him fit to receive the invaluable wealth of the Word of God. With this spiritual treasure he was not only to become rich himself, but also to make other seekers the recipients of this wealth. When the fountain of the Master's grace started flowing once again, the arid fields of Bullah began to revive, and the fragrance of the flowers of bliss spread all around. According to the author of Qanun-i-Ishq, the Master pressed Bullah to his heart, took him along with him, and intoxicated him with the wine of union. Bullah's soul got dyed in the hue of his Master's soul, so that no distinction remained between the two. One of Bulleh Shah's kafis gives a graphic description of his state of merging in the Master (Fana-fil-Sheikh) : Repeating the name of Ranjha I have become Ranjha myself. O call me ye all "Dhido-Ranjha," let no one call me Heer . Ranjha is in me, I am in Ranjha, no other thought exists in my mind. I am not, He alone is. He alone is amusing himself. The Master is one with the Lord. So, merging in the Master is transformed into merging in the Lord. This state is expressed by Bullah in the following lines of two kafis : 1. You alone exist, I do not, O Beloved!

 
2. Repeating the name of the Beloved    I have become the Beloved myself.    Whom shall I call the Beloved now?

 
The same thought is conveyed by Jesus Christ in the Bible thus : "At that day ye. shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you." Arriving at this stage, the illusion of duality disappears, and the glory of the Beloved is seen to pervade everywhere. Bulleh Shah declares that love for the Lord has so radically changed him that his individual self or ego has been totally eliminated. He has now realized his true Self hidden behind the veil of the physical body. His identification with the Supreme Being has opened for him the floodgates of divine light. In this light no one has remained a stranger. All have become His own. I have got lost in the city of love, I am being cleansed, withdrawing myself from my head, hands and feet. I have got rid of my ego, and have attained my goal. Thus it has all ended well. O Bullah, the Lord pervades both the worlds; None now appears a stranger to me. In the transcendence of the finite to the Infinite; all disputes of religion, of good and evil, disappear. To Bullah now all began to appear as virtuous; none seemed to him as evil or a stranger. Remove duality and do away with all disputes; The Hindus and Muslims are not other than He. Deem everyone virtuous, there are no thieves. For, within every body He himself resides. How the Trickster has put on a mask! Saturated with the love of God, Bullah became the personification of compassion and forgiveness. He began to see the divine in every being, and distinctions of caste and religion, friend and foe, ceased to have any meaning for him. The following incident of his life illustrates this sublime state of his mind in a beautiful way: It is said I that "once Bulleh Shah was engaged in meditation inside his chamber.

In the transcendence of the finite to the Infinite; all disputes of religion, of good and evil, disappear. To Bullah now all began to appear as virtuous; none seemed to him as evil or a stranger. Remove duality and do away with all disputes; The Hindus and Muslims are not other than He. Deem everyone virtuous, there are no thieves. For, within every body He himself resides. How the Trickster has put on a mask! Saturated with the love of God, Bullah became the personification of compassion and forgiveness. He began to see the divine in every being, and distinctions of caste and religion, friend and foe, ceased to have any meaning for him. The following incident of his life illustrates this sublime state of his mind in a beautiful way: It is said I that "once Bulleh Shah was engaged in meditation inside his chamber. It was the month of Ramzan. Some of his disciples were sitting outside eating carrots. After some time a group of orthodox Muslims who were keeping the fast happened to pass them. When they saw the disciples sitting at a faqir's abode and violating the fast, they were enraged. " They shouted in an angry voice, " Are you not ashamed of eating in the month of Ramzan, and that also at the abode of a faqir?" The disciples replied, "Brother believers, take your path. We are feeling hungry. That is why we are eating. " The group of believers felt suspicious about their faith. So they asked, "Who are you?" They replied, "We are Muslims. Don't the Muslims feel hungry?". The believers again commanded them to stop eating, but the disciples did not heed. The believers who were on horses, alighted. They snatched the carrots from the hands of the disciples, and threw them away. They also gave a few blows to them. As they were about to leave, it struck them that the pir of these impious people must have been cast in the same mould. So they turned back to ask him what kind of instruction he had given to his disciples. They went to his chamber and said, "Who are you?" Bullah who was meditating with his eyes closed, raised his arms and moved his hands. They asked him again, "Why don't you speak? Who are you?" Bullah once again raised his arms. The riders taking him to be a mad man, went away. Soon after they left, the disciples entered the chamber, raising a hue and cry that they had been beaten. Bullah told them that they must have done something to provoke the believers. The disciples denied to have done any such thing. Bullah said, "What did they ask you?" The disciples replied, "They asked us who we were, and we said we were Muslims." Bullah retorted, "That's why you were beaten. You became something and you suffered. I didn't become anything, and they said nothing to me." To consider oneself something emanates from the sense of .ego. Such a person is still under the sway of maya, and has not had a vision of Truth so far. One who has had such a vision comes to know his true Self and gets liberated from the bondage of caste, religion and country. There are numerous instances in the poems of Bulleh Shah, which show that the soul, like the Lord, has no religion, no caste, no country. All these distinctions are born out of time and space, but the soul is unborn and timeless. It has neither a beginning, nor an end, nor is it bound by the limitations of caste and religion. Bullah recognizes only the primeval relationship of soul with God : I take myself to be the beginning and the end; I do not recognize aught except the One. Having realized the Truth within, Bulleh Shah became the embodiment of Truth himself. He spent the rest of his life in disseminating the message of this Reality. Till the end of his sojourn in this transient world he was engaged in meditation of the Lord, and guided all those who came in contact with him, on the same path. His magnetic personality, his pure living and his divine writings spread his fame far and wide. Many a seeker after Truth was attracted by his charm and derived much spiritual gain under his guidance. The last years of his life he passed in Qasur, and here he died in 1758-1759. His t6mb can be seen in Qasur even today. It is mentioned in Bang-i-Auli-va-i-Hind : When 1171 (Hijiri) had come to pass, In Qasur his shrine was well raised. Bulleh Shah was an evolved soul, a perfect faqir and a true lover. Through the love for his Master he realized the Lord. In his love one finds poignancy, ardor and longing besides sincerity, sacrifice and renunciation. Under the canopy of love he made his offerings of caste and learning. His love for his Master never wavered for a moment despite the fire of separation and longing through which he passed. His writings, as also his life, manifest transcendence of physical love ( of the Master) to divine love ( of the Lord). Indeed, this is. the path of all true mystics, all true lovers of God. Whosoever has attained union with the Lord has done so by traveling on this path, and whosoever will attain this union, will do so by becoming a traveler on this path of love. Bulleh Shah's life and writings are replete with subtle secrets of the path. They do riot only strengthen the love of a true lover, but also encourage him to undergo the severest hardships for reaching the spiritual goal. The life and compositions of Bulleh Shah will serve as a lighthouse for times immemorial to true seekers of spiritual realization.
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BULLEH SHAH AND THE ARTIST'S VISION OF HISTORY
By: Najm Hussian Syed
In the beginning was the stone. And man stood before the stone possessed by the need to live and the urge to be. In the end too, is the stone and man stands before it as unsatiated as in the beginning. Between these two points there is movement- movement that cuts and chisels the stone to form the axe, that strikes two stones against each other to rouse the slumbering spirit of fire, that smithers the stone to fragments to touch off the multifaced dance of water, that splits the very being of the stone to release demons whose dance is infinitely subtler and infinitely mightier. The movement breathlessly explores the mazes wrought by its own course and then shapes the stone into forms of pain, pleasure and silence, to envision through them what is beyond pain and pleasure and

 

BULLEH SHAH AND THE ARTIST'S VISION OF HISTORY
By: Najm Hussian Syed
In the beginning was the stone. And man stood before the stone possessed by the need to live and the urge to be. In the end too, is the stone and man stands before it as unsatiated as in the beginning. Between these two points there is movement- movement that cuts and chisels the stone to form the axe, that strikes two stones against each other to rouse the slumbering spirit of fire, that smithers the stone to fragments to touch off the multifaced dance of water, that splits the very being of the stone to release demons whose dance is infinitely subtler and infinitely mightier. The movement breathlessly explores the mazes wrought by its own course and then shapes the stone into forms of pain, pleasure and silence, to envision through them what is beyond pain and pleasure and silence. It is this movement which is the history of man past, present and future. Within the course of this movement is contained all that man has felt, thought and done. Also within the course of the movement lie the dimension of unrealised potentiality. Whatever man has felt, thought and done carries the memory of what he could feel, think and do-the memory of the stones that hedge the movement. This two-fold character of human history points to only one direction inexhaustible continuity. No action is decisive, no ideology is absolute. What has been is always accompanied by what could have been and no end is completely and finally achieved. . It is only the limited perspective of day-to-day life which gives us the illusion of finality and deceives us into believing that in what surrounds us now life has finally fulfilled itself. Men, objects and events in one's immediate vicinity seem to wear a finished and independent look. One is never prepared to bargain the smug solidity of familiar objects for the chimerical flux of unending time. There is nothing surprising in such an inhibition. No one can actually see or feel the movement of the earth. T o Most men a complacent belief in the solidity and permanence of their surrounding is a precondition of existence. The set of beliefs, ideas and attitudes in which I have grown .are the benevolent Himalayas that stand as eternal guards around the smug rotation of mornings my and evenings. My rigidly conditioned emotional reflexes stretch round me a steel shelter of psychological security. Loosen a rivet and you smother my soul, you threaten to blot out my very being. Study of History is the means of loosening the rivets of this steel shelter. And this explains why we maintain a hidden, unacknowledged suspicion of history. It is only within certain limits and with certain reservations that we admit our connection with history. Instead of discovering what trends in history are responsible for our frame of attitudes and emotions have zealously busy ourselves in fitting history to our frame of attitudes and emotions. The nature and extent of our willingness to associate ourselves with the past, present and future time is determined by our own impulse for personal security. Such an attitude towards history represents a consciousness which has foregone the opportunities of expansion, marking out a narrow path in past and future, sidetracking discovery and challenge. The awareness of time we thus achieve is a projection of a private sentiment, an exaggerated dramatization of personal frustration and daydreaming. Any vision of history is thus both an index of, and a pril1iary factor in, the spiritual makeup of a person or a group. Once you finally commit yourself to a particular limited vision of history and your hedged place in that vision you deliver yourself in the hands of ruthless gods who are jealous of the intrusion of human will in their realms. They grip you, mould you and set you in motion according to their own designs. And ironically you maintain the belief that your actions and thoughts are the results of your own conscious will. You scarcely have the detachment to reflect that your conscious will itself has been harnessed by the image to which it surrendered itself. The physical or ideological tyranny to which our honest hands subject others is only a reflection of the tyranny of a partial vision of history to which we submitted ourselves. The individual sentiment is comparatively flexible but the group sentiments and attitudes pile up in the course of ages and harden to a degree where it is difficult to successfully resist or dislodge them. The group sentiments appear in obsessive touchiness about its vision of history: As a spokesman of the group one does not find oneself prepared to tolerate any individual deviation however genuine. The individual deviation which is an internal challenge and an agent of dynamic development is thus suppressed. The deviating individual instead of acting as a source of enlargement and modification is compelled either to become a desensitized appendix to the mass of social sentiment or to remain socially unacceptable. In the center rests the mass of passively conformist elements which, in the absence of necessary circulation progressively decay into a dead weight. On the fringes or outside them the deviating individual is kept ineffective in his alienation. When a community continues to subscribe to a partial vision of history it runs the risk of ultimately destroy~ the basis of a creative relationship between itself and its members. It must be seen now what is the difference between a complete and a partial vision of history and bow this difference has been important in the evolution of human consciousness. Once, though not long ago, man lived in caves and hunted for his food like his fellow animals. Man preyed on his fellow animals and fell a prey to them. He remained in perilous communion with wind, rain, heat of the day and chill of the night. In his intense physical experience he had only one relation with time - the direct personal relation with the current moment that glared at him from behind a thicket, the moment that suddenly thrust its glistening teeth and claws into his flesh. He sought to conquer this vm1 current moment by contemplating it in an abstract eternal frame. He caught the current moment in all its aliveness on the walls of his cave and felt that he had entered into an inner relationship with the moment beyond the moment. There was an intense synchronization between the acts of contemplating. The artist-man was not perhaps conscious of his contemplation as one is conscious of an expressible idea. He lived his vision of time rather than formulate it. He felt himself to be a part of the creation and not a product of a creed or ideology. He found his fulfillment by affirming his contact with the current moment. And art was not a

It must be seen now what is the difference between a complete and a partial vision of history and bow this difference has been important in the evolution of human consciousness. Once, though not long ago, man lived in caves and hunted for his food like his fellow animals. Man preyed on his fellow animals and fell a prey to them. He remained in perilous communion with wind, rain, heat of the day and chill of the night. In his intense physical experience he had only one relation with time - the direct personal relation with the current moment that glared at him from behind a thicket, the moment that suddenly thrust its glistening teeth and claws into his flesh. He sought to conquer this vm1 current moment by contemplating it in an abstract eternal frame. He caught the current moment in all its aliveness on the walls of his cave and felt that he had entered into an inner relationship with the moment beyond the moment. There was an intense synchronization between the acts of contemplating. The artist-man was not perhaps conscious of his contemplation as one is conscious of an expressible idea. He lived his vision of time rather than formulate it. He felt himself to be a part of the creation and not a product of a creed or ideology. He found his fulfillment by affirming his contact with the current moment. And art was not a by-product of his internal deferred living. The distinction between internal and external living is of later origin. It was after the synthesis was disturbed that human consciousness found it impossible to retain the spontaneous wholeness of experience. And those who still sought a personal contact with the current moment were termed as artists, mystics, heretics or lunatics. These designations are less the products of convenience and more of fear-man's fear of his own inner impulse that urged him to look beyond the silence of the stone. In fact the "artist" and the "mystic" were only a disowned part of the ordinary man; they themselves were more genuinely ordinary than was realised. I t was left only to "the artist'. or "the mystic" to retain an intimate relationship with time. The artist knows time as an ever-present reality. To him the moment is an ever-open door - a door which within its shape integrates his entire experience as a unit of creation. He finds himself perpetuated within the door. He knows that the door is not the final end-and nothing that he knows, is constantly yearns to realise what is beyond the d~. The artistic creation too is not an end in itself; it is an act within the door. Associating the performance of Ragas with particular seasons and particular hours of day is a really significant phenomenon. The Raga itself is a comprehensive formulation of human experience; it is the door. The performance of the Raga is an act within the moment-the moment which is physically present as an hour of the day or a season of the year. The performer and the listeners with him try to enter into an intimate relationship with the moment. The artist' s relationship with time is not one of antagonism resulting if1 either his surrender or the conquest of time. This relationship is undertaken as a dialogue between man and the moment. But as the moment itself is not the end man strives to wrestle out of its embrace. The cherished attainment of the ~~~1~ former is to arrive at a point where the moment wanes and the Raga itself is left behind. The example of the classical Raga indicates the nature of the artistic effort and its goal. Art is essentially an act of impulsive meditation in which life tries~.' to measure and stretch its limits; the knowledge of the limits implies the strength to stretch there. The artist has little use for chronology. F or him past is not made of events but of experience; and experience lives when events are dead. And for a communion with experience he does not go to events; he goes to his own consciousness-which contains the past in a living form and which contains the future too. He is not haunted by fear of the past or fear of the future nor is he shy of facing the present because in his consciousness they live as one intimate experience-an experience not based on any principle of moral or dogmatic selection but comprehending all harmopies and discords implicit in the fact of existence. The poet Bulleh Shah is one deeply stimulating representative of the class of artists who felt intensely the need of discovering time through live contact.

   
"Bullah! Can I know who I am. I neither join the faithful in their devout affirmation in the mosque nor I find myself scaling the subtleties of denial. I do not raise my finger with the righteous nor do I bare my breast with the condemned. I am not Moses nor the Pharoah either . The sacred scriptures from this world or that contain no clues for me. I do not discover myself in the sensual surrender. I am neither concealed by the profane ecstasy of intoxication nor made manifest by the holy Vedas. I am not contained in what is uncovered by the wary eye of wakefulness nor in what is revealed by sleep. No form of pleasure or pain, revelry or remorse finds me out. I am not disposed by fire, air, water and dust. 1 am neither a Hindu nor a Turk. My identity lies neither in

   
"Bullah! Can I know who I am. I neither join the faithful in their devout affirmation in the mosque nor I find myself scaling the subtleties of denial. I do not raise my finger with the righteous nor do I bare my breast with the condemned. I am not Moses nor the Pharoah either . The sacred scriptures from this world or that contain no clues for me. I do not discover myself in the sensual surrender. I am neither concealed by the profane ecstasy of intoxication nor made manifest by the holy Vedas. I am not contained in what is uncovered by the wary eye of wakefulness nor in what is revealed by sleep. No form of pleasure or pain, revelry or remorse finds me out. I am not disposed by fire, air, water and dust. 1 am neither a Hindu nor a Turk. My identity lies neither in the wilderness of Arabia nor within the walls of Lahore. I am not the secret essence strenuously revealed by creed and religion. I was not born of Adam and Eve. I did not adopt any name nor can I owe any. 1 am neither stationary nor adrift. Can I know who am I? I t is myself I know to be, the beginning and the end. Neithe1' do I recognise any other being. It is nowhere else within myself that perception and knowledge are embodied. Then who is He that stands as the Other? And who am I? Can 1 know Bullah?" The popularity of this poem, as of several others of Bulleh Shah, has been largely responsible for blurring its virtues. Popular applause where it may indicate the aliveness of any poem also signifies that the poem has, in the course of its life accumulated a certain amount of dead matter. There is no surer signal for a poet. To overhaul his wares than an undefined acclaim. The popular reading of this poem takes the refrain to be a suave abstention from commitment of any kind-who knows and who can know, so let us shelve the ungainly business of knowing altogether. The appeal lies in the satisfaction yielded by the escape supposedly implicit in the refrain, from an essential inner questioning about reality. The popular interpretation is the result of a conveniently indifferent way of reading the poem. For a better appreciation of the poem it is necessary to rediscover the subtleties of tone and gesture inherent in each phrase. Also there should be an awareness of the cultural background of the form used here by Bulleh Shah. The present English rendering in its effort to indicate the content of the poem can do little justice to the other levels of the poet's intention which are served by form and manner. Bulleh Shah here undertakes a contemplative self-questioning. The questioning takes the shape of a riddle-a riddle posed by the poet to himself. This reference to the pattern of riddles which are asked of children is vital for the understanding of the poem. In his own self the poet combines the awareness of the grown up person who has posed the riddle and the bewildered curiosity of the child who has been asked the question. This peculiarity of the form represents a consciousness which works towards a solution through all the intricate levels of mature reflection and experience, and yet retains the insistent curiosity of the child in face of every conclusion. The stanzas of the poem are the suggestions of mature reflection and experience; the refrain is the child's quarry which breaks and dissolves these suggestions. Those conversant with the form of Punjabi riddles would know that the children demand certain clues as a matter of right. "In what direction lies the answer in eatables or in things of ordinary use 1" In the riddle of Bulleh Shah a series of negatives dismisses all the possible clues. What is left is the elemental question. And the question itself is worded with a view to suggest a deliberate vagueness. The three possible literal translations of the refrain would be: (a) "How do I know who I am?" b) "How do I know who He is"? and (c) "How can I know the whoness?" And the three translations do not exhaust the subtlety which the apparent simplicity of the refrain's syntax hides. The "I" of Bulleh Shah represents man in his very essential capacity as a unit of creation. The "I" is inevitably confronted by "who". And in answer to this chimerical question the poet with an amazingly casual touch recreates the entire panorama of hULD3.n experience in Time. For an ultimate fulfillment man took up the search for identity and affiliation. Each level of experience deceived him with an answer which took the shape~ of a dogma, an institution, a belief, a value, an attitude or a relationship. But in elemental tussle of "I" and "who" the child dismisses all the answers provided by the experience of man, breaking one toy after another in his frenzied curiosity. The poem is a dance of negative phrases accompanied by the double interrogative of the refrain. The only positive phrase is contained in the beginning of the last stanza. This affirmation is a climax to the passion of denial. Where do 1 go from here? Where does the endless road lead? I have distinguished myself from all that has existed in identity. I know what I am not; then how do I know what I am? Bulleh Shah's question embodies a moment containing past, present and future time. The moment contains the total individual and social experience of human history .The rejection of suggested identity and affiliations when it comes is complete and indiscriminate and implies a passion for being anew, for recreating the I. There is no preference or more exactly, all preferences have fallen in favour of the unknown positive. The artist's vision of history of which Bulleh Shah provides an example is the vision which alone is responsible for the creation of an inner dynamism and Thus the direct opposite of our parochial view of history.
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Introduction to Bulleh Shah's Poetry
By : K. S. Duggal
 
The Sufi cult is akin to mysticism. It is believed in some quarters that it was born out of

social experience of human history .The rejection of suggested identity and affiliations when it comes is complete and indiscriminate and implies a passion for being anew, for recreating the I. There is no preference or more exactly, all preferences have fallen in favour of the unknown positive. The artist's vision of history of which Bulleh Shah provides an example is the vision which alone is responsible for the creation of an inner dynamism and Thus the direct opposite of our parochial view of history.
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Introduction to Bulleh Shah's Poetry
By : K. S. Duggal
 
The Sufi cult is akin to mysticism. It is believed in some quarters that it was born out of interaction between Semitic Islam and Aryan Vedantism on the soil of India. This is not the whole truth. Sufism took birth in Arabia in the ninth century. However, the Aryan perceptions in Iran and then in India influenced it a great deal, more particularly in accentuating the emotional content as against the dry-as-dust self-denial of the Arabs. The Arabs laid stress on asceticism and disciplining of the body, while the later Sufis in Iran and India, under the influence of Greek philosophy, Platonic ideology, Christian faith, Vedantist thinking, Buddhist lore, etcetera believed in leading an emotionally ~rich life. They drank and danced and advocated that physical love could sublimate itself into spiritual love. They had faith in God: they loved the Prophet but they maintained that the Murshid or Guru could also lead to realization of the Divine Reality. Literally speaking, a Sufi is one who is pure or one who goes about with a woollen blanket. In Greek, he is a Sufi who is enlightened. The cardinal features of the Sufi cult are: (a) God exists in all and all exist in God. (b) Religion is only a way of life; it does. Not necessarily lead to Nirvana. (c) All happenings take place as per the will of God; nothing happens if He does     not ordain it, (d) The soul is distinct from the physical body and will merge into Divine Reality according to a person's deeds, (e) It is the Guru whose grace shows the way and leads to union with God, The Sufis believe that there are four stages in one's journey to realization: (a) Leading a disciplined life as prescribed in Islam (Shariat), (b) Following the path delineated by the Murshid or Guru (Tariqat), (c) Gaining enlightenment (Haqiqat), (d) On realization of truth, getting merged into Divine Reality (Marfat). The practitioners of the Sufi cult came 10 India following the Muslim conquerors, more with a view to propagating Islam, There came to be established several centers at Lahore, Pakpattan, Kasur, Multan and Uch in the Punjab, 'However, the most popular sects among them were those which combined in them the best of every faith and promoted it amongst the people, Bulleh Shah, the noted Sufi poet, belongs to this group. The Sufis loved God as one would love one's sweetheart. God for a Sufi is the husband and humankind his wife, Man must serve, love, undergo asceticism, gain enlightenment and then get merged in God, The Indian Sufis laid stress on repeating the Name (Japu), concentration (Dhyan) and meditation (Habs-1~dam), A Sufi must eschew sin, repent, live a simple and contented life and should look for the grace of the Murshid or Guru. The Sufis maintain that the soul has been separated from the Divine Reality and the supreme mission of human life is to achieve union with God. Like the Iranian Sufis who sang the praises of Yusaf Zulaikha, laila Majnun and Shirin Farhad, the Sufis in the Punjab idealised the romances of Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal and Sassi Punnun. Preoccupied with the metaphysical, they restored the use of symbols drawn from everyday life around them like the spinning-wheel, boat, dowry, etc. As poets, they employed kafi, baramah, athwara, siharfi, doha, baint and deodh as their favourite poetic forms. Their language is simple and conversational, light and lyrical. There is no denying that they made an indelible impression °on the life and thought of the people of the Punjab. More important among the Sufi poets who wrote in Punjabi were Shah Husain (15381599), Sultan Bahu (1629-1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640-1724). They were preceded by Farid in the 12th century and followed by Bulleh Shah (1680-1757), Ali Hyder (1690-1785), Hashim Shah (1735-1843) and others in the 17th and 18th centuries. More important among the Sufi saints who influenced life in the Punjab were: Data Ganj Baksh, Sheikh Farid Shakarganj, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Moinuddin Chishti, Nizamuddin Auliya, Mian Meer and Sarmad. Though he is said to have been born in 1680 A.D., not much is known about Bulleh Shah's personal life. The little that has been culled from the works attributed to him and the contemporary records testify that he was born in a village called Uch Gilania in Bahawalpur. Later his father Sain Mohammad Oarvesh moved first to a village known as Malakwal and then to Pandoke near Kausur, not far from Lahore. Bulleh Shah was only six years old at that time. Here he was put under the tutelage of Ghulam Murtza who was the Imam of one of the mosques in Kasur. There being no regular schools, the practice obtaining in the town was that the mosque served as an elementary school and the Imam of the mosque was entrusted with the task of teaching children. Ghulam Murtza was a sort of poet who, it is said, had translated Gulistan from the Persian. When Bulleh came of age, he became a Murid of Inayat Shah Qadri of Lahore. This was greatly resented by his people who were Syeds, while Bulleh Shah's Murshid was a low-caste Araeen, Syeds draw their lineage from Prophet Mohammad. There is evidence of this unpleasantness in Bulleh's verse. The ardent devotee in him says: Those who call me Syed Are destined to hell made for them. Those who call me Araeen Have the swings of heaven laid for them. Nevertheless, according to A.N. Walker, Bulleh Shah's sister had to pay the price for it; she remained unmarried. In 1729 when Shah Inayat died, Bulleh Shah succeeded him as' the master of ceremonies in the monastery at Lahore. According to the epitaph on his tomb, Bulleh Shah died in 1757. He never married. A semi-literate Punjabi peasant, Bulleh Shah's search for truth led him on to the spiritual path. And it is when he started enjoying the beauty of truth that his emotional exuberance drove him to Sufism : singing, dancing and finding expression in verse. However, neither did he care to prepare a Divan nor did he or anyone else ever record the story of his life. His poetry has traveled to us from mouth to mouth mainly through Qawwals. Similarly, his life has come to us in the form of anecdotes, some of which are reflected in his verse. Maybe it was due to the fact that the Punjab was greatly disturbed between 1710-1750. If there were any MSS, they must have been lost. It was only in 1882 that one Malik Hira collected his compositions and brought them out from Lahore for the first time. His first meeting with his Murshid Inayat Shah is said to have been meaningfully dramatic. It is said that when Bulleh approached his spiritual master, Inayat Shah was engaged in transplanting onion seedlings in his orchard. Finding that Bulleh Shah wished to be initiated into the fold of divine seekers, Inayat Shah remarked, 'It's not difficult; it is like uprooting here and planting it there. This clinched the issue. Bulleh Shah became a disciple of Inayat Shah. It is said that soon after Bulleh Shah annoyed his Master due to some indiscretion and he was thrown out of the Daira. Several months passed; Bulleh begged forgiveness, repented, had other

Shah died in 1757. He never married. A semi-literate Punjabi peasant, Bulleh Shah's search for truth led him on to the spiritual path. And it is when he started enjoying the beauty of truth that his emotional exuberance drove him to Sufism : singing, dancing and finding expression in verse. However, neither did he care to prepare a Divan nor did he or anyone else ever record the story of his life. His poetry has traveled to us from mouth to mouth mainly through Qawwals. Similarly, his life has come to us in the form of anecdotes, some of which are reflected in his verse. Maybe it was due to the fact that the Punjab was greatly disturbed between 1710-1750. If there were any MSS, they must have been lost. It was only in 1882 that one Malik Hira collected his compositions and brought them out from Lahore for the first time. His first meeting with his Murshid Inayat Shah is said to have been meaningfully dramatic. It is said that when Bulleh approached his spiritual master, Inayat Shah was engaged in transplanting onion seedlings in his orchard. Finding that Bulleh Shah wished to be initiated into the fold of divine seekers, Inayat Shah remarked, 'It's not difficult; it is like uprooting here and planting it there. This clinched the issue. Bulleh Shah became a disciple of Inayat Shah. It is said that soon after Bulleh Shah annoyed his Master due to some indiscretion and he was thrown out of the Daira. Several months passed; Bulleh begged forgiveness, repented, had other devotees speak to Inayat Shah who would not relent. Suffering the pangs of separation, Bulleh sang soulful Kafis: Leaving my parents, I am tied to you Oh Shah Inayat! My beloved Guru Whatever happens is ordained by him. His mandate none dare alter. My pangs of agony cry aloud Someone should go and tell my Master For whom I pine. As time passed, he went sort of crazy and in a fit of frenzy he disguised himself as a dancing girl and barged into his Master's Daira singing and dancing: Your love has made me dance allover. Falling in love with you Was supping a cup of poison. Come, my healer, it's my final hour. Your love has made me dance all over. Discovering that it was none other than Bulleh, singing and dancing in abandon, Inayat Shah relented and took him back in his fold. During the period of his estrangement with his Master, Bulleh Shah used to roam about in the streets of Lahore in a deranged state of mind. In the prime of his youth, with curly tresses flowing on his shoulders, he was the cynosure of many an eye. It is said, once passing through a street he saw a middle aged woman doing the hairdo of a newly-wedded bride. Bulleh Shah liked the hairdo and the next time he happened to pass that way, he asked the lady to do a similar hairdo for him. Who would not oblige a charming youth like Bulleh? It is said that when her husband came to know of it, he gave a severe beating to his wife. As the husband was giving vent to his jealous anger, there was a knock on the door. Opening the door they found it was no other than Bulleh Shah asking the lady to undo his hairdo! 'My husband wouldn't allow it, he beats me,' said Bulleh and put the woman's husband to shame. Similarly, when Aurangzeb banned singing and dancing as an un-Islamic practice, Bulleh Shah's Master, Inayat Shah, is said to have advised him to go from village to village in the Punjab singing and dancing and thus defy the imperial injunction which Bulleh did with impunity. Bulleh Shah's times were out-of-joint. The Punjab was particularly disturbed. Before he died in 1707, Aurangzeb was preoccupied in the South, leaving the North to be administered by Governors who had to contend with Marathas and the Khalsa emerging as a formidable force under Guru Gobind Singh. Then there were incursions from the northwest -whether by Nadir Shah or Ahmed Shah Abdali. There were also fundamentalists like Sheikh Ahmed Sarhandi who infused much communal hatred and disharmony inconsistent with the Sufi way of life and ideology which laid emphasis on the unity of God, amity and communal cohesiveness. They had little use for formal religion whether it was Islam or Hinduism. They sneered at meaningless rituals and ceremonials and propagated liberation of man from the stranglehold of blind faith. When Guru Gobind Singh, a great revolutionary of his time, created the Khalsa by baptising the Sikhs of Guru Nanak with Amrit at Anandpur Sahib in 1699, Bulleh Shah had just come of age. He was 19 years old. Guru Gobind Singh, a mystic in his own' right, launched a relentless fight against the time-worn rituals and ceremonials of the Hindu Rajas entrenched in the Himalayan belt on the one hand and the bigotedness and unjust rule of the Mughals on the other. With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 A.D. the Punjab was plunged into turmoil. The confusion was worst confounded with the attacks of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali, more particularly between 1740 and 1750 A.D. Thus until his death in 1757 Bulleh Shah had to witness disintegration allover the Punjab. He bemoans it again and again: The Mughals quaff the cup of poison. Those with coarse blankets are up. The genteel watch it all in quiet, They have a humble pie to sup. The tide of the times is in spate. The Punjab is in a fearsome state. We have to share the hell of a fate. What seems to have irked Bulleh Shah, and for that matter his contemporary mystics the most, was the widening gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims of the day. The root cause of the misunderstanding was Sheikh Ahmed of Sarhand who believed: "The glory of Islam wlies in ridiculing the non-Muslims. Those who give quarter to Kafirs disgrace Islam... The non-Muslims should be kept at a distance like dogs. They must not be given any consideration or humane treatment. Violence and inhuman behaviour with them are like saying one's prayers. Inflicting Jazia on them is to humiliate them. This leads them not to wear respectable clothes, do themselves up or make any purchases of luxury goods." Maktoobat-ilmam Rabbani The reference to those 'with coarse blankets' in Bulleh Shah's verse is to the Sikhs. They being an upcoming community were a thorn in the flesh of the Muslim fundamentalists like Aurangzeb who would not tolerate even the Shia Muslims. He had his, own brother Dara Shikoh who was a Shia murdered mercilessly. The same fate was meted out to Sarmad who was a noted mystic of his time. In his single-minded pursuit of Islamization, Aurangzeb had Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru, executed publicly in Delhi. Aurangzeb was followed by Bahadur Shah who tried to make friends with the Sikhs. cultivated Guru Gobind Singh as his ally, but essentially a weak ruler, the newly forged friendship was short-lived. He was followed on the Delhi throne by Jahandar Shah (1712-1713), Farrukh Sayyar (1713-1719), Mohammad Shah (1719-1748) and Ahmed Shah (1748-1754). They were all staunch Sunnis. The Governors appointed to take charge of the Punjab affairs by them were no Gless narrow-minded and communal Sunnis. They were: Munim Khan (1707 1713), Abdul Samad Khan (1713-1726), Zakria Khan (1726-1745), Yahiya Khan (1745-1747), Shah Niwaz (1747-1748), Mir Moinuddin (1748-1753) and Murad Begum (1753-1754). The Hindus who did not play their tune and the Sikhs in general were persecuted as never before in the annals of Indian history. In 1732 A.D. Haqiqat Rai, a young boy, was executed because it was believed that he had abused Bibi Fatima when provoked by his Muslim class-

The reference to those 'with coarse blankets' in Bulleh Shah's verse is to the Sikhs. They being an upcoming community were a thorn in the flesh of the Muslim fundamentalists like Aurangzeb who would not tolerate even the Shia Muslims. He had his, own brother Dara Shikoh who was a Shia murdered mercilessly. The same fate was meted out to Sarmad who was a noted mystic of his time. In his single-minded pursuit of Islamization, Aurangzeb had Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru, executed publicly in Delhi. Aurangzeb was followed by Bahadur Shah who tried to make friends with the Sikhs. cultivated Guru Gobind Singh as his ally, but essentially a weak ruler, the newly forged friendship was short-lived. He was followed on the Delhi throne by Jahandar Shah (1712-1713), Farrukh Sayyar (1713-1719), Mohammad Shah (1719-1748) and Ahmed Shah (1748-1754). They were all staunch Sunnis. The Governors appointed to take charge of the Punjab affairs by them were no Gless narrow-minded and communal Sunnis. They were: Munim Khan (1707 1713), Abdul Samad Khan (1713-1726), Zakria Khan (1726-1745), Yahiya Khan (1745-1747), Shah Niwaz (1747-1748), Mir Moinuddin (1748-1753) and Murad Begum (1753-1754). The Hindus who did not play their tune and the Sikhs in general were persecuted as never before in the annals of Indian history. In 1732 A.D. Haqiqat Rai, a young boy, was executed because it was believed that he had abused Bibi Fatima when provoked by his Muslim classfellow with a swearword for a Hindu goddess. Farrukh Sayyar's regime saw Banda Bahadur subjected to inhuman tortur before he was beheaded in Delhi. During this period every Sikh head, alive or dead, had a price fixed on it. Similarly, Zakariya Khan had Bhai Mani Singh done to death by slicing his limbs, one after the other. In 1745 Bhai Taru Singh's skull was dismantled and he was put to death. Then during the tenure of Abdul Samad and his son Yahiya Khan an attempt was made to wipe out the Sikhs as a community altogether. They were either put to the sword or driven to the bushes in the countryside. It is said that, in what has come to be known as Chhota Ghalughara, about 7,000 Sikhs were rounded up in Kahnuwan forest and killed,. while 3,000 were captured. Those captured were later slain in Lahore and their heads arranged to form a pyramid. Another genocide of the Sikhs took place on 5th February, 1762, when Ahmed Shah Durrani massacred 22,000 Sikhs in a village called Koop Heera. This came to be known as Wada Ghalooghara. Both the times Harimandir Sahib (The Golden Temple) at Amritsar was destroyed and the Holy Tank defiled. The most unfortunate ignominy suffered by the Punjab during this period was the repeated incursions of Nadir Shah, starting in 1739 and those of Ahmed Shah Abdali, whose first attack took place in 1747. These were both a challenge and an opportunity for the Sikhs. Hounded out of their hearths and homes, they lived virtually on horseback. Organizing themselves into guerrilla squads, they would attack the retreating Afghan forces w1th loot and relieved them of their booty and rescued thousands of Hindu girls accompanying them as slaves. In due course of time, they evolved themselves into Misals who wielded considerable influence in the Punjab. And from them emerged a hero known as Maharaja Ranjit Singh who was the first Punjabi to rule over the Punjab in the annals of Indian history. Such were the times when Bulleh Shah emerged as a protagonist of communal amity in the Punjab. Living in Kasur with his Murshid in Lahore, he could not but be embroiled in the political changes taking place around him despite the fact that the Sufis tried as far as possible to steer clear of the contemporary happenings. Bulleh Shah's was a major voice against injustice. He called Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth Sikh Guru, who was beheaded by Aurangzeb, a Ghazi. He hailed Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, as a protector of Hinduism: I talk about neither yesterday nor tomorrow; I talk about today. Had Gobind Singh not been there, They would all be under Islamic sway. He gave no quarter to hypocrisy. He was particularly hard on Mulla~ Quazi amd Mufti in the Muslim social hierarchy. f1e accepted no discipline. Says he: I am emancipated, emancipated I am, I am no prisoner of being born a Syed, All the fourteen heavens are my territory, I am slave to none. Only they shout loud while calling others to prayer Whose hearts are not pure . Those who go to Mecca on pilgrimage Have little else to occupy them here. It needed a great deal of courage for a Muslim to say all this during the times Bulleh Shah lived in. The record of the persecution of the Sufis in India is fairly alarming despite the fact that their contribution to Islam and to Indian society for promoting amity amongst the various communities is no mean. Jalaluddin Khilji had Saidi Maula, an eminent Sufi of his time, crushed under the feet of an elephant. Similarly, Alauddin Khilji had almost got Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya beheaded but for a miraculous escape. It is said that Mohammad Bin Tughlaq had Sheikh Shahabuddin Bin Ahmad murdered with his mouth filled with dung. A similar fate was meted out to Nasiruddin Chiragh Oehlvi who was tortured with holes bored in his cheeks. Firoz Shah had Ahmed Bihari executed since Bihari's disciples addressed him as God. Jehangir had Guru Arjan, a friend of Mian Mir, tortured to death. Aurangzeb had Guru Tegh Bahadur beheaded. It was, therefore, highly bold of Bulleh Shah to have challenged the mindset of the bigoted Muslims of his time: The Mullas and Qazis show me the light Leading to the maze of superstition. Wicked are the ways of the world Like laying nets for innocent birds With religious and social taboos They have tied my feet tight. Be that as it may, Bulleh Shan maintained: Shariat is my midwife, Tariqat. is my mother This is how I have arrived at the truth of Haqiqat. Despite this, when he was denounced as a heretic, Bulleh Shah shouted back: A lover of God? They'll make much fuss; They'll call you a Kafir You should say -yes, yes. He does not differentiate between the Hindu and the Muslim. He sees God in both of them. When he decides to ridicule them, he does not spare either: Lumpens live in the Hindu temples And sharks in the Sikh shrines. Musclemen live in the Muslim mosques And lovers live in their clime. Sick of the sophistications of the academicians, he would rather be happy in the company of the uneducated. He preferred simple folk with faith to the so called enlightened of his day: Enough of learning, my friend For it there is no end. An alphabet would do for me, No one knows when one's life would end.

A lover of God? They'll make much fuss; They'll call you a Kafir You should say -yes, yes. He does not differentiate between the Hindu and the Muslim. He sees God in both of them. When he decides to ridicule them, he does not spare either: Lumpens live in the Hindu temples And sharks in the Sikh shrines. Musclemen live in the Muslim mosques And lovers live in their clime. Sick of the sophistications of the academicians, he would rather be happy in the company of the uneducated. He preferred simple folk with faith to the so called enlightened of his day: Enough of learning, my friend For it there is no end. An alphabet would do for me, No one knows when one's life would end. The Sufis of the Punjab were close to the saints of the Bhakti Movement. Both denounced fundamentalism. While the Sufis laid emphasis on love, the saints emphasized devotion. Some of the spiritual stages of the Sufis have parallels in the saints of the Bhakti Movement : 'Aboodiat' of the Sufis is the 'Seva Bhav' of the saints, meaning selfless service.' Similarly, 'Zuhd' is 'Tapassiya', meaning asceticism, 'Tassawar' is 'Dhyan', meaning meditation, 'Habs-i-dam' is 'Pranayam', meaning Yoga breathing exercise, 'Zikr' is 'Simran'. meaning repetition of Name, 'Wisal' is 'Milap', meaning union and 'Fanah' is 'Abhedata', meaning merger with the Divine. There were three main cults of Sufism prevalent in India: Qadri, Suhrawardi and Chishti. Bulleh Shah belonged to the Qadri denomination. The main features of the Qadri cult were: (a)Developing the spiritual potential by exercising discipline and self-denial. (b) Discarding rituals and ceremonials of any faith, of any type. (c) Disregard for Shariat as such. (d) Man can gain realization of the Divine Reality through the intervention of his Murshid or Guru. Bulleh Shah has delineated his spiritual journey of a Sufi through various stages as known to his times in his poetry, these being: Shariat, Tariqat, Haqiqat and Marfat. He started his spiritual journey as a conformist. Most of the seekers do so. Shariat is the preliminary stage when the Salik conforms to the Sharia or the code of conduct as dictated by Islam. It is saying prayers five times a day, observing fasts during the month of Ramzan. besides faith in the supremacy of God and Prophet Mohammad as His Messenger. It is said that Bulleh' Shah knew the text of the HOLY QURAN by heart. The way he quotes the Islamic scriptures in his verse speaks volumes for it. Says Bulleh Shah: Understand the One and forget the rest, Shake off your ways of a non-believer Leading to the grave and to hell, in quest. Tariqat: If Bulleh Shah's verse is any guide, he did not take long to leave Shariat as a spiritual path behind, At best. he employed it as a stepping-stone. He moved on to Tariqat. which is an important landmark in a Salik's career. The cardinal feature of this stage is the assistance provided by the~ Murshid or Guru. In fact, what Sharia does in the life of a common devotee, Tarriqat does in the case of a Sufi. The literal meaning of Tariqat is manner or observance. Tariqat according to Bulleh Shah is the Purslat of Baba Farid, the bridge which helps the seeker pass the arduous path of hard spiritual exercises with the help of the Murshid. The Guru or Murshid is like the philosopher's stone which converts metal into gold. Good deeds are the dowry that the bride collects at this stage and then qualifies for union with the lord. In the first instance, Bulleh Shah discards the rituals and the ceremonials prescribed by the Shariat: Burn the prayer mat, break the water pot, Quit the rosary and care not for the staff. Having done that. he -"I surrenders to the Murshid who is going to hold h1s hand and cruise him to his destination. Bulleh's love for his Guru is like that of Heer for Ranjha or Sohni for Mahiwal. It is physical love sublimated into spiritual love: Why must I go to Kaaba When I long for Takht Hazara? People pay their homage to Kaaba I bow before my Ranjha. Haqiqat: The third stage of his spiritual journey to which Bulleh Shah refers time and again in his verse is Haqiqat or the realization of truth. The devotee understands and accepts the existence of God. God is truth. God exists in everything around us. This concept has been described in the Sufi idiom as Hamaost. When the Salik comes to realize it. he no longer discriminates between the Hindu and the Muslim. the temple and the mosque. He hears the call of the Muezzin in the flute-strains of an idol worshipper: Pour not on prayers, forget the fasts. Wipe off Kalma from the sight. Bulleh has found his lover within, Others grope in the pitch-dark night. What a spark of knowledge is kindled ~ I find that I am neither Hindu nor Turk. I am a lover by creed; A lover is victorious even when swindled. At this stage Bulleh Shah has little use for books and learning: The rest is all but idle talk, What counts is the name of Allah, it looks. Some confusion is created by the learned, And the remaining g1ess is entailed in books. Marfat: This is the last stage of the spiritual evolution of a Sufi. It is the merging into Divine Reality called Fana and thus attaining the life eternal known in the Sufi idiom as Baqa. The Murshid helps the seeker arrive at this stage but it is the grace which makes possible the ultimate union. The moment this happens, caste and creed cease to have any meaning. The Atma (Soul) and Paramatma (God) become one. When Bulleh attained this stage, the entire world appeared to him as a reflection of the Divine Reality, Bulleh has merged in God: Remembering Ranjha day and night, I've become Ranjha myself. Call me Dhido Ranjha, No more I be addressed as Heer. I abuse Ranjha but adore him in my heart. Ranjha and Heer are a single soul, No one could ever set them apart. Be that as it may, Bulleh Shah's Sufism is Quranic Sufism. At least to start with. When he breaks this code, he hardly ever goes beyond the limits laid down by his tribe earlier. However later in due course, he is influenced by the Saint tradition prevalent in the Punjab during his times. Like a practicing Yogi, he advocates Habs-i-dam or Pranayam which leads to union with God: .

And the remaining g1ess is entailed in books. Marfat: This is the last stage of the spiritual evolution of a Sufi. It is the merging into Divine Reality called Fana and thus attaining the life eternal known in the Sufi idiom as Baqa. The Murshid helps the seeker arrive at this stage but it is the grace which makes possible the ultimate union. The moment this happens, caste and creed cease to have any meaning. The Atma (Soul) and Paramatma (God) become one. When Bulleh attained this stage, the entire world appeared to him as a reflection of the Divine Reality, Bulleh has merged in God: Remembering Ranjha day and night, I've become Ranjha myself. Call me Dhido Ranjha, No more I be addressed as Heer. I abuse Ranjha but adore him in my heart. Ranjha and Heer are a single soul, No one could ever set them apart. Be that as it may, Bulleh Shah's Sufism is Quranic Sufism. At least to start with. When he breaks this code, he hardly ever goes beyond the limits laid down by his tribe earlier. However later in due course, he is influenced by the Saint tradition prevalent in the Punjab during his times. Like a practicing Yogi, he advocates Habs-i-dam or Pranayam which leads to union with God: .

Heer and Ranjha have already met, In vain she looks for him in the orchard; Ranjha rests in the knots of her net. Similarly, he refers to the ten Dwars of the yogis: It is for you that I am imbued with greed. Closing the nine Dwars, I went to sleep. I come to the tenth and ask your leave. My love for you is ever so deep. The place Bulleh Shah gives to his Murshid in his spiritual evolution reminds one of the importance of the Guru in the Sikh faith as obtaining in the tradition of the Bhakti Movement : Leaving my parents I am tied to you, O Shah Inayat, my beloved Guru! Keep the promises made, Do come to me. The immortality of the soul is indicated thus: I was in the beginning, I'd be in the end, Who could be wiser than me? In the tradition of the saints of the Bhakti Movement, Bulleh Shah styles himself as the bride. God is the bridegroom : How many knots should I tie for my wedding? My learned friend, advise! The marriage party must come on the prescribed date, Will forty knots be wise? Unlike the general trend of the Sufi poets, Bulleh Shah is humble. He finds faults in himself. He has faith in his Master's mercy. It is the grace of God which will eventually cruise him across : I'm a poor scavenger of the court of the True Master. Bare-foot, unkempt hair, I have been summoned from beyond. In order to kill one's ego and cultivate control over all temptations, unlike his contemporaries, Bulleh Shah does not prescribe Zuhd and torturing the body to submission. on the other hand, like the Saints of the Bhakti Movement, he believes in love and devotion. At the most, he is seen suffering the pangs of separation and no more: In my passion of union with him, I've lost all count of form; I laid my bed in the public park And went to sleep in my lover's arms. I am broken, I am bent, Tell him how I am pining for him; My disheveled hair, with the tying band in my hand, Feel not embarrassed, do go and tell him oh messenger! Bulleh Shah goes a step further. He seems even to have been influenced by what is known as the Bhagwat tradition. He is enamored of Krishna's flute. The flute notes seem to have a peculiar pull for him : Bulleh Shah was captivated The moment he heard the flute, Frenzied he ran towards the Master Whom and how should he salute? The tilt Bulleh Shah's Sufism has more particularly in the later period towards the Saint tradition belonging to> the Bhakti Movement could also be due to his having belonged to the Qadri cult of the Sufis. The Qadri cult is close to the Nirgun Bhakti Mat, akin to the Sikh faith. Its founder was Abdul Qadir Jeelani of Iran. Bulleh Shah's Master, Inayat Shah, was also a Qadari. Says Bulleh : Come Inayat Qadri! I long for you. Bulleh Shah was no less conscious of reforming his society. He was a severe critic of the clergy whether Islamic or Brahminic. He ridicules them for the way they exploit the people and mislead them with false promises. He calls them thugs : The thugs with their mouths full of froth Talk about life and death Without making any sense. With the fundamentalist, he is more severe : If you wish to be a ghazi, Take up your sword : Before killing the Kafir You must slaughter the swindler. Bulleh Shah is credited with the following works: Kafis 150, Athwara 1, Baramah 1, Siharfi 3, Oeodh49, and Gandhan 40. This is the whole lot that appears in his name in various collections published from time to time. A considerable part of it is unauthentic. The first time an academician in Or. Mohan Singh Diwana' researched on Bulleh Shah's work, he seems to have found only 50 Kafis genuinely composed by the Sufi Saint. This was in the thirties of the twentieth century. Syed Nazir Ahmed of Lahore (Pakistan) compiled a fairly prestigious volume of Bulleh Shah's work in 1976 in which he has included 66 Kafis besides a few miscellaneous pieces. Interpolations have been galore. His Kafis at times seem to vary as they travel from Pakistan to India.

If you wish to be a ghazi, Take up your sword : Before killing the Kafir You must slaughter the swindler. Bulleh Shah is credited with the following works: Kafis 150, Athwara 1, Baramah 1, Siharfi 3, Oeodh49, and Gandhan 40. This is the whole lot that appears in his name in various collections published from time to time. A considerable part of it is unauthentic. The first time an academician in Or. Mohan Singh Diwana' researched on Bulleh Shah's work, he seems to have found only 50 Kafis genuinely composed by the Sufi Saint. This was in the thirties of the twentieth century. Syed Nazir Ahmed of Lahore (Pakistan) compiled a fairly prestigious volume of Bulleh Shah's work in 1976 in which he has included 66 Kafis besides a few miscellaneous pieces. Interpolations have been galore. His Kafis at times seem to vary as they travel from Pakistan to India. Kafi has no specific mould called Chhand in Punjabi poetics. It has, however, a prescribed manner of presentation as light classical music. Rather than a Raga, some scholars have called it a Ragini. Long before Bulleh Shah, Guru Nanak wrote three Kafis. We have five more Kafis in the Holy Granth, one each of Guru Amardas and Guru Ram Das, two of Guru Arjan and one of Guru Tegh Bahadur. These Kafis are available in Ragas Asa, Suhi, Tilang and Maru. Besides light classical musicians, Kafi singing is popular with Qawwals who make their presentations in choruses and carry the audience with them as if in a trance. Kafis, as text, sing the praises of the Murshid and the Divine Reality, refer to the transitoriness of the world and also describe the pangs of separation of the devotee from the Guru and seeker from God. At times Kafis deal with social and political themes as well. Bulleh does it time and again. As regards the form, more often than not, Bulleh provides a refrain which provides relief as well as underlines the theme of the Kafi: Strange are the times! Crows swoop down on hawks. Sparrows do eagles stalk. Strange are the times! The Iraqis are despised While the donkeys are prized. Strange are the times! Those with coarse blankets are kings, The erstwhile kings watch from the ring. Strange are the times! It's not without rhyme or reason. Strange are the times! Athwara: Taking week days as the basis, Athwara is generally the expression of a love-torn beloved (Soul) separated from the lover (God) .The beloved expects the lover every day, waits for him but he is to be seen nowhere. As poetic form. the first couplet of the Athwara has a longer measure which is sung by the leader of the choral group. It is followed by short-measure couplets sung by the rest of the party. Bulleh Shah's Athwaras are, in fact, Satwaras, starting with Saturday and terminating with Friday. Though a rebel by conviction, Bulleh Shah follows the Islamic calendar in Athwaras and Baramah. A specimen : I better have a look at my love on Saturday Maybe I don't come home the next day. What a Saturday it is ! Suffering from the pangs of love, I pine. I look for you in dales and deserts, It's past midnight, I hear the chimes. I miss you. Longing for you every moment, Sleeping at night, I encounter tigers. I cry for help at the top of my voice Spears piercing my every fiber. I remain yours. Baramah as a poetic form is a great deal popular in the Indian languages. Like Athwara, in Baramah the poet makes every month a basis for recounting his woes in separation from his lover. An attempt is also made to depict the peculiar climatic features of the month, more often than not with a view to associating them with the emotional intensity of the lover pining for his beloved. In a poetic form Baramah is also like Athwara with the first couplet in a larger measure to be sung by the leader, followed by short-measure couplets presented by the rest of the choral group. Baramah can be intensely passionate at times while describing the plight of the love-torn beloved in the rainy season or in the long winter nights. A specimen :

 

Phagun
The Spring)
The month of Phagun reflects in fields The way someone dresses in flowers. Every branch is laden with blossoms, Every neck has the look of a bower. My friends celebrate Holi. My eyes are a brimming trough. Tears give me a miserable time, I am torn with slings of love . Whatever happens is ordained by Him. His mandate none dare alter. My pangs of agony cry out aloud Someone should go and tell my Master, For whom I pine. Doha is a typical Punjabi poetic form though it has no prescribed measure as such. It is in fact a couplet that rhymes and is complete in itself. It reveals a fact of life or makes a telling observation. It can be an emotional outburst or a reference to a political happening or ridiculing a social foible. A few specimens : Day before Bulleh Shah was an atheist, He worshipped idols yesterday. He had no occasion to commune with Him Though he sat at home today. Bulleh loves the Muslim And salutes the Hindu lord. He welcomes home all those Who remember the Almighty God. Bulleh treads the path of love, It is an endless road. A blind man meets the blind, Who should wield the goad? Siharfi or acrostic is another poetic form which was very popular with the medieval poets in the Indian languages. There was a time when every major poet tried his hand at writing a Siharfi. It is taking an alphabet from the script of the language and building the composition, followed by the next alphabet and so on. Guru Nanak has a highly sophisticated acrostic called Patti to his

Doha is a typical Punjabi poetic form though it has no prescribed measure as such. It is in fact a couplet that rhymes and is complete in itself. It reveals a fact of life or makes a telling observation. It can be an emotional outburst or a reference to a political happening or ridiculing a social foible. A few specimens : Day before Bulleh Shah was an atheist, He worshipped idols yesterday. He had no occasion to commune with Him Though he sat at home today. Bulleh loves the Muslim And salutes the Hindu lord. He welcomes home all those Who remember the Almighty God. Bulleh treads the path of love, It is an endless road. A blind man meets the blind, Who should wield the goad? Siharfi or acrostic is another poetic form which was very popular with the medieval poets in the Indian languages. There was a time when every major poet tried his hand at writing a Siharfi. It is taking an alphabet from the script of the language and building the composition, followed by the next alphabet and so on. Guru Nanak has a highly sophisticated acrostic called Patti to his credit. It figures in the Holy Granth. Bulleh Shah's acrostic is devoted mainly to man's yearning for union with the Divine. A specimen: Alif -He who meditates on Allah His face is pale, his eyes bloodshot. He who suffers pangs of separation, No longer he longs his life ~ last. Say -Soulful is my love for you, Whom shall I go and tell? In the swelling waters of a river at midnight A wailing swallow fell. Gandhan or knots as a poetic form owes its origin to a practice prevailing among the tribals of the Sunderbans and Ganjibar of the Punjab (Pakistan) who when they fix a marriage date, tie the number of knots and the bride's family would then untie a knot every morning so that the marriage ceremony is celebrated on the day decided upon earlier. Bulleh Shah uses this device to depict his wait for his union with his Murshid. Every day untying a knot brings him closer to the long-cherished union with the Master. A specimen : How many knots should I tie for my wedding? My learned friend, advise! The marriage party must come on the prescribed day, Will forty knots be wise? Untying the first knot I sat and cried. Since I must go one day, better get the dowry dyed. Bulleh Shah's language is Central Punjabi but when he is emotionally charged, he waxes eloquent into Lehndi, the South-eastern dialect. There are traces of other Punjabi dialects also in his poetry which could, perhaps, be attributed to interpolations and the fact that his work has travelled from mouth to mouth. While singing in chorus the Oawwals are known to deviate from the original text. Bulleh Shah employs classical terms and phrases whether from the Persian or the Sanskrit according to the philosophic content of his verse. His language is replete with eternal truths, which are in common use in the Punjab in everyday life. As a poet, some of his expressions remain unsurpassed :

The sun has set; its flush only is left. A peacock calls in the grove of passion. Mohammad Baksh, a great bard of his time, writing in 1864, was, perhaps, the first to recognize Bulleh Shah's talent. Says he: Listening to Bulleh's Kafis Rids one of blasphemy.                 He, indeed, has swum God's ocean of eternity. A question that nags a reader of Bulleh Shah's work is that if Sarmad and other Sufi saints who talked the way Bulleh talked could not escape the ire of the fundamentalists and were done to death, how is it that Bulleh could escape this fate? More, when he spoke so endearingly about the Sikhs who were at logger heads with the rulers of the day. There appear to be two reasons for it. Firstly, when Bulleh Shah was at the peak of his glory, Mughal rule was on the decline. The administration was much too preoccupied with law and order to take notice of such social aberrations. Secondly, unlike Hinduism, Sikhism is close to Islam conceptually, though it is nearer Hinduism socially. Guru Nanak who believed, there is no Hindu, there is no Muslim was still venerated in the Punjab as 'Baba Nanak Shah Faqir; Hindu ka Guru, Musalman ka Pir' (Guru Nanak the great man of God! He is the Guru of the Hindu and Pir of the Muslim). Even Guru~ Gobind Singh, the reigning Sikh Guru, had a large number of followers among the Muslims like Pir Budhu Shah, Nihang Khan, Ghani Khan, Nabi Khan and others. Writing in his book, Sufis, Mystics and Yogis of India, Banke Bihari says, 'It was a period when Mughal supremacy was fading out and the Sikhs were gaining supremacy. He (Bulleh Shah) met Shri Guru Gobind Singhji and others and heard to his great pain of the atrocious deeds of the Muslims in decapitating the heads of Hindu saints. It was a time when a few decades earlier Sarmad had been beheaded by Alamgir for his pantheistic leanings. , Bulleh Shah is classed with Kabir and is said to belong to the Saint tradition of the Sufis. The Punjab witnessed the emergence of the two main cults of the Sufis: The Quranic Sufis and the Neo-Platonic Sufis. Amongst the Quranic Sufis in the Punjab are listed: Fard Faqir, and Ghulam Rasul. Those listed as NeoPlatonic Sufis are: Hafiz Barkhurdar, Ali Hyder, Ahmed Yar, Muqbal and Waris Shah. Unlike all these Baba Farid, Shah Husain and Bulleh Shah are closer to the saint tradition of the Bhakti Movement. They seek union with the Divine on the lines of the Nirguna Bhaktas. Says Bulleh Shah I have wiped off the Kalma And found my Lord within me. The whole world is deceived. Bulleh Shah's mysticism is the assertion of the soul against the formality of religion. He came to believe that it is possible to establish a direct link with God. His is the eternal yearning of the human soul to .have direct experience of Divine Reality. Bulleh Shah's Sufism was no doubt Quranic to start with. But the Shariat has relevance as long as duality persists; the moment duality disappears, one is liberated from all bonds. This is exactly what seems to have happened with Bulleh Shah. He qualified himself to Tariqat. He became liberated. He became a part of the Divinity. He sees himself in everything around him. Before the Sufi cult arrived in India, it had crossed many a bridge. The Saint tradition of the Bhakti Movement was yet another influence which it imbibed and gave birth to a distinct variety of Sufism which is rooted in the Punjabi soil. It was a happy mixture of Sabar and Takwa, Santokh and Riazat, Takkawal and Toba, Raza and Prem. Bulleh Shah played a prominent role in it. According to Lajwanti Raffia Krishna writing in Punjabi Sufi Poets: 'He is one of the greatest Sufis of the world and his thought equals that of Jalal-ud-din Rumi and Shams Tabrez of Persia. 1995 New Delhi
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Bulleh Shah's Sufism was no doubt Quranic to start with. But the Shariat has relevance as long as duality persists; the moment duality disappears, one is liberated from all bonds. This is exactly what seems to have happened with Bulleh Shah. He qualified himself to Tariqat. He became liberated. He became a part of the Divinity. He sees himself in everything around him. Before the Sufi cult arrived in India, it had crossed many a bridge. The Saint tradition of the Bhakti Movement was yet another influence which it imbibed and gave birth to a distinct variety of Sufism which is rooted in the Punjabi soil. It was a happy mixture of Sabar and Takwa, Santokh and Riazat, Takkawal and Toba, Raza and Prem. Bulleh Shah played a prominent role in it. According to Lajwanti Raffia Krishna writing in Punjabi Sufi Poets: 'He is one of the greatest Sufis of the world and his thought equals that of Jalal-ud-din Rumi and Shams Tabrez of Persia. 1995 New Delhi
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The Life of Bulleh Shah
By: J.R. Puri and T.R. Shangari
Mysterious is the turn of time. The man who had been refused by the mullahs to be buried after his death in the community graveyard because of his unorthodox views, today enjoys worldwide reverence and recognition. The tomb of Bulleh Shah in Qasur and the area around it is today the only place free of collective refuse, and the privileged of the city pay handsomely to be buried in the proximity of the man they had once rejected. "This radical change has been possible because people have been impressed in the course of time by the holy way of Bullah's life and the efficacy of his teachings. "The greatest Sufi poet of the Punjab was Mir Bulleh Shah Qadiri Shatari. " Because of his pure life and high spiritual attainments, he is equally popular among all communities. Scholars and dervishes have called him "The Sheikh of Both the Worlds," "The man of God," "The Knower of Spiritual Grace" and by other equally edifying titles. Considered as the greatest mystic poet of the Punjab, his compositions have been regarded as "the pinnacle of Sufi literature." His admirers compare his writings and philosophy to those of Rumi and Shams-i-Tabriz. At present, he is held in equally great esteem in Northern India and Pakistan. Bulleh Shah's real name was Abdullah Shah. From Abdullah Shah it changed to Bullah Shah or Bul1 Shah. "Out of affection some call him Baba Bulleh Shah, Sain Bulleh Shah and some others mer Bullah. "The 40th Knot" gives evidence of his t] name. "Invoking the name of God, now pray to Hi the Lord pervades everywhere Abdullah exists more." There is some difference of opinion among research scholars about the time of his birth and death. Majority, however, believes that he lived from 1680 1758. Even about his birthplace there is some controversy. Some researchers hold the view that he was born in the village Uch Gilaniyan in Bahawalpur St (Pakistan). They believe that Bulleh Shah remained in this village up to the age of six months, when parents were residing here, but who shifted to village Malakwal (Tehsil Sahiwal, Dist. Multan) for sc reason. They had not been in Malakwal for a long time when the owner of village Pandoke felt the need (preacher for the village mosque. On the recommendations of the people of Malakwal, he approached Bu Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, took to Pandoke where he performed the duties not only of the preacher but also of the village teacher for children. All researchers agree on the point that the ancestors' village of Bulleh Shah's parents was Uch Gilaniyan, it is from there that they shifted first to Malakwal later to Pandoke. However, some researchers hold view that Bulleh Shah's birth took place after his parents had shifted to Pandoke. Today it is known as Pandoke Bhatian. It is about 14 miles southeast of Qasur and is quite well-known. In fact, Bulleh Shah's contribution to make it famous is considerable. It is said that from among the ancestors of Bulleh Shah, Sayeed Jallalluddin Bukhari came to Multan from Surakh-Bukhara three hundred years earlier. Here he got initiated from Hazarat Sheikh Ghaus Bahauddin Zakriya of Multan, and here eventually he settled down. Bulleh Shah's grandfather, Sayyiad Abdur Razzaq, descended from the same line. Thus Bulleh Shah's family, being of Sayyiad caste, was related to prophet Mohammed on the one hand and on the other hand with Sufi thought and mystic traditions, for centuries. Bulleh Shah's father, Shah Mohammed Dervish, was well-versed in Arabic, Persian and the holy Qura'n. He was a noble soul with spiritual leanings. It is said that out of the whole family, Bulleh Shah's sister had the greatest love for him, who, like her brother, remained celibate all her life, and spent much of her time in meditation. Both, brother and sister, had been greatly influenced by the high moral character of their father who, out of respect for him, had been given the title "Dervish. " The tomb of Bulleh Shah's father still exists in Pandoke Bhatian. Every year an urs is performed at the tomb and Bulleh Shah's kafis are sung there. In this way a tribute is paid to both, father and son, and it has assumed the form of a tradition to perpetuate theirmemory. Bulleh Shah's childhood was spent under the care of his father at Pandoke. He received his early education, like that of other children, from his father. Later, for higher education he was sent to Qasur, which was a well-known educational center those days. In Qasur there were eminent teachers such as Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza and Maulana Mohiyuddin. Their fame had spread far and wide. Bulleh Shah too became a pupil of Hazarat Ghulam Murtaza. With his native intelligence and moral inclination, he gained much from his contact with his teacher. There is a strong historical evidence to show that Bulleh Shah was an eminent scholar of Arabic and Persian. From his own compositions we can find many references to Islamic thought and mystic literature. Later, when he attained mystic realization, his erudition and learning acquired a new significance. But Bulleh Shah had to pass through a hard struggle before he could attain the inner knowledge. This attainment was possible only through his contact with his Murshid or Master, Inayat Shah. The study of scriptures and other holy books had only aroused his interest and curiosity about spiritual realization. His longing for union with the Lord reached its consummation only after he met a perfect Master in the person of Shah Inayat Qadiri. Inayat Shah was a well-known Qadiri Sufi of his time. From the historical point of view the Qadiri Sufis can be traced back to the Sufi Saint Abdul Qadri Jilani of Bagdad. Jilani is also known by the names Pir Dastgir and Piran-i-Pir. Bulleh Shah himself has also given a hint that his "Master of Masters" was born in Bagdad but his own Master belonged to Lahore: My Master of Masters hailed from Bagdad, but my Master belongs to the throne of Lahore. It is all the same. For He himself is the kite and He himself is the string. Two collections of Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani's sermons, al Fathal Rabbani, comprising 62 and the Futuh al-Ghaib, containing 78 of them, are well known to Islamic readers. In one of the sermons, he strongly denounced his contemporaries for their materialistic way of life. In another sermon he said, "Good and evil were two fruits emerging from two branches of a single tree. One of the branches yielded sweet fruit and the other bitter; it would be wise, therefore, for people to move to areas where the sweet fruits were to be found." Also, " A jihad fought against self-will was, to Sheikh Abdul-Qadir far superior to that waged with the sword. Through this struggle the idolatory of the self and the worshi p of created things ( the hidden shirk) could be vanquished. Sheikh Jilani "advised his audience that seekers of God had to be indifferent towards even the life hereafter and to cultivate pleasure only in the thought of annihilation and abiding poverty in this life. "4 In India the influence of the Sufi Qadiri thought was,  felt after three centuries in 1432 through the person of Mohammed Ghaus, a Sufi dervish. Mohammed Ghaus first settled in Bahawalpur, but later his teachings reached far and wide. The Sufi saint of Punjab, Mian Mir (1550-1635 A. D.) was also connected with the Qadiri tradition. It is well-known that Guru Ram Das got the foundation of Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar laid by Mian Mir. The story is also current that at the time of the Mughul emperor Jahangir's persecution of the fifth Guru, Shri Arjun Dev, Mian Mir sought the approval of Guru Arjun Dev to raze the town of Delhi to the ground if he so permitted. The Guru replied that he could also do it, but under all conditions one must live in the will of God. It is obvious from this that there was great love between Mian Mir and the Gurus, and that he was held in great esteem by them. The date of birth of Inayat Shah Qadiri (died 1728 A.D.) is not known. But, from one of his own hand-written manuscripts, it is evident that he was enjoying good health in 1699 A.D. He was an eminent Sufi saint of the Qadiri tradition and is said to be a scholarly author. He wrote a number of Persian books on mysticism, from among which Dastur-ul-Amal, Islah-ul-Amal, Lataif-i-Ghaibya, and Ishartul Talibin are particularly well-known. In Dastur-ulAmal he has made a mention of seven spiritual stages. The ancient Hindu rishis considered passing through these stages as necessary for Godrealization. Inayat Shah lived in Lahore, so he was called Inayat Shah Lahori. He belonged to the Arain caste and earned his living through agriculture or gardening. He also lived in Qasur for some time, but due to the animosity of the ruler of Qasur he shifted to Lahore, where he remained till the end of his life. His tomb is

also situated near Lahore. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hind we find the following reference about him: From the tribe of gardeners was brother Shah Inayat, He received honor from Shah Raza Wali Allah. He earned his living in the small town of Qasur Pathana. The ruler Husein Khan of this town was his arch enemy. From there Inayat Shah came to the city of Lahore; Two miles to the south of the city he made his habitation. It is at this place that we find his tomb. In 1141 he departed from this world. It is said that even before coming in contact with Inayat Shah, Bulleh Shah used to do some spiritual practice, and had acquired certain miraculous powers. When Bulleb Shah, the seeker, passed near the small field of Inayat Shah, he saw fruit laden trees on both sides of the road. Inayat Shah himself was engaged in planting onion seedlings. It occurred to Bulleh Shah to test Inayat Shah of his spiritual power. Invoking the name of God, Bullah looked at the trees, and the fruit started falling on the ground. Inayat Shah looked back and saw that unripe fruit was falling from the trees without any reason. He immediately realized that it was due to the mischief played by the young man passing by. He looked towards Bulleh Shah and said, "Well, young man, why have you brought down the unripe fruit from the trees?" This is what Bulleh Shah wanted, to find an opportunity to talk to Inayat Shah. He went up to him and said, "Sir, I neither climbed up the trees, nor did I throw any stones at the fruit, how could I tear it from the trees ?" Inayat Shah cast a full glance at Bulleh Shah and said, "0, you are not only a thief, you are also being clever! " Inayat's glance was so penetrating that it touched Bullah's heart and he instantly fell at his feet. Inayat Shah asked him his name and the purpose for coming to him. Bullah replied, "Sir, my name is Bullah and I wish to know how I can realize God." Inayat Shah said, "Why do you look down? Get up and look at me." As soon as Bullah raised his head and looked at Inayat Shah, the Master again cast at him a full glance, laden with love, shaking him all through. He said "0 Bullah, what problem is there in finding God ? It only needs to be uprooted from here and planted there." This was enough for Bulleh Shah. He got what he had wished for . Inayat Shah had poured the essence of spirituality in these few words. He conveyed to Bulleh Shah that the secret of spiritual progress lay in detaching one's mind from the world outside and attaching it to God within. In Bang-i-Auliya-i-Hindthis instance has been describedas below: "In the city of Qasur Pathana it happened to a man of God, a descendent of prophet Mohammed, the grandson  of Pir Jilani, that he achieved greatness from Hazrat Shah Inayat whose tomb lies in Lahore, south of the city. Bulleh Shah said to himelf, "I must get my Master after testing him. I must fully satisfy myself, I must drink water after straining it." In his intense search for his Master he first looked towards Lahore, then he came there and took his residence, where the garden of Shah Inayat was situated. There he saw a mango on a tree at that time, he looked at it, invoked the name of God, and the mango fell on the ground. Shah lnayat gave a call to him and said, "Listen, you wayfarer, you have stolen my mango. Give it back to me." Bulleh Shah replied, "I did not climb up the tree; your mangoes are far from my reach. It is with the wind that the mango broke from the branch and came into my lap. Invoking the name of God, you got the mango. You have committed a theft. " Bulleh Shah realized the spiritual power and knowledge of Inayat Shah. He fell at his feet, was graced by initiation from the Master and attained the secret knowledge."

 
Bulleh Shah's meeting with the Master, getting initiation from him and being deeply impressed has been described by a scholar in these words : "Bulleh Shah had all those virtues in him which Shah Inayat was looking for in a disciple. He opened his inner treasure and placed it before him. .-.He got the vision, he became oblivious of his surroundings, and in that state of rapture he proclaimed the gift of his inner grace in the manner of Mansur. "

 
Bulleh Shah started to pass his time in a state of strange ecstasy. In the company of his Master and with the practice of the path he had been shown, Bulleh Shah's spiritual condition started changing day by day. His kafi, "Whatever color I am dyed in " makes it clear how great was the effect of his Master on him. In it he mentions that his inner eye had been opened, all his doubts had been removed, and he had been blessed with the light of Realization. Through the grace of his Master he had the vision of the Lord within and that for him no difference existed between his Master and the Lord. The effect of his master was so profound that but for his Master nothing else mattered for him. He became strangely selfless and impervious to affairs of the world.  Prof. Purn Singh has described an interesting incidence of this phase of Bulleh Shah's life in his book The Spirit of Oriental Poetry. One day he saw a young girl whose husband was expected to come home, and in whose preparation she was putting plaits in her hair.  A strange desire arose in his mind.  He also dressed himself like that woman, put the same type of plaits in his hair, and went in this guise to meet his Master.  For the worldly people such an act would look ridiculous, but it shows not only the great love for his Master but also his unconcern with public opinion and his desire to sacrifice himself for his beloved.  In the manner of true lovers he shed his mescaline pride and assumed the form of a helpless women who renounces her ego and surrenders herself completely to her lord. Whatever questions or doubts Bulleh Shah had in his mind before he met his Master, were all drowned in the experience of inner light.  When he had made up his mind to come to Inayat Shah, people had dissuaded him from doing so, saying, "You are a great scholar, a master of miraculous powers and a descendent of prophet Mohammed.  Does it seem right to you to go to an ordinary gardener of low caste and become his disciple? Is it not shameful?"  But his Master was true to his name.  HE showered such grace on Bulleh Shah that a single glance of his made him saturated with spiritual light. In ecstatic gratitude Bullah proclaimed: "O Bullah, if you seek the pleasure of a garden in spring, go and become a servant of the Arain." Bulleh Shah held the hem of his Master's cloak so firmly that he never let it go from his hand for the rest of his life. All of Bulleh Shah's compositions are suffused with love and gratitude for his Master. In this love he identified his Master with the Lord. He has addressed Shah Inayat with such words as guide, as one who unites people with God, besides calling him spouse, husband, Lord, friend, and beloved. 1.    He listens to my tale of woe;       Shah lnayat guides me and takes me across.  (Week) 2 a.  Shah Inayat is my Master, who has come to grace me.  All my wrangles and strife's are over.  Who can now delude me ?      (Acrostic)   b. Bullah has fallen in love with the Lord.      He has given his life and body as earnest.      His Lord and Master is Shah Inayat      who has captivated his heart.      (Baran Maha)   c. He pervades in everyone.

     Shah lnayat himself showed it, And then alone I could see.     (Baran Maha) 3 a. Inayat will come to my nuptial couch;      I am in great delight.     (Knot)   b. My friends have come to congratulate me.      Shah Inayat, my Lord, has fulfilled my hopes.     (Baran Maha)  c. I left my parents to take your shelter,     O my beloved King Inayat!     Now honor this bond of love,     for I am entirely in your hands.     Pray, walk into my courtyard !    (Kafi)  d. Come Love, fold me in your arms,     Why this estrangement ? Says Bullah:     Ever since I found Shah Inayat, The Lord has taken abode in me.    (Kafi)  e. Bulleh Shah has no caste ;     He has found Shah Inayat.    (Kafi) He calls his Master the Lord of the soul and the philosopher's stone, which can turn iron into gold. O Bullah, my Lord Inayat knows God, He is the Master of my heart. I am iron, he is the philosopher's stone. Again, "The Master is an adept in swimming,  he can take across an inept and helpless woman." Bullah also calls him the one who can embellish t soul with spiritual apparel and jewelry and transform widow into a bride. O Bullah, the Lord brought me to the door of Inayat, Who embellished me with clothes green and red. For a distinguished scholar, who belonged to the line of prophet Mohammed, to accept an ordinary vegetable grower as his Master was a very extraordinary event in the social conditions of Bulleh Shah's times. It was like an explosion which shook the prevailing social structure. Bullah had to suffer the taunts and ridicule not only of men of his religion, clan and caste, but also of all members of his family. He says : 1. 0, what has love done to me?    People hurl at me taunts and rebukes. 2. For the sake of my true friend,    I have to bear the reproaches of people. 3. To admonish Bullah came his sisters and sisters-in-law,    "Why have you brought disgrace to the prophet    and to the progeny of Ali? Listen to our advice, 0 Bullah, and leave the hem of the Arain's skirt. Bullah preached fearlessly that the guidance of a Master was indispensable for spiritual realization, and the caste of the Master did not at all matter in this pursuit. Even if he belonged to the lowest caste, his help would still remain indispensable. Thus, he proclaimed at the top of his voice that pride in being a Sayyiad would land one in hell, and the one who held the skirt of a Master like Inayat Shah would enjoy the pleasures of heaven. Let anyone, who calls me a Sayyiad,  be punished with tortures of hell, And let him revel in the pleasures of heaven,  who labels me an Arain. If you seek the pleasures of the spring season,  become a slave of the Arain. An interesting incident of this period in the life of Bulleh Shah presents a graphic picture of his ecstasy, generosity and fearlessness of public opinion. It is said that as a result of disgust from people's attitude, Bulleh Shah purchased a few donkeys so that people should ridicule him. They started calling him "The man with donkeys." During those days, a poor man's wife was abducted by a Muslim Chieftain. In despair, the husband went to Bulleh Shah, and asked for his help in recovering his beloved wife. After a few moments spent in thought, Bulleh Shah told the man, "Go and see, my friend, if there is any music or dance going on somewhere near about." The man soon came back and reported that a group of eunuchs was dancing in the village nearby,

accompanied by a band of musicians. "That is good, " said Bulleh Shah. "Come now and sit on one of my donkeys, and we shall both go to watch the dance. " As soon as the saint arrived at the dance, he joined the group and also started dancing. He got into an ecstasy and asked the man, "Where does the Muslim Chieftain live ?" The man told him that he lived in a certain part of the city near the orchard of dates and the grove of mangoes. Then Bulleh Shah called out withdirected attention : There is a mango grove, it is said, and an orchard of dates. The owner of donkeys calls you, Wake up, if you are asleep. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar, Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend! The moment he uttered these words, the abducted woman ran out from the nearby garden and came to Bulleh Shah. Bulleh Shah stopped dancing and called to the husband, "Here is your beloved wife, brother! Take her home and guard her well." Then once more wrapped in ecstasy, he continued to dance to the bewitching music. The gossips lost no time in going to Bulleh Shah's father, an orthodox Muslim, and told him all that had happened. Not only was his son now hiring out donkeys, but he had also started to dance with the eunuchs. Greatly distressed and enraged, the saint's father, with a rosary in one hand and a staff in the other, hastened to the place where his son was dancing. " Ah! it is you, father"  said Bulleh Shah as he heard his name called. He looked at his father intently and began to sing : People have only chaplets but my father has a rosary. The whole of his life he has toiled hard, But has not been able to uproot a single hair. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar . Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend ! As the son, filled with spiritual ardor, gazed at his father, the inner eye of the father was opened and he had a divine vision. With a serene and radiant smile on his face, .he joined his son in the ecstatic dancing and singing, and as he danced, he sang over and over again : Blessed are the parents whose sons are dyed in such divine color ! They bring salvation even to their parents. Sorrel is thus hulled in the mortar. Sorrel is thus hulled, my friend ! The beginning of love is fascinating, but its path is difficult and its destination far. Even a small error or omission on the part of the lover can become a cause of great annoyance for the beloved. 'That creates a mountain of calamities for the lover. Such a thing happened to Bulleh Shah, when his Master got annoyed with him for an omission on his part. Some writers have attributed the reason for his Master's annoyance to Bulleh Shah's open criticism of rituals and customs practiced by Muslims, and this was not to the liking of Inayat Shah. This reason, however , does not appear plausible, because criticism of external observance .is common to all Sufi saints, and it was not unknown in the Qadiri tradition. They were certainly not the worshippers of this system. The second reason given for the annoyance is quite different in nature. It is said that once Bulleh Shah invited his Master on the marriage of one of his relatives, The Saint deputed one of his disciples to represent him at the function. This disciple belonged to the Arain caste and was poorly clad. Now, Bulleh Shah's family was proud of belonging to the clan of Sayyiads. They did not give proper attention in receiving this poorly clad man. Even Bullah happened to make this omission. At least he should have shown proper respect to the representative of his Master, But under the pressure of his family or the fear of public opinion, he did not give the guest due honor. When the disciple returned from the marriage, the Saint asked him how the marriage was celebrated. He told his Master the whole story , and complained that because of his low caste and tattered clothes, neither Bulleh Shah nor his family showed him due respect. The Saint replied, "How dare Bullah behave like this ?" And then added, "What have we to get from this useless man ? We shall change the direction of the flow of water from his fields to yours !" He had only to utter these words to bring a calamity in Bullah's life. As soon as the Master changed the direction of his grace, his spring turned into autumn. His inner visions vanished, leaving him dry and barren. Light changed into darkness and bliss into mourning. It was a stunning blow to Bullah. One who has never experienced inner bliss and who has never had a glimpse of the divine glory of his Master within, his case is quite different. But the one who has enjoyed the wealth of inner experience and who is suddenly deprived of this treasure, he alone knows the pangs of such a torture. In fact, the lord of spiritual wealth is the perfect Master, and there is nothing in the hands of the disciple. Apparently, the disciple is himself seeking the Master, and with his own effort treads the path and progresses on it, as shown by the Master. But, in reality the disciple cannot search for the Master with his mind and meager intellect, nor can he find the true path with his own power and cleverness. N or can he rise to spiritual realms with his own endeavor. Finding the true path and achieving spiritual progress are all gifts of the Master's grace. Bulleh Shah has himself written, "The Guru does whatever he wills." But to realize this he had to suffer the annoyance of his Master and cross the frightening ocean of the fire of separation. As soon as his spiritual experiences were stopped, Bullah hastened to his Master, but the Master turned his back on him and asked him to leave the place. For one thing, the annoyance of his Master '. for another the command not to see him! What greater torture could there be for a disciple ? Bullah was miserable. He began to burn in the fire of repentance, and his condition waslike that of a fish out of water . In the compositions of Bullah, many references can be found of this heart-rending state of his mind. In many of his kafis there is a touch of his personal life. No one can say with certainty when these kafis were written. But the descriptions in these poems bespeak of such a mental state. The pain of separation erupts in them like turbulent waves. "In poignancy of emotion, sincerity of feeling, ardor and longing, these kafis are matchless. " From the kafi given below it is evident; that the memory of the bliss of union with the beloved and the pain of separation from him are continuing to burn Bullah to ashes like a house on fire. He cannot give up love, but in the separation of his beloved, he can find peace neither by day nor by night. He is not blessed with the sight of his beloved, but without seeing him, fire rages within his breast, and his heart is breaking. It is hard to bear such a state of mind, but it is also impossible to relinquish love. So he hangs between life and death : I have been pierced by the arrow of love,  what shall I do ? I can neither live, nor can I die. Listen ye to my ceaseless outpourings, I have peace neither by night, nor by day.

I cannot do without my Beloved even for a moment. I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ? The fire of separation is unceasing ! Let someone take care of my love. How can I be saved without seeing him? I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ?

 
O Bullah, I am in dire trouble ! Let someone come to help me out. How shall I endure such torture ? I have been pierced by the arrow of love, what shall I do ? I can neither live, nor can I die. In another kafi he describes his pain thus : He left me, and himself he departed; What fault was there in me ?

 
Neither at night nor in the day do I sleep in peace; My eyes pour out tears ! Sharper than swords and spears are the arrows of love ! There is no one as cruel as love ; This malady no physician can cure. There is no peace, not for a moment, So intense is the pain of separation ! O Bullah, if the Lord were to shower His grace, My days would radically change ! He left me, and himself he departed. What fault was there in me ? As the period of separation became longer, Bullah's condition became worse. On the one hand~ there was the pain of separation, on the other, the ridicule of people. He prostrates before the memory of his Master, and repeatedly entreats him to show his face to him at the earliest. Why do you tarry , my Beloved ? O Bullah, now narrate your love story. He alone knows who has experienced love. There are rebukes within, taunts without Such is the comfort I have found in love ! My eyes have taken to the habit of weeping. For one, it is death, for another, reproach from the world. The pain of separation has tightly squeezed my life. O Love, I have cried out my heart in anguish ! Bullah was full of repentance over his blunder. He was keenly desirous to be forgiven by his Master. In his mind he pleads to his Master to heal his wound of separation, and to apply. balm to his heart by showing his face to him. I suffer from the pain of my mad love. Come, dear Ranjha, cast a glance at me, and forgive me my faults. From the throne of Hazara set out Ranjha, the Master of artless Heer. The bridegroom visits the homes of all others; What is the flaw that vitiates Bullah? Bullah does not only describe the state of his suffering, but also hurls complaints at his Master. On the one hand, he regrets his own lack of wisdom, on

the other, he reproaches his Master, who, after piercing his heart with the arrow of love, has hidden himself and has never inquired after him. Inflicting a wound you hid your face; Who has taught you such thefts, my Love? With your fancy you captivated my heart, But then you never showed your face. This cup of poison I have drunk myself ; Indeed I was unripe in wisdom! He calls his Master "the beloved Thug of Lahore" and complains that he has robbed him with his love, and made him useless for the world. Never be taken in by its guiles ; It gives not peace in forest or city. When the traveler left after casting a glance, Suddenly a noose was hung round my neck. He then showed no concern for me. Oh, I have met the "beloved Thug of Lahore" ! To be incessantly weeping in separation of his Master had become the usual routine for Bullah. This separation of his had assumed the proportions of madness, and he started roaming in streets and lanes. The intense longing to see his Master produced a kind of fire within him, to extinguish which he began to think out some plans. "I He knew that his Master was a lover of music. It is said that Bulleh put on the garb of a woman, got hold of a sarangi  and went to the house of a dancing girl. He learnt dancing from her and became an adept in it. He then took along with him a drummer and a harmonium player and went to the tomb of a holy man in whose memory an annual function was being celebrated. Shah Inayat had also come to attend it. While all other dancers and singers got tired and sat down, Bullah, in ecstasy, continued to dance. His voice was extremely doleful and heart-rending. It is .said that Bullah sang many kafis on the occasion. At last even Inayat Shah's heart melted. With a voice full of compassion he said, " Are you Bullah ?" Bullah ran and fell at his Master's feet and replied with his eyes full of tears, "Sir, I am not Bullah put Bhulla. " I The Master is never indifferent to his disciple. When he realized that the fire of repentance and separation had purified Bullah and turned him into pure gold, he forgave him his lapse and pressed him to his heart. The reason why the Master put Bulleh Shah to such a hard test -the torture of burning in the fire of separation and longing ~ was to make him fit to receive the invaluable wealth of the Word of God. With this spiritual treasure he was not only to become rich himself, but also to make other seekers the recipients of this wealth. When the fountain of the Master's grace started flowing once again, the arid fields of Bullah began to revive, and the fragrance of the flowers of bliss spread all around. According to the author of Qanun-i-Ishq, the Master pressed Bullah to his heart, took him along with him, and intoxicated him with the wine of union. Bullah's soul got dyed in the hue of his Master's soul, so that no distinction remained between the two. One of Bulleh Shah's kafis gives a graphic description of his state of merging in the Master (Fana-fil-Sheikh) : Repeating the name of Ranjha I have become Ranjha myself. O call me ye all "Dhido-Ranjha," let no one call me Heer . Ranjha is in me, I am in Ranjha, no other thought exists in my mind. I am not, He alone is. He alone is amusing himself. The Master is one with the Lord. So, merging in the Master is transformed into merging in the Lord. This state is expressed by Bullah in the following lines of two kafis : 1. You alone exist, I do not, O Beloved!

 
2. Repeating the name of the Beloved    I have become the Beloved myself.    Whom shall I call the Beloved now?

 
The same thought is conveyed by Jesus Christ in the Bible thus : "At that day ye. shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you." Arriving at this stage, the illusion of duality disappears, and the glory of the Beloved is seen to pervade everywhere. Bulleh Shah declares that love for the Lord has so radically changed him that his individual self or ego has been totally eliminated. He has now realized his true Self hidden behind the veil of the physical body. His identification with the Supreme Being has opened for him the floodgates of divine light. In this light no one has remained a stranger. All have become His own. I have got lost in the city of love, I am being cleansed, withdrawing myself from my head, hands and feet. I have got rid of my ego, and have attained my goal. Thus it has all ended well. O Bullah, the Lord pervades both the worlds;

None now appears a stranger to me. In the transcendence of the finite to the Infinite; all disputes of religion, of good and evil, disappear. To Bullah now all began to appear as virtuous; none seemed to him as evil or a stranger. Remove duality and do away with all disputes; The Hindus and Muslims are not other than He. Deem everyone virtuous, there are no thieves. For, within every body He himself resides. How the Trickster has put on a mask! Saturated with the love of God, Bullah became the personification of compassion and forgiveness. He began to see the divine in every being, and distinctions of caste and religion, friend and foe, ceased to have any meaning for him. The following incident of his life illustrates this sublime state of his mind in a beautiful way: It is said I that "once Bulleh Shah was engaged in meditation inside his chamber. It was the month of Ramzan. Some of his disciples were sitting outside eating carrots. After some time a group of orthodox Muslims who were keeping the fast happened to pass them. When they saw the disciples sitting at a faqir's abode and violating the fast, they were enraged. " They shouted in an angry voice, " Are you not ashamed of eating in the month of Ramzan, and that also at the abode of a faqir?" The disciples replied, "Brother believers, take your path. We are feeling hungry. That is why we are eating. " The group of believers felt suspicious about their faith. So they asked, "Who are you?" They replied, "We are Muslims. Don't the Muslims feel hungry?". The believers again commanded them to stop eating, but the disciples did not heed. The believers who were on horses, alighted. They snatched the carrots from the hands of the disciples, and threw them away. They also gave a few blows to them. As they were about to leave, it struck them that the pir of these impious people must have been cast in the same mould. So they turned back to ask him what kind of instruction he had given to his disciples. They went to his chamber and said, "Who are you?" Bullah who was meditating with his eyes closed, raised his arms and moved his hands. They asked him again, "Why don't you speak? Who are you?" Bullah once again raised his arms. The riders taking him to be a mad man, went away. Soon after they left, the disciples entered the chamber, raising a hue and cry that they had been beaten. Bullah told them that they must have done something to provoke the believers. The disciples denied to have done any such thing. Bullah said, "What did they ask you?" The disciples replied, "They asked us who we were, and we said we were Muslims." Bullah retorted, "That's why you were beaten. You became something and you suffered. I didn't become anything, and they said nothing to me." To consider oneself something emanates from the sense of .ego. Such a person is still under the sway of maya, and has not had a vision of Truth so far. One who has had such a vision comes to know his true Self and gets liberated from the bondage of caste, religion and country. There are numerous instances in the poems of Bulleh Shah, which show that the soul, like the Lord, has no religion, no caste, no country. All these distinctions are born out of time and space, but the soul is unborn and timeless. It has neither a beginning, nor an end, nor is it bound by the limitations of caste and religion. Bullah recognizes only the primeval relationship of soul with God : I take myself to be the beginning and the end; I do not recognize aught except the One. Having realized the Truth within, Bulleh Shah became the embodiment of Truth himself. He spent the rest of his life in disseminating the message of this Reality. Till the end of his sojourn in this transient world he was engaged in meditation of the Lord, and guided all those who came in contact with him, on the same path. His magnetic personality, his pure living and his divine writings spread his fame far and wide. Many a seeker after Truth was attracted by his charm and derived much spiritual gain under his guidance. The last years of his life he passed in Qasur, and here he died in 1758-1759. His t6mb can be seen in Qasur even today. It is mentioned in Bang-i-Auli-va-i-Hind : When 1171 (Hijiri) had come to pass, In Qasur his shrine was well raised. Bulleh Shah was an evolved soul, a perfect faqir and a true lover. Through the love for his Master he realized the Lord. In his love one finds poignancy, ardor and longing besides sincerity, sacrifice and renunciation. Under the canopy of love he made his offerings of caste and learning. His love for his Master never wavered for a moment despite the fire of separation and longing through which he passed. His writings, as also his life, manifest transcendence of physical love ( of the Master) to divine love ( of the Lord). Indeed, this is. the path of all true mystics, all true lovers of God. Whosoever has attained union with the Lord has done so by traveling on this path, and whosoever will attain this union, will do so by becoming a traveler on this path of love. Bulleh Shah's life and writings are replete with subtle secrets of the path. They do riot only strengthen the love of a true lover, but also encourage him to undergo the severest hardships for reaching the spiritual goal. The life and compositions of Bulleh Shah will serve as a lighthouse for times immemorial to true seekers of spiritual realization.

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