Está en la página 1de 35

89

.
)(Indicial Notation
)(Linear Transformation
)(Tensor Calculus

: )(Indicial Notation
-4-1 )(Summation

)(1-1

)(2-1

)(3-1
j i k ) )3-1 ) (dummy index
.

:
1, 2, 3, n .

)(4-1
aibixi ambmxm
.

.

)(5-1

.
)(6-1
-5-1 )(Free Indices

)(7-1

:
)(8-1

:
)(9-1

. ) (dot product
.
)(10-1
a .
)(11-1

)(12-1

)(13-1
:

)(14-1

-6-1 )(Kronecker Delta



)(15-1

)(16-1

)(17-1

)(18-1

)(19-1

)(20-1


)(21-1
e2 e1 e3
)(22-1

-7-1 )(Permutation Symbol


.

)(23-1

)(24-1

)(25-1
] [e1, e2, e3
)(26-1
.
)(27-1
a=aiei b=biei

10

)(28-1
) (
)(29-1

-8-1
) (a
)(i
)(ii
bi ) (ii bm ) (i ) (ii i m

m .
)(iii
)(iv

) (iv .
) (b

.pqambmcmdm

a=aiei b=biei

11

e2 e1 e3

) (c

) (d )(Contraction

. Tii Tij.


: )(Tensors

12

-9-1
T a T c b d
Ta=c .Tb=d
T
)(30-1
a b T
.
.
)(31-1
a b .

6-1
-10-1
e2 e1 e3 x2 x1 x3 .
T e2 e1 e3 Te2 Te1 Te3 .
)(32-1

)(33-1

13

)(34-1
: T .
)(35-1

)(36-1

e1.e2= e2.e3= e3.e1=0
)(37-1

)(38-1
-11-1

a T a b (b=Ta). T
a b . a :
)(39-1

b :
)(40-1

14

)(41-1

)(42-1

)(43-1

)(44-1
.
)(45-1

)(46-1

)(47-1

-12-1

)(48-1

15

-13-1
T S a
)(49-1

)(50-1
TS
)(51-1

)(52-1

)(53-1
) )52-1 ) )53-1
)(54-1
)(55-1
TSST
S T V

)(56-1

)(57-1
.
)(58-1

16


-14-1 )(TRANSPOSE OF A TENSOR
T TT a b .
)(59-1
.
)(60-1

)(61-1

)(62-1
) )59-1
)(63-1
) (
)(64-1

)(65-1
-15-1 )(Dyadic Product of vectors
a b ab c
.
)(66-1
c d

17

)(67-1
ab . W=ab :
)(68-1

)(69-1

)(70-1

ei

)(71-1
T
)(72-1
-16-1 )(Trace of a tensor
. T S a b

)(73-1

)(74-1

tr T=Tii

18

)(75-1

)(76-1
-17-1 )(Identity tensor and Tensor inverse
.
)(77-1

)(78-1
:
)(79-1

)(80-1
T S
)(81-1
S T .
0
( det ) T (.
det(T))0
T

)(82-1
)(83-1

19

)(84-1
) )84-1
a b . T
b a b .
-18-1 )(Orthogonal tensors
. Q

| |Qb|=|b| |Qa|=|a ) cos(a,b)=cos(Qa,Qb


)(85-1

a b

)(86-1
.
)(87-1

)(88-1

)(89-1
+1 -1.

20

| |Q|=|QT |I|=1 |Q|2=1


)(90-1

-19-1

)(2-1

} e2 e1 {e3 } e2/ e1/ {e3/


) )2-1 . } e2 e1 {e3
) ( } e2/ e1/ {e3/ .
. {ei } } {ei/
Q .
)(91-1

)(92-1

)(93-1

)(94-1

21

Qij ei ei/.
)(95-1

)(96-1
-20-1
a . } e2 e1 {e3
)(97-1
} e2/ e1/ {e3/
)(98-1
) )91-1 :
)(99-1

)(100-1

)(101-1

)(102-1

22

) )101-1) )100-1 ) )102-1


.
)(103-1

)(104-1
-21-1
T . T } e2 e1 {e3 :
)(105-1
} e2/ e1/ {e3/ :
)(106-1

))106-1

)(107-1

)(108-1

)(109-1

)(110-1

23


)(111-1
)(112-1

)(113-1
-22-1


. } e2/ e1/ {e3/ } e2 e1 {e3

ei/=Q ei Q
)(114-1

.
)(addition rule
)(multiplication rule
) ( )(quotient rule
(1
Tij Sij Tij+Sij
Tijk Sijk Tij+Sij
.

24

(2
ai Tij
TijTjk TijTkl aiajak aiaj .
.
aiaj aiajak TijTkl
TijTjk .
(3
ai Tij
ai=Tijbj bi .
Tij Cijkl Tij=CijklEkl
Ckl.
-23-1 )(Symmetric and Antisymmetric Tensors
T=TT
.
)(115-1

)(116-1
T=-TT
.
)(117-1

25

)(118-1
) (

)(119-1

)(120-1
-24-1 )(The dual vector of an antisymmetric tensor
T tA a a T
Ta .
)(121-1
t .
A

T :
)(122-1

)(123-1
:
)(124-1

)(125-1

26

-25-1 )(Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a tensor


T a T .
)(126-1
a . a
T a .
)(127-1

.
n .
)(128-1

)(129-1
n=iei .
)(130-1

)(131-1
n0
)(132-1

27

)(133-1
T
. T . ) )131-1
.

:
.
.
-26-1

.
. n1 n2 1 2
)(134-1

)(135-1

)(136-1

)(137-1
T=TT

28

)(138-1

)(139-1
1 2 n1.n2=0 .
.
-27-1 )(Principal scalar invariant of a tensor
|Tij-ij|=0 T .
)(140-1

)(141-1
)(142-1
)(143-1
T
T .
:
)(144-1
: )(Tensor Calculus
-28-1
) T=T(t t . T t
:

29

)(145-1
.
)(146-1
)(147-1
)(148-1
)(149-1
)(150-1
) (149-1 . )(145-1
)(151-1

: dT/dt :

30

:
-29-1
) (r r (r) r
. ) (r
. .

grad

dr

r+dr r.
)(152-1
dr dr e dr (e=dr/dr) .
) (152-1
)(153-1

e
ei :

) ( .
)(154-1

)(155-1

31

. ) (r
) .=a (constant r .
r+dr .d=0 . .dr=0
r . .dr dr .

dr


)(156-1
-30-1
) v(r .
. ) v(r v . v
.
)(157-1
dr | |dr e dr/dr.
)(158-1
v e v .

)(159-1
v
)(160-1

32

)(161-1

.
-31-1 ) (Divergence
) v(r . ) v(r ) (trace v
.
)(162-1

)(163-1
) T(r . ) T(r div T
a

)(164-1

)(165-1

)(166-1
-32-1 ) (Curl
) v(r . ) v(r
v

33

)(167-1
tA ( v)A .
)(168-1

) v(r ) (124-1 .
)(169-1


)(170-1
-33-1 ) (Laplasian
) f(r r .
)(171-1

)(172-1
-34-1 ) (Laplasian
) v(r .
)(173-1

34

)(174-1

:
)(175-1

)(176-1

.
:
-35-1 )(Polar Coordinate
)(r,

)(3-1

)(177-1
er e e1 e2 .

35

)(178-1

0
)(4-1

)(178-1
)(179-1
der de ) (4-1 . ) er(P
d er(Q)= er(P)+ der der . ) er(P
| der|=(1)d=d de ) e(P ...
)(180-1
)(181-1
)(182-1
f div T curl v div v v f

) . : (
-36-1 )(Cylindrical Coordinates
).(r,,z
)(183-1

36

)(184-1
f div T curl v div v v f

) . : (
-37-1 )(Spherical Coordinates

)(5-1

) (5-1 P
) (r,, . e er e r
. P :
)(185-1
)(186-1
)(5-1
)(187-1
)(188-1
)(189-1
)(190-1

37


)(191-1
f div T curl v div v v f

) . : (

38