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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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Sections

  • Unit 1
  • Reading
  • Ways with words
  • Grammar Reference
  • Present Simple
  • Present Continuous
  • Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English
  • Controlled Practice
  • Unit 2
  • Ways with Words
  • Grammar Reference 1
  • Past Simple
  • Past Continuous
  • Past Simple and Past Continuous
  • Controlled Practice 1
  • Grammar reference 2
  • The Ordinal Numeral
  • The Fractional Numeral
  • The Multiplicative Numeral
  • Controlled Practice 2
  • Unit 3
  • Present Perfect Simple
  • Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
  • Grammar Reference 2
  • Present Perfect Continuous
  • Progress Test 1
  • Unit 4
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • The Personal Pronoun
  • Unit 5
  • Past Perfect Simple
  • Past Perfect Continuous
  • The Imperative
  • Unit 6
  • Future Simple
  • Future Continuous
  • Be Going to Future
  • Future Simple or Be Going to?
  • Other Ways of Referring to the Future
  • Future Perfect
  • Future Perfect Progressive
  • Other future references
  • Controlled Practice:
  • Unit 7
  • The Passive Voice
  • Further Points on the Passive Voice
  • Causative Forms
  • Progress Test 2
  • Unit 8
  • The Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Number of nouns
  • Unit 9
  • The Noun
  • Gender
  • Countable/uncountable nouns
  • Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
  • The Genitive/Possessive Case
  • Unit 10
  • Prepositions
  • Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs
  • Place of Prepositions in the Sentence
  • Prepositions of Time
  • Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place
  • Progress Test 3
  • Unit 11
  • Position of adjectives
  • The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  • Capitalising proper adjectives
  • Collective adjectives
  • Adjectival opposites
  • Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
  • Comparative Sentences
  • UNIT 12
  • The Article
  • The Indefinite Article
  • The Definite Article
  • Zero Article
  • Unit 13
  • The Adverb
  • Punctuation
  • Unit 14
  • First Conditional
  • Second Conditional
  • Third Conditional
  • Mixed Conditionals
  • Unit 15
  • Modal Auxiliaries
  • Progress Test 4
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2
  • Bibliography

English Practical Course

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English Practical Course

Arleen Ionescu Luiza Vlad Răzvan Vlad

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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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CONTENTS Unit 1..............................................................................................................9
Reading...............................................................................................................9 Ways with words..............................................................................................10 Grammar Reference........................................................................................12
Present Simple.............................................................................................................12 Present Continuous......................................................................................................14 Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English.......................................16

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................17

Unit 2............................................................................................................24
Reading.............................................................................................................24 Ways with Words.............................................................................................25 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................31
Past Simple..................................................................................................................31 Past Continuous...........................................................................................................33 Past Simple and Past Continuous................................................................................34

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................35 Grammar reference 2......................................................................................46
The Ordinal Numeral...................................................................................................46 The Fractional Numeral...............................................................................................46 The Multiplicative Numeral........................................................................................47

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................47

Unit 3............................................................................................................49
Reading.............................................................................................................49 Ways with Words.............................................................................................50 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................56
Present Perfect Simple.................................................................................................56

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English Practical Course

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple......................................................................58

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................59 Grammar Reference 2.....................................................................................64
Present Perfect Continuous..........................................................................................64

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................66

Progress Test 1............................................................................................73 Unit 4............................................................................................................79
Reading.............................................................................................................79 Ways with Words.............................................................................................80 Grammar Reference........................................................................................85
Indefinite Pronouns .....................................................................................................85 The Personal Pronoun..................................................................................................86

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................87

Unit 5............................................................................................................91
Reading.............................................................................................................91 Ways with Words.............................................................................................92
Past Perfect Simple......................................................................................................95 Past Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................96

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................97 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................100
The Imperative...........................................................................................................100

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................101

Unit 6..........................................................................................................103
Reading...........................................................................................................103 Ways with Words...........................................................................................104 Grammar Reference......................................................................................105

English Practical Course

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Future Simple.............................................................................................................105 Future Continuous.....................................................................................................107 Be Going to Future....................................................................................................107 Future Simple or Be Going to?..................................................................................108 Other Ways of Referring to the Future.....................................................................109 Future Perfect.............................................................................................................109 Future Perfect Progressive.........................................................................................110 Other future references..............................................................................................110

Controlled Practice:.......................................................................................110

Unit 7 .........................................................................................................115
Reading...........................................................................................................115 Ways with Words...........................................................................................116 Grammar Reference......................................................................................117
The Passive Voice .....................................................................................................117 Further Points on the Passive Voice..........................................................................118 Causative Forms........................................................................................................120

Controlled Practice........................................................................................121

Progress Test 2...........................................................................................138 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................143
Reading...........................................................................................................144 Ways with Words...........................................................................................144 Grammar Reference 1...................................................................................146
The Conjunction .......................................................................................................146 Coordinating Conjunctions........................................................................................146 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................................................................147

Controlled Practice 1.....................................................................................147 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................150
Number of nouns.......................................................................................................150

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................153

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English Practical Course

Unit 9..........................................................................................................156
Reading...........................................................................................................156 Ways with Words...........................................................................................157 Grammar Reference......................................................................................159
The Noun...................................................................................................................159 Gender........................................................................................................................159 Countable/uncountable nouns....................................................................................160 Nouns which may be uncountable or countable........................................................161 The Genitive/Possessive Case...................................................................................162

Controlled Practice........................................................................................164

Unit 10 .......................................................................................................177
Reading...........................................................................................................177 Ways with Words...........................................................................................178 Grammar Reference......................................................................................180
Prepositions................................................................................................................180 Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs....................................................................................181 Place of Prepositions in the Sentence........................................................................181 Prepositions of Time..................................................................................................182 Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place....................................................182

Controlled Practice........................................................................................185

Progress Test 3...........................................................................................198 Unit 11........................................................................................................202
Reading ..........................................................................................................202 Ways with Words...........................................................................................203 Grammar Reference......................................................................................204
Position of adjectives.................................................................................................204 The Order of Adjectives in a Series...........................................................................204 Capitalising proper adjectives....................................................................................205 Collective adjectives..................................................................................................205

...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Unit 13............................................................................207 Comparative Sentences...............................................254 Controlled Practice ..........................................228 The Indefinite Article..........227 Grammar Reference............................................................................English Practical Course 7 Adjectival opposites..................................................................................................................243 Unit 14................240 The Adverb.....................................................................................................................232 Controlled Practice....................................................................................................................................................................253 Mixed Conditionals......................210 UNIT 12............................................252 Third Conditional............239 Grammar Reference 1......................................................................................................................................................................................................255 Unit 15................................................................243 Punctuation......................................228 The Definite Article................................251 First Conditional....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................248 Ways with Words.....................................................................................................................................................................................248 Reading...........210 Controlled Practice.................................................206 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives....................................................................................................251 Second Conditional.............................................................................................................................................229 Zero Article...................................................................................................................249 Grammar Reference.......................................................228 The Article.....................................................................................241 Grammar Reference 2................................................240 Controlled Practice 1......................................................................................................................268 ......................................................................................227 Reading...............................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................306 .............................................................................292 Appendix 2........300 ..............................................................................................................................................................268 Ways with Words..............................................................................................................................................................................................................269 Grammar Reference .............................................................................271 Modal Auxiliaries.......................................................304 Bibliography............................276 Progress Test 4...............................................................286 Appendix 1..................................................................................8 English Practical Course Reading............271 Controlled Practice.............

They do not . and so on. On the one side. but it is a strong reinforcer. but they absorb the images. Underline the verbs which are in present tense simple and present continuous: Advertising is capitalism’s soft sell. they will be a second Eva Herzigova. They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image. Advertising sets out to make people identify with characters in advertisements. Pay attention to the use of tenses. to buy it and to keep on buying.English Practical Course 9 Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Simple © Present Continuous © Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment on advertising. They do not learn their roles from this source. they believe that if they buy Diavolo they will look like Antonio Banderas. An anonymous mass of people called consumers have each to be persuaded to need whatever a product can give them. and women housewives worried about fulfilling and achieving their roles. They see in advertising imagery reflections of society’s attitudes and ideals often taken to extremes. if they buy BU. to make them jealous of the person they would become if they bought the product. They may not be persuaded to buy products. with their situation and needs. It is really interesting to notice that girls growing up. are the foremost consumers.

e. d. You will play a word game. c. Advertisements reinforce a woman’s view of herself. Advertisements project an image of the ideal housewives. On the other side. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. how advertising influences women d. This is why they become that anonymous mass of people which we called consumers in the beginning. Advertisements persuade potential consumers that they need a product. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. b. the image of women in advertisements 2. c. Ways with words 1. a. advertising also captures girls’ fluttering images of themselves. II. 3. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. b. the persuasive power of advertising c. Which if the following points are made in the passage? a. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree. Start with the word on. Which of these would be the best title for the passage? More than one possible answer is possible. women as consumers b. .10 English Practical Course realize the difference between fancy and reality. Middle-aged women are particularly susceptible to advertisements. Start with in: a. Follow directions: a. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. Girls and housewives are the main consumers. b. Try again.

Try again. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. III. c. Start with an. Have you ever encountered the word organise spelled as organize? This is not a mistake. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. c. b. Read the sentence: They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image again. b. Another word for too that ends with -so. a. d. Classified advertisements . Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. IV. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. 4. Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill. Find the words described below: a. e. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. It’s just the difference between British English and American English. Here are some of them: British English American English theatre theater centre center neighbour neighbor colour color travelling traveling organise organize analyse analyze 5.English Practical Course 11 c.

B. after 6 p. lounge. kit. – Holiday COTTAGES in medieval courtyard of Queen Anne Mansion. Totnes. sunny gdn. Can you decipher them? Bourbemouth – Warm welcome awaits you at Pinewood Guest House. Devon. Large car park and gdns. S. –c. in bdrms. Spring.. Someone you meet recommends a weekly newspaper which contains advertisements for holiday accommodation. Yet opening the newspaper. 11th onwards: £40/ £50 incl. Mews Apartments. e.c. Top class accom. you find it full of small advertisements containing abbreviations. Access at all time.m. wing in House. and shower. Sept. Night storage heating... Spac. 197 Holdenhurst Rd.. Petersen. B & b.. Vac. & b. sitt.A. Phone: (0803) 863664. £31. Grammar Reference Present Simple It is used to express: . Tv. sit. – Quiet det.m. big. bathrm. Phone 292684 [1977-08S Bourbemouth – Linga-Longa Hotel. Totnes 1 ¼ miles. Westbourne. & c. Mrs. bathrm.. Bowden House. Bungalow for 7/8. dining rm. Special Offer Spring Holiday and Oct. rm. hotel. Special Spring terms from £45 plus V. after 7 p.w. Phone 761001 Torquay. Excel.m. Phone (06267)4590. food.12 English Practical Course You are touring Britain on holiday with friends.T. residential lic. June.’s.50/£42 p. H.. Torbay 6 miles. Games rm. [x21-0H Totnes. Reduced rates for chldn. Ctly. 2 w. 2 bedrms. kit.

regularly. cooking demonstrations. She works in a very famous company. • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. Note that the historic present in narrative of funny stories appears in informal speech to describe past events. Most evenings we go out. Wood floats on water. completed almost at the same time they are performed (in ceremonial utterances. continually. constantly. normally. • momentary actions. • • states a fact which is always true (general truths and states): I don’t like gangster film.30. sometimes. The door bell rings. She listens quietly. especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. usually. The Earth moves round the Sun. So when he enters the room he realises that his parents are there and… . I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. rarely. forever. announcements. often. never. seldom. The Danube flows into the Black Sea.): I usually get up at 8. etc. hardly. radio and TV commentaries. explanations. frequently.English Practical Course 13 • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. headlines and stage directions): Her letter shows how painful the divorce was for her. Romanian people like to travel. occasionally. ever.

Present Continuous It is used to express: . finish) The plane lands at 6:34 p. when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme (with verbs of motion: come. Our summer holiday starts on July 1st. I do. go. start. work? work do not (don’t) work work do not (don’t) work works does not (doesn’t) work in a university. leave or verbs expressing planned activity: begin. she doesn’t.14 English Practical Course • planned future actions. Does she speak Italian? No.m. Form Affirmative and negative I You We They He She Interrogative Where do do I you we does they he she it Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. end.

limited action/ behaviour (+an adverbial indicating present time): I live in Romania. . including the moment of speaking) They are playing in their bedroom now.English Practical Course 15 • an activity happening now or around now (in this case the action extends over a slightly longer period of time. • a temporary. One’s immediate plans for the near future: a repeated action or habit which annoys the speaker I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. I’m writing an essay on Victorianism this week. You are always calling me at midnight. but I’m living in England these six months. I am filling in a cloze test now. Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we doing? not are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working. • • Form Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the present participle of the main verb (verb+ -ing).

I think it’s a bit off. she is. But: I’m tasting the meat to see if it’s done. (This is my opinion). belong to. contain. No. remember. suppose. taste. I have a very good car. No. etc. I think you are right. . • verbs of having and being: have. I smell gas. • verbs of cognition and achievement verbs: think. etc. But: She’s having a shower now. but you behave rather stupidly now). ( I want to). know. I’m having dinner with my boyfriend at a fancy restaurant tonight. smell. mind. Is she watching TV? Yes. own. The meat doesn’t taste good at all. I’m not. be. hear. realize. consider. But: I am smelling the flower. He is a teacher of Italian.16 English Practical Course is they he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. understand. etc. In fact. possess. she isn’t. owe. She can’t answer the phone at the moment. The house belongs to my mother. I am. But: You are being stupid now. forget. notice. Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English There are verbs in English which are not generally used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. hold. expect. recognize. But: I’m thinking about you. I don’t remember your name. matter. (You generally are very smart.

etc. i. I hate people calling me late at night. but this week. b. . Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. She (speak) French. I don’t mind his smoking. want. love. I’m feeling the material to see if it’s soft or not. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.English Practical Course 17 • verbs of feeling (attitudinal verbs): care. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. like. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. sir. This course (contain) 14 chapters. the doctor asked. c. g. n. e. It (rain) now. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland. Maria (come) from Spain this week. wish. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. h. f. It often (rain) in summer. He wants to buy a new tool. English and Italian. He (come) to see me tonight. d. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. I feel I need to tell you that you let me down. Ann (resemble) her mother more and more. feel. k. But: “How are you feeling today?”. refuse. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. This bottle (hold) boric acid. But: Who is minding the baby? (Who is taking care of the baby?) Controlled Practice 1. j. Pardon me. Don’t touch it! l. dislike. The Rotring (belong) to Mary. This week we (study) the Middle Ages in the English Culture and Civilisation. I (live) in Ploiesti. forgive. m. hate.

things about learn Scottish and Irish writers. I think/ am thinking that something is wrong with the radiator in this room.. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt.. where we ……. People……. We have/ are having dinner now. d. at Edinburgh University.. What exactly does your job involve/ is your job involving? 3. f. e. our spend summer in Edinburgh. a good have time and at the same time we ……. here come every summer to learn more about contemporary . What’s wrong with you? Why are you looking/ do you look at me like this? g. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I ….. h. I’m thinking/ I think of you... She smells/ is smelling gas. i.. It lasts/ is lasting four hours.. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now.. It gets/ is getting colder and colder.18 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. c. The film is extremely long and boring.. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. b.

But I ……. COMES . She works hard. here stop in order to mail your postcard. a short story written by Angela read Carter.. so I …. a paper on Samuel Beckett this week write and John ……. INCLUDES b. Love. have a post-office in front of the Centre.. it here. at one. John has the bad habit of eavesdropping to other people’s conversation. have We ……. a eat..30 tonight. visit literature museum. yet today. as we …. we …… earlier. The war in Irak is over. I ……. MEANS h.. like.English Practical Course 19 literature. BET g. The cost of the bus ticket is part of the transport fee. THE SUN e. What is the weight of that bag you have as hand luggage? MUCH c.... so she doesn’t have too much spare time. Kate 4. We …. What is inside this book? CONTAIN f. finish So it’s hard work. Sunset is at 9. ALWAYS d... courses from ten to half past twelve.. I’m positive that you have no idea what the answer is. up at half past eight every get morning and …….. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same: a. We …….

. c. / I look at the picture. She is looking angry. / The grocer weighs sugar. / She tastes the soup. k. George can’t watch his favourite TV program now because his father (watch) a movie./ We are thinking she is tall. 6. She is having dinner. They won’t go out as it (snow) and they (not have) warm clothes. l. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. h. She has a car. The number of people who own houses on the outskirts of the city is increasing. She is tasting the soup. I am seeing a horse. HAVING 5. j. The grocer is weighing sugar. e. / She has dinner . d. g. i. /She is having a car. / The dentist sees a patient. / We are thinking about her. We think about her. f. d. We think she is tall. b. n. The dentist is seeing a patient.20 English Practical Course i. / The sweater is feeling soft. BUYING j. You cannot see Mary now: she (see) her boyfriend. Choose the correct sentence: a. Ann is foolish today. / She looks angry. / I am feeling the sweater. a. / I see a horse. m. The sweater feels soft. They are decorating my room now. Hardly anyone (wear) tight pants nowadays. b. I feel the sweater. c. The actor is appearing on TV. I am looking at the picture. / The actor appears on TV. / Ann is being foolish today.

e. a.English Practical Course 21 e. My father usually comes home from work by car. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences. That play (come) to our theatre next week. yellow dress. The children are playing at hide-and-seek. This novel is about a boy who (desert) his friends and (go) to enrol in the army. What George (do) to his computer now? ~ I (think) he (format) it. . Our guests are talking to us in Russian. I usually read two books a week when I have time. Mary? You (not listen) to this type of music as a rule. f. d. c. The train that we (look) at right now just (leave) for Arad. The milkman comes to our house twice a week. g. b. It takes five hours to reach the top of the mountain. g. j. Why you (listen) to this song. i. i. The family are celebrating the birth of their newest member. f. h. She’s busy at the moment. h. She (put) the baby to sleep. She is wearing a strange. You (want) to see it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. The two friends are listening to a rock concert.

În fiecare vară mergem cinci zile la munte. iar tata mănâncă omletă. b.22 English Practical Course j. e. Luăm micul dejun. Vacanţa de vară ţine două luni. d. Eu fac paturile iar sora mea şterge praful din cameră. Tom never washes his trousers until somebody tells him to. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Bunica uită întotdeauna unde-şi pune pantofii şi de fiecare dată când are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. Nu spune niciodată nimic interesant. c. De data asta însă rămânem acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. Translate into English using the Present Simple or Continuous. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa cinematografului dar tu întotdeauna citeşti la ora aceasta. E sâmbătă şi facem curat în casă. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Clujului. Mama bea cafea.

…………...? o.. …………. Add tag questions: a. …………. ………….. …………. …………. This car belongs to Jack.? j. The pubs close at half past three. They hardly ever buy bread form this shop.. …………..? m. ………….. They are meeting him at one o’clock today.. I’m sure you know who stole that purse.? l... …………. ? b.? e. ………….. Tom is having some whisky. He plays volleyball quite well.. She knows where he was last night. …………. She thinks we are running away from her.? k.? n.? g.English Practical Course 23 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9..? d. …………. …………..? i. The police never catch any thieves.? h.? p.? . …………. My boss doesn’t employ teenagers. …………. They say she works as an air-hostess. …………. I don’t think I’m the right person to teach him English.. You’re not a doctor. It seems to me he is wasting his time..? f. You look nice in this T-shirt.? c.

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. Underline the verbs which are in the past tense: Today.24 English Practical Course Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Simple © Past Continuous © The Ordinal Numeral © The Multiplicative © The Fractional Numeral •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following text about English as a world language. Pay attention to the use of the past tense. and it was unknown to the rest of the world. and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe. when English is one of the major languages in the world. it is the great growth of population in the United States. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing . People started to import English in the seventeenth century. assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and . for example. Above all. only a few million people spoke English.that in Shakespeare’s time. in all the continents of the world. with the first settlements in North America.

Ways with Words 1. due to the extension of computerised systems and softs which are mostly in English. As I could read in an article. So. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. passed any exams in English? c. Have you: a. read a scientific article in English? h. I think I have. Incredibly enough. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people? f.English Practical Course 25 twentieth century. used English in your studies or work? g. that has given the English language its present status in the world. Again incredible. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. yet again English is the predominant language. the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German. Spanish or French. been to an English-speaking country? b. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. managed to translate anything into English? d. the quicker you learn it. learned any songs in English? .

waste. B. go. certain of what someone has said. matter.. When you . D. fairly. D... B. to someone. D. C. A. handy. C. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. A.. D. B.. fool.26 English Practical Course j. you should pretend that you have understood. D. B. problem. skillful. then listening to a tape is a . A. C.. B. confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent 3. quite. you have to be co-operative. very. make. b. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2.. it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. If you want to practise speaking. speak.. c. A. you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. practical. a good idea is to tell a story or a . take. C. laughter. e.. joke. fluent. If you want to become .. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. loss. when you speak. an oral exam. A. surely. If you don’t understand anything you hear. tale. d. C. of time. Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English. . If you’re not .

Read and translate the following poems on the English language and pronunciation: A. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher.” says “Make yourself at home. every day possible.” 6. Some words have different meanings And yet they’re spelled the same.” “Come in!” “Thanks.” says “Have a good weekend.” B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night. Same to you. in every way possible.English Practical Course 27 4. without being told to. A cricket is an insect. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. in real situations.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. from films. To play it – it’s a game. TV and records. 5. .

It’s very clear.28 English Practical Course On every hand. ‘twas told me as a jokeA dumb man wouldn’t speak a word. Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: Musicians of good taste Will very often form a band – I’ve one around my waist! You spin a top. Or spin a yarn maybeYet every spin’s a different spin. A jumper is a thing you wear. it’s very queer. As you can plainly see. Some people say that you’re a dear Yet dear is far from cheap. pray. in every land. Is very hard indeed. Yet a jumper has to leap. And. who is to blame For different meanings to some words Pronounced and spelt the same? A little journey is a trip. It’s thoroughly agreed. It doesn’t mean you have to dance When’er you hold a ball. Yet seized a wheel and spoke! A door may often be ajar. . go for a spin. A trip is when you fall. Now here’s a most peculiar thing. The English language to explain.

. a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. of course. You’ve heard.English Practical Course 29 But give the door a slam And then your nerves receive a jarAnd then there’s jars of jam. Ireson. ed. but not you On hiccough. and now you wish perhaps To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard. And adders. Well done. It’s a nickname (impolite!) Yet a copper in the kitchen Is an article you light. Faber. 1962) B. not beadAnd only Scotsmen call it deed! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. And jams you give your thumbs. of traffic jams. you already know. It’s thoroughly agreed. thorough. laugh and through. in Verse That Is Fun. The English language. A policeman is a copper. The other adds up sums. On every hand. one is a snake. The English language to explain Is very hard indeed! (Harry Hemsley. Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble. in every land. too. I take it. And dead: t’s said like bed.

as a rule = de regulã. How do you translate as I could read. come. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. . 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. ( Herbert Farjeon. 2. And cork and work and card and ward. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. broth in brother. I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man aliveI’d mastered it when I was five.30 English Practical Course A moth is not a moth in mother. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. Nor both in bother. And do and go. and thwart and cartCome. as seen = dupã cum se vede. în mãsura în care. pe cât. And then there’s dose and rose and loseJust look them up – and goose and choose. And font and front and word and sword. as long as = atât timp cât. în principiu. Read the sentence: As I could read in an article. Again. as far as = întrucât. And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. Hints on Pronunciation for Foreigners) 7. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. as shown in Fig.

• a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. Grammar Reference 1 Past Simple It is used to express: • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century. as well as = cât şi. such as = astfel ca. yesterday morning/ evening. ca în cazul în care. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic) or completed states: She always wore red. as well = deopotrivã.English Practical Course 31 as such = ca atare. The industrialisation in England led to the change of people’s mentalities. ca de exemplu. I met him every day on my way to the office. In those years. in 1985. de asemenea. I didn’t like reading. up to the present = pânã în prezent. He took off his shirt. He stood up and went out of the room. • habitual. as when = ca atunci când. The English literature teacher gave us a copy of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight yesterday. yesterday. . Suddenly he remembered something. as yet/ so far/ up to now. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. tot aşa ca.

32 English Practical Course Form The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. arrive? go? did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. . In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 299) I You We They He/She Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t). When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes. No. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. There are many common irregular verbs. I You We They He/She Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did. I did. arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. I didn’t.

30 yesterday. • A past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. Past Continuous It is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was lecturing my students on linguistics. she did. and the engine was making a huge noise. it means criticism and is similar to the use of present continuous when expressing annoyance) When she came to me. she was always looking through my diary. Note that past continuous is not used to describe general habitual actions. No. One of the headlights was continually falling off. When she arrived. • repeated actions (with a frequency adverb. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative .English Practical Course 33 Did she report the results obtained? Yes. of course. she didn’t. • changing states: The car was getting worse all the time. Past simple is used for this meaning. and little John was trying to draw something on my favourite poster. Father was reading some news in the newspaper. they were waiting for her in the corridor. When I lived in Paris. -refers to: • background descriptions in narrative I entered the room and looked around. without the sense of criticism mentioned above. My sister was playing with her dolls. I crossed the bridge over Seine all the time.

) I did my homework yesterday.) They were producing such machines when those people started to buy shares in their company. (I started and finished it. were were not They (weren’t) Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. (I was in the middle of the activity. I was. she was. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. No.34 English Practical Course I He She You We was was not (wasn’t) working. Something happened in the meantime to interrupt them). I wasn’t. . She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. she wasn’t. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. (producing and looking are long activities. No.

Our crew included/ was including a linguist. j. the entire family moved/ was moving in. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. 2. Latin played/ was playing an essential part in the development of languages such as Romanian. WHEN . WAS c. f. The first important breakthrough was replacing/ replaced radios with television sets in the 50’s. d. c. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. To get to the office on time I had to wake up at 5:30 every morning. or French. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. There was someone to meet him on arrival. We made / were making about 50 text analyses last year. a writer and an English interpreter.English Practical Course 35 Controlled Practice 1 1. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. Spanish. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. I didn’t exactly like swimming in those days. b. h. Do not alter the form of the words in any way and do not change the meaning of the sentence: a. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. e. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. MEANT b. Italian. g. While I was learning/ learnt for my French exam. When the house was decorated. i.

Her face (go) pale and her eyes (open) wide with shock. “Arthur. PUT 3. I intended to invite you at my party. The smell of the cheese stopped my eating the breakfast. We children (look for) worms and insects. My mother (read) and my uncle (just / doze) in the sun. HAVING i. Someone was painting our house at that moment. HAD j.36 English Practical Course d. did you notice the time? WHAT g. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. It (be) summer and we (all / lie out)in the garden. He (be) a tall. I (think) you (be) dead. handsome man with piercing blue eyes and he (look) straight at my mother. “ she (say) in a kind of whisper. THAT e. PASSING h. GOING f. Someone stole Diana’s bag yesterday. And then he (arrive). I didn’t know about your departure. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: It (happen) in June 1985. but I’m afraid that I completely forgot (it). When you passed by the town hall clock.

He (insist) on finishing his task. He (watch) the movie when the phone (ring).m. j. which immediately (begin) to chase Mr. m. ‘Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. At 3 a. e.English Practical Course 37 4. I just (open) the door when the wind (blow) and (break) all the windows in the room. ‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask). A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. b. Smith. She lit the fire at 8. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: a. They suddenly (realize) that they (fly) with the wrong plane. He (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. n. i. The car (stop). I wonder who it (belong) to? l. I (not know) that you still (read) it. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. f.00 and it (burn) brightly when Mike came home at 9. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. c.00. g. This (annoy) the bull. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. h.’ o. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. k. He (dig) his garden when he accidentally (cut) three of his toes. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. Mrs. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out.’ ‘I’m sorry. The admiral (study) the battle plans when he (receive) news of the invasion. It looks very old.

Cum s-a întâmplat exact accidentul? Mergeam de la Bucureşti la Ploieşti şi tata tocmai ne povestea despre accidentul unor prieteni de-ai lui când deodată în faţa maşinii a sărit un câine. dar deşi am încercat să-mi croiesc drum până la tine. acolo îmi petreceam vacanţa de iarnă şi schiam în fiecare zi. a fost de-a dreptul imposibil. b. era cu mult în urmă. g. Încercau să găsească drumul către centru când au dat peste un tânăr care s-a oferit să îi însoţească şi care i-a condus la obiectivele turistice cele mai importante ale oraşului. Mă uitam la televizor când a sosit poştaşul. c. d. Te-am zărit alaltăieri în mulţimea de oameni care aştepta să se deschidă sala de spectacol. e. Translate into English using the simple and continuous past tense whenever necessary: a. Dan se gândi că trebuia să se apuce de lucru.38 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Anul trecut pe vremea asta eram la Predeal. În timp ce Diana asculta un concert la radio. . dar tocmai în momentul când lua această hotărâre veni un prieten şi-l invită la un meci de fotbal. f. cineva a bătut la uşă.

j. c. h. What she (…) last night between 10 o’clock and 4? f. e. They (…) dinner when the girl next door (…) and (…) for a loaf of bread. He not (…) the explosion because at that moment he (…). While the old lady (…) those scrambled eggs. My sister (…) wet while she (…) in the rain.English Practical Course 39 h. l. Whenever the politician (…) his mouth to speak the crowd (…) insults. I (…) when I (…) the road. I (…) my bag when I (…) the plane. m. she suddenly (…) they (…) off. She (…) the voice that (…) louder than the others as that of her father. While I (…) in London I (…) my money in my socks. k. Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the Simple Past or Past Continuous: a. They (…) and (…) while they (…) the mountain. . g. De ce boli ai suferit când erai mic şi când ai fost ultima oară la medic? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. As soon as he (…) under the shower. d. the doorbell (…). i. While the maid (…) the room a skeleton (…) out of the cupboard. b.

The mornings were dark. p. Outside. the air was cold and clammy. The atmosphere chilled the bones . You could hardly see the face of the clock at the top of the University’s tower. and the very chimes sounded muffled and despondent.40 English Practical Course n. As it (…) their mother (…) the picnic. and the sun seldom broke through the cloud cover in the brief interval of daylight. the starboard engine (…) into flames. o. the brakes (…) and he only (…) a serious accident by steering into a bush. The winter term at Rummidge was of ten weeks’ duration. like the autumn and summer terms. thick with moisture and pollution. As they (…) from Stockholm to Paris. Translate the following texts into Romanian: A. dusk came early. but seemed longer than the other two because of the cheerless season. When she (…) lunch a waiter (…) a plate of soup in her lap. It drained every colour and blurred every outline of the urban landscape. q. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. When he (…) downhill. Electric lights burned all day in offices and lecture rooms.

except work. Nice Work) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (David Lodge. Only work seemed to provide an answer. grey place. stay.English Practical Course 41 and congested the lungs. was the fate of the unemployed of Rummidge and environments. Some people attributed the characteristic adenoidal whine of the local dialect to the winter climate. damp. condemned to be idle in a place where there was nothing much to do. All the more grim. or having come. therefore. which gave everybody runny noses and blocked sinuses for months open like fish gasping for air. At this time of the year it was certainly hard to understand why human beings had ever settled and multiplied in such a cold. No other reason would make anyone come here.

” “That’s right.” Quayle was standing there uncertainly. the Australian said. He was not sure of anything anymore.” Quayle did not feel himself completely conscious.Q?” he asked the Australian. He had never felt so completely unsure of himself and what he was doing. “Where is H. “We’ll probably clear it up tomorrow. Maybe.”. He turned around and started walking back.42 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B. and he felt the vibration of his feet against the hard road. . has some information.Q. “Your wife’s probably all right. They may have telephone communication with the sector down the coast. It’s cut off. too.”. He thanked the guard as he walked away. He should have expected this.” “Yes. But it was not hopeless even if he did not know that she was all right. too. Quayle knew then that here was a brick wall. He was not certain about what he was to do… Perhaps H.” “Yes. It had all happened too quickly. “Down the coast. the Australian said. “Jesus Christ. He didn’t know whether or not she had been sent back with the other women. He should have got Helen out long ago.

and he had vagueness about coming back or waiting to get down the coast and whether this invasion would fail. He was not certain of anything. (James Aldridge.English Practical Course 43 He was picturing Helen somewhere and he did not know where. It was almost morning when he got there. But he could see her with sandals sometimes. and sometimes with two fibre suitcases walking with other women. He caught a truck going through Suda Bay and then walked back to the airdrome. and sometimes being surprised by German parachutists and shot. and he could hear the bombing him as he walked into the timber. Signed with their Honour) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road.” “This is not a good place to stop. “Yes. I have come twelve kilometres now and I think I can go no further. There was a bridge across the river and cars. But the old man sat there without moving. “The cat will be all right. taking care of the animals. I am sure.” he said and smiled. “I stayed.” “And you have no family?” I asked watching the far end of the bridge. He was too tired to go any farther. he explained. I had to leave them.” he said. “I was taking care of the animals”. I was the last one to leave the town of San-Carlos. “I will wait a little while.” I said. having to share this worry with someone.” he said. I am seventy-six years old. “Oh. “There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons.” he said. “and then I will go. “No.” I said. “From San-Carlos. not quite understanding. you see.” He looked at me very blankly and tiredly. then said. trucks and men. women and children were crossing it. “only the animals I stated.” “What animals were they?” I asked. But the others? . “Where do you come from?” I asked him.44 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ C.

I urged. but no longer to me.” he said. Old Man at the Bridge) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . It was Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. It was a grey overcast day with a low ceiling.” There was nothing to do about him. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have.” he said dully. “If you are rested. swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust.” he said and got to his feet.” “Then they’ll fly.” “Thank you. “Get up and try to walk now.English Practical Course 45 Now what do you think about the others? What will they do under the artillery?” “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked”? I asked.” “But the others? It’s better not to think about the others. “Yes. “I was taking care of the animals. (Ernest Hemingway. I would go. “I was only taking care of the animals. so their planes were not up.

000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.04 (nought) point nought four 1.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.000.46 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar reference 2 The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.06 one point nought six .

te rog? Douăsprezece şi un sfert. 43/42. 1987. May. 3. Câţi cenţi are un dolar? j. El s-a născut la 23 octombrie 1974. 11x. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4. 1974. March. g. Deschideţi cartea la pagina 43 şi faceţi exerciţiul unu. „A douăsprezecea noapte” este o comedie scrisă de Shakespeare. 2001. La 1 iunie sărbătorim ziua copilului. January. . Între 13:20 şi 13:30 avem o pauză în care nimeni nu are timp să mănânce. 11. 2. 4. August. Cât faci de la facultate până la cămin? Căminul este lângă facultate. April. Read the following dates: July.879. i. Translate into English: a. d. 2002. e.English Practical Course 47 The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. 8. h. 27. 12. three times 4x fourfold. Cât e ceasul. a hundred times Controlled Practice 2 1. ten times 100x a hundredfold. b. f. La ora două şi un sfert iau autobuzul 85 şi merg în Piaţa Universităţii. c. Al cincilea modul este deja obositor pentru studenţi. 5. four times 10x tenfold. 2 9/7. aşa că nu fac mai mult de cinci minute. 2. 1958. 1980.

Mă duc la bunica aproximativ de trei ori pe săptămână. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Cât ai obţinut? 0. Toate lunile au treizeci sau treizeci şi una de zile cu excepţia lunii februarie care are douăzeci şi opt de zile. o. O pătrime din avere îi aparţine lui Smith. l.78. n.48 English Practical Course k. m. El a scris o lucrare de trei ori mai bună decât a ta. p. Camera are 5 metri în lungime şi 4 şi jumătate în lăţime.

Can't we do it again? Judge: I cannot discuss this with you any longer. Judge: I do not think that you can use that as an excuse. He feels that the race was unfair. . Jim: But the race was not fair. All of the other runners deserted me at the starting line. Margaret: Joan has told me this morning that she wants a career in the music business. They are discussing the latest news they have received from their daughter. She is packing to go to Nashville to record her first record right now. Jim: I would like to contest the outcome of this contest.English Practical Course 49 Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Continuous © Differences between the Present Perfect and thePast Tense •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. I am late to meet some friends for a camping trip in the desert. If you will excuse me. That is why I did not get to start at the same time as the other runners. but my shoelace was undone. you were not even close to the winning runner. Joan. Dialogue 1: The Race Jim has just come in last in a road race. Read the following dialogues. Case closed! Dialogue 2: The Singer Charlie and Margaret are a married couple who own a video store. I would have won. At the close of the race. so he goes to talk to one of the judges about it. Pay attention to the use of homographs. and I had to bow down to fix it.

We will have to find a gentle way to separate her from the idea. The meanings of the following homographs change depending on the way they are pronounced. Charlie: Maybe we could show her that she could be of more use here. Ways with Words 1. I will check with Joan first.) is "a tied ribbon. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (such as \'PREsent\ and \pre'SENT\)." . I know she would like that. On a separate subject.) refers to "the act of shutting something." To close (v. demonstrating gratitude or respect. what should I do with Joan 's train tickets to Nashville? Charlie: If she decides to stay." CLOSE and CLOSE: Close (adj. Homophones are words that sound the same. you can tear them up.) is "the action of bending forward at the waist and stooping low. Margaret: OK. It will bring her to tears.) describes "something very near. It says on them that they are non-refundable. The English language has a very complex spelling system. We need to put our heads together to find a solution. She could work at the store." or also "a device used to shoot an arrow. We could use another sales clerk. not far away." To bow (v.50 English Practical Course Charlie: What? She is going to subject the world to her singing voice? She is tone deaf! Margaret: Don't let her hear you say that. Practise these dialogues. but are spelled differently (such as "hare" and "hair"). BOW and BOW: A bow (n. Margaret: That's a great idea.

" To desert (v." To excuse (v.) means "to expose someone to something.) describes "things that are isolated or unconnected.) is "written documentation of a past event.) is "a competition that determines a winner.) refers to "the act of disputing or objecting to something." Separate (adj. conversation.) is "the act of writing information down." To record (v. sandy region.) is "the topic of a book." RECORD and RECORD: A record (n.) is "the event of employing something to serve a purpose.) is "an arid." To contest (v.) something means "to leave it behind." Now practice these homographs in sentences of your own." EXCUSE and EXCUSE: An excuse (n. or experiment. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? ." TEAR and TEAR: Tears (n." SUBJECT and SUBJECT: A subject (n." To subject (v.) is "the action of employing for some purpose.English Practical Course 51 CONTEST and CONTEST: A contest (n." SEPARATE and SEPARATE: To separate (v.) means "to rip something into pieces." or "documenting data (such as music) electronically.) is "a reason or explanation for one's actions." Tear (v." Use (v." DESERT and DESERT: A desert (n.) are "drops that fall from the eyes of someone who is crying.) means "to divide or segregate.) means "to forgive." USE and USE: Use (n." or it can also refer to "a phonograph album.

to feel better again after being ill and in bed . In the second dialogue. to stand up.52 English Practical Course 2. remembering facts head over heels in love – loving somebody very much heads with roll – used to say that some people will be punished severely for something that has happened Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. To put somebody’s heads together is an idiom. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Foot on foot – if you go somewhere on foot. 3. from head to foot/toe – over your whole body have a good/fine head of hair – to have a lot of hair on your head do something in your head – calculate something in your mind go over your head – to be too difficult for you to understand a clear/cool head – the ability to think clearly or calmly in a difficult or dangerous situation need your head examined – be crazy use your head – to think about something sensibly keep your head above water – to manage to continue to live on your income or keep your business working in spite of money problems be hanging your head against a brick wall – to keep trying to do something which seems impossible have a head for figures/facts/ business – to be good at doing calculations. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word head. you walk there get/jump/ rise to your feet etc –to stand up after you have been sitting be on your feet – to be standing for a long time without having time to sit down. It means to discuss a difficult problem together. the wife tells her husband: We need to put our heads together to find a solution.

usually by having an argument have/keep both feet on the ground – to think in a sensible and practical way and not have ideas or aims that will be impossible to achieve have one foot in the grave – to be very old or very ill leave feet first – to die before you leave a place or job feet of clay –someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults that you did not realize they had Hair get in somebody’s hair – to annoy someone.holding each other’s hand. especially to show love . especially after working very hard make somebody’s hair stand on end – to make someone very frightened not turn a hair – to remain completely calm when something bad or surprising suddenly happens not harm/ touch a hair of somebody’s head – no to harm somebody in any way Hand take somebody by the hand – hold somebody’s hand in order to take them somewhere hand in hand . especially by always being near them keep your hair on – (spoken) to tell someone to keep calm and not get annoyed let your hair down – (informal) to enjoy yourself and start to relax.English Practical Course 53 be rushed off your feet/ be run off your feet – to be very busy put your foot in it . so that you embarrass or upset someone have two left feet – to be very clumsy get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly.to say something without thinking carefully.

or fourth person by hand – delivered from one person to another. and sent through the post go hand in hand – to be closely connected get your hands on to obtain something– to catch somebody you are angry with . you are not responsible for them anymore at hand –near in time or space on hand – close by and ready when needed first hand/ at first hand – by direct personal experience at second/third/fourth hand – passed from the first person who actually saw or heard something to a second.to influence or to be involved in something in good/safe/capable hands – being dealt with or looked after by someone who can be trusted off your hands – if something or somebody is off your hands.to start doing something new or practising a new skill keep your hand in – to keep practising something so you do not lose your skill a firm hand – strict control of someone get out of hand – to become impossible to control take something/somebody in hand – to bring someone or something under control in hand – being dealt with have a hand in .54 English Practical Course right-handed/ left-handed – using the right hand for most actions rather than the left. or the left hand rather than the right right/left hander – a player who uses mainly the right hand or mainly the left hand not do a hand’s turn .to do no work at all a dab hand – someone who is very good at doing something good with your hands – skillful at making things turn your hand to . third.

you refuse immediately and completely hand in glove – closely connected with somebody. long right under somebody’s nose . it looks so good you want to eat it immediately Nose red-nosed/ long-nosed – having a nose that is red.so close to somebody that they ought to notice. but they do not stick/ poke your nose into – to show too much interest in private matters that do not concern you look down your nose at – to behave as if you think somebody or something is not good enough for you . not to say anything because you might make a mistake big mouth – someone who is a big mouth or has a big mouth is annoying because they cannot keep secrets or they often say things they should not say make your mouth water – if food makes your mouth water.English Practical Course 55 lay your hands on – to find or obtain something have time on your hands – to have a lot of time because you have no work to do have your hands full –to be very busy or too busy out of hand – if you refuse something out of hand. especially in a bad or illegal activity on the one hand… on the other hand – used when comparing different or opposite facts or ideas give somebody a (big) hand (of applause) – to clap loudly in order to show your approval of a performer or speaker Mouth keep your mouth shut – not to tell other people about a secret.

He has never used an English-English dictionary before. The recentness may be indicated by just.e. (i. • activities completed in the immediate past (these events are recent. He can drive it now).56 English Practical Course with your nose in the air – behaving as if you are more important than other people and not talking to them on the nose – exactly keep your nose to the grindstone – to work very hard.e. It is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. (i. (up to the present) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. I can tell you the story). He has fixed his car.) Has English been used by people at this office in the last ten years? (But: Why was English used on such a large scale in 1999?) She has had four car accidents. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. . Sometimes these events happened at an unknown time in the past): She has just met him in the computer science laboratory. without a definite time given. without stopping to rest Grammar Reference 1 Present Perfect Simple It relates past actions and states to the present.

she hasn’t. I have. I haven’t. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. No. She has not (hasn’t) Interrogative Have I we you Has they he been to the United Kingdom? she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. No.English Practical Course 57 • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. and for expresses a duration). Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. . Affirmative and negative I We You They He has (‘s) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. she has. How long have you worked as a translator? How long has it taken the English language to be used by so many people? Form have/has +verb (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page 299).

. and feels that the event is connected with the present. I left the red bag in my room.) He has worked in this university for four years. Where did you find them? (certainty). I have.58 English Practical Course Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. I’m going back to take it. I found them behind a couple of other books. (implies definite reference: the house we talked about).) John Fowles has written very good short stories. Choice between past simple and present perfect for recent events may depend on the mental attitude of the speaker. or be further away. (He is still alive. Here the speaker may feel separated in time from the event. This in turn may depend on whether the speaker feels distant in time or place from the event. (But: He started working in this university four years ago) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. I’ve bought a house. (Now I live somewhere else. Here the speaker may be about to return. I’m going back to take it. I’ve left the red bag in my room. (definite) I bought the house after all.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. on the top shelf. (He is dead. (indefinite) I bought a house last month.) I lived in this flat for two years.

Dan: Well. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. I (not hear) from you for a long time. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks ago. I (pass) in December. Dan. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your English Phonetics test. not really. They just (give) me a pay rise. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. but you (not see) me. I have. I (not pass) my Lexicology exam yet. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. My brother is still out of work. …. Dan: Hello. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. I (be) on a tram. Insert the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite: a. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. Thomas (to meet) her for the first time the day he turned 20. But what about you. Maria: Well.English Practical Course 59 Controlled Practice 1 1. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. that’s one piece of good news.

I (to see) my friend’s name in the papers quite often lately. As far as I know. The company (to tell) me to wait for the response. f. When ________________ the company? a) have you joined b) Had you joined c) did you join d) have you ever joined 2. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. she (to speak) at last.60 English Practical Course b. he (to leave) quite a long time ago. When I (to buy) my car I (to ask) the company to confirm my insurance by telephone. ___________________ in Pakistan? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked . c. Mr Black (not to return) from the dentist’s. you (not to eat) it. She (to begin) reading at 8 this morning and (to go) on reading until 11 o’clock when she (to stop) and (to have) something to eat. but I (to wait) a month now and the confirmation still (not come). here is your cake. and (to translate) more than 25 pages. I don’t know why but I have the feeling that something (to happen). e. Circle the correct answer: 1. g. d. She (to read) about nine hours today. Mike. h. They (to stand) in silence for a few minutes.

___________________ to him last week. 5. The reason I look so brown is that _______________ from a business trip to Barbados a) I come back b) I came back c) I never came back d) I've just come back 8. You ____________ to a word ____________ . That's the best presentation ______________ a) I never heard b) I didn't hear c) I used to hear d) I've ever heard 4. d) I've never had to deal with.English Practical Course 61 c) Had you ever worked d) Didn't you work 3. a) didn’t rise have fallen b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen d) rose have fallen 9. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid. Sales ________ in 1995 but then _____ in 1996. c) I've ever had to deal with. b) I never had to deal with. He's the most difficult customer _____________________ a) I never dealt with. a) We have signed b) We signed c) We haven't signed d) We had signed 7. a) I spoke b) I've already spoken c) I hadn’t spoken d) I will have spoken 6.

Now I (. My sister (…) several poems. f. e. I (…) it when you (…) at school. As a child. a) you haven't read b) you didn't read c) you don't read d) you had read 4. d. For your information I (…) home at 8 in the morning and (…) just before noon.. You (…) her an e-mail yet? Yes. What are we going to do? We (…) the train and the next one leaves in the morning. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . i.) a cold for more than two years. You (…) all your life in this luxurious mansion? b. When I (…) school I (…) my hair and (…) it short ever since. g. It (…) very hot this summer. The movie (…) at 12 and (…) for two hours. It's obvious that ________________ this report. Fill in with a suitable verb either in the Past Tense or Present Perfect: a. I wonder when it’s going to get colder. c. Everybody enjoyed it.. John cannot send the letter since he (…) it.62 English Practical Course a) b) c) d) listened didn't listen listened haven't listened I haven't said I say saying I've said 10. j. He (…) writing it at 5 and it’s 8 already. I (…) catch a cold every month. h. She just (…) her second ode.

(forward) f. (point) e. Rephrase the sentences below using the word in brackets: a. It is Sunday. evident. .English Practical Course 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. The last time I saw Jane was on Monday. d. Pe unde ai umblat? b. Vecinul meu a scris şi câteva poveşti de adormit copiii. c. le-a scris când era foarte tânăr. When did you leave the country? (ago) c. că de mâncat – am mâncat dimineaţă. Translate into English: a. Mike has tried to give up smoking before. Te-am căutat ieri vreo două ore şi te-am căutat şi astăzi. (first) d. Cu ani în urmă creştea porumbei şi lilieci dar acum s-a apucat să planteze ananas. It was proposed that a new church should be built. (contact) b. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been cancelled. (for) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. It’s been years since I last met Jim. Am băut şi am dansat până acum.

64 English Practical Course e. după ce l-aţi înjurat că nu a avut bani să plătească chiria? j. Sigur. S-a purtat foarte frumos cu mine de când i-am spus că îi vând lui maşina mea. g. in negative sentences. h. i. f. • an activity which began in the past. Grammar Reference 2 Present Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an activity which began in the past and is still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new products for several years. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. Şi-a plătit-o încă de când a luat salariul. has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. Vi se pare curios că tocmai şi-a luat lucrurile şi a plecat. după aceea s-a făcut nevăzut şi de atunci poliţia îl caută fără încetare. There may be little contrast when some state verbs are used. Tocmai am aflat vestea conform căreia preşedintele acelei ţări a căzut victimă unui atac terorist. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new products for several years. Cumnatul meu a spart ieri casa fostului său director. John şi-a plătit datoria. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses the present perfect simple can be also used. Nu am văzut în viaţa mea atâta suferinţă cât am văzut azi la acest azil de bătrâni./ They have created 2000 new products so far. domnule. .

She has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? . • a repeated activity. stay and wait) prefer the continuous form. or recently completed: emphasis on duration. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. Incomplete. especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. Completed: emphasis on achievement I’ve washed four skirts this morning. in which case a nuance of reproach.English Practical Course 65 How long have you lived here? How long have you been living here? Some verbs (especially sit. There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion. I’ve been washing my skirts this morning. can be present. etc. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). irritation. Affirmative and negative I You We They He has been have been have not been (haven’t been) working. lie.

Locuim în România de trei ani. Your eyes are red. I (work) hard all day. but (not see) her ever since. You’re out of breath. What she (do) all afternoon? h. You (run)? f. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. I saw her in August. Câte cuvinte ai căutat în dicţionar pânã acum? d. i. b. e. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. g. I’m tired. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. Te caut de o orã. Translate the following sentences into English. You (cry). N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. c.66 English Practical Course Controlled Practice 2 1. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. c. d. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. Pe unde ai umblat? b. She (not write) the essay on Renaissance yet. Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous: a.

We haven’t seen each other for ages.. f. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half. c. You ……………………. You ate chocolates in the morning. beginning as shown. you have eaten chocolates in the afternoon and you are still eating chocolates now and it’s 5 pm. It’s a long time since I last saw such a good movie. . Rewrite each sentence. It’s ages ……………………………………………… c. g. I have ……………………………………………………. I bought my car in 1992 and I’m still driving it. Lately your spelling ……………………………………. I haven’t been to Barcelona before. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. e. e. It’s the first ……………………………………………. There is definite improvement in your spelling recently. so that the meaning stays the same: a.English Practical Course 67 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Choose the correct verb form: a. b. I’ve been ……………………………………………… d. No wonder you are overweight. d. No wonder you are overweight. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. I don’t know where my glasses are. I haven’t seen ………………………………………. Alan has been going/ has gone to South America.

but the dead man's brother (be) in the station all day. I haven’t …………………………………………………. Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? f. It is at home. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. d. He only just (stop). I have ……………………………………………………. I haven’t …………………………………………………… 5. The last time I spoke to Jane was in 2001. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. i. Peter: You (telephone) for ages. I just (find) out. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or continuous: a. but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet.68 English Practical Course h. I don’t have the textbook with me. j. i. h. e. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing. I (watch) them from my window since they began. Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! g. b. The police (not find) the murderer yet. Eating this spicy Indian food is totally new to me. c. Peter: Actually. .

q. l. and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one.m. I'm afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. s. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good crop before. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. k. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. they (have) a good many rows but this is the fifth time they (throw) crockery. r. t. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house. n. I always start at 6 a. This (happen) before? Well. but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish). They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. She's lucky. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. Tom just (go) off with it. p. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet. o. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. I (do) mine already. m.English Practical Course 69 j. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it.

it wasn't me. George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. Since he became Mayor. so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. e. I wonder what (happen) to them all. The mechanic (work) on it. “Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before!” “Well. and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). c. You look exhausted! Yes. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. I (look) through my old photograph album. so I'm not used to it. I hope he (find) out what's wrong. Manager: I know: something (go) wrong with our computer. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or continuous: a. b. I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years. g. I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinner. It was lovely at eleven o'clock. I (stand) in this queue for ages. i. He (put) on a lot of weight? f. It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) out for lunch. but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). I (not be) out of the house for a week!” h. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one. . Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them.70 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. d. j.

I (build) a barbecue grid in the garden. n. but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. o. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. They began widening this road three weeks ago. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. p.English Practical Course 71 k. l. It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? m. madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. q. madam. I (wait) an hour now. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

f. d. De 13 ani se chinuie românii să redreseze economia şi nici acum nu au reuşit să stabilizeze moneda naţională. Miroase a ars în bucătărie. săracul. Translate into English: a. b. caut piese de schimb de mai bine de o lună şi n-am găsit nici una până acum. Iar a gătit soţul meu! c. de luna trecută îşi tot trimit mesaje de ameninţare prin poştă.72 English Practical Course 7. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Mihai e chiar culmea! Spală rufe de când am venit eu de la bâlci şi n-a terminat nici măcar pantalonii. Tony şi Nikki nu-şi mai vorbesc de o lună. Vecinul meu. N-ai adus încă maşina de la reparat? – Da’ de unde. Tocmai am terminat de săpat grădina. sapă de azi dimineaţă dar nu a terminat decât un sfert din teren.

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Progress Test 1
1. Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense: In the past thirty years many social changes ……………… (take) place in Britain. The greatest of these ………..probably………….(be) in the economic and domestic lives of women. Almost all theoretical sex discrimination in political and legal rights has been removed. The changes …………(be) significant, but, because tradition and prejudice can still …………..(handicap) women in their working careers and personal lives, major legislation to help promote equality of opportunity and pay ………(appear) during the 70s. Since 1951 the proportion of married women who work …….. (grow) from just over a fifth to a half. Compared with their counterparts elsewhere in the European Community, British women comprise a relatively high proportion of the work-force, about two-fifths, but on average they …………(work) fewer hours, about 31 a week. There is still a significant difference between women’s average earnings and men’s, but the equal pay legislation which ………(come) into force at the end of 1975 seems to have helped to narrow the gap between women’s and men’s basic rates. During the 1970s women’s wages ……….(rise) proportionately more than men’s but …………..(remain) relatively low because women ……….(tend) to work in lowly-paid sectors of the economy, they often …….(work) in predominantly female work-forces, and they work less overtime than men. As more and more women joined the work-force in the 1960s and early 1970s there ……(be) an increase in the collective incomes of women as a whole and a major change in the economic role of large numbers of housewives. Families …… (come) to rely on married women’s earnings as an essential part of their income rather than as “pocket money”, or as a

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means of buying ”extras”. At the same time social roles within the family ……. (be) more likely to be shared, exchanged or altered.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same: a. I’ve had to wait all morning. I have been ………………….. b. I didn’t have any idea of my next move. I didn’t know ………………… c. The last time I was to Paris was in 1998. I haven’t ………………………. d. Go to the registration desk immediately on arrival. As ………………………………. e. Mary and John’s wedding is next weekend. Mary and John will ……………… f. I intended to tell you about it earlier, but I simply forgot. I was …………………………….. g. I wasn’t very keen on tennis in those days.

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I didn’t use ………………………. h. Whose car is that? Whom does ………………….. i. Your brother will get over his illness. Then his work will get better. Once ……………………………. 3. Choose the most suitable continuation for each sentence: a. You can borrow this book, A. I am not going to need it; B. won’t have been needing it; C. am not needing it. b. It’s no use calling Barbra at home. She A. will have left; B. is leaving; C. will leave c. When you passed the town hall clock, A. were you noticing what time it was?; B. have you noticed what time it was?; C. did you notice what time it was? d. I must apologise, I A. hadn’t realised that this seat was yours.; B. wasn’t realising that this seat was yours.; C. didn’t realise that this seat was yours. e. I realised that someone had stolen one of my bags when I A. was getting to the taxi.; B. got to the taxi.; C. have got to the taxi. f. Can you remember what A. you were doing five years ago today?; B. you did five years ago today?; C. you have been doing five years ago today? g. This is my new suit. Do you think it A. suited me? B. suits me? C. has suited me? h. Cleo! I didn’t expect to see you here. What A. are you doing in London? B. were you doing in London? C. have you done in London? i. I simply can’t understand what

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A. you are waiting for; B. you wait for; C. you will wait for.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the appropriate tense: a. Nu ştiu bine timpurile. b. Am încercat să-ţi telefonez toată ziua. Unde ai fost? c. Sunt căsătoriţi de zece ani. d. Era o femeie atât de bună încât toată lumea o iubea. e. Uite! Ţi-ai rupt tricoul. f. Am petrecut revelionul la ţară acum doi ani. g. Nimeni nu are voie să plece acasă până nu terminăm proiectul. h. De multă vreme nu mai ninge mult iarna. i. În ziua următoare şi-au continuat călătoria. j. Ai recunoscut-o pe fata care stătea lângă tine la cinema? k. Are maşina de două luni. Soţul ei i-a dăruit-o de întâi martie. l. L-ai văzut pe John? Da, ieri a trecut pe la noi. m. George locuia cu mama lui când aceasta a murit. n. Ploua cu găleata de trei ore când ne-am întors acasă. o. Ce făceai când a venit Maria la tine?

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. have taken; have been; have been; handicap; appeared; has grown; work; came; rose; remained; tend; work; was; came; were 2. a. I have been waiting all morning. b. I didn’t know what I would do next. c. I haven’t been to Paris since 1998. d. As you arrive, go to the registration desk. e. Mary and John will get married next weekend. f. I was going to tell you about it earlier. g. I didn’t use to play tennis in those days. h. Whom does the car belong to? i. Once your brother has got over his illness, his work will get better. 3. a. A; b. A; c. C; d. C; e. B; f. A; g. B.; h. A; i. A 4. a. I don’t know the tenses well. b. I have been trying to call you all day. Where have you been? c. They have been married for ten years. d. She was such a kind woman that everybody loved her. e. Look here! You’ve torn your T-shirt. f. We spent New Year’s Eve in the countryside last year. g. Nobody is allowed to go home until we have finished the project. h. It hasn’t snowed anymore in winter for a long time.

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i. The next day he went on his trip. j. Have you recognised the girl sitting next to you at the cinema? k. She has had this car for two months. Her husband gave it to her in March. l. Have you seen John? Yes, he called on us yesterday. m. George was living with his mother when this one died. n. It had been raining cats and dogs for three hours when we came back home. o. What were you doing when Mary came to you?

Score: 1. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 4. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points

Mary: Well. John: That sounds nice. Mary: What are you doing with that pear? John: I am going to pare it. I don't want it in the picture. I am still working on your face. It is coming out great! I think I am at my artistic peak. Fred agrees to pose for his wife.English Practical Course 79 Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Indefinite Pronouns © Personal Pronouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. . and then I am going to eat it. put it down. Read the following dialogues. Pay attention to the use of homophones. I don't want you to see the painting until the whole thing is done. John: It feels like I have been sitting here for hours. John: Can't you just leave a hole where the pear is and fill it in later? I am hungry. John: Are we still going to that inn in Vermont this weekend to celebrate our anniversary? Mary: Certainly! I bought a pair of tickets for a dinner show there on Saturday night. who wants to paint his portrait. Dialogue 1: The Portrait In honour of John and Mary's wedding anniversary. When can I take a peek? Mary: Sit still.

Bruce: That's correct! Hey. I would hate to have lost that right before our anniversary! Dialogue 2: The Carnival Tammy and Bruce are spending the afternoon at a carnival. Let's see if he can guess their weights. and he weighs one-seventy. good. look! There are Stan and Judy. I can guess just by looking at you. They're good sports.) means "entire. you two! Do you want me to guess your weight? Whether you are fat or thin. too! Tammy: I'll go get them. Carnival worker: Hey. Oh. either. I am having so much fun! This is ideal weather for a carnival. The sign says he can even guess what size you wear. Tammy: Okay.80 English Practical Course Mary: Okay. it's on the table. yet they have different spellings and meanings: HOLE and WHOLE: A hole (n. You took it off to paint." . Ways with Words 1. Tammy: I am so glad we came today. Where do you want to go next? Tammy: Look! That guy over there will guess your weight. no! Where is my wedding ring? I hope it didn't go down the drain when I was wringing out those rags! John: No. total. Bruce: There's no wait to see him. Guess.) is "an empty space. we'll take a break. Bruce: I agree. The following are examples of easily confused homophones. These words are pronounced identically. Mary: Oh. Let's go to his booth. Carnival worker: You weigh one hundred and thirty-seven pounds." Whole (adj. Practice these dialogues.

" A pear (n. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? .) means "to have an item of clothing or an object on one's body. TOO.) means "to pause or linger.) is "the measurement of heaviness." Now practise these homographs in sentences of your own." RING and WRING: A ring (n.) means "at a certain place.) is "a cardinal number." Ring (v." Whether (conj. " Too (adv.) is "a summit or climax. and PEAR: A pair (n. THERE." PEEK and PEAK: Peek (v." WAIT and WEIGHT: To wait (v.) means "also.) is "a small hotel.English Practical Course 81 IN and INN: In (prep." A peak (n.'" An inn (n." They're is "a contraction of ''they are.) is "a fruit.) refers to "the climate conditions." WEAR and WHERE: Wear (v." THEIR. and TWO: To (prep.) means "to sneak a quick look at something." PAIR.) is "the possessive form of ''they. PARE.) means "two matched or corresponding things. " TO." Two (n." To wring (v.) is "the opposite of ''from." Weight (n. " There (adv.) is "a circular object with a hole in the middle.) means "to strike something for the purpose of creating a sound.) means " to peel." To pare (v.) is used "to introduce two or more alternatives. and THEY'RE: Their (pron.) refers to "the location of something." Where (adv. such as a bell.) means "the opposite of 'out." WEATHER and WHETHER: Weather (n.) means "to twist something.

They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant. not at all. Why was the doctor angry? . didn’t you? Johnny: No. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. Driver: Oh dear. Customer: I don’t care what it was. The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. The waiter asks him to pay. Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. because there is a play on words. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. you drink. he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. Read the following children’s jokes. sir. Johnny. I want to know what it is now.82 English Practical Course 2.

3. give your right arm – to be willing to do anything to get or do something at arm’s length – if you hold something at arm’s length.English Practical Course 83 Because he had no patients. 3. plan. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word face. the wife tells her husband not to be hurried.faced etc – having a face that has a particular shape or colour serious-faced/ grim-faced etc – showing a particular expression on your face face to face – if two people are face to face. you hold it away from your body as long as your arm – (informal) a list or written document that is as long as your arm . What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Arm arm in arm – if you walk arm in arm with somebody. as she still needs to work on his portrait. She says: I am still working on your face.faced/ round. and the other is heir to the throne. Face pale. etc. they are very close and in front of each other put a brave face (on) – to make an effort to behave in a happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. you are walking next to them with your arm in theirs welcome somebody/something with open arms – to show that you are happy to see somebody or eager to accept an idea. In the first dialogue.

especially because you do not trust them to do things properly clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something – to see somebody or something. – having long ears be all ears – (informal) to be very keen to hear someone is going to tell you smile/grin etc from ear to ear – to show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling so much give somebody a thick ear – (British English informal) to hit someone go in (at) one ear and out (at) the other – (informal) if information goes in one ear and out the other. used especially when you are surprised or shocked the naked eye – if you can see something with the naked eye. you forget it as soon as you have heard it keep your/an ear to the ground – to make sure that you always know what is happening in a situation Eye blue eyed/ one-eyed/bright-eye/ wide eyed etc – having blue eyes. one eye. you look directly at them and they look directly at you run/cast eye over something – to look at something quickly without reading it in detail keep your eye on something/somebody – to look after someone or something and make sure they are safe keep you eyes open/peeled – (spoken) to carefully watch for anything . you can see it without using any artificial help such as telescope or microscope be all eyes – to watch carefully what is happening or what someone is doing eye contact – if you have eye contact with someone.84 English Practical Course Ear long-eared/ short-eared etc. bright eyes. eyes that are wide open etc have/keep an eye on somebody – to be carefully watching everything that someone does.

of good quality in the eyes of the law/ the world/ the police etc – in the opinion or judgment of the law. Grammar Reference Indefinite Pronouns some/any. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. so that you drop or break things have a finger in every pie – an expression meaning to be involved in many activities and have influence over them. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. valuable. usually used when you are pleased about it. delicate fingers Practise them in sentences of your own. the police one in the eye for – (British English) a defeat or disappointment for someone else. a lot of/ lots of.English Practical Course 85 have eyes in the back of your head – to know what is happening all around you. Finger not lift/ raise a finger – not to make any effort to help someone with their work keep your fingers crossed – to hope that something will happen the way you want be all fingers and thumbs – (British English) to use your hands in an awkard or careless way. used especially when you think someone has too much influence twist/wrap somebody around your little finger – to be able to persuade someone to do anything that you want long-fingered/delicate-fingered etc –having long. . the world. much/many. even when this might seem impossible have a (good) eye for something – to be good at noticing and recognizing what is attractive.

Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited him when she deserted him 3. The Personal Pronoun The nominative.86 English Practical Course Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. He’s got a lot of money. but only with a singular noun: There is some chocolate in this cake. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. Is there any water in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house. We only need a little money to buy this. Form . 4. There’s a lot of mineral water in my fridge. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. 2. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many geologists work for this company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields. There are lots of books in this library.

nobody. The doctor! Send for (he) at once. He takes much interest in (you). − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. anybody. f. Please. Listen to (she). h. look for it while I am away. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled Practice 1. everybody: .English Practical Course 87 Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she Plural we you they it The accusative/The dative. g. Will you let (they) to come to your anniversary? e. d. Fill in the personal pronoun in the accusative or dative (required by prepositions): a. b. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody. I’ll call for (they) when I think they forgot our little misunderstanding. Will you give (I) permission to go home earlier? c. The old man asked (he) what the time was.

e.. b. can tell you how mistaken you are. …. from the French department.. They are not difficult at all. There must be the cleaning woman you sent for.. …… were there but listened to what she had to say. During a good performance of the actors …. just …….. little. Do you have any questions? Just …… c. I’m sorry. We haven’t heard of …. Ask …. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. g... Fill in the indefinite pronouns: much. j. many. Can …… help me with this? m. …. came an hour ago and left this parcel for Mary. who didn’t pass the English exam. h.knows that the semester will finish in June. k. few. should know these rules. like him. b. is knocking at the door. He didn’t give me too …… trouble. …. speaks.. d. a little. if they have come back from Italy. l. …. I have never seen …. My knowledge in this field is very poor. ….88 English Practical Course a. f. a few: a.. She was talking and …… was listening to what she was saying... has to open the door for him! i... …. . Ask …. c.

i. e. difficult. g.. Se pare că i-a cucerit pe toţi. darn nu-mi amintesc cu siguranţă când.. There wasn’t …… sugar left. Toată lumea o iubeşte. We only need …. Aş vrea să ştiu câţi studenţi au picat la acest examen. d. Are there many mistakes in her test paper? No. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. I-am dat cuiva cartea.English Practical Course 89 d. just …. j. Nu este nevoie de foarte mult vin la friptură. totul se va rezolva. c. Translate into English: a. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. I’ve got …. There is plenty of information here but …… has been read. g. problems to solve. Aş vrea puţin zahăr în cafea. Mi-a fost decernat premiul Uniunii Scriitorilor acum trei ani. but we finally managed. Despite the unfavourable weather …… did come to the meeting. aşa că s-a retras din cursă. e. te rog. h. h. Este prea amară. Mulţi elevi aşteaptă vacanţa cu nerăbdare. money to buy this. so I couldn’t make a coffee. Lui i s-a părut că ceva nu este în regulă. Cu puţină răbdare. The problem was …….. b. f. i..

90 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .

and had never known anything of the matter. we should never rise more. or troubles on shore. went very high.English Practical Course 91 Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous © The Imperative •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. no. and in this agony of mind I made many vows of resolutions. if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again. who was but a young sailor. go home to my father. though nothing like what I have seen many times since. which I had never been upon before. as I thought. . Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life. I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up. Underline the verbs which are used in Past Perfect: All this while the storm increased. in the trough or hollow of the sea. and that every time the ship fell down. and I resolved that I would. that I would take his advice. And never had I been exposed to tempests at sea. how comfortably he had lived all his days. that if it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage. and the sea. how easy. nor like what I saw a few days after. I would go directly home to my father. and never set it into a ship again while I lived. But it was enough to affect me then. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. like a true repenting prodigal.

" “A storm. who had indeed enticed me away. you fool you. d’you call it?” said I. and indeed some time after. last night. the sun went down perfectly clear. and I began to be a little inured to it. Bob. However. comes to me: “Well.” says he. when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful. looking with wonder upon the sea that was so wrought and terrible the day before. I was very grave for all that day. let us make a bowl of punch. Look at the following sentence belonging to this unit: I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up… Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe.” replied he. the sun shining upon it. “do you call that a storm? Why. and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. give us but a good ship and sea-room. the sight was. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” Ways with Words 1. being also a little sea-sick still. Come. the wind was quite over. “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted. give us but a good ship and sea-room. but towards night the weather cleared up. it was nothing at all. as I thought. And now lest my good resolutions should continue. the most delightful that ever I saw.92 English Practical Course These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm continued. and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer. and a charming fine evening followed. wa’n’t you. I had slept well in the night. and was now no more sea-sick but very cheerful. and rose so the next morning. and a smooth sea. . and we’ll forget all that. Bob. clapping me on the shoulder. and having little or no wind. and we think nothing at all. my companion. It was a terrible storm. but you’re but a fresh-water sailor.

2. to cause to do or be. to establish. to make over = a transfera. to perform (an action).English Practical Course 93 that much = cam atât. and we’ll forget all that. a ceda. to make for = a contribui. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. Among other meanings of the verb to make. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” In this sentence to make means to produce. let us make a bowl of punch. din aceastã cauzã. to bring about or produce. we may mention: to create. to earn. to make believe = a face sã creadã. to make out = a înţelege. sã. to make it possible = a face posibil. like that (just like that) = aşa. a (se) pregãti. Read this sentence again: Come. Try to make up sentences in which to express each of its meanings. to serve as or become. to amount to. for all that = cu toate acestea. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. a demonstra. to make do = a se descurca cu o soluţie alternativă inferioară. in order that = pentru ca. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. to construct. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. . to make ready = a fi gata. a redacta. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. that is to say = adicã. a profita la maximum de. to make it clear = a clarifica.

Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. a pretinde ca şi cum. to make sure of = a se asigura de. to do an experiment to do one’s best to do a course to do the donkey work to do sbd. a închide etanş. a termina. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. a etanşeiza. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. with your eyes closed to do harm to do the shopping to do wonders to do the washing-up to have sth.94 English Practical Course to make a stand = a se opune. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. to make tight = a ermetiza. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. a finaliza. but there are lots of exceptions: e. a good turn/ a favour to do sth. a face ceva repede. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. to make use of = a întrebuinţa.g. to do with . Generally speaking make is used with the meaning of create or produce and do with the meaning of carry out an action. a face ca şi cum.

fun of.……. ……...a difference. your bed. .. a wish. an appointment.…….……. …….. ...……. ……. Past Perfect Simple It is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the students who had failed this exam four times? He had read his lecture before he went to university.……. an effort. …. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 he had written books for five years...…….. . trouble.. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she done? had had not (hadn’t) left.……. a mistake.. an excuse. a fuss. your best. .. . . .…. . a phone call. sense. 4. a cup of tea. someone a favour. He had lived in this flat since he was born. a mess. . ….…….…….... Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.sure...……. .up your mind.. Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. ……. .…….English Practical Course 95 Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.. the shopping.a noise.……. …. my homework.. . . .

I hadn’t. he had. They had been living for generations in that house. he hadn’t. I had. . Past Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an action which started in the past before the time of speaking in the past and still going on at that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. No. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (v +-ing). Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? been working on by that time.96 English Practical Course we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. No.

/ She counted out the money./ She looked at my cheque. (emphatic. she gave it to me. (ordinary. b. After she had counted the money. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. They can also be used in other parts of the sentence without inversion. no sooner. In contexts containing no sooner. The tourists got out of the coach. I hadn’t. No. Decide the order in which these things happened. The prisoner ran across the yard. Hardly had I entered the room when the phone started to ring. hardly. scarcely. conversational English) In contexts containing hardly/ scarcely/ barely./ He jumped out of the window./ He climbed over the wall./ They got back in the coach./ They took photos. a. the connector between the two clauses is than: No sooner had the band begun to play when the electricity was cut off. I had.English Practical Course 97 Yes. Note that certain adverbs and adverb phrases (e. rhetorical construction) / I had hardly entered the room when the phone started to ring. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me. .g. the connector between the two clauses is when: Hardly/ Scarcely/ Barely had they got out of the house when it started to rain. not only) are followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary verb when they are used at the beginning of the sentence. Controlled Practice 1 1. she counted the money.

când am aflat cã avusese un accident de maşină. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. e. Translate into English: a./ He put the wheel back on. c. The reporter wrote a report on the accident./ She wrapped it. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni. b. d. Îl aşteptam de o orã./ She showed it to me./ She went to the scene of the accident.98 English Practical Course c. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Use the simple past. e. or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write). . Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d./ He took the wheel off the car. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2./ She interviewed the people there. The mechanic put a new tyre on. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was.

Tom went out. after. . before. h. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. hardly. Connect the following sentences using until. b. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. 4. so we (decide) to go to bed. Then the pupils entered the classroom. c. The bell rang. The teacher corrected all the compositions. It was getting late. etc. I (write) for five hours. i. Then his colleague looked for him. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and aspect (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous) : a. Use the simple past and the past perfect as appropriate: a. Then he went home. c. Alice said “Enter”. d. It (be midnight). g. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. No wonder I (be) so tired. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. She told me his name after he (leave). d. e. Then he opened the door. e. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. The phone started to ring. Then Susan answered it. f.English Practical Course 99 b. no sooner.

a command. a greeting. When he finally reached London. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. Let's not open the door. Affirmative Get ready! Negative Don’t get ready! Start working! Don’t start working! For the first and second person together. a piece of advice. the concert already (begin). we (dig) in the garden for an hour. a threat. He just (leave) home when he came across John. or an instruction: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. f. use let's (let us): Let's open the door. When it started to rain.100 English Practical Course b. h. i. a wish. j. She didn’t even say “thank you” after all I (do) for her. a request. When I arrived. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. c. (Negative command) Only a few groups of words may precede the imperative verb: • adverbs of frequency: . d. Grammar Reference 2 The Imperative It is a mood which expresses an order. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. After I (hear) the news. I congratulated him. e. g. he was tired because he (travel) for three days.

i. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. mai ai doar cinci minute! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Vino. Will and would are used for polite requests: Would (will) you open the door.English Practical Course 101 Always open the door slowly. e. Don't ever open the door to strangers. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. Translate the following into English: a. please? Controlled Practice 2 1. doamnã! f. Grăbeşte-te. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. h. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. te rog. Nu pleca. open the door. Luaţi loc. c. pentru că nu am terminat ce am de spus! Haide cu mine să-ţi arăt ce ai putut să faci! g. pentru că o să-ţi pară rău. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. j. vã rog. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã folosesc şi eu computerul pentru a formata niste dischete. • • nouns of address: subject pronouns Jane. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. Don't you open the door.

f.102 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. i. h. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. Give the waiter your order. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. j. because English people are never late. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. g. Show me the letter. Pass me the salt. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. e. Be on time. please. Come here! b. Lend Ann your skates. Throw the ball to John. Make the following sentences negative: a.

one way. the little magic bottle had now had its full effect. “It was much pleasanter at home.English Practical Course 103 Unit 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Future Simple © Future Continuous © Be going to Future © Other Ways of Expressing Future •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Louis Carroll.” thought Alice.always to have lessons to learn! Oh.” “But then. this sort of life! I do wonder what can have happened to me! When I used to read fairy tales. you know. as there seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room again. that there ought! And when I grow up.” thought poor Alice.never to be an old woman. “shall I never get any older than I am now? That’ll be a comfort. and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable. and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me.but then. you foolish Alice” . “when one wasn’t always growing larger and smaller. I’ll write one. I almost wish I hadn’t gone down that rabbit-hole. and.and yet. and being ordered about by mice and rabbits. I shouldn’t like that!” “Oh.but I’m grown up now.and yetit’s rather curious. no wonder she felt unhappy. I fancied that kind of thing never happened.” she added in a sorrowful tone: “at least there’s no room to grow up any more here. Underline the future tenses of the verbs: Luckily for Alice.

Read the sentence: And so she went on. taking first one side and then the other. astfel încât. but after a few minutes she heard a voice outside. cu ajutorul. în mãsura în care. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. 2. and no room at all for any lesson-books!” And so she went on. Ways with Words 1. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. there’s hardly room for you. by the way = apropo. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea.never to be an old woman. in this way = în acest mod. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. .104 English Practical Course she answered herself. the expression one way as is translated by pe de o parte. so far as = întrucât. pânã în prezent. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. so it seems = aşa se pare.always to have lessons to learn!. taking first one side and then the other. ca sã zicem aşa.but then. so far = pânã acum. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. one way. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. and stopped to listen. în calitate de. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. In the sentence: That’ll be a comfort. “How can you learn lessons in here? Why. so much = atât de mult.

to give way to = a ceda la. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary.English Practical Course 105 in every way = în toate privinţele. a face carierã. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. Grammar Reference Future Simple It is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. . under way = în curs de. in one way = într-un fel. Note that: Will is normally known as the predictive future. This can also take the form of an assumption: That’ll be John coming so early at the party. The company will make a profit next year. way ahead = mult înainte. and describes known facts. way above = mult deasupra. in a general way = în genere/ în general. I shall be thirty next year. way below = mai jos. or what we suppose is true. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. I’ll be late at school this morning. way off = la o bunã distanţã.

I shall. we stay inside. They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday.106 English Practical Course This means that I suppose that it is John. not forms of Future simple): e. help him? . We use will and shall in many other ways. Will is also used to express an immediate decision: I’ll take this one.g. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me. apart from predicting the future (in this case they are modal verbs.) 2. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me. Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future. When it rains. I’ll be grateful to you.

Note that in some contexts it sounds more polite than will Will you be going to the shops later? If you do. How long are they going to stay here? She isn’t going to attend this Grammar course.English Practical Course 107 Note: No. could you get some bananas? Come round in the morning. . Future Continuous • • describes an event which will be happening at a future point refers to events which are going to happen anyway. I’ll be working on my project. particularly with the verbs go and come. Be Going to Future It is used • to express a future decision. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. She’s coming on Monday. • refers to fixed arrangements and plans The singers will be performing live in Washington Square this month. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. I’m going home. intention. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. because I’ll be calling into the office anyway to see if you are there. it may mean I don’t want to help you. rather than events which we choose to make happen: I won’t bother to look for you in advance. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t.

Form -the verb to be in Present +to +infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. They Interrogative When Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes. am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? Future Simple or Be Going to? Look at the use of the Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. No. What language shall I learn? Er.. I am.) . (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking.. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. I’m not. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). I know.108 English Practical Course • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. Watch out! The box is going to fall.

I am on the point of moving to another company. You won’t have heard the rumours about their engagement.English Practical Course 109 Other Ways of Referring to the Future • be about to. we’ll be leaving. be due to Be about to and be on the point of both refer to the next moment I think it is about to rain. By the end of the month. Be due to refers to scheduled times The flight is due at 5:54 p. be on the point to. • can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. and refers to time which we look back at from a future point: In two years’ time I’ll have finished my PhD thesis. of course. calendar references use the present simple. • present simple and present perfect Present simple is used to refer to future time in future time clauses When we get there. I’ll have been working for him for fifteen years. Future Perfect • has both simple and continuous forms. Christmas is on Wednesday next year. Similarly.m. • present simple is used to describe fixed events which are not simply the wishes of the speaker I retire next year. . we’ll have dinner. This means I assume you haven’t heard the rumours. Present perfect can also be used instead of present simple when the completion of the event is emphasised When we’ve finished the work. The cocktail party is due to start at 7.

so I’m afraid you should leave the compartment. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. expect.110 English Practical Course Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense is formed by the future perfect of the verb to be and the present active participle of the main verb: It emphasizes the duration of one event taking place before another event in the future: In May 2000. Spectacolul nu va începe până la ora 5. c. • just/ just about to Just can be used to describe something which is on the point of happening The train is just leaving/ is just about to leave. Va deveni necesar sã citim mai mult de acum încolo. Crezi cã veţi ajunge la spectacol în timp util? f. our family will have been living here for 30 years. I doubt that you will have the time to see all these places in a single day. . Îţi voi telefona imediat ce ajung la hotel. • hope followed by either present or future tense I hope you’ll come and see me when you are in London. Translate into English: a. b. g. Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference (believe. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. Other future references • other verbs followed by will. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. think) I think the plane will be late. e. doubt. Controlled Practice: 1. d.

“My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. hurry up or we’ll miss/ we will have missed the train. Come on. d. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. Dacă va întreba cineva de mine. Sper că ne veţi ajuta să reparăm calculatorul. . Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you.English Practical Course 111 h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. te rog să-i rogi să mă sune după ora 6. j.” b.” f. c. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. g. i. Ei nu ştiu când vor pleca. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on a trip to the mountains. Maria is going to be/ will be thirty-three next month so she will organise/ is going to organise a party. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e.

h. Why don’t you come with us? A. The trip will be great. Hurry up! The play (start). The trip is going to be great. Will you be going/ will you go to the market later? If you go. j. When we (get) there. It’s only an hour’s travel. It’s my twenty-ninth birthday next month so I (have) a party. d. g. I (go) out for half an hour. . b. Maria is pregnant again. I (come back) very soon. 3. j. I (hope) it (not rain). Would you like to come? c. i. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. i. In twenty four hours’ time I’ll relax/ I’ll be relaxing on the beach. e. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense: a. That will be/ is Jim at the door.112 English Practical Course h. By the end of the month I (decide) what to do. or whether one is more appropriate. please buy some potatoes for lunch. f. She (have) twins. He is always late. a. I (be) long. we (call) you. What (you do) on Monday? I (have) tickets to a violin concert. B. We’re sure everything (be) all right in the end. Decide whether the pairs of sentences A and B could be equally acceptable in the context given.

I’ll watch TV. Sper că până se va întoarce fratele tău de la cules de căpşuni tu vei fi spălat toate rufele murdare. will you! A.30 ne vom îmbarca în autocarul spre Grecia.English Practical Course 113 b. What’ll you be doing in the evening? B. b. John ştie sigur că săptămâna viitoare când va începe şcoala. What are we doing now? B. I’m getting angry in a minute. What are you doing in the evening? d. Vor fi trecut şase ore de la ultimul atac dar apărătorii castelului tot nu se vor preda dacă nu li se vor împlini condiţiile. Mâine la ora 5. Ambasada va primi oaspeţii numai după ce aceştia vor fi percheziţionaţi. Să nu uiţi de aniversarea prietenilor tăi: pe 24 ale lunii următoare ei vor fi locuit în această casă de 10 ani. We’re run out of petrol. Are de gând să îl facă de râs în faţa clasei dacă nu va spune adevărul. e. Translate into English: a. Suntem înspăimântaţi de faptul că furtuna nu se va opri până diseară pe la şase. g. I’d like to pay you a short visit. c. B. B. A. f. . c. vărul său va studia un manual de biologie umană. I’m going to get angry in a minute. h. e. toţi prietenii tăi îţi vor pregăti o pedeapsă proporţională cu vina. i. A. d. Când tu îţi vei face de cap în barul acela infect mâine. What are we going to do now? 5. I’ve got no homework for tomorrow so A. Cred sincer că pe vremea asta săptămâna viitoare mă voi uita în sfârşit la HBO. Stop that. I’m going to watch TV. j.

Când mama se va întoarce de la ţară. micuţul John va fi cântat la vioară de cel puţin 3 ore. jurnaliştii vor inventa tot felul de întrebări care l-ar putea pune pe acesta în dificultate. m. l.114 English Practical Course k. În timp ce preşedintele va ţine un discurs despre legea dreptului de autor. Suntem prieteni de o viaţă şi ne-am hotărât: o să cumpărăm împreună casa aceea de la munte şi o s-o transformăm în azil pentru bătrâni. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

Why did he not tell it? His father. must be a magistrate too like Saurin’s father and Nasty Roche’s father.English Practical Course 115 Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment belonging to James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. He thought of his own father. Look for those verbs which are used in the passive voice. You could know the people of that time by their old dress. Then why was he sent to that place with them? But his father had told him that he would be no stranger there because his granduncle had presented in address to the liberator there fifty years before. who kept the racehorses. . It seemed to him a solemn time: and he wondered if that was the time when the fellows in Clongowes wore blue coats with brass buttons and yellow waistcoats and caps of rabbitskin and drank beer like grownup people and kept greyhounds of their own to course the hares with. of how he sang songs while his mother played and of how he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence and he felt sorry for him that he was not a magistrate like the other boys’ fathers. Translate the text into Romanian.

month. Try to think of the sentence […] he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence […]... nobody will lend him any money. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. . having a personal bank account. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. 2. year. When Mr Michael retired he received a . Now think of words connected to money. the Stock Market. a monthly statement. century. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. b. d. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. Pierre is very worried because he is in ……….. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. a cheque card. to buy shares in a company.116 English Practical Course Ways with Words 1. When she started with the company her ………….. a deposit account. to put money in. saving and investing money.. year. For example a word set of the word time may include among other words: day. to cash a cheque. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. a current account. to earn 15% interest.. a building society. In this way you may create a word set. a mortgage.. was only $ 1000 a year. Now it’s at least four times that.. Word sets. c. e. etc..………… of $ 100 a month.

to look at. PASSIVE VOICE Houses are painted (by him). His house was painted. to look after. his His house is being painted. He had painted his His house had been painted. TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Present Conditional Perfect ACTIVE VOICE He paints houses. house. Form: the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense as the active verb + the past participle of the lexical verb. . He has painted his His house has been painted. He would have painted It would have been painted. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the passive voice such as: to have. to hold. He was painting his His house was being painted. to send for. He will paint his His house will be painted. house. He will have painted it. house. house. to possess. etc.English Practical Course 117 Grammar Reference The Passive Voice The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. etc. It will have been painted. to resemble. He would paint his His house would be painted. house. He is painting house. to attend to. He painted his house. to speak to.

their houses.118 English Practical Course Conditional Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Gerund it. He should paint his His house should be painted. asking him to paint paint houses. . hear. • When we avoid the naming of a specific person who is responsible for the action: All the cakes have been eaten (instead of: You have eaten all the cakes). Further Points on the Passive Voice • • Make. Use: • When the person who performs the action (agent) can easily be understood or is unknown: He has been arrested (by the police). Perfect Gerund He remembers paint her house. ~ It is thought that the factory went bankrupt/ The factory is thought to have gone bankrupt. • When we are interested in the action itself rather than the person who performs it: I was advised to save the files once in a while (by my friend). He He should enjoys have It should have been painted. Let becomes was/were allowed to in the passive or is followed by a reflexive pronoun+bare/short passive infinitive. My bag has been stolen. house. help are followed by to+infinitive in the passive. people He enjoys being asked to painted it. Jane He remembers having been having asked him to asked to paint Jane’s house. see. • When it is necessary to express something more formally: People think that the factory went bankrupt.

buy. bring. teach. / Some money was given to me. They can’t repair the building. / It is believed that she is a spy. / I was given some money. • Verbs followed by a certain preposition take the preposition immediately after them when put into the passive voice. / The building can’t be repaired. report. etc have two passive forms. believe. • Prepositional verbs of movement when turned into the passive voice change to other synonymous verbs which take no preposition. know. This notion is based on a misconception. / She is . give. • Verbs which take two objects such as allow. tell. Don’t let him trick you. He gave me some money. We change the active infinitive into passive infinitive. write. • The passive voice with verbs of reporting such as assume. / America was reached (NOT arrived in) by Columbus in 1492. lend. • Many passive voice sentences do not have an active voice counterpart: Shakespeare was born at Stratford. / The room was entered (NOT gone into) by the Royal couple. feel. Columbus arrived in America in 1492. consider. / Don’t let yourself be tricked. • Modals do not change in the passive voice. think.English Practical Course 119 She let me go. / I was allowed to go. It + passive verb + that-clause Subject +passive verb + to-infinitive They believe she is a spy. The Royal couple went into the room arm in arm. She accused me of lying / I was accused of lying. pay. ask. say. understand etc is formed in two ways: • • believed to be a spy.

she never stops. Causative Forms • Have +object +past participle is used to suggest that we are instructing someone to do something for us. Once you get her talking about her children. See if you can get Mary to help us with our homework. I’ll have my car repaired. • Some sentences cannot be passivized. These are sentences where the object is: (a) a reflexive pronoun: John has been washing himself for hours. • Have/get + object +past participle can also be used to replace a passive verb usually describing an accident or a misfortune. Also: get moving. The teacher got the students to write the sentence five times. (I’ll arrange for it to be done) Don’t have the files printed. get going (without an object) • Want and need + object + past participle indicate that you would like or need something to be done . (b) a reciprocal pronoun: We can hardly see each other in the dark room. (c) a possessive pronoun: The teacher shook his head and sighed. The manager had the secretary type 20 letters. • Get +object + to infinitive means make or persuade somebody to do something. • Get + object + present participle (-ing) is used informally to mean make somebody / something start doing something. • Have + object + bare infinitive is used for giving instructions and orders. please. He had/got his car stolen.120 English Practical Course It is alleged that the thief was caught.

d. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã structura acestei lucrări. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. I need the reports checked. (I am doing it myself) The Passive Voice: The room is being decorated. Controlled Practice 1. e. b. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. Translate the following sentences into English: a. what interests us is the room) Causative: I am having the room decorated. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. g. • Compare: The Active Voice: I’m decorating the room. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. Mi s-au furat banii. h. c. Doctorul a fost chemat.English Practical Course 121 I want the room cleaned. i. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. (Someone else is doing it but the agent is not important. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea.

John can’t have done this. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. Children had cast stones. When no agent is given supply one: a. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000.122 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. d. e. People in my town built this hospital last year. b. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Who drew this picture? b. AIDS is thought to be curable. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. e. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. c. d. When was your car stolen? c.

j. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. i. Complete the sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the passive tense suggested at the end of the sentence: .. Mary is said ……………………………………………………. The child …………………………………………………. f. g. d. They say that Mary is difficult to work with. Tickets ……………………………………………………………. Please turn off the lights. After the bedroom…………………………………………. The coins ……………………………………………………. so that the meaning stays the same: a. I ……………………………………………………………………. What caused this error…………………………………………… h. e. The fight ……………………………………………………………. b. It is believed that the child was punished by his parents. 5. I’d rather you ………………………………………………. Somebody directed me at the wrong address. When we have finished decorating the bedroom.. The discovery of this new medicine is helping the fight against cancer. Ticket collectors work on the train on this line. c. John is thought ………………………………………………. we’ll paint the dining room. It is thought that the coins date from the Middle Ages. They have no idea what caused this error.English Practical Course 123 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Somebody punched John in the face at a volley match.

(modal verb) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6.124 English Practical Course a. (past perfect) d. My neighbour’s leg (not broken) if he hadn’t walked on ice. (perfect conditional) c. The girl who (bite) by a dog was given a serum. The army (instruct) to shoot if the enemy crosses the line. Mary (take) to the hospital by the end of the day. He strongly objected to (ask) about the accident. (future) g. b. Has the search for the stolen car (give up) yet? f. That person in the dock (let off) as it’s his first offence. (future perfect) j. Foreign coins (not put) in parking meters in this part of the country. d. A great deal of effort (make) lately to avoid a war with that country. The escaped man (arrest) a week later. Something (do) if we want to rescue the rest of the crew. (present continuous) h. Many block-of-flats (build) in the neighbourhood. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct Passive Voice form: a. I was surprised to find out that you (get paid) twice in the same week. c. Many of Bucharest’s important buildings (destroy) by the earthquake in 1977. Very few criminals (catch) if the population didn’t offer information. g. (present perfect) e.(past) b. . Would she go to the cinema if she was to (invite)? f. The police (instruct) to take firm action against beggars on the street. I’m sure. e. John (think) to have broken that precious vase in the living room. h. (gerund) i.

Windows (…) on the inside to prevent the wind from breaking them. She doesn’t remember her purse (…) by the thief. Who (…) you by at the hospital? j. It was the first time. p. A lot of money (…) from a German bank two years ago. i. m. b. o. l. The giraffe (…) to the zoo when it escaped. The red car (rev up) ready for the policemen to start chasing the thieves. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. All the persons in the room (…) for drugs. Safes (…) not often by amateurs. f. The police (…) in hearing from anyone who saw a 10-year-old child in front of the shop yesterday. Use one of the Passive forms of a suitable verb in each of the following sentences: a. e. Could violence (control) less effectively if the police didn’t carry guns? j. g. n. Money (…) always in the bank for interest. The carpet in your room (…) with orange juice. A sharp instrument (…) the old man. k. They (…) a five year sentence by the High Court Judge. When capital punishment (…) in Romania? .English Practical Course 125 i. c. (…) the reward to those who saved Jane? h. The lock (…) and the window (…) by the police. my sister never (…) by the customs before. d.

George’s watch has disappeared from the table where he left it. Will the new laws … … j. Complete the sentences using a suitable Passive Voice verb and any necessary phrases: a. The customs officers (arrest him) if he tries to leave the country. b. £ 20. They (check the documents) before the case comes up next month. the cars … … b. Shoplifting is on the increase. I (vaccinate my child) against all the possible diseases when he was one year old. There’ll be a big check at the customs tomorrow. d. The room looks different. e. c. My window is open instead of closed.000 worth of merchandise … … d. The house was found in a terrible condition. it … … c. all the people from the Middle East … … e. The evidence that one of the accused gave … … g. . There was a dreadful accident and all the cars … … 9. all the rooms … … i. Look at that man’s green hair! He (dye it). It’s very foggy tonight. They (repaint it). f.126 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Father (fit the burglar alarm) because his house had been broken into. Use the Passive form with the verb to have in the following sentences: a. the lock …… h. He insisted that our neighbour … … f.

using the Passive form with either have or need: a. Your back window squeaks. The car is covered in mud. Complete the following sentences. The so-called poet did not write the poem himself. so he (clean it) as soon as possible. This is quite bizarre! There are many questions that … … e. It … … b. i. j. Complete the following passage with the correct Passive forms: . There are many errors in your paper. The roof is unsafe. Your hair seems shorter.English Practical Course 127 g. Before we buy the mansion. She is not quite sure but she thinks she (steal the money) in the train. Have you … …? f. Their washing-machine is working again. he … … g. It … … c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Someone (clean the kitchen) when mother arrived. They … … 11. You … … j. I don’t think these translations are accurate. You can’t take your luggage into the shop unless you … … d. we should make sure that we … … h. don’t you think they … …? i. You shouldn’t (repair the sink) before the plumber had examined it. h.

‘It is sad’. the criminal always gets (catch) after all. he had his hair (cut) once a month. Besides he was rich. But then. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . It was entirely in his character that he had made up his mind to get rid of his uncle. Indeed. He was known as being a methodical man. but the important thing is to make it look as if it (do) while I was away. His plans were (lay) with extreme precision. he was convinced that his crime wouldn’t ever (detect). John’s crime would probably never (discover) if it had not stopped raining just before he came home and if his uncle’s window had not (break) with a flower pot.128 English Practical Course When John Miller killed his uncle. and John was aware that his fortune (leave) to him. ‘that he has (kill) rather than die a natural death. He had not (employ) as an accountant for the past ten years without acquiring a passion for minute details. he needed (care for). John saw to it that it was (do). He didn’t even suppose inspector Thomson would guess that the ladder (put) outside the bedroom window after his uncle (murder). He was old. as John himself said to the inspector. his car (service) every three months. He had become a nuisance who should (remove) as quickly as possible. his desires had (consider). his wants (gratify). he told to himself. everything that in his ordinary life needed (do). His bills (pay) regularly.

No explanation had been given for his behaviour. The students in this University are always recommended to apply for these jobs. The library is well provided with books. d. f. b. k. The basement was flooded with water. e. My neighbour’s dog was run over by a truck. They are forbidden to enter this room. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . i. his remarks are being received with enthusiasm. The pen has been lost in the fire. It is reported that there has been an earthquake in the area. Tons of uranium have been stolen from this mine this year. You hate to be interrupted from your research. The problem will be dealt with I detail next week. h. g. All TV programs were suspended for nearly 6 hours. Change the following sentences into the Active Voice: a. m. l. j. c. As you see.English Practical Course 129 12.

You paid him that huge sum of money two days ago. Change the following intransitive verbs into the Passive Voice. g. They awarded the Best Actor Prize to George Clooney. I give my child two bars of chocolate a day. I told my parents the truth. My friends promised me immediate assistance. c.130 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. They have called for the mechanic to repair their car. The teacher may give us the results tonight. e. d. We showed them our newly. i. The doorman showed us the way to the bathroom. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. paying attention to the prepositions following the verbs: a.born child. j. The physician prescribed a bad medicine for the sick old man. George gave him a beautiful present. b. f. knowing that transitive verbs admit two passive constructions: a. h. .

h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. Translate into English: a. c. b. Nobody has lived in this haunted house for more than 50 years. You must look after your kid sister. your friends will laugh at you. Our parents often refer to him as being a wrong model for us. c. d. . g. Nobody objected to their suggestions. Don’t put on that pink shirt. The employer insists upon a strict discipline in all our work. d. e. Se recomandă o mai atentă cercetare a acestui proiect. These spoiled children do not listen to their parents. În acest local se vorbeşte numai limba spaniolă. The former enemies have arrived at an agreement after many years of discussion. i. Se construiesc din ce în ce mai multe şcoli în acest orăşel. The pupils will have to comment upon that poem. You spoke much about that young lady you had met a week before. otherwise your mother will scold you. j.English Practical Course 131 b. k. Orice defecţiune a maşinii se repară pe loc în acest atelier. f.

k. Gunoiul se încarcă numai marţea şi joia. n. g. S-a ajuns la bătaie după ce s-au certat toată ziua. I s-a oferit un post de director economic la cea mai puternică corporaţie din ţară. f. r. Se vor înfiinţa centre de ocrotire a minorilor. S-a anunţat o reducere semnificativă la articolele de îmbrăcăminte de iarnă. i. Se vor reface unele străzi din acest oraş după ce se va topi zăpada. Dacă fratele tău nu se va simţi mai bine. j. m. Ni s-a spus că pantalonii vor fi cusuţi în fabrica noastră. Se bea mult vin roşu la acest tip de petrecere. Mi s-a dat ocazia să-mi arăt talentul de compozitor.132 English Practical Course e. o. S-a ridicat nivelul apelor Dunării cu 3 cm. Turiştilor li s-a arătat un magazin cu lucruri foarte scumpe după ce acestora li se furaseră deja portofelele. l. Din păcate nu s-a ajuns la nici un acord final. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . q. Problema câinilor fără stăpân a fost dezbătută de mai multe ori săptămâna aceasta. p. s. Li se comunicase că dărâmarea prin implozie a acestei clădiri va fi făcută la mijlocul săptămânii următoare. în această seară se va trimite după doctor. h.

A freshman … … c. Mother added flour to the sauce and thickened it. My paper … … b. We watched the car … … h. Tom has earned several thousand dollars from his new book. The china cup … … i. This shirt … … g. The referee refused him permission to enter the game. My cousin’s child completely destroyed my paper. Tom’s new book… … e. We … … f. We watched my brother drive the car into the garage. The sauce … … j. I dropped the china cup and cracked it. Leaving this shirt in the rain has made it shrink. They’re buying a lot of copies of that volume of poetry. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it: a. She suggested we eat Mike’s new favourite meal. First prize was awarded to a freshman in our school. He … … d. .English Practical Course 133 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16.

g. Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase: a. Your decisions were rejected and you were (…) back down. The coffee maker is out of order but I’m (…) fixed tomorrow.134 English Practical Course That volume of poetry … … 17. d. Children can get (…) in by burglars going from house to house. The package is believed (…) delivered by some strange people. We (…) house broken into yesterday. He wants it to be clear to his friends that he’s honest. f. I must (…) to look at the wiring for me. George often tells his parents how much of his ill-luck is down to you. j. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. (heard) . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 18. but using the word given. e. Some of his neighbours are saying that he is selling marijuana. h. b. Jack is quite a difficult person. (rumoured) b. The issue was (…) been told where his wife disappeared. that’s something his friends will have (…) to. a. (seen) c. I suppose she needs (…) told to be careful with that acid solution. The lights in my room have been flickering for a while. i. They were (…) been given 15 more minutes to complete the test. c.

The rain forced our weekend trip to be cancelled. (aback) o. (borne) u. I don’t like very much my mother scolding me in front of my friends. (repeated) f. There were thousands of strikers in the yard of the factory. (swamped) n. His latest article about unemployment came in for sharp criticism in this newspaper. Since we won the prize. As a kid. His grandmother underwent a three-hour operation to remove the brain tumour that had been diagnosed. (pilloried) r. (due) g. Our teachers don’t want any repetition of such a ridiculous behaviour again. It’s not difficult at all for Ben to copy the paper from his colleague. (overcome) v. (had) j. (copied) m. (get) i. Janine’s answer took the audience by surprise. She couldn’t find her way out of the labyrinth. we’ve had more telephone calls than we can deal with. (dwarfed) q. The plan was originally to complete the task by 3 o’clock. (conferred) . The House of Parliament is the tallest building in the area. (addressed) t. (let) h. (fallen) e. (having) l. Mary was not allowed to play with matches.English Practical Course 135 d. Subtracting is something one takes for granted after a while. Never forget that friends will be friends. (rained) p. (packed) s. All of his friends spent last month repairing his boat. Our new manager wants us to call him “Sir”. Our professor of History was given the Academy Award by Oxford University. They believe that the captain fell overboard and died. I became very emotional when I found out my wife had given birth to a daughter. (operated) w. (got) k.

Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. She didn’t remember that she had been called home by her mother. Being … … . a.136 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 19. She has no recollection of … … b. Sometimes it is quite embarrassing when people laugh at you. You vaguely remember that you drank five bottles of wine last night. You have vague memories of … … c.

That valuable …… l. Do not put the card in until the screen shows ‘Insert your card’. George was severely criticized for his bad jokes and was more attentive after that. The dentist is supposed to be filling one of my teeth this afternoon. It’s over twenty years since anyone saw that valuable painting. Having … … e. They really wish they hadn’t been pushed to eat that horrible soup. People crave for justice and they need to see it done. Never … … g. The card is only … … k. I’m … … . I can’t explain what it feels like for nobody’s ever given me the chance to fly a plane. They’ve had to call the office five times to find out the result of the race.English Practical Course 137 d. The Town Hall … … h. The glass … … i. Justice must not … … m. Mice came into the room through a sort of hole in the wall. The room … … j. The group of people moved towards the Town Hall from all sides. The office … … n. Peter poured wine into the glass until it was full. They really regret … … f.

What will you call your new cat? d. A child asked me a question on my way home. offering country later? 7. She has burned the chicken in the oven. He wrote the paper on time. 8. Perhaps j. b. 11. he wanted to know the time. making a prediction c. expressing future hope e. The gust of wind blew the woman’s hat off. They consulted the doctor when they were ill. e. .138 English Practical Course Progress Test 2 1. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. f.b. The wedding will take place next h. making an invitation Friday. 2. . Shall I go to the library for you? 6. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. threatening they’ll understand. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. I’ll report you to the police next g. a. making a request d. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. promising/ stating an intention time. 10. asking for a prediction Saturday. Will you have dinner with us on k. Will there be a general strike? 3. Explain it to them again. making a suggestion Sunday? 2. g. They are shutting the bank for the winter holidays. expressing future uncertainty f. Shall we take a drive into the b. c. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. 9.

Nobody asked Mike to come. n. She soon lost sight of her friend. m. s. They are going to write a song tonight. j. We could read the note by the light of the candle. I must pay the telephone bill at the end of the month.English Practical Course 139 h. Someone is going to beat him soon! v. u. My brother has been looking after the dog for the last two years. People mustn’t walk on the grass in this park. Father made her cry hard. r. The bodyguards requested us to show our tickets. q. Children ask a lot of questions. The children have made him captain of their team. o. We haven’t invited our friends to the party yet. k. p. l. We didn’t fix the roof yesterday. I found your bike in front of the cinema. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . t. i.

How he managed to obtain such a large sum of money (…) in mystery.140 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. . The secretary (…) by exhaustion after 12-hour typing and had to go home. f. e. we all agreed: his paper should (…) for last year’s Literature prize. c. dubbed. When we came back from the mountains. b. i. overcome. our clothes (…) all over the house. g. (…) by almost all of his colleagues. Impossible as it may seem. Richard’s new album (…) for release next year. who is rather short. scheduled. h. Christine (…) the most beautiful girl in Europe. short-listed. My brother. Having read the manuscript. baffled. your language in this newspaper article (…) inadequate for the public taste. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate verb from the list. she (…) with requests for some more recipes. All the neighbours I asked (…) by the reason of her disease. The participles should be used with the verb to be in the appropriate tense: strewn. d. j. deemed. shrouded. Unfortunately. dwarfed a. inundated. Since her book on cooking came out.

El intenţionează să se înscrie la acest curs săptămâna viitoare. Noi vrem să ştim dacă ne puteţi ajuta sau nu. e. Am ajuns cam târziu acasă. b. aşa că spectacolul se terminase deja la televizor. Translate into English: a. f.English Practical Course 141 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. g. c. o să-ţi telefonez. h. o să-mi iau şi haine subţiri şi haine groase. d. pentru că i s-au defectat frânele. El fusese sunat de director de mai multe ori înainte de a veni la serviciu. Când voi pleca la munte. Ei au de gând să-şi renoveze vila anul viitor. O să-mi dau maşina la reparat. De îndată ce voi termina raportul o să te informez în legătură cu rezultatele cercetării mele. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . i. Dacă voi avea timp.

f. 7. The bank is being shut for the winter holidays. q. p. 8. The roof wasn’t fixed yesterday. g. Her friend was soon lost sight of. He has been made captain of the children’s team. o. Our friends haven’t been invited to the party yet. a. 3. f. The note could be read by the light of the candle. he wanted to know the time. j. The chicken has been burnt in the oven. 2. He is going to be beaten soon! v. 5. c. a. u. The doctor was consulted when they were ill. We were requested to show our tickets (by the bodyguards). 1. e. 4. A song is going to be written tonight. She was made to cry hard (by Father). 10. What will your new cat be called? d. 9.g. t. k. I was a asked question on my way home. The paper was written on time. j. 11. 6. i.142 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. r. k. c. A lot of questions are asked by children l. The telephone bill must be paid… n. m. . b.h 2. The dog has been looked after(by my brother) for the last two years. d. Mike wasn’t asked to come. The woman’s hat was blown off (by a gust of wind). The grass mustn’t be walked on in this park. b. i. h. s. Your bike was found in front of the cinema. e.

h. i.40 points each x 22 = 10 points 3. He is going to take up this course next week. were strewn.90 points each x 10 = 10 points 4. h. is shrouded. is scheduled.English Practical Course 143 3. so the TV show had already been over.1 point + 0. g. has been inundated. has been deemed. 4. a. g. b.1point each x 10 = 10 points 2.1 point + 0. c. a. d. has been dubbed. f. When I go to the mountains I’ll take both light and warm clothes. i. c. I’ll have my car repaired. Score: 1.00 point each x 9 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Coordinating Conjunctions © Subordinating Conjunctions . is dwarfed. d. They are going to have they villa redecorated next year. was short listed. b. As soon as I finish the report I’ll inform you on the results of my research. was overcome. If I have time I’ll call you. We want to know if you can help us or not. e. He had been called by the director several times before coming to work. for the brakes broke down. e. j. were baffled. 1 point + 1. f. We arrived home rather late.

she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. that of Mrs. Well. Pay attention to the conjunctions. “How good it was in you. Bennet! But I knew I should persuade you at last. and.” cried his wife.144 English Practical Course © Number of Nouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.” said Mr. that you should have gone this morning and never said a word about it till now. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. too. “let us return to Mr. my dear Mr. Kitty. Underline the coordinate conjunctions with one line and the subordinate ones with two lines: Mary wished to say something very sensible. “I am sorry to hear that. the preposition with appears. It is very unlucky. how pleased I am! and it is such a good joke. we cannot escape the acquaintance now. In the last sentence from the text.” “I am sick of Mr. Bennet perhaps surpassing the rest. but as I have actually paid the visit. Bingley. when the first tumult of joy was over. but why did not you tell me so before? If I had known as much this morning I certainly would not have called on him. Bennet.” “Now. Bingley. though.” he continued. as he spoke. . Ways with Words 1. “While Mary is adjusting her ideas.” The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished. you may cough as much as you choose. I was sure you loved your girls too well to neglect such an acquaintance. he left the room. but knew not how. fatigued with the raptures of his wife.

cu totul. referitor.English Practical Course 145 with an eye to = urmãrind. it is all one to them = le este tot una. first of all = înainte de toate. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. that is about all = ca. asta-i tot. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. all the better = cu atât mai bine. all at once = dintr-o datã. . once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. together with = împreunã cu. all worn out = complet uzat. of all kinds = de toate felurile. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. with a view of = în scopul de a. as with = la fel ca şi. fãrã a pierde din vedere. a termina cu. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. How do you translate in all the while? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. cu privire la. to do away with = a înlãtura. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. pe bunã dreptate. all over = peste tot. all in all = în întregime. 2. with reason = pe drept.

. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both.. not only.or: Neither the teacher nor THE STUDENTS are allowed to wear jeans... she also had dessert! Either my husband or I can drive you home. The doctor told him not to smoke or drink..and. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor.. two clauses) are joined by a coordinate conjunction. He moved quickly but quietly. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party. .146 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Conjunction Conjunctions join words.nor make the connection more intense. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket. Punctuation with Coordinate Conjunctions • A comma is not necessary when only two elements (two words. Neither money nor power can make him happy..... nor and either.or. (but also). Neither the students nor THE TEACHER is allowed to wear jeans.. two phrases. either. Not only did she have two helpings. neither.. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly. • The second noun determines the number of the verb with neither.

. as much as. where. Along this coast. into the Olympic Mountains. She has been very ill since her operation. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. Within the park are alpine meadows. …….. women. It is not compulsory to use a comma before the last unit: Men. nature is the hand setting b. when. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. on the Olympic Peninsula. before. what. if.English Practical Course 147 • However. some sixty active glaciers slow- . although. how. ……. He got a ticket because he was speeding. and children are welcome. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. because. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. majestic white-robed peaks. since. that. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. Controlled Practice 1 1. if three or more units are joined. women and children are welcome. This is called a serial comma. and beyond. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. a. whom She never saw him after he left town. To the west. who. as. c. use commas after the first and second units. ………. Men. unless. d. is the brooding.

……. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. "Grassy Water. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. 50 miles wide. e. Although relatively small. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. islands and hyacinth pools. h. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. live more than 350 species of birds. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula.. On the western slopes of the mountains. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. the Tetons have no foothills. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life. They are the largest living things on earth. there is a remarkable rainforest. River. Mountain.. there is a more gentle forest. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. may be the most unusual river in the world. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles.. in Shenandoah National Park i.000 feet. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. ……. Far to the east.. maple and other hardwoods. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. hammocks. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. serene. laying .148 English Practical Course sliding their relentless way down from the heights." g. ……. These are softer mountains. ……. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14. most mountain ranges. In Wyoming are the rugged. ……. hickory. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. and averages only 6 inches deep. Sea. A river that is 100 miles long. are seemingly endless groves of oak. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee.. To walk these cool.

. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. ……. There are castles and whimsical skylines. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal. powerful hand of water. towers.. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. arches.. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made. The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. all cut from stone by the delicate. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. ……. n. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. powerful strokes.English Practical Course 149 comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Here is where glaciers come to die. minarets. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. l. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. j." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed.for the soul.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . time and wind. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. No longer shrouded in ice. ……. ……. …….1794.. m. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. ……… seem to have once been alive.

basis-bases. stimulus-stimuli. woman-women. geniuses. louse-lice. boxboxes. ox-oxen.phenomenon-phenomena.alga-algae. villas. appendixappendices (in books)/appendixes (anatomical) analysis-analyses. -ch. match-matches.potatoes (But: photo-photos) -ves to nouns ending in -f(e): knife-knives. ganglions) • Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: . protons. person-people/ persons • Foreign plurals . brush-brushes. hoof-hooves/hoofs. child-children. asylums) . neurones. formula-formulae/formulas (but: dilemmas. hypothesis-hypotheses. criterion-criteria (but: demons. thesis-theses . goose-geese. viruses) . tool-tools -es to singular nouns ending in -s. -x. diplomas) . larva-larvae. -z. mouse-mice. potato. foot-feet. scarf-scarfs/scarves • Some nouns form their plural irregularly man-men. handkerchief-handkerchiefs) -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: lady-ladies -s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy-toys Note: dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves.nucleus-nuclei. leaf-leaves. diagnosisdiagnoses. genius-genii (spirits)/geniuses (men of genius) (but: bonuses.index-indices (algebraic signs) /indexes (tables of contents).150 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 2 Number of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s: book-books. medium-media (but: museums. axis-axes. cliff-cliffs. -ss. crisis-crises. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs. tooth-teeth. proof-proofs.datum-data. -sh. -o: bus-buses.

premises (building). place. jury. arms (weapons). regards. spacecraft. firm. outskirts. family. plaice. Japanese. youth. b. class. trousers. thanks. deer. etc. riches. groceries. etc. clothes. congratulations. greens (vegetables). • collective nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb. etc. jeans. goods. remains.English Practical Course 151 Craft. tools and instruments consisting of two parts: binoculars. glasses. public. crowd. pyjamas. government. clergy. according top the meaning.) Custom (a traditional event)-customs (the government department which collects taxes on imported goods) a. company. lodgings. salmon. etc. series. crew. team. fish. species. scales. union. . cattle. spectacles. sheep. speech)contents (the things contained in a box. trout • Some nouns are only plural: earnings. garments. committee. club. choir. compasses. • Some nouns have different meanings when turned into plural: Air (atmosphere)-airs (behaviour) Cloth (a piece of material)-clothes (garments) Compass (a magnetic compass)-compasses (an instrument for drawing circles) Content (what is written or spoken about in a piece of writing. (We refer to the individual members) The staff of the school consists of fifty people. people. belongings. orchestra. cod. pliers. oats. scissors. pants. squid. surroundings. odds (chances). police. The staff were not in agreement with the new rules. means. savings. (We refer to the group as a unit) Some collective nouns are: audience.

a magical creature)-spirits (a person’s feelings. to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition: mother-in-law – mothers-in-law a.152 English Practical Course Damage(harm done to something)-damages (monetary compensation) Experience (gaining knowledge or skill over a period)-experiences (activities/events one has done/lived through) Fund (a sum of money saved for a purpose)-funds (money) Glass (a drinking receptacle)-glasses (spectacles) Hair (the hairy part of the head)-hairs (fine strands growing from the skin) Look (a style. also specs) Spirit (a person’s soul or mind. to the noun if the compound has only one noun: passer-by – passers- . a strong alcoholic drink) Wood (the hard material trees are made of)-woods (small forests) Work (employment)-works (the moving parts of a machine. a place of manufacturing processes) Note: Some of the above nouns have their own regular plurals: minute/minutes • Compound nouns form their plural by adding –s/-es: by b. to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: cupboard – cupboards c. an expression)-looks (a person’s appearance) Manner (a way in which something is done)-manners (social behaviour. customs) Minute (sixty seconds)-minutes (notes taken as a record of a meeting) Relation (a connection)-relations (members of the same family) Scale (the relative size of something)-scales (an instrument for weighing) Spectacle (an object of attention)-spectacles (glasses.

The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. (This/These) (new/news) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. Make all other changes which are necessary: a. c. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby. he was taking a book from the shelf. The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/goods) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/trousers)” and “Polymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Clayton Factory for Milchester The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. e.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town. but the (information/informations) that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. d. at the end of the compound if it does not contain any nouns: breakdown – breakdowns Controlled Practice 2 1. When I entered the room.English Practical Course 153 d. This child is a naughty one. Where have you put that box? . 2. and 2. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists. Complete this newspaper article. b.

Mars and Venus revolve on their (axis) like the Earth. c. h. b. e. Jack will send some (memorandum) to the President. The (commander-in-chiefs /commanders-in chief) decided to surrender. Fill in the correct plural for the words in brackets: a. f. . g. I don’t like (two-hour-walks /two-hours-walks). 4. d. All grammar books contain (index). He doesn’t like spending his time playing with mathematical (formula). f. George didn’t count his (footsteps /feetsteps) from the station to the library because he considered it useless. Three (basketful /basketfuls) of oranges have been gathered so far. g. His (brother-in-laws /brothers-in-law) have committed several crimes. They keep talking about the legend of (men-eaters /man-eaters). (Ninety-year-olds /ninety-years-old) don’t need to use (toothbrushes /teethbrushes). The (women doctors /woman doctors) I met there are professionals. Select the form you consider appropriate in each of the following sentences: a.154 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. i. (Mothers-in-laws /mothers-in-law) are considered by some men real shrews. b. It can be hilarious if translators make mistakes in their (analysis). c. Milk has lots of (by-products /bys-products). e. (Oasis) save sometimes Bedouins’ lives. A great deal of (datum) was stolen from our computers. j. d.

j. i.English Practical Course 155 h. He knows almost all (genus) of animals. The (criterion) of success must be found through experience. As a President. You have to finish your (thesis) before the first of July. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . k. he had to face many international (crisis). l. Ten (addendum) had been proposed before they arrived.

did it again. compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the farreaching continent of unwhite washed fence. he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank. There was a song in every heart. Jim came skipping out at the gate with a tin pail. and existence but a burden. The locust trees were in bloom and the fragrance of the blossoms filled the air. proper and common nouns: SATURDAY MORNING was come. There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. reposeful. and if the heart was young the music issued at the lips. and it lay just far enough away to seem a Delectable Land. and brimming with life. and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit. abstract.156 English Practical Course Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Gender of Nouns © Countable/Uncountable Nouns © Synthetical/ Analytical/ Double Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Chapter 2 (The Glorious Whitewasher) of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a longhandled brush. Thirty yards of board fence. He surveyed the fence. beyond the village and above it. dreamy. nine feet high. Underline the nouns and divide them into concrete. and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. was green with vegetation. and all the summer world was bright and fresh. Sighing. and inviting. Life to him seemed hollow. Cardiff Hill. and singing . repeated the operation.

That’s the way she always talks. White. Ole missis. And he remembered that although the pump was only a hundred and fifty yards off. He remembered that there was company at the pump. quarreling. I otta be there at noon. Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour. They are used only in informal speech: He's gonna wait here.” Ways with Words 1. and he is highly uneducated. .” Jim shook his head and said: “Can’t. resting. They want to come at five. Jim. so he can’t speak grammatically correct Learn some Americanisms which you might need when you hear spoken American English.” Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work in Tom’s eyes. = = = = He is going to wait here. skylarking. She say she spec’ Mars Tom gwine to ax me to whitewash. before. They wanna come at five. Try to translate Jim’s speech.I won’t be gone only a minute. trading playthings. She won’t ever know. It is very hard to understand what he is saying due to the fact that first of all he speaks American English. Jim. Mars Tom. The following are expressions typical of North American English. and negro boys and girls were always there waiting their turns. she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop foolin’ roun’ wid anybody.and even then somebody generally had to go after him.English Practical Course 157 “Buffalo Gals. I gotta go now. an’ she tole me go ‘long an’ ‘tend to my own businessshe ‘lowed she’d ‘tend to de whitewashin’. I’ll fetch the water if you’ll whitewash some. I have got to go now. Gimme the bucket.” “O. mulatto. but now it did not strike him so. Tom said: “Say. I ought to be there at noon. fighting. never you mind what she said.

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He ain't * at home. Americanisms.

=

He is not at home.

* Ain't means am not, isn't, aren't. It is less frequently used than the other 2. In the sentence: There was a song in every heart, the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of place. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile; in all together = în total; in the beginning = la început; in contrast to/with = în contrast cu; in common with = în comun cu; in itself = în sine; in order to/ that = ca sã, pentru ca; in particular = în special; in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de; in practice = în principiu; in progress = în curs de; in print = tipãrit; in return for = în schimbul a; in quantity = în cantitate; in search of = în cãutare de; in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã; in such a manner = în aşa mod; in sum = pe scurt, în douã vorbe; in that = în aceea cã; in token of = în semn de, ca dovadã; in turn = cu rândul; to be interested in = a fi interesat de; to result in = a avea ca rezultat;

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to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes în; a reuşi în.(e.g. She succeeded in passing the exam). Now practice these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. Look for the preposition at in the text. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz; at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj; at ease = liniştit, pe îndelete; at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã; at intervals = la intervale, intermitent; at liberty = fãrã restricţii, liber; at most = cel mult; at once = imediat; at request = la cerere; at right angle = la unghi drept; at stake = în joc; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Noun
There are four kinds of nouns in English: abstract nouns (love, freedom thought); common/concrete nouns (book, table); collective nouns (family, herd); proper nouns (Greg, London).

Gender
Masculine: men and boys (he) Feminine: women, girls, cars, ships, countries (she)

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Neuter: babies, animals, things (it) Notes: - Babies and animals are referred to as male or female when we know their sex. - Cars, ships and countries are sometimes referred to as female but the neuter is more common in modern English. • • Most common nouns referring to people have the same form whether male or female: teacher (man or woman), doctor, etc. Some common nouns referring to people have different forms for male and female: Actor – actress Barman – barmaid Bachelor – spinster Boy – girl Bridegroom – bride Duke – duchess Emperor – empress Father – mother • gentleman – lady heir – heiress husband – wife hero – heroine host – hostess monk – nun nephew – niece prince – princess policeman – policewoman steward – stewardess son – daughter uncle – aunt widower – widow waiter – waitress

Some common nouns referring to animals have different forms for male and female: cock – hen gander – goose lion – lioness tiger – tigress stag – doe stallion – mare

Bull – cow Drake – duck Dog – bitch

Countable/uncountable nouns
Countable nouns are those which can be counted: one book, two books, three books. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full.

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Uncountable nouns are those which cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. They take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. The words some, any, no, (a) little, much, plenty of etc can be used with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are: Names of substances (materials, liquids, gases. etc): leather, paper, wood, metal, silver, water, coffee, bread, meat, butter, wine, flour Activities and sports: running, swimming, shopping, gardening, football, tennis Games ending in –s: billiards, darts, bowls, dominos etc Diseases ending in –s: mumps, rickets Names of subjects: history, mathematics, music, physics Languages: Russian, Greek, German, English Abstract nouns: love, hope, advice, information, intelligence, beauty, hunger, poverty Collective nouns: furniture, luggage, equipment, accommodation, traffic

Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. Chicken/a chicken, stone/a stone, hope/ a hope, education/an education Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety. Wine/an excellent wine, fruit/ a very sweet fruit In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a restaurant Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives:

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a piece of cake/information/baggage/advice/furniture/work/equipment; a glass of water/beer/wine; a jar of jam; a sheet of paper; an item of news; a drop of water/oil; a box of chocolates; a metre of cloth; a packet of biscuits; a pound of flour; a puff of smoke a strip/acre of land a grain of sand a set of cutlery an attack of fever a piece of music a slice of bread a loaf of bread a pot of tea a cup of tea a lump of sugar a game of chess a kilo of meat a bottle of wine a whiff of garlic a beam of light a pile of rubbish a stack of hay a word of advice a wink of sleep a tube of toothpaste a bar of soap/chocolate a blade of grass a flash of lightning a clap of thunder a cube of ice a roast of meat a pint of beer a gust of wind a breath of fresh air an article of clothing a ball of string a roar of laughter a feat of passion

a state of emergency a stroke of luck

The Genitive/Possessive Case
Form: o The ‘S Genitive/the Synthetical Genitive: the boy’s hat, the boys’ hat o The OF Genitive/the Analytical Genitive: the director of the museum o Double Genitive: a work of Milton’s 1. The Inflected/Synthetical Genitive (the ‘S Genitive) Form: • ‘s is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in –s: a man’s job, men’s work, the butcher’s (shop), a child’s voice, the children’s room

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• • • • • •

A simple apostrophe (‘) is used with plural nouns ending in –s: the girls’ school, the Smiths’ car Other names ending in –s can take ‘s or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones’s/ Mr Jones’ house With compounds, the last word takes the ‘s: my brother-in-law’s guitar ‘s can only be used after initials: the MP’s briefcase, the VIP’s escort ‘s is omitted in the phrase for … sake: for goodness sake ‘s is often added to a noun phrase (the group genitive): the Duke of York’s eldest son

If joint possession is intended, the apostrophe is placed on the last element: Tom and Mary’s baby Individual possession requires an apostrophe with each element of the series: America’s and England’s problems. • The local genitive is used to denote institutions of various kinds (restaurants, churches, theatres, etc), a home, a shop: at Joe’s, at the chemist’s, at my parents’ (home) The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • • • nouns denoting people or other beings (animate nouns): John’s lecture, my parents’ advice, the horse’s neck, the dog’s bark nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, size, distance, weight: a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper in expressions of money + worth: ten dollars’ worth of sugar collective nouns: the government’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.: England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat. names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day/a winter day

the water’s surface. at one’s wit’s end. two friends of Jack’s Compare: A portrait of Dali (one portraying him) – a portrait of Dali’s (one painted by or belonging to him) Controlled Practice 1. The OF Genitive Form: It is formed by means of a noun which is preceded by the preposition of: the cover of the book. a bird’s eye view 2. It is mainly used with inanimate nouns Usage: • • • • In titles and formal speech or written text: the Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson. The Double Genitive Form: It is made up of the inflected genitive (‘s) and the of genitive: a nephew of Queen Mary’s. to a hair’s breadth. the former is expressed by the of. the welfare of the people If a genitive governs another genitive. at a stone’s throw. for charity’s sake some other expressions (they do not have an alternative with of): at arm’s length. their money’s worth • some idiomatic expressions: to one’s heart’s content.phrase: the house of my sister’s neighbour With nouns coming from adjectives: the contempt of the rich When the governing noun is modified by a long phrase or clause: the intelligence of the woman across the street 3. lyrics of Hugo’s. to my mind’s eye. within arm’s reach. Translate into English: .164 English Practical Course • • some expressions (these have an alternative with of): the water’s edge. at his journey’s end.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Un fulger urmat de un tunet asurzitor i-au speriat pe copii. j. f. e. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. g. b. e. Povestea din război cu o pasiune extraordinară. i. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. I-am rugat să ne cumpere patru pâini de Extrapan.English Practical Course 165 a. d. Aceasta este o mobilă prea veche pentru gustul nostru. taking into account the form of uncountable nouns: a. Inventatorul telefonului este Graham Bell b. Mi-a dat un sfat foarte important: să nu mănânc pâine după miezul nopţii. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte produse in Franta d. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în medicină şi s-au descoperit medicamente împotriva cancerului . Translate into English. Nu mai am strop de energie ca să urc şi panta aceasta. Bagajul meu se află între cele două doamne grase. h. A băut trei cafele şi l-a apucat ameţeala. Doi prieteni de-ai lui John i-au făcut o surpriză de ziua lui. Alaltăieri am cumpărat cinci săpunuri şi astăzi nu găsesc nici unul. Orice informaţie despre jaful de la bancă este vitală. c. c.

Politics (is. b. The audience (is. were) against the war. are) a matter of no interest to me. c.166 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. e. f. My family (has. The majority (was. Mathematics (was. Match: a bunch of a bundle of a fleet of a cluster of a clump of a flight of a string of a crate of a pack of a bouquet of a burst of an attack of a hint of an ounce of a stroke of a wink of a feat of a term of a word of a state of 4. are) asked to pay attention to the speech. Use the correct form of the verb: a. have) been living in that chalet for years. beads stars beer rags grapes trees taxis flowers stairs cards energy laughter abuse trouble fever luck sleep endurance imprisonment emergency . That team (is. were) my favourite subject. are) all children. d.

During the holiday of three weeks of their friends. i. have) been chasing the thieves for weeks. I have done that for the sake of my cousin George. Your heroics (was. b. their) seats. h. were) useless in that situation. i. Put into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. e. 5. h. g. The nephew of Chris and Liz is very smart. The audience (has. is my best friend. Cotroceni Palace is the residence of the President of Romania. the daughter of the baker. Smith in almost every country. are) taking (its. d. The novels of Dickens and Hardy are very often read nowadays.English Practical Course 167 g. The speech of the President was received with applause. Mary. There was a great variety of cars for the disabled in the fair. j. c. The police (has. f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . have) just come back and (is. the children had to go to the mountains. There is a magazine belonging to Mr. She took the coat of somebody else.

Make any other necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. Mike bought some flowers costing a dollar. board: a. bunch. Choose from the following: bevy. e. c. row. − ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. Supply the correct collective nouns. colony. some ………… of trees were still untouched. i. of buildings was destroyed by the earthquake. d. c. My cousin was bitten by a ……… of bees. They granted them an interview lasting half an hour. The teacher told them that wolves attack in ……… . The jam I bought weighed half a kilogram. Rewrite the following sentences using the underlined words in the possessive case. His mother bought some books which cost ten pounds. fleet. h.. d. A ………. Although the forest caught fire. b. She ate a ……… of grapes in two minutes. pack.168 English Practical Course 6. I have seen a building of 450 metres in the city of Atlanta. b. clump. It was a journey of ten days. . The man on the street weighs 250 kilograms. The highway to the next city was ninety kilometres. swarm. e. f. The movie lasted three hours. g.

scrap. . Put in the missing partitive: stretch. o. She wrote the address on a ………… of paper. metre. The killer cut a ……. Divorţul copiilor vecinilor noştri va avea loc luna viitoare. A ………… of termites was eating my furniture. pinch. c.. hint. j. They went inside as they had felt a ………. f. of rain. b. You should add a ……… of salt and mix the ingredients. The …………. acre. of hair of the victim to have a souvenir. gust. l. My neighbours send for the police at the slightest ……….. a. A ………. bowl. litre. spell. h. The painting needs a ………. of boys was laughing at the clown. 8.. h. Translate into English: a. e. George has never drunk beer so he tried a ………. A …………. m. of soup will help you get rid of your nausea. of mine. of road between Tokyo and Osaka. of land is very rich in oil. They would like a ………… of pineapple juice. i. sip. of trouble. n. A ………… of ships had been sent to rescue the survivors. They’ve had ………… of good weather so far.English Practical Course 169 f. That ………. d. This morning a ………. i. lock. j. of green here and it will be perfect. A ……… of light from your candle was enough to find the lost ring. of wind broke two windows of my house. beam. g. of managers decided to buy the product. A ……… of cloth is not enough to make the dress you have dreamt of. k. 9. g. drop(2). They will open a new ………. George bought Mary a box of chocolates and a ……… of flowers on her birthday.

Are 93 de ani şi la vârsta ei o călătorie de 12 ore cu trenul este sinucidere curată. nu avem de mers mai mult de 15 minute până la aeroport. f. Am putea să ne întâlnim la şcoală. O turmă de oi mi-a invadat curtea. . d. Trebuie să aflăm toate informaţiile necesare. Casa cea nouă a administratorului parcului naţional al oraşului nostru are cel puţin treizeci de camere. fiecare informaţie este vitală. amantul prietenei vărului meu. e. că dacă îl prind îi rup oasele! c. dar mobila de dinainte de război era de mare clasă.170 English Practical Course b. i. I am lucky to have had … very good education. fii atent. dacă ea avea un singur bagaj nu dura atât de mult. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Write a before the nouns which are used as countable nouns: a. Face bagajele de cel puţin patru ore. h. turma ta se împrăştie în toate direcţiile! g. Spune-i domnului Cole. … Education does not just take place at school. Piesa noastră de mobilier este foarte modernă.

Would you like … baked potato? 11. I don’t usually drink … tea. Mary is … real beauty. The scissors (was/were) on the table a few minutes ago. I usually eat … fruit for dinner. There (is/are) several means of reaching the chalet on daylight. i. The news printed in that magazine (is/are) always accurate. k. e. This meal has … potato in it. The statue is built of … marble. Sometimes … love can solve all the problems. . c. … Painting can be a really relaxing activity. please. c. I like red meat but I don’t eat … pork. g. His luggage (was/were) found without much effort. Choose the right word from the brackets: a. h. He has … great love of art. Billiards (is/are) a very interesting game. You were so hungry that you ate … whole turkey. f. That is … beautiful stone. That’s … very unusual fruit.English Practical Course 171 b. b. Tom has proved of … great help to me. You can’t get a job without … experience. His eyes are not very sensitive to … light. What is it? m. I’ll have two cappuccinos and … whisky./many) women on the boat (was/were) getting seasick from the waves. … Fear is a protective. He has … terrible fear of snakes. I have to call my family because I desperately need … help. I’m so glad I read it: it was … wonderful experience. Is there … light in Mike’s room? d. l. … Beauty is my favourite concern. John thinks that’s … really beautiful painting. A (little/few) knowledge (is/are) as dangerous as having none. g. natural human feeling. f. d. j. (much. e.

i. 13. f. bit. newspaper)? . c. slice: a. g. Your business depends on his (country. We are amazed by (that girl. We are allowed to take four … of luggage in our trip. friends) were invited to the party. words). the stairs) they realized that was not their house. You gave me (much/many) ideas about the job but very (little/few) advice. f. piece. There are three outrageous … of news in today’s paper. there (isn’t/aren’t) (much/many) chairs and tables here. e. h.172 English Practical Course h. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: a. future). b. lies). distance) from the Sun? d. We should buy (much/many) furniture. b. i. You can’t eat that … of cold beef left because it is off. item. d. g. How (much/many) information do you need to get it done? j. They will buy a new … of furniture for their bedroom. you should take it into consideration. Have you read (today. When they got to the (bottom. h. He wanted to buy a … of chocolate but the shop was closed. Do you know the (Moon. natural wonders). The (neighbours. With a … of luck you can still catch the train. They painted only one (wall. 12. their room). e. I cut several … of bread for my kid sister. The Amazonian jungle is one of the (world. This is a … of good advice. I’ll never forget (Helen. c. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar.

but also a good volley (play). I have no idea if he’s still alive. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: a. In the following fragment. Father is trying to fix the (leg. for several years. h. but the (end) was more exciting. e. but impact he had in sixties and seventies was huge. 14. d. can it? And. my son – he’s in his fifties now – sang it all day and all night. There is a great (differ) between to remind and to remember. ‘How many times must white dove fly before it sleeps in sand?’ And then answer to profound questions: ‘Answer. articles are missing. c. Children have a great deal of (curios). The (advertise) will have to be published in the morning paper. my friend.English Practical Course 173 j. f. We were able to give a satisfactory (explain) for our (behave). And it was so silly: ‘How many times must man look up before he can see sky?’ I mean. The (begin) of the book was boring. is blowing in wind. chair). question like that can’t be taken seriously. b. Put in a/ an / the as appropriate: I remember in dim and distant past my children being obsessed by man called Bob Dylan. I remember one song called ‘Blowing in Wind’. month in and month out. g.’ Generation after mine didn’t know what life was . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. He is a fantastic (basketball). (Visit) are requested to sign their names in the book. She will give the detective a detailed (describe) of the thief.

The actor thinks he can win the award but we suspect the (…) are against him. I say it’s funny world we live in. The (…) opened and. did they? We did. There’s no need for us to discuss the (…) of this marriage. b. arms. ‘Very thought of you. basics. I suppose. Don’t be rude! What about her (…). means. feelings. What is the purpose of your going to Hawaii? Well. heavens. Put one of the nouns in each of the sentences. authorities. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. terms. odds. interests. c. sights. so we got soaked. of course.174 English Practical Course all about. matters. travels. But what came next? ‘How many years can mountain exist before it is washed to sea?’ And there was whole generation singing alone to song. . movements a. just to see the (…).’ ‘Night they invented champagne. can’t you imagine you hurt her? g. we didn’t have any umbrellas. dislikes. d.’ ‘Just way you look tonight. Funny world we live in.’ They were real songs. hopes. Civilians are forbidden to carry (…) during peacetime. talks. sands. The Blue Killer was never arrested and was never handed over to the (…). f. expenses.

could you answer these questions. isn’t he? I hear that he is off on his (…) again. It will be best for her to help them right now. raining or extreme cold. She wasn’t as innocent as it seemed to be. n. i. All the money they managed to earn was spent on clothes. even if it’s snowing. I won’t find any (…) of transport at this hour of the night. I suppose they won’t claim travel (…) for their voyage to the island of Crete! j. They play football. (means) c. start considering yourself on shifting (…). My boss’s likes and (…) shouldn’t be of any interest to the employees. (open) . I don’t think John is planning to buy that expensive house. p. (proceeds) b. He’s up and about. m. This word must not be altered in any way. Parents don’t agree with their children’s liberal ideas. (odds) e. Mr. k. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence. a. There’s little chance of raining this week. (weathers) g. I’m warning you.English Practical Course 175 h. We’ll have to get back to (…) to understand the grammar of the English language. Once the causes of Mike’s death are made public. using the word given. In the (…) of the citizens. Jack trusts his aunt. Have you found out what our enemies (…) are over the following days? o. (designs) h. (interests) i. (terms) d. George got on very well with his father-in-law. Try as I might. (eye) f. l. q. Mayor? 17. Peace (…) in Palestine are meant to put an end to the guerrilla fights. if you keep teasing my daughter. he tells her all his (…) and fears. r. the policemen will arrest the suspects. I’m sure the gangsters discussed a range of important (…) since the Godfather was present.

(high) − ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . She is convinced her daughter is going to be as successful as herself.176 English Practical Course j.

They seemed to be stretching in the moonlight. and filling the valley where the Bottoms crouched. H. She bent down to look at the binful of yellow pollen. then shivered. where she could stand as if in an immense gulf of white light. the moon streaming high in face of her.English Practical Course 177 Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Prepositions © Compound Prepositions © Place of Prepositions in the Sentence © Problematic Prepositions of Time and Space •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Sons and Lovers by D. Morel gasped slightly in fear. She put her hand into one white bin: the gold scarcely showed on her fingers by moonlight. pallid flowers on their petals. Mrs. In what way are prepositions different in Romanian? Try to see when the use of the English prepositions is different from the use in Romanian: She hurried out of the side garden to the front. . as with a presence. The tall white lilies were reeling in the moonlight. Lawrence. the moonlight standing up from the hills in front. She touched the big. she murmured to herself over and over again: “The nuisance! the nuisance!” She became aware of something about her. With an effort she roused herself to see what it was that penetrated her consciousness. and the air was charged with their perfume. almost blindingly. There. Pay attention to the use of preposition in English. panting and half weeping in reaction from the stress.

în întregime. and so on = şi aşa mai departe. to turn on/ to switch on (the light. Except for a slight feeling of sickness. etc. herself melted out like scent into the shiny.). din cauzã cã. and she lost herself awhile. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. to be on duty = a fi de serviciu.178 English Practical Course but it only appeared dusky. Mrs. on the basis of = pe baza. After a time the child. Ways with Words 1. din partea cuiva.etc. How many times does the preposition on appear in the text? Learn some expressions containing this preposition. Then she drank a deep draught of the scent. on account of = pe baza. She did not know what she thought. and her consciousness in the child. on demand = la cerere. . melted with her in the mixing-pot of moonlight. on record = cunoscut. = în numele cuiva. on the contrary = din contrã. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. It almost made her dizzy. on the score of = ca rezultat. and she rested with the hills and lilies and houses. luând în consideraţie cã. radioul. on this ground = din acest motiv. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. all swum together in a kind of swoon. în pragul. on the whole = în general. pale air. on behalf of sb.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. on the verge of = pe punctul de. too. Morel leaned on the garden gate. la nesfârşit. the radio. pe cale. looking out.

mai degeaba. How do you translate: She hurried out of the side garden to the front […]? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition to. on principle = din principiu.English Practical Course 179 on condition that = cu condiţia. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. on trial = de probã. on a sudden = brusc. to date = la zi. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. on the first attempt = la prima încercare. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. 2. ad litteram. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. în cea mai mare mãsurã. . to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva. to little purpose = cu puţin efect. ici şi colo. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. deodatã. to the letter = întocmai. to this effect = în acest scop. pe neaşteptate. on purpose = dinadins. intenţionat. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. to hand = la îndemânã.

inside. pronouns. past. above across. according to form: a.180 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Prepositions Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. behind. as for. by. beneath. with b. of. round. down. noun phrases. till. during. considering. respecting. around. concerning. regarding. touching. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. for. pending. towards. after. athwart. excepting. near. as far as. Nouns. without. save. from among. out of. from. via. because of. over against. saving. since. per. but. instead of. throughout. besides. Note that in English. between. as to. up against. through. except for. from under. Simple: about. among. betwixt. to. notwithstanding. underneath. up. round about. amid. Compound: alongside. Complex: according to. Prepositional Phrases: . on. After telling the whole story. in between. he disappeared. up to. failing. d. onto. below. at. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. before. along. upon. Because of you. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase. anent. into. beyond. Types of prepositions. against. within. along with. outside. c. over. in. under. down to. from inside. I can't get any work done. off. until. except.

in company with. in want of. in the place of. in default of. in spite of. next to. in place of. on account of. in prospect of. in keeping with. and verb idioms. by dint of. by the side of. in obedience to. in the middle of. (was raised) Place of Prepositions in the Sentence A preposition usually precedes its object: I am voting for him. in common with. with reference to. in lieu of. in answer to. in reward of. the unit acquires a new meaning. in comparison with. (see also Appendix 2. This is a book about which we were talking. In interrogative sentences and subordinate clauses. apart from. in accordance with. in praise of. in order to. in connection with. the preposition may be at the end of the sentence. in case of. in aid of. in opposition to. in regard to. separated from its object. in behalf of. owing to. in the event of. The verb-preposition phrase is listed together in the dictionary with its own meaning. in the name of.English Practical Course 181 ahead of. with a view to. Compare the following sentences: Whom are you voting for? For whom are you voting? This is a book (which) we were talking about. for the sake of. by reason of. with respect to. in consequence of. due to. prior to. for fear of. page 309) Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs When certain verbs and prepositions are combined. in honour of. caused by. She was brought up in the suburbs. phrasal verbs. in front of. in addition to. . with regard to. at the back of. These verb-preposition combinations have several names: twopart verbs. by means of. We are talking about this novel. thanks to. in view of. by way of. as a result of. with relation to.

I came here During* the film. etc. etc.. keep the preposition and object together. etc.. etc. Easter/ Christmas. midnight. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock. university. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the . Monday. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb.182 English Practical Course The first sentence in each pair is common in informal speech.. the 1930s. In formal writing and business communications. winter. January. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. my holidays. Prepositions of Time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening. two weeks’ time.. Tuesday morning. the war. Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place Movement Place to at used with verbs of movement: go. etc. etc. the class. London.. your free (spare) time. 25-th. 1988. a long time. ages Since June. 11-th January. But: I arrived at London Airport.. February. not used come. etc. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you.. etc. two weeks.. the moment On Saturday. For seven minutes. etc.. my last birthday.. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. summer. the weekend.

cry. purge. cry. FOR: account. excerpt. do. look. glance. BY: begin. pay. write. fall. bargain.) Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. strive. work. care. select. obtain. wait. suffer. fire a shot. lament. manufacture. sneer. guard. grieve. rush. search. languish. learn. crave. descent. AFTER: aspire. warn. reach. see. stay. hanker. answer. exclaim. talk.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. insure. call. sigh. ensue. take. hunt. puff. differentiate.English Practical Course 183 promenade. finish. doubt. tell. knock. flee. banish. FROM: absolve. hope. indemnify. fret. revolt. swear. atone. pull. stand. exact. think. start. receive. fight. sail. long. rage. yearn. recover. AGAINST: clamour. extricate. prepare. rejoice. take. fish. pass. know. set. defend. borrow. distinguish. pine. gaze. smile. repine. thunder. drive. call. AT: aim. spring. laugh. walk. purchase. protect. shoot. complain. withdraw. look. wish. hunger. refrain. leave. derive. murmur. profit. IN: . mutter. expect. die. speak. throw. strike. differ. last. mock. assess. send. ask. buy/sell (sth) at a price. worry. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. point. divide. say.

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer, insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write. INTO: alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn. OF: accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain, consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn, relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think. ON: act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark, gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell. OVER: brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate. TO: adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal, aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain, consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead, listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return, seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend. WITH: agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond, deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet (~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side, sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie. UPON: act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist, look, play (~one’s feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample. Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:

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Addicted to, adequate for (smth.), adequate to (smb.), adverse to, affected by, amazed at, ambitious after, annoyed at, anxious about (smth.), anxious for (smb.), appalled by, apprehensive of (i.e. worried about), apt for, ashamed of, astonished at, averse to, bad at, beneficial to, bent on, busy with, capabale of, certain of, charmed at (smth.), charmed with (smb.), clever at (mathematics), compatible with, concerned about /with, concerned for (smb), connected with, consistent with, contended with, convenient for (smth.) convenient to (smb.), crazy about, cruel to, deficient in (smth.), delighted at, derogatory to, devoid of, dexterous at, diffident in, disappointed at, disgusted by (smth.), disgusted with (smb.), displeased at, dissatisfied with, doubtful of (smb.), dying for, eager for/about, earnest about, enraged by, essential for, excited at/over, fit for, frightened at, full of, good at, greedy of, hostile to (smb.), hungry for, identical to/with, ignorant of, immersed in (debts), immune against, immune from, impolite to, inadequate for smth/to smb, incensed at/with, inclined to /for, inconceivable to, independent of smb, indignant at/with, infatuate with, intent on, irritated at, offended at, opposite from, parallel to, paralyzed with, partial to, particular about, pleased at smth, prepared for, proficient in, prone to, resolved on, rude to, secure of, skillful at/in, slow at, solicitous about, sorry about smth, sorry for smb, subject to, suffering from, sufficient for, suited to, sure about smth, sure of smb, sympathetic to, tired with, true to, unfit for, unjust to, vexed at smth, vexed with smb

Controlled Practice
1. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.

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d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the recent discovery. j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology. 2. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I shut the door but left my key …..... it. b. He strolled carelessly .……. the road. c. They arrived late .……. the station. d. She ran all the way …….. the shop. e. I went …….. Paris last year. f. I met her …….. the rock concert. g. The baby crawled …….. the kitchen. h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 3. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England . ……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air . 4. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column A and then translate into Romanian: A in on under at with above out of by without off B work suspicion question joy love fire one’s breath fail heart duty

A interest lack ambition

B for in in

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delight advantage influence witness arrangement agreement declaration protection difference damage impatience A busy inferior satisfied advantageous superior mad new afraid excited interested

for between at over of of upon against to on to B to of at to at with to to in about

A run deal talk take

B in with after about

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divide think climb pass rely believe

on about; of by up into for

5. Read through the following and fill in the numbered blanks with a suitable preposition of time. Be careful, however, because in one or two cases no preposition is needed. My parents met (1)… the war: (2)… August 1943 to be precise. My father was home (3)… leave (4)… the front, and he decided to spend the first week with his aunt in Liverpool. He hadn’t seen her (5)… several years, even though she had brought him up (6)… his mother’s death. Liverpool is not the most beautiful city in the world, but it can be very pleasant (7)… summertime, especially early (8)… the morning. (9)… this particular morning, however, my father was in no mood to enjoy the sunrise over the Mersey. His train left Euston Station (10)… time, at midnight, but (11)… the time it got to Crewe, it was already three and a half hours (12)… schedule. So he was in a bad mood and very tired (13)… arrival at Lime Street Station. But something happened (14)… minutes of his arrival that changed not only his mood but also his whole life. Feeling thirsty (15)… his long journey, he decided to go and have a cup of tea in the station buffet. Typically, it was shut (16)… that early hour. A notice on the door read “Opening hours (17)… 7 a.m. (18)… 5.30 p.m.” He looked at the station clock: ten (19)… seven. The buffet should be open (20)… now, he thought. But, knowing station buffets, he realized that he could wait (21)… 8 or even 9 o’clock before it opened. Suddenly he noticed a pretty girl sitting on a bench. She was pouring some hot liquid from a thermos flask into a cup. Being something of a lady’s man, my father (at least this is what my mother

from taking . for her today g. he was discouraged to the dentist 12. I’ll marry you and look after you (25)… the rest of my life!” Believe it or not. and … well. The three men were found guilty 7. for his bad a.190 English Practical Course told me (22)… some years later) sat down and said “I’ve never seen such a pretty girl (23)… all my life as you. I wouldn’t be here (26)… now if the buffet hadn’t been shut (27)… that fateful day (28)… August 1943. The police charged the man bank 5. Choose a suitable ending from those marked a – p. Most children are fond to the beach 6. She takes great pride l. into going to e. He apologised nose 9. Since the weather was so bad. In Britain. 1. she smiled at him. we decided the party 8. from leaving k. on her work c. 6. And I haven’t had a hot drink (24)… last night. Mr Bond is deputizing circus 10. He was arrested… 3. with murder j. My brother is very conscious… the exam 2. Since Mrs Smith is ill. for robbing a b. against going d. so he tried to prevent her 11. He didn’t want her to go. If you give me a drink of your tea. As he’d missed so many lessons. of going to the h. Complete the following sentences. of his big f. gave him the tea. about going i. having more than behavior 4.

old-fashioned 12. against the 7. in agony i. 1.I haven’t eaten 11. in the nude n. recite a poem 2. I can’t pay! 6. It’s burning! 16. of fraud n. at the same time d. behind bars k. against the law b.English Practical Course 191 13. . illegal 8. no clothes 10. He tried to coax her 14. under age 8. in her work o. gradually a. by degrees g. I’m not very keen law m. on going out p. He was always very nervous tonight 16. Each of the words and phrases on the left can be associated with one of the prepositional phrases on the right. in vogue o. at daybreak c. You’re too young! 7. What a mess! 4. in flames m. on an empty stomach p. Complete the sentences below with one of the following adjectives plus a preposition. He complimented her 15. behind schedule e. Try to match them up correctly. It really hurts! 13. We’re late! 3. very early 14. simultaneous 9. behind the times f. a prisoner 15. in arrears j. To tell you the truth. very fashionable 5. in disorder l. from memory h.

Supply the missing prepositions. Life is … … surprises. distracted. The teacher was … … her students for not doing their homework. e. involved. angry. He was nearly 16 before he first became … … the opposite sex. but it was perfectly … … our needs. Although they said they were … … our case. d. Never become … … cigarettes! f. expert. Do you think politicians are … … telling lies? b. I’m really … … mathematics. The underlined expressions can be replaced by a time expression based on the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS. ”Who else was … … the crime?” the policeman asked the suspect. everyone could see that he was … … his wife’s success. Pop groups are … … smashing up hotel rooms. TIMES c. DATE b.192 English Practical Course addicted. h. jealous. a. disqualified. adequate. Although he wouldn’t admit it. sympathetic a. eligible. g. bad. l. LONG d. notorious. 9. j. You’ll have to make your own bed in future. The flat wasn’t very big. Most of her clothes are no longer fashionable. Only unmarried women are … … membership. You really make me angry sometimes. capable. o. aware. k. full. I hope to see you all again soon. ON . they were not prepared to support us officially. He was … … the race for taking drugs. He tried to work but was … … the noise from the traffic. My neighbour is … … pruning fruit trees. Don’t ask me to add up the bill. c. isn’t it? m. n. p. i. inspired. This piece of music was … … by Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata.

PROGRESS. best of luck with your driving test. VALID This … … c. Now and then we like to spend a weekend in the mountains. This passport can be used inmost countries. Nobody wanted to buy his car. We have given you the first word(s) of the new sentence. I hope to see you next month. There is an examination going on. but only briefly. SEASON g. write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence using the word in CAPITAL LETTERS. a. Everyone has heard about the leaning tower of Pisa. BEING o. and we don’t know even now what happened to her. MEANTIME p. MOMENT n. Your Aunt Kate is using the spare bedroom now. We’ll be in UK. The demonstration occupied the square for several hours until they were eventually driven away by the police. Are you and Jennifer related? RELATIVE . and immediately there were twenty young men offering to dance with her. For each of the sentences below. DELAY m. so finally he had to give it away. FAMOUS Pisa … … b. Until then. …so you’ll have to sleep in the garden temporarily. END k. Our daughter left home three years ago. 10. They didn’t tell anyone they were getting married. Please be very quiet. TIME i. LENGTH h. DAY l. LONG j. TIME f.English Practical Course 193 e. Wendy said that she would like to dance. Please complete the rest of your assignments right away. Autumn is the time when fruit like apples and pears are available. SECRET They … … d.

The interview panel thought that Sarah had a very good manner. DIFFICULTY He … ….000. When Mary was pregnant. VALUED The … … i. all she wanted to eat was jelly. I lent my cousin $5. PLEASURE My boss … … n. BORROWED My cousin … … g. DOUBTFUL We … … i. He would never tell you a lie. Your car is just like one I used to own. My boss seems to enjoy humiliating people. SIMILAR I…… k. He found it hard to open the window. We didn’t think she would pass the exam.194 English Practical Course Is … … e. j. A car crashed into a bus this morning. IMPRESSION . COLLIDED A car … … h. The painting is worth$30. HABIT I…… o. NOTICE Take … … h. She doesn’t find her present job very interesting. Do you want a drink? CARE Would … … f. INCAPABLE He … … l. CRAVING Mary … … m. BORED She … … j. Pay no attention to what she says. I don’t usually speak to strange men.

KEY Irish history … … q. regard. Complete the prepositional phrases below by choosing a word from the following list. favour. t. in … with c. virtue a. ACCORDING The moon ……. common. My father says that the moon is made of green cheese. for … of j. with … to h. account. respect. the exception. you need to study Irish history. STOCK The items …… v. If you want to understand Yeats’ s poetry. the sake. the expense.English Practical Course 195 Sarah … … p. TALENT Henry …… s. out of … for j. MEMORY I …… u. at … with g. A. in … for b. in … of e. Try to make up a sentence using each of the phrases. with … of i. PRESSURE I …… 7. We have run out of the items you want. Henry really knew how to make people laugh. odds. My best friend is someone I can really trust. in … to d. exchange. addition. I can recite Wordsworth’s Prelude without looking at the book. CONFIDENCE I…… r. The way to get the best out of me is to make me work very hard. on … of .

aid. out of … for m. in … to i. compensation. I know you have a cold. campaign. by … of B. news. means. f. a cost. with … of 8. behalf. cruelty. good terms. What is the … … “timid”? Is it “bold” or “brave”? c. the accompaniment. on … with l. grudge. in … for j. but that’s no … … not doing your homework. d. at … of k. control. objection. The … … chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too quickly. Do you have any … … my parking my car in front of your house? e. which would you do? b. strain. genius. in … of g. for … of f. at … on b. to … of n. reference. knowledge. the compliments. work a. choice. answer. Complete the sentences below with one of the following nouns plus a preposition.196 English Practical Course f. in … with h. . opposite. at … with d. with … to p. fall. the influence. peace. pity. on … of k. freedom. excuse. The African elephant will be extinct within 20 years if an international … … the ivory trade is not started immediately. agreement. If you had a … … marrying for love or marrying for money. the benefit. at … of c. under … of o. trouble a. basis. by … of e.

If you have to deal with overseas clients. The RSPCA is concerned with prevention of … … animals. . i. a … … foreign languages is very useful. there has been a considerable … … the consumption of eggs. Since the salmonella scare. fear and persecution. we can do as we like: our teacher has no … … us at all.English Practical Course 197 g. Perhaps the three most important human rights are … … hunger. j. because it puts a great … … their hearts. h. k. Overweight people should not jog. l. In our class.

198 English Practical Course Progress Test 3 1. Which words in column A can combine with words in column B? a gaggle of a school of a pride of a swarm of a colony of a flock of a pack of a litter of A on with beyond to in by off at under without A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud puppies geese locusts fish hounds birds bees lions B top the left a light heart praise land the mark war doubt earnest such circumstances B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! .

a flock of birds . El este profesor la universitate. in earnest. Pe de o parte nu-mi place grosolănia ta şi pe de altă parte mi-am terminat programul. g. . Statele Unite cooperează cu Marea Britanie. Ei au pornit să escaladeze Alpii. Translate into English: a. strong wind. under such circumstances. by land. loud music. Happy Anniversary. e. El merge la şcoală dimineaţa. heavy noise. a pride of lions. Ei s-au simţit foarte bine la mare anul trecut. b. Tamisa este un râu care trece prin Londra. l. with a light heart. Francezii mănâncă mai multă pizza decât englezii. a tall person. k. a swarm of bees. El a devenit preşedintele Franţei în 1998. Englezii sunt foarte politicoşi. a high wall. o. a pack of hounds. at war. Happy New Year. Aş vrea să călătoresc cu Orient. without doubt. f. beyond praise. a tall tree. on top. Merry Christmas. h. El a ajuns aseară şi este cazat la Hotelul Hilton. to the left. off the mark. m. a colony of locusts. i. c. 2. a high price.Express-ul. a litter of puppies. a high building. n. Ei şi-au dat mâna în final şi au plecat. a high mountain.English Practical Course 199 2. d. a school of fish. j. Happy Birthday. heavy traffic. Acesta este cea mai bună piesă de teatru pe care am văzut-o. heavy smoker. Unde a avut loc accidentul? Key: a gaggle of geese.

He is a teacher at the university. He became (the) President of France in 2000. e. i. I wish I travelled by the Orient Express. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points c. The Thames is a river which crosses London. a. The English are very polite. j. They shook hands and left. The French eat more pizza than the English. The United States and The United Kingdom co-operate. l.200 English Practical Course a. They had a very good time at the seaside last year. d.60 point each x15 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points . h. He goes to school in the morning. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points b. n. c. o.60 point each x15 = 10 points 2. Where did the accident happen? Score: 1. f. On the one hand I don’t like your rudeness and on the other my shift is over. 1 point + 0. k. g. He arrived last night and is accommodated at the Hilton. m. They set off to climb the Alps. This is the best play I have ever seen. b. 1 point + 0.

English Practical Course 201 .

the wet loaniness of the garden. but we’ve included them in our analysis of Wolve’s text. of cantaloupe and crated peaches. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name – like East India Tea house – are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns – father’s. before a fire of coals. He remembered yet the East India Tea house at the Fair. Adjectives are bold. Note that such an abundance of adjectives would be uncommon in contemporary prose. the turbans. inside a farmer’s covered wagon. Angel. of . and the robes. in July. He knew the good male smell of his father’s sittingroom. bitter-sweet. farmer’s – are not technically adjectives. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth. with the gaping horse-hair rent. are underlined. the sandalwood. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. the cherry scent. the cool clarion earth. and the scent of orange rind. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. participles.202 English Practical Course Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adjectives © The Order of Adjectives in a Series © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Consider the uses of modifiers in this paragraph rich in adjectives from Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. verb forms acting as adjectives. if the smooth worn leather sofa.

the opposite of short is long. Now complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . d. b. of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter..…. of the brown tired autumn earth. . Ways with Words 1.English Practical Course 203 the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth. e. the opposite of old is young. Many people would rather work ………….than FULL-TIME. and milk. position. c. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco. The first shop he opened was a BIG SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……... Try to find the antonyms of the adjectives in the text. The management said salaries had INCREASED.…. of the heated calf-skin bindings. of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter eggs. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . stuck with a red flag.. 2. of honey-suckle at night. long closed.…….. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets. of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored.…………. of warm nasturtiums.…. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee. For example. of a bakery-oven in the wind.

Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. demonstrative this tool II. the sixth (numerals. etc. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. and when they do. possessive chapter. beautiful. adjectives. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. Observation adjectives. the unhappiest. Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. a month’s pay. they appear in a set order according to category. Unlike adverbs. There is however a pattern. a serious commitment. perfect to interesting. . her story.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real.204 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Position of adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun/ nouns in the sentence: the tall man. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. because the order seems quite arbitrary. richest man. a fivemonth-old child. The Order of Adjectives in a Series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. the fat lady.

a Faulknerian style. the. blue. square young. a Renaissance/ Romantic/ Victorian poet. it should probably be capitalised. the English Parliaments. the Nixon era. ancient denoting red. yellow. regarded as part of the passenger car. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. book Capitalising proper adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. Collective adjectives When the definite article. Thus we write (about) Christian music. American. orange. French fries. VI. Spanish. short. Qualifier is made of final limiter. new. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. black. IV. Romanian adjectives wooden. the oppressed. small. brown. noun often hunting cover cabin. round. the rich.English Practical Course 205 III. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: . the lonely. old. English. a Shakespearian play. Polish. V. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour gorgeous to large. the homeless. metallic. violet adjectives French. green.

as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. an euphuism is created if we say that This is the least beautiful city in the state instead of This is the ugliest city in the state. A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet less worthy of consideration than another candidate. although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. The rich are not supposed to help the poor. Adjectival opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. It’s probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already negative: He is less unlucky than his brother. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. you will have to consult a dictionary. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. They are figures of speech. for instance. of course. The opposite of beautiful is ugly. is to find an antonym. the opposite of alcoholic is non-alcoholic. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. For instance. the opposite of honourable is dishonourable. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix). The meaning itself can be tricky. the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. the opposite of being properly filled is misfilled. . The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. A third means of creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. the opposite of young is old. One way. the opposite of prudent is imprudent.206 English Practical Course The rural poor have been ignored by the media.

etc.y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting Irregular adjectives rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** syllables Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives double the consonant when the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively.English Practical Course 207 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in . farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more . hot/ hotter/ the hottest. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).

).). *** Latter means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Philology. people used typing machines instead of computers. Generally. we use the word less. the next refers to order. We do. but she also had less energy. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first movie was made in the United States. we use the word fewer. She had fewer chores.) Less versus fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. (Give me further details in order to understand it better. He’s less than six feet tall. ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest library?). the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. Your essay should be a thousand words or less.).). the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John. however. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play). quantity. the latter is a student in Foreign Languages).) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. when we’re talking about countable things. (The next bus comes in an hour. The latter has also an abstract meaning. when we’re talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count.). Taller than I/me? . In these situations. use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It’s less than four miles to Dallas. it’s possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures.208 English Practical Course * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you. Fowles.

000 traffic deaths in one year. In England. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. Good versus well In both casual speech and formal writing. time or height: His sister is over forty. we usually use more than in countable numerical expressions. will argue that the word than should be allowed to function as a preposition. am or is. her would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. He is taller than me/her. but – for now. It’s an interesting argument. over 40. With most verbs. . meaning in excess of or over. in the U. we could write I like him better than she does or I like him better than I like her. use the adverb. whereas in the UK.S. we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. there is no such distinction. academic prose. then (if than could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say. you will commonly hear over in numerical expressions of age. For instance. however. however. He swims well.English Practical Course 209 When making a comparison with than we end with a subject form: taller than I/she.. We’ve been waiting well over two hours for her. anyway – in formal.S. she is over six feet tall. there is no ambiguity: when modifying a verb. some editors would insist on more than 40.000 traffic deaths would be acceptable. ) More than/ over? In the United States. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as I like him better than she/her. She will mean that you like this person better than she likes him.. (We leave out the verb in the second clause. Even so in the U. We are looking for the subject form: He is taller than I am/ she. use the subject form in such comparisons. He knows very well who the murderer is.) Some good writers. If we can say He is tall like me/ her.

the+ comparative ... the baby smells so good.. the less acceleration. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. Many careful writers. you can use the adjective instead.. thank you. Comparative Sentences In relation to the degrees of comparison. . How are you? I’m feeling good. After a bath.. the better. c... Bad versus badly According to the same rule that applies to good versus well. The more we are. b.210 English Practical Course However. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you are OK physically but also that your spirits are high: How are you? I am well. however. use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. thank you. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. If you felt badly it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. You feel bad when something bad happens. The more mass in the body. will use well after linking verbs relating to health. El colecţionează vase vechi. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Literary Magazine”. the more fun we’ll have. Translate into English: a. and this is perfectly all right. frumoase din porţelan. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives: Form: the+ comparative . The bigger the essay. In fact. Controlled Practice 1.

Aş vrea să-mi cumpăr un pulover din lână scoţiană. Eroarea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. Women students are tempting new subjects. patru tipuri de temperament: − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. f. Am discutat astăzi la psihologie cele sanguin. Talk about the two possible meanings of the following sentences. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. Fumează două pachete de ţigări pe zi. El este un fumător învederat. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche? e. g. cu atât mă enervez mai tare. Translate them into Romanian: She bought Egyptian cotton shirts. cu atât mai bine.English Practical Course 211 d. g. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. c. f. 3. e. . b. coleric şi flegmatic. El el reprezentantul angajaţilor tineri de la departamentul de marketing. d. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. Translate into English: a. melancolic. Cu cât aştept mai mult. She fed her dog biscuits. Studentul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. h. Avem nevoie de mai multe computere în acest laborator.

(great) care is taken to prevent accidents. j. primul este mai scurt. e. He is (lazy) student in the class. Engleza devine din ce în ce mai importantã în întreaga lume. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists. f. The results were (bad) than expected. b. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . She found (few) grammar mistakes in John’s essay than in Mary’s one. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold. g. He was unable to get (far) information. j.212 English Practical Course h. Ideea ta e mai bunã. iar al doilea este mai lung. i. He needed (little) knowledge of computer skills than he thought they would expect him to. Dintre cele douã romane. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working with now. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. h. d. Supply the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets: a. i. c. Today.

and ……. buildings than Athens. Athens is ……. Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: . c.. ……. Tokyo.. . 7. of course. The latest Mercedes model is of course …….... too expensive.. for common people. of course. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo. the largest.yet. b. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. London is ……. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. Some are facts and some are his opinions. but.. parks. Tokyo’s exciting. The Electrolite is . for an architect. but it isn’t ……. d.. exciting …….. but London has . and. exciting of all.English Practical Course 213 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. London is.……. than Athens.. if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. but it has older ones …….. they are ……. Los Angeles is . parks than Tokyo.. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly.. e..……. even if their cars are very elegant and ……. London doesn’t have ……. 6. Complete his sentences: a.…….. . There are five in the city centre. interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. In comparison to our cities... Los Angeles has ……. much older ….. Yet at the same time you should think that. Los Angeles.……. these are ……. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited.. oldest city I have ever seen. the most expensive..

-ed or -ant derived from the verbs and nouns given in brackets: a. g. Which of the two students is more hardworking/ the more hardworking? h. They have invited any/ many people. m. i. -ful. k. You should always be (confidence) in yourself to succeed. They waited in the hall for five hours. His appearance at the party was (pleasure). The (colour) balloons attract the children in the park. h. j. e. g. f. 8. -ous. From these two photographs the smaller is the best/the better. f. The family of gipsy across the street live in a (pity) state. I spent a most (enjoy) night talking to my old friend George. n. You are in the (envy) position of owning half of the firm. i. He has retired and few/ little friends visit him. c. l.214 English Practical Course a. There are very few types of plants (eat) on this island. He needs some/ any months of training. d. Almost all the currencies in this area are (convert). -uble. the more relaxed/ the most relaxed you will feel. e. they were very (patience). b. b.-ible. Sometimes food eaten at home is the better/ better than food eaten in a restaurant. Complete the sentences with adjectives ending in –able. d. The weather here is very (change). A bigger dictionary is always more complete/ completer than a smaller one. It was a (moment) opportunity. Jack was extremely (mischief) that evening. c. Hungary has few (navigate) waterways. Those children’s minds are very (impress) sometimes. Your first paper was good/ better but this one is even best/ better. . The sooner/ sooner you get here.

he has been ………… . they didn’t complain of the (object) smell from the garbage disposal. e.or un-. p. Freedom of speech is regarded today as an (alienate) right. Complete the sentences with negative adjectives derived from the verbs in brackets by using the suffixes –able. He shouldn’t have believe your words. their decision to sell the house is (revoke). person: he lies and cheats everybody whenever he feels like. or –uble and the negative prefixes in. -ible. crowd. a. We like the privacy of a (fence) yard. h. overwhelming. The roast beef is ……… . f. overconfident. He is the greatest comic ever. The Romanian word dor is almost (translate) into English.. Complete each of these sentences with an adjective from the following list: unprintable. there are too many obscenities in it. a. mistrustful.. c. Because of the snow. When you go to that refined place. f. They had to use guns against that ………. Heroes finally disappear. inaccessible. . 9.. . his jokes are (imitate). I’ve never seen such a ………. She had an ………. The story you want to publish is ………. We are not cannibals! d. but their words are (destroy). c. dishonest. . b. g.English Practical Course 215 o. success due to the publication of her latest novel. e. They are not ………. unruly. d. Because you have been so stubborn. they take everything for granted. q. Strangely enough. 10. there are three places in Predeal which are ……… . b. your behaviour must be (courtesy). Adults change into old persons by almost (perceive) stages. underdone.

valuable. racing. f. French. He stood firm on position. very). She intends to buy (…) coat. he acted (cool. black and white. highly) in the sky. hardly) for the exam. c. a. Tom doesn’t like (…) children. h. light). h. They were the first to search that (penetrate) jungle. g. winter. Several (…) began last week. She has found (…) in the park. She used to work (hard. (woman. (canvas. (Russian. a. two pairs of. d. (…) shirts are a gift for me. Italian.216 English Practical Course g. silk. Does he have (…) motorbike? (blue. He wasn’t allowed to hit (low. (brick-built. . (good. white and red. He is (…) teacher. thick). huge. country. j. Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a. i. deeply) in the cave. for teaching foreign languages). That blue dress cost (dear. b. d. new). Your position in this company is quite (low. You have (hard. They used to live in a (…) house. Jet airliners can fly (high. nasty. f. and interesting. very. 12. pleasant). j. these. My friend sold me the TV set (cheap. My friends entered (deep. radio programmes. This library has (…) books. e. for jogging). those). (Number) changes took place in the office while I was away. e. grey). expensive. a. i. Chinese. lowly). 11. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order: a. c. i. Mary is looking for (…) fountain pen. old. (two. (wool. dearly). They were (deep. coolly). many. (new. (blue. g. young. cheaply). deeply) impressed by our success. English. h. This pair of trousers is especially made to be (shrink). two. b. lowly) for fear he should hurt his opponent. ugly). hardly) read anything this week. old.

c. There are … … Italians than Greeks in our town. There will be … … snow this winter. Who is the (oldest. g. George has … … American cars than Jack. i. After that heavy rain the air is less dry that it was before. farthest) of all? b. We have … … money for our holiday than last year. h. eldest) in the family? . The following sentences are incorrect. f. The English drink … … tea than milk. Which village is (further. d. This poem is less good than your last one. The water was less deep than they hoped. My cousin is much less rich than he looks. She writes … … prose than poetry. 15. You have always had … … toys than the other little boys. A car is less quick than an airplane. d. f. His office is less near than mine. b. g. There was … … rain last summer. Reformulate them so that they express the same meaning but use the comparative of superiority of the antonym: a. The wound is less bad than you thought at the beginning.English Practical Course 217 13. … … students will get scholarships next year. This plant employs … … men than women. 14. This room is less wide than the previous one. b. e. c. e. h. It is less dangerous to climb the Carpathians than to climb the Alps. i. j. farther. Choose the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a. Fill in with less or fewer: a.

h. e. f.218 English Practical Course c. Este cu mult mai greu decât mi-am imaginat. I’ve bought two bananas and ate the (latter. Nu am mai avut răbdare să stăm până la sfârşitul meciului pentru că a devenit din ce în ce mai puţin interesant. La auzul bubuiturii. later. later). cu atât părinţii sunt mai nemulţumiţi. Cu cât copiii sunt mai neascultători. Aceasta este cea mai bună cale posibilă de a o face să renunţe la ţigări. My colleague’s (last. i. Se şubrezeşte pe zi ce trece. b. She lived (nearest. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . g. c. i. (Further. further) advice to continue your investigation. Cu cât alergi mai mult. deveni din ce în ce mai neliniştit. f. e. d. next) door when she was young. latest) article has just been published. Crede cu tărie că aceasta e absolut cea mai frumoasă dintre concurente. j. 16. g. Farther) Mike realised he must return the stolen goods at once. Ţi-am adus cele mai proaspete fructe pe care le-am găsit. cu atât slăbeşti mai tare. h. I had to choose between French and English. Noua sa bibliotecă e cu mult mai mare decât cea veche. d. I chose the (last. You needed (farther. latter). I was wondering where the (nearest. Translate into English using intensifiers: a. next) bus station was.

f. pound notes) when she won the first prize. grey. g. He drunk a lot yesterday. a mould. horse. sieve). I can tell that you have eaten a lot lately. a judge. as (real. donkey). They were tickled … … when the teacher congratulated them. punch. c. j. green. lead. The shoes fit you like (a glove. true. I saw him last night. The Jackson brothers get on like (a house on fire. My grandfather never remembers anything. b. d. a pillowcase) since you mended them. you are as heavy as (a corpse. mouse. They will never eat so much ice-cream. clockwork). they were as sick as a (pig poodle. although normally he is as sober as (Sunday. yellow. Explain the meaning. I was given the … … light to announce the winner. fish and chips. c. a politician). a Muslim). a. They never argue. please! He is as deaf as (a post. a vault). To tell a … … lie sometimes does not hurt anybody’s feelings. he has a memory like a (bucket. a leaf.English Practical Course 219 17. a sunflower. he won’t listen to you. b. an elephant)! d. large) as life. Speak louder. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. a bank. She was as pleased as (a poppy. 18. blue. dog. e. . a. Putting your jewelry in this box is as safe as (houses. pink. glue. i. That vampire hasn’t been banished from town. good. a priest. You can shout at him until you are … … in the face. Select the colour: white. gold bars. h. two peas in a pod.

i. g. The President was very (official/officious) while giving his speech. c. Try to be a little (precise). b. They were really … … to leave us here without protecting us.220 English Practical Course e. h. k. j. In Australia there are (strict/severe) regulations with regard to kangaroos. Terry chose a (distinctive/distinct) nuance of red for her nail polish. d. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. 20. g. A (classic/classical) case of tuberculosis has been discovered in this school. I’ve been trying to decipher the manuscript for more than 6 hours because his handwriting is totally (eligible/illegible). My parents have (decisive/conclusive) evidence that I smoke. he would like to live in the mountains. d. f. e. Even if they got a lot of nice gifts. therefore it is (practicable/practical). Kelly has always wanted to live in a (luxurious/luxuriant) mansion. f. Your garden has (narrow) alleys than those from our park. Your proposal proves not too expensive. Confusing words: a. Which are the (breath-taking) views in your country? . h. The food you are eating right now is quite (deficient/defective) in fats. She doesn’t believe that these cigarettes are any (good) than the Russian ones. they also got some … … elephants. I am not that (credible/credulous) to believe everything I am told. c. 19. They say that lacking … … matter is worse than lacking beauty. He doesn’t like (urbane/urban) life. Mary was … … with envy when her sister married a handsome young man. b. please.

b.English Practical Course 221 e. de fapt. . d. It is (hard) for my nephew to understand the problem than for his (old) sister. i. Domnul Smith este foarte bătrân. George este chipeş. c. g. dar nu este atât de bine încât să se dea jos din pat. e. h. In autumn. f. His story became (interesting) the more we listened. Pacientul se simte bine astăzi. dar vărul său mai mare este cu 5 ani mai în vârstă decât el. f. The (cold) the weather. dar fratele său mai tânăr este cel mai chipeş băiat din câţi am văzut. j. They have the (complete) understanding of the problem. Mulţi oameni perfect sănătoşi nu sunt la fel de utili societăţii ca unii oameni cu deficienţe fizice. nights become (longer) till December. Then the show became ever (funny). − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 21. este cel mai puţin întins din tot oraşul. biroul este şi mai greu dar biblioteca este cea mai grea din casă. Translate into English: a. Dicţionarul pe care l-ai cumpărat cu două zile în urmă este gros ca o cărămidă! h. the (low) the temperatures. Primul film nu este atât de reuşit ca al doilea şi nici atât de haios. Fotoliul din odaia mea este greu. the 22nd. Parcul acela nu este foarte întins. g.

e. and/ looks/ now/ old/ she/ fresh/ rather. j. b. incredibly/ holiday/ wonderful/ was/ the. this/ man/ Pam/ wonder/ really/ I/ marry/ to/wants/if f. people/ true/pork/that/never/is/drink/it/these/alcohol/no/eat/and? g. life/movie/in/such/I/never/my/seen/a/have/boring h. Enormous/ they/ old/ staying/ house/ brown/ are/ an/ in. close/ are/ buddies/ extremely/ we. d. that/ motorbike/have/since/when/new/had/they? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . c. Problema era mai delicată decât mi-am putut eu imagina vreodată. Nu am întâlnit o persoană mai cunoscută în cercul guvernamental decât ea. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22.222 English Practical Course i. Rewrite the sentences putting the words into the correct order: a.

One old client was heard to say that their new supplier was (professional) and (flexible) than we are. If this is the case. act well. It was a very restful holiday so we feel much more … now. relax. continue. The verbs with adverbs should be used to form compound adjectives: dry. brush well. steal. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form: The company’s twelve-monthly report shows that sales figures were (low) than the previous year. This is no surprise due to the recession but what is (unacceptable) than this is the clear proof that some of our (old) clients have switched to another supplier. using the verbs below. The economic situation is getting (critical) and if we don’t compare favorably with our (big) competitors. bring up well. tailor beautifully. then this is (disturbing) than anything else. d. break. park. It is not easy to be the (good) but that is what we should be aiming for. We are aware that there are (cheap) suppliers than ourselves but this may not be the (essential) factor. embarrass. plan badly. boil. a. c.English Practical Course 223 23. then we will not survive. He’s a very … boy: he always behaves himself well. e. We used to have the (high) standing in the business but we are in danger of losing that for good. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 24. keep beautifully. it was very … . The … kettle filled the little girl with fear. write well. Complete the sentences with participles as adjectives. build well. decline fast. b. change. think clearly. I kept calling her by her nickname. love. I saw a very … play.

h. They’re a very … family and they understand each other perfectly. n. describe. They had a lovely holiday. e. r. Her hair is always very … . The increase in divorce shows a … attitude to marriage. That’s a … suit she has bought. k. q. it was thoroughly enjoyable. My friend never seems to run out of energy. g. s. d. 25. Shortage of gas is a … problem for us. This is a … garden: you must spend at least three hours a day working on it. . truth a. Everybody believes what Jack says because he’s always been … . I don’t know why she’s that … . forget. She may have suffered of a … heart. Our chalet is old but it’s very … . p. i. submit. care. o. I’m totally… . Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below plus a suffix: act. t. comfort. c. change. motion. rely. Sharon is a good person to have in meetings as she’s very … . It was a very … article. tire. power. m. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her novels. There’s nothing I can do about it. She never remembers your birthday. b. l. enjoy.224 English Practical Course f. dread. Mother needs some … fruit to put in the cake. Bears are a … species in that part of the country as many of them are killed every summer. he’s completely … . f. It was a … escape and so it was doomed to failure. grace. They should not park near … cars. You may be charged with receiving … stolen cars. Jane Austen was a very … writer. j.

logical. regular. mortal. rational. He has said he’ll be here and I’m sure he will. j. You’re so … : you’re always dropping plates on the floor. Mary: So. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form. They always do what you tell him to do: he’s just so… . The situation in the oil-polluted gulf is … . n. o. explicable. reversible. moral legal. the weather can be completely different from one day to another. It’s a very … climate. My back never hurts while sitting in them. Some of the comparatives are formed with less: Mary. flexible. justified. replaceable dis- Un- il- imimpatient in- ir- 27. responsible. h. Thousands of fish are dying every day. The lion stayed … as it waited to pounce on the gazelle. mature. convenient. possible. I love to watch the swans on the lake: they’re so … . He’s very… . k. attractive. Put the following adjectives into the correct column: patient. how do you like living in the new place? . perfect. m. honest. legible. interesting. destructible. i. 26. agreeable. The armchairs he has just bought are really … . significant.English Practical Course 225 g. who has recently moved to the countryside. tasteful. literate. soluble. friendly. separable. l. It’s important to keep … after you retire. is on the phone to her friend Jane. polite. relevant. who lives in Leeds.

But it’s so much … (busy) on the streets in Liverpool. Jane: Well. that’s quite true. Going out shopping in Liverpool was so much … (interesting) than it is here. I’m not sure I would say that.226 English Practical Course Jane: Oh. So. The house is much … (spacious) than the house we had in Liverpool and one of the … (good) things is being able to walk out of the back door into our own garden. You seem to be thinking that you haven’t made the … (good) decision. It’s certainly … (polluted) here and I think it’s … (stressful) and that must be good for me. Who knows? Mary: Yes. Mary: Mm. The people here are so much … (varied) than they are in Liverpool. sometimes it is. Jane: Well. isn’t it? Jane: Well. it’s much (good) than Liverpool. that is wonderful. When I came to visit you. I thought it was one of the … (beautiful) places I had ever seen. at least I’m going to Liverpool again next weekend. I suppose sometimes I miss the clamour of Liverpool. Anyway. . it’s very nice. I’m … (excited) about that than I am about anything here. I personally think you’re really lucky to be where you are. probably. Mary: Oh dear. perhaps I’ll feel … (settled) here after a few weeks. Mary: Yes. But it’s just so much … (quiet) here and that takes some time to get used to. It must be nice to walk around somewhere that’s much … (crowded).

when Jim. for the terribly . and from below many eyes were looking at him out of dark faces. and the official Inquiry was being held in the police court of an Eastern port. out of red faces. speaking of the ship: “She went over whatever it was as easy as a snake crawling over a stick. out of faces attentive. out of white faces. with burning cheeks in a cool lofty room: the big framework of punkahs moved gently to and fro high above his head. in answer to pointed questions.English Practical Course 227 UNIT 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Articles © Definite Articles © Indefinite Articles © Zero Articles •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad. as if all these people sitting in orderly rows upon narrow benches had been enslaved by the fascination of his voice.” The illustration was good: the questions were aiming at facts. spellbound. it rang startling in his own ears. Underline the definite articles with one line and the indefinite articles with two lines: A month or so afterwards. He stood elevated in the witness-box. It was very loud. Pay attention to the use of the article in English. he said. it was the only sound audible in the world. tried to tell honestly the truth of this experience.

They live in a flat.. I’m reading a course for my exam now. The Indefinite Article a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to objects that have not been specifically identified. Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. religion. or it doesn’t matter which one): A pet is a big responsibility. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. She is an Australian. It refers to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. the shame that made you burn. the attentive eyes whose glance stabbed. Give me an apple. . £13 000 a year Formally per can replace a/an.45 a kilo. $3. • in measuring Three times a month.came to him poignant and silent like the terrible questioning of one’s conscience. Outside the court the sun blazed.228 English Practical Course distinct questions that extorted his answers seemed to shape themselves in anguish and pain within his breast. sixty kilometres an hour. Here are the basic rules.within was the wind of great punkahs that made you shiver.

Compare: Tom is a teacher. • it is used with a generic noun that represents a class: We saw a zebra at the zoo. a usual case. The course I’m reading is very interesting. to develop a disease. an unusual accident. The Definite Article the is used: • • to refer to classes before a singular or a plural noun. Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown: A Mr Smith called and asked about you. rather a big decision An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (except for words beginning with a semivowel: the sound /j/ and /w/): an apple. an hour. what: such an ugly scar . a united party. etc. an honest man. to take a seat. Tom is the teacher of these students. Mind the baby! Mind your steps when you climb the stairs! The tiger is threatened with extinction. • to refer to unknown people. An indefinite article is required after • • such.English Practical Course 229 He is a Christian. an heir. what a pretty nose. a year. to have a headache. as a matter of fact. an ink well. rather a: quite a large dog. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. but an ugly man. . such pretty eyes quite a. A book is for reading. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. a woman. a university. to have a good time.

the Middle East. oceans. The Mediterranean. The United States. shops. The Independent (as the is part of the title. countries (France). The Hilton. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural). The Orient Express. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. Asia). The Alps. mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn). We say London Bridge. but The Tower of London. The Pacific. The Time.230 English Practical Course • before nouns expressing certain public places. means of transport. The is sometimes dropped in everyday speech: Have you seen “Phantom of the Opera”? As far as names of places are concerned. The Garden House Hotel. seas. or if they represent a union). If the first part of a place name is another name. The Sahara. hotels. compass points/ areas. then normal rules about zero article apply: Brown’s Restaurant. The Netherlands. chains of mountains. it is capitalised. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. continents (Europe. denoting groups of islands. countries (if they are in the plural. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. • Before unique objects the moon. The Sunday Times. but Canvey Island. the sun Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe: The planet has a small moon. The Thames. the East. rivers. The same applies to geographical names: The Isle of Man. institutions. channels. The Bahamas. Note that titles of books and films do not have the unless there is postmodification: The Phantom of the Opera.) This does not apply to lakes: Lake Geneva. . The Suez Canal. note that Edinburgh University changes into The University of Edinburgh. deserts.

on the whole.. but not essential. The English are very polite.English Practical Course 231 • before nouns converted from adjectives. These tend to be unique: The director of studies. The precedes nouns of indefinite quantity or quality (mass nouns and abstract nouns) used to indicate a particular attribute: Gold is an important metal. the second chapter. with the superlative degree of adjectives: with ordinals: in phrases: The woman who is standing near the door will give a speech. on the one hand. on the other hand. etc. the third day to tell the time. nationality. the is more likely. denoting a class. If the title is post-modified. The gold in this ring is very old. by the way. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. The singular is not formed in the same way: An Englishman would always excuse for being late. the ninth row. • to express titles. For instance: He became President in 2000.. at the moment. (postmodification) • • • • when a restrictive modifier follows a noun. It was the most important day in my life. But: He became (the) President of Romania in 2000. . The French eat in restaurants more than the English. (postmodification) Emphatic use: This heavily stresses and emphasises the following noun: This country is the place to visit.

Newsweek Most streets do not use an article. etc. The Strand and street names without preceding adjectives. continents. Translation problems Study these sentences. streets. day by day. Gas is cheaper than electricity. Oxford Street. • • some unique organisations: Parliament. etc. days of the week. magazines and periodicals. regions. Gold and silver are important metals. mountains. countries. • in phrases: at night. when we imply the use made of the institution (not the building): He goes to school (to learn). Exceptions are The High Street. months. Paris. Europe. festivals. towns. by mistake. Money is the root of all evil. January. Babies need to drink milk. by sea. but The (House of) Commons nouns like school. In what way do the English people use the article differently in comparison with the way Romanians use it? . to shake hands. Compare: Holly Drive with The Drive. church.: Mary/ Mount Everest. lakes. prison. • proper nouns denoting persons. at dawn.232 English Practical Course Zero Article It is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. to be in trouble. to take place. Green Road. Sunday. to make friends. But: The school in my district is near my house.

/ . C./ . A.. I’ve got a splitting headache. director to come. the ./the. excellent dinner and had . the/the f. the/ a e. very good time at . Physics and one in . bed as I was very tired.. They had . B... It’s a film about homeless people./the. degree in . A. . Controlled Practice 1. an/the/ . nails. Decide which answer A. B. Terry has flu. . A. .. ../the. He had . Most and the most Most without an article means the greater part. an/a/the g../ . I live in Birmingham most of the time.. Mathematics. I did my homework and then went directly to . a/the/the/the h. a/the...... I thought you had passed ./the. A.. best teachers in our highschool...English Practical Course 233 A pound and a half of butter. water. A... . a/ the. a/ .. B. C.. A. C. C. This is the most expensive shop in town..... seat and waited for .. a. B. hardest of all. authority. an. the/ the. C. . plants need .. C.. In order to survive. a. In order to fix the armchair he needs . the b. the c. a/ some d. B.. C. B or C best fits each space: a.... an/the. . B.. C.. He is speaking to . B. B.. Hilton. I took . hammer and . exam but it seems that it was ./a/the.... A. so he was one of . A.

/a j./ . way.234 English Practical Course i.. e.. j... so he studies different writers.. It is not first-class accommodation unless it has a private bathroom.. The time you spend on a relaxing pastime is good for you. C. Lion is dangerous animal. sincerity with which he spoke../ . I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. Her office is in the Baker Street. i. I don’t like cakes sold in a local bakery. yet not everyone admires . Work in pairs to find the mistakes in each of the following sentences: a. .. Don’t you work in bookshop in the London? g. I’m going to stand for Parliament at the next election. c. h. Smiths are at . . The burglaries are definitely on increase. n.. d. He’s philologist. I would have done it.. o.. . A. She bought a Cezanne I was telling you about the last week. 2./the. If I had had time to call you. A. home now. f../ .. B. yet they are busy at the moment. . k. the/ . a/ . l. sincerity in such .. B. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. Everyone was impressed by ./ . b. the/ . An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling streets had been instructed to issue clear warning before firing any shots.. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. . m. C. in London.

B or C best fits each space: Britain has 1) ……… unenviable reputation for industrial unrest and strikes. let us examine the arguments for and against the right to strike. Decide which answer A. Whenever the work-force in any firm feel themselves to be 4) ……… victims of injustice. which many people feel has had a significant and adverse effect upon the economy. the management may be less willing to listen and may try to take advantage of the workers’ fear of losing their jobs. When the economy is none too healthy. and often. of course. they will receive a sympathetic ear.. They can. and unemployment is high. appeal to the better nature of their employers. At the same time. right of workers to strike. or wish to present their case for a pay increase. In . however.English Practical Course 235 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. In order to explain this apparent contradiction. their options are somewhat limited. Successive governments have attempted in 2) ……… vain to reduce this unrest. because it is in 5) ……… best interests of the managements to keep the workers as happy as possible. however most of the same people would defend 3) …….

These negative arguments all emphasize 13) ……… disruption and hardship caused by strikes. Such arguments are not sufficiently strong to warrant denying workers the right to strike. Employers may also resent 8) …….236 English Practical Course such a situation.. be 14) ……… last resort and there should be fewer irresponsible industrial disputes. As a last resort. But without this right and without the efforts of trade unions over the years. the call to strike. as a result. The arguments against striking are numerous and vary somewhat depending on one’s point of view. However they may wish to appear neutral. . As 7) ……… employer. there seems little alternative to the withdrawal of labour. 10) ……. one has to ask how employees can protect their interests as regards 6) …….. create immense problems as regards long-term planning.right to strike because it imposes limits on the management’s control of employees and contradicts the ideology of a harmony of interests which assigns legitimacy to managerial power. The disruptive effect of 12) ……… major strike upon the nation’s economy is therefore potentially dangerous. Withdrawing one’s labour should. wages. you may find both practical and ideological arguments against the right to strike. conditions. The government’s viewpoint is similar in 9) ……. which are an abuse of the right to strike. it is hard to imagine that 15) ……… employees in Britain would be as well treated as they are today. But the practical argument against strikes would remain a constant. Governments in capitalist societies such as Britain inevitably serve the interests of management. Strikes disrupt the process of production and can. of course. and fair treatment by the managements. sense that the importance of the ideological argument may vary with changes of government. The state of the nation’s economy is inextricably linked with 11) ……… fortunes of private enterprise.

. …….English Practical Course 237 1. A. C. and wanted to go to …… bed. some 4. the. B. a 10. the. C.15. and when we got to …. A. B. a 4. A. Home Park. A. We were tired and hungry. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate articles: After you pass ……… Old Windsor. A. -. Abert to ………Victoria Bridge. some 7. A. It was …… Saturday before …….13. C. and does not become itself again until you are nearing ……. – 8. some 6. B. a. the. A the. a. B. B. a. the. a. B. Boveney. B. C. B.. C. – 2. Some.... a 3. C. C. George asked me if I remembered our first trip up …….. A. the. B.. A. .. A.. the. B. 9. C. right bank ……. the.. B. B. the 5.. . hamper.. which stretches along ……. A. -.. some 12.-. C. August Bank Holiday. A. C. -. C. C. A. from ……. an. . I answered that I did remember it. B. some. river is somewhat uninteresting. B. –. 11. the. the 14. the. George and I rowed up past……. Datcher. river and when we landed at …… Datcher at ten o’clock at …… night. Datcher. B. It will be some time before I forget it. C. C. . -. A. C. A. we took out …. and as we were passing ……. the. the. an.. the.

.238 English Practical Course ……. and ……. coats.. diggings. and such like things.. two bags.. rugs and …….. and started off to look for …….

you get the money yourself. ‘I want to tell you. this is what I want. ‘Suppose. and it’ll all be out soon. Can you classify them? ‘Why. see and get the money. whether I tell him or not. savagely. now. he should send word to Cox to distrain. and save me the trouble. He had himself been drinking more than was good for him. before he went out. you know. trying to turn his gloom into uncalculating anger. He said. sneeringly.and just shake yourself sober and listen. and in no humour to stand any nonsense. I must hand over that rent of Fowler’s to the Squire. and you know what he threatened. eh? Since you was so kind as to hand it over to me. or else tell him I gave it you. just now.English Practical Course 239 Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adverbs © Punctuation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Silas Marner by George Eliot. The Squire’s short o’ cash. for he’s threatening to distrain for it. if ever he found you making away with his money again. coming nearer to his brother and looking into his face. will you?’ ‘Oh!’ said Dunsey. you’ll not refuse me the kindness to pay it back for me: it was your brotherly love made you do it.’ . will you?’ said Godfrey. So. Underline the adverbs. if Fowler didn’t come and pay up his arrears this week. and pretty quickly.

hence. extremely. when. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. after. aboard. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. It can modify: a verb: We are talking about your report today. forever Adverbs of cause. for this reason. where. Form Simple Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old adverbs far likewise everywhere fast afloat outdoors here homeward(s) outside late repeatedly thereby near hardly therefore now monthly today then bitterly tomorrow today happily wherein well excellently wherefore Adverbs of manner: badly. degree and approximation: awfully. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. every time. enough. . afterwards. carefully.240 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. why. ever. result and concession: consequently. fast Adverbs of place: away. thus. a quality. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. therefore. wherefore. little Adverbs of frequency: always. a pronoun: Me too. reason. early Adverbs of quantity. excellently. above. again. measure.

yours. She’s rather tired. I’m working for my exams. Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. I hope to visit England again. I saw a marvelous film. the party is going very nice/nicely. I don’t keep my plan. It would be great to see you. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily.English Practical Course 241 Controlled Practice 1 1. Thank you for your letter. Maria 2. but I’ve been very busy. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. I’ve finished for today. Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. It was called “The English Patient”. And I’m hot/hotly. often here a lot next year there again hard soon . I’ve planned my revision. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. And you look pale/palely. Suzanne comes about once a week. isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. thanks. Love. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. I had a lovely time last year. We talk. lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. I’m trying to save some money. They taste good/well. Helen: No.

Erau cam obosiţi. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse. i. Noi vorbim bine englezeşte. . Ce ţi-ai făcut la păr? f. c. doesn’t it? Look. John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. El cumpără ieftin şi vinde scump. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. Ea nu lipseşte niciodată de la şcoală. dar astăzi o să fac o excepţie şi o să mănânc. ca de obicei. A ajuns acasă înaintea tatălui ei. De-abia s-a aşezat la masa de lucru că deja s-a simţit obosit şi s-a dus la culcare. El a venit târziu ieri. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. Translate into English: a. 3. Arăţi destul de bine.242 English Practical Course John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. Maşina asta merge prea repede. Eu nu mă trezesc niciodată devreme. Helen: Thank you. j. d. h. Dacă îi vede poliţia o să-i amendeze. I might be OK. şi acceptabil franceza. Actually. It seems rather loud/loudly. În general nu prea îmi plac prăjiturile. l. Arăţi foarte tristă. m. that’s all right. dar au decis să continue lucrul la proiect pentru încă vreo câteva ore. b. my head aches quite bad/badly. thanks. spectatorii au început să ovaţioneze. g. Ce ţi s-a întâmplat? k. De îndată ce se trăseseră cortinele. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. e. too. Toată lumea se simţea fericită când s-a aflat că el nu este vinovat. n.

At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. a sentence by beginning Others think it is useless. Independent in this company. and solve . every day. clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. but it rained the words and. nor. and so. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to make their meaning clear. An indepen. este periculos să stai lângă macara. yet.Some of us think we should dent clause is made into invest it with a capital letter and ending it with a period. Nu te apropia. or. Sentence . The Draw the figure. Nu înveţi niciodată când trebuie să te fereşti de pericole! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar Reference 2 Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. 1.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . Ordinaly.English Practical Course 243 o. . Here are some punctuation rules. but.

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first clause is usually the problem.

;

followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company; others are closely think it is useless

connected by joining

:

them with a semicolon. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have reduce next year’s

?

!

mark. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feelings may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an

exclamation mark. 2. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is necessary. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are compound, they charged to a major credit card. Guidelines Examples

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245

are usually joined I’m together with words such as and, or or without any punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Compounds

taking

Chemistry

(and)

a Physics and Maths this semester.

,

that England, Scotland, and Wales conscious

contain more than share the island of Great Britain. two elements are Environmentally called series. businesses use recycled paper,

Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet, and ceramic cups. a series, with words such as and or or usually between occuring the last

;

two items. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation, separation commas confusing, used instead. can by be and or reading; of grades; and test of and teacher have vocabulary, memory,

recommendations.

semicolons may be

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3. Word - Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences, There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. Punctuation Marks Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management

used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. An apostrophe is used He’s; didn’t; let’; Ma’am; four in constructions to o’clock. show where letters or 45’s; ABC’s. numbers have been omitted. A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00 mark shortened forms p.m. like abbreviations and initials. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four, self-confidence to

.

-

... insta -

form compound words When two modifiers The study included first- and containing hyphens second-year students. are joined together, common elements are often not repeated. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Guidelines Examples

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247

Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo words of someone else, they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know.” the text. If part of a quotation is She

... ....

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a When the omission comes in proper job, to find the the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas.” one or more sentences, four “Work of the tyre that points are used. B.W.R.A. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern, and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many .... There are factors which value out when in a up your selfish

affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used.” When writers insert something “In a fault, it [the crust of within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and caused different

[]

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brackets. layers of rock to slip.” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech. try again − if you let me”, he offered.

Unit 14
Reading
Read the following poem belonging to Rudyard Kipling. Pay attention to if clauses. Translate the poem into Romanian. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream- and not make dreams your master; If you can think- and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools;

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If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings- nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And- which is more- you’ll be a Man, my son!

Ways with Words
1. …If neither foes nor loving friends… Distinction should be made between foe, enemy and opponent, antagonist, adversary. Enemy and foe agree in denoting a person or body of persons that is hostile or that manifests hostility to another. Enemy stresses the antagonism that arises from a cherished hatred or a desire to harm or destroy, but it may suggest nothing more than active or evident dislike. He is a man with many friends and no enemies.

Opponent is one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict of opinion. Which word does allowance come from? We call -ance a suffix. fishery eg: actress. He is the foe of all reform measures. .ism . marrige .age preference .ist .ation . romanticist eg: adversity. Foe is a more literary and poetic word than enemy.ess . slavery. -ency eg: utterance.ery .eer . Antagonist implies sharper opposition in a struggle for supremacy or control.acy . Read the following line: But make allowance for their doubting too. translation. engineer. identification eg: wisdom eg: refugee. scepticism eg: satirist.er. -or . braggart eg: examination. Unlike the former group the latter does not necessarily imply personal animosity or hostility. employee eg: mountaineer. appearance. tigress eg: neighbourhood.ee . Adversary implies not only the idea of mere opposition but active hostility. Let’s read a list of suffixes which are used in order to form nouns: . dancer. 2. drunkard. childhood eg: realism. violonist. probability eg: democracy.250 English Practical Course Foe implies active enmity either literally or figuratively. hostess.ancy. eg: teacher. diplomacy. singer eg: backery.ity eg: sluggard.hood . ascendency.ance / . accuracy eg: passage. -ence.dom .ard / -art .

I’ll wrap it for you. (insistence) The main clause usually has the verb in the future with will/shall. can/could. I’ll pass my exams. should. he’ll go to university.let . Main Clause If Clause Present/ Future Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard. you’ll get worse. eg: greateness. Will / would can be used to express polite requests or insistence: If you will wait for a moment. We’ll destroy the environment if we don’t look after it. I’ll buy this car.ness . we can also use: ‘be going to’ future. can. departure Now practise them and find other words for each of them. movement.English Practical Course 251 . future continuous. may/might. If he’s still waiting for you. present perfect simple. he must be very hungry. leadership eg: agriculture.man . sadness eg: friendship.ship . This is replaced by the present simple. Grammar Reference First Conditional It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes. must. If he passes the baccalaureate. we can also use: present continuous. .ment . should/ought to. However. (request) If you will go on smoking. However. present perfect continuous. imperative.ure eg: hamlet. booklet eg: Englishman. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. future perfect. fisherman eg: improvement.

. . If I should see him. /go out more often. If she knew/ were to know the answer. you‘ll have to wear boots. palaces. we won’t wait for you. If it’s been raining. Main Clause If Clause Present Conditional Present Subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had more money. etc. Interrogative What will you do if you don’t go to any university? Where will she go she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? Second Conditional It is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future.. I‘ll tell him the good news. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. he must phone you today. I would (’d) /could buy a new computer. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. If I didn’t have debts. I’d have a party. If I were Prime Minister. the condition is less likely to be performed. the verb in the conditional clause is in the present subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons. (But I’m not Prime Minister. she would tell it to us immediately.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). We can always say But. ranches. (But my house is very small. If you are late. Note: When we use if +should. I wouldn’t have to work so hard.) If I lived in a big house.252 English Practical Course If Paul has received your letter.

Interrogative What would you have done if you had seen such a wonderful movie? Which countries would you have visited if you had travelled round the world? Notes: . I wouldn’t have failed the driving license test. which can no longer be changed. If the ambulance had come sooner. However. The condition is highly hypothetical. he might have been /could have been saved. it contradicts reality. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). If I hadn’t made so many mistakes. whereas in the main clause we can use the modals could and might before the perfect infinitive. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). If she had known the answer. she would have passed the exam.English Practical Course 253 Interrogative What would you do if you were me? Which countries would you visit it you travelled round the world? Third Conditional It is used to express impossible (unfulfilled) condition referring to the past. he could have been killed. I would (‘d) have bought this elegant car. we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive in if clause. Main clause If clause Past/Perfect conditional Perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. If he had been travelling in that car.

even if. . He would have been furious. The most common mixed conditional is: If + past perfect Other types: If you come to the party tomorrow.254 English Practical Course • In reported speech. If he is honest. I’m sure we’d really have a good time with you (if we went). assuming (that). the verb tenses of first conditional sentences change in the usual way. providing (that). since. suppose. I would have a degree now. as/so long as. The context defines the meaning. (implied condition: If you come out with us. If she loved him. second and third conditionals. when. Implied Conditionals Conditionals are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses. it is also possible to mix conditionals. Mixed Conditionals In addition to the tense variations we can use in the first. if only. conditionals can also be introduced by other conjunctions: on (the) condition that. particularly in spoken English: Please come out with us tonight. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. unless. I wouldn’t bring Mary with you. she would have stayed with him. he would have told the truth. I’m glad you didn’t tell Mathew about this. (if you had told him) would/could/might + infinitive If I had worked harder at university. • Besides if. but for + gerund/noun. I would have finished it on time. …) With a bit more help (if I had more help). even though. as. provided (that). supposing. but we just can’t afford a holiday. whereas with second and third conditionals the tenses remain unchanged.

What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. o sã ţi-l spun. … Controlled Practice 1.00. were or had in the if-clause. I wouldn’t say that. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. . I wouldn’t have done such a thing.English Practical Course 255 Inversion in If-Clauses When there is should. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. b. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. tell him to come at 8. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. / Should he ring. If he should ring. c. Translate the following sentences into English: a. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b. / Had I known earlier. … If I had known earlier. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. eşti binevenit. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. … If I were you. Dacã voi putea. the subject and the auxiliary verb can be inverted and if is omitted. / Were I you.

. Maria: Thanks. but remember I’m going out. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. That’s 8. e. I (arrive) at the hotel. John: Good. I (ring). you (be) out .00. the plane (arrive) on time. or as soon as into each gap. Give me a ring ... Have a good trip.. John: All right. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. when. Bye! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . And remember. John: Great. Put if. and I (pick) you up. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . . darling.00 your time... Maria: Well. you know the time of your flight back. I (ring) you .. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. I (be) at the hotel at about 10. Maria: Thanks. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye.256 English Practical Course d. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. darling...

d. If I knew it. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. ţi le-aş spune. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. If you could do it. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. Dacã ar fi aici. I would have told you the truth. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. e. If it rained. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. Dacã ai vrea. c. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. e. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: . d. we would go inside.English Practical Course 257 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. Translate the following sentences into English: a. b. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest raport. b.

If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. c. h. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arabian. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. If she (go) to university so late. e. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. c. . I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confronted with) such storms. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. b. d. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. d. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. If I (know) this from the beginning.258 English Practical Course a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. i. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. b. e. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. f.

Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. . you (accept)? e. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. Dacã nu ar fi nins. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. b. b. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. c. Translate into English: a. If he had asked you to do that job. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. d. c. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago.English Practical Course 259 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. nu aş fi picat acest examen. e. d.

. c. b.. I would lend it to you if.. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Finish these sentences. I’d have brought my compass if.260 English Practical Course f. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel. j... d. If I buy this machine ... i. f.. j.. h. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.. These are mixed conditional sentences.. If you had asked his permission..... If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. taking care to use the correct tense.. If he had taken my advice.. g. If the river rises any higher.. e. If the fire had been noticed earlier. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way. . The substance would look better if.. g. h.. If she practised more. i. a. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.

everything would be all right now. If he hadn’t died so young. I. If you had worked harder last month. with us 9. 5. If the train hadn’t been delayed. The condition is not stated in a conditional clause in the following underlined sentences. about this problem earlier. If he was feeling ill this morning. you wouldn’t have said that to her. A. If you were a more sensitive person. he probably won’t be at the . 6. C. If they don’t contact you soon. Write a sentence containing the underlined sentence as a main clause and an appropriate conditional clause. we would be there by now. If he didn’t work so hard all the time. I’m sure he’d be a famous musician by now. D. I would have had them by now. 10. If you’re coming month. B. 2. J. H. 4. 12. 3. would you hurry up and get ready? F. If I really wanted to have children. If you had told me meeting.English Practical Course 261 11. E. his wife would never have left him. 8. you could always ring them up. you wouldn’t be so busy this G. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences: 1. 7.

First. I know that she could do really well. It would be horrible sitting out here otherwise.262 English Practical Course a. b. f. g. It’s a good job you brought all those tables and chairs in from outside last night. j. Mark should have told the truth. You’ll love it there. h. d. c. We’re lucky it’s sunny today. She would make a very good managing director. I hear you’re thinking of going to Indonesia for the summer. i. I hope those refugees aren’t deported. but I think they will be. Without the help of the Red Cross doctors. I think Alison should apply for the job. They may be imprisoned or even executed. The problem is that she doesn’t work very hard. second or third conditional: . I’m sure she would have forgiven him. He wouldn’t be able to live on his own without the help of his neighbours. The rain would have ruined them. With luck. we’ll finish the job by the end of the day. e. many more would have died. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13.

e. I’m sure you (regret) one day. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. I’m sure more people (use) the train and (leave) their cars at home. If fares (be) cheaper. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth. but if it (lose). I’m sure she (help) us fix the car. I never (meet) Adrian. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I’m so glad you took me to your friend’s party. g. She has everything she wants but she’s always moaning. h. f. I’m sure that if I (have) so much money I (moan) all the time. k. c. I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment. It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. we (go) for a picnic. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. Jenny was here not long ago. l. the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. They’ve been married for 20 years but I don’t think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was. If we (not go) there. If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics. the town (lose) a great deal of money. If it (be) a nice day. d. b. Apparently. The government is expecting to win the next election. but she knows even less than we do. you (see) her. the PM (resign) from politics. i. If you (come) round earlier. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible.English Practical Course 263 a. j. If that (happen).

He wasn’t on time.264 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. I’m not rich so I can’t afford a long holiday abroad. You had better take his advice. If it hadn’t been for my mother’s generosity. Rewrite the sentences: a. Unless… You won’t …. I wouldn’t have my car now. If she happens to come. he stayed at home. If you don’t drive carefully. he can’t find a job. I’ll help you. But for… g. Were… c. I’ll help you provided… h. If I … . As long as you … b. you’ll have an accident. Had he… i. As he couldn’t afford a holiday. so we missed the train. If… e. Should… d. If … f. tell her to wait for me. Since he doesn’t have any qualifications. If you help me.

If I were him.(so) j. If she were… l. As I couldn’t answer any of the questions. (since) l. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. She must have lived in France because she has a perfect French accent. (punctual) h.English Practical Course 265 j. you’ll pass the exam. (not) d. Since he is an only child. But for his help. (were) i. (long) c. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words. (shoes) e. You won’t be punished provided you admit it was your mistake. (but) g. If you revise all your notes.(got) k. As you‘ve got a high temperature. I would not be late for the interview. I would have punished him. I didn’t go out because I had a lot of work to do. If someone gave you a free airline ticket. If I … k. If it wasn’t for the good pay. (better) b. I walked out of the Maths exam. a. I wouldn’t stay in this job. She must be out since she didn’t answer the phone. his parents have spoiled him. If I had been you. she would have come to Tom’s party. including the word given. I wouldn’t be in my current job. you’d better go to the doctor’s. If Mary were feeling well. you’ll be given the sack. If you don’t get to work on time. where would you travel to? (to) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (provided) f. If she had… 15.

− _________________________________________________________ . ai putea să intri şi să îi înapoiezi dicţionarul pe care l-ai împrumutat de la el. c. Mi-a spus de câteva ori că va accepta postul cu condiţia ca salariul să fie mulţumitor. excursia noastră la munte n-ar fi fost atât de plăcută. te rog reaminteşte-mi de promisiunea făcută. g. n-ai fi acum în situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere în tine. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc adăpostul dacă aş fi ştiut că se va întâmpla o nenorocire. Dacă l-ai vedea acum nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. e. În cazul în care voi uita. Translate into English: a. Presupunând că partenerul dvs. h. b.266 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. Dacă n-ai fi atât de mincinos. Dacă n-ar fi nins. j. d. f. Dacă se întâmplă să treci pe lângă biroul lui. e numai o umbră din ce a fost o dată. De data asta te-aş putea duce cu maşina mea dacă îmi promiţi să nu se mai repete. ar accepta aceste propuneri. care ar fi următoarea etapă a tratativelor? i. N-ar fi trebuit să câştige atât de mulţi bani şi n-ar fi dat de necaz dacă soţiei lui i-ar fi plăcut mai puţin luxul.

English Practical Course 267 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

passengers were overcome at the sight. Underline the modal verbs: The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue. Pat Scully.268 English Practical Course Unit 15 Reading Read the following fragment from The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane. pity. in a laugh. horror. and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. when the great transcontinental expresses. and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame. the proprietor. then. Pat Scully had performed a feat. But to the citizens of this prairie town. and to the people who would naturally stop there. . causing the bird to declare its position against any background. they had no color in common. classes. egotisms. that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day. The Palace Hotel. a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron. It is true that on clear days. had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. With this opulence and splendor. It stood alone on the prairie. long lines of swaying Pullmans. swept through Fort Romper. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low clap-board houses which composed Fort Romper. and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swampish hush. these creeds.

he decided to spend his living honestly and today he is no longer the black sheep of his family. Feel Blue: ‘I feel blue so often when it’s cloudy and rainy.” Black sheep: “Ted ran away from home at age 15. Be blue. To which John replied: “It must because I take vitamins”. Answer the following questions: . Both her flower garden and her vegetable garden always appear to be healthy and very productive. He got into trouble and spent some time in prison. Red – handed: “As the thief was climbing out the window with the stolen necklace. But you should see Dorothy’. Do you know any idioms containing the word blue? How do you translate out of the blue or once in a blue moon? 2. his family is quite proud of him and of the transformation they see in his life. On the contrary. At least. got captured and spent more time in prison. you certainly have a green thumb!” To be in the pink: “The doctor examined John thoroughly and finally said: “You’re in the pink of health”. Helen Smith always seems to be successful in growing things. This fragment belongs to a novel written by Stephen Crane.” 2.’ ‘Sometimes I’m blue on a grey day. Let’s learn some idioms with colours. the police was waiting for him and caught him red-handed because he had been/ was careless.English Practical Course 269 Ways with Words 1. From there he robbed a bank. Her friends frequently say: “Helen. at the age of 14. Its title is The Blue Hotel. To have green fingers (thumbs): “Mrs.

Have you ever felt blue? What has caused it? d.270 English Practical Course a. A boy taking an apple from a basket in a store. A man robbing a bank at ten o’clock in the morning. A wife whose husband has just given her a diamond necklace. play golf. It is possible that some of the following persons be caught red-handed? • • A grandmother taking care of her small grandson. An old man who is 80 years of age but who can still swim. Is it possible that some of the following are not in the pink? • • • • f. Is it possible that some of the following are feeling blue? • A man who has just lost all his money. • • . A family that have been shipwrecked and have only lived on an island for three months with coconuts to eat. A man who spends his summer evenings working in his garden to raise tomatoes. A famous boxer who has been training for his next championship fight for six weeks. • e. • • • c. An elderly woman who takes great pride in her lovely rose garden A nurse who has just finished working for 24 hours in a hospital and is exhausted. A policeman driving around in his patrol car. jog. A couple that has just got married. A ship captain whose ship has sunk in a bad storm. A woman who likes to spend her weekends at the beach. Why do people feel blue? b. Is it possible that the persons described below could be said to have “a green thumb”? • • • A little boy who has got a new puppy for his birthday. cucumbers etc.

as gerunds or present participles. In your opinion. They cannot be put into different tenses. be able . do many families have a “black sheep”? i. Ability: can. I.English Practical Course 271 g. used as infinitives. could. Is it possible that some of the following might be considered a “black sheep”? • • • An old man who has been poor all his life Twin boys who decide to join the army A young woman who abandons her parents and starts a life thrill of robbing homes of jewels and money. h. Grammar Reference Modal Auxiliaries • Modal auxiliaries are also sometimes called modal verbs or modals. The following are modal auxiliaries: Present form Can May Will Shall Must Ought to Need Past form could might would should • Modal auxiliaries always stay the same. Restate the following sentence using the idiom “red-handed”: The mystery of the disappearing jam from the cellar was finally solved when they caught Jim eating a whole pot at night. They are followed by the infinitive in different forms.

My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see them. We use can. use may or might. We can also use could (it refers to a theoretical possibility). Certainty. I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help. She can be very charming when she wants to be. could. might. II. • • We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition. possibility. . • To talk about a present or future certainty. deduction: can. We use be able to talk about ability + the achievement of the action. should. He could read when he was four. • Can and could refer to the ability to do something. use will + simple or continuous infinitive. could and could have in conditional sentences. use can or may. He gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late. With this use.272 English Practical Course • Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do something. will. • To talk about a future possibility. must. She can / can’t sing really well. ought to • To talk about something that it is possible to do at any time. Stamps can/may be bought at most shops which sell cards. The parcel may/might arrive tomorrow. may. We could go by train. can and may are often followed by the passive infinitive. but not to the doing of it. (It is possible to take a train there if you wanted to do that). Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future.

must. I don’t know why they’re so late. • To talk about possibility in the past. use may. could + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). We must go and visit them more often. • We can use should or ought to + present infinitive to make assumptions about the present or the future and should or ought to + perfect infinitive to make assumptions about the past. might or could + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. use must. ought to. have to. You mustn’t let him talk to you like that. need • To give advice. use must/can’t (or couldn’t) + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). • To make a deduction about something in the present. use must (positive deduction) or can’t (negative deduction) + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. It can refer to present time or future time.English Practical Course 273 I will be waiting for you when you arrive. The train got in half an hour ago so they should be here soon. use may. Advice. • To make a deduction about something in the past. obligation. I won’t phone Jennifer now because she might be working at home. have got to. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting: he talked to me about it only this morning. necessity: should. • To talk about possibility in the present. He can’t be driving here: he hasn’t got a car. . We often use should/ought to with I think … /Do(Don’t) you think …? Don’t you think you should/ought to stop seeing him? • To give strong advice and recommendations. I suppose they could have got lost. III. use should or ought to. Let’s go and see Cathy: she should have finished working by now. might.

You mustn’t wait here. must – the obligation often comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. • To express necessity. (The obligation is imposed by the airline who wrote the notice). You don’t have to wait here. (It is not necessary for you to wait here but you can if you want to). I have got to get the bus into work today. Have got to is often interchangeable with have to but there is sometimes a difference: have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions whereas have got to can only be used for single actions.274 English Practical Course • To criticise actions in the past. I should/ought to have stayed at home. (You are not allowed to wait here). use need. use must. mustn’t or have to. We can use need as a modal verb in questions and negative sentences. use mustn’t. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. Should /ought to in the past means that the subject did not do the right thing. • To express a negative obligation. You needn’t come if you don’t want to. it comes from the situation. Do not use don’t have to = there is no obligation. use should or ought to + perfect infinitive. Have to – the obligation is often external. I have to get the bus into work today/I have to get the bus into work every day. (= I didn’t stay at home and my behaviour was wrong) • To talk about obligation. • We can also use have got to to express obligation. We’ll have to get there before 5 o’clock because the shops close then. .

We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures. my brother and I used to fight all the time.. Did you use to work here? Use would and used to to talk about past habits. The train was nearly an hour late. don’t have to.. permission. I needn’t have gone to the station so early. we …? Would you like…? To make a suggestion or an invitation: Shall we …? We could . IV. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it). we often use needn’t. • To express lack of necessity in the past. suggestions: can. would you mind • • • • • Asking permission: Can/Could/May/Might I …? Making a request: Can/Could/Would you …? To give or refuse permission: You can/can’t/may/may not/must/mustn’t … To make an offer: Can/Shall I. Offers. may. When the speaker is giving the authority. could. must. used to • • Used to is not a modal: I used to work here. shall. don’t need to. Teacher to students: ‘You’ve worked hard today so you needn’t do any homework tonight.English Practical Course 275 • To express lack of necessity. requests.’ We’re eating out tonight so we don’t need/needn’t/don’t have to/haven’t got to buy any food. (It wasn’t necessary to go to the station early but I didn’t realise that and so I did get there early). Habit: would. Would you like to …? V. might. . my brother and I would fight all the time.. would. When we were children. When we were children. use needn’t. haven’t got to. I didn’t use to work here. use needn’t + perfect infinitive or didn’t need to/didn’t have to + infinitive.

If they hadn’t phoned for an ambulance. We …(go) to that concert tomorrow if the tickets haven’t sold out. It’s been too hot. b. must and an infinitive in the appropriate form: a. Kerry’s rather late. might. I … (not understand) what he says: he speaks too quickly. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference. a. g.. k. I … (not sleep) very well for the last four nights. ought to. Jonathan … (not say) anything until he was about three years old. • When we talk about past situations (not actions). could or be able to. … (you come) to the party on Sunday? 2. i. f. c. He …(not climb) up to the top: he was too scared. I’d like … (work) with you one day. He’s very fit for his age.. e. He …(run) really fast. (get) a message to her. I love … (spend) all morning in bed at weekends. it is necessary to use a past time reference. I think you should go in the spring: it (be) very crowded there in summer. will. may. n. She … (miss) the train. but fortunately we . j. he …(die). o. m. h. d. could. should. Complete the sentences with the correct form of can. We … (not phone her up) because her phone had broken. Amy’s exam results weren’t very good. Complete the sentences with can. She … (do) better. .276 English Practical Course • When we use would to talk about a past habit. …(speak) another language fluently is a great advantage. we can use used to but we can’t use would. She tried to think of other things but she … (not put) that awful memory out of her mind. Controlled Practice 1. l.

d. Let’s go and see her: she (be) hurt. e. I don’t know where she is. I think she … (visit) her parents but I’m not sure about it. They (not move) house yet. I’ll give you a ring to let you know. t. I … (come) and visit you at the weekends. s. k. m. I … (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven’t decided yet. j. That woman’s just fallen over. f. . Anyway.English Practical Course 277 b. I sent the letter two days ago so he … (get) it by now. ‘Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?’ ‘I don’t know. She (run) to catch the bus. He … (miss) her. I haven’t seen Joanna this week. r. n. I saw them in town this morning. It … (be) the middle of the night in Australia. Her exam results are coming out soon. They’ve just rung the bell so the children … (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. I told her you were coming so she … (expect) you. Jim’s been very quiet since his girlfriend went away. It … (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. but you can never be sure. c. She (not still play) tennis: it’s been dark for the last hour. u. The roads are fairly quiet today so we … (have) a good journey. She worked very hard so she … (do) well. l. i. Don’t phone her now. g. o. These glasses … (be) Tim’s: they look a bit like his. They’re not answering the phone so they … (be) out. She was with a man I didn’t recognize.’ p. h. It … (not rain): the ground’s completely dry. Travellers’ cheques … (be exchanged) at most banks.

m. You … (come round) for dinner one evening. b. h. I … (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work. g. I … (take) all of them again in November. must or need or the verb have to in the correct tense and form. r. Hurry up. j. You’ve got enough work to do. ought to. d. o. We … (leave) at 11 o’clock last night because the last bus went at 11. I don’t think you … (offer) to help him. Complete the sentences using the modals should. The taxi’s coming in twenty minutes. You … (not go) to bed so late. They can stay with us. e. I don’t like … (do) everything my boss tells me to do. You … (go) to that new French restaurant in town. k. He would never forgive us. It’s your own fault that you’re so tired.20. You … (not tell) him what happened. The wedding’s been cancelled so I … (not buy) that new suit: it was a waste of money. He’s too young. You … (not eat) in the lecture hall: it’s against the college regulations. a. p. We’ve been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so we (not cook) our own meals. l. You … (not have) a bath now. We haven’t had a good talk for a long time. s. You … (not allow) David to walk home from school every day on his own. . Paul … (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the house does. I … (tell) him what you really think of him next time you see him if I were you. It’s the best restaurant I’ve ever been to. f. We … (run) all the way to the station because we were late for the train. n. Why … the prisoners … (be locked) in their cells all day? i. They … (not pay) to stay in a hotel. If I fail any one of my exams. t. c.278 English Practical Course 3.

d. h. d. . You are in the train. Request an appointment to see your bank manager. shall. e. I’d like you to come to the meeting but you … (not come) if you don’t want to. c. k. Complete the sentences with would or used to. Offer to make someone a sandwich. might. f. Invite a friend to go for a swim this morning. Ms Arnold. You are in a café. must. Offer to open the door for a stranger. a. would you mind. 5. There is a free seat next to someone. we … go out somewhere with a picnic every day. They … be happy together but they are not now. could. would. c. Where either form is possible. b. Offer to answer the phone. j. write them both. Write what to say using can. Ask someone to wait here for you. When I was a newly-trained teacher. In the long summer holidays. Ask someone to answer the phone for you. Ask another passenger if you can open the window. may. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. g. 4. Ask that person if you can sit there. I … have lots of free time before I started working here. I … work till late every night preparing lessons. would you like. Give someone permission to use your phone. a. There may be a number of possible answers. i.English Practical Course 279 u. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. b.

we … (often) stay up talking late. When they came to London. f. Are you able to come with me tonight? e. I promise to phone you next week. f. I think it’s a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I’ve got a lot of work to do. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve. Am I allowed to smoke in here? m. g. . i. When we shared a flat together. I want to help you but I am not able to. h. they … (never) travel anywhere on the tube. b. i. In some sentences more than one modal is possible. n. people … (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. but now I’m much fitter because I always walk or cycle. Is it possible for me to sit here? j. g. It’s not a good idea for you to work so hard. It’s essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. c. It’s not necessary for you to apologize. He refuses to give me an answer. It’s possible that they’ll be here soon. He … be overweight but he’s much slimmer now. Why don’t we go and see a film tonight? h. I don’t know who she is but it’s possible that she is Rick’s sister. 6. he still didn’t know how to read. During my last year at university.280 English Practical Course e. He said that he intended to write to me soon. I will/’ll phone you next week. o. At the age of nine. I … drive everywhere. When I had a car. p. k. l. a. d. j. I … go to the library to start work at 9 o’clock every morning. When Amy was a baby.

I’m sure that he is asleep. Do not tell him any of this: it’s vital that it remains a secret. u. Shall we go out tonight? (how) b. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. He was not able to understand the radio message because of the interference. (compulsory) j. Could he have been telling the truth? (likely) g. I assume that Clare will be here soon. s. It’s 7 o’clock. t. How do you feel about going on a trip? (like) i. You don’t have to inform the agency beforehand. a. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep. Why haven’t you signed this page at the bottom? (sign) f.English Practical Course 281 r. I know he’s in but he’s not answering the phone. It is certain that he will return this afternoon. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. May I borrow your typewriter? (mind) . (every) c. Could you come on Saturday? (suit) h. It’s very possible that he’ll be promoted. (impossible) e. (bound) d.

You mustn’t start writing before the test starts. aşa că n-am putut închide uşa. Nu-i nevoie să suni. N-aveam cheie. Când era tânăr era foarte rezistent. Drumul era acoperit cu gheaţă şi lui îi era groază să nu alunece. Chiar dacă ne-am strădui din răsputeri nu am reuşi să ajungem. putea lucra toată ziua şi dansa toată noaptea. . You won’t be able to enter the country unless you have a visa. Dacă sunteţi amabil să aşteptaţi a clipă îl chem pe director. Ştiam bine oraşul aşa că am putut să le explic cu să ajungă la gară.282 English Practical Course k. Nu pot să nu mă gândesc ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă nu am fi putut rezolva problema. dacă vrea ca ea să adoarmă. Nu-i voie să conduci aşa repede. avem destul timp. (prevented) l. Nu trebuie să conduci aşa repede. este o limitare de viteză aici. am eu cheie. Când eram copil nu-i puteam înţelege pe adulţi şi acum că sunt adult nu-i mai pot înţelege pe copii. Translate into English using modal verbs: Ar trebui să-i spună fiicei ei o poveste. (rules) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8.

. Nu e cazul să-i reaminteşti de datorie. Citeam zeci de cărţi pe lună când eram student.English Practical Course 283 Ar fi trebuit să verifice frânele înainte de plecare. uite cum plouă acum. Acum un an am avut un câine tare neascultător: nu vroia să-mi aducă papucii atunci când îi spuneam eu. Am văzut un tigru ieri în pădure. habar n-am. doar suntem într-un spital. dar acum nu mai poate. Nu este voie să vorbeşti tare aici. Când era la şcoală putea merge în mâini distanţe lungi. S-ar putea ca ei să îşi formateze sistemul acum.Nu se poate să fi văzut un tigru. − _________________________________________________________ . am putut să merg la farmacie şi să cumpăr medicamente. Trebuie să-mi spăl maşina. este un om cu mult bun simţ. nu sunt tigrii în ţară la noi. Nu era nevoie să-i cumperi volumul acesta de poezii. Dacă îi dai ocazia nu mai încetează cu poveştile din război. Probabil că era foarte grăbit. Tocmai am terminat de udat florile. . Ar fi trebuit să o spăl cel puţin acum o lună.Nu era nevoie să le uzi. este prea murdară. Este de datoria noastră să ne ajutăm părinţii atunci când sunt în dificultate. trebuie că adormisem. Se poate ca ieri pe vremea asta fraţii lui să fi cărat cărămida de la fabrică. L-am văzut pe stradă dar nu s-a oprit să-mi vorbească. îl mai are de două ori. – Nu se poate să fi fost deschisă. Cu siguranţă că în acest moment echipa adversă sărbătoreşte victoria. Uşa era deschisă. M-ai auzit când am venit acasă seara trecută? – Nu. Stătea pe bancă ore întregi şi se uita la stele. Am închis-o chiar eu la plecare. Deşi afară plouă cu găleata de cel puţin trei ore.

284 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 285 .

This match ………………………………………………………………. If it hadn’t ………………………………………………………. Rewrite each sentence. I’d like to have seen this movie. Without your support. I should really like someone to do all the housework for me.. I’ve never seen such an exciting match before. 4th. Can you play golf well enough to beat him? Is your ……………………………………………………………………… − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . The candidate was undoubtedly highly intelligent but she was not very suitable for the job. We can’t persuade the cat to come down from that tree. The cat ……………………………………………………………………… j. Intelligent……………………………………………………………. She last………………………………………………………………… e.. d.. so that the meaning stays the same: a. The telephone rang the moment I stepped into the room No sooner …………………………………………………………. Joan bears ………………………………………………………………… i. h. Joan is very alike her father. The thing I’d really like ………………………………………………….286 English Practical Course Progress Test 4 1. f.. b. I wish …………………………………………………………………. c. I should have never won the nomination. She has not been to the office since November. g. beginning as shown.

every morning. at 4 o’clock. 3rd) f. 5th. He goes (to the factory. at 7 o’clock) c. My friend spoke (evening. We shall go (tonight. at the National Opera. very much) h.English Practical Course 287 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. I read (all day. in 1978. very kindly) e. very much) i. Mr. the piano. They went (for a week and a half. I am born (on April. to me. on March) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . at six o’ clock) b. I enjoyed my lunch (the day before yesterday. Insert the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: a. to England. in the street yesterday. Smith came (into the office late) g. to the theatre. yesterday. at home. wonderfully) d. She played (last evening.

care ştiau a învârti şi hora şi suveica. din târg drept peste apa Neamţului. nu erau numai aşa. şi sfătuia pe oameni să-şi deie copiii la învăţătură. străşinit cu şindrilă. de făceau mare cinste satului lor. Translate into English: Stau câteodată şi-mi aduc aminte ce vremi şi ce oameni mai erau în părţile noastre pe când începusem şi eu. un holteiu zdravăn. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . sat mare şi vesel. ce mai de pomi s-au pus în ţinterim. frumos şi voinic. ş-apoi. şi pe vremea aceea. un băiat prizărit. drăgăliţă-Doamne. împreună cu bădiţa Vasile a Ilioaei.288 English Practical Course 3. ce om vrednic şi cu bunătate mai era! Prin îndemnul său. ci sat vechiu răzăşesc. a mă ridica băieţaş la casa părinţilor mei. cu biserică frumoasă şi nişte preoţi şi dascăli şi poporeni ca aceia. Doamne. care se ţin tot de una: Vatra satului. împărţit în trei părţi. Şi părintele Ioan de sub deal. dascălul bisericei. între care eram şi eu. Şi unde nu s-au adunat o mulţime de băieţi şi fete la şcoală. şi ce chilie durată s-a făcut la poarta bisericei pentru şcoală. să fi văzut pe neobositul părinte cum umbla prin sat din casă în casă. de vuia satul de vatale în toate părţile. întemeiet în toată puterea cuvântului: cu gospodari tot unul şi unul. în satul Humuleştii. un sat de oameni fără căpătâiu. Delenii şi Bejenii. Ş-apoi Humuleştii. cu flăcăi voinici şi fete mândre. ruşinos şi fricos şi de umbra mea. care era îngrădit cu zaplaz de bârne.

j. b. She last was to the office on November. 4th. b. g. Intelligent as the candidate was. Joan bears a resemblance with her father. No sooner had I stepped into the room than the telephone rang. f. The cat wouldn’t come down from that tree. c. she was not very suitable for the job. h. The thing I’d really like is to have someone to do all the housework for me. i. He goes to the factory at 7 o’clock every morning. e. This match is the most exciting I have ever seen. If it hadn’t been for your support I should have never won the nomination.English Practical Course 289 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: a. We shall go to the theatre at six o’clock tonight. Is your golf handicap better than his? 2. I wish I had seen this movie. d. . a. She played the piano wonderfully at the National Opera last evening. c.

what an active and kindly man he was! On his advice lots of trees were planted in the graveyard – which graveyard was surrounded by a high fence of thick planks with eaves of shingles – and the fine room at the gate of the church precincts was built to serve as a village school. with farmers who knew their job. the Deleni and the Bejeni. who were a credit to their village. just begun to put a foot over the threshold of boyhood in my home in the village of Humuleşti. Master Vasile. Smith came into the office late. in 1978. church elders and parishioners. good-looking. As for Father Ion. It faced the town on the other side of the waters o the River Neamţ. with stalwart young men and comely girls who could swing the shuttle too. a sturdy. divided into three closely connected parts: the village itself. entering one house after another. My friend spoke very kindly to me in the street yesterday evening. who lived at the foot of the hill. so that the village would buzz with the sound of looms on every side. I read a lot at home all day yesterday. 3. 5th. g. They went to England for a week and a half on March. handsome bachelor. so to speak. f. the son of Ilioaia. It had a fine church and outstanding clergy. I sometimes stop and call to mind the customs and people there used to be in my part of the world at the time when I had. Mr. Moreover. The two of them would persuade people to send their children to get some schooling.290 English Practical Course d. e. on April. together with one of his elders. Lord. i. its reputation and standing having long since been assured. and you should have seen the . it was a large and cheerful village. I enjoyed my lunch very much the day before yesterday. I am born at 4 o’clock. 3rd. h. You should have seen this untiring priest going round the village. Humuleşti in those days was not just a village of ne’er-do-wells but a prosperous and ancient village of freeholders.

myself among them.English Practical Course 291 number of boys and girls who flocked into the school from all parts. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 2. a puny. 1 point +9 points = 10 points Divided by 3 = 10 points . 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 3. afraid of my own shadow! (translated by Ana Cartianu) Score: 1. timid lad.

292 English Practical Course Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow to break blew broke blown broken a obliga a sufla a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma to bring to build to burn to burst brought built burnt burst brought built burnt burst a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

English Practical Course 293 to catch caught caught a turna a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi a tãia a se ocupa (cu) a distribui a sãpa a face a desena a schiţa a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea a alimenta a hrãni a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi to choose to cleave chose cleft clove chosen cleft cloven come cost crept to come cost to creep came cost crept to cut to deal to dig to do to draw cut dealt dug did drew cut dealt dug done drawn to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found .

294 English Practical Course a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear to hew to hide to hit had heard hewed hid hit had heard hewed hewn hidden hit a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi a ciopli a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni .

English Practical Course 295 to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa a cuprinde a rãni a lovi a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine a înnoda a tricota a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza a întinde a conduce a avansa a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla to hurt hurt hurt to keep kept kept to knit knit knit to know to lay knew laid known laid to lead led led to lean leant leant to learn to leave to lend to let to lie learnt left lent let lay learnt left lent let lain .

296 English Practical Course light to lose to make to mean to meet lit lost made meant met lit lost made meant met a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta a stabili a bate a scutura to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen to run ran run to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set to shake shook shaken .

English Practical Course 297 to shear to shed sheared shed shorn shed a vibra a tãia a mãrgini a arunca a difuza a vãrsa a strãluci a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi a turna a scinda a despica a (se) roti to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent to spill spilt spilt to split to spin split spun split spun .

298 English Practical Course to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde a sãri a izvorî a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula a lua a capta a necesita a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã a arunca to spring sprang sprung to stand stood stood to steal to stick to strike to string to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing stole stuck struck strung strove swore swelled swam swung stolen stuck struck strung striven sworn swollen swum swung to take took taken to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought to throw threw thrown .

English Practical Course 299 to thrust thrust thrust understood woken worn a împinge a înfige a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a (se) uza a toci a plânge a se prelinge a câştiga a a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge a scrie to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore to weep to win to wind to wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung to write wrote written .

about sth. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth. to be at home to be aware of sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth. to argue with sb. sth. in the beginning to be afraid of.= somebody. to be careful about sth. to assist in sth. on sth. sb.300 English Practical Course Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb./ sb. attentive at sth. to be bored with sth. to be full of (energy) . to be fed up with sth./sb. at the beginning of sth./ sth. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth.= something) (break sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb.

to be in charge of sth.English Practical Course 301 to be fond of sb. to be in a mess to be interested in sth. to be married to sb. . to be tired of sth. to go by bus/ train/plane. else to complain about sth. to cope with sth. etc. to be in love with sb. to be impressed by sth. with sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth./ sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. to be proud of sth. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. to belong to sb./ sb. to be good at sth. to be similar to sth./ sb. to believe in sth. to cooperate with sb. to benefit from sth. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb.

to forget about sb. to get in touch with sb. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb./ deficient in sth. deficiency in sth. in the distance to distinguish sth. to listen to sth. etc. to die of sth./ sth./ sth./ sb./sth. to be different from sb./sth. in the end at the end of sth. to get on (well) with sb./ sth./ sth. from sth. to depend on sb. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb. . to go out with sb. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South.302 English Practical Course to deal with sth./ sth. to develop into sth. to find put about sv./sth./sth. to go home to have a degree in sth. else to dream about sb. to laugh at sb. to fight against sb. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. to debate on sth.

/ sth representative of sb. to specialize in sth. to suffer from sth. to look at sth. about sth. to pay ($5000) for sth. (a gun) at sb. to speak to sb. resistance to sth. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. for ($300) to share sth. to look forward to doing sth./ sb. to look for sth. to rely on sb. similar to sb. to sell sth. to point at sb. to spend money on sth./ sb. about sth./ sth./ sth. to participate in sth. a story about sth. owing to sth.English Practical Course 303 to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to originate in sth./ sth. to talk to sb. . preoccupation with sth. to point sth. to search for sth. to merge with sth. with sb.

a ticket for sth. a letter) to sb. at sb. to wait for sb. to write (an e-mail. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you think of von Laue?) to throw sth./ sth. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth./ sth. in view of sth.304 English Practical Course thanks to sb./ sb. .

English Practical Course 305 .

. 1972. 1983. 3. Bucureşti Deighton. 1978. . Competenţă şi performanţă. English Grammar Exercises. I. London. A Basic English Grammar. Poenaru. Ed. 1996. 13. 1984. Dobrovici.. New York. Oxford Galea. Dumitru & Luca. Tamara & Popescu Brandusa. 10. Editura Amarcord.commnet. ***. 9.. Ileana. Tamara. Stanciu. Bucuresti Eastwod. 7.edu/grammar/adjectives. 1998. 8. ed.randomhouse.com http://www. Chiţoran. Viorica & Dorobat. Didactica si Pedagogica.Curs practic. Cambridge Certificate – A Course for First Certificate.google.Dacia. Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză.htm http://www. Macmillan. The British Council. Heinemann Educational Books.. Panovf. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere.. Limba engleza. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Preparing for Proficiency. Editura Ştiinţifică. Timişoara Andrews. Nolan. Editura Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Stephen. Archer.306 English Practical Course Bibliography 1. English With Tears. 1972. Luca-Lăcătuşu. Călina. 1983. Exercises. D. Margaret. Creţescu Gogălniceanu. Lee C. J. English for Science and Technology.com Hulban Horia. 1999. Oxford University Press. Bucureşti 2. Bucharest ***. Vocabulary Development. 11. 1984. 5. Cavallioti Publishing House. Cluj http://ccc. 12. I. 4. Enid. Virgil. 6.

Katherine V. 1984. Headway. Martinet. Bishop. Exercises 1. 1986. E. John & Liz. 1985. Hong Kong. 1989. A.V. English Teaching Division. D. CLP Zdrenghea. Oxford Vince. and Elsworth. 18. Greere. Oxford University Press. 1986. V.J. 16. Michael. 1991. . A Practical English Grammar. M.. Excel at First Certificate. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. Heinemann. Martinet. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students.J. Headway. A.. Oxford. A.. Cluj 15. 17. OUP. Macmillan. Clusium.English Practical Course 307 14. A Practical English Grammar. 1997. Test Your English Grammar. Teora. New York Soars. 22. Marius. Washington. 19. A. Thomson. Hong Thomson. 23. Longman Malaysia. Adrian B. Ed. London Edinburgh Walker. Reading Comprehension. 1991. 21. 1995. The Great Preposition Mystery. upper-intermediate. 1996.C. Student’s Book. Oxford University Press. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. John & Liz. Bucuresti Sanford. S. Soars. Lin.. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press. pre-intermediate. Lougheed.. 20. Oxford Mistzal. Student’s Book. Student’s Book. A.

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