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Chap 18 1) The mongols occupation in Russia mainly affected Russians class system.

The russian uspper class or the boyars were very afraid of the mongols so they gace the mongols more tributes then they demanded and in turn the mongols gave these boyars land in return. Based on this cycle the boyars, which represented about 1-2 percent of the population, became extremely rich. After Russia forced the mongols out of Russia the boyars did not want to redistribute their wealth to the rest of the population, more commonly known as the serfs, and therefore Russia stayed a two class system for a long period of time. 2) Ivan the Great thought that the Russians were decendents of the Byzantine empire therefore making it the third Romebut only in the expansion potential. They conquered land from Poland to the Ural Mountains. They also focused expansion on central Asia. After conqured land in central Asia, they recuited sefs or peasants to live in the conquered land of central Asia. These people were called the Cossacks. They also conquered central Asia to push the mongols out. Expansion offered Tsars a ways to reward loyal nobles by giving them land. 3) Peter extended an earlier policy of recruting bureaucrats from the outside aristocratic ranks and ficing then noble titles. He wanted to free the state from excclusive dependency on aristocratic officials. Peter imitated western military organization creating a specially trained fighting force that put down local militia, he also set up a secret police. He also created a more well defined mlitary hierarchy while developing functionallu specialized bureaucratic departments. Improved the armys weaponly and created the Russian navy. HE completely eliminated nobles concils, creating set of advisors under his control. Provincial governos were apponted from St. Petersburg and Tsar appointed a town magistrate who served as final words on twon concil. Beaurucart and officers had new institutes. Peters economic efforts focused on building up metal and mining industries. Peter changed the economy of Russia without highyly urbanizing Russia. Peter wanted to be respectable in western eyes. Cultral change supplimented beaurcratic training and produced greater technical experties. He also wanted to cut off the Russian elites from its traditions, to enhance the power. Nobles shaved off their beards and wore western clothes. He also put education in math and other tech subjects for nobility. 4) Catherine The great extended westernizations in Russia especially through her instructions of 1767 which basically says Russia is a European State. She like the ideas of the French enlightement and she enjoyed western style art and architecture. She continued to build

the St. Petersburg which was a westernized church. She encouraged mobles to send their children to be educated in the West. She encouraged Russias interest in European countries. Though she also tried to avoid cultral influences especially during the French Revolution. 5) The serfdom in Russia was very sever. Before the mongols came into Russia peasants were largly free and had legal status. However after the mongols came into Russia serfdom became the number one reason to keep the nobles happy and keep the serfs in check. Serfdom was so sever that some serfs could be bought and sold. In the 17th and 18th centuries the Russians passed laws that stated the serfs are now land bonded which meant that there was no legal way to escape srfdom. Basically because of serfdom the boyars gain more and more riches and power while the serfs lost more and more rights. Also because of serfs the ga between the rich and the poor grew more and more therefore stopped the growth of a middle class. 6) Intensification of estate agriculture and the intense use of serfs gave Russia a surplus of food that can be sold in the growing cities of Europe. In return for the food the Russians got luxuries like furniture and other manufactured goods. This made the Russians need the west to buy their food and also supply them with goods that cannot be produced in Russia. This ways the Russians had to depend on the Europeans on exports and imports. 7)

AP WORLD CHAPTER 19 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1. What aspects of Iberian society were transferred to the New World? First off, the Iberians were the Spaniards and Portuguese because they came from the Iberian Peninsula. The Iberians mixed with Native Americans and their earlier civilization forms and were influenced by imported African slaves. New societies were formed from European traditions. The Iberians wanted to set up urban settings and establish themselves as nobles in a very patriarchal society. There was a political centralization of both Portugal and Castile based on pro-bureaucracy laws and judges. The connection between church and state was adopted from the Muslims. Also Spanish and Portuguese merchants helped shape traditions 2. What model for American colonization was established in the Caribbean? In the Caribbean, Spaniards established a form of serfdom for Indians that would set a precedent for the future exploitations of Indians on the mainland. This type of serfdom is called the encomienda. The islands also were a place from which Spain colonized the Americas and served as important ports. These islands were also used to test new ideas, such as the new layout of cities being a grid centered around a town hall or church. The Caribbean was also used in the transfer of religion and the sugar plantation economy. |3. What was the nature of the exploitation of Indians in the Americas?

The exploitation of Indians centered around Spanish economic gain and wealth. For the most part, Indians were held as slaves or serfs and forced to labor for the Spanish. The Spanish would use Indians for gold hunting, sugar and other crop production, construction, mining, and for taxation/tribute. One major example of this can be found in the Spanish encomienda system, where Spanish lords held grants for land and forced all Indians on that land to work. Overall, the Spanish focused on Indian exploitation for raw material wealth which lead to their decline in the long run. 4. Discuss the economy of the American colonies. The American colonies were self-sufficient for basic material needs. They traded with Europe for luxury items, especially silver, gold and metals with Spain. Brazilian colonies in the Americas established sugar plantations with white, aristocratic owners and Indian/other slave labor. Spain employed a colonial system, while England and Holland used mercantilism. Politically the colonies had a bureaucracy with a royal official trained in law at the core. 5. Discuss the nature of the Spanish system of government in the American colonies. The Spanish system of government was a carefully regulates feudal bureaucratic system. Full sovereignty rested with the crown and underneath the crown was the council of the indies, a group of advisers and lawmakers. Underneath the council were viceroys that governed over large viceroyalty regions. These viceroys had large political, economic and military power. Under them were audiencias or local governing courts. In this system the church played an influential role as well. 6. How did the discovery of gold and diamonds change the economic organization of Brazil? The discovery of gold and diamonds opened up the interior of Brazil to farming and ranching, along with increasing interior port size (Rio de Janiero).However people left their previous occupations on the coast to mine for gold, and this mining also increased the use of Indian slave labor. The mining of gold and diamonds was heavily taxed by the government, which saved Brazil from the recent drop in sugar cane prices. Local wealth also increased public works construction, which in turn helped artists, architects and composers. A negative effect of this newfound money was the continued importation of goods without any industrial growth (not sustainable). 7. Describe the social hierarchy of the American colonies. The American colonies were patriarchal, with women having an active role only in family life, and still being subordinate to men. In Brazil skilled laborers and slaves did most of the back-breaking labor, while being of the lowest social status. Above them socially were the whites, merchants and Portuguese bureaucratic upper-class. The American colonies borrowed heavily from the European hierarchy based on wealth and occupation, but also based theirs on gender and age. 8. What was the nature of the 18th-century reforms in Portuguese and Spanish colonies? Programs and reforms were for material benefit and improvements, not as much for political change. Spanish reforms under the Bourbon dynasty aimed at material improvements and a more powerful state, adopting a French bureaucracy, tightening taxation and improving their navy. Marquis of Pombo from Portugal used reforms to stimulate the Brazilian economy and eliminate smuggling of

contraband, and tax evasion, while requiring companies with monopolies to help improve agricultural production.

Chapter 19 1. What aspects of Iberian society were transferred to the New World? Many aspects of Iberian culture were transferred to American culture, so much so that Iberian culture disappeared and became a blend of IberianW. Indian culture. First the religion influenced many aspects of the culture, as all Christian holidays became South American holidays too. However, holidays such as Day of the Dead became a blend of Catholic and Indian traditions and typified the fusion of the cultures. Also there were not many Indians left after the wave of European illnesses, such as smallpox, so the genetic makeup of the population changed with an increase of mixes (mestizos) and black slaves, who were imported to work the plantations. 2. What model for American colonization for American colonization was established in the Caribbean? Spaniards used Indians as a source of labor, which started the encomienda system, and settled towns according to a grid plan. The Spanish established Iberian-styled colonies, which became a model for American colonization. 3. What was the nature of the exploitation of Indians in the Americas? The Spanish eliminated the Mexican and Peruvian class system except for the noble families to use as middlemen between the new Spanish heads-of-state and the majority population. The Spanish then began an encomienda (or plantation) system because of the surplus of serf labor and the need to get the maximum supply possible for tribute. However, in the 1540s the Spanish crown ended the institution because the feudal institution they wanted to create wasnt working. The focus turned to having lots of land, and continuing the forced mining and exploited labor (mita). 4. Discuss the economy of the American colonies. The economy of the colonies was originally mining-based, with the European discovery of gold. It the morphed into the encomienda system with slaves farming the land under the rich Europeans. The encomienda system focused too much on small farming and mining, and not enough on large-scale plantations. 5. Discuss the nature of the Spanish system of government in the American colonies.

There was a bureaucratic system where a king ruled with viceroys who represented him and had extensive powers. Church influenced. Clergy converted natives and ran churches. 6. How did the discovery of gold and diamonds change the economic organization of Brazil? There was more focus on exporting gold and diamonds back to Spain (thinking there was an endless supply). And there was less focus on maintaining a diverse economy (plantations). 7. Describe the social hierarchy of the American colonies. Hierarchies based on wealth and occupation from Europe continued. Race and place of birth also played a crucial role in the social hierarchy, also known as the sociedad de castas, which was based on racial origins. In this system, Europeans, or whites, were at the top, mixes (like mestizos or mulattos) were in the middle, and black slaves and Indians were at the bottom. 8. What was the nature of the 18th century reforms in Portuguese and Spanish colonies? European population growth and eighteenth century wars gave the colonies new importance. Both the Spanish and the Portuguese empires start again, but eventually long-term consequences led to damaging their continuation. In Spain, the colonies met in many cities to discuss and plan all kinds of reforms and their programs were for material benefits and improvements, not political changes. But in Portugal, foreign influences and ideas created a growth of progressive thinkers and bureaucrats in economy, education, and philosophy.