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_

STATOR TOOTH

~~~~~PITCH

COMMON END RING

Fig. 3. A segmented rotor to reduce stray load loss


While equation 12 provides the lower limit of the bridge thickness, its upper limit is probably 1 or 2 per cent of the depth below a slot of the stator, depending on the motor size. Because of the lower flux densities in larger motors, the ratio of bridge thickness to depth below stator slot should be smaller. The bridge thickness required to shunt off the harmonic flux is difficult to determine. However, the following measures are helpful in reducing this minimum requirement: A. The number of rotor slots being slightly fewer than that of the stator slots; B. Semiclosed stator slots; C. Sufficient air gap.

3. By segmenting the rotor, the average harmonic electromotive force for the shortcircuit paths is greatly reduced. To the writer's knowledge, this method has not been used previously for the purpose of reducing stray load loss. Referring to Fig. 3, the rotor is divided into two or three sections by thin common end rings. Each section has a skew of one stator slot. As the common end rings serve only to bring the currents in phase, their required thickness is no more than the average vidth of the rotor slot. Their diameters are reduced to avoid eddy-current loss induced by stator tooth harmonics. For a rotor with n-sections, the average harmonic electromotive force is reduced by a factor of n. If the condition between the cage bars and laminations remains unchaniged, the stray load loss owing to it should be reduced to 1/n2 of its previous value.

monies, iron losses due to leakage fluxes, and eddy currents loss in stator conductors.

The predominant factor of stray load loss due to industrial imperfection is the short circuiting of the cage bars by the laminations. Measures within a designer's control which would minimize this effect are:
1. Making the rotor slots slightly fewer than stator slots; 2. Using closed-lot rotors; 3. Segmenting the rotor.

Fig. 1.

Their effects are illustrated in

References
IN

Conclusions
The stray load losses are divided into two categories; those due to theoretical imperfection, and those due to industrial imperfection. Among the first group are rotor currents induced by stator har-

pp. 690-99. 2. DiE-CAST ROTORS FOR INDUCTION MOTORS, L. C. Packer. AIEE Tr ansactionis, vol. 68, pt. I,

1. EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS AND THEIR APPLICATION DESIGNING SHADED POLE MIOTORS, S. S. L. Chang. AIEE Trais(lctions, vol. 70, pt. I, 1951,

1949, pl). 253-61.

No Discussion
chine must be supplied by the system to which it is connected. Thus, the system must be capable of supplying the lagging kilovars required to establish the air-gap flux in the induction generator. These kilovars may be supplied by overexcited synchronous machines on the system, or they may be supplied by shunt capacitors. When shunt capacitors are used, the most desirable location from the system standpoint is at the terminals of the generator; but when this type of application is made, the problem of self-excitation must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theory of operation of the induction generator, the self-excitation problem, and other application problems that should be considered in designing an induction generator installation.

Induction Generator Theory and Application


J. MEMBER AIEE E. BARKLE
THE adaptability of the induction generator to certain specific types of applications in power systems prompts a comprehensive discussion of the principle application problems. From an over-all engineering standpoint, there are many applications where induction generators offer advantages over synchronous machines, resulting in a simplified installation with economy in first cost and in operating and maintenance expenses. To be sure, induction generators have some disadvantages when compared with synchronous generators, but there are many locations where the advantages overshadow the disadvantages, and where induction machines should be considered. The attractive feature of the induction generator is simplicity of operation. Placing the machine on the line involves bringing it to the proper speed and closing the circuit breaker connecting it to the system. All of the features normally used with synchronous generators for control of speed, excitation, and synchronizing are omitted when induction
12
ASSOCIATE MEMBER AIEE

R. W. FERGUSON

generators are used. Thus, where automatic operation is desired, the control system is greatly simplified. The principle of operation of the induction generator is described in most a-c machinery textbooks and in several published articles and papers. Its use is contingent upon the system characteristics and the requirements of the generating station. The induction machine does not have the inherent ability to control voltage, frequency, or number of kilovars. The power output is a function of the slip and depends on the prime mover input and system frequency and voltage. Sufficient synchronous capacity must be available on the system to control these factors to assure proper operation of the induction generator. The induction generator generally is built with a conventional armature winding and a squirrel-cage rotor, which is a very rugged and simple form of construction. However, the fact that the induction machine has no field windings means that current to magnetize the ma-

Induction Generator Operation


When the stator armature winding of an induction machine is connected to an a-c system, a synchronously rotating flux is established in the air gap. When operated as a motor, the rotating flux
Paper 54-26, recommended by the AIEE Rotating Machinery Committee and approved by the AIEE Committee on Technical Operations for presentation at the AIEE Winter General Meeting, New York, N. Y., January 18-22, 1954. Manuscript submitted October 21, 1953; made available for printing November 13, 1953. J. E. BARKLE and R. W. FERGUSON are with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa.

Barkle, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory and Application

FIEBRUARY 1954

of Fig. 1. It will be noticed on this curve that there is a definite limit to the power output of the induction generator. This limiting value of power will be called the power limit of the generator and is given by the following equation

PE2[xm.+ xs -x'- 2rs I


B
a

22[rS2+ (xm+xs)(xI) ]
Xmxr
Mr

(5)

Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram of an induction generator induces a current and voltage in the rotor conductors, and the rotor turns at a speed slightly less than that of the flux. The difference in speed of rotation between the flux and the rotor, expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed, is called the slip. The slip is positive when the machine operates as a motor and the rotor speed is less than that of the flux. As a generator, the induction machine is driven by a prime mover; and as the speed of the rotor is increased to equal synchronous speed, there is no relative motion between the rotor conductors and the flux. Hence, no voltage or current is induced in the rotor bars. A fiurther increase in speed causes a reversal in relative direction of rotation between the rotor bars and the flux, and the rotor voltage and current are correspondingly reversed. The slip under this condition is considered to be negative. Shaft torque, supplied by the prime mover, is transferred across the air gap to the stator, from which it is delivered to the system as generated power. The net power output is the shaft input less the losses within the machine and is a function of the slip.The equivalent circuit and phasor diagram of an induction generator are shown in Fig. 1. For simplicity, core loss is neglected in this equivalent circuit. The terms of the equivalent circuit are defined as follows: rr, xr, Jr =rotor resistance, reactance and
current

PL = power limit
,! _

X1--=Xsm,
v

voltage variations within the narrow limits normally encountered on power systems, it is usually sufficiently accurate to consider the magnetizing reactance a con stant. The power output of the induction generator can be derived from the equivalent circuit of Fig. 1. When the slip s is known or assumed and the magnetizing reactance x,m is known, the equivalent circuit can be reduced to a single impedance.
(r

If stator resistance is neglected and the definition of x' is used the expression call be written
PL
(XM
(

Xs)(xm+xr) (
2m
T

XmXr
Xm+Xr

+jx) (JXm)
(1)

Z=r,+jx,+ rs

'j(Xr+Xm)

The stator current is


Is

=-E

(2)

and the air-gap voltage is


(3) Ea=Et+Is(rs+jxs) The current in the magnetizing branch is

ImE= J1Xn

(4)

current expressed in terms of stator voltage and frequency rs, xs, Is= stator resistance, reactance and

magnetizing current E:= terminal voltage Ea = air-gap voltage s = slip

Xm, Im= magnetizing branch

reactance and

The equivalent circuit contains two variables; the slip s which is a function of speed, and the magnetizing reactance Xm which is determined by saturation and is a function of the air-gap voltage Ea. The magnetizing reactance can be obtained from a saturation curve for the machine in question; but for terminal

The phasor diagram of the voltages and currents for a typical design of a slowspeed water-wheel-driven induction generator calculated by this procedure is shown in Fig. 1. A significant feature is the fact that the stator current, which represents the output current of the generator, leads the- terminal voltage- by the power factor angle 0. The reactive component of this current, Is (sin 0), is representative of the kilovars that must be supplied by overexcited synchronous capacity or shunt capacitors on the system. Equation 1 shows that a given slip determines the value of Z. This in turn gives the value of I, and consequently the power and var output of the generator EtI8* (Is* is the conjugate of the phasor 18). Thus for a given terminal voltage there is a fixed relation between real and reactive power. This is illustrated by curve I in Fig. 3 for the machine

excitation.

Typical characteristic curves of an induction generator are shown in Fig. 2. The efficiency is good at loadings above 25 per cent; in fact, it is comparable to that of a synchronous generator. Power factor, on the other hand, becomes progressively worse as the load and slip are reduced below rated load values. The reason for this is that as long as the airgap voltage is constant, the magnetizing current is constant. Thus, the reactive current required by the generator is substantially constant throughout the entire load range. Consequently, to obtain the most favorable power factor, the machine should be operated as near rated load as possible at all times. The characteristic curves of Fig. 2 are for a slow-speed water-wheel-driven machine. The magnetizing requirements of the generator are significantly, ffected by speed and size so that the values shown in Fig. 2, and used in all of the examples of a typical induction generator, may not apply to machines of different speed and rating. Induction generators are particularly suited to hydroelectric installations of relatively small size, and where several machines can be installed to comprise the total capacity. In this way, the number of machines in operation can be varied to suit the water conditions so that each machine is operated at full load at all times. The ideal plant location is where peaking capacity is required at a point on the system where sufficient reactive is available to provide the

Short-Circuit Characteristics
on the terminal voltage to establish the

Since the induction generator depends 13

FEBRUARY 1 954

Barkle, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory -and Application

-1.2
-1.1 _

-1.01-_
-

Fig. 2 (left). Characteris tic curves of an induction generator

P- POWER IN PER UNIT 1 3 2

.9
z

- .8
IL

z 2
az w

0- . -7
Lii

z a. - .5 .

0:

cc
a

-a

w
-

a.

0 a.

3:

-.3

aL 4

-.2

O -L

25
LOAD

50
IN

75
PERCCENT

magnetizing current, it cannot contribute on a sustained basis to a short circuit that causes a collapse in terminal voltage. A 3-phase short circuit at the terminals of the generator causes the voltage at that point to collapse to zero. At the instant of fault, certain flux linkages exist in the rotor circuit. These cannot change instantaneously, and therefore the rotor and stator currents increase to maintain the flux linkages constant. This is similar to the phenomenon that gives rise to subtransient current in a synchronous machine. In Appendix I the fundamental equation
e+ To d =0 dt

Fig. 3 (right). P versus 0 curves for an induction generator at 1 00-, 120-, and 140per-cent voltage, 1 00-per-cent frequency

o-4
w
0r

letting
T'=() (Xir)

I-PER UNIT: RATED GENERATOR KW 0-SHUNT CAPACITORS AT GENERATOR TERMINALS A-SYSTEM OF FIG. 4, SHUNT CAPACITOR KVAR : 2 PER UNIT

where

eo'= the initial value of e' determined by the load current Is flowing before the fault by equation 14
Thus the short-circuit current has a high initial value but decreases to zero at a rate determined by the short-circuit time constant T, of the generator. For a typical design, the short-circuit time constant is the order of 1 to 3 cycles. To evaluate the effect on circuit breaker duty and system relaying, it is important to know the short-circuit characteristics of the induction generator. In view of the rapid decay of current, the induction generator has no effect on the interrupting duty of 5- or 8-cycle circuit breakers. The duty on these breakers can be determined by neglecting the induction generators. Induction generators must be considered in computing the momentary duty of circuit interrupting and protective relaying equipment, and the momentary current output of the induction machines can be the determining factor in choosing ratings for these protective devices. For example, the momentary rating required of a circuit breaker may be above that normally supplied in a breaker of sufficient interrupting capacity, and a breaker of the next higher rating may be required. The momentarv current contribution

(16)

is derived where e' is the voltage behind the transient reactance


Xr+Xm

and is proportional to the rotor flux linkages. Voltage e is proportional to the rotor field current (see equation 13). Using equations 13, 14, and 15, and neglecting stator resistance r, one obtains the following differential equation during a 3-phase fault where Et = 0
/ +Xr+x

of induction generators should not be overlooked in designing bus work, and in applying current transformers and relays. The current transformers must have a mechanical rating sufficient for the application, and the relays must have a short-time thermal rating that is adequate. Relaying of induction generator installations is similar to relaying of synchronous machine installations, except that some modification can be made since the induction machines do not contribute a sustained current. A form of differential relaying is normally used, but it can be supplemented or replaced with simple overcurrent or directional overcurrent relavs in some cases.

Self-Excitation of an Induction Generator


From the previous description of the operation of an induction generator it can be seen that the only requirements for obtaining an output are a source of magnetizing vars and a suitable load below the power limit. The relationship between power and vars for a typical induction generator is illustrated in Fig. 3. Curve I shows this relation for rated terminal voltage. The required vars can be supplied by a synchronous machine or by shunt capacitors. Thus an output can be obtained

XSXM

dls
dt

wr

subject to the initial condition eo-'=eo+' which gives 180+ =eo+'/x'. 0-and O+ are used to indicate the instant before and instant after the fault. The solution to this equation is of the form
jO'
xf

t/T'

(8)

14

Barkle, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory and Application

FIEBRUARY 1 954

from the induction generator when it is connected to a system consisting only of shunt capacitors and a load. Naturally, some energy must be introduced into the electrical system to start the build up of voltage to the operating point. This can take the form of an initial charge on the capacitors or, more effectively, an initial current in the induction generator. Both of these sources are available when an induction generator, load, and shunt capacitors are suddenly separated from a synchronous system. If the induction generator is separated from a system with a sufficient amount of capacitors connected to its terminals, the voltage rises or falls and the frequency changes until the net magnetizing vars from the capacitors and the load absorbed by the remaining system exactly match the requirements of the induction generator. In general, an excess of capacitive vars causes the voltage to rise, with the exception of the case discussed later where the number of vars exceeds that which can be absorbed by the induction generator at the given load when operating at a slip greater than the slip at the power limit. The frequency of the system adjusts itself to a point where the generator slip gives the required load output. The frequency of operation of an induction generator with self-excitation is very close to the frequency corresponding to the speed of the generator since the pullout slip is normally less thah 10 per cent, and the machine will not operate at a load above the power limit. In the following analysis the frequency of operation was selected first. The slip and consequent rotor speed is then determined by the system load characteristics. The low value of slip at the power limit allows per cent frequency and per cent speed variation to be considered equal.

Appendix I. This method clearly outlines the region of self-excitation and also gives an indication of rate of rise of the voltage. The basic equation for the performance of the induction generator is as follows
e+To
de' =0 dt

(16)

where
e=per unit voltage that would be induced in stator in steady-state conditionis for zero stator current and a rotor current equal to the instantaneous value of rotor current e =per unit voltage that would immediately appear at the terminals of the machine if the stator current were suddenly made zero. This quantity is proportional to the rotor flux linkages TO= open-circuit time constant of the rotor

(determined by maintaining constant e' following separation from the synchronous system) is within the P and Q curves of the induction generator, these curves provide a good means of qualitatively determining the performance of the generator. This requires a knowledge of the variation of the power and var requirements of the system as a function of voltage. In the analysis of this section the system frequency will be assumed to be equal to rated frequency. In the case of capacitors applied at the terminals of the generator where the generator capacitor combination can be isolated from the system, the variation of the system var requirement is directly with the square of the terminal voltage. The P versus Q curves for a typical in-

T0TX

wrr

where X is 377 radians per second and the other impedances are defined by the equivalent circuit of the induction generator in Fig. 1.

Using this equation and relating e and e' by using the assurmed constant system impedance, the terminal voltage of the generator can be shown to be either exponentially increasing or decaying. The range of self-excitation is shown in Appendix II to be exactly the shaded region of Fig. 3 for Et= 100 per cent when the system impedances are converted into power and vars. For fixed constants (constant saturation) the magnitude of the terminal voltage increases as indicated in the following equation
Et= Et i.itial
(9)

Analysis of Self-Excitation
A number of methods are available for analyzing the performance of an induction machine under self-excited conditions. Most of these methods deal only with the steady-state conditions and consist of opening the network consisting of the induction generator equivalent and the system equivalent circuit at some point, and of finding a voltage that gives equal and opposite shunt admittances looking in either direction from the given

where 1/a is defined in equation 27 and is negative when the voltage is increasing. Thus in 1/10a seconds the magnitude increases 10.5 per cent. It should be noted that l/a is always greater than To and that as a point of stable operation is approached 1/ca approaches infinity.

140-per-cent voltage are shown in Fig. 3. Assume first that this generator is connected to a shunt capacitor whose rating is 10 per cent greater than the no-load generator var requirements. The points indicated by circles give the var output of the capacitor at 100, 120, and 140 volts. The capacitor vars are within the region of voltage increase for 100- and 120- per-cent voltage and just above the region for 140-per-cent voltage. Thus the generator voltage would be expected to rise to slightly less than 140 per cent of rated voltage. The system of Fig. 4 corresponds to a step-up transformer, high-voltage capacitor bank, step-down transformer, and a lightly loaded distribution feeder. The relative proportions of the elements of the system are shown in terms of the capacitor bank rating. The var requirements of such a system are not proportional to the square of the voltage, as the magnetizing current of transformers increases very rapidly as the voltage is increased above the rated value. The curves for the P and Q requirements of the system in per unit of the capacitor rating are shown in Fig. 5 as a function of generator terminal

duction generator for 100-, 120-, and

Self-Excitation of Induction Generator Connected to Power System


Since the voltage at the terminals of the induction generator will increase only if the system P+jQ at the initial voltage
TRANSFORMER
KVA
=

voltage. As a second example, assume the induction generator is connected to the system of Fig. 4 with the shunt capacitor bank equal to twice the KW rating of the induction generator. The triangles in Fig. 3 show the P and Q requirements of the system for 100-, 120-, and 140-per-cent
TRANSFORMER
KVA 26.5% STEP DOWN

STEP

UP

70.7%

point. Another method for analyzing the induction generator self-excitation voltage is by use of modified synchronous machine transient theory. This is described in
FEBRUARY 1954

Fig. 4. System assumed to be connected to the induction generator

INDUCTION GENERATOR TERMINAL

DISTRIBUTION

CAPACI'TOR
KVA
-

SHUNT

r-

TRANSFORMERS
T1

KVA

100%

LOAD

KW: 6.6 %

35.4

Barkle, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory and Application

15

I.6
IL

1.I

0
.2
_

wo 1.4 .8
I

1.0

I-

-au
I
-

.6
.

a.
.2

_
110 120 130 SYSTEM VOLTAGE %
140

too

Fig. 5. Variation of P and -Q with voltage for the system of Fig. 4 voltage and the curve connecting these triangles gives the trace of P versus Q for the system. Again the voltage would increase to approximately 140 per cent. The third example shown in Fig. 6 refers to an induction generator connected to the system of Fig. 4 where the shunt capacitor bank is 10 times the rating of the generator. Again the 100-. 120-, and 140-per-cent points are indicated. If the initial voltage is 100 per cent the voltage will collapse since the system point lies outside the induction generator P versus Q curve for 100-per-cent voltage. However, if an unusual system condition causes the initial voltage to be close to 140 per cent the system point is within the generator 140-per-cent curve and the voltage will rise to slightly less than 150per-cent voltage. In general, if the system power and vars left connected to the induction generator lie inside the area bounded by the generator power versus var curve and the var axis, the voltage at the terminals will increase to a stable operating point. If the system point is above the region there is a possibility that decreasing voltage will cause either an increase in system vars or a fast decrease in generator vars because of the reduction in saturation that will move the system point within the region and give self-excited operation. This would be the case when starting at either of the C points in Fig. 3.

will increase. This causes the region of self-excitation to shrink radially almost inversely proportional to the increase in frequency; however, the var output of capacitors connected to the generator increases directly with the increase in frequency and consequently the maximum voltage resulting from self-excitation is increased. These effects are illustrated in Fig. 7 where the P versus Q curves for the induction generator used in Fig. 3 are shown for 125 per cent of rated frequency at 100- and 140-per-cent voltage. The capacitor points A and C have also been repeated and show that the selfexcitation voltage under these conditions is greater than 140-per-cent voltage. If the two cases considered in the previous section involv ing the system of Fig. 4 are considered at 125-per-cent frequency, the induction generator terminal voltage resulting from self-excitation will be of the order of 180 to 190 per cent. It should be noted that the voltage at the capacitor bank is 10 to 20 per cent higher because of the heavy var flow through the step-up transformer bank from the high voltage capacitor to the induction generators.

generators when operating at the maximum allowable self-excitation voltage. Distributing the capacitor correction on the system in such a manner that a dangerous amount could not be isolated from the rest of the system with the induction generators without a substantial load also being present that would prevent damaging

high voltages.

Summary and Conclusions


1. An explanation of the method of operation of an induction generator has been

presented.

2. A derivation is given for the circle diagram giving the relation between power and var output of an induction generator. 3. An induction generator does not contribute to the interrupting duty of a breaker, but makes substantial contribution to the momentary rating of any devices connected to the generator. An expression is given for calculating the fault current from the
generator.

Application of Static Capacitors to Induction Generators


The previous sections have given a method of analysis of self-excitation of induction generators. Also for capacitors located at the terminals of the generators or for a large bank located on a specific system, it has been found that serious overvoltages can occur, particularly if the generator overspeeds. In the application of static correction the voltage possible during self-excitation conditions should not be allowed to go over 10 to 20 per cent above rated voltage on any part of the system. This can be accomplished by the following methods
Limiting the amount of correction applied. The allowable correction should be determined for the highest system frequency and the most unfavorable combination of induction generators and capacitors that could result from a fault or system disturbance. Using some protective device such as a gap or short-circuiting switch to shortcircuit the induction generator in case of high voltage resulting from self-excitation. Such a device would have to be very accurately calibrated to differentiate between normal voltage and an overvoltage condition. It would also be subject to false tripping resulting from switching surges or other transient high voltages. Any such device would have to be mechanically strong enough to withstand the full momentary short-circuit current from the induction

4. A method of analysis of self-excitation of induction generators using modified synchronous machine transient theory is given. 5. This analysis shows that during selfexcitation conditions the voltage rises or decays exponentially and that the coefficient of time in the exponent is less than the reciprocal of the open-circuit time constant. 6. The region of system real and reactive
P- POWER IN PER UNIT 1 2 3 4 5
__ A

-2

001-

Et1000

CL

Ef~~~C-E2:140/
D - SY Et:

Effect of System Frequency on Self-Excitation Phenomena


If an induction generator is isolated from the synchronous portion of a power system, it is quite possible that the remaining load on the induction generator will be less than the prime mover torque. This means that the generator will speed up and consequently the system frequency

-12
8

0T/.

Fig. 6. P versus 0 curves for an induction generator at 100-, 120-, and 140-per-cent

voltage, 100-per-cent frequency

16

Barkle, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory and Application

FEBRUARY 1 90-4

P- POWER IN PER UNIT

Et+Is(r. +jx8)
JlXm

t E
JXm
I.-

Fr-+j(Xs+xm)1 +IsI JXm

equation used in analysis of the transient behavior of a synchronous machine relating ed and ed' as follows

z
w r.*
-

substituting in equation 10 gives


Xr X+XM[E}I

ed+TdO =dt
where e. is the exciter voltage. Naturally there is no corresponding term to e, in the induction generator system. Starting from the equation

ded,

(rs +jxs +rjxmCOJXm

Xr+Xm

0
uli

Xm [Et+

IJ(rs+jx')]

(11)

e+

Xm+xr de'

-r d

14t

where
x

lx
a

=Xs+

Xm+Xr

In the rotor itself, since there is no excitation voltage other than the changing flux linkages
o - SHUNT CAPACITORS AT GENERATOR TERMINALS A - E I100% C-E 140%

I,r+ dXr =0 dt

dNTr

(12)

Fig. 7. P versus 0 curves for an induction generator at 100- and 140-per-cent voltage, 125-per-cent frequency
power for self-excitation has been shown to coincide with the interior of the P versus Q curve of the induction generator described in conclusion 2. 7. A particular system has been analyzed, and voltages of 140 to 150 per cent at rated frequency or 180 to 190 per cent at 125per-cent frequency were shown to be possible. 8. Increasing the frequency of operation during self-excited conditions increases the possible overvoltage. 9. In applying static correction overvoltages should be avoided by limiting size of correction, by use of overvoltage protective devices, and by locating the correction in a manner that will preclude the possibility of excessive self-excitation voltages.

Let e be the open circuit voltage for a rotor current Ir


e =hrjxm = Et+Is [rs+j(xs+xm)]

(13)

and for an equivalent circuit of the system where the system is represented by a series impedance Z=Re8+jXe, the equation for the induction machine voltages can be derived. Both e and e' are phasors with an angle with respect to some reference axis of the rotor. They are also moving at synchronous speed with respect to the stator, and they have a fixed angular relationship with the synchronous field of the stator. Thus any change in the angular position of e or e' will amount to a change in angular position of the rotor with respect to the synchronous field of the stator of equal magnitude and opposite sign. The rate of change of the angle of e or e' corresponds to the slip of the rotor. Consider the following relations

Let e' be the voltage that would exist at the terminals of the generator if the breaker were suddenly opened while the generator is carrying load current.

Et = Is(Re+jXe)
e' = Ei+Is(rj+-jx')
e =E+1Is [rs+j(xm+x2) I

(17)
(18)

X, before breaker is opened


= JX ,[Et + Xm Xrr

(19)1

+18,( r8+jx ')JI

Using these equations e' and e can be expressed in terms of Et, the terminal voltage of the generators, by the following equations

Ar after breaker is opened-Ir (xr +xr)

Et after breaker is opened= Irjxm =eC


Combining this with the fact that Nr before= Nr after gives

rrs+Re+j(Xe+Xt)l
csJX

(20)

Ir (after) =

JXm

[Et + Is (rs +jx') I


(14)

e=E

fl+

e' =E,+Is(rs+ix')

Appendix 1. Self-Excitation of An Induction Generator


In an induction generator just as in a synchronous machine there are a certain number of flux linkages in the rotor or field of the machine. The rotor flux linkages Nr are given by

Comparing equations 14 and 11, note that e' is proportional to rotor flux linkages combining 12, 13 and 14 gives
e Xr+xm de' ==0 -rr+ . COxJn dt fxm

(21 > Re +jXe Combining equations 20 and 21 with the differential equation for e and e' gives the following
=E

=Etrs+Re+(Xe+XmXs)I

Et[r8+Rej(7txmxs)] Re+X1Xe
[

thus e+ -=0 wc7 dt


or XrXnm de'

(15)

Xm+X rrwo

,dd

?rs+Re+j(Xe+x')

Re+jXeX
dt

t
(22)

Xr=Ir

(Xr +Xm)
Co

8-Is co

XrM

(10)

This gives the following

where n = 377 or 2,7 times rated frequency. I, and Ir are phasors referred to an axis rotating with the rotor. This means that during normal operation Ir-=Ir'ejsWt where s is the rotor slip. All phasors in this appendix are referred to the rotor axis unless otherwise noted. From the equivalent circuit in Fig. 1

de' e+To- =0 dt
where
or
corr

rs+R1+j(Xe+xs+xm)
Lrs+Re+j(Xe+x')

r,co xmXr

dEt
dt

To =Xr+xr

(16)

Ety+d=0 di
where

(23)

This equation is similar to the fundamental

F13BRUARY 1954

Barkie, Ferguson-Induction Generator Theory and Application

17

7=

[Re+rs+j(Xe+xm+xs) R +=ja+(X

_Re+rs+j(Xe+x')

Xm + x

r,w +

the region for an increasinig self-excitation voltage is givenl by

ri (rs+Re)++ (Xe+xmxs)(Xex/)] [
Xrr Xtn+XT

magnitude of the terminal voltage increases 10.5 per cent during each 1/lOa seconds.
_

r,+Re )2+ (Xe+ V,n +Xs)(Xe+x' <0 (26) Another point of interest is 1/a since the
[

Thus in terms of impedance the boundary for the region of self-excitation is a circle with radius x+ and center at Re= 2 - rs, X.,-- (X, +Xm +X')
The power and vars absorbed by the system for a voltage Et are given by
Re -Xe

[(rs+Re)(xm+xs-x')1 cr, L(rs+Re) 2+ (Xe +X')2jXmn +Xr


The solution of this differential equation is of the form Et=EeE7tY where E is determined so that e' (t=0)=ee' where ei' is the value of e' the instant before the induction generators and capacitors are disconnected from the system. This equation gives

(r,-+-R,

)] (r8R:)2 +(X.X+x')2 X,)


+

(.w)t+r)(27)
(r+R,)2+(Xe + +sx,) approaches zero. The quantity ,3 can be related to the slip of the rotor. The terIm e- jt gives the angular change of the position of et with time. Since there is always a fixed angle between et and e' this also gives the change in the angular position of e'. The rate of change of angular position of e' with time is -f, or the slip of the rotor in per cent of the synchronous speed corresponding to the stator frequency is
creases
X )(X, +.x

(30)

It starts at a value greater than To, the open circuit rotor time constalnt, and into infiniity as

The circle determined by equation 28 also determines a circle when plotted in terms of Pe and Q, from equation 30. This can be seen by substituting in equation 28 for R, and X, from equation 30 which can be rewritten
= leEt2
Re

e'(t = O+) = EL[rs+Re+j(Xex')1 =ei j +


ei'= [Et,+Is(rs+jx')]t =or

pe2*Qe2e ePe+Q2

QeEt2

(24)

Thus equation 28, the equation for the region of self-excitation becomes
[ PeEt2 p2,FQeEt2 P2 Q2Pe 2Qe'Le+Qei2

E=ei'[

Re+jXe

(25)

,a

By breaking up the exponent the behavior of the terminal voltage can be more easily examined.

X'

L(r,+Re)2+(XSe+x')2 (x,+x,)

(rs+R,)(x^m+xs-xl)l

rr

[QEt2 +x'] =0 (31)

Et = Ee - ""e - M
The first portion of the exponent is a damping term and tells whether the voltage is building up or decaying. If a is positive the voltage decays, while if a is negative the voltage is increasing. An examination of the expression for a reveals that its sign will be the same as the sign of (rs+Re)2+ (Xe+xm+x )(X,+x'). Thus if the equivalent system reactance is inductive, the expression will be positive and the voltage will decay. If the equivalent system reactance is negative, there are three cases to consider. Let Xe=-Xc 1. If Xc is very large, i.e., Xc>(xxn+Is and Xc>x') then the term will be positive, and the voltage decays. 2. If Xc is such that X,>x' and X,< Xm+xs then (Xc+xrn +xs)(Xe+x') is negative and if it is greater in magnitude than (rs+R,)2, a is negative and the voltage builds up. 3. If Xe is very small, so that X,<x' and Xc<xm +xs is again positive and the voltage decays. Case 2 is the most interesting case since under these conditions the voltage builds up after the machine is disconnected from the system. In the actual machine, the reactance xm decreases as the voltage increases and finally reaches a value such that Xc <xm +xs and a = 0. This represenits a stable operating condition, since if the voltage decreases a becomes negative, since xm increases, and the voltage again increases; while if the voltage goes above this point, Xm decreases still more and a becomes positive, causing the voltage to decrease. Therefore, when the induction generators are disconnected from the system, the voltage will increase until

Using the fact that (rs+Re)2+(xm+xs+ Xe)(Xe+x')=O the expression for the slip s can be reduced to
?r

R + r,L

xm+xr

(22)

An examination of the criterion for stable operation using the method of equating admittances described earlier in this section gives the same expressions for the relation between the X's and R's at the operating point and the same value for the slip at this point. Thus both methods give the same results, but the second method gives some idea of the rate of increase of the voltage and of the range of values of Xe that can cause self-excitation.

P62+ Q,2 P,2+ Q, 2 Pe2+Qe2 Qe+rs2+ (xM+xs)(x')= 0 (32) Multiplying by Pe 2 +Qe2 and dividing by rs2(xm+xs)(x') this equation can be written

Expanding and collecting terms gives E 2 Et22rP + Et2[m+Xs+xl] X +

Pe
e

> rs2 [t S)(

2 [r(2+X)(x)+X,(X

[Qe E Xf + Xm.-X+

4[r22+ (Xm x

)(x')

]2

]2

331

This shows the bounidary of the region of self-excitation in terms of power and vars is a circle with center at

Appendix I. Self-Excitation Region Expressed in Terms of


Pand Q
Using the values of R, and Xe that satisfy the inequality of Equation 26 the region of self-excitation can be determined in termns of the powi-er and vars associated vith the system impedances at a given voltage. The boundary of the region is found by letting the inequality sign become an equality sign. The region of selfexcitation is given by

Pe= 0==-

r,E2+ ({Xm+Xs+)X') Et2 [x.m+xs+x' ]

-Et'r,

(34)

2 [r,2+ (x,,+x)x') ]

and a radius Ke given by

Ke = 2

E^2 [xmxs-x' 3 [rs I2+ (San +x,) (x ) I

(35)

(rs+R)+ (Xe+x,+ x,)(Xe+x') <0 (28) This equation can be rewritten by transposing terms and adding (Xe+xm*+X')2/4 to both sides to the following
+X' (R+r 2+ ((Xe+ Xt+Xm jt
4
(Xs + X

Appendix 111. Derivation of Relation Between Power and Vars for an Induction Generator
Referring to the equivalent circuit of Fig. 1, the power and vars out of an induction generator are given by the following

PV +jQ9 - Et
)
(29)

(36)

(rs+Re)2-+(Xs+Xm+Xs)(Xe+X')=O
is

and

where Et= terminal voltage Z* = conjugate of the impedance seen

Barkle, Ferguson Induction Generator Theory and Application

FE-BRUARY 1 954

looking into the induction generator Let -Z=R7+1jXg and -Z*=Ru--JX

combining this with equation 39


2 r, R7+jX,7=- R -j (xs+xo+Xt)

of the induction generator is a circle with center at


rs If+ (xmn Xs)(X) +
2

then

Rg+jX
and

-r -jx

Krr +jJr (jxm )


-

Qo,

E.

[X,n +XSXI]

(42)

(37)

an +j(Xr+Xm)
or

J(x,+xs-x')

2 [r 2+ (xrm

+-xs)(x') J
(43)

and a radius Kg given by


Kg

s-XI ] E Xm+X, 2 [rs2+ (Xm+Xs)(x' )]

Po+jQg = Rg -jXg
Adding and subtracting (jxM)2/2j(xr+xX the right side of 37 and simplifying giv(

(38)

+r (Rg0r,)X)

+)

References
1. CAPACITIVE EXCITATION FOR INDUCTION RATORS, E. D. Basset, F. M. Potter.

R0jX07= _rs-[xs+ xm - 2(Xr+ X,n)


-

-j(x,-+ X,-X')

rr
-S

.(

j(xr+m)

GENEAJEE (Electrical Engineering), vol. 54, Transactions May 1935, pp. 540-44.
SELF-EXCITATION
OF INDUCTION MOTORS, C.

2.

(39)

Taking the magnitude of both sides of equation 40 and combining terms results in (Rg+rS)2+ (Xg+xS-VM)(Xg+x')=0 (41)

-x Since x'= +Xmxr


XM2

Xm +xr

xr+Xm

=XM+Xs-x

Comparing equations 38 and 30 and equations 41 and 28 shows that the relation between P, and Q, (letermined by 41 is the same as the relation between Pc and Qe. Thus the locus of the power and var output
-

F. Wagner. AIEE Transactions (Electrical Engineering), vol. 58, Feb. 1939, pp. 47-51. 3. THE SQUIRREL-CAGE TNDUCTION GENERATOR FOR POWER GENERATION, T. C. Tsao, N. C. Tsang. Electrical Engineering, vol. 70, Sept. 1951, pp. 793-95. 4. SrLF-EXCITATION OF INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SERIES CAPACITORS, C. F. Wagner. AIEE Transactions, vol. 60, 1941, p. 1241.

No Discussion
How large will the transient currents be under full-voltage starting conditions? If different amounts of resistance are connected across the slip rings, how large will the transient voltage across the slip rings be? If the power is interrupted, and the circuit is reclosed a few cycles or seconds later, before the motor voltage has died away, how large will be the transients then? To answer these questions, the equivalent circuit of the motor-capacitor unit is set up, and expressions are derived for the transient currents that flow when a 3phase voltage is suddenly applied to the motor terminals. Consideration is also given to the transients occurring when the motor is disconnected from the line

Switching Transients in 'Wound Rotor Induction Motors


P. L. ALGER
FELLOW AIEE

Y. H. KU

FELLOW AIEE

Synopsis: This paper presents an analysis of the transients that occur when voltage is suddenly applied across the terminals of an induction motor, with and without a connected capacitor. In wound rotor motors, the transient currents are reduced by connecting resistance in the rotor circuit, but transient voltages then appear across the slip rings. Both current and voltage transients are increased when capacitors are connected across the stator terminals. Calculated curves and test oscillograms are given for the transient currents when voltage was applied to the terminals of a 4-pole 3,000-horsepower wound rotor induction motor, with an external resistance across the slip rings, with and without a capacitor. The calculations and tests confirm the wellknown rule that, when there is an appreciable reactance between the powver source and the motor, and when voltage is suddenly applied, the peak transient voltage on the motor capacitor unit will rise above the steady-state voltage. If the capacitor kilovolt-amperes (kva) exceed the motor magnetizing kva, the steady-state voltage will be higher than the source voltage, and the motor voltage will also rise above its steady-state value when the motor is disconnected. It is shown that the capacitor

increases the time constant of voltage decay by the factor v/1 -Kr2, approximately, where K is the ratio of capacitor to magnetizing kva, and v is the per unit motor speed. If Kv2>1, Ei builds up instead of decaying. Therefore, a time at least 1/1-K times the normal open-circuit time constant of the motor should be allowed to elapse before the line switch is reclosed on the disconnected motor-capacitor unit, to avoid excessive motor currents and forces. If K>l, the additional time required for the motor speed to fall below 1/ NIK should elapse.

and allowed to coast with a capacitor connected across its terminals, and when the line is reclosed during this condition.

Analysis
NDUCTION motors with individual ratings of many thousand horsepower are being used increasingly to drive large pumps, fans, wind tunnels, etc. To provide power factor correction, capacitors are often connected directly across the motor terminals, and the motor-capacitor may be switched as a unit. It is therefore of considerable importance to analyze the transient perfonnance of these large
motor units.

The equivalent circuit' of a polyphase wound rotor induction motor with exterPaper 54-23, recommended by the AIEE Rotating Machinery Committee and approved by the AIEE Committee on Technical Operations for presentation at the AIEE Winter General Meeting, New York, N. Y., January 18-22, 1954. Manuscript submitted October 20, 1953; made available for printing November 13, 1953. P. L. ALGER is with the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.; Y. H. Ku is with the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

FEBRUARY 1954

Alger, Ku-Switching Transients in Wound Rotor Indutction Motors

19