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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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Sections

  • Unit 1
  • Reading
  • Ways with words
  • Grammar Reference
  • Present Simple
  • Present Continuous
  • Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English
  • Controlled Practice
  • Unit 2
  • Ways with Words
  • Grammar Reference 1
  • Past Simple
  • Past Continuous
  • Past Simple and Past Continuous
  • Controlled Practice 1
  • Grammar reference 2
  • The Ordinal Numeral
  • The Fractional Numeral
  • The Multiplicative Numeral
  • Controlled Practice 2
  • Unit 3
  • Present Perfect Simple
  • Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
  • Grammar Reference 2
  • Present Perfect Continuous
  • Progress Test 1
  • Unit 4
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • The Personal Pronoun
  • Unit 5
  • Past Perfect Simple
  • Past Perfect Continuous
  • The Imperative
  • Unit 6
  • Future Simple
  • Future Continuous
  • Be Going to Future
  • Future Simple or Be Going to?
  • Other Ways of Referring to the Future
  • Future Perfect
  • Future Perfect Progressive
  • Other future references
  • Controlled Practice:
  • Unit 7
  • The Passive Voice
  • Further Points on the Passive Voice
  • Causative Forms
  • Progress Test 2
  • Unit 8
  • The Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Number of nouns
  • Unit 9
  • The Noun
  • Gender
  • Countable/uncountable nouns
  • Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
  • The Genitive/Possessive Case
  • Unit 10
  • Prepositions
  • Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs
  • Place of Prepositions in the Sentence
  • Prepositions of Time
  • Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place
  • Progress Test 3
  • Unit 11
  • Position of adjectives
  • The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  • Capitalising proper adjectives
  • Collective adjectives
  • Adjectival opposites
  • Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
  • Comparative Sentences
  • UNIT 12
  • The Article
  • The Indefinite Article
  • The Definite Article
  • Zero Article
  • Unit 13
  • The Adverb
  • Punctuation
  • Unit 14
  • First Conditional
  • Second Conditional
  • Third Conditional
  • Mixed Conditionals
  • Unit 15
  • Modal Auxiliaries
  • Progress Test 4
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2
  • Bibliography

English Practical Course

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English Practical Course

Arleen Ionescu Luiza Vlad Răzvan Vlad

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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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CONTENTS Unit 1..............................................................................................................9
Reading...............................................................................................................9 Ways with words..............................................................................................10 Grammar Reference........................................................................................12
Present Simple.............................................................................................................12 Present Continuous......................................................................................................14 Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English.......................................16

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................17

Unit 2............................................................................................................24
Reading.............................................................................................................24 Ways with Words.............................................................................................25 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................31
Past Simple..................................................................................................................31 Past Continuous...........................................................................................................33 Past Simple and Past Continuous................................................................................34

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................35 Grammar reference 2......................................................................................46
The Ordinal Numeral...................................................................................................46 The Fractional Numeral...............................................................................................46 The Multiplicative Numeral........................................................................................47

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................47

Unit 3............................................................................................................49
Reading.............................................................................................................49 Ways with Words.............................................................................................50 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................56
Present Perfect Simple.................................................................................................56

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English Practical Course

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple......................................................................58

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................59 Grammar Reference 2.....................................................................................64
Present Perfect Continuous..........................................................................................64

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................66

Progress Test 1............................................................................................73 Unit 4............................................................................................................79
Reading.............................................................................................................79 Ways with Words.............................................................................................80 Grammar Reference........................................................................................85
Indefinite Pronouns .....................................................................................................85 The Personal Pronoun..................................................................................................86

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................87

Unit 5............................................................................................................91
Reading.............................................................................................................91 Ways with Words.............................................................................................92
Past Perfect Simple......................................................................................................95 Past Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................96

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................97 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................100
The Imperative...........................................................................................................100

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................101

Unit 6..........................................................................................................103
Reading...........................................................................................................103 Ways with Words...........................................................................................104 Grammar Reference......................................................................................105

English Practical Course

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Future Simple.............................................................................................................105 Future Continuous.....................................................................................................107 Be Going to Future....................................................................................................107 Future Simple or Be Going to?..................................................................................108 Other Ways of Referring to the Future.....................................................................109 Future Perfect.............................................................................................................109 Future Perfect Progressive.........................................................................................110 Other future references..............................................................................................110

Controlled Practice:.......................................................................................110

Unit 7 .........................................................................................................115
Reading...........................................................................................................115 Ways with Words...........................................................................................116 Grammar Reference......................................................................................117
The Passive Voice .....................................................................................................117 Further Points on the Passive Voice..........................................................................118 Causative Forms........................................................................................................120

Controlled Practice........................................................................................121

Progress Test 2...........................................................................................138 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................143
Reading...........................................................................................................144 Ways with Words...........................................................................................144 Grammar Reference 1...................................................................................146
The Conjunction .......................................................................................................146 Coordinating Conjunctions........................................................................................146 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................................................................147

Controlled Practice 1.....................................................................................147 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................150
Number of nouns.......................................................................................................150

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................153

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English Practical Course

Unit 9..........................................................................................................156
Reading...........................................................................................................156 Ways with Words...........................................................................................157 Grammar Reference......................................................................................159
The Noun...................................................................................................................159 Gender........................................................................................................................159 Countable/uncountable nouns....................................................................................160 Nouns which may be uncountable or countable........................................................161 The Genitive/Possessive Case...................................................................................162

Controlled Practice........................................................................................164

Unit 10 .......................................................................................................177
Reading...........................................................................................................177 Ways with Words...........................................................................................178 Grammar Reference......................................................................................180
Prepositions................................................................................................................180 Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs....................................................................................181 Place of Prepositions in the Sentence........................................................................181 Prepositions of Time..................................................................................................182 Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place....................................................182

Controlled Practice........................................................................................185

Progress Test 3...........................................................................................198 Unit 11........................................................................................................202
Reading ..........................................................................................................202 Ways with Words...........................................................................................203 Grammar Reference......................................................................................204
Position of adjectives.................................................................................................204 The Order of Adjectives in a Series...........................................................................204 Capitalising proper adjectives....................................................................................205 Collective adjectives..................................................................................................205

.........................................................................................................228 The Article..............................................................................................251 First Conditional............................................228 The Indefinite Article.........................................................................................................................................................210 Controlled Practice....................................................229 Zero Article.......................................227 Grammar Reference..............................................................268 .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................206 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives.............................................249 Grammar Reference......................................................................................................................253 Mixed Conditionals...................252 Third Conditional........................................................................................255 Unit 15.......................232 Controlled Practice........243 Punctuation......................................................................................................................................................................................248 Reading..........................210 UNIT 12..........................................................240 Controlled Practice 1.................................227 Reading.......................................................................................241 Grammar Reference 2.................251 Second Conditional..........................................................................................................................................................................240 The Adverb........207 Comparative Sentences.................................................254 Controlled Practice .........................................................228 The Definite Article............................................................................................................................................................................239 Grammar Reference 1................................................................................................................248 Ways with Words..................................................................243 Unit 14..................233 Unit 13......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................English Practical Course 7 Adjectival opposites...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................306 ..................................292 Appendix 2...................................268 Ways with Words...........................................................271 Modal Auxiliaries..........................................300 ..............................................271 Controlled Practice.........................................................................................................304 Bibliography.........................................................................................................................................................................8 English Practical Course Reading...........................................................286 Appendix 1...............................................................276 Progress Test 4......................................................................269 Grammar Reference ................................................................................................................................................................................................................

and women housewives worried about fulfilling and achieving their roles. Advertising sets out to make people identify with characters in advertisements. Underline the verbs which are in present tense simple and present continuous: Advertising is capitalism’s soft sell. but they absorb the images. to make them jealous of the person they would become if they bought the product. to buy it and to keep on buying. if they buy BU. and so on. Pay attention to the use of tenses. On the one side. but it is a strong reinforcer. are the foremost consumers. They do not . They see in advertising imagery reflections of society’s attitudes and ideals often taken to extremes.English Practical Course 9 Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Simple © Present Continuous © Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment on advertising. They may not be persuaded to buy products. They do not learn their roles from this source. with their situation and needs. They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image. they believe that if they buy Diavolo they will look like Antonio Banderas. It is really interesting to notice that girls growing up. An anonymous mass of people called consumers have each to be persuaded to need whatever a product can give them. they will be a second Eva Herzigova.

Try again. the persuasive power of advertising c. On the other side. Follow directions: a. Start with in: a. advertising also captures girls’ fluttering images of themselves. c. b. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. You will play a word game. c. Which of these would be the best title for the passage? More than one possible answer is possible. how advertising influences women d. II. women as consumers b. a. the image of women in advertisements 2. d. Middle-aged women are particularly susceptible to advertisements. Which if the following points are made in the passage? a. . Advertisements reinforce a woman’s view of herself. e.10 English Practical Course realize the difference between fancy and reality. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. This is why they become that anonymous mass of people which we called consumers in the beginning. b. Ways with words 1. Girls and housewives are the main consumers. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. b. Advertisements persuade potential consumers that they need a product. 3. Start with the word on. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. Advertisements project an image of the ideal housewives. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree.

IV. 4. c. b. Have you ever encountered the word organise spelled as organize? This is not a mistake. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. Start with an. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. c. b. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. a. Another word for too that ends with -so. Try again. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. e. III. Here are some of them: British English American English theatre theater centre center neighbour neighbor colour color travelling traveling organise organize analyse analyze 5. Find the words described below: a. There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. Classified advertisements . Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can. It’s just the difference between British English and American English. Read the sentence: They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image again. d. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill.English Practical Course 11 c.

kit. B & b. hotel. dining rm. H. Phone 292684 [1977-08S Bourbemouth – Linga-Longa Hotel. 11th onwards: £40/ £50 incl. –c. bathrm.. kit.w. [x21-0H Totnes.m. in bdrms. Special Offer Spring Holiday and Oct. and shower. Ctly. Special Spring terms from £45 plus V.c. Vac. wing in House. lounge.. Bungalow for 7/8. Spac. you find it full of small advertisements containing abbreviations. sit. B. Sept. Reduced rates for chldn. Phone 761001 Torquay.. £31.m.m. & c..A. 2 bedrms.. after 6 p. residential lic. rm.50/£42 p. Phone: (0803) 863664. Totnes. – Quiet det. Westbourne. Night storage heating. Can you decipher them? Bourbemouth – Warm welcome awaits you at Pinewood Guest House. S. Spring. Totnes 1 ¼ miles. June. Phone (06267)4590.. Grammar Reference Present Simple It is used to express: . Tv. Torbay 6 miles. Top class accom. e. 2 w. big. Mrs.. food. – Holiday COTTAGES in medieval courtyard of Queen Anne Mansion. sitt. Yet opening the newspaper. Large car park and gdns.12 English Practical Course You are touring Britain on holiday with friends.’s. Someone you meet recommends a weekly newspaper which contains advertisements for holiday accommodation. Devon. Bowden House. & b. after 7 p. bathrm. Mews Apartments. Games rm. sunny gdn.T. Access at all time. Petersen. 197 Holdenhurst Rd. Excel.

ever. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. constantly. She listens quietly. announcements. Romanian people like to travel.30. Note that the historic present in narrative of funny stories appears in informal speech to describe past events. etc. radio and TV commentaries. occasionally. frequently. • • states a fact which is always true (general truths and states): I don’t like gangster film. usually. completed almost at the same time they are performed (in ceremonial utterances. hardly. regularly. never. forever. Wood floats on water. seldom.): I usually get up at 8.English Practical Course 13 • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. The Earth moves round the Sun. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. often. She works in a very famous company. continually. Most evenings we go out. • momentary actions. explanations. rarely. especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. cooking demonstrations. So when he enters the room he realises that his parents are there and… . • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. The Danube flows into the Black Sea. The door bell rings. headlines and stage directions): Her letter shows how painful the divorce was for her. normally. sometimes.

when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme (with verbs of motion: come. she doesn’t. work? work do not (don’t) work work do not (don’t) work works does not (doesn’t) work in a university.m. Present Continuous It is used to express: . Our summer holiday starts on July 1st. go. I do. Form Affirmative and negative I You We They He She Interrogative Where do do I you we does they he she it Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. Does she speak Italian? No. leave or verbs expressing planned activity: begin. start.14 English Practical Course • planned future actions. finish) The plane lands at 6:34 p. end.

. including the moment of speaking) They are playing in their bedroom now. • a temporary. but I’m living in England these six months. I am filling in a cloze test now.English Practical Course 15 • an activity happening now or around now (in this case the action extends over a slightly longer period of time. You are always calling me at midnight. limited action/ behaviour (+an adverbial indicating present time): I live in Romania. One’s immediate plans for the near future: a repeated action or habit which annoys the speaker I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. • • Form Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the present participle of the main verb (verb+ -ing). I’m writing an essay on Victorianism this week. Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we doing? not are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working.

mind. etc. I think it’s a bit off. realize. but you behave rather stupidly now). taste. I’m having dinner with my boyfriend at a fancy restaurant tonight. own. No. smell. know. But: I am smelling the flower. No. etc. The house belongs to my mother. matter. ( I want to). But: I’m thinking about you. forget. understand. expect. consider. notice. recognize. • verbs of cognition and achievement verbs: think. belong to. I’m not. He is a teacher of Italian. owe. I have a very good car. she is. The meat doesn’t taste good at all. remember. In fact. (This is my opinion). But: You are being stupid now. contain. But: She’s having a shower now. I am. (You generally are very smart. hear. she isn’t. But: I’m tasting the meat to see if it’s done. hold. • verbs of having and being: have. .16 English Practical Course is they he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. be. Is she watching TV? Yes. I smell gas. possess. suppose. Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English There are verbs in English which are not generally used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. etc. She can’t answer the phone at the moment. I don’t remember your name. I think you are right.

b. It often (rain) in summer. Don’t touch it! l. . but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. m. Pardon me. He (come) to see me tonight. g. refuse. The Rotring (belong) to Mary. He wants to buy a new tool. forgive. n. i. It (rain) now. But: Who is minding the baby? (Who is taking care of the baby?) Controlled Practice 1. f. but this week. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. hate. love. sir. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland. Maria (come) from Spain this week. j. I’m feeling the material to see if it’s soft or not. Ann (resemble) her mother more and more. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. d. etc. k. She (speak) French. This course (contain) 14 chapters. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. I (live) in Ploiesti. I feel I need to tell you that you let me down. c. I don’t mind his smoking. This bottle (hold) boric acid.English Practical Course 17 • verbs of feeling (attitudinal verbs): care. But: “How are you feeling today?”. like. dislike. want. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. English and Italian. h. feel. the doctor asked. wish. I hate people calling me late at night. This week we (study) the Middle Ages in the English Culture and Civilisation. e.

18 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2..... It gets/ is getting colder and colder. a good have time and at the same time we …….. I think/ am thinking that something is wrong with the radiator in this room.. People……. It lasts/ is lasting four hours.. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. We have/ are having dinner now. e. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I ….. d. f. What exactly does your job involve/ is your job involving? 3. h. b. things about learn Scottish and Irish writers. What’s wrong with you? Why are you looking/ do you look at me like this? g. our spend summer in Edinburgh.. i. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. I’m thinking/ I think of you. She smells/ is smelling gas. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. The film is extremely long and boring. c. here come every summer to learn more about contemporary . at Edinburgh University. where we ……..

Sunset is at 9.. ALWAYS d. Love. visit literature museum. John has the bad habit of eavesdropping to other people’s conversation. finish So it’s hard work. The cost of the bus ticket is part of the transport fee. THE SUN e. have We ……. The war in Irak is over. MEANS h...30 tonight. courses from ten to half past twelve. a short story written by Angela read Carter.. like. I’m positive that you have no idea what the answer is. so I …. it here. a eat.. yet today.. BET g. We ……. up at half past eight every get morning and ……. I ……. here stop in order to mail your postcard. INCLUDES b. Kate 4. She works hard. so she doesn’t have too much spare time. we …… earlier.. What is the weight of that bag you have as hand luggage? MUCH c. at one. COMES . We …... But I ……. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same: a.. What is inside this book? CONTAIN f. a paper on Samuel Beckett this week write and John ……..English Practical Course 19 literature. have a post-office in front of the Centre. as we ….

She is having dinner. Choose the correct sentence: a. The dentist is seeing a patient. The number of people who own houses on the outskirts of the city is increasing. She has a car. Ann is foolish today. We think she is tall. The grocer is weighing sugar. 6. You cannot see Mary now: she (see) her boyfriend. m.20 English Practical Course i. f. / She has dinner . / The sweater is feeling soft. The sweater feels soft. j. / The actor appears on TV. HAVING 5. g. / She looks angry. b. They are decorating my room now. l. /She is having a car. George can’t watch his favourite TV program now because his father (watch) a movie./ We are thinking she is tall. k. The actor is appearing on TV. / Ann is being foolish today. e. / The dentist sees a patient. / I see a horse. BUYING j. i. We think about her. / I am feeling the sweater. / The grocer weighs sugar. I am seeing a horse. d. d. I feel the sweater. She is tasting the soup. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. n. c. Hardly anyone (wear) tight pants nowadays. . c. / She tastes the soup. She is looking angry. They won’t go out as it (snow) and they (not have) warm clothes. I am looking at the picture. b. / We are thinking about her. h. / I look at the picture. a.

Why you (listen) to this song. g. i. c. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences. g. b. The two friends are listening to a rock concert. This novel is about a boy who (desert) his friends and (go) to enrol in the army. Mary? You (not listen) to this type of music as a rule. The train that we (look) at right now just (leave) for Arad. She is wearing a strange. The children are playing at hide-and-seek. e. d. It takes five hours to reach the top of the mountain. The milkman comes to our house twice a week. a.English Practical Course 21 e. i. . The family are celebrating the birth of their newest member. j. f. What George (do) to his computer now? ~ I (think) he (format) it. I usually read two books a week when I have time. yellow dress. She (put) the baby to sleep. h. My father usually comes home from work by car. Our guests are talking to us in Russian. f. That play (come) to our theatre next week. h. She’s busy at the moment. You (want) to see it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7.

De data asta însă rămânem acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. a. E sâmbătă şi facem curat în casă. c. e. f. d. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa cinematografului dar tu întotdeauna citeşti la ora aceasta. iar tata mănâncă omletă. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Clujului. Luăm micul dejun. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Mama bea cafea.22 English Practical Course j. Tom never washes his trousers until somebody tells him to. Translate into English using the Present Simple or Continuous. b. g. Nu spune niciodată nimic interesant. În fiecare vară mergem cinci zile la munte. Vacanţa de vară ţine două luni. Eu fac paturile iar sora mea şterge praful din cameră. Bunica uită întotdeauna unde-şi pune pantofii şi de fiecare dată când are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa.

…………. Add tag questions: a.? n. My boss doesn’t employ teenagers..? . …………..? o... The pubs close at half past three.. ………….. ………….? k.? f. They are meeting him at one o’clock today. They hardly ever buy bread form this shop.? l. …………. ………….. ………….? g. ………….. …………. …………. He plays volleyball quite well. You look nice in this T-shirt.English Practical Course 23 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9.? p.. …………...? m.? h. …………... She thinks we are running away from her. I don’t think I’m the right person to teach him English. Tom is having some whisky. This car belongs to Jack.? e. It seems to me he is wasting his time.? j. …………. She knows where he was last night. …………. ………….? c... The police never catch any thieves.? i.? d. They say she works as an air-hostess. I’m sure you know who stole that purse. You’re not a doctor.. ? b. ………….

only a few million people spoke English. for example. People started to import English in the seventeenth century. when English is one of the major languages in the world. Above all. Underline the verbs which are in the past tense: Today. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe.24 English Practical Course Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Simple © Past Continuous © The Ordinal Numeral © The Multiplicative © The Fractional Numeral •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following text about English as a world language. in all the continents of the world. assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and .that in Shakespeare’s time. and it was unknown to the rest of the world. with the first settlements in North America. Pay attention to the use of the past tense. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing . it is the great growth of population in the United States.

due to the extension of computerised systems and softs which are mostly in English. the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. learned any songs in English? . the quicker you learn it. managed to translate anything into English? d. yet again English is the predominant language. As I could read in an article. Spanish or French. Again incredible. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German. Ways with Words 1. been to an English-speaking country? b.English Practical Course 25 twentieth century. Have you: a. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. used English in your studies or work? g. read a scientific article in English? h. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. that has given the English language its present status in the world. Incredibly enough. I think I have. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes. So. passed any exams in English? c. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people? f.

D. c. an oral exam. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. go. surely.. problem. e. B.. d. joke. C. If you want to practise speaking. b. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. If you want to become . C. a good idea is to tell a story or a .. practical.26 English Practical Course j. B. matter. to someone. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2.. very... quite. loss. If you don’t understand anything you hear. A. D. B. D. C.. confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent 3. you have to be co-operative. fairly. tale. D. you should pretend that you have understood. Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English. D. fool. . then listening to a tape is a . laughter.. certain of what someone has said. A. of time.. handy. When you .. A. you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. skillful. C. take. A. B. B. it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. A. fluent. waste. when you speak. make. speak. C. If you’re not .

5. from films. Some words have different meanings And yet they’re spelled the same.” “Come in!” “Thanks. A cricket is an insect.English Practical Course 27 4. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B.” 6. without being told to.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. every day possible. TV and records. Read and translate the following poems on the English language and pronunciation: A. To play it – it’s a game.” B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A.” says “Have a good weekend. in real situations. Same to you.” says “Make yourself at home. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher. Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night. . in every way possible.

Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: Musicians of good taste Will very often form a band – I’ve one around my waist! You spin a top. pray. The English language to explain. Yet seized a wheel and spoke! A door may often be ajar. Or spin a yarn maybeYet every spin’s a different spin. go for a spin. It’s thoroughly agreed. it’s very queer. As you can plainly see. who is to blame For different meanings to some words Pronounced and spelt the same? A little journey is a trip.28 English Practical Course On every hand. It’s very clear. Yet a jumper has to leap. Some people say that you’re a dear Yet dear is far from cheap. And. in every land. Is very hard indeed. . A trip is when you fall. It doesn’t mean you have to dance When’er you hold a ball. ‘twas told me as a jokeA dumb man wouldn’t speak a word. A jumper is a thing you wear. Now here’s a most peculiar thing.

A policeman is a copper.English Practical Course 29 But give the door a slam And then your nerves receive a jarAnd then there’s jars of jam. And jams you give your thumbs. in Verse That Is Fun. you already know. laugh and through. 1962) B. too. I take it. and now you wish perhaps To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard. Faber. one is a snake. of course. On every hand. The English language. Ireson. And adders. ed. The other adds up sums. The English language to explain Is very hard indeed! (Harry Hemsley. And dead: t’s said like bed. It’s a nickname (impolite!) Yet a copper in the kitchen Is an article you light. . in every land. You’ve heard. but not you On hiccough. of traffic jams. Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble. not beadAnd only Scotsmen call it deed! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. thorough. It’s thoroughly agreed. Well done.

broth in brother. as long as = atât timp cât. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. as seen = dupã cum se vede. în principiu. ( Herbert Farjeon. And do and go. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. come. 2. Nor both in bother. And cork and work and card and ward. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. And then there’s dose and rose and loseJust look them up – and goose and choose. Read the sentence: As I could read in an article. and thwart and cartCome. as a rule = de regulã. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. as shown in Fig.30 English Practical Course A moth is not a moth in mother. And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear. How do you translate as I could read. Hints on Pronunciation for Foreigners) 7. as far as = întrucât. . And font and front and word and sword. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. în mãsura în care. pe cât. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man aliveI’d mastered it when I was five. Again.

The industrialisation in England led to the change of people’s mentalities. as well as = cât şi. Grammar Reference 1 Past Simple It is used to express: • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. I didn’t like reading. in 1985. yesterday morning/ evening. up to the present = pânã în prezent. Suddenly he remembered something.English Practical Course 31 as such = ca atare. such as = astfel ca. • habitual. as when = ca atunci când. He stood up and went out of the room. . Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic) or completed states: She always wore red. • a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. as well = deopotrivã. yesterday. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. The English literature teacher gave us a copy of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight yesterday. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. as yet/ so far/ up to now. de asemenea. tot aşa ca. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century. ca în cazul în care. In those years. ca de exemplu. He took off his shirt. I met him every day on my way to the office.

arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. No. arrive? go? did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. I didn’t. .32 English Practical Course Form The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. There are many common irregular verbs. In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 299) I You We They He/She Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t). I did. When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes. I You We They He/She Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did.

without the sense of criticism mentioned above. she didn’t.English Practical Course 33 Did she report the results obtained? Yes. Past simple is used for this meaning. Past Continuous It is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was lecturing my students on linguistics. When she arrived. and the engine was making a huge noise.30 yesterday. Note that past continuous is not used to describe general habitual actions. and little John was trying to draw something on my favourite poster. • A past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. of course. When I lived in Paris. One of the headlights was continually falling off. they were waiting for her in the corridor. • changing states: The car was getting worse all the time. it means criticism and is similar to the use of present continuous when expressing annoyance) When she came to me. My sister was playing with her dolls. • repeated actions (with a frequency adverb. -refers to: • background descriptions in narrative I entered the room and looked around. she was always looking through my diary. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative . No. I crossed the bridge over Seine all the time. Father was reading some news in the newspaper. she did.

34 English Practical Course I He She You We was was not (wasn’t) working. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. (I was in the middle of the activity. I wasn’t. (producing and looking are long activities. No. . (I started and finished it. I was. Something happened in the meantime to interrupt them).) I did my homework yesterday. she was. No. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. were were not They (weren’t) Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. she wasn’t.) They were producing such machines when those people started to buy shares in their company.

somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. Latin played/ was playing an essential part in the development of languages such as Romanian. or French. Do not alter the form of the words in any way and do not change the meaning of the sentence: a.English Practical Course 35 Controlled Practice 1 1. the entire family moved/ was moving in. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. MEANT b. WAS c. g. Italian. d. The first important breakthrough was replacing/ replaced radios with television sets in the 50’s. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. I didn’t exactly like swimming in those days. i. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. 2. To get to the office on time I had to wake up at 5:30 every morning. j. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. While I was learning/ learnt for my French exam. f. WHEN . When the house was decorated. Spanish. b. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. There was someone to meet him on arrival. e. Our crew included/ was including a linguist. a writer and an English interpreter. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. h. We made / were making about 50 text analyses last year. c.

I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . HAD j. HAVING i. He (be) a tall. It (be) summer and we (all / lie out)in the garden. We children (look for) worms and insects. “Arthur. The smell of the cheese stopped my eating the breakfast. GOING f. THAT e. My mother (read) and my uncle (just / doze) in the sun. And then he (arrive). PUT 3. handsome man with piercing blue eyes and he (look) straight at my mother. Someone was painting our house at that moment. I (think) you (be) dead. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: It (happen) in June 1985. did you notice the time? WHAT g. I intended to invite you at my party. Her face (go) pale and her eyes (open) wide with shock. When you passed by the town hall clock. PASSING h. I didn’t know about your departure.36 English Practical Course d. “ she (say) in a kind of whisper. but I’m afraid that I completely forgot (it). Someone stole Diana’s bag yesterday.

00 and it (burn) brightly when Mike came home at 9.00. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . h. ‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask). He (insist) on finishing his task. It looks very old. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. c.m. j. At 3 a. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. g. n. d.’ o. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. The car (stop). Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. I wonder who it (belong) to? l. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: a. e. He (watch) the movie when the phone (ring). I (not know) that you still (read) it. b. This (annoy) the bull. which immediately (begin) to chase Mr. I just (open) the door when the wind (blow) and (break) all the windows in the room. m. k. They suddenly (realize) that they (fly) with the wrong plane. The admiral (study) the battle plans when he (receive) news of the invasion.’ ‘I’m sorry. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. i. He (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. Mrs.English Practical Course 37 4. ‘Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. f. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. He (dig) his garden when he accidentally (cut) three of his toes. Smith. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. She lit the fire at 8.

f. Dan se gândi că trebuia să se apuce de lucru. Cum s-a întâmplat exact accidentul? Mergeam de la Bucureşti la Ploieşti şi tata tocmai ne povestea despre accidentul unor prieteni de-ai lui când deodată în faţa maşinii a sărit un câine. Te-am zărit alaltăieri în mulţimea de oameni care aştepta să se deschidă sala de spectacol. era cu mult în urmă. e.38 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Mă uitam la televizor când a sosit poştaşul. g. Translate into English using the simple and continuous past tense whenever necessary: a. c. cineva a bătut la uşă. În timp ce Diana asculta un concert la radio. Încercau să găsească drumul către centru când au dat peste un tânăr care s-a oferit să îi însoţească şi care i-a condus la obiectivele turistice cele mai importante ale oraşului. a fost de-a dreptul imposibil. . d. Anul trecut pe vremea asta eram la Predeal. dar deşi am încercat să-mi croiesc drum până la tine. b. dar tocmai în momentul când lua această hotărâre veni un prieten şi-l invită la un meci de fotbal. acolo îmi petreceam vacanţa de iarnă şi schiam în fiecare zi.

. De ce boli ai suferit când erai mic şi când ai fost ultima oară la medic? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. While the maid (…) the room a skeleton (…) out of the cupboard. k. While I (…) in London I (…) my money in my socks. They (…) dinner when the girl next door (…) and (…) for a loaf of bread. She (…) the voice that (…) louder than the others as that of her father. Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the Simple Past or Past Continuous: a. c. l. h. Whenever the politician (…) his mouth to speak the crowd (…) insults. He not (…) the explosion because at that moment he (…). she suddenly (…) they (…) off. While the old lady (…) those scrambled eggs. As soon as he (…) under the shower. b.English Practical Course 39 h. g. j. My sister (…) wet while she (…) in the rain. i. What she (…) last night between 10 o’clock and 4? f. m. I (…) my bag when I (…) the plane. d. I (…) when I (…) the road. the doorbell (…). They (…) and (…) while they (…) the mountain. e.

like the autumn and summer terms. When he (…) downhill. and the very chimes sounded muffled and despondent. p. Translate the following texts into Romanian: A. When she (…) lunch a waiter (…) a plate of soup in her lap. It drained every colour and blurred every outline of the urban landscape. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. the starboard engine (…) into flames. Electric lights burned all day in offices and lecture rooms. and the sun seldom broke through the cloud cover in the brief interval of daylight. Outside. thick with moisture and pollution. the air was cold and clammy. You could hardly see the face of the clock at the top of the University’s tower. q.40 English Practical Course n. The mornings were dark. but seemed longer than the other two because of the cheerless season. dusk came early. As it (…) their mother (…) the picnic. The winter term at Rummidge was of ten weeks’ duration. The atmosphere chilled the bones . the brakes (…) and he only (…) a serious accident by steering into a bush. As they (…) from Stockholm to Paris. o.

except work. Some people attributed the characteristic adenoidal whine of the local dialect to the winter climate. condemned to be idle in a place where there was nothing much to do. Only work seemed to provide an answer. or having come.English Practical Course 41 and congested the lungs. was the fate of the unemployed of Rummidge and environments. which gave everybody runny noses and blocked sinuses for months open like fish gasping for air. therefore. No other reason would make anyone come here. Nice Work) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . All the more grim. damp. stay. (David Lodge. At this time of the year it was certainly hard to understand why human beings had ever settled and multiplied in such a cold. grey place.

“Down the coast. Maybe. He turned around and started walking back. He should have got Helen out long ago. “We’ll probably clear it up tomorrow.Q?” he asked the Australian. and he felt the vibration of his feet against the hard road. But it was not hopeless even if he did not know that she was all right. “Your wife’s probably all right. He had never felt so completely unsure of himself and what he was doing.” “Yes. Quayle knew then that here was a brick wall. “Jesus Christ. has some information. He was not sure of anything anymore.”. They may have telephone communication with the sector down the coast. He should have expected this. He thanked the guard as he walked away.” Quayle did not feel himself completely conscious. too. It had all happened too quickly. the Australian said. .” “That’s right. He didn’t know whether or not she had been sent back with the other women.Q. He was not certain about what he was to do… Perhaps H.42 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B. “Where is H.”.” “Yes. It’s cut off. too. the Australian said.” Quayle was standing there uncertainly.

English Practical Course 43 He was picturing Helen somewhere and he did not know where. Signed with their Honour) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . and sometimes with two fibre suitcases walking with other women. and he had vagueness about coming back or waiting to get down the coast and whether this invasion would fail. It was almost morning when he got there. and he could hear the bombing him as he walked into the timber. He was not certain of anything. He caught a truck going through Suda Bay and then walked back to the airdrome. (James Aldridge. and sometimes being surprised by German parachutists and shot. But he could see her with sandals sometimes.

” “This is not a good place to stop. “and then I will go. you see. having to share this worry with someone. “Where do you come from?” I asked him.” “What animals were they?” I asked.” he said. women and children were crossing it. “Yes. He was too tired to go any farther. “only the animals I stated. But the old man sat there without moving. “I stayed. “I was taking care of the animals”. I have come twelve kilometres now and I think I can go no further. I had to leave them. he explained. trucks and men.44 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ C.” he said and smiled. There was a bridge across the river and cars. But the others? . “The cat will be all right. “I will wait a little while.” He looked at me very blankly and tiredly.” “And you have no family?” I asked watching the far end of the bridge. then said. I am seventy-six years old.” he said.” he said.” I said. taking care of the animals. An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. I am sure. I was the last one to leave the town of San-Carlos. “No. not quite understanding. “From San-Carlos. “Oh. “There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons.” I said.

English Practical Course 45 Now what do you think about the others? What will they do under the artillery?” “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked”? I asked. “If you are rested. “I was taking care of the animals. “Yes. I would go. It was a grey overcast day with a low ceiling.” “Thank you.” “Then they’ll fly.” he said dully. “Get up and try to walk now.” There was nothing to do about him. (Ernest Hemingway. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have. I urged.” “But the others? It’s better not to think about the others. It was Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. “I was only taking care of the animals. swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust. but no longer to me. Old Man at the Bridge) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .” he said and got to his feet. so their planes were not up.” he said.

46 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar reference 2 The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.04 (nought) point nought four 1.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.000.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.06 one point nought six .77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.

5. g. Cât e ceasul. 2. August. La ora două şi un sfert iau autobuzul 85 şi merg în Piaţa Universităţii. 43/42. 8. 3. 1958. e. May. d. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold.English Practical Course 47 The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. three times 4x fourfold. 2 9/7. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4. h. „A douăsprezecea noapte” este o comedie scrisă de Shakespeare. 11. 27. 4. i. 1980. El s-a născut la 23 octombrie 1974. 2. f. Deschideţi cartea la pagina 43 şi faceţi exerciţiul unu. 1987. c. La 1 iunie sărbătorim ziua copilului. April. . Al cincilea modul este deja obositor pentru studenţi. 1974. Câţi cenţi are un dolar? j. four times 10x tenfold. a hundred times Controlled Practice 2 1. aşa că nu fac mai mult de cinci minute.879. March. 2002. te rog? Douăsprezece şi un sfert. Între 13:20 şi 13:30 avem o pauză în care nimeni nu are timp să mănânce. b. Read the following dates: July. 11x. ten times 100x a hundredfold. 12. Cât faci de la facultate până la cămin? Căminul este lângă facultate. 2001. January. Translate into English: a.

O pătrime din avere îi aparţine lui Smith. o. p. Camera are 5 metri în lungime şi 4 şi jumătate în lăţime. n. m. Toate lunile au treizeci sau treizeci şi una de zile cu excepţia lunii februarie care are douăzeci şi opt de zile.78. Mă duc la bunica aproximativ de trei ori pe săptămână. l. Cât ai obţinut? 0. El a scris o lucrare de trei ori mai bună decât a ta.48 English Practical Course k. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

If you will excuse me. At the close of the race. Can't we do it again? Judge: I cannot discuss this with you any longer. and I had to bow down to fix it. All of the other runners deserted me at the starting line. Joan. Judge: I do not think that you can use that as an excuse.English Practical Course 49 Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Continuous © Differences between the Present Perfect and thePast Tense •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. Pay attention to the use of homographs. so he goes to talk to one of the judges about it. Margaret: Joan has told me this morning that she wants a career in the music business. I would have won. That is why I did not get to start at the same time as the other runners. but my shoelace was undone. Read the following dialogues. Jim: But the race was not fair. Dialogue 1: The Race Jim has just come in last in a road race. . She is packing to go to Nashville to record her first record right now. I am late to meet some friends for a camping trip in the desert. They are discussing the latest news they have received from their daughter. Jim: I would like to contest the outcome of this contest. Case closed! Dialogue 2: The Singer Charlie and Margaret are a married couple who own a video store. you were not even close to the winning runner. He feels that the race was unfair.

It will bring her to tears. I will check with Joan first. you can tear them up.) refers to "the act of shutting something." or also "a device used to shoot an arrow. It says on them that they are non-refundable.) describes "something very near." To bow (v." To close (v. Margaret: That's a great idea. what should I do with Joan 's train tickets to Nashville? Charlie: If she decides to stay. The meanings of the following homographs change depending on the way they are pronounced. demonstrating gratitude or respect. We need to put our heads together to find a solution. Margaret: OK. We could use another sales clerk. On a separate subject.50 English Practical Course Charlie: What? She is going to subject the world to her singing voice? She is tone deaf! Margaret: Don't let her hear you say that." CLOSE and CLOSE: Close (adj. Practise these dialogues. BOW and BOW: A bow (n." . Ways with Words 1. Homophones are words that sound the same. The English language has a very complex spelling system. She could work at the store. but are spelled differently (such as "hare" and "hair"). not far away. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (such as \'PREsent\ and \pre'SENT\). I know she would like that.) is "the action of bending forward at the waist and stooping low. We will have to find a gentle way to separate her from the idea.) is "a tied ribbon. Charlie: Maybe we could show her that she could be of more use here.

) are "drops that fall from the eyes of someone who is crying." Now practice these homographs in sentences of your own." To contest (v.) is "a reason or explanation for one's actions." RECORD and RECORD: A record (n." SUBJECT and SUBJECT: A subject (n." To record (v.) refers to "the act of disputing or objecting to something.) is "an arid." USE and USE: Use (n.) is "a competition that determines a winner. sandy region.) is "the action of employing for some purpose.) describes "things that are isolated or unconnected.) is "written documentation of a past event." To desert (v.) means "to divide or segregate. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? .) something means "to leave it behind." SEPARATE and SEPARATE: To separate (v. or experiment.) means "to expose someone to something." EXCUSE and EXCUSE: An excuse (n." To excuse (v.) means "to rip something into pieces.) is "the act of writing information down." To subject (v." Separate (adj." Tear (v.) means "to forgive. conversation." or it can also refer to "a phonograph album.) is "the event of employing something to serve a purpose." TEAR and TEAR: Tears (n.) is "the topic of a book." or "documenting data (such as music) electronically.English Practical Course 51 CONTEST and CONTEST: A contest (n." DESERT and DESERT: A desert (n." Use (v.

the wife tells her husband: We need to put our heads together to find a solution. from head to foot/toe – over your whole body have a good/fine head of hair – to have a lot of hair on your head do something in your head – calculate something in your mind go over your head – to be too difficult for you to understand a clear/cool head – the ability to think clearly or calmly in a difficult or dangerous situation need your head examined – be crazy use your head – to think about something sensibly keep your head above water – to manage to continue to live on your income or keep your business working in spite of money problems be hanging your head against a brick wall – to keep trying to do something which seems impossible have a head for figures/facts/ business – to be good at doing calculations. to feel better again after being ill and in bed . In the second dialogue. you walk there get/jump/ rise to your feet etc –to stand up after you have been sitting be on your feet – to be standing for a long time without having time to sit down. to stand up. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word head. It means to discuss a difficult problem together. remembering facts head over heels in love – loving somebody very much heads with roll – used to say that some people will be punished severely for something that has happened Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Foot on foot – if you go somewhere on foot.52 English Practical Course 2. To put somebody’s heads together is an idiom. 3.

English Practical Course 53 be rushed off your feet/ be run off your feet – to be very busy put your foot in it . especially by always being near them keep your hair on – (spoken) to tell someone to keep calm and not get annoyed let your hair down – (informal) to enjoy yourself and start to relax.holding each other’s hand. especially to show love . so that you embarrass or upset someone have two left feet – to be very clumsy get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly. especially after working very hard make somebody’s hair stand on end – to make someone very frightened not turn a hair – to remain completely calm when something bad or surprising suddenly happens not harm/ touch a hair of somebody’s head – no to harm somebody in any way Hand take somebody by the hand – hold somebody’s hand in order to take them somewhere hand in hand . usually by having an argument have/keep both feet on the ground – to think in a sensible and practical way and not have ideas or aims that will be impossible to achieve have one foot in the grave – to be very old or very ill leave feet first – to die before you leave a place or job feet of clay –someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults that you did not realize they had Hair get in somebody’s hair – to annoy someone.to say something without thinking carefully.

and sent through the post go hand in hand – to be closely connected get your hands on to obtain something– to catch somebody you are angry with . you are not responsible for them anymore at hand –near in time or space on hand – close by and ready when needed first hand/ at first hand – by direct personal experience at second/third/fourth hand – passed from the first person who actually saw or heard something to a second.to influence or to be involved in something in good/safe/capable hands – being dealt with or looked after by someone who can be trusted off your hands – if something or somebody is off your hands. or fourth person by hand – delivered from one person to another. third.to do no work at all a dab hand – someone who is very good at doing something good with your hands – skillful at making things turn your hand to .to start doing something new or practising a new skill keep your hand in – to keep practising something so you do not lose your skill a firm hand – strict control of someone get out of hand – to become impossible to control take something/somebody in hand – to bring someone or something under control in hand – being dealt with have a hand in .54 English Practical Course right-handed/ left-handed – using the right hand for most actions rather than the left. or the left hand rather than the right right/left hander – a player who uses mainly the right hand or mainly the left hand not do a hand’s turn .

you refuse immediately and completely hand in glove – closely connected with somebody.English Practical Course 55 lay your hands on – to find or obtain something have time on your hands – to have a lot of time because you have no work to do have your hands full –to be very busy or too busy out of hand – if you refuse something out of hand.so close to somebody that they ought to notice. but they do not stick/ poke your nose into – to show too much interest in private matters that do not concern you look down your nose at – to behave as if you think somebody or something is not good enough for you . not to say anything because you might make a mistake big mouth – someone who is a big mouth or has a big mouth is annoying because they cannot keep secrets or they often say things they should not say make your mouth water – if food makes your mouth water. long right under somebody’s nose . it looks so good you want to eat it immediately Nose red-nosed/ long-nosed – having a nose that is red. especially in a bad or illegal activity on the one hand… on the other hand – used when comparing different or opposite facts or ideas give somebody a (big) hand (of applause) – to clap loudly in order to show your approval of a performer or speaker Mouth keep your mouth shut – not to tell other people about a secret.

He has never used an English-English dictionary before. He can drive it now). The recentness may be indicated by just. (i.) Has English been used by people at this office in the last ten years? (But: Why was English used on such a large scale in 1999?) She has had four car accidents. • activities completed in the immediate past (these events are recent.e. .56 English Practical Course with your nose in the air – behaving as if you are more important than other people and not talking to them on the nose – exactly keep your nose to the grindstone – to work very hard. He has fixed his car. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. Sometimes these events happened at an unknown time in the past): She has just met him in the computer science laboratory. I can tell you the story).e. (up to the present) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. without stopping to rest Grammar Reference 1 Present Perfect Simple It relates past actions and states to the present. without a definite time given. It is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. (i.

she hasn’t. No. . There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page 299). (Since means from a definite point in the past till now.English Practical Course 57 • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. No. Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. Affirmative and negative I We You They He has (‘s) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. How long have you worked as a translator? How long has it taken the English language to be used by so many people? Form have/has +verb (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. and for expresses a duration). She has not (hasn’t) Interrogative Have I we you Has they he been to the United Kingdom? she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. I have. she has. I haven’t.

(He is dead. I found them behind a couple of other books. Where did you find them? (certainty).) I lived in this flat for two years.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. I have. and feels that the event is connected with the present. (implies definite reference: the house we talked about). on the top shelf. I’m going back to take it. (But: He started working in this university four years ago) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes.) He has worked in this university for four years. I’m going back to take it.) John Fowles has written very good short stories. I’ve left the red bag in my room.58 English Practical Course Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. or be further away. . (definite) I bought the house after all. (Now I live somewhere else. I’ve bought a house. Here the speaker may be about to return. (He is still alive. Choice between past simple and present perfect for recent events may depend on the mental attitude of the speaker. (indefinite) I bought a house last month. I left the red bag in my room. This in turn may depend on whether the speaker feels distant in time or place from the event. Here the speaker may feel separated in time from the event.

Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. not really. Insert the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite: a. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. . I (pass) in December. Dan: Well. I (be) on a tram. They just (give) me a pay rise. but you (not see) me. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. Dan. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your English Phonetics test.English Practical Course 59 Controlled Practice 1 1. But what about you. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. …. Thomas (to meet) her for the first time the day he turned 20. Dan: Hello. My brother is still out of work. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks ago. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. I (not hear) from you for a long time. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. I (not pass) my Lexicology exam yet. I have. Maria: Well. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. that’s one piece of good news.

g. I don’t know why but I have the feeling that something (to happen). here is your cake. I (to see) my friend’s name in the papers quite often lately. They (to stand) in silence for a few minutes. She (to read) about nine hours today. you (not to eat) it. When I (to buy) my car I (to ask) the company to confirm my insurance by telephone. She (to begin) reading at 8 this morning and (to go) on reading until 11 o’clock when she (to stop) and (to have) something to eat. he (to leave) quite a long time ago. e. she (to speak) at last. When ________________ the company? a) have you joined b) Had you joined c) did you join d) have you ever joined 2. As far as I know. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. and (to translate) more than 25 pages.60 English Practical Course b. Mr Black (not to return) from the dentist’s. ___________________ in Pakistan? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked . The company (to tell) me to wait for the response. h. Mike. but I (to wait) a month now and the confirmation still (not come). d. Circle the correct answer: 1. c. f.

The reason I look so brown is that _______________ from a business trip to Barbados a) I come back b) I came back c) I never came back d) I've just come back 8. b) I never had to deal with. a) I spoke b) I've already spoken c) I hadn’t spoken d) I will have spoken 6. You ____________ to a word ____________ . c) I've ever had to deal with. ___________________ to him last week. a) We have signed b) We signed c) We haven't signed d) We had signed 7. Sales ________ in 1995 but then _____ in 1996. d) I've never had to deal with. 5. That's the best presentation ______________ a) I never heard b) I didn't hear c) I used to hear d) I've ever heard 4. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid.English Practical Course 61 c) Had you ever worked d) Didn't you work 3. a) didn’t rise have fallen b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen d) rose have fallen 9. He's the most difficult customer _____________________ a) I never dealt with.

What are we going to do? We (…) the train and the next one leaves in the morning. I (…) it when you (…) at school. I (…) catch a cold every month. h. i. The movie (…) at 12 and (…) for two hours. My sister (…) several poems. e. f. c. Fill in with a suitable verb either in the Past Tense or Present Perfect: a. As a child. She just (…) her second ode. j. I wonder when it’s going to get colder.) a cold for more than two years. Now I (. You (…) all your life in this luxurious mansion? b. It (…) very hot this summer. When I (…) school I (…) my hair and (…) it short ever since. Everybody enjoyed it. d.. You (…) her an e-mail yet? Yes. g.. It's obvious that ________________ this report. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . For your information I (…) home at 8 in the morning and (…) just before noon. John cannot send the letter since he (…) it. He (…) writing it at 5 and it’s 8 already.62 English Practical Course a) b) c) d) listened didn't listen listened haven't listened I haven't said I say saying I've said 10. a) you haven't read b) you didn't read c) you don't read d) you had read 4.

He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been cancelled. evident. Mike has tried to give up smoking before. Cu ani în urmă creştea porumbei şi lilieci dar acum s-a apucat să planteze ananas. (first) d. (forward) f. When did you leave the country? (ago) c. It was proposed that a new church should be built. că de mâncat – am mâncat dimineaţă. It’s been years since I last met Jim. Pe unde ai umblat? b. Te-am căutat ieri vreo două ore şi te-am căutat şi astăzi. (for) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. c. (contact) b. The last time I saw Jane was on Monday.English Practical Course 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. (point) e. It is Sunday. . le-a scris când era foarte tânăr. Rephrase the sentences below using the word in brackets: a. Am băut şi am dansat până acum. d. Translate into English: a. Vecinul meu a scris şi câteva poveşti de adormit copiii.

după aceea s-a făcut nevăzut şi de atunci poliţia îl caută fără încetare. după ce l-aţi înjurat că nu a avut bani să plătească chiria? j. S-a purtat foarte frumos cu mine de când i-am spus că îi vând lui maşina mea. f. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. h. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new products for several years. Tocmai am aflat vestea conform căreia preşedintele acelei ţări a căzut victimă unui atac terorist. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses the present perfect simple can be also used./ They have created 2000 new products so far. Sigur. Cumnatul meu a spart ieri casa fostului său director. g. Nu am văzut în viaţa mea atâta suferinţă cât am văzut azi la acest azil de bătrâni. Vi se pare curios că tocmai şi-a luat lucrurile şi a plecat.64 English Practical Course e. There may be little contrast when some state verbs are used. Grammar Reference 2 Present Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an activity which began in the past and is still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new products for several years. i. • an activity which began in the past. Şi-a plătit-o încă de când a luat salariul. domnule. in negative sentences. John şi-a plătit datoria. .

I’ve been washing my skirts this morning.English Practical Course 65 How long have you lived here? How long have you been living here? Some verbs (especially sit. She has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? . etc. Completed: emphasis on achievement I’ve washed four skirts this morning. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. Incomplete. or recently completed: emphasis on duration. irritation. stay and wait) prefer the continuous form. Affirmative and negative I You We They He has been have been have not been (haven’t been) working. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). • a repeated activity. can be present. in which case a nuance of reproach. There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion. lie.

Câte cuvinte ai căutat în dicţionar pânã acum? d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. Locuim în România de trei ani. I (work) hard all day. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. but (not see) her ever since. e. You’re out of breath. d.66 English Practical Course Controlled Practice 2 1. She (not write) the essay on Renaissance yet. I saw her in August. Pe unde ai umblat? b. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. Translate the following sentences into English. Your eyes are red. c. You (cry). What she (do) all afternoon? h. g. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous: a. b. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . You (run)? f. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. I’m tired. i. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. Te caut de o orã.

. Rewrite each sentence. I haven’t been to Barcelona before. It’s a long time since I last saw such a good movie.English Practical Course 67 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. You ate chocolates in the morning. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half. so that the meaning stays the same: a. beginning as shown. Alan has been going/ has gone to South America. Lately your spelling ……………………………………. I don’t know where my glasses are. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. you have eaten chocolates in the afternoon and you are still eating chocolates now and it’s 5 pm. No wonder you are overweight. No wonder you are overweight. d. I bought my car in 1992 and I’m still driving it. b. f. c.. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. We haven’t seen each other for ages. It’s ages ……………………………………………… c. I haven’t seen ………………………………………. I have ……………………………………………………. Choose the correct verb form: a. I’ve been ……………………………………………… d. g. e. It’s the first ……………………………………………. e. There is definite improvement in your spelling recently. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. You …………………….

But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. d. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. The last time I spoke to Jane was in 2001. I haven’t …………………………………………………… 5.68 English Practical Course h. Peter: Actually. e. I have ……………………………………………………. b. i. Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? f. h. He only just (stop).. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or continuous: a. I just (find) out. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. Peter: You (telephone) for ages. j. The police (not find) the murderer yet. c. I don’t have the textbook with me. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street. I haven’t …………………………………………………. It is at home. i. I (watch) them from my window since they began. . Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! g. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. Eating this spicy Indian food is totally new to me. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. but the dead man's brother (be) in the station all day. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing.

I'm afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house. I always start at 6 a. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. k. and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish). She's lucky. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. This (happen) before? Well. m. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet. Tom just (go) off with it. p. but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again. r. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. l. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. o. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good crop before. I (do) mine already. they (have) a good many rows but this is the fifth time they (throw) crockery. t. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three. n. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. q. s.English Practical Course 69 j. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet.m.

The mechanic (work) on it. “Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before!” “Well. and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). It was lovely at eleven o'clock. I wonder what (happen) to them all. but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or continuous: a.70 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. . George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. g. I hope he (find) out what's wrong. I (not be) out of the house for a week!” h. e. i. Since he became Mayor. it wasn't me. He (put) on a lot of weight? f. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one. Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. d. Manager: I know: something (go) wrong with our computer. my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinner. I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years. j. I (look) through my old photograph album. b. It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). I (stand) in this queue for ages. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. c. You look exhausted! Yes. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) out for lunch. I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end. so I'm not used to it.

madam. n. It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. q. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity. I (wait) an hour now. p. madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know. I (build) a barbecue grid in the garden. but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? m. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque. They began widening this road three weeks ago. l. o. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages.English Practical Course 71 k.

b. Mihai e chiar culmea! Spală rufe de când am venit eu de la bâlci şi n-a terminat nici măcar pantalonii. Iar a gătit soţul meu! c.72 English Practical Course 7. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. e. de luna trecută îşi tot trimit mesaje de ameninţare prin poştă. Translate into English: a. De 13 ani se chinuie românii să redreseze economia şi nici acum nu au reuşit să stabilizeze moneda naţională. Tocmai am terminat de săpat grădina. Vecinul meu. Tony şi Nikki nu-şi mai vorbesc de o lună. N-ai adus încă maşina de la reparat? – Da’ de unde. săracul. f. caut piese de schimb de mai bine de o lună şi n-am găsit nici una până acum. sapă de azi dimineaţă dar nu a terminat decât un sfert din teren. Miroase a ars în bucătărie.

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Progress Test 1
1. Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense: In the past thirty years many social changes ……………… (take) place in Britain. The greatest of these ………..probably………….(be) in the economic and domestic lives of women. Almost all theoretical sex discrimination in political and legal rights has been removed. The changes …………(be) significant, but, because tradition and prejudice can still …………..(handicap) women in their working careers and personal lives, major legislation to help promote equality of opportunity and pay ………(appear) during the 70s. Since 1951 the proportion of married women who work …….. (grow) from just over a fifth to a half. Compared with their counterparts elsewhere in the European Community, British women comprise a relatively high proportion of the work-force, about two-fifths, but on average they …………(work) fewer hours, about 31 a week. There is still a significant difference between women’s average earnings and men’s, but the equal pay legislation which ………(come) into force at the end of 1975 seems to have helped to narrow the gap between women’s and men’s basic rates. During the 1970s women’s wages ……….(rise) proportionately more than men’s but …………..(remain) relatively low because women ……….(tend) to work in lowly-paid sectors of the economy, they often …….(work) in predominantly female work-forces, and they work less overtime than men. As more and more women joined the work-force in the 1960s and early 1970s there ……(be) an increase in the collective incomes of women as a whole and a major change in the economic role of large numbers of housewives. Families …… (come) to rely on married women’s earnings as an essential part of their income rather than as “pocket money”, or as a

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means of buying ”extras”. At the same time social roles within the family ……. (be) more likely to be shared, exchanged or altered.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same: a. I’ve had to wait all morning. I have been ………………….. b. I didn’t have any idea of my next move. I didn’t know ………………… c. The last time I was to Paris was in 1998. I haven’t ………………………. d. Go to the registration desk immediately on arrival. As ………………………………. e. Mary and John’s wedding is next weekend. Mary and John will ……………… f. I intended to tell you about it earlier, but I simply forgot. I was …………………………….. g. I wasn’t very keen on tennis in those days.

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I didn’t use ………………………. h. Whose car is that? Whom does ………………….. i. Your brother will get over his illness. Then his work will get better. Once ……………………………. 3. Choose the most suitable continuation for each sentence: a. You can borrow this book, A. I am not going to need it; B. won’t have been needing it; C. am not needing it. b. It’s no use calling Barbra at home. She A. will have left; B. is leaving; C. will leave c. When you passed the town hall clock, A. were you noticing what time it was?; B. have you noticed what time it was?; C. did you notice what time it was? d. I must apologise, I A. hadn’t realised that this seat was yours.; B. wasn’t realising that this seat was yours.; C. didn’t realise that this seat was yours. e. I realised that someone had stolen one of my bags when I A. was getting to the taxi.; B. got to the taxi.; C. have got to the taxi. f. Can you remember what A. you were doing five years ago today?; B. you did five years ago today?; C. you have been doing five years ago today? g. This is my new suit. Do you think it A. suited me? B. suits me? C. has suited me? h. Cleo! I didn’t expect to see you here. What A. are you doing in London? B. were you doing in London? C. have you done in London? i. I simply can’t understand what

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A. you are waiting for; B. you wait for; C. you will wait for.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the appropriate tense: a. Nu ştiu bine timpurile. b. Am încercat să-ţi telefonez toată ziua. Unde ai fost? c. Sunt căsătoriţi de zece ani. d. Era o femeie atât de bună încât toată lumea o iubea. e. Uite! Ţi-ai rupt tricoul. f. Am petrecut revelionul la ţară acum doi ani. g. Nimeni nu are voie să plece acasă până nu terminăm proiectul. h. De multă vreme nu mai ninge mult iarna. i. În ziua următoare şi-au continuat călătoria. j. Ai recunoscut-o pe fata care stătea lângă tine la cinema? k. Are maşina de două luni. Soţul ei i-a dăruit-o de întâi martie. l. L-ai văzut pe John? Da, ieri a trecut pe la noi. m. George locuia cu mama lui când aceasta a murit. n. Ploua cu găleata de trei ore când ne-am întors acasă. o. Ce făceai când a venit Maria la tine?

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. have taken; have been; have been; handicap; appeared; has grown; work; came; rose; remained; tend; work; was; came; were 2. a. I have been waiting all morning. b. I didn’t know what I would do next. c. I haven’t been to Paris since 1998. d. As you arrive, go to the registration desk. e. Mary and John will get married next weekend. f. I was going to tell you about it earlier. g. I didn’t use to play tennis in those days. h. Whom does the car belong to? i. Once your brother has got over his illness, his work will get better. 3. a. A; b. A; c. C; d. C; e. B; f. A; g. B.; h. A; i. A 4. a. I don’t know the tenses well. b. I have been trying to call you all day. Where have you been? c. They have been married for ten years. d. She was such a kind woman that everybody loved her. e. Look here! You’ve torn your T-shirt. f. We spent New Year’s Eve in the countryside last year. g. Nobody is allowed to go home until we have finished the project. h. It hasn’t snowed anymore in winter for a long time.

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i. The next day he went on his trip. j. Have you recognised the girl sitting next to you at the cinema? k. She has had this car for two months. Her husband gave it to her in March. l. Have you seen John? Yes, he called on us yesterday. m. George was living with his mother when this one died. n. It had been raining cats and dogs for three hours when we came back home. o. What were you doing when Mary came to you?

Score: 1. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 4. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points

When can I take a peek? Mary: Sit still. John: Are we still going to that inn in Vermont this weekend to celebrate our anniversary? Mary: Certainly! I bought a pair of tickets for a dinner show there on Saturday night. It is coming out great! I think I am at my artistic peak. put it down. Read the following dialogues. I don't want it in the picture. Mary: Well. John: Can't you just leave a hole where the pear is and fill it in later? I am hungry. I am still working on your face. I don't want you to see the painting until the whole thing is done. who wants to paint his portrait.English Practical Course 79 Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Indefinite Pronouns © Personal Pronouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. Mary: What are you doing with that pear? John: I am going to pare it. Dialogue 1: The Portrait In honour of John and Mary's wedding anniversary. Pay attention to the use of homophones. Fred agrees to pose for his wife. John: It feels like I have been sitting here for hours. and then I am going to eat it. John: That sounds nice. .

You took it off to paint. These words are pronounced identically. Carnival worker: You weigh one hundred and thirty-seven pounds. Ways with Words 1. Tammy: Okay. They're good sports. I would hate to have lost that right before our anniversary! Dialogue 2: The Carnival Tammy and Bruce are spending the afternoon at a carnival. either. Practice these dialogues. Bruce: There's no wait to see him. too! Tammy: I'll go get them. total." . we'll take a break. no! Where is my wedding ring? I hope it didn't go down the drain when I was wringing out those rags! John: No. and he weighs one-seventy. Mary: Oh. Bruce: I agree. Where do you want to go next? Tammy: Look! That guy over there will guess your weight. I can guess just by looking at you." Whole (adj. Guess. it's on the table. Bruce: That's correct! Hey. I am having so much fun! This is ideal weather for a carnival. The following are examples of easily confused homophones.80 English Practical Course Mary: Okay. good. Let's go to his booth. Tammy: I am so glad we came today. yet they have different spellings and meanings: HOLE and WHOLE: A hole (n.) is "an empty space. Let's see if he can guess their weights. look! There are Stan and Judy. you two! Do you want me to guess your weight? Whether you are fat or thin. Carnival worker: Hey. The sign says he can even guess what size you wear.) means "entire. Oh.

" Whether (conj." WEATHER and WHETHER: Weather (n." THEIR." WAIT and WEIGHT: To wait (v.) is "a fruit. THERE.) means "also." Now practise these homographs in sentences of your own.) means "two matched or corresponding things.) means "to twist something. " Too (adv.) is used "to introduce two or more alternatives. " There (adv.) refers to "the climate conditions.) means "at a certain place." A peak (n.) is "a summit or climax.) is "a circular object with a hole in the middle." PAIR.) is "a small hotel.'" An inn (n." To pare (v.) is "the opposite of ''from.) is "the possessive form of ''they.English Practical Course 81 IN and INN: In (prep." Where (adv." PEEK and PEAK: Peek (v." To wring (v." They're is "a contraction of ''they are. and THEY'RE: Their (pron. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? . PARE.) refers to "the location of something." WEAR and WHERE: Wear (v." Weight (n." Ring (v.) means "to pause or linger.) means "to strike something for the purpose of creating a sound.) means "to have an item of clothing or an object on one's body.) means "to sneak a quick look at something.) means " to peel. and PEAR: A pair (n.) is "a cardinal number. " TO." Two (n." RING and WRING: A ring (n. and TWO: To (prep. such as a bell.) means "the opposite of 'out." A pear (n.) is "the measurement of heaviness. TOO.

because there is a play on words. Driver: Oh dear. Read the following children’s jokes. didn’t you? Johnny: No. Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. The waiter asks him to pay. Johnny. not at all. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. Why was the doctor angry? .82 English Practical Course 2. They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear. you drink. I want to know what it is now. Customer: I don’t care what it was. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. sir. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue.

etc.English Practical Course 83 Because he had no patients. as she still needs to work on his portrait. 3.faced etc – having a face that has a particular shape or colour serious-faced/ grim-faced etc – showing a particular expression on your face face to face – if two people are face to face. they are very close and in front of each other put a brave face (on) – to make an effort to behave in a happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. In the first dialogue. She says: I am still working on your face. the wife tells her husband not to be hurried. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Arm arm in arm – if you walk arm in arm with somebody. Face pale. What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. 3. and the other is heir to the throne. you hold it away from your body as long as your arm – (informal) a list or written document that is as long as your arm .faced/ round. plan. give your right arm – to be willing to do anything to get or do something at arm’s length – if you hold something at arm’s length. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word face. you are walking next to them with your arm in theirs welcome somebody/something with open arms – to show that you are happy to see somebody or eager to accept an idea.

you can see it without using any artificial help such as telescope or microscope be all eyes – to watch carefully what is happening or what someone is doing eye contact – if you have eye contact with someone. eyes that are wide open etc have/keep an eye on somebody – to be carefully watching everything that someone does. – having long ears be all ears – (informal) to be very keen to hear someone is going to tell you smile/grin etc from ear to ear – to show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling so much give somebody a thick ear – (British English informal) to hit someone go in (at) one ear and out (at) the other – (informal) if information goes in one ear and out the other.84 English Practical Course Ear long-eared/ short-eared etc. you forget it as soon as you have heard it keep your/an ear to the ground – to make sure that you always know what is happening in a situation Eye blue eyed/ one-eyed/bright-eye/ wide eyed etc – having blue eyes. bright eyes. used especially when you are surprised or shocked the naked eye – if you can see something with the naked eye. you look directly at them and they look directly at you run/cast eye over something – to look at something quickly without reading it in detail keep your eye on something/somebody – to look after someone or something and make sure they are safe keep you eyes open/peeled – (spoken) to carefully watch for anything . especially because you do not trust them to do things properly clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something – to see somebody or something. one eye.

and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. delicate fingers Practise them in sentences of your own. a lot of/ lots of. so that you drop or break things have a finger in every pie – an expression meaning to be involved in many activities and have influence over them. the world. of good quality in the eyes of the law/ the world/ the police etc – in the opinion or judgment of the law. usually used when you are pleased about it. used especially when you think someone has too much influence twist/wrap somebody around your little finger – to be able to persuade someone to do anything that you want long-fingered/delicate-fingered etc –having long. Grammar Reference Indefinite Pronouns some/any. the police one in the eye for – (British English) a defeat or disappointment for someone else. much/many. even when this might seem impossible have a (good) eye for something – to be good at noticing and recognizing what is attractive. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1.English Practical Course 85 have eyes in the back of your head – to know what is happening all around you. . valuable. Finger not lift/ raise a finger – not to make any effort to help someone with their work keep your fingers crossed – to hope that something will happen the way you want be all fingers and thumbs – (British English) to use your hands in an awkard or careless way.

There are lots of books in this library. 4. 2. Form . The Personal Pronoun The nominative.86 English Practical Course Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many geologists work for this company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields. We only need a little money to buy this. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited him when she deserted him 3. but only with a singular noun: There is some chocolate in this cake. Is there any water in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house. He’s got a lot of money. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. There’s a lot of mineral water in my fridge.

The old man asked (he) what the time was. I’ll call for (they) when I think they forgot our little misunderstanding. look for it while I am away. He takes much interest in (you).English Practical Course 87 Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she Plural we you they it The accusative/The dative. g. d. Please. Will you give (I) permission to go home earlier? c. h. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled Practice 1. nobody. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody. f. b. anybody. Listen to (she). Fill in the personal pronoun in the accusative or dative (required by prepositions): a. Will you let (they) to come to your anniversary? e. The doctor! Send for (he) at once. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. everybody: .

few. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. My knowledge in this field is very poor.. l. came an hour ago and left this parcel for Mary. little. Ask …. He didn’t give me too …… trouble. Ask …. I’m sorry. . a little. …. speaks. can tell you how mistaken you are. like him.. They are not difficult at all. d. h.. …. f. b. b. Can …… help me with this? m.88 English Practical Course a. c. g.... …. We haven’t heard of …. ….. has to open the door for him! i. from the French department. who didn’t pass the English exam... …… were there but listened to what she had to say. just ……..knows that the semester will finish in June.. She was talking and …… was listening to what she was saying. There must be the cleaning woman you sent for. k. Do you have any questions? Just …… c. is knocking at the door.. if they have come back from Italy. a few: a. During a good performance of the actors …. should know these rules. I have never seen …. e. many. …. j. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: much. ….

j. c. Translate into English: a. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . g. I-am dat cuiva cartea. There is plenty of information here but …… has been read. Este prea amară. but we finally managed. aşa că s-a retras din cursă.. money to buy this. We only need …. difficult. just …. Aş vrea puţin zahăr în cafea.. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. g. Nu este nevoie de foarte mult vin la friptură. h. e. darn nu-mi amintesc cu siguranţă când. totul se va rezolva.English Practical Course 89 d. e. d. Cu puţină răbdare. h. There wasn’t …… sugar left. Lui i s-a părut că ceva nu este în regulă. problems to solve. f. te rog. Are there many mistakes in her test paper? No. so I couldn’t make a coffee. I’ve got …. i. Aş vrea să ştiu câţi studenţi au picat la acest examen. Se pare că i-a cucerit pe toţi. The problem was …….. Toată lumea o iubeşte. i. Mulţi elevi aşteaptă vacanţa cu nerăbdare. f.. Mi-a fost decernat premiul Uniunii Scriitorilor acum trei ani. b. Despite the unfavourable weather …… did come to the meeting.

90 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .

in the trough or hollow of the sea. that I would take his advice. . how easy. no. and that every time the ship fell down. and I resolved that I would. and in this agony of mind I made many vows of resolutions. and the sea. and had never known anything of the matter. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life. And never had I been exposed to tempests at sea. I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. we should never rise more. go home to my father. which I had never been upon before. nor like what I saw a few days after. and never set it into a ship again while I lived. as I thought. I would go directly home to my father. how comfortably he had lived all his days.English Practical Course 91 Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous © The Imperative •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. that if it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage. who was but a young sailor. went very high. Underline the verbs which are used in Past Perfect: All this while the storm increased. like a true repenting prodigal. though nothing like what I have seen many times since. But it was enough to affect me then. or troubles on shore. if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again.

and was now no more sea-sick but very cheerful. who had indeed enticed me away. but towards night the weather cleared up. the sight was. and we’ll forget all that. but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer. and I began to be a little inured to it. wa’n’t you. my companion. being also a little sea-sick still. as I thought. looking with wonder upon the sea that was so wrought and terrible the day before. . It was a terrible storm.92 English Practical Course These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm continued. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” Ways with Words 1. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. the most delightful that ever I saw. the wind was quite over. it was nothing at all. last night. and rose so the next morning. and having little or no wind." “A storm. I had slept well in the night. And now lest my good resolutions should continue. the sun shining upon it. “do you call that a storm? Why. you fool you. comes to me: “Well. Look at the following sentence belonging to this unit: I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up… Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. the sun went down perfectly clear. d’you call it?” said I. give us but a good ship and sea-room.” says he. but you’re but a fresh-water sailor. and a smooth sea. let us make a bowl of punch. and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. and a charming fine evening followed. Come. I was very grave for all that day. give us but a good ship and sea-room. Bob. However. Bob.” replied he. “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted. and indeed some time after. and we think nothing at all. clapping me on the shoulder. when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful.

Read this sentence again: Come. to perform (an action). to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. to construct. to make believe = a face sã creadã. din aceastã cauzã. let us make a bowl of punch. to amount to. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. . a ceda. to serve as or become. a (se) pregãti. to earn. to bring about or produce. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. to make ready = a fi gata. like that (just like that) = aşa. Try to make up sentences in which to express each of its meanings. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. to establish. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” In this sentence to make means to produce. for all that = cu toate acestea. to make do = a se descurca cu o soluţie alternativă inferioară. to make it clear = a clarifica. in order that = pentru ca. that is to say = adicã. 2. to cause to do or be. sã. to make out = a înţelege. a demonstra. and we’ll forget all that.English Practical Course 93 that much = cam atât. to make over = a transfera. to make for = a contribui. a redacta. Among other meanings of the verb to make. to make it possible = a face posibil. we may mention: to create. a profita la maximum de. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat.

to do an experiment to do one’s best to do a course to do the donkey work to do sbd. a face ceva repede. a good turn/ a favour to do sth. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. with your eyes closed to do harm to do the shopping to do wonders to do the washing-up to have sth. a închide etanş. a etanşeiza. but there are lots of exceptions: e. a finaliza. a pretinde ca şi cum. to make tight = a ermetiza.94 English Practical Course to make a stand = a se opune. 3. to make sure of = a se asigura de. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum.g. a face ca şi cum. a termina. to do with . to make use of = a întrebuinţa. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. Generally speaking make is used with the meaning of create or produce and do with the meaning of carry out an action.

……..……...……. Past Perfect Simple It is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the students who had failed this exam four times? He had read his lecture before he went to university. .. a fuss... ….……. .……. ..fun of...……. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 he had written books for five years.……. . 4. sense. an appointment.. …….English Practical Course 95 Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. He had lived in this flat since he was born. a mess.…….. …….a noise.. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she done? had had not (hadn’t) left. .a difference. someone a favour.…….. Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb. a phone call. an effort.. a cup of tea. .up your mind. ……. Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. your bed. . ……. an excuse.. the shopping. your best. a wish. . . trouble. ... a mistake.…….sure. . …. ..…….…. ….. my homework. ..……. .

They had been living for generations in that house. Past Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an action which started in the past before the time of speaking in the past and still going on at that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. I hadn’t. he hadn’t. Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? been working on by that time. No.96 English Practical Course we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (v +-ing). No. I had. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. . he had.

In contexts containing no sooner./ They got back in the coach. Note that certain adverbs and adverb phrases (e. scarcely. a. The tourists got out of the coach. rhetorical construction) / I had hardly entered the room when the phone started to ring. she counted the money./ She looked at my cheque. b. (ordinary./ He jumped out of the window. no sooner. I hadn’t. The prisoner ran across the yard.g. No. Controlled Practice 1 1. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. she gave it to me.English Practical Course 97 Yes. the connector between the two clauses is than: No sooner had the band begun to play when the electricity was cut off./ She counted out the money. . (emphatic./ They took photos. After she had counted the money. Decide the order in which these things happened. I had. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me. conversational English) In contexts containing hardly/ scarcely/ barely. They can also be used in other parts of the sentence without inversion./ He climbed over the wall. the connector between the two clauses is when: Hardly/ Scarcely/ Barely had they got out of the house when it started to rain. Hardly had I entered the room when the phone started to ring. not only) are followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary verb when they are used at the beginning of the sentence. hardly.

e. or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a. b. The reporter wrote a report on the accident./ He took the wheel off the car. e. c./ She showed it to me. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. Translate into English: a. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write).98 English Practical Course c. Îl aşteptam de o orã./ She went to the scene of the accident. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. d./ She interviewed the people there. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. când am aflat cã avusese un accident de maşină. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. The mechanic put a new tyre on./ He put the wheel back on. Use the simple past. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ She wrapped it.

Then he went home. e. She told me his name after he (leave). No wonder I (be) so tired. no sooner. Alice said “Enter”. d. so we (decide) to go to bed. before. after. It (be midnight). d. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. . b. Use the simple past and the past perfect as appropriate: a. c. g. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. The phone started to ring. i. etc. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. I (write) for five hours. Then he opened the door. f. The teacher corrected all the compositions. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and aspect (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous) : a. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant.English Practical Course 99 b. Then the pupils entered the classroom. Connect the following sentences using until. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. c. hardly. e. h. Tom went out. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. Then Susan answered it. 4. Then his colleague looked for him. It was getting late. The bell rang. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister.

a greeting. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. She didn’t even say “thank you” after all I (do) for her. He just (leave) home when he came across John. After I (hear) the news. a threat. a request. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. Grammar Reference 2 The Imperative It is a mood which expresses an order. use let's (let us): Let's open the door. When it started to rain. c. e. d. Affirmative Get ready! Negative Don’t get ready! Start working! Don’t start working! For the first and second person together. h. (Negative command) Only a few groups of words may precede the imperative verb: • adverbs of frequency: . a piece of advice.100 English Practical Course b. f. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. or an instruction: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. the concert already (begin). j. Let's not open the door. g. I congratulated him. When I arrived. i. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. a wish. When he finally reached London. a command. we (dig) in the garden for an hour.

Grăbeşte-te. j. • • nouns of address: subject pronouns Jane. vã rog. Don't ever open the door to strangers. Translate the following into English: a. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. mai ai doar cinci minute! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . doamnã! f. Nu pleca. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. i. open the door. Luaţi loc. pentru că nu am terminat ce am de spus! Haide cu mine să-ţi arăt ce ai putut să faci! g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. e. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. pentru că o să-ţi pară rău. c. Will and would are used for polite requests: Would (will) you open the door. Don't you open the door. please? Controlled Practice 2 1. te rog. Vino. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã folosesc şi eu computerul pentru a formata niste dischete. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. h.English Practical Course 101 Always open the door slowly.

Throw the ball to John. Lend Ann your skates. Pass me the salt. h. e. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. because English people are never late. please. Make the following sentences negative: a. i. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. Give the waiter your order.102 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Show me the letter. d. f. j. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. Be on time. Come here! b. g.

as there seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room again. and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me. that there ought! And when I grow up. I fancied that kind of thing never happened. “when one wasn’t always growing larger and smaller.” she added in a sorrowful tone: “at least there’s no room to grow up any more here. no wonder she felt unhappy. one way.and yetit’s rather curious.never to be an old woman. I’ll write one. this sort of life! I do wonder what can have happened to me! When I used to read fairy tales. Underline the future tenses of the verbs: Luckily for Alice. and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable.always to have lessons to learn! Oh. and being ordered about by mice and rabbits.” thought poor Alice.” “But then.” thought Alice. and.English Practical Course 103 Unit 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Future Simple © Future Continuous © Be going to Future © Other Ways of Expressing Future •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Louis Carroll. “It was much pleasanter at home. you foolish Alice” .but I’m grown up now. I shouldn’t like that!” “Oh.and yet. I almost wish I hadn’t gone down that rabbit-hole. you know.but then. the little magic bottle had now had its full effect. “shall I never get any older than I am now? That’ll be a comfort.

în calitate de. in this way = în acest mod. . So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. taking first one side and then the other. so it seems = aşa se pare. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea. so much = atât de mult. “How can you learn lessons in here? Why. and no room at all for any lesson-books!” And so she went on. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. 2. so far as = întrucât. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. Read the sentence: And so she went on. so far = pânã acum. Ways with Words 1. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.always to have lessons to learn!. one way. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. în mãsura în care. In the sentence: That’ll be a comfort. astfel încât. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. and stopped to listen. by the way = apropo. taking first one side and then the other. ca sã zicem aşa. pânã în prezent. the expression one way as is translated by pe de o parte. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. cu ajutorul. but after a few minutes she heard a voice outside.but then.104 English Practical Course she answered herself. there’s hardly room for you. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât.never to be an old woman.

to give way to = a ceda la. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. way off = la o bunã distanţã. Note that: Will is normally known as the predictive future. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. This can also take the form of an assumption: That’ll be John coming so early at the party. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. way below = mai jos. I shall be thirty next year. way ahead = mult înainte. and describes known facts. in one way = într-un fel. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary. way above = mult deasupra. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. under way = în curs de. I’ll be late at school this morning. . The company will make a profit next year.English Practical Course 105 in every way = în toate privinţele. Grammar Reference Future Simple It is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. or what we suppose is true. a face carierã. in a general way = în genere/ în general.

please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way.g. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me. We use will and shall in many other ways. Will is also used to express an immediate decision: I’ll take this one. I shall. not forms of Future simple): e. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come.106 English Practical Course This means that I suppose that it is John.) 2. I’ll be grateful to you. help him? .) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday. Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future. apart from predicting the future (in this case they are modal verbs. we stay inside. When it rains. They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes.

Note that in some contexts it sounds more polite than will Will you be going to the shops later? If you do. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. Future Continuous • • describes an event which will be happening at a future point refers to events which are going to happen anyway. particularly with the verbs go and come. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. because I’ll be calling into the office anyway to see if you are there. intention. it may mean I don’t want to help you. . rather than events which we choose to make happen: I won’t bother to look for you in advance. How long are they going to stay here? She isn’t going to attend this Grammar course. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. could you get some bananas? Come round in the morning. I’m going home. I’ll be working on my project.English Practical Course 107 Note: No. She’s coming on Monday. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. • refers to fixed arrangements and plans The singers will be performing live in Washington Square this month. Be Going to Future It is used • to express a future decision.

) . I know.. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. Watch out! The box is going to fall. I am.. am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? Future Simple or Be Going to? Look at the use of the Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English.108 English Practical Course • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. Form -the verb to be in Present +to +infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking. They Interrogative When Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes. No. What language shall I learn? Er. I’m not. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge).

By the end of the month. • can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. Similarly.m. This means I assume you haven’t heard the rumours. Christmas is on Wednesday next year. and refers to time which we look back at from a future point: In two years’ time I’ll have finished my PhD thesis. Future Perfect • has both simple and continuous forms.English Practical Course 109 Other Ways of Referring to the Future • be about to. be due to Be about to and be on the point of both refer to the next moment I think it is about to rain. The cocktail party is due to start at 7. I am on the point of moving to another company. • present simple is used to describe fixed events which are not simply the wishes of the speaker I retire next year. calendar references use the present simple. we’ll be leaving. . Present perfect can also be used instead of present simple when the completion of the event is emphasised When we’ve finished the work. You won’t have heard the rumours about their engagement. of course. • present simple and present perfect Present simple is used to refer to future time in future time clauses When we get there. we’ll have dinner. Be due to refers to scheduled times The flight is due at 5:54 p. be on the point to. I’ll have been working for him for fifteen years.

110 English Practical Course Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense is formed by the future perfect of the verb to be and the present active participle of the main verb: It emphasizes the duration of one event taking place before another event in the future: In May 2000. Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference (believe. expect. g. • just/ just about to Just can be used to describe something which is on the point of happening The train is just leaving/ is just about to leave. Crezi cã veţi ajunge la spectacol în timp util? f. I doubt that you will have the time to see all these places in a single day. Other future references • other verbs followed by will. c. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. . doubt. our family will have been living here for 30 years. b. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. Translate into English: a. Spectacolul nu va începe până la ora 5. • hope followed by either present or future tense I hope you’ll come and see me when you are in London. d. e. Va deveni necesar sã citim mai mult de acum încolo. Îţi voi telefona imediat ce ajung la hotel. think) I think the plane will be late. Controlled Practice: 1. so I’m afraid you should leave the compartment.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.English Practical Course 111 h. j. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on a trip to the mountains. hurry up or we’ll miss/ we will have missed the train. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. Maria is going to be/ will be thirty-three next month so she will organise/ is going to organise a party. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. i. Sper că ne veţi ajuta să reparăm calculatorul. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France.” f. g. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. . d. Ei nu ştiu când vor pleca. c. Dacă va întreba cineva de mine. te rog să-i rogi să mă sune după ora 6. Come on. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week.” b.

f. or whether one is more appropriate. I (be) long. Hurry up! The play (start). The trip is going to be great. I (come back) very soon. please buy some potatoes for lunch. j. Maria is pregnant again. Would you like to come? c. It’s only an hour’s travel. I (hope) it (not rain). She (have) twins. It’s my twenty-ninth birthday next month so I (have) a party. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. . He is always late. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense: a. Will you be going/ will you go to the market later? If you go. We’re sure everything (be) all right in the end.112 English Practical Course h. d. i. I (go) out for half an hour. Why don’t you come with us? A. h. e. Decide whether the pairs of sentences A and B could be equally acceptable in the context given. When we (get) there. What (you do) on Monday? I (have) tickets to a violin concert. g. 3. a. The trip will be great. j. By the end of the month I (decide) what to do. we (call) you. b. B. In twenty four hours’ time I’ll relax/ I’ll be relaxing on the beach. i. That will be/ is Jim at the door.

Sper că până se va întoarce fratele tău de la cules de căpşuni tu vei fi spălat toate rufele murdare. John ştie sigur că săptămâna viitoare când va începe şcoala. g. B. We’re run out of petrol. What are we going to do now? 5. Cred sincer că pe vremea asta săptămâna viitoare mă voi uita în sfârşit la HBO. d. Suntem înspăimântaţi de faptul că furtuna nu se va opri până diseară pe la şase. Stop that. I’m going to watch TV. vărul său va studia un manual de biologie umană. h. Când tu îţi vei face de cap în barul acela infect mâine. e. A. A. e. I’m getting angry in a minute. Vor fi trecut şase ore de la ultimul atac dar apărătorii castelului tot nu se vor preda dacă nu li se vor împlini condiţiile. Are de gând să îl facă de râs în faţa clasei dacă nu va spune adevărul. What are we doing now? B. b. Să nu uiţi de aniversarea prietenilor tăi: pe 24 ale lunii următoare ei vor fi locuit în această casă de 10 ani. B.English Practical Course 113 b. f. . Mâine la ora 5. I’d like to pay you a short visit. What are you doing in the evening? d. What’ll you be doing in the evening? B. I’m going to get angry in a minute. c. c.30 ne vom îmbarca în autocarul spre Grecia. Translate into English: a. I’ve got no homework for tomorrow so A. j. will you! A. i. toţi prietenii tăi îţi vor pregăti o pedeapsă proporţională cu vina. Ambasada va primi oaspeţii numai după ce aceştia vor fi percheziţionaţi. I’ll watch TV.

m. În timp ce preşedintele va ţine un discurs despre legea dreptului de autor. jurnaliştii vor inventa tot felul de întrebări care l-ar putea pune pe acesta în dificultate. l. micuţul John va fi cântat la vioară de cel puţin 3 ore. Când mama se va întoarce de la ţară. Suntem prieteni de o viaţă şi ne-am hotărât: o să cumpărăm împreună casa aceea de la munte şi o s-o transformăm în azil pentru bătrâni. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .114 English Practical Course k.

English Practical Course 115 Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment belonging to James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Why did he not tell it? His father. Look for those verbs which are used in the passive voice. must be a magistrate too like Saurin’s father and Nasty Roche’s father. who kept the racehorses. He thought of his own father. You could know the people of that time by their old dress. It seemed to him a solemn time: and he wondered if that was the time when the fellows in Clongowes wore blue coats with brass buttons and yellow waistcoats and caps of rabbitskin and drank beer like grownup people and kept greyhounds of their own to course the hares with. . Translate the text into Romanian. of how he sang songs while his mother played and of how he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence and he felt sorry for him that he was not a magistrate like the other boys’ fathers. Then why was he sent to that place with them? But his father had told him that he would be no stranger there because his granduncle had presented in address to the liberator there fifty years before.

e. month. d. b. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. to put money in. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ……….. year. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. to cash a cheque.. In this way you may create a word set. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. 2.. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a.………… of $ 100 a month. a current account. the Stock Market. year. a cheque card. c.. a building society. Try to think of the sentence […] he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence […]. etc. .116 English Practical Course Ways with Words 1. a monthly statement. a deposit account. saving and investing money. Word sets. century... nobody will lend him any money. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money.. Now think of words connected to money. When she started with the company her …………. Now it’s at least four times that. to earn 15% interest.. a mortgage. having a personal bank account. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. For example a word set of the word time may include among other words: day. When Mr Michael retired he received a . to buy shares in a company.. was only $ 1000 a year.

house. TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Present Conditional Perfect ACTIVE VOICE He paints houses.English Practical Course 117 Grammar Reference The Passive Voice The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. to speak to. He was painting his His house was being painted. his His house is being painted. house. to resemble. . to look after. He would have painted It would have been painted. PASSIVE VOICE Houses are painted (by him). There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the passive voice such as: to have. house. He would paint his His house would be painted. etc. to send for. to hold. It will have been painted. He is painting house. Form: the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense as the active verb + the past participle of the lexical verb. He will paint his His house will be painted. His house was painted. He had painted his His house had been painted. etc. to look at. house. He has painted his His house has been painted. to possess. He painted his house. to attend to. He will have painted it. house.

asking him to paint paint houses. Further Points on the Passive Voice • • Make. • When we are interested in the action itself rather than the person who performs it: I was advised to save the files once in a while (by my friend). Let becomes was/were allowed to in the passive or is followed by a reflexive pronoun+bare/short passive infinitive. see. ~ It is thought that the factory went bankrupt/ The factory is thought to have gone bankrupt.118 English Practical Course Conditional Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Gerund it. help are followed by to+infinitive in the passive. hear. house. He He should enjoys have It should have been painted. Jane He remembers having been having asked him to asked to paint Jane’s house. . people He enjoys being asked to painted it. Perfect Gerund He remembers paint her house. My bag has been stolen. • When it is necessary to express something more formally: People think that the factory went bankrupt. their houses. He should paint his His house should be painted. • When we avoid the naming of a specific person who is responsible for the action: All the cakes have been eaten (instead of: You have eaten all the cakes). Use: • When the person who performs the action (agent) can easily be understood or is unknown: He has been arrested (by the police).

ask. write. pay. believe. etc have two passive forms. consider. • Modals do not change in the passive voice. • The passive voice with verbs of reporting such as assume. / It is believed that she is a spy. feel. • Prepositional verbs of movement when turned into the passive voice change to other synonymous verbs which take no preposition. • Verbs which take two objects such as allow. She accused me of lying / I was accused of lying. give. This notion is based on a misconception. / The building can’t be repaired. think. The Royal couple went into the room arm in arm. bring. say. lend. They can’t repair the building. Columbus arrived in America in 1492. / Don’t let yourself be tricked. We change the active infinitive into passive infinitive. understand etc is formed in two ways: • • believed to be a spy. / The room was entered (NOT gone into) by the Royal couple.English Practical Course 119 She let me go. / I was given some money. • Verbs followed by a certain preposition take the preposition immediately after them when put into the passive voice. • Many passive voice sentences do not have an active voice counterpart: Shakespeare was born at Stratford. / She is . / I was allowed to go. report. know. Don’t let him trick you. / Some money was given to me. teach. It + passive verb + that-clause Subject +passive verb + to-infinitive They believe she is a spy. He gave me some money. buy. / America was reached (NOT arrived in) by Columbus in 1492. tell.

she never stops. (I’ll arrange for it to be done) Don’t have the files printed. He had/got his car stolen. • Have + object + bare infinitive is used for giving instructions and orders. get going (without an object) • Want and need + object + past participle indicate that you would like or need something to be done . • Some sentences cannot be passivized. See if you can get Mary to help us with our homework. • Get +object + to infinitive means make or persuade somebody to do something. Also: get moving. (c) a possessive pronoun: The teacher shook his head and sighed. (b) a reciprocal pronoun: We can hardly see each other in the dark room. I’ll have my car repaired. please. • Have/get + object +past participle can also be used to replace a passive verb usually describing an accident or a misfortune. Once you get her talking about her children. Causative Forms • Have +object +past participle is used to suggest that we are instructing someone to do something for us. The teacher got the students to write the sentence five times. The manager had the secretary type 20 letters. These are sentences where the object is: (a) a reflexive pronoun: John has been washing himself for hours.120 English Practical Course It is alleged that the thief was caught. • Get + object + present participle (-ing) is used informally to mean make somebody / something start doing something.

d. i. Doctorul a fost chemat. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. Translate the following sentences into English: a. (I am doing it myself) The Passive Voice: The room is being decorated. Mi s-au furat banii. g. Controlled Practice 1.English Practical Course 121 I want the room cleaned. what interests us is the room) Causative: I am having the room decorated. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. c. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã structura acestei lucrări. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. • Compare: The Active Voice: I’m decorating the room. h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. f. b. e. I need the reports checked. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. (Someone else is doing it but the agent is not important.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. d. b. Who drew this picture? b.122 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. Children had cast stones. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. e. d. John can’t have done this. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. When was your car stolen? c. People in my town built this hospital last year. c. When no agent is given supply one: a. AIDS is thought to be curable. e.

so that the meaning stays the same: a. The coins ……………………………………………………. The discovery of this new medicine is helping the fight against cancer. j. Mary is said ……………………………………………………. b. I ……………………………………………………………………. f.. They have no idea what caused this error.. John is thought ………………………………………………. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. i. c. 5. Somebody directed me at the wrong address. I’d rather you ………………………………………………. we’ll paint the dining room. The fight ……………………………………………………………. After the bedroom…………………………………………. e. They say that Mary is difficult to work with. It is thought that the coins date from the Middle Ages.English Practical Course 123 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. It is believed that the child was punished by his parents. Ticket collectors work on the train on this line. What caused this error…………………………………………… h. Somebody punched John in the face at a volley match. Please turn off the lights. The child …………………………………………………. g. d. Tickets ……………………………………………………………. Complete the sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the passive tense suggested at the end of the sentence: . When we have finished decorating the bedroom.

(present continuous) h. g. h. c. A great deal of effort (make) lately to avoid a war with that country. (future) g. I’m sure. That person in the dock (let off) as it’s his first offence. (gerund) i. e. b. Would she go to the cinema if she was to (invite)? f. d. Something (do) if we want to rescue the rest of the crew. My neighbour’s leg (not broken) if he hadn’t walked on ice. Many block-of-flats (build) in the neighbourhood. I was surprised to find out that you (get paid) twice in the same week. John (think) to have broken that precious vase in the living room.124 English Practical Course a. (present perfect) e. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct Passive Voice form: a.(past) b. The girl who (bite) by a dog was given a serum. (future perfect) j. The army (instruct) to shoot if the enemy crosses the line. . Many of Bucharest’s important buildings (destroy) by the earthquake in 1977. (modal verb) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. The police (instruct) to take firm action against beggars on the street. Very few criminals (catch) if the population didn’t offer information. The escaped man (arrest) a week later. Mary (take) to the hospital by the end of the day. He strongly objected to (ask) about the accident. (perfect conditional) c. (past perfect) d. Has the search for the stolen car (give up) yet? f. Foreign coins (not put) in parking meters in this part of the country.

Who (…) you by at the hospital? j. All the persons in the room (…) for drugs. c. o. A sharp instrument (…) the old man. (…) the reward to those who saved Jane? h. n. The police (…) in hearing from anyone who saw a 10-year-old child in front of the shop yesterday. The giraffe (…) to the zoo when it escaped. When capital punishment (…) in Romania? . g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. l. Windows (…) on the inside to prevent the wind from breaking them. Could violence (control) less effectively if the police didn’t carry guns? j. Money (…) always in the bank for interest. m. The carpet in your room (…) with orange juice. i. It was the first time. The lock (…) and the window (…) by the police. b. f. my sister never (…) by the customs before.English Practical Course 125 i. The red car (rev up) ready for the policemen to start chasing the thieves. A lot of money (…) from a German bank two years ago. Use one of the Passive forms of a suitable verb in each of the following sentences: a. They (…) a five year sentence by the High Court Judge. p. Safes (…) not often by amateurs. e. She doesn’t remember her purse (…) by the thief. k. d.

.000 worth of merchandise … … d. The evidence that one of the accused gave … … g. Will the new laws … … j.126 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Look at that man’s green hair! He (dye it). There was a dreadful accident and all the cars … … 9. Use the Passive form with the verb to have in the following sentences: a. George’s watch has disappeared from the table where he left it. Father (fit the burglar alarm) because his house had been broken into. b. Shoplifting is on the increase. all the rooms … … i. They (check the documents) before the case comes up next month. The house was found in a terrible condition. It’s very foggy tonight. it … … c. c. They (repaint it). e. the lock …… h. all the people from the Middle East … … e. d. He insisted that our neighbour … … f. My window is open instead of closed. There’ll be a big check at the customs tomorrow. I (vaccinate my child) against all the possible diseases when he was one year old. The room looks different. £ 20. The customs officers (arrest him) if he tries to leave the country. the cars … … b. Complete the sentences using a suitable Passive Voice verb and any necessary phrases: a. f.

The car is covered in mud. They … … 11. She is not quite sure but she thinks she (steal the money) in the train. h. we should make sure that we … … h. Have you … …? f. I don’t think these translations are accurate. The so-called poet did not write the poem himself. It … … c. The roof is unsafe. You shouldn’t (repair the sink) before the plumber had examined it. he … … g. Your hair seems shorter. Your back window squeaks. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Complete the following passage with the correct Passive forms: . so he (clean it) as soon as possible. There are many errors in your paper.English Practical Course 127 g. Complete the following sentences. You … … j. i. j. using the Passive form with either have or need: a. It … … b. don’t you think they … …? i. You can’t take your luggage into the shop unless you … … d. This is quite bizarre! There are many questions that … … e. Someone (clean the kitchen) when mother arrived. Their washing-machine is working again. Before we buy the mansion.

he needed (care for). as John himself said to the inspector. ‘that he has (kill) rather than die a natural death. He didn’t even suppose inspector Thomson would guess that the ladder (put) outside the bedroom window after his uncle (murder). Besides he was rich. he had his hair (cut) once a month. his desires had (consider). everything that in his ordinary life needed (do). he was convinced that his crime wouldn’t ever (detect). Indeed. John saw to it that it was (do). his car (service) every three months. He was old. but the important thing is to make it look as if it (do) while I was away. He was known as being a methodical man. he told to himself. John’s crime would probably never (discover) if it had not stopped raining just before he came home and if his uncle’s window had not (break) with a flower pot. His plans were (lay) with extreme precision. It was entirely in his character that he had made up his mind to get rid of his uncle. the criminal always gets (catch) after all. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . He had not (employ) as an accountant for the past ten years without acquiring a passion for minute details. He had become a nuisance who should (remove) as quickly as possible. His bills (pay) regularly. ‘It is sad’. But then.128 English Practical Course When John Miller killed his uncle. and John was aware that his fortune (leave) to him. his wants (gratify).

They are forbidden to enter this room. k. The problem will be dealt with I detail next week. The library is well provided with books. The pen has been lost in the fire. j. d. All TV programs were suspended for nearly 6 hours. l. f. The students in this University are always recommended to apply for these jobs. No explanation had been given for his behaviour. c. Change the following sentences into the Active Voice: a. g.English Practical Course 129 12. e. i. his remarks are being received with enthusiasm. h. My neighbour’s dog was run over by a truck. b. You hate to be interrupted from your research. The basement was flooded with water. Tons of uranium have been stolen from this mine this year. As you see. m. It is reported that there has been an earthquake in the area. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

George gave him a beautiful present. h. The physician prescribed a bad medicine for the sick old man. We showed them our newly. My friends promised me immediate assistance. g. j. c. knowing that transitive verbs admit two passive constructions: a. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14.130 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13.born child. paying attention to the prepositions following the verbs: a. You paid him that huge sum of money two days ago. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. f. i. d. They awarded the Best Actor Prize to George Clooney. Change the following intransitive verbs into the Passive Voice. b. . The doorman showed us the way to the bathroom. I told my parents the truth. The teacher may give us the results tonight. I give my child two bars of chocolate a day. They have called for the mechanic to repair their car.

These spoiled children do not listen to their parents. The pupils will have to comment upon that poem. Don’t put on that pink shirt. Translate into English: a. Our parents often refer to him as being a wrong model for us. d. d. The former enemies have arrived at an agreement after many years of discussion. k.English Practical Course 131 b. Se recomandă o mai atentă cercetare a acestui proiect. You must look after your kid sister. The employer insists upon a strict discipline in all our work. j. You spoke much about that young lady you had met a week before. c. c. f. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. . Nobody has lived in this haunted house for more than 50 years. your friends will laugh at you. b. În acest local se vorbeşte numai limba spaniolă. Nobody objected to their suggestions. h. i. Orice defecţiune a maşinii se repară pe loc în acest atelier. Se construiesc din ce în ce mai multe şcoli în acest orăşel. otherwise your mother will scold you. g.

132 English Practical Course e. S-a ajuns la bătaie după ce s-au certat toată ziua. p. Din păcate nu s-a ajuns la nici un acord final. Se vor înfiinţa centre de ocrotire a minorilor. Mi s-a dat ocazia să-mi arăt talentul de compozitor. q. Gunoiul se încarcă numai marţea şi joia. S-a ridicat nivelul apelor Dunării cu 3 cm. k. o. S-a anunţat o reducere semnificativă la articolele de îmbrăcăminte de iarnă. j. l. Li se comunicase că dărâmarea prin implozie a acestei clădiri va fi făcută la mijlocul săptămânii următoare. s. f. Se bea mult vin roşu la acest tip de petrecere. Se vor reface unele străzi din acest oraş după ce se va topi zăpada. I s-a oferit un post de director economic la cea mai puternică corporaţie din ţară. Turiştilor li s-a arătat un magazin cu lucruri foarte scumpe după ce acestora li se furaseră deja portofelele. g. h. Dacă fratele tău nu se va simţi mai bine. n. Ni s-a spus că pantalonii vor fi cusuţi în fabrica noastră. m. i. Problema câinilor fără stăpân a fost dezbătută de mai multe ori săptămâna aceasta. r. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . în această seară se va trimite după doctor.

Tom’s new book… … e.English Practical Course 133 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. First prize was awarded to a freshman in our school. Leaving this shirt in the rain has made it shrink. Tom has earned several thousand dollars from his new book. Mother added flour to the sauce and thickened it. The china cup … … i. My cousin’s child completely destroyed my paper. I dropped the china cup and cracked it. This shirt … … g. . We … … f. The referee refused him permission to enter the game. He … … d. They’re buying a lot of copies of that volume of poetry. We watched my brother drive the car into the garage. The sauce … … j. A freshman … … c. We watched the car … … h. My paper … … b. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it: a. She suggested we eat Mike’s new favourite meal.

j. b. i. but using the word given. Your decisions were rejected and you were (…) back down. George often tells his parents how much of his ill-luck is down to you. g. that’s something his friends will have (…) to. We (…) house broken into yesterday. Jack is quite a difficult person. Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase: a. I must (…) to look at the wiring for me. e. The coffee maker is out of order but I’m (…) fixed tomorrow. They were (…) been given 15 more minutes to complete the test. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 18. c. h. (rumoured) b. The package is believed (…) delivered by some strange people. d. Children can get (…) in by burglars going from house to house. (heard) .134 English Practical Course That volume of poetry … … 17. a. I suppose she needs (…) told to be careful with that acid solution. (seen) c. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. The issue was (…) been told where his wife disappeared. Some of his neighbours are saying that he is selling marijuana. The lights in my room have been flickering for a while. f. He wants it to be clear to his friends that he’s honest.

They believe that the captain fell overboard and died. The House of Parliament is the tallest building in the area. Never forget that friends will be friends. I don’t like very much my mother scolding me in front of my friends. There were thousands of strikers in the yard of the factory. (conferred) . (overcome) v. The plan was originally to complete the task by 3 o’clock. (had) j. Our new manager wants us to call him “Sir”. His latest article about unemployment came in for sharp criticism in this newspaper. (copied) m. (pilloried) r. His grandmother underwent a three-hour operation to remove the brain tumour that had been diagnosed. Mary was not allowed to play with matches. She couldn’t find her way out of the labyrinth. Our professor of History was given the Academy Award by Oxford University. Our teachers don’t want any repetition of such a ridiculous behaviour again. Subtracting is something one takes for granted after a while. As a kid. (dwarfed) q. (aback) o. (operated) w. (swamped) n. we’ve had more telephone calls than we can deal with. (rained) p. (repeated) f. (borne) u. Since we won the prize. The rain forced our weekend trip to be cancelled. (got) k. (get) i.English Practical Course 135 d. It’s not difficult at all for Ben to copy the paper from his colleague. (having) l. (addressed) t. (packed) s. Janine’s answer took the audience by surprise. (due) g. (fallen) e. (let) h. I became very emotional when I found out my wife had given birth to a daughter. All of his friends spent last month repairing his boat.

136 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 19. You have vague memories of … … c. She has no recollection of … … b. You vaguely remember that you drank five bottles of wine last night. Being … … . Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. She didn’t remember that she had been called home by her mother. a. Sometimes it is quite embarrassing when people laugh at you.

They’ve had to call the office five times to find out the result of the race. I’m … … . That valuable …… l. The card is only … … k. I can’t explain what it feels like for nobody’s ever given me the chance to fly a plane. They really regret … … f. People crave for justice and they need to see it done. George was severely criticized for his bad jokes and was more attentive after that. The glass … … i. Peter poured wine into the glass until it was full. They really wish they hadn’t been pushed to eat that horrible soup. Never … … g. The Town Hall … … h. Having … … e. The group of people moved towards the Town Hall from all sides. Do not put the card in until the screen shows ‘Insert your card’. Justice must not … … m. The room … … j. The dentist is supposed to be filling one of my teeth this afternoon. Mice came into the room through a sort of hole in the wall. The office … … n.English Practical Course 137 d. It’s over twenty years since anyone saw that valuable painting.

e. 10. Shall we take a drive into the b. threatening they’ll understand. A child asked me a question on my way home. making a request d. making a suggestion Sunday? 2. g. Will you have dinner with us on k. making a prediction c. The gust of wind blew the woman’s hat off. 11.138 English Practical Course Progress Test 2 1. expressing future uncertainty f. Shall I go to the library for you? 6. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. She has burned the chicken in the oven. asking for a prediction Saturday. making an invitation Friday. Explain it to them again. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. 8. Perhaps j. offering country later? 7. f. He wrote the paper on time. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. promising/ stating an intention time. c. They consulted the doctor when they were ill. Will there be a general strike? 3. What will you call your new cat? d. Will you send me an e-mail? 5.b. . They are shutting the bank for the winter holidays. . Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. I’ll report you to the police next g. expressing future hope e. b. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. 9. 2. a. he wanted to know the time. The wedding will take place next h.

Father made her cry hard. p. o. I must pay the telephone bill at the end of the month. The bodyguards requested us to show our tickets. Someone is going to beat him soon! v. Nobody asked Mike to come. My brother has been looking after the dog for the last two years. j. m. They are going to write a song tonight. We could read the note by the light of the candle. q. k. i. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . u. We haven’t invited our friends to the party yet. Children ask a lot of questions. s. l. People mustn’t walk on the grass in this park. She soon lost sight of her friend. n. r.English Practical Course 139 h. The children have made him captain of their team. t. I found your bike in front of the cinema. We didn’t fix the roof yesterday.

scheduled. your language in this newspaper article (…) inadequate for the public taste. Unfortunately. inundated. How he managed to obtain such a large sum of money (…) in mystery. Christine (…) the most beautiful girl in Europe. she (…) with requests for some more recipes. . Since her book on cooking came out. h. i. j. My brother. deemed. Richard’s new album (…) for release next year.140 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. dwarfed a. Impossible as it may seem. baffled. The participles should be used with the verb to be in the appropriate tense: strewn. we all agreed: his paper should (…) for last year’s Literature prize. The secretary (…) by exhaustion after 12-hour typing and had to go home. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate verb from the list. overcome. b. All the neighbours I asked (…) by the reason of her disease. When we came back from the mountains. e. f. dubbed. (…) by almost all of his colleagues. Having read the manuscript. who is rather short. short-listed. g. d. our clothes (…) all over the house. c. shrouded.

El intenţionează să se înscrie la acest curs săptămâna viitoare. d. i. c. pentru că i s-au defectat frânele. Dacă voi avea timp. g. f. Am ajuns cam târziu acasă. e. Când voi pleca la munte. Ei au de gând să-şi renoveze vila anul viitor. O să-mi dau maşina la reparat.English Practical Course 141 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . h. De îndată ce voi termina raportul o să te informez în legătură cu rezultatele cercetării mele. o să-mi iau şi haine subţiri şi haine groase. o să-ţi telefonez. aşa că spectacolul se terminase deja la televizor. El fusese sunat de director de mai multe ori înainte de a veni la serviciu. Translate into English: a. Noi vrem să ştim dacă ne puteţi ajuta sau nu. b.

i. The telephone bill must be paid… n. Her friend was soon lost sight of. 4. 6. e. s. 5. he wanted to know the time. A lot of questions are asked by children l. The bank is being shut for the winter holidays. Your bike was found in front of the cinema. Our friends haven’t been invited to the party yet. We were requested to show our tickets (by the bodyguards). He has been made captain of the children’s team. k. A song is going to be written tonight. h. The grass mustn’t be walked on in this park. What will your new cat be called? d. t. k. 8. c. 7. I was a asked question on my way home. 2. 1.142 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. He is going to be beaten soon! v. The paper was written on time. b. b. f. .g. r. 11. q. c. g. 3. m. The woman’s hat was blown off (by a gust of wind). o. 9.h 2. i. a. 10. Mike wasn’t asked to come. u. j. The dog has been looked after(by my brother) for the last two years. a. She was made to cry hard (by Father). j. The chicken has been burnt in the oven. The doctor was consulted when they were ill. d. f. p. The roof wasn’t fixed yesterday. e. The note could be read by the light of the candle.

40 points each x 22 = 10 points 3. d. e. were strewn. d. is shrouded. If I have time I’ll call you.90 points each x 10 = 10 points 4. h. Score: 1. b. 4. a. They are going to have they villa redecorated next year.1point each x 10 = 10 points 2. g. He is going to take up this course next week. has been dubbed. were baffled. g.1 point + 0. j. b. so the TV show had already been over. He had been called by the director several times before coming to work.00 point each x 9 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Coordinating Conjunctions © Subordinating Conjunctions . was overcome. h. has been deemed. is dwarfed. i. i. e. f. We arrived home rather late.1 point + 0. for the brakes broke down. was short listed. I’ll have my car repaired. When I go to the mountains I’ll take both light and warm clothes. We want to know if you can help us or not. c. As soon as I finish the report I’ll inform you on the results of my research.English Practical Course 143 3. c. has been inundated. f. 1 point + 1. is scheduled. a.

” “Now. Bennet! But I knew I should persuade you at last. that of Mrs. you may cough as much as you choose.” said Mr. Pay attention to the conjunctions. I was sure you loved your girls too well to neglect such an acquaintance. fatigued with the raptures of his wife. Underline the coordinate conjunctions with one line and the subordinate ones with two lines: Mary wished to say something very sensible. we cannot escape the acquaintance now. It is very unlucky. . and. as he spoke.” cried his wife. when the first tumult of joy was over. “I am sorry to hear that. my dear Mr. In the last sentence from the text. Bennet perhaps surpassing the rest.” The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished. Bennet. “While Mary is adjusting her ideas. too. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. he left the room. but why did not you tell me so before? If I had known as much this morning I certainly would not have called on him. Bingley. the preposition with appears. but knew not how. she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. Well. how pleased I am! and it is such a good joke. that you should have gone this morning and never said a word about it till now.144 English Practical Course © Number of Nouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.” he continued.” “I am sick of Mr. “let us return to Mr. but as I have actually paid the visit. Kitty. Ways with Words 1. Bingley. “How good it was in you. though.

together with = împreunã cu. of all kinds = de toate felurile. cu privire la. cu totul. referitor. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. with reason = pe drept. it is all one to them = le este tot una. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. first of all = înainte de toate. with a view of = în scopul de a. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. to do away with = a înlãtura. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. How do you translate in all the while? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. pe bunã dreptate. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. as with = la fel ca şi. all in all = în întregime. fãrã a pierde din vedere. all the better = cu atât mai bine. asta-i tot. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. a termina cu. that is about all = ca. 2. . all in good time = toate la timpul lor. all at once = dintr-o datã. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.English Practical Course 145 with an eye to = urmãrind. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. all worn out = complet uzat. all over = peste tot.

either.. nor and either. The doctor told him not to smoke or drink. two clauses) are joined by a coordinate conjunction. she also had dessert! Either my husband or I can drive you home.. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. He moved quickly but quietly.146 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Conjunction Conjunctions join words. ... Punctuation with Coordinate Conjunctions • A comma is not necessary when only two elements (two words. neither... Neither money nor power can make him happy. They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party. Neither the students nor THE TEACHER is allowed to wear jeans... • The second noun determines the number of the verb with neither. (but also). Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket.and. Not only did she have two helpings. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both.or: Neither the teacher nor THE STUDENTS are allowed to wear jeans.nor make the connection more intense... Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor. not only. two phrases.or...

. before. that. whom She never saw him after he left town. and children are welcome. as. majestic white-robed peaks. although. This is called a serial comma. women. nature is the hand setting b. because. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America. ……. She has been very ill since her operation. To the west. Men. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. ……. c. since. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. unless. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths.English Practical Course 147 • However. Controlled Practice 1 1. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. Within the park are alpine meadows. is the brooding. and beyond. It is not compulsory to use a comma before the last unit: Men. some sixty active glaciers slow- . if. d. how. on the Olympic Peninsula. He got a ticket because he was speeding. where.. ………. Along this coast. women and children are welcome. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. use commas after the first and second units. a. who. as much as. what. if three or more units are joined. when. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. into the Olympic Mountains. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank.

50 miles wide. there is a more gentle forest. River. These are softer mountains. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia.. and averages only 6 inches deep. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14.. ……. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide. Although relatively small.. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. They are the largest living things on earth.. maple and other hardwoods. serene." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. hammocks. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park." g. h. A river that is 100 miles long. are seemingly endless groves of oak. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience.. To walk these cool.148 English Practical Course sliding their relentless way down from the heights. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. Far to the east. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. in Shenandoah National Park i. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. Sea. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada. islands and hyacinth pools. In Wyoming are the rugged. laying . there is a remarkable rainforest. "Grassy Water. most mountain ranges. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee. live more than 350 species of birds. e. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. Mountain. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life. ……. …….000 feet. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. the Tetons have no foothills. On the western slopes of the mountains. ……. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. ……. may be the most unusual river in the world. hickory.

Here is where glaciers come to die. ……. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke.for the soul. minarets.. ……. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. ……. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal. j. time and wind. ……. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k.. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made. powerful strokes. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park.. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. powerful hand of water. The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. m. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed.. ……. arches.English Practical Course 149 comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores. No longer shrouded in ice. ……… seem to have once been alive. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved.1794. l. There are castles and whimsical skylines. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. n. all cut from stone by the delicate. towers.

woman-women. -sh. stimulus-stimuli. diagnosisdiagnoses. potato. basis-bases.nucleus-nuclei. genius-genii (spirits)/geniuses (men of genius) (but: bonuses. goose-geese. diplomas) . louse-lice.datum-data. hypothesis-hypotheses. formula-formulae/formulas (but: dilemmas. boxboxes. thesis-theses . viruses) .potatoes (But: photo-photos) -ves to nouns ending in -f(e): knife-knives. axis-axes. villas. leaf-leaves. proof-proofs. match-matches. criterion-criteria (but: demons.index-indices (algebraic signs) /indexes (tables of contents). brush-brushes. -z. ox-oxen. hoof-hooves/hoofs. -ch. appendixappendices (in books)/appendixes (anatomical) analysis-analyses. cliff-cliffs. protons. -x. tooth-teeth. crisis-crises. -o: bus-buses. geniuses.150 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 2 Number of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s: book-books. neurones.phenomenon-phenomena.alga-algae. asylums) . tool-tools -es to singular nouns ending in -s. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs. child-children. person-people/ persons • Foreign plurals . scarf-scarfs/scarves • Some nouns form their plural irregularly man-men. larva-larvae. handkerchief-handkerchiefs) -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: lady-ladies -s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy-toys Note: dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves. foot-feet. mouse-mice. -ss. ganglions) • Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: . medium-media (but: museums.

fish. • collective nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb. jury. remains. plaice. • Some nouns have different meanings when turned into plural: Air (atmosphere)-airs (behaviour) Cloth (a piece of material)-clothes (garments) Compass (a magnetic compass)-compasses (an instrument for drawing circles) Content (what is written or spoken about in a piece of writing. etc. clergy. lodgings. jeans. salmon. club. regards. team. series. tools and instruments consisting of two parts: binoculars. premises (building). belongings. Japanese. company. deer. etc. squid.English Practical Course 151 Craft. choir. crowd. union. clothes. pliers. surroundings. youth. trousers.) Custom (a traditional event)-customs (the government department which collects taxes on imported goods) a. spectacles. government. savings. firm. family. public. The staff were not in agreement with the new rules. thanks. class. arms (weapons). cod. oats. sheep. outskirts. trout • Some nouns are only plural: earnings. odds (chances). species. congratulations. groceries. pants. according top the meaning. pyjamas. compasses. etc. speech)contents (the things contained in a box. crew. scales. goods. riches. b. cattle. police. etc. glasses. spacecraft. orchestra. committee. (We refer to the individual members) The staff of the school consists of fifty people. means. (We refer to the group as a unit) Some collective nouns are: audience. garments. people. place. scissors. greens (vegetables). .

to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: cupboard – cupboards c. a place of manufacturing processes) Note: Some of the above nouns have their own regular plurals: minute/minutes • Compound nouns form their plural by adding –s/-es: by b.152 English Practical Course Damage(harm done to something)-damages (monetary compensation) Experience (gaining knowledge or skill over a period)-experiences (activities/events one has done/lived through) Fund (a sum of money saved for a purpose)-funds (money) Glass (a drinking receptacle)-glasses (spectacles) Hair (the hairy part of the head)-hairs (fine strands growing from the skin) Look (a style. an expression)-looks (a person’s appearance) Manner (a way in which something is done)-manners (social behaviour. to the noun if the compound has only one noun: passer-by – passers- . a magical creature)-spirits (a person’s feelings. to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition: mother-in-law – mothers-in-law a. a strong alcoholic drink) Wood (the hard material trees are made of)-woods (small forests) Work (employment)-works (the moving parts of a machine. customs) Minute (sixty seconds)-minutes (notes taken as a record of a meeting) Relation (a connection)-relations (members of the same family) Scale (the relative size of something)-scales (an instrument for weighing) Spectacle (an object of attention)-spectacles (glasses. also specs) Spirit (a person’s soul or mind.

That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists. (This/These) (new/news) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. Complete this newspaper article. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. b. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby. e.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town.English Practical Course 153 d. Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. Make all other changes which are necessary: a. The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/goods) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/trousers)” and “Polymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. Where have you put that box? . 2. at the end of the compound if it does not contain any nouns: breakdown – breakdowns Controlled Practice 2 1. and 2. When I entered the room. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. he was taking a book from the shelf. d. but the (information/informations) that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. c. This child is a naughty one. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Clayton Factory for Milchester The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester.

d. George didn’t count his (footsteps /feetsteps) from the station to the library because he considered it useless. Three (basketful /basketfuls) of oranges have been gathered so far. Mars and Venus revolve on their (axis) like the Earth. The (commander-in-chiefs /commanders-in chief) decided to surrender. (Mothers-in-laws /mothers-in-law) are considered by some men real shrews. b. g. f. They keep talking about the legend of (men-eaters /man-eaters). His (brother-in-laws /brothers-in-law) have committed several crimes. c.154 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Fill in the correct plural for the words in brackets: a. g. f. b. (Oasis) save sometimes Bedouins’ lives. h. Milk has lots of (by-products /bys-products). Select the form you consider appropriate in each of the following sentences: a. All grammar books contain (index). e. d. He doesn’t like spending his time playing with mathematical (formula). Jack will send some (memorandum) to the President. A great deal of (datum) was stolen from our computers. e. It can be hilarious if translators make mistakes in their (analysis). c. 4. I don’t like (two-hour-walks /two-hours-walks). (Ninety-year-olds /ninety-years-old) don’t need to use (toothbrushes /teethbrushes). . i. The (women doctors /woman doctors) I met there are professionals. j.

He knows almost all (genus) of animals. i. he had to face many international (crisis). j. l. The (criterion) of success must be found through experience. Ten (addendum) had been proposed before they arrived. You have to finish your (thesis) before the first of July. As a President. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .English Practical Course 155 h. k.

and singing . he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank. Life to him seemed hollow. was green with vegetation. proper and common nouns: SATURDAY MORNING was come. He surveyed the fence. Cardiff Hill. and all the summer world was bright and fresh. and inviting. and brimming with life. repeated the operation. nine feet high. Sighing. compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the farreaching continent of unwhite washed fence. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a longhandled brush. and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. Underline the nouns and divide them into concrete. Jim came skipping out at the gate with a tin pail. and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit. and it lay just far enough away to seem a Delectable Land. abstract. dreamy. The locust trees were in bloom and the fragrance of the blossoms filled the air. There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. and if the heart was young the music issued at the lips. reposeful. Thirty yards of board fence.156 English Practical Course Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Gender of Nouns © Countable/Uncountable Nouns © Synthetical/ Analytical/ Double Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Chapter 2 (The Glorious Whitewasher) of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. and existence but a burden. beyond the village and above it. There was a song in every heart. did it again.

an’ she tole me go ‘long an’ ‘tend to my own businessshe ‘lowed she’d ‘tend to de whitewashin’. I have got to go now. Jim. They wanna come at five. she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop foolin’ roun’ wid anybody.and even then somebody generally had to go after him. Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour. mulatto. resting. and he is highly uneducated. fighting. quarreling. She won’t ever know. and negro boys and girls were always there waiting their turns.” Jim shook his head and said: “Can’t. = = = = He is going to wait here. The following are expressions typical of North American English. I’ll fetch the water if you’ll whitewash some. but now it did not strike him so. They are used only in informal speech: He's gonna wait here. . trading playthings. They want to come at five. Mars Tom. so he can’t speak grammatically correct Learn some Americanisms which you might need when you hear spoken American English. Jim.I won’t be gone only a minute. Tom said: “Say. He remembered that there was company at the pump. Gimme the bucket. She say she spec’ Mars Tom gwine to ax me to whitewash.” “O. That’s the way she always talks.” Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work in Tom’s eyes. I otta be there at noon. Try to translate Jim’s speech. Ole missis. And he remembered that although the pump was only a hundred and fifty yards off. before.” Ways with Words 1.English Practical Course 157 “Buffalo Gals. never you mind what she said. I ought to be there at noon. It is very hard to understand what he is saying due to the fact that first of all he speaks American English. White. I gotta go now. skylarking.

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He ain't * at home. Americanisms.

=

He is not at home.

* Ain't means am not, isn't, aren't. It is less frequently used than the other 2. In the sentence: There was a song in every heart, the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of place. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile; in all together = în total; in the beginning = la început; in contrast to/with = în contrast cu; in common with = în comun cu; in itself = în sine; in order to/ that = ca sã, pentru ca; in particular = în special; in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de; in practice = în principiu; in progress = în curs de; in print = tipãrit; in return for = în schimbul a; in quantity = în cantitate; in search of = în cãutare de; in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã; in such a manner = în aşa mod; in sum = pe scurt, în douã vorbe; in that = în aceea cã; in token of = în semn de, ca dovadã; in turn = cu rândul; to be interested in = a fi interesat de; to result in = a avea ca rezultat;

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to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes în; a reuşi în.(e.g. She succeeded in passing the exam). Now practice these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. Look for the preposition at in the text. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz; at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj; at ease = liniştit, pe îndelete; at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã; at intervals = la intervale, intermitent; at liberty = fãrã restricţii, liber; at most = cel mult; at once = imediat; at request = la cerere; at right angle = la unghi drept; at stake = în joc; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Noun
There are four kinds of nouns in English: abstract nouns (love, freedom thought); common/concrete nouns (book, table); collective nouns (family, herd); proper nouns (Greg, London).

Gender
Masculine: men and boys (he) Feminine: women, girls, cars, ships, countries (she)

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Neuter: babies, animals, things (it) Notes: - Babies and animals are referred to as male or female when we know their sex. - Cars, ships and countries are sometimes referred to as female but the neuter is more common in modern English. • • Most common nouns referring to people have the same form whether male or female: teacher (man or woman), doctor, etc. Some common nouns referring to people have different forms for male and female: Actor – actress Barman – barmaid Bachelor – spinster Boy – girl Bridegroom – bride Duke – duchess Emperor – empress Father – mother • gentleman – lady heir – heiress husband – wife hero – heroine host – hostess monk – nun nephew – niece prince – princess policeman – policewoman steward – stewardess son – daughter uncle – aunt widower – widow waiter – waitress

Some common nouns referring to animals have different forms for male and female: cock – hen gander – goose lion – lioness tiger – tigress stag – doe stallion – mare

Bull – cow Drake – duck Dog – bitch

Countable/uncountable nouns
Countable nouns are those which can be counted: one book, two books, three books. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full.

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Uncountable nouns are those which cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. They take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. The words some, any, no, (a) little, much, plenty of etc can be used with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are: Names of substances (materials, liquids, gases. etc): leather, paper, wood, metal, silver, water, coffee, bread, meat, butter, wine, flour Activities and sports: running, swimming, shopping, gardening, football, tennis Games ending in –s: billiards, darts, bowls, dominos etc Diseases ending in –s: mumps, rickets Names of subjects: history, mathematics, music, physics Languages: Russian, Greek, German, English Abstract nouns: love, hope, advice, information, intelligence, beauty, hunger, poverty Collective nouns: furniture, luggage, equipment, accommodation, traffic

Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. Chicken/a chicken, stone/a stone, hope/ a hope, education/an education Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety. Wine/an excellent wine, fruit/ a very sweet fruit In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a restaurant Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives:

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a piece of cake/information/baggage/advice/furniture/work/equipment; a glass of water/beer/wine; a jar of jam; a sheet of paper; an item of news; a drop of water/oil; a box of chocolates; a metre of cloth; a packet of biscuits; a pound of flour; a puff of smoke a strip/acre of land a grain of sand a set of cutlery an attack of fever a piece of music a slice of bread a loaf of bread a pot of tea a cup of tea a lump of sugar a game of chess a kilo of meat a bottle of wine a whiff of garlic a beam of light a pile of rubbish a stack of hay a word of advice a wink of sleep a tube of toothpaste a bar of soap/chocolate a blade of grass a flash of lightning a clap of thunder a cube of ice a roast of meat a pint of beer a gust of wind a breath of fresh air an article of clothing a ball of string a roar of laughter a feat of passion

a state of emergency a stroke of luck

The Genitive/Possessive Case
Form: o The ‘S Genitive/the Synthetical Genitive: the boy’s hat, the boys’ hat o The OF Genitive/the Analytical Genitive: the director of the museum o Double Genitive: a work of Milton’s 1. The Inflected/Synthetical Genitive (the ‘S Genitive) Form: • ‘s is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in –s: a man’s job, men’s work, the butcher’s (shop), a child’s voice, the children’s room

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• • • • • •

A simple apostrophe (‘) is used with plural nouns ending in –s: the girls’ school, the Smiths’ car Other names ending in –s can take ‘s or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones’s/ Mr Jones’ house With compounds, the last word takes the ‘s: my brother-in-law’s guitar ‘s can only be used after initials: the MP’s briefcase, the VIP’s escort ‘s is omitted in the phrase for … sake: for goodness sake ‘s is often added to a noun phrase (the group genitive): the Duke of York’s eldest son

If joint possession is intended, the apostrophe is placed on the last element: Tom and Mary’s baby Individual possession requires an apostrophe with each element of the series: America’s and England’s problems. • The local genitive is used to denote institutions of various kinds (restaurants, churches, theatres, etc), a home, a shop: at Joe’s, at the chemist’s, at my parents’ (home) The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • • • nouns denoting people or other beings (animate nouns): John’s lecture, my parents’ advice, the horse’s neck, the dog’s bark nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, size, distance, weight: a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper in expressions of money + worth: ten dollars’ worth of sugar collective nouns: the government’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.: England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat. names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day/a winter day

at one’s wit’s end.164 English Practical Course • • some expressions (these have an alternative with of): the water’s edge.phrase: the house of my sister’s neighbour With nouns coming from adjectives: the contempt of the rich When the governing noun is modified by a long phrase or clause: the intelligence of the woman across the street 3. The Double Genitive Form: It is made up of the inflected genitive (‘s) and the of genitive: a nephew of Queen Mary’s. the welfare of the people If a genitive governs another genitive. Translate into English: . their money’s worth • some idiomatic expressions: to one’s heart’s content. two friends of Jack’s Compare: A portrait of Dali (one portraying him) – a portrait of Dali’s (one painted by or belonging to him) Controlled Practice 1. the water’s surface. to a hair’s breadth. within arm’s reach. at his journey’s end. for charity’s sake some other expressions (they do not have an alternative with of): at arm’s length. The OF Genitive Form: It is formed by means of a noun which is preceded by the preposition of: the cover of the book. to my mind’s eye. It is mainly used with inanimate nouns Usage: • • • • In titles and formal speech or written text: the Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson. a bird’s eye view 2. lyrics of Hugo’s. the former is expressed by the of. at a stone’s throw.

e. Nu mai am strop de energie ca să urc şi panta aceasta. c. Povestea din război cu o pasiune extraordinară. e. Orice informaţie despre jaful de la bancă este vitală. f. A băut trei cafele şi l-a apucat ameţeala. Bagajul meu se află între cele două doamne grase. Inventatorul telefonului este Graham Bell b. Mi-a dat un sfat foarte important: să nu mănânc pâine după miezul nopţii. c. h. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. Doi prieteni de-ai lui John i-au făcut o surpriză de ziua lui. d.English Practical Course 165 a. Aceasta este o mobilă prea veche pentru gustul nostru. Un fulger urmat de un tunet asurzitor i-au speriat pe copii. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în medicină şi s-au descoperit medicamente împotriva cancerului . b. I-am rugat să ne cumpere patru pâini de Extrapan. Alaltăieri am cumpărat cinci săpunuri şi astăzi nu găsesc nici unul. j. i. taking into account the form of uncountable nouns: a. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte produse in Franta d. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. Translate into English.

e. are) asked to pay attention to the speech. c. have) been living in that chalet for years. b. Politics (is. f. My family (has. The audience (is. The majority (was. are) all children. Match: a bunch of a bundle of a fleet of a cluster of a clump of a flight of a string of a crate of a pack of a bouquet of a burst of an attack of a hint of an ounce of a stroke of a wink of a feat of a term of a word of a state of 4. Mathematics (was. beads stars beer rags grapes trees taxis flowers stairs cards energy laughter abuse trouble fever luck sleep endurance imprisonment emergency . Use the correct form of the verb: a. are) a matter of no interest to me. were) my favourite subject. d.166 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. were) against the war. That team (is.

h. Cotroceni Palace is the residence of the President of Romania.English Practical Course 167 g. h. their) seats. There was a great variety of cars for the disabled in the fair. There is a magazine belonging to Mr. The novels of Dickens and Hardy are very often read nowadays. have) just come back and (is. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I have done that for the sake of my cousin George. are) taking (its. b. the children had to go to the mountains. During the holiday of three weeks of their friends. Smith in almost every country. The nephew of Chris and Liz is very smart. Your heroics (was. e. c. i. 5. f. The speech of the President was received with applause. is my best friend. the daughter of the baker. d. j. g. were) useless in that situation. Mary. i. Put into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. have) been chasing the thieves for weeks. She took the coat of somebody else. The audience (has. The police (has.

of buildings was destroyed by the earthquake. clump.168 English Practical Course 6.. some ………… of trees were still untouched. It was a journey of ten days. A ………. d. d. row. Choose from the following: bevy. She ate a ……… of grapes in two minutes. colony. The teacher told them that wolves attack in ……… . bunch. − ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. g. pack. c. The movie lasted three hours. Supply the correct collective nouns. fleet. His mother bought some books which cost ten pounds. Mike bought some flowers costing a dollar. Although the forest caught fire. Make any other necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. My cousin was bitten by a ……… of bees. f. The jam I bought weighed half a kilogram. e. e. c. I have seen a building of 450 metres in the city of Atlanta. The man on the street weighs 250 kilograms. b. . b. h. The highway to the next city was ninety kilometres. swarm. i. board: a. Rewrite the following sentences using the underlined words in the possessive case. They granted them an interview lasting half an hour.

g. She wrote the address on a ………… of paper. k. 8. sip. They will open a new ………. pinch.. Divorţul copiilor vecinilor noştri va avea loc luna viitoare. drop(2). 9. They went inside as they had felt a ………. of hair of the victim to have a souvenir. You should add a ……… of salt and mix the ingredients. f. beam. A …………. The killer cut a ……. n.English Practical Course 169 f. i. . litre. i. My neighbours send for the police at the slightest ………. spell. They would like a ………… of pineapple juice. acre.. A ……… of light from your candle was enough to find the lost ring. of land is very rich in oil. h. of rain. hint. That ………. A ……… of cloth is not enough to make the dress you have dreamt of. m. The …………. George has never drunk beer so he tried a ………. bowl. e. j. A ………… of ships had been sent to rescue the survivors. Put in the missing partitive: stretch. of wind broke two windows of my house. This morning a ………. of managers decided to buy the product. lock. of soup will help you get rid of your nausea. of road between Tokyo and Osaka. j. of mine. scrap. c. metre. of boys was laughing at the clown.. of green here and it will be perfect. o. George bought Mary a box of chocolates and a ……… of flowers on her birthday. of trouble. g. b. d. A ………. The painting needs a ………. Translate into English: a. A ………… of termites was eating my furniture. They’ve had ………… of good weather so far. l. h. gust. a.

fii atent. O turmă de oi mi-a invadat curtea. că dacă îl prind îi rup oasele! c. h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Write a before the nouns which are used as countable nouns: a. dar mobila de dinainte de război era de mare clasă. fiecare informaţie este vitală. amantul prietenei vărului meu. turma ta se împrăştie în toate direcţiile! g. I am lucky to have had … very good education. Are 93 de ani şi la vârsta ei o călătorie de 12 ore cu trenul este sinucidere curată. . f. dacă ea avea un singur bagaj nu dura atât de mult. Piesa noastră de mobilier este foarte modernă. nu avem de mers mai mult de 15 minute până la aeroport. Face bagajele de cel puţin patru ore. i. Trebuie să aflăm toate informaţiile necesare. Casa cea nouă a administratorului parcului naţional al oraşului nostru are cel puţin treizeci de camere. e. Am putea să ne întâlnim la şcoală. … Education does not just take place at school. d. Spune-i domnului Cole.170 English Practical Course b.

Is there … light in Mike’s room? d. h. The news printed in that magazine (is/are) always accurate. … Beauty is my favourite concern. Would you like … baked potato? 11. f. The statue is built of … marble. Sometimes … love can solve all the problems. k. There (is/are) several means of reaching the chalet on daylight.English Practical Course 171 b. I like red meat but I don’t eat … pork. You were so hungry that you ate … whole turkey. That is … beautiful stone. Tom has proved of … great help to me. (much. This meal has … potato in it. l. He has … terrible fear of snakes. e. j. John thinks that’s … really beautiful painting. … Painting can be a really relaxing activity. c. His eyes are not very sensitive to … light. i. A (little/few) knowledge (is/are) as dangerous as having none. natural human feeling. Billiards (is/are) a very interesting game. f. He has … great love of art. You can’t get a job without … experience. c. Mary is … real beauty./many) women on the boat (was/were) getting seasick from the waves. I’m so glad I read it: it was … wonderful experience. please. I’ll have two cappuccinos and … whisky. That’s … very unusual fruit. b. I usually eat … fruit for dinner. … Fear is a protective. d. What is it? m. The scissors (was/were) on the table a few minutes ago. His luggage (was/were) found without much effort. Choose the right word from the brackets: a. e. I don’t usually drink … tea. g. g. I have to call my family because I desperately need … help. .

you should take it into consideration. h. Your business depends on his (country. c. With a … of luck you can still catch the train. their room). b. natural wonders). h. e. friends) were invited to the party. The Amazonian jungle is one of the (world. lies).172 English Practical Course h. newspaper)? . f. item. They painted only one (wall. the stairs) they realized that was not their house. 13. g. Have you read (today. How (much/many) information do you need to get it done? j. future). e. There are three outrageous … of news in today’s paper. c. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: a. He wanted to buy a … of chocolate but the shop was closed. You gave me (much/many) ideas about the job but very (little/few) advice. The (neighbours. b. This is a … of good advice. f. We are amazed by (that girl. They will buy a new … of furniture for their bedroom. You can’t eat that … of cold beef left because it is off. distance) from the Sun? d. d. bit. i. I cut several … of bread for my kid sister. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar. g. I’ll never forget (Helen. there (isn’t/aren’t) (much/many) chairs and tables here. i. piece. When they got to the (bottom. We should buy (much/many) furniture. words). We are allowed to take four … of luggage in our trip. Do you know the (Moon. slice: a. 12.

Father is trying to fix the (leg. f. h. articles are missing. He is a fantastic (basketball). There is a great (differ) between to remind and to remember. my son – he’s in his fifties now – sang it all day and all night. for several years. but also a good volley (play). (Visit) are requested to sign their names in the book. g.English Practical Course 173 j. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: a. is blowing in wind.’ Generation after mine didn’t know what life was . b. month in and month out. d. I remember one song called ‘Blowing in Wind’. c. The (advertise) will have to be published in the morning paper. Put in a/ an / the as appropriate: I remember in dim and distant past my children being obsessed by man called Bob Dylan. And it was so silly: ‘How many times must man look up before he can see sky?’ I mean. In the following fragment. my friend. The (begin) of the book was boring. but the (end) was more exciting. question like that can’t be taken seriously. She will give the detective a detailed (describe) of the thief. but impact he had in sixties and seventies was huge. 14. can it? And. ‘How many times must white dove fly before it sleeps in sand?’ And then answer to profound questions: ‘Answer. e. Children have a great deal of (curios). − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. We were able to give a satisfactory (explain) for our (behave). chair). I have no idea if he’s still alive.

so we got soaked. I suppose. sands. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. .174 English Practical Course all about. The Blue Killer was never arrested and was never handed over to the (…). basics. hopes. The actor thinks he can win the award but we suspect the (…) are against him. The (…) opened and. ‘Very thought of you. authorities. But what came next? ‘How many years can mountain exist before it is washed to sea?’ And there was whole generation singing alone to song. terms. dislikes. What is the purpose of your going to Hawaii? Well. Funny world we live in. matters. Don’t be rude! What about her (…). Civilians are forbidden to carry (…) during peacetime. c. arms. sights. just to see the (…). There’s no need for us to discuss the (…) of this marriage. of course.’ ‘Just way you look tonight. heavens. travels. did they? We did. talks. Put one of the nouns in each of the sentences. expenses.’ ‘Night they invented champagne. movements a. means. we didn’t have any umbrellas.’ They were real songs. b. I say it’s funny world we live in. e. can’t you imagine you hurt her? g. odds. f. feelings. d. interests.

I’m warning you.English Practical Course 175 h. p. (weathers) g. r. start considering yourself on shifting (…). Mayor? 17. Mr. a. I suppose they won’t claim travel (…) for their voyage to the island of Crete! j. isn’t he? I hear that he is off on his (…) again. Once the causes of Mike’s death are made public. It will be best for her to help them right now. the policemen will arrest the suspects. could you answer these questions. l. (designs) h. q. I don’t think John is planning to buy that expensive house. George got on very well with his father-in-law. My boss’s likes and (…) shouldn’t be of any interest to the employees. using the word given. m. He’s up and about. even if it’s snowing. i. (proceeds) b. I won’t find any (…) of transport at this hour of the night. There’s little chance of raining this week. (terms) d. (odds) e. (eye) f. if you keep teasing my daughter. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence. They play football. (means) c. n. (open) . Parents don’t agree with their children’s liberal ideas. k. Jack trusts his aunt. Have you found out what our enemies (…) are over the following days? o. In the (…) of the citizens. Try as I might. (interests) i. This word must not be altered in any way. Peace (…) in Palestine are meant to put an end to the guerrilla fights. All the money they managed to earn was spent on clothes. I’m sure the gangsters discussed a range of important (…) since the Godfather was present. he tells her all his (…) and fears. She wasn’t as innocent as it seemed to be. raining or extreme cold. We’ll have to get back to (…) to understand the grammar of the English language.

176 English Practical Course j. (high) − ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . She is convinced her daughter is going to be as successful as herself.

She bent down to look at the binful of yellow pollen. Morel gasped slightly in fear. and the air was charged with their perfume. the moonlight standing up from the hills in front. panting and half weeping in reaction from the stress. Mrs. They seemed to be stretching in the moonlight. almost blindingly. With an effort she roused herself to see what it was that penetrated her consciousness. In what way are prepositions different in Romanian? Try to see when the use of the English prepositions is different from the use in Romanian: She hurried out of the side garden to the front. . H. then shivered. The tall white lilies were reeling in the moonlight. she murmured to herself over and over again: “The nuisance! the nuisance!” She became aware of something about her. and filling the valley where the Bottoms crouched. She put her hand into one white bin: the gold scarcely showed on her fingers by moonlight. pallid flowers on their petals. where she could stand as if in an immense gulf of white light. as with a presence. the moon streaming high in face of her. Pay attention to the use of preposition in English. There.English Practical Course 177 Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Prepositions © Compound Prepositions © Place of Prepositions in the Sentence © Problematic Prepositions of Time and Space •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Sons and Lovers by D. She touched the big. Lawrence.

Mrs. on this ground = din acest motiv. herself melted out like scent into the shiny. and she lost herself awhile. on behalf of sb. and her consciousness in the child. on demand = la cerere. looking out. Ways with Words 1. melted with her in the mixing-pot of moonlight. on account of = pe baza.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. . on the basis of = pe baza. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. = în numele cuiva. on the contrary = din contrã. din partea cuiva. on the verge of = pe punctul de. pale air. on the score of = ca rezultat. How many times does the preposition on appear in the text? Learn some expressions containing this preposition. on the whole = în general. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. and so on = şi aşa mai departe. în pragul. la nesfârşit. în întregime. After a time the child. and she rested with the hills and lilies and houses.). to turn on/ to switch on (the light. Morel leaned on the garden gate. radioul. etc. all swum together in a kind of swoon. the radio. Except for a slight feeling of sickness. pe cale. luând în consideraţie cã. too. She did not know what she thought. on record = cunoscut.etc. to be on duty = a fi de serviciu. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. din cauzã cã. It almost made her dizzy.178 English Practical Course but it only appeared dusky. Then she drank a deep draught of the scent.

short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. ici şi colo. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva.English Practical Course 179 on condition that = cu condiţia. . on the first attempt = la prima încercare. în cea mai mare mãsurã. on purpose = dinadins. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. to the letter = întocmai. mai degeaba. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. on trial = de probã. deodatã. intenţionat. to this effect = în acest scop. on a sudden = brusc. to date = la zi. pe neaşteptate. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. 2. on principle = din principiu. How do you translate: She hurried out of the side garden to the front […]? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition to. to hand = la îndemânã. ad litteram. to little purpose = cu puţin efect.

Simple: about. to. pronouns. onto. beyond. concerning. underneath. into. behind. failing. on. during. saving. athwart. through. Note that in English. off. outside. throughout. notwithstanding. along with. noun phrases. touching. respecting. inside. I can't get any work done. till. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. past. from inside. under. with b. out of. round about. he disappeared. for. amid. upon. c. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase.180 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Prepositions Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. but. against. according to form: a. within. as to. Nouns. per. from. near. above across. below. up to. Because of you. betwixt. Complex: according to. up against. without. down. by. excepting. beneath. pending. d. in. after. After telling the whole story. from among. between. at. over. Prepositional Phrases: . as far as. from under. down to. since. Compound: alongside. until. regarding. via. over against. up. along. besides. instead of. towards. except. because of. in between. before. around. as for. save. among. Types of prepositions. of. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. anent. round. except for. considering.

phrasal verbs. in honour of. in obedience to. by reason of. separated from its object. with regard to.English Practical Course 181 ahead of. in spite of. in praise of. by way of. for the sake of. with reference to. These verb-preposition combinations have several names: twopart verbs. in case of. This is a book about which we were talking. In interrogative sentences and subordinate clauses. in connection with. in common with. in consequence of. as a result of. She was brought up in the suburbs. in behalf of. in opposition to. in reward of. next to. by the side of. at the back of. due to. caused by. in the event of. in aid of. in default of. in company with. the unit acquires a new meaning. with a view to. owing to. the preposition may be at the end of the sentence. in accordance with. page 309) Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs When certain verbs and prepositions are combined. (was raised) Place of Prepositions in the Sentence A preposition usually precedes its object: I am voting for him. in the place of. in the middle of. in want of. in the name of. by means of. in place of. on account of. We are talking about this novel. thanks to. with respect to. in order to. prior to. in front of. in view of. (see also Appendix 2. in regard to. Compare the following sentences: Whom are you voting for? For whom are you voting? This is a book (which) we were talking about. for fear of. in answer to. The verb-preposition phrase is listed together in the dictionary with its own meaning. in addition to. in prospect of. . in keeping with. in comparison with. with relation to. apart from. and verb idioms. by dint of. in lieu of.

into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop.. etc. etc.. Tuesday morning. London. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb. etc. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you. midnight. etc. Prepositions of Time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the . even when meaning is different: She goes to house. the weekend.182 English Practical Course The first sentence in each pair is common in informal speech. keep the preposition and object together.. 25-th. I came here During* the film. a long time. my holidays. February. university. But: I arrived at London Airport. the war. winter... etc. January... the moment On Saturday. Easter/ Christmas. Monday.. etc. For seven minutes. 11-th January. 1988. my last birthday. not used come.. your free (spare) time. etc. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock. two weeks’ time. In formal writing and business communications. the 1930s. etc. etc.. ages Since June. two weeks. the class. Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place Movement Place to at used with verbs of movement: go. summer.

differ. ask. murmur.) Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. talk. glance. withdraw. yearn. fight. sigh. distinguish. protect. rage. look.English Practical Course 183 promenade. IN: . insure. pay. purchase. refrain. cry. differentiate. fret. smile. fall. divide. puff. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. exact. shoot. point. crave. descent. set. FROM: absolve. suffer. take. call. learn. leave. knock. excerpt. profit. take. BY: begin. wait. AFTER: aspire. look. languish. purge. hunger. lament. sneer. complain. stay. worry. extricate. send. mutter. grieve. warn. fire a shot. bargain. doubt. prepare. long. pass. fish. flee. strive. select. AT: aim. finish. receive. mock. exclaim. wish. say. do. gaze. defend. borrow. FOR: account. die. search. cry.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. call. recover. expect. hanker. work. speak. ensue. AGAINST: clamour. laugh. hope. care. indemnify. walk. thunder. stand. atone. swear. obtain. know. rush. last. buy/sell (sth) at a price. hunt. answer. see. repine. assess. drive. think. revolt. pull. derive. reach. sail. rejoice. pine. spring. manufacture. banish. strike. tell. guard. write. start. throw.

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer, insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write. INTO: alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn. OF: accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain, consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn, relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think. ON: act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark, gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell. OVER: brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate. TO: adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal, aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain, consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead, listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return, seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend. WITH: agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond, deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet (~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side, sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie. UPON: act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist, look, play (~one’s feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample. Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:

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185

Addicted to, adequate for (smth.), adequate to (smb.), adverse to, affected by, amazed at, ambitious after, annoyed at, anxious about (smth.), anxious for (smb.), appalled by, apprehensive of (i.e. worried about), apt for, ashamed of, astonished at, averse to, bad at, beneficial to, bent on, busy with, capabale of, certain of, charmed at (smth.), charmed with (smb.), clever at (mathematics), compatible with, concerned about /with, concerned for (smb), connected with, consistent with, contended with, convenient for (smth.) convenient to (smb.), crazy about, cruel to, deficient in (smth.), delighted at, derogatory to, devoid of, dexterous at, diffident in, disappointed at, disgusted by (smth.), disgusted with (smb.), displeased at, dissatisfied with, doubtful of (smb.), dying for, eager for/about, earnest about, enraged by, essential for, excited at/over, fit for, frightened at, full of, good at, greedy of, hostile to (smb.), hungry for, identical to/with, ignorant of, immersed in (debts), immune against, immune from, impolite to, inadequate for smth/to smb, incensed at/with, inclined to /for, inconceivable to, independent of smb, indignant at/with, infatuate with, intent on, irritated at, offended at, opposite from, parallel to, paralyzed with, partial to, particular about, pleased at smth, prepared for, proficient in, prone to, resolved on, rude to, secure of, skillful at/in, slow at, solicitous about, sorry about smth, sorry for smb, subject to, suffering from, sufficient for, suited to, sure about smth, sure of smb, sympathetic to, tired with, true to, unfit for, unjust to, vexed at smth, vexed with smb

Controlled Practice
1. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.

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d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the recent discovery. j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology. 2. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I shut the door but left my key …..... it. b. He strolled carelessly .……. the road. c. They arrived late .……. the station. d. She ran all the way …….. the shop. e. I went …….. Paris last year. f. I met her …….. the rock concert. g. The baby crawled …….. the kitchen. h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 3. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England . ……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air . 4. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column A and then translate into Romanian: A in on under at with above out of by without off B work suspicion question joy love fire one’s breath fail heart duty

A interest lack ambition

B for in in

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delight advantage influence witness arrangement agreement declaration protection difference damage impatience A busy inferior satisfied advantageous superior mad new afraid excited interested

for between at over of of upon against to on to B to of at to at with to to in about

A run deal talk take

B in with after about

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divide think climb pass rely believe

on about; of by up into for

5. Read through the following and fill in the numbered blanks with a suitable preposition of time. Be careful, however, because in one or two cases no preposition is needed. My parents met (1)… the war: (2)… August 1943 to be precise. My father was home (3)… leave (4)… the front, and he decided to spend the first week with his aunt in Liverpool. He hadn’t seen her (5)… several years, even though she had brought him up (6)… his mother’s death. Liverpool is not the most beautiful city in the world, but it can be very pleasant (7)… summertime, especially early (8)… the morning. (9)… this particular morning, however, my father was in no mood to enjoy the sunrise over the Mersey. His train left Euston Station (10)… time, at midnight, but (11)… the time it got to Crewe, it was already three and a half hours (12)… schedule. So he was in a bad mood and very tired (13)… arrival at Lime Street Station. But something happened (14)… minutes of his arrival that changed not only his mood but also his whole life. Feeling thirsty (15)… his long journey, he decided to go and have a cup of tea in the station buffet. Typically, it was shut (16)… that early hour. A notice on the door read “Opening hours (17)… 7 a.m. (18)… 5.30 p.m.” He looked at the station clock: ten (19)… seven. The buffet should be open (20)… now, he thought. But, knowing station buffets, he realized that he could wait (21)… 8 or even 9 o’clock before it opened. Suddenly he noticed a pretty girl sitting on a bench. She was pouring some hot liquid from a thermos flask into a cup. Being something of a lady’s man, my father (at least this is what my mother

from taking . for robbing a b. on her work c. I’ll marry you and look after you (25)… the rest of my life!” Believe it or not. And I haven’t had a hot drink (24)… last night. Most children are fond to the beach 6. for his bad a. He didn’t want her to go. Mr Bond is deputizing circus 10.190 English Practical Course told me (22)… some years later) sat down and said “I’ve never seen such a pretty girl (23)… all my life as you. having more than behavior 4. into going to e. She takes great pride l. If you give me a drink of your tea. Complete the following sentences. Since the weather was so bad. Choose a suitable ending from those marked a – p. He apologised nose 9. of going to the h. he was discouraged to the dentist 12. and … well. gave him the tea. The three men were found guilty 7. Since Mrs Smith is ill. against going d. He was arrested… 3. In Britain. we decided the party 8. The police charged the man bank 5. with murder j. so he tried to prevent her 11. 6. from leaving k. I wouldn’t be here (26)… now if the buffet hadn’t been shut (27)… that fateful day (28)… August 1943. she smiled at him. for her today g. 1. about going i. of his big f. My brother is very conscious… the exam 2. As he’d missed so many lessons.

in her work o. He was always very nervous tonight 16. Try to match them up correctly. I can’t pay! 6. illegal 8. He tried to coax her 14. very early 14. behind the times f.I haven’t eaten 11. I’m not very keen law m. behind bars k. a prisoner 15. in agony i. It really hurts! 13. against the 7. Each of the words and phrases on the left can be associated with one of the prepositional phrases on the right. He complimented her 15.English Practical Course 191 13. in arrears j. against the law b. on going out p. very fashionable 5. Complete the sentences below with one of the following adjectives plus a preposition. at the same time d. What a mess! 4. You’re too young! 7. in the nude n. recite a poem 2. We’re late! 3. on an empty stomach p. gradually a. It’s burning! 16. simultaneous 9. in vogue o. at daybreak c. of fraud n. old-fashioned 12. . under age 8. from memory h. behind schedule e. To tell you the truth. 1. in flames m. by degrees g. no clothes 10. in disorder l.

ON . they were not prepared to support us officially. isn’t it? m. sympathetic a. but it was perfectly … … our needs. c. n. Life is … … surprises. I’m really … … mathematics. DATE b. distracted. Supply the missing prepositions. everyone could see that he was … … his wife’s success. You really make me angry sometimes. notorious. o. p. The teacher was … … her students for not doing their homework. My neighbour is … … pruning fruit trees. The flat wasn’t very big. He was nearly 16 before he first became … … the opposite sex. angry. He was … … the race for taking drugs. TIMES c. inspired. LONG d. l. He tried to work but was … … the noise from the traffic. bad. h. ”Who else was … … the crime?” the policeman asked the suspect. e. 9. expert. a. g. Pop groups are … … smashing up hotel rooms.192 English Practical Course addicted. involved. Only unmarried women are … … membership. jealous. Don’t ask me to add up the bill. capable. eligible. The underlined expressions can be replaced by a time expression based on the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS. aware. This piece of music was … … by Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata. adequate. j. Do you think politicians are … … telling lies? b. Never become … … cigarettes! f. I hope to see you all again soon. d. Most of her clothes are no longer fashionable. disqualified. k. full. You’ll have to make your own bed in future. Although they said they were … … our case. Although he wouldn’t admit it. i.

END k. Everyone has heard about the leaning tower of Pisa. VALID This … … c. Wendy said that she would like to dance. We’ll be in UK. LONG j. I hope to see you next month. The demonstration occupied the square for several hours until they were eventually driven away by the police. write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence using the word in CAPITAL LETTERS. DAY l. Your Aunt Kate is using the spare bedroom now. FAMOUS Pisa … … b. a. and we don’t know even now what happened to her. but only briefly. Please be very quiet. For each of the sentences below. Now and then we like to spend a weekend in the mountains. They didn’t tell anyone they were getting married. TIME f. TIME i. Until then. Nobody wanted to buy his car. PROGRESS. This passport can be used inmost countries. Our daughter left home three years ago. SEASON g. Please complete the rest of your assignments right away. and immediately there were twenty young men offering to dance with her. We have given you the first word(s) of the new sentence. Are you and Jennifer related? RELATIVE . 10. best of luck with your driving test. MEANTIME p.English Practical Course 193 e. SECRET They … … d. so finally he had to give it away. MOMENT n. There is an examination going on. DELAY m. Autumn is the time when fruit like apples and pears are available. LENGTH h. BEING o. …so you’ll have to sleep in the garden temporarily.

A car crashed into a bus this morning. NOTICE Take … … h. INCAPABLE He … … l. She doesn’t find her present job very interesting. He would never tell you a lie. The interview panel thought that Sarah had a very good manner. Do you want a drink? CARE Would … … f. j. COLLIDED A car … … h. all she wanted to eat was jelly. My boss seems to enjoy humiliating people. I don’t usually speak to strange men. I lent my cousin $5. Your car is just like one I used to own. SIMILAR I…… k. DIFFICULTY He … …. BORROWED My cousin … … g.194 English Practical Course Is … … e. BORED She … … j. CRAVING Mary … … m. Pay no attention to what she says. He found it hard to open the window. PLEASURE My boss … … n. IMPRESSION . VALUED The … … i. DOUBTFUL We … … i. HABIT I…… o. When Mary was pregnant. We didn’t think she would pass the exam. The painting is worth$30.000.

account. My father says that the moon is made of green cheese. respect. the sake. Try to make up a sentence using each of the phrases. Complete the prepositional phrases below by choosing a word from the following list. MEMORY I …… u. addition. My best friend is someone I can really trust. on … of . PRESSURE I …… 7. out of … for j. We have run out of the items you want. If you want to understand Yeats’ s poetry. the expense. CONFIDENCE I…… r. in … with c. you need to study Irish history. I can recite Wordsworth’s Prelude without looking at the book. Henry really knew how to make people laugh. TALENT Henry …… s. the exception. A. favour. in … of e. KEY Irish history … … q. ACCORDING The moon ……. t. with … of i. for … of j. exchange. regard. virtue a. at … with g. The way to get the best out of me is to make me work very hard. odds. common.English Practical Course 195 Sarah … … p. with … to h. in … to d. STOCK The items …… v. in … for b.

reference. strain. to … of n. Complete the sentences below with one of the following nouns plus a preposition. f. the influence. freedom. under … of o. . genius. by … of B. with … of 8. grudge. opposite. fall. cruelty. on … with l.196 English Practical Course f. behalf. work a. control. agreement. choice. compensation. at … of c. in … for j. but that’s no … … not doing your homework. excuse. news. in … of g. basis. at … on b. means. I know you have a cold. with … to p. d. Do you have any … … my parking my car in front of your house? e. by … of e. The … … chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too quickly. trouble a. which would you do? b. a cost. The African elephant will be extinct within 20 years if an international … … the ivory trade is not started immediately. What is the … … “timid”? Is it “bold” or “brave”? c. peace. knowledge. objection. campaign. out of … for m. at … with d. the benefit. in … to i. If you had a … … marrying for love or marrying for money. for … of f. at … of k. pity. on … of k. good terms. aid. the compliments. the accompaniment. answer. in … with h.

j. i. fear and persecution. . k. If you have to deal with overseas clients. The RSPCA is concerned with prevention of … … animals.English Practical Course 197 g. h. because it puts a great … … their hearts. In our class. there has been a considerable … … the consumption of eggs. Overweight people should not jog. Perhaps the three most important human rights are … … hunger. a … … foreign languages is very useful. we can do as we like: our teacher has no … … us at all. l. Since the salmonella scare.

198 English Practical Course Progress Test 3 1. Which words in column A can combine with words in column B? a gaggle of a school of a pride of a swarm of a colony of a flock of a pack of a litter of A on with beyond to in by off at under without A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud puppies geese locusts fish hounds birds bees lions B top the left a light heart praise land the mark war doubt earnest such circumstances B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! .

k. n. a litter of puppies. heavy smoker. a tall tree. at war. f. j. Unde a avut loc accidentul? Key: a gaggle of geese. Aş vrea să călătoresc cu Orient. heavy traffic. El merge la şcoală dimineaţa. l. loud music. El este profesor la universitate. Statele Unite cooperează cu Marea Britanie. Ei şi-au dat mâna în final şi au plecat. without doubt. 2. a high building. strong wind. h. to the left. Happy New Year. a school of fish. o. a colony of locusts. on top.Express-ul. under such circumstances. by land. Translate into English: a. g. d. a high mountain. Tamisa este un râu care trece prin Londra. a pride of lions. e. Englezii sunt foarte politicoşi. Merry Christmas. c. Ei s-au simţit foarte bine la mare anul trecut. i. with a light heart. Ei au pornit să escaladeze Alpii. Happy Anniversary. . a high wall. a pack of hounds. Happy Birthday. b. heavy noise. a high price. off the mark. beyond praise. a flock of birds . a tall person. in earnest. Francezii mănâncă mai multă pizza decât englezii.English Practical Course 199 2. Acesta este cea mai bună piesă de teatru pe care am văzut-o. Pe de o parte nu-mi place grosolănia ta şi pe de altă parte mi-am terminat programul. El a ajuns aseară şi este cazat la Hotelul Hilton. El a devenit preşedintele Franţei în 1998. m. a swarm of bees.

m. o. j.200 English Practical Course a. 1 point + 0. l. e. d. They had a very good time at the seaside last year. He is a teacher at the university. The Thames is a river which crosses London. The United States and The United Kingdom co-operate. He became (the) President of France in 2000. a. He goes to school in the morning. The English are very polite. k. The French eat more pizza than the English. 1 point + 0. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points c. They shook hands and left. They set off to climb the Alps.60 point each x15 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points . b. h. c. Where did the accident happen? Score: 1. I wish I travelled by the Orient Express. This is the best play I have ever seen. g.60 point each x15 = 10 points 2. On the one hand I don’t like your rudeness and on the other my shift is over. i. n. He arrived last night and is accommodated at the Hilton. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points b. f.

English Practical Course 201 .

the cool clarion earth. farmer’s – are not technically adjectives. the turbans. He knew the good male smell of his father’s sittingroom. the wet loaniness of the garden. the sandalwood. of . Note that such an abundance of adjectives would be uncommon in contemporary prose. with the gaping horse-hair rent. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. He remembered yet the East India Tea house at the Fair. are underlined. if the smooth worn leather sofa. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name – like East India Tea house – are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns – father’s. inside a farmer’s covered wagon. but we’ve included them in our analysis of Wolve’s text. and the scent of orange rind. of cantaloupe and crated peaches. verb forms acting as adjectives. participles. before a fire of coals. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. and the robes. Angel. in July. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. Adjectives are bold. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. bitter-sweet. the cherry scent. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth.202 English Practical Course Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adjectives © The Order of Adjectives in a Series © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Consider the uses of modifiers in this paragraph rich in adjectives from Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward.

..…. of the heated calf-skin bindings. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. the opposite of old is young.than FULL-TIME. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco. Many people would rather work …………. The first shop he opened was a BIG SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. of honey-suckle at night. long closed.……. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October.English Practical Course 203 the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth.…. The management said salaries had INCREASED. Now complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter. Ways with Words 1.. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . e.…. of the brown tired autumn earth. Try to find the antonyms of the adjectives in the text. and milk. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . b.. position. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets.. For example.…………. c. of warm nasturtiums. the opposite of short is long. of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter eggs. of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored. of a bakery-oven in the wind.. 2. d. stuck with a red flag.

which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. . possessive chapter. There is however a pattern.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. because the order seems quite arbitrary. a month’s pay. etc. Observation adjectives. the unhappiest. demonstrative this tool II. perfect to interesting. a fivemonth-old child.204 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Position of adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun/ nouns in the sentence: the tall man. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. The Order of Adjectives in a Series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. adjectives. her story. beautiful. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. richest man. Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. they appear in a set order according to category. Unlike adverbs. a serious commitment. the fat lady. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. and when they do. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. the sixth (numerals.

English Practical Course 205 III. Qualifier is made of final limiter. blue. ancient denoting red. American. green. round. the. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. regarded as part of the passenger car. a Faulknerian style. metallic. yellow. it should probably be capitalised. book Capitalising proper adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. new. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. the English Parliaments. IV. the lonely. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. square young. noun often hunting cover cabin. VI. a Shakespearian play. old. English. V. Spanish. the rich. Collective adjectives When the definite article. Polish. the Nixon era. short. black. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: . a Renaissance/ Romantic/ Victorian poet. small. orange. the homeless. Romanian adjectives wooden. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour gorgeous to large. violet adjectives French. the oppressed. Thus we write (about) Christian music. brown. French fries.

It’s probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already negative: He is less unlucky than his brother. the opposite of prudent is imprudent. One way. the opposite of being properly filled is misfilled. They are figures of speech. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. The meaning itself can be tricky. For instance. although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. A third means of creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. . the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix). The rich are not supposed to help the poor. the opposite of young is old. for instance. The opposite of beautiful is ugly. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. Adjectival opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. is to find an antonym. you will have to consult a dictionary. of course. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. an euphuism is created if we say that This is the least beautiful city in the state instead of This is the ugliest city in the state. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. the opposite of honourable is dishonourable. A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet less worthy of consideration than another candidate. as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. the opposite of alcoholic is non-alcoholic.206 English Practical Course The rural poor have been ignored by the media.

in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four). etc.y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting Irregular adjectives rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** syllables Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives double the consonant when the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively. hot/ hotter/ the hottest. farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more .English Practical Course 207 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in .

(Give me further details in order to understand it better. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first movie was made in the United States. quantity. (The next bus comes in an hour. Your essay should be a thousand words or less. we use the word fewer. the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play).) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. He’s less than six feet tall. people used typing machines instead of computers. when we’re talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count. the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). Generally. but she also had less energy.). In these situations.). further/ the furthest are used in relation to time.) Less versus fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. *** Latter means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Philology.).). however.208 English Practical Course * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you.). it’s possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures. when we’re talking about countable things. The latter has also an abstract meaning. Taller than I/me? . the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. Fowles. She had fewer chores. ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest library?). we use the word less. use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It’s less than four miles to Dallas. the next refers to order. We do.

her would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. but – for now.. anyway – in formal. academic prose. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as I like him better than she/her. meaning in excess of or over. use the adverb.000 traffic deaths in one year. time or height: His sister is over forty. use the subject form in such comparisons. With most verbs. am or is. in the U. some editors would insist on more than 40.English Practical Course 209 When making a comparison with than we end with a subject form: taller than I/she.) Some good writers. In England. Even so in the U. we could write I like him better than she does or I like him better than I like her. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. there is no ambiguity: when modifying a verb. We’ve been waiting well over two hours for her. We are looking for the subject form: He is taller than I am/ she. there is no such distinction. over 40.000 traffic deaths would be acceptable. She will mean that you like this person better than she likes him. (We leave out the verb in the second clause. you will commonly hear over in numerical expressions of age. we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. He swims well. For instance. will argue that the word than should be allowed to function as a preposition. It’s an interesting argument. He is taller than me/her. Good versus well In both casual speech and formal writing. however. ) More than/ over? In the United States. If we can say He is tall like me/ her. He knows very well who the murderer is. whereas in the UK. however. .S. we usually use more than in countable numerical expressions..S. she is over six feet tall. then (if than could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say.

the better. Controlled Practice 1.. use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. c. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Literary Magazine”. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. Many careful writers.210 English Practical Course However.. however. Translate into English: a. thank you.. will use well after linking verbs relating to health. the less acceleration. If you felt badly it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. In fact. How are you? I’m feeling good. the more fun we’ll have. Bad versus badly According to the same rule that applies to good versus well. You feel bad when something bad happens. . you can use the adjective instead. The more we are. The more mass in the body. the+ comparative ... and this is perfectly all right. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you are OK physically but also that your spirits are high: How are you? I am well. b.. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. After a bath. the baby smells so good. El colecţionează vase vechi. frumoase din porţelan. Comparative Sentences In relation to the degrees of comparison. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives: Form: the+ comparative . The bigger the essay. thank you..

Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. e. Aş vrea să-mi cumpăr un pulover din lână scoţiană. b. c. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. f. Talk about the two possible meanings of the following sentences. melancolic. cu atât mai bine. El este un fumător învederat. Women students are tempting new subjects. Cu cât aştept mai mult. Studentul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. 3. f. Translate into English: a. Avem nevoie de mai multe computere în acest laborator. Am discutat astăzi la psihologie cele sanguin. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche? e. g. . She fed her dog biscuits. Eroarea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. g. coleric şi flegmatic.English Practical Course 211 d. Fumează două pachete de ţigări pe zi. El el reprezentantul angajaţilor tineri de la departamentul de marketing. patru tipuri de temperament: − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. h. Translate them into Romanian: She bought Egyptian cotton shirts. d. cu atât mă enervez mai tare. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza.

iar al doilea este mai lung. h. Today. He is (lazy) student in the class. c. Supply the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets: a. f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. Engleza devine din ce în ce mai importantã în întreaga lume. b. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. Dintre cele douã romane. j. He was unable to get (far) information. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working with now. Ideea ta e mai bunã. primul este mai scurt. The results were (bad) than expected.212 English Practical Course h. e. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold. j. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. d. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists. He needed (little) knowledge of computer skills than he thought they would expect him to. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. She found (few) grammar mistakes in John’s essay than in Mary’s one. i. i.

even if their cars are very elegant and ……. Los Angeles is .... more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. Athens is ……. for an architect. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. the largest. parks. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. …….. b.……. 7.. buildings than Athens. parks than Tokyo. There are five in the city centre. if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. exciting of all. Tokyo.……. exciting ……. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. The Electrolite is ....English Practical Course 213 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Los Angeles has ……. Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: . and ……. Los Angeles. and.. too expensive.. the most expensive. for common people. much older …. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited.. but it isn’t ……. c. but it has older ones ……. . but London has . e.. d. these are …….…….yet.. London is.. 6. Some are facts and some are his opinions... but.……. Yet at the same time you should think that... . Complete his sentences: a. London is ……. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. than Athens... of course. In comparison to our cities. Tokyo’s exciting. interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. London doesn’t have ……. of course. they are ……. oldest city I have ever seen.

-ous. Complete the sentences with adjectives ending in –able. Your first paper was good/ better but this one is even best/ better.-ible. f. You are in the (envy) position of owning half of the firm. g. -uble. f. the more relaxed/ the most relaxed you will feel. The weather here is very (change).214 English Practical Course a. The sooner/ sooner you get here. m. n. -ed or -ant derived from the verbs and nouns given in brackets: a. l. I spent a most (enjoy) night talking to my old friend George. j. they were very (patience). The (colour) balloons attract the children in the park. Hungary has few (navigate) waterways. b. h. Almost all the currencies in this area are (convert). They waited in the hall for five hours. You should always be (confidence) in yourself to succeed. -ful. e. There are very few types of plants (eat) on this island. A bigger dictionary is always more complete/ completer than a smaller one. c. They have invited any/ many people. He needs some/ any months of training. i. k. The family of gipsy across the street live in a (pity) state. His appearance at the party was (pleasure). e. c. Jack was extremely (mischief) that evening. Those children’s minds are very (impress) sometimes. i. . d. d. b. 8. He has retired and few/ little friends visit him. Which of the two students is more hardworking/ the more hardworking? h. It was a (moment) opportunity. Sometimes food eaten at home is the better/ better than food eaten in a restaurant. g. From these two photographs the smaller is the best/the better.

. they didn’t complain of the (object) smell from the garbage disposal. . The Romanian word dor is almost (translate) into English. Complete the sentences with negative adjectives derived from the verbs in brackets by using the suffixes –able. a. When you go to that refined place. p.. Adults change into old persons by almost (perceive) stages. there are too many obscenities in it. f.. . or –uble and the negative prefixes in. c. The story you want to publish is ………. They are not ………. She had an ………. success due to the publication of her latest novel. b. q. your behaviour must be (courtesy). inaccessible. I’ve never seen such a ……….. crowd. The roast beef is ……… . We are not cannibals! d. their decision to sell the house is (revoke). there are three places in Predeal which are ……… . e. g. Heroes finally disappear. He is the greatest comic ever. f. person: he lies and cheats everybody whenever he feels like. a. overconfident. b. 10. mistrustful. h. Because you have been so stubborn. We like the privacy of a (fence) yard. dishonest. they take everything for granted. but their words are (destroy). d. Because of the snow. overwhelming. 9. -ible. Complete each of these sentences with an adjective from the following list: unprintable.English Practical Course 215 o. He shouldn’t have believe your words. his jokes are (imitate). c. unruly. underdone. They had to use guns against that ………. e.or un-. Freedom of speech is regarded today as an (alienate) right. he has been ………… . Strangely enough.

young. coolly). new). i. cheaply). many. Your position in this company is quite (low. They were (deep. for teaching foreign languages). Several (…) began last week. j. old. (Number) changes took place in the office while I was away. i. huge. hardly) read anything this week. d. h. country. g. (canvas. deeply) in the cave. They were the first to search that (penetrate) jungle. e. valuable. a. two pairs of. French. My friends entered (deep. thick). c. very). This pair of trousers is especially made to be (shrink). winter. j. light). (…) shirts are a gift for me. She intends to buy (…) coat. You have (hard. 11. f. (new. ugly). pleasant). nasty.216 English Practical Course g. f. d. . Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a. old. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order: a. He wasn’t allowed to hit (low. black and white. My friend sold me the TV set (cheap. (brick-built. Italian. (two. (good. lowly) for fear he should hurt his opponent. 12. She has found (…) in the park. he acted (cool. h. English. i. (Russian. expensive. and interesting. hardly) for the exam. They used to live in a (…) house. deeply) impressed by our success. b. silk. dearly). (woman. c. b. Mary is looking for (…) fountain pen. those). Chinese. highly) in the sky. (wool. Jet airliners can fly (high. lowly). white and red. racing. radio programmes. Tom doesn’t like (…) children. That blue dress cost (dear. (blue. these. She used to work (hard. h. e. a. Does he have (…) motorbike? (blue. for jogging). very. grey). He stood firm on position. He is (…) teacher. g. This library has (…) books. a. two.

c. After that heavy rain the air is less dry that it was before. farther. … … students will get scholarships next year. farthest) of all? b. Who is the (oldest. b. b. f. You have always had … … toys than the other little boys. h. The English drink … … tea than milk. c. j. Which village is (further. The water was less deep than they hoped. There was … … rain last summer. My cousin is much less rich than he looks. g. A car is less quick than an airplane. George has … … American cars than Jack. The wound is less bad than you thought at the beginning. Choose the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a. This plant employs … … men than women. There will be … … snow this winter.English Practical Course 217 13. i. eldest) in the family? . Fill in with less or fewer: a. g. There are … … Italians than Greeks in our town. This room is less wide than the previous one. His office is less near than mine. We have … … money for our holiday than last year. The following sentences are incorrect. h. d. d. Reformulate them so that they express the same meaning but use the comparative of superiority of the antonym: a. 14. i. It is less dangerous to climb the Carpathians than to climb the Alps. f. e. This poem is less good than your last one. e. 15. She writes … … prose than poetry.

f. She lived (nearest. d. Cu cât copiii sunt mai neascultători. Se şubrezeşte pe zi ce trece. later). 16. Translate into English using intensifiers: a. Aceasta este cea mai bună cale posibilă de a o face să renunţe la ţigări. cu atât părinţii sunt mai nemulţumiţi. Este cu mult mai greu decât mi-am imaginat. Farther) Mike realised he must return the stolen goods at once. Crede cu tărie că aceasta e absolut cea mai frumoasă dintre concurente. latter). h. I chose the (last.218 English Practical Course c. I was wondering where the (nearest. I had to choose between French and English. h. deveni din ce în ce mai neliniştit. e. Cu cât alergi mai mult. further) advice to continue your investigation. Noua sa bibliotecă e cu mult mai mare decât cea veche. j. g. d. Ţi-am adus cele mai proaspete fructe pe care le-am găsit. La auzul bubuiturii. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . next) door when she was young. c. next) bus station was. later. My colleague’s (last. f. latest) article has just been published. e. You needed (farther. Nu am mai avut răbdare să stăm până la sfârşitul meciului pentru că a devenit din ce în ce mai puţin interesant. I’ve bought two bananas and ate the (latter. b. cu atât slăbeşti mai tare. g. i. (Further. i.

donkey). he has a memory like a (bucket. glue. yellow. a vault). true. My grandfather never remembers anything. blue. a. g. gold bars. j. To tell a … … lie sometimes does not hurt anybody’s feelings. f. Select the colour: white. They were tickled … … when the teacher congratulated them. h. . green. c. a priest. he won’t listen to you. d. as (real. large) as life. pound notes) when she won the first prize. a politician). Putting your jewelry in this box is as safe as (houses. Explain the meaning. b. They never argue. That vampire hasn’t been banished from town. They will never eat so much ice-cream.English Practical Course 219 17. clockwork). horse. a. punch. I can tell that you have eaten a lot lately. a bank. a judge. sieve). they were as sick as a (pig poodle. please! He is as deaf as (a post. fish and chips. pink. Speak louder. She was as pleased as (a poppy. e. an elephant)! d. a leaf. a sunflower. dog. c. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. two peas in a pod. although normally he is as sober as (Sunday. good. You can shout at him until you are … … in the face. a pillowcase) since you mended them. 18. grey. i. I saw him last night. He drunk a lot yesterday. b. The shoes fit you like (a glove. The Jackson brothers get on like (a house on fire. a mould. you are as heavy as (a corpse. lead. I was given the … … light to announce the winner. mouse. a Muslim).

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. My parents have (decisive/conclusive) evidence that I smoke. I’ve been trying to decipher the manuscript for more than 6 hours because his handwriting is totally (eligible/illegible). he would like to live in the mountains. b. Your garden has (narrow) alleys than those from our park. In Australia there are (strict/severe) regulations with regard to kangaroos. c. Terry chose a (distinctive/distinct) nuance of red for her nail polish. Mary was … … with envy when her sister married a handsome young man. She doesn’t believe that these cigarettes are any (good) than the Russian ones. i. c. g. they also got some … … elephants. g. h. j. Your proposal proves not too expensive. He doesn’t like (urbane/urban) life. therefore it is (practicable/practical). A (classic/classical) case of tuberculosis has been discovered in this school. 20. b. The President was very (official/officious) while giving his speech. k.220 English Practical Course e. e. They say that lacking … … matter is worse than lacking beauty. I am not that (credible/credulous) to believe everything I am told. d. please. 19. They were really … … to leave us here without protecting us. Even if they got a lot of nice gifts. Which are the (breath-taking) views in your country? . Confusing words: a. The food you are eating right now is quite (deficient/defective) in fats. Kelly has always wanted to live in a (luxurious/luxuriant) mansion. Try to be a little (precise). h. f. d. f.

g. h. His story became (interesting) the more we listened. de fapt. The (cold) the weather. . Parcul acela nu este foarte întins. the 22nd. Translate into English: a.English Practical Course 221 e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 21. e. b. f. dar nu este atât de bine încât să se dea jos din pat. George este chipeş. the (low) the temperatures. Then the show became ever (funny). Pacientul se simte bine astăzi. f. It is (hard) for my nephew to understand the problem than for his (old) sister. Fotoliul din odaia mea este greu. i. c. g. dar fratele său mai tânăr este cel mai chipeş băiat din câţi am văzut. este cel mai puţin întins din tot oraşul. They have the (complete) understanding of the problem. dar vărul său mai mare este cu 5 ani mai în vârstă decât el. j. Dicţionarul pe care l-ai cumpărat cu două zile în urmă este gros ca o cărămidă! h. Primul film nu este atât de reuşit ca al doilea şi nici atât de haios. d. Domnul Smith este foarte bătrân. Mulţi oameni perfect sănătoşi nu sunt la fel de utili societăţii ca unii oameni cu deficienţe fizice. biroul este şi mai greu dar biblioteca este cea mai grea din casă. nights become (longer) till December. In autumn.

e. b. incredibly/ holiday/ wonderful/ was/ the.222 English Practical Course i. j. life/movie/in/such/I/never/my/seen/a/have/boring h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22. Enormous/ they/ old/ staying/ house/ brown/ are/ an/ in. people/ true/pork/that/never/is/drink/it/these/alcohol/no/eat/and? g. and/ looks/ now/ old/ she/ fresh/ rather. close/ are/ buddies/ extremely/ we. that/ motorbike/have/since/when/new/had/they? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Nu am întâlnit o persoană mai cunoscută în cercul guvernamental decât ea. c. d. Problema era mai delicată decât mi-am putut eu imagina vreodată. Rewrite the sentences putting the words into the correct order: a. this/ man/ Pam/ wonder/ really/ I/ marry/ to/wants/if f.

Complete the sentences with participles as adjectives. build well. It was a very restful holiday so we feel much more … now. love. We are aware that there are (cheap) suppliers than ourselves but this may not be the (essential) factor. decline fast. I kept calling her by her nickname. d. c. e.English Practical Course 223 23. change. using the verbs below. tailor beautifully. The economic situation is getting (critical) and if we don’t compare favorably with our (big) competitors. If this is the case. This is no surprise due to the recession but what is (unacceptable) than this is the clear proof that some of our (old) clients have switched to another supplier. think clearly. park. . embarrass. The verbs with adverbs should be used to form compound adjectives: dry. One old client was heard to say that their new supplier was (professional) and (flexible) than we are. steal. then we will not survive. continue. The … kettle filled the little girl with fear. He’s a very … boy: he always behaves himself well. keep beautifully. it was very … . write well. act well. It is not easy to be the (good) but that is what we should be aiming for. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form: The company’s twelve-monthly report shows that sales figures were (low) than the previous year. b. plan badly. a. boil. brush well. then this is (disturbing) than anything else. break. I saw a very … play. We used to have the (high) standing in the business but we are in danger of losing that for good. relax. bring up well. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 24.

f. t. s. o. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her novels. motion. enjoy. describe. comfort.224 English Practical Course f. 25. Sharon is a good person to have in meetings as she’s very … . power. I’m totally… . b. It was a … escape and so it was doomed to failure. g. he’s completely … . My friend never seems to run out of energy. It was a very … article. change. Shortage of gas is a … problem for us. k. c. Mother needs some … fruit to put in the cake. forget. Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below plus a suffix: act. submit. . m. Jane Austen was a very … writer. truth a. h. I don’t know why she’s that … . You may be charged with receiving … stolen cars. She may have suffered of a … heart. l. They’re a very … family and they understand each other perfectly. it was thoroughly enjoyable. Everybody believes what Jack says because he’s always been … . tire. n. rely. This is a … garden: you must spend at least three hours a day working on it. That’s a … suit she has bought. q. j. dread. Bears are a … species in that part of the country as many of them are killed every summer. Our chalet is old but it’s very … . e. They had a lovely holiday. There’s nothing I can do about it. Her hair is always very … . p. care. d. The increase in divorce shows a … attitude to marriage. She never remembers your birthday. r. grace. They should not park near … cars. i.

explicable. The lion stayed … as it waited to pounce on the gazelle. The situation in the oil-polluted gulf is … . convenient. Some of the comparatives are formed with less: Mary. legible. how do you like living in the new place? . friendly. relevant. j. k. polite. separable. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form. rational. who has recently moved to the countryside. I love to watch the swans on the lake: they’re so … . i. My back never hurts while sitting in them. tasteful. It’s important to keep … after you retire. You’re so … : you’re always dropping plates on the floor. is on the phone to her friend Jane. moral legal. the weather can be completely different from one day to another. n. perfect. literate. The armchairs he has just bought are really … . responsible. Put the following adjectives into the correct column: patient. reversible. attractive. He’s very… . significant. who lives in Leeds. logical. regular. soluble. h. o. They always do what you tell him to do: he’s just so… . l. honest. possible. He has said he’ll be here and I’m sure he will. replaceable dis- Un- il- imimpatient in- ir- 27. 26. justified. agreeable. destructible. It’s a very … climate. interesting. Mary: So. mortal.English Practical Course 225 g. mature. m. Thousands of fish are dying every day. flexible.

Mary: Oh dear.226 English Practical Course Jane: Oh. it’s much (good) than Liverpool. Anyway. probably. I personally think you’re really lucky to be where you are. But it’s just so much … (quiet) here and that takes some time to get used to. I suppose sometimes I miss the clamour of Liverpool. The people here are so much … (varied) than they are in Liverpool. perhaps I’ll feel … (settled) here after a few weeks. . sometimes it is. that is wonderful. at least I’m going to Liverpool again next weekend. It’s certainly … (polluted) here and I think it’s … (stressful) and that must be good for me. Going out shopping in Liverpool was so much … (interesting) than it is here. I’m … (excited) about that than I am about anything here. The house is much … (spacious) than the house we had in Liverpool and one of the … (good) things is being able to walk out of the back door into our own garden. Jane: Well. But it’s so much … (busy) on the streets in Liverpool. Mary: Mm. Who knows? Mary: Yes. it’s very nice. I’m not sure I would say that. Mary: Yes. It must be nice to walk around somewhere that’s much … (crowded). that’s quite true. When I came to visit you. Jane: Well. I thought it was one of the … (beautiful) places I had ever seen. So. isn’t it? Jane: Well. You seem to be thinking that you haven’t made the … (good) decision.

out of faces attentive. out of red faces. out of white faces. in answer to pointed questions. he said. for the terribly . Pay attention to the use of the article in English. spellbound. It was very loud. when Jim. speaking of the ship: “She went over whatever it was as easy as a snake crawling over a stick.” The illustration was good: the questions were aiming at facts. Underline the definite articles with one line and the indefinite articles with two lines: A month or so afterwards. it was the only sound audible in the world. and the official Inquiry was being held in the police court of an Eastern port. with burning cheeks in a cool lofty room: the big framework of punkahs moved gently to and fro high above his head. as if all these people sitting in orderly rows upon narrow benches had been enslaved by the fascination of his voice. and from below many eyes were looking at him out of dark faces.English Practical Course 227 UNIT 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Articles © Definite Articles © Indefinite Articles © Zero Articles •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad. it rang startling in his own ears. He stood elevated in the witness-box. tried to tell honestly the truth of this experience.

. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. I’m reading a course for my exam now. She is an Australian.within was the wind of great punkahs that made you shiver. or it doesn’t matter which one): A pet is a big responsibility. . Give me an apple. They live in a flat. It refers to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. £13 000 a year Formally per can replace a/an. the shame that made you burn. $3. the attentive eyes whose glance stabbed. Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex.45 a kilo.came to him poignant and silent like the terrible questioning of one’s conscience. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. The Indefinite Article a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to objects that have not been specifically identified. Outside the court the sun blazed. • in measuring Three times a month. Here are the basic rules. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. religion.228 English Practical Course distinct questions that extorted his answers seemed to shape themselves in anguish and pain within his breast. sixty kilometres an hour.

• in phrases: to be in a hurry. Mind the baby! Mind your steps when you climb the stairs! The tiger is threatened with extinction. A book is for reading. rather a: quite a large dog. • it is used with a generic noun that represents a class: We saw a zebra at the zoo. a university. an honest man. The Definite Article the is used: • • to refer to classes before a singular or a plural noun. . to take a seat. a woman.English Practical Course 229 He is a Christian. Tom is the teacher of these students. etc. but an ugly man. what: such an ugly scar . a year. an hour. a usual case. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. an unusual accident. as a matter of fact. to have a headache. to develop a disease. An indefinite article is required after • • such. an heir. what a pretty nose. rather a big decision An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (except for words beginning with a semivowel: the sound /j/ and /w/): an apple. Compare: Tom is a teacher. a united party. • to refer to unknown people. to have a good time. Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown: A Mr Smith called and asked about you. an ink well. such pretty eyes quite a. The course I’m reading is very interesting.

countries (if they are in the plural. The Bahamas. it is capitalised. hotels. continents (Europe. the East. The same applies to geographical names: The Isle of Man. oceans. The Sahara. rivers. If the first part of a place name is another name. the sun Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe: The planet has a small moon. The Orient Express. but The Tower of London. The United States. The Mediterranean.230 English Practical Course • before nouns expressing certain public places. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural). newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. Note that titles of books and films do not have the unless there is postmodification: The Phantom of the Opera. The Netherlands.) This does not apply to lakes: Lake Geneva. means of transport. shops. or if they represent a union). The Thames. The Suez Canal. then normal rules about zero article apply: Brown’s Restaurant. The Independent (as the is part of the title. Asia). but Canvey Island. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. The Sunday Times. The is sometimes dropped in everyday speech: Have you seen “Phantom of the Opera”? As far as names of places are concerned. mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn). channels. The Garden House Hotel. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. compass points/ areas. the Middle East. The Pacific. seas. denoting groups of islands. countries (France). • Before unique objects the moon. The Alps. . We say London Bridge. The Time. note that Edinburgh University changes into The University of Edinburgh. institutions. The Hilton. deserts. chains of mountains.

on the one hand. the second chapter. The English are very polite.English Practical Course 231 • before nouns converted from adjectives. at the moment.. The singular is not formed in the same way: An Englishman would always excuse for being late. (postmodification) Emphatic use: This heavily stresses and emphasises the following noun: This country is the place to visit. But: He became (the) President of Romania in 2000. (postmodification) • • • • when a restrictive modifier follows a noun. the is more likely. For instance: He became President in 2000. on the other hand. . the ninth row. The gold in this ring is very old. The French eat in restaurants more than the English.. denoting a class. • to express titles. by the way. the third day to tell the time. etc. on the whole. nationality. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. It was the most important day in my life. If the title is post-modified. with the superlative degree of adjectives: with ordinals: in phrases: The woman who is standing near the door will give a speech. The precedes nouns of indefinite quantity or quality (mass nouns and abstract nouns) used to indicate a particular attribute: Gold is an important metal. but not essential. These tend to be unique: The director of studies.

but The (House of) Commons nouns like school. Newsweek Most streets do not use an article. Oxford Street. The Strand and street names without preceding adjectives. countries. etc. months. Translation problems Study these sentences. January. festivals. by sea. lakes. Sunday. to shake hands. Exceptions are The High Street. prison. regions. • proper nouns denoting persons.232 English Practical Course Zero Article It is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. Europe. • • some unique organisations: Parliament. days of the week. Gold and silver are important metals. magazines and periodicals. at dawn. In what way do the English people use the article differently in comparison with the way Romanians use it? . by mistake. church. Babies need to drink milk. towns. Paris. But: The school in my district is near my house. Green Road. continents.: Mary/ Mount Everest. mountains. to take place. when we imply the use made of the institution (not the building): He goes to school (to learn). streets. to make friends. day by day. Gas is cheaper than electricity. etc. • in phrases: at night. Compare: Holly Drive with The Drive. Money is the root of all evil. to be in trouble.

C. He had .. A. In order to survive. I live in Birmingham most of the time. B or C best fits each space: a./the.. degree in . C.... Hilton.. I did my homework and then went directly to . a/the. A. the c.. Decide which answer A. .. A.. B. the . . B. an/the/ . C... hardest of all.. A. .. water. very good time at . C. A. nails. hammer and . C. an. B. a. director to come.. Controlled Practice 1. I took . a/ the.. a./ . This is the most expensive shop in town... authority.. He is speaking to .. B. an/the. C. the/the f. A. bed as I was very tired. excellent dinner and had .. It’s a film about homeless people. B. Terry has flu.... B. Mathematics. I’ve got a splitting headache. A. the b. . so he was one of . Most and the most Most without an article means the greater part. a/the/the/the h. the/ a e./ ../a/the. Physics and one in . . best teachers in our highschool. an/a/the g.. B.. A. ... the/ the... a/ some d.. seat and waited for ./ . B. exam but it seems that it was ./the.. C./the.English Practical Course 233 A pound and a half of butter... .. In order to fix the armchair he needs .. a/ ./the. C. I thought you had passed .. plants need . They had .

in London. C. Work in pairs to find the mistakes in each of the following sentences: a. the/ . o. way. I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. yet they are busy at the moment. A.. home now. f. l. e.. The time you spend on a relaxing pastime is good for you./ . k. c.. Lion is dangerous animal./a j./ . b. B. An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling streets had been instructed to issue clear warning before firing any shots. i.. . The burglaries are definitely on increase. j. yet not everyone admires ./ . the/ . a/ .. C. I would have done it.. He’s philologist. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example.. Don’t you work in bookshop in the London? g../ . . 2. I don’t like cakes sold in a local bakery. . Everyone was impressed by . Her office is in the Baker Street. m. sincerity with which he spoke. . B./the. Smiths are at . d.. She bought a Cezanne I was telling you about the last week.. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. so he studies different writers.... If I had had time to call you. . I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. It is not first-class accommodation unless it has a private bathroom... She goes to the work in the City by train every day. sincerity in such . I’m going to stand for Parliament at the next election. A. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. h.234 English Practical Course i. n.

their options are somewhat limited. appeal to the better nature of their employers. however. Decide which answer A. and unemployment is high.. They can. At the same time. the management may be less willing to listen and may try to take advantage of the workers’ fear of losing their jobs. which many people feel has had a significant and adverse effect upon the economy. In order to explain this apparent contradiction. however most of the same people would defend 3) ……. let us examine the arguments for and against the right to strike. because it is in 5) ……… best interests of the managements to keep the workers as happy as possible.English Practical Course 235 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. When the economy is none too healthy. B or C best fits each space: Britain has 1) ……… unenviable reputation for industrial unrest and strikes. of course. In . and often. right of workers to strike. Successive governments have attempted in 2) ……… vain to reduce this unrest. Whenever the work-force in any firm feel themselves to be 4) ……… victims of injustice. they will receive a sympathetic ear. or wish to present their case for a pay increase.

as a result. Employers may also resent 8) ……. The arguments against striking are numerous and vary somewhat depending on one’s point of view. it is hard to imagine that 15) ……… employees in Britain would be as well treated as they are today. you may find both practical and ideological arguments against the right to strike. one has to ask how employees can protect their interests as regards 6) ……. which are an abuse of the right to strike. Governments in capitalist societies such as Britain inevitably serve the interests of management..236 English Practical Course such a situation.right to strike because it imposes limits on the management’s control of employees and contradicts the ideology of a harmony of interests which assigns legitimacy to managerial power. As 7) ……… employer. These negative arguments all emphasize 13) ……… disruption and hardship caused by strikes. However they may wish to appear neutral. there seems little alternative to the withdrawal of labour. of course. 10) ……. The government’s viewpoint is similar in 9) ……. Strikes disrupt the process of production and can. But without this right and without the efforts of trade unions over the years. conditions. But the practical argument against strikes would remain a constant. Such arguments are not sufficiently strong to warrant denying workers the right to strike. The disruptive effect of 12) ……… major strike upon the nation’s economy is therefore potentially dangerous. . As a last resort. the call to strike. be 14) ……… last resort and there should be fewer irresponsible industrial disputes. The state of the nation’s economy is inextricably linked with 11) ……… fortunes of private enterprise. sense that the importance of the ideological argument may vary with changes of government. and fair treatment by the managements. Withdrawing one’s labour should.. wages. create immense problems as regards long-term planning.

. . Home Park. C. A.. Datcher. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate articles: After you pass ……… Old Windsor. right bank ……. B. A.. . A. A. which stretches along ……. George asked me if I remembered our first trip up ……. B. –. I answered that I did remember it. C. C. we took out …. B. C. hamper.. Boveney. -. George and I rowed up past……. and when we got to …. some. the. C.. a 10. C. B. -. -. the 14. the. B. Abert to ………Victoria Bridge. C. the... an.. a.-. a 3. a 4. C. the. some 4. B. and does not become itself again until you are nearing ……. and wanted to go to …… bed. an. C. the. – 8. A. A. C. from ……. B. A. the. It was …… Saturday before ……. C. B. B. 9. Some. C. A. a. C. It will be some time before I forget it. B. river is somewhat uninteresting. river and when we landed at …… Datcher at ten o’clock at …… night. August Bank Holiday. A. the. – 2. some 6. the.15. B. . B.. a. B. ……. and as we were passing …….. B. the 5. -. A.13. A. B.English Practical Course 237 1. some 7. a. some 12. 11.. A the. the. A. We were tired and hungry. the.. Datcher. C. C. .. A. the. the. A..

238 English Practical Course ……... and ……. diggings. . coats. two bags. rugs and ……... and such like things. and started off to look for …….

and you know what he threatened. if ever he found you making away with his money again. trying to turn his gloom into uncalculating anger. or else tell him I gave it you.and just shake yourself sober and listen. ‘I want to tell you. eh? Since you was so kind as to hand it over to me. will you?’ ‘Oh!’ said Dunsey. and pretty quickly.English Practical Course 239 Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adverbs © Punctuation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Silas Marner by George Eliot. before he went out. and save me the trouble. I must hand over that rent of Fowler’s to the Squire. now. and it’ll all be out soon. Can you classify them? ‘Why. and in no humour to stand any nonsense. this is what I want. So. ‘Suppose. Underline the adverbs. sneeringly. whether I tell him or not. will you?’ said Godfrey. see and get the money. if Fowler didn’t come and pay up his arrears this week. you know. you’ll not refuse me the kindness to pay it back for me: it was your brotherly love made you do it. He said. coming nearer to his brother and looking into his face. He had himself been drinking more than was good for him. The Squire’s short o’ cash. just now. he should send word to Cox to distrain. for he’s threatening to distrain for it. savagely.’ . you get the money yourself.

reason. therefore. every time. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. when. enough. little Adverbs of frequency: always. result and concession: consequently. measure. It can modify: a verb: We are talking about your report today. thus. carefully. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. excellently. aboard. for this reason. forever Adverbs of cause. after. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. a pronoun: Me too. degree and approximation: awfully. a quality. extremely. above. Form Simple Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old adverbs far likewise everywhere fast afloat outdoors here homeward(s) outside late repeatedly thereby near hardly therefore now monthly today then bitterly tomorrow today happily wherein well excellently wherefore Adverbs of manner: badly. fast Adverbs of place: away. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. .240 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. why. wherefore. again. early Adverbs of quantity. afterwards. where. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. hence. ever.

I’m trying to save some money. And I’m hot/hotly. I don’t keep my plan. It was called “The English Patient”. I’m working for my exams. Suzanne comes about once a week. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well. It would be great to see you. isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. I’ve finished for today. but I’ve been very busy. I had a lovely time last year. I’ve planned my revision. often here a lot next year there again hard soon . lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. Thank you for your letter. And you look pale/palely. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. They taste good/well.English Practical Course 241 Controlled Practice 1 1. the party is going very nice/nicely. Maria 2. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. We talk. Love. yours. I hope to visit England again. Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. Helen: No. She’s rather tired. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. I saw a marvelous film. Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. thanks.

El cumpără ieftin şi vinde scump. spectatorii au început să ovaţioneze. dar astăzi o să fac o excepţie şi o să mănânc. Maşina asta merge prea repede. Actually. dar au decis să continue lucrul la proiect pentru încă vreo câteva ore. thanks. h. 3. Erau cam obosiţi. n.242 English Practical Course John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. În general nu prea îmi plac prăjiturile. Ea nu lipseşte niciodată de la şcoală. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. my head aches quite bad/badly. Arăţi foarte tristă. Ce ţi s-a întâmplat? k. It seems rather loud/loudly. i. I might be OK. g. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. şi acceptabil franceza. De-abia s-a aşezat la masa de lucru că deja s-a simţit obosit şi s-a dus la culcare. ca de obicei. De îndată ce se trăseseră cortinele. e. Noi vorbim bine englezeşte. too. d. Eu nu mă trezesc niciodată devreme. Helen: Thank you. j. A ajuns acasă înaintea tatălui ei. that’s all right. Translate into English: a. John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. . Ce ţi-ai făcut la păr? f. l. c. Toată lumea se simţea fericită când s-a aflat că el nu este vinovat. m. Dacă îi vede poliţia o să-i amendeze. doesn’t it? Look. Arăţi destul de bine. El a venit târziu ieri. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse. b.

Nu te apropia. The Draw the figure.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . nor. or. 1. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to make their meaning clear. clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. but. An indepen. Here are some punctuation rules. Independent in this company. Ordinaly. Nu înveţi niciodată când trebuie să te fereşti de pericole! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar Reference 2 Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. every day. Sentence . yet. and solve .Some of us think we should dent clause is made into invest it with a capital letter and ending it with a period. a sentence by beginning Others think it is useless. . este periculos să stai lângă macara. and so.English Practical Course 243 o. but it rained the words and.

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first clause is usually the problem.

;

followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company; others are closely think it is useless

connected by joining

:

them with a semicolon. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have reduce next year’s

?

!

mark. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feelings may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an

exclamation mark. 2. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is necessary. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are compound, they charged to a major credit card. Guidelines Examples

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245

are usually joined I’m together with words such as and, or or without any punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Compounds

taking

Chemistry

(and)

a Physics and Maths this semester.

,

that England, Scotland, and Wales conscious

contain more than share the island of Great Britain. two elements are Environmentally called series. businesses use recycled paper,

Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet, and ceramic cups. a series, with words such as and or or usually between occuring the last

;

two items. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation, separation commas confusing, used instead. can by be and or reading; of grades; and test of and teacher have vocabulary, memory,

recommendations.

semicolons may be

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3. Word - Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences, There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. Punctuation Marks Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management

used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. An apostrophe is used He’s; didn’t; let’; Ma’am; four in constructions to o’clock. show where letters or 45’s; ABC’s. numbers have been omitted. A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00 mark shortened forms p.m. like abbreviations and initials. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four, self-confidence to

.

-

... insta -

form compound words When two modifiers The study included first- and containing hyphens second-year students. are joined together, common elements are often not repeated. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Guidelines Examples

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247

Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo words of someone else, they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know.” the text. If part of a quotation is She

... ....

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a When the omission comes in proper job, to find the the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas.” one or more sentences, four “Work of the tyre that points are used. B.W.R.A. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern, and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many .... There are factors which value out when in a up your selfish

affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used.” When writers insert something “In a fault, it [the crust of within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and caused different

[]

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brackets. layers of rock to slip.” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech. try again − if you let me”, he offered.

Unit 14
Reading
Read the following poem belonging to Rudyard Kipling. Pay attention to if clauses. Translate the poem into Romanian. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream- and not make dreams your master; If you can think- and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools;

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If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings- nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And- which is more- you’ll be a Man, my son!

Ways with Words
1. …If neither foes nor loving friends… Distinction should be made between foe, enemy and opponent, antagonist, adversary. Enemy and foe agree in denoting a person or body of persons that is hostile or that manifests hostility to another. Enemy stresses the antagonism that arises from a cherished hatred or a desire to harm or destroy, but it may suggest nothing more than active or evident dislike. He is a man with many friends and no enemies.

violonist. Let’s read a list of suffixes which are used in order to form nouns: . tigress eg: neighbourhood. dancer. Read the following line: But make allowance for their doubting too. childhood eg: realism.ee . Adversary implies not only the idea of mere opposition but active hostility. Foe is a more literary and poetic word than enemy. slavery.250 English Practical Course Foe implies active enmity either literally or figuratively. fishery eg: actress. marrige .ance / . diplomacy. appearance. accuracy eg: passage.ity eg: sluggard. scepticism eg: satirist. translation. -ence. eg: teacher. Which word does allowance come from? We call -ance a suffix.ation . engineer.ard / -art . He is the foe of all reform measures. Antagonist implies sharper opposition in a struggle for supremacy or control. singer eg: backery.acy . employee eg: mountaineer.ist . ascendency. probability eg: democracy. hostess. identification eg: wisdom eg: refugee.ancy.ism . drunkard. Opponent is one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict of opinion.er.dom . braggart eg: examination. -or . romanticist eg: adversity. 2.eer .ery . Unlike the former group the latter does not necessarily imply personal animosity or hostility. -ency eg: utterance. .age preference .ess .hood .

we can also use: ‘be going to’ future. movement. If he’s still waiting for you. (insistence) The main clause usually has the verb in the future with will/shall. I’ll buy this car. booklet eg: Englishman.English Practical Course 251 . However. . Grammar Reference First Conditional It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes. I’ll pass my exams.ship .ure eg: hamlet. If he passes the baccalaureate. you’ll get worse. future perfect. we can also use: present continuous. can/could. may/might. he must be very hungry. should. However. I’ll wrap it for you. imperative. he’ll go to university. departure Now practise them and find other words for each of them. sadness eg: friendship. future continuous. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. can. fisherman eg: improvement. must. present perfect simple. eg: greateness. Main Clause If Clause Present/ Future Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard. This is replaced by the present simple. should/ought to. leadership eg: agriculture.let .ment . Will / would can be used to express polite requests or insistence: If you will wait for a moment. We’ll destroy the environment if we don’t look after it.man . present perfect continuous.ness . (request) If you will go on smoking.

Main Clause If Clause Present Conditional Present Subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had more money. Note: When we use if +should. If I were Prime Minister.252 English Practical Course If Paul has received your letter. (But my house is very small. If she knew/ were to know the answer. we won’t wait for you. etc. he must phone you today.. We can always say But. If you are late. If I should see him.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). Interrogative What will you do if you don’t go to any university? Where will she go she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? Second Conditional It is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future.. If it’s been raining. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. . If I didn’t have debts. palaces. you‘ll have to wear boots. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. she would tell it to us immediately. the verb in the conditional clause is in the present subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons.) If I lived in a big house. I would (’d) /could buy a new computer. I wouldn’t have to work so hard. ranches. I‘ll tell him the good news. I’d have a party. the condition is less likely to be performed. (But I’m not Prime Minister. /go out more often.

The condition is highly hypothetical. However. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). while the verb in the conditional clause is in the perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect).English Practical Course 253 Interrogative What would you do if you were me? Which countries would you visit it you travelled round the world? Third Conditional It is used to express impossible (unfulfilled) condition referring to the past. If she had known the answer. If he had been travelling in that car. I wouldn’t have failed the driving license test. whereas in the main clause we can use the modals could and might before the perfect infinitive. Main clause If clause Past/Perfect conditional Perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. If I hadn’t made so many mistakes. it contradicts reality. he could have been killed. If the ambulance had come sooner. he might have been /could have been saved. she would have passed the exam. we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive in if clause. Interrogative What would you have done if you had seen such a wonderful movie? Which countries would you have visited if you had travelled round the world? Notes: . which can no longer be changed. I would (‘d) have bought this elegant car.

…) With a bit more help (if I had more help). • Besides if. he would have told the truth. since. I’m glad you didn’t tell Mathew about this. providing (that). The most common mixed conditional is: If + past perfect Other types: If you come to the party tomorrow. supposing. (implied condition: If you come out with us. unless. the verb tenses of first conditional sentences change in the usual way. I would have finished it on time. conditionals can also be introduced by other conjunctions: on (the) condition that. when. I wouldn’t bring Mary with you. If she loved him. I would have a degree now. (if you had told him) would/could/might + infinitive If I had worked harder at university. she would have stayed with him. as/so long as. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. Implied Conditionals Conditionals are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses. even if. He would have been furious. as. whereas with second and third conditionals the tenses remain unchanged.254 English Practical Course • In reported speech. second and third conditionals. I’m sure we’d really have a good time with you (if we went). The context defines the meaning. If he is honest. particularly in spoken English: Please come out with us tonight. suppose. . assuming (that). even though. but for + gerund/noun. provided (that). Mixed Conditionals In addition to the tense variations we can use in the first. if only. it is also possible to mix conditionals. but we just can’t afford a holiday.

What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. … If I were you. o sã ţi-l spun. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. I wouldn’t have done such a thing. What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. Translate the following sentences into English: a. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. … Controlled Practice 1. / Should he ring. / Had I known earlier.00. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. / Were I you.English Practical Course 255 Inversion in If-Clauses When there is should. were or had in the if-clause. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. c. … If I had known earlier. Dacã voi putea. I wouldn’t say that. If he should ring. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. . the subject and the auxiliary verb can be inverted and if is omitted. tell him to come at 8. eşti binevenit. b.

That’s 8. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. or as soon as into each gap.. Bye! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. I (arrive) at the hotel. Give me a ring . the plane (arrive) on time. Have a good trip..00. Put if. Maria: Thanks.. I (be) at the hotel at about 10. darling.. Maria: Thanks.. I (ring).256 English Practical Course d. I (ring) you . I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely.. e. John: Great. . you know the time of your flight back.00 your time.. And remember. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. when.. but remember I’m going out. John: Good. John: All right. Maria: Well. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. you (be) out . darling.. and I (pick) you up.

L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. I would have told you the truth.English Practical Course 257 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Dacã ar fi aici. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. d. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. e. d. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. b. e. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. Translate the following sentences into English: a. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest raport. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. ţi le-aş spune. b. If I knew it. Dacã ai vrea. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: . Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. we would go inside. If it rained. If you could do it.

If it had rained it (be) a disaster. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use.258 English Practical Course a. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. f. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arabian. If I (know) this from the beginning. e. c. h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. c. e. d. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. d. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. b. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confronted with) such storms. b. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. i. If she (go) to university so late. .

nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. nu aş fi picat acest examen. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. e. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. c. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. d.English Practical Course 259 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Dacã nu ar fi nins. c. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. If he had asked you to do that job. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. . Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. b. b. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. Translate into English: a. you (accept)? e.

e. h. h. g. The substance would look better if. b. f.. I would lend it to you if... If she rings while I’m in the tunnel.. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly... i.. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way... .. i. c. a. If she practised more.... taking care to use the correct tense. I’d have brought my compass if. If I buy this machine . d.. If the river rises any higher. If he had taken my advice.. These are mixed conditional sentences. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. If you had asked his permission.260 English Practical Course f. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10.. Finish these sentences. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. If the fire had been noticed earlier... g... If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off. j.

8. 6. E. you wouldn’t be so busy this G. he probably won’t be at the . H. Write a sentence containing the underlined sentence as a main clause and an appropriate conditional clause. If he hadn’t died so young. you could always ring them up.English Practical Course 261 11. 7. B. 10. everything would be all right now. 4. If the train hadn’t been delayed. 5. If they don’t contact you soon. D. If you had worked harder last month. If you were a more sensitive person. about this problem earlier. If I really wanted to have children. 2. 3. A. If he didn’t work so hard all the time. we would be there by now. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences: 1. his wife would never have left him. 12. J. If you’re coming month. C. with us 9. I’m sure he’d be a famous musician by now. I. If you had told me meeting. If he was feeling ill this morning. would you hurry up and get ready? F. you wouldn’t have said that to her. I would have had them by now. The condition is not stated in a conditional clause in the following underlined sentences.

second or third conditional: . It’s a good job you brought all those tables and chairs in from outside last night. I hope those refugees aren’t deported. First. h. i. many more would have died. The rain would have ruined them. She would make a very good managing director. They may be imprisoned or even executed. I hear you’re thinking of going to Indonesia for the summer. Without the help of the Red Cross doctors. g. j. The problem is that she doesn’t work very hard. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. I know that she could do really well. Mark should have told the truth. c. f. You’ll love it there. I think Alison should apply for the job. e. With luck. We’re lucky it’s sunny today. b. He wouldn’t be able to live on his own without the help of his neighbours. we’ll finish the job by the end of the day. d.262 English Practical Course a. but I think they will be. I’m sure she would have forgiven him. It would be horrible sitting out here otherwise.

the PM (resign) from politics. I’m sure that if I (have) so much money I (moan) all the time. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. b. Apparently. but if it (lose). It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . l. Jenny was here not long ago. I never (meet) Adrian. k. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth. If it (be) a nice day. i.English Practical Course 263 a. I’m sure more people (use) the train and (leave) their cars at home. I’m sure you (regret) one day. I’m sure she (help) us fix the car. f. If that (happen). we (go) for a picnic. The government is expecting to win the next election. the town (lose) a great deal of money. d. I’m so glad you took me to your friend’s party. g. They’ve been married for 20 years but I don’t think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was. the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. h. you (see) her. j. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. If fares (be) cheaper. She has everything she wants but she’s always moaning. c. e. If we (not go) there. If you (come) round earlier. I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. but she knows even less than we do.

Since he doesn’t have any qualifications. If you don’t drive carefully. If she happens to come. But for… g. Were… c. he can’t find a job. so we missed the train.264 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. I’ll help you. Had he… i. If … f. you’ll have an accident. Should… d. Unless… You won’t …. You had better take his advice. he stayed at home. If… e. tell her to wait for me. If I … . If it hadn’t been for my mother’s generosity. As he couldn’t afford a holiday. Rewrite the sentences: a. If you help me. He wasn’t on time. As long as you … b. I wouldn’t have my car now. I’m not rich so I can’t afford a long holiday abroad. I’ll help you provided… h.

(but) g. (provided) f. (not) d. I didn’t go out because I had a lot of work to do. If someone gave you a free airline ticket. I would not be late for the interview. I wouldn’t stay in this job. you’ll pass the exam. a. As I couldn’t answer any of the questions.(got) k. As you‘ve got a high temperature.(so) j. If it wasn’t for the good pay. If I … k. Since he is an only child. (better) b. I walked out of the Maths exam. his parents have spoiled him. She must be out since she didn’t answer the phone. (since) l. If you don’t get to work on time. You must use between three and eight words. (punctual) h. If Mary were feeling well. she would have come to Tom’s party. You won’t be punished provided you admit it was your mistake. you’d better go to the doctor’s. (shoes) e. including the word given. If she were… l. you’ll be given the sack. If I had been you. (were) i.English Practical Course 265 j. If I were him. I would have punished him. She must have lived in France because she has a perfect French accent. where would you travel to? (to) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . But for his help. If she had… 15. Do not change the word given. If you revise all your notes. I wouldn’t be in my current job. (long) c. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given.

Dacă n-ar fi nins. e numai o umbră din ce a fost o dată. Dacă n-ai fi atât de mincinos. n-ai fi acum în situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere în tine. e. excursia noastră la munte n-ar fi fost atât de plăcută. d. Mi-a spus de câteva ori că va accepta postul cu condiţia ca salariul să fie mulţumitor. care ar fi următoarea etapă a tratativelor? i. Dacă l-ai vedea acum nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. ar accepta aceste propuneri. c. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc adăpostul dacă aş fi ştiut că se va întâmpla o nenorocire. N-ar fi trebuit să câştige atât de mulţi bani şi n-ar fi dat de necaz dacă soţiei lui i-ar fi plăcut mai puţin luxul.266 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. f. j. Presupunând că partenerul dvs. g. b. Translate into English: a. ai putea să intri şi să îi înapoiezi dicţionarul pe care l-ai împrumutat de la el. h. te rog reaminteşte-mi de promisiunea făcută. − _________________________________________________________ . Dacă se întâmplă să treci pe lângă biroul lui. De data asta te-aş putea duce cu maşina mea dacă îmi promiţi să nu se mai repete. În cazul în care voi uita.

English Practical Course 267 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

they had no color in common. in a laugh. classes. and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. these creeds. passengers were overcome at the sight. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low clap-board houses which composed Fort Romper. Pat Scully. Pat Scully had performed a feat. and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. Underline the modal verbs: The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue. a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron. long lines of swaying Pullmans. horror. when the great transcontinental expresses.268 English Practical Course Unit 15 Reading Read the following fragment from The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane. egotisms. the proprietor. The Palace Hotel. It stood alone on the prairie. had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. swept through Fort Romper. causing the bird to declare its position against any background. was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swampish hush. It is true that on clear days. and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame. then. that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day. . With this opulence and splendor. But to the citizens of this prairie town. and to the people who would naturally stop there. pity.

Her friends frequently say: “Helen. at the age of 14. This fragment belongs to a novel written by Stephen Crane. Helen Smith always seems to be successful in growing things. the police was waiting for him and caught him red-handed because he had been/ was careless. Do you know any idioms containing the word blue? How do you translate out of the blue or once in a blue moon? 2. Let’s learn some idioms with colours.” Black sheep: “Ted ran away from home at age 15. Be blue.English Practical Course 269 Ways with Words 1. To which John replied: “It must because I take vitamins”. Its title is The Blue Hotel.” 2.’ ‘Sometimes I’m blue on a grey day. Answer the following questions: . At least. his family is quite proud of him and of the transformation they see in his life. Red – handed: “As the thief was climbing out the window with the stolen necklace. He got into trouble and spent some time in prison. From there he robbed a bank. Feel Blue: ‘I feel blue so often when it’s cloudy and rainy. But you should see Dorothy’. On the contrary. got captured and spent more time in prison. Both her flower garden and her vegetable garden always appear to be healthy and very productive. you certainly have a green thumb!” To be in the pink: “The doctor examined John thoroughly and finally said: “You’re in the pink of health”. he decided to spend his living honestly and today he is no longer the black sheep of his family. To have green fingers (thumbs): “Mrs.

A family that have been shipwrecked and have only lived on an island for three months with coconuts to eat. • • • c. • e. Is it possible that some of the following are feeling blue? • A man who has just lost all his money. A woman who likes to spend her weekends at the beach. cucumbers etc. A famous boxer who has been training for his next championship fight for six weeks. play golf. A man robbing a bank at ten o’clock in the morning. Have you ever felt blue? What has caused it? d. Is it possible that some of the following are not in the pink? • • • • f.270 English Practical Course a. An elderly woman who takes great pride in her lovely rose garden A nurse who has just finished working for 24 hours in a hospital and is exhausted. A policeman driving around in his patrol car. Why do people feel blue? b. A boy taking an apple from a basket in a store. • • . A man who spends his summer evenings working in his garden to raise tomatoes. An old man who is 80 years of age but who can still swim. A ship captain whose ship has sunk in a bad storm. Is it possible that the persons described below could be said to have “a green thumb”? • • • A little boy who has got a new puppy for his birthday. A couple that has just got married. jog. A wife whose husband has just given her a diamond necklace. It is possible that some of the following persons be caught red-handed? • • A grandmother taking care of her small grandson.

English Practical Course 271 g. Is it possible that some of the following might be considered a “black sheep”? • • • An old man who has been poor all his life Twin boys who decide to join the army A young woman who abandons her parents and starts a life thrill of robbing homes of jewels and money. They cannot be put into different tenses. do many families have a “black sheep”? i. The following are modal auxiliaries: Present form Can May Will Shall Must Ought to Need Past form could might would should • Modal auxiliaries always stay the same. Grammar Reference Modal Auxiliaries • Modal auxiliaries are also sometimes called modal verbs or modals. be able . as gerunds or present participles. could. used as infinitives. In your opinion. Ability: can. Restate the following sentence using the idiom “red-handed”: The mystery of the disappearing jam from the cellar was finally solved when they caught Jim eating a whole pot at night. I. h. They are followed by the infinitive in different forms.

. could and could have in conditional sentences. With this use. She can / can’t sing really well. My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see them. Certainty. use will + simple or continuous infinitive. can and may are often followed by the passive infinitive. The parcel may/might arrive tomorrow. • Can and could refer to the ability to do something. We can also use could (it refers to a theoretical possibility). We use be able to talk about ability + the achievement of the action. but not to the doing of it. We use can. ought to • To talk about something that it is possible to do at any time. She can be very charming when she wants to be. must. may. possibility. could. Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future. deduction: can. • To talk about a future possibility. He gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late. use can or may. might. II. should. I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help. • To talk about a present or future certainty. Stamps can/may be bought at most shops which sell cards. will. use may or might.272 English Practical Course • Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do something. • • We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility. We could go by train. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition. He could read when he was four. (It is possible to take a train there if you wanted to do that).

• To make a deduction about something in the present. • To talk about possibility in the present. need • To give advice. have to. . use must. Let’s go and see Cathy: she should have finished working by now. might or could + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. must. I don’t know why they’re so late. III. use must/can’t (or couldn’t) + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). necessity: should. I suppose they could have got lost. I won’t phone Jennifer now because she might be working at home. You mustn’t let him talk to you like that. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting: he talked to me about it only this morning. It can refer to present time or future time. We must go and visit them more often. have got to. • To make a deduction about something in the past. use must (positive deduction) or can’t (negative deduction) + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. The train got in half an hour ago so they should be here soon. use may. • We can use should or ought to + present infinitive to make assumptions about the present or the future and should or ought to + perfect infinitive to make assumptions about the past. ought to. He can’t be driving here: he hasn’t got a car. We often use should/ought to with I think … /Do(Don’t) you think …? Don’t you think you should/ought to stop seeing him? • To give strong advice and recommendations. • To talk about possibility in the past. might. Advice. use should or ought to.English Practical Course 273 I will be waiting for you when you arrive. use may. could + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). obligation.

mustn’t or have to. must – the obligation often comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. I have got to get the bus into work today. I have to get the bus into work today/I have to get the bus into work every day. (= I didn’t stay at home and my behaviour was wrong) • To talk about obligation. (You are not allowed to wait here). it comes from the situation. I should/ought to have stayed at home. We’ll have to get there before 5 o’clock because the shops close then. You mustn’t wait here. • To express necessity. Have got to is often interchangeable with have to but there is sometimes a difference: have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions whereas have got to can only be used for single actions. • To express a negative obligation. . • We can also use have got to to express obligation. (The obligation is imposed by the airline who wrote the notice). Passengers must fasten their seat belts.274 English Practical Course • To criticise actions in the past. use must. Should /ought to in the past means that the subject did not do the right thing. use mustn’t. use need. use should or ought to + perfect infinitive. Do not use don’t have to = there is no obligation. You needn’t come if you don’t want to. We can use need as a modal verb in questions and negative sentences. (It is not necessary for you to wait here but you can if you want to). You don’t have to wait here. Have to – the obligation is often external.

my brother and I would fight all the time.. We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures. we …? Would you like…? To make a suggestion or an invitation: Shall we …? We could . used to • • Used to is not a modal: I used to work here. might.. I needn’t have gone to the station so early. When we were children. use needn’t + perfect infinitive or didn’t need to/didn’t have to + infinitive. must. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it). (It wasn’t necessary to go to the station early but I didn’t realise that and so I did get there early).’ We’re eating out tonight so we don’t need/needn’t/don’t have to/haven’t got to buy any food. suggestions: can.. haven’t got to. would you mind • • • • • Asking permission: Can/Could/May/Might I …? Making a request: Can/Could/Would you …? To give or refuse permission: You can/can’t/may/may not/must/mustn’t … To make an offer: Can/Shall I. • To express lack of necessity in the past. The train was nearly an hour late. don’t need to. . When we were children. When the speaker is giving the authority. my brother and I used to fight all the time. would. Teacher to students: ‘You’ve worked hard today so you needn’t do any homework tonight. I didn’t use to work here. Would you like to …? V. requests. use needn’t. shall. Habit: would. don’t have to. may. permission. we often use needn’t. IV. Did you use to work here? Use would and used to to talk about past habits. could.English Practical Course 275 • To express lack of necessity. Offers.

he …(die). (get) a message to her. must and an infinitive in the appropriate form: a. Jonathan … (not say) anything until he was about three years old. m. She … (miss) the train. we can use used to but we can’t use would. If they hadn’t phoned for an ambulance. • When we talk about past situations (not actions). it is necessary to use a past time reference. l. could or be able to. I … (not understand) what he says: he speaks too quickly. . should. I’d like … (work) with you one day. Complete the sentences with can. He …(not climb) up to the top: he was too scared. g. She tried to think of other things but she … (not put) that awful memory out of her mind. … (you come) to the party on Sunday? 2. She … (do) better. We …(go) to that concert tomorrow if the tickets haven’t sold out. i. b. might. k. o.276 English Practical Course • When we use would to talk about a past habit. d. We … (not phone her up) because her phone had broken. n. I love … (spend) all morning in bed at weekends. Kerry’s rather late. Amy’s exam results weren’t very good. He …(run) really fast. He’s very fit for his age. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference.. could. I … (not sleep) very well for the last four nights. Controlled Practice 1. will. may. but fortunately we . I think you should go in the spring: it (be) very crowded there in summer. e. j. It’s been too hot. Complete the sentences with the correct form of can. c. …(speak) another language fluently is a great advantage. ought to. f. a.. h.

I think she … (visit) her parents but I’m not sure about it. c.’ p. She (not still play) tennis: it’s been dark for the last hour. e. j. Let’s go and see her: she (be) hurt. k. l. These glasses … (be) Tim’s: they look a bit like his. They’ve just rung the bell so the children … (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. n.English Practical Course 277 b. o. She was with a man I didn’t recognize. She (run) to catch the bus. Don’t phone her now. I … (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven’t decided yet. It … (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. r. i. h. They’re not answering the phone so they … (be) out. He … (miss) her. I’ll give you a ring to let you know. I don’t know where she is. The roads are fairly quiet today so we … (have) a good journey. Jim’s been very quiet since his girlfriend went away. u. That woman’s just fallen over. Her exam results are coming out soon. It … (be) the middle of the night in Australia. I … (come) and visit you at the weekends. ‘Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?’ ‘I don’t know. They (not move) house yet. f. d. I saw them in town this morning. t. I told her you were coming so she … (expect) you. . Travellers’ cheques … (be exchanged) at most banks. I sent the letter two days ago so he … (get) it by now. She worked very hard so she … (do) well. g. It … (not rain): the ground’s completely dry. but you can never be sure. I haven’t seen Joanna this week. Anyway. m. s.

278 English Practical Course 3. It’s the best restaurant I’ve ever been to. Why … the prisoners … (be locked) in their cells all day? i. You … (not go) to bed so late. We’ve been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so we (not cook) our own meals. m. p. c. If I fail any one of my exams. r. s. We … (run) all the way to the station because we were late for the train. The taxi’s coming in twenty minutes. Hurry up. We … (leave) at 11 o’clock last night because the last bus went at 11. I don’t think you … (offer) to help him. Paul … (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the house does. He’s too young. He would never forgive us. f. They can stay with us. d. You … (not tell) him what happened. h. must or need or the verb have to in the correct tense and form. You’ve got enough work to do. I don’t like … (do) everything my boss tells me to do. You … (not eat) in the lecture hall: it’s against the college regulations. They … (not pay) to stay in a hotel. a. We haven’t had a good talk for a long time. k. You … (not allow) David to walk home from school every day on his own. o. ought to. e. g. j. . b. You … (go) to that new French restaurant in town. The wedding’s been cancelled so I … (not buy) that new suit: it was a waste of money.20. l. I … (tell) him what you really think of him next time you see him if I were you. It’s your own fault that you’re so tired. You … (not have) a bath now. You … (come round) for dinner one evening. n. Complete the sentences using the modals should. t. I … (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work. I … (take) all of them again in November.

h. write them both. b. b. may. Invite a friend to go for a swim this morning. we … go out somewhere with a picnic every day. They … be happy together but they are not now. Ask someone to answer the phone for you. When I was a newly-trained teacher. Ask someone to wait here for you. shall. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. could. Offer to make someone a sandwich. d. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. Write what to say using can.English Practical Course 279 u. I … work till late every night preparing lessons. In the long summer holidays. . There may be a number of possible answers. d. c. would. Offer to open the door for a stranger. Where either form is possible. Offer to answer the phone. Ms Arnold. Give someone permission to use your phone. f. i. e. c. would you like. You are in a café. I’d like you to come to the meeting but you … (not come) if you don’t want to. must. might. Request an appointment to see your bank manager. There is a free seat next to someone. Ask another passenger if you can open the window. I … have lots of free time before I started working here. Complete the sentences with would or used to. a. g. 4. j. Ask that person if you can sit there. You are in the train. k. a. would you mind. 5.

c. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve. I … go to the library to start work at 9 o’clock every morning. I want to help you but I am not able to. i. I … drive everywhere. Is it possible for me to sit here? j.280 English Practical Course e. i. When they came to London. I don’t know who she is but it’s possible that she is Rick’s sister. When I had a car. b. j. f. k. they … (never) travel anywhere on the tube. Why don’t we go and see a film tonight? h. Are you able to come with me tonight? e. He refuses to give me an answer. In some sentences more than one modal is possible. I think it’s a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I’ve got a lot of work to do. he still didn’t know how to read. During my last year at university. At the age of nine. p. d. It’s not a good idea for you to work so hard. Am I allowed to smoke in here? m. It’s possible that they’ll be here soon. It’s not necessary for you to apologize. g. n. I will/’ll phone you next week. f. l. h. but now I’m much fitter because I always walk or cycle. g. He said that he intended to write to me soon. It’s essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning. we … (often) stay up talking late. people … (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. When we shared a flat together. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. When Amy was a baby. He … be overweight but he’s much slimmer now. 6. o. a. . I promise to phone you next week.

How do you feel about going on a trip? (like) i. (impossible) e. u. Shall we go out tonight? (how) b. You don’t have to inform the agency beforehand. May I borrow your typewriter? (mind) . It’s very possible that he’ll be promoted. (bound) d. I’m sure that he is asleep. It is certain that he will return this afternoon. I know he’s in but he’s not answering the phone. It’s 7 o’clock. a. (compulsory) j. s. Why haven’t you signed this page at the bottom? (sign) f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. t. (every) c. Could he have been telling the truth? (likely) g. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep.English Practical Course 281 r. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. Could you come on Saturday? (suit) h. He was not able to understand the radio message because of the interference. Do not tell him any of this: it’s vital that it remains a secret. I assume that Clare will be here soon.

Când eram copil nu-i puteam înţelege pe adulţi şi acum că sunt adult nu-i mai pot înţelege pe copii. este o limitare de viteză aici. dacă vrea ca ea să adoarmă. Dacă sunteţi amabil să aşteptaţi a clipă îl chem pe director. aşa că n-am putut închide uşa. Nu trebuie să conduci aşa repede. You mustn’t start writing before the test starts. You won’t be able to enter the country unless you have a visa. putea lucra toată ziua şi dansa toată noaptea. avem destul timp. Nu pot să nu mă gândesc ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă nu am fi putut rezolva problema. Când era tânăr era foarte rezistent. (prevented) l. N-aveam cheie. Translate into English using modal verbs: Ar trebui să-i spună fiicei ei o poveste. Chiar dacă ne-am strădui din răsputeri nu am reuşi să ajungem. Nu-i nevoie să suni. Ştiam bine oraşul aşa că am putut să le explic cu să ajungă la gară. (rules) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. am eu cheie. . Drumul era acoperit cu gheaţă şi lui îi era groază să nu alunece. Nu-i voie să conduci aşa repede.282 English Practical Course k.

– Nu se poate să fi fost deschisă. Dacă îi dai ocazia nu mai încetează cu poveştile din război. Trebuie să-mi spăl maşina. . − _________________________________________________________ .English Practical Course 283 Ar fi trebuit să verifice frânele înainte de plecare. L-am văzut pe stradă dar nu s-a oprit să-mi vorbească. îl mai are de două ori. Uşa era deschisă. Nu este voie să vorbeşti tare aici. Ar fi trebuit să o spăl cel puţin acum o lună. . Cu siguranţă că în acest moment echipa adversă sărbătoreşte victoria. Când era la şcoală putea merge în mâini distanţe lungi. dar acum nu mai poate.Nu se poate să fi văzut un tigru. doar suntem într-un spital. Nu e cazul să-i reaminteşti de datorie. am putut să merg la farmacie şi să cumpăr medicamente. Stătea pe bancă ore întregi şi se uita la stele. habar n-am. este prea murdară. Nu era nevoie să-i cumperi volumul acesta de poezii. Probabil că era foarte grăbit. Am văzut un tigru ieri în pădure. nu sunt tigrii în ţară la noi. este un om cu mult bun simţ. Se poate ca ieri pe vremea asta fraţii lui să fi cărat cărămida de la fabrică. Tocmai am terminat de udat florile. Acum un an am avut un câine tare neascultător: nu vroia să-mi aducă papucii atunci când îi spuneam eu. Deşi afară plouă cu găleata de cel puţin trei ore. uite cum plouă acum. Am închis-o chiar eu la plecare. S-ar putea ca ei să îşi formateze sistemul acum.Nu era nevoie să le uzi. trebuie că adormisem. Citeam zeci de cărţi pe lună când eram student. Este de datoria noastră să ne ajutăm părinţii atunci când sunt în dificultate. M-ai auzit când am venit acasă seara trecută? – Nu.

284 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 285 .

She has not been to the office since November. Can you play golf well enough to beat him? Is your ……………………………………………………………………… − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ..286 English Practical Course Progress Test 4 1. The thing I’d really like …………………………………………………. The candidate was undoubtedly highly intelligent but she was not very suitable for the job. I should have never won the nomination.. Rewrite each sentence. I wish …………………………………………………………………. Joan is very alike her father. She last………………………………………………………………… e.. The cat ……………………………………………………………………… j. so that the meaning stays the same: a. Without your support. This match ………………………………………………………………. The telephone rang the moment I stepped into the room No sooner …………………………………………………………. Joan bears ………………………………………………………………… i. If it hadn’t ………………………………………………………. I’d like to have seen this movie. I’ve never seen such an exciting match before. I should really like someone to do all the housework for me. 4th. Intelligent……………………………………………………………. beginning as shown. We can’t persuade the cat to come down from that tree.. d. b. h. g. c. f.

at 7 o’clock) c. I enjoyed my lunch (the day before yesterday. He goes (to the factory.English Practical Course 287 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. She played (last evening. They went (for a week and a half. at home. Smith came (into the office late) g. wonderfully) d. I am born (on April. every morning. the piano. Insert the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: a. in the street yesterday. at 4 o’clock. very much) i. to the theatre. I read (all day. at six o’ clock) b. Mr. on March) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . at the National Opera. very kindly) e. very much) h. My friend spoke (evening. yesterday. to England. 3rd) f. in 1978. to me. 5th. We shall go (tonight.

Delenii şi Bejenii. cu biserică frumoasă şi nişte preoţi şi dascăli şi poporeni ca aceia. în satul Humuleştii. ce mai de pomi s-au pus în ţinterim. un sat de oameni fără căpătâiu. ci sat vechiu răzăşesc. şi sfătuia pe oameni să-şi deie copiii la învăţătură. a mă ridica băieţaş la casa părinţilor mei. să fi văzut pe neobositul părinte cum umbla prin sat din casă în casă. ce om vrednic şi cu bunătate mai era! Prin îndemnul său. între care eram şi eu. care se ţin tot de una: Vatra satului. care era îngrădit cu zaplaz de bârne. Doamne. străşinit cu şindrilă. şi pe vremea aceea. care ştiau a învârti şi hora şi suveica. ş-apoi. frumos şi voinic. drăgăliţă-Doamne. întemeiet în toată puterea cuvântului: cu gospodari tot unul şi unul. şi ce chilie durată s-a făcut la poarta bisericei pentru şcoală. împreună cu bădiţa Vasile a Ilioaei. Şi unde nu s-au adunat o mulţime de băieţi şi fete la şcoală.288 English Practical Course 3. Şi părintele Ioan de sub deal. de vuia satul de vatale în toate părţile. un holteiu zdravăn. sat mare şi vesel. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Translate into English: Stau câteodată şi-mi aduc aminte ce vremi şi ce oameni mai erau în părţile noastre pe când începusem şi eu. de făceau mare cinste satului lor. nu erau numai aşa. din târg drept peste apa Neamţului. împărţit în trei părţi. cu flăcăi voinici şi fete mândre. ruşinos şi fricos şi de umbra mea. dascălul bisericei. Ş-apoi Humuleştii. un băiat prizărit.

b. The thing I’d really like is to have someone to do all the housework for me. j. Is your golf handicap better than his? 2. she was not very suitable for the job. The cat wouldn’t come down from that tree. We shall go to the theatre at six o’clock tonight. 4th. c. d. He goes to the factory at 7 o’clock every morning. c. i. h. b. No sooner had I stepped into the room than the telephone rang.English Practical Course 289 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: a. Intelligent as the candidate was. This match is the most exciting I have ever seen. f. e. Joan bears a resemblance with her father. She last was to the office on November. a. I wish I had seen this movie. If it hadn’t been for your support I should have never won the nomination. g. . She played the piano wonderfully at the National Opera last evening.

I read a lot at home all day yesterday. divided into three closely connected parts: the village itself. Smith came into the office late. Mr. the son of Ilioaia. with stalwart young men and comely girls who could swing the shuttle too.290 English Practical Course d. so to speak. I am born at 4 o’clock. it was a large and cheerful village. together with one of his elders. on April. It faced the town on the other side of the waters o the River Neamţ. i. just begun to put a foot over the threshold of boyhood in my home in the village of Humuleşti. As for Father Ion. good-looking. who lived at the foot of the hill. You should have seen this untiring priest going round the village. the Deleni and the Bejeni. what an active and kindly man he was! On his advice lots of trees were planted in the graveyard – which graveyard was surrounded by a high fence of thick planks with eaves of shingles – and the fine room at the gate of the church precincts was built to serve as a village school. g. Moreover. f. 3rd. 3. Humuleşti in those days was not just a village of ne’er-do-wells but a prosperous and ancient village of freeholders. I enjoyed my lunch very much the day before yesterday. in 1978. and you should have seen the . entering one house after another. who were a credit to their village. I sometimes stop and call to mind the customs and people there used to be in my part of the world at the time when I had. Master Vasile. They went to England for a week and a half on March. 5th. It had a fine church and outstanding clergy. h. so that the village would buzz with the sound of looms on every side. The two of them would persuade people to send their children to get some schooling. with farmers who knew their job. Lord. e. My friend spoke very kindly to me in the street yesterday evening. handsome bachelor. church elders and parishioners. its reputation and standing having long since been assured. a sturdy.

1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 3. timid lad. 1 point +9 points = 10 points Divided by 3 = 10 points .English Practical Course 291 number of boys and girls who flocked into the school from all parts. afraid of my own shadow! (translated by Ana Cartianu) Score: 1. a puny. myself among them.

292 English Practical Course Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow to break blew broke blown broken a obliga a sufla a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma to bring to build to burn to burst brought built burnt burst brought built burnt burst a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

English Practical Course 293 to catch caught caught a turna a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi a tãia a se ocupa (cu) a distribui a sãpa a face a desena a schiţa a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea a alimenta a hrãni a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi to choose to cleave chose cleft clove chosen cleft cloven come cost crept to come cost to creep came cost crept to cut to deal to dig to do to draw cut dealt dug did drew cut dealt dug done drawn to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found .

294 English Practical Course a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear to hew to hide to hit had heard hewed hid hit had heard hewed hewn hidden hit a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi a ciopli a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni .

English Practical Course 295 to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa a cuprinde a rãni a lovi a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine a înnoda a tricota a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza a întinde a conduce a avansa a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla to hurt hurt hurt to keep kept kept to knit knit knit to know to lay knew laid known laid to lead led led to lean leant leant to learn to leave to lend to let to lie learnt left lent let lay learnt left lent let lain .

296 English Practical Course light to lose to make to mean to meet lit lost made meant met lit lost made meant met a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta a stabili a bate a scutura to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen to run ran run to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set to shake shook shaken .

English Practical Course 297 to shear to shed sheared shed shorn shed a vibra a tãia a mãrgini a arunca a difuza a vãrsa a strãluci a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi a turna a scinda a despica a (se) roti to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent to spill spilt spilt to split to spin split spun split spun .

298 English Practical Course to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde a sãri a izvorî a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula a lua a capta a necesita a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã a arunca to spring sprang sprung to stand stood stood to steal to stick to strike to string to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing stole stuck struck strung strove swore swelled swam swung stolen stuck struck strung striven sworn swollen swum swung to take took taken to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought to throw threw thrown .

English Practical Course 299 to thrust thrust thrust understood woken worn a împinge a înfige a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a (se) uza a toci a plânge a se prelinge a câştiga a a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge a scrie to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore to weep to win to wind to wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung to write wrote written .

to assist in sth. about sth. to be bored with sth./ sb.= somebody. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth. to be fed up with sth. in the beginning to be afraid of./sb. sth.= something) (break sth. to be at home to be aware of sth. to be full of (energy) .300 English Practical Course Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb. attentive at sth. to argue with sb./ sth. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth. on sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. sb. to be careful about sth. at the beginning of sth.

English Practical Course 301 to be fond of sb. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth./ sth. to be in charge of sth. to go by bus/ train/plane. to believe in sth. to be impressed by sth. to benefit from sth. to cope with sth. to be married to sb. . to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. with sth. to be proud of sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth./ sb. etc. else to complain about sth. to be good at sth. to be in love with sb./ sb. to cooperate with sb. to belong to sb. to be similar to sth. to be in a mess to be interested in sth. to be tired of sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth.

to fight against sb./ sth. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. to get on (well) with sb./ sth. to laugh at sb. to get in touch with sb./ sth./sth. deficiency in sth./ sth. to have an interview for a job to invite sb./ sth. to listen to sth. in the end at the end of sth. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb.302 English Practical Course to deal with sth. from sth. to find put about sv. else to dream about sb./sth./sth. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb. to develop into sth. in the distance to distinguish sth. etc. to go home to have a degree in sth./sth. . to die of sth. to debate on sth. to go out with sb. to depend on sb. to forget about sb./ deficient in sth./ sb. to be different from sb.

to look at sth./ sth representative of sb. to speak to sb. to rely on sb. . resistance to sth. to talk to sb. (a gun) at sb. a story about sth. to look forward to doing sth./ sb. to spend money on sth. to specialize in sth. owing to sth. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. for ($300) to share sth. to point sth. to point at sb. to originate in sth. similar to sb. to search for sth./ sb./ sth. to pay ($5000) for sth. to merge with sth./ sth./ sth. preoccupation with sth. about sth. to suffer from sth. to sell sth. to look for sth. about sth. with sb.English Practical Course 303 to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to participate in sth.

/ sth./ sth. in view of sth. .304 English Practical Course thanks to sb. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you think of von Laue?) to throw sth. to wait for sb. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth. at sb. to write (an e-mail. a ticket for sth. a letter) to sb./ sb.

English Practical Course 305 .

1983. Panovf. ***. Virgil. 1998.Dacia. J. 3. Călina. Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză. Poenaru. Dumitru & Luca. 1996. Chiţoran. Nolan. Bucureşti Deighton. 9.. Editura Amarcord. 7. 11.edu/grammar/adjectives. Tamara & Popescu Brandusa. . Stephen. ed. 1978.htm http://www. 8. Luca-Lăcătuşu. Competenţă şi performanţă. New York. Editura Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. 12. Limba engleza. Archer.306 English Practical Course Bibliography 1. Oxford University Press. English for Science and Technology. Lee C.Curs practic. Cavallioti Publishing House.com Hulban Horia. London. D. 13. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Dobrovici. Timişoara Andrews. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere.. 10. 6.commnet. Cluj http://ccc. English With Tears. Bucharest ***. Editura Ştiinţifică.com http://www. 5. 1972. Ed. English Grammar Exercises.. Cambridge Certificate – A Course for First Certificate. Enid. Preparing for Proficiency. Stanciu. A Basic English Grammar. 1999. Vocabulary Development.randomhouse. Creţescu Gogălniceanu. Oxford Galea. Exercises.. Bucureşti 2. 1984. 4. I. 1984. Viorica & Dorobat. I. The British Council. 1972.. Tamara. 1983. Margaret.google. Didactica si Pedagogica. Heinemann Educational Books. Macmillan. Bucuresti Eastwod. Ileana.

J. Macmillan. Excel at First Certificate. Heinemann. Michael. . Cluj 15. Student’s Book..English Practical Course 307 14.V.. Hong Kong. London Edinburgh Walker. 1986. Bucuresti Sanford. Teora. D. English Teaching Division. Test Your English Grammar. 18.C. A. Greere. V. upper-intermediate. A. Hong Thomson. Martinet. 17. Oxford. A. Marius. 20. pre-intermediate.. Headway. New York Soars. OUP. John & Liz. 1995. Oxford University Press. 19. 1986. 1989. 1997. Headway. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. and Elsworth. 23. Lin. Bishop. Soars.. Reading Comprehension. S. Student’s Book. A. CLP Zdrenghea. 1996. 21. 22. The Great Preposition Mystery. Martinet. E. 1991. Adrian B. Thomson. John & Liz. Oxford University Press. 16.J. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. 1985. Clusium. Katherine V. 1991. Longman Malaysia. A. Student’s Book. Washington. 1984. Oxford Mistzal. Lougheed. M. Exercises 1. Ed. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. A Practical English Grammar. A Practical English Grammar.. Oxford Vince. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press.

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