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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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Sections

  • Unit 1
  • Reading
  • Ways with words
  • Grammar Reference
  • Present Simple
  • Present Continuous
  • Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English
  • Controlled Practice
  • Unit 2
  • Ways with Words
  • Grammar Reference 1
  • Past Simple
  • Past Continuous
  • Past Simple and Past Continuous
  • Controlled Practice 1
  • Grammar reference 2
  • The Ordinal Numeral
  • The Fractional Numeral
  • The Multiplicative Numeral
  • Controlled Practice 2
  • Unit 3
  • Present Perfect Simple
  • Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
  • Grammar Reference 2
  • Present Perfect Continuous
  • Progress Test 1
  • Unit 4
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • The Personal Pronoun
  • Unit 5
  • Past Perfect Simple
  • Past Perfect Continuous
  • The Imperative
  • Unit 6
  • Future Simple
  • Future Continuous
  • Be Going to Future
  • Future Simple or Be Going to?
  • Other Ways of Referring to the Future
  • Future Perfect
  • Future Perfect Progressive
  • Other future references
  • Controlled Practice:
  • Unit 7
  • The Passive Voice
  • Further Points on the Passive Voice
  • Causative Forms
  • Progress Test 2
  • Unit 8
  • The Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Number of nouns
  • Unit 9
  • The Noun
  • Gender
  • Countable/uncountable nouns
  • Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
  • The Genitive/Possessive Case
  • Unit 10
  • Prepositions
  • Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs
  • Place of Prepositions in the Sentence
  • Prepositions of Time
  • Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place
  • Progress Test 3
  • Unit 11
  • Position of adjectives
  • The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  • Capitalising proper adjectives
  • Collective adjectives
  • Adjectival opposites
  • Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
  • Comparative Sentences
  • UNIT 12
  • The Article
  • The Indefinite Article
  • The Definite Article
  • Zero Article
  • Unit 13
  • The Adverb
  • Punctuation
  • Unit 14
  • First Conditional
  • Second Conditional
  • Third Conditional
  • Mixed Conditionals
  • Unit 15
  • Modal Auxiliaries
  • Progress Test 4
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2
  • Bibliography

English Practical Course

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English Practical Course

Arleen Ionescu Luiza Vlad Răzvan Vlad

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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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CONTENTS Unit 1..............................................................................................................9
Reading...............................................................................................................9 Ways with words..............................................................................................10 Grammar Reference........................................................................................12
Present Simple.............................................................................................................12 Present Continuous......................................................................................................14 Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English.......................................16

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................17

Unit 2............................................................................................................24
Reading.............................................................................................................24 Ways with Words.............................................................................................25 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................31
Past Simple..................................................................................................................31 Past Continuous...........................................................................................................33 Past Simple and Past Continuous................................................................................34

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................35 Grammar reference 2......................................................................................46
The Ordinal Numeral...................................................................................................46 The Fractional Numeral...............................................................................................46 The Multiplicative Numeral........................................................................................47

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................47

Unit 3............................................................................................................49
Reading.............................................................................................................49 Ways with Words.............................................................................................50 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................56
Present Perfect Simple.................................................................................................56

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English Practical Course

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple......................................................................58

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................59 Grammar Reference 2.....................................................................................64
Present Perfect Continuous..........................................................................................64

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................66

Progress Test 1............................................................................................73 Unit 4............................................................................................................79
Reading.............................................................................................................79 Ways with Words.............................................................................................80 Grammar Reference........................................................................................85
Indefinite Pronouns .....................................................................................................85 The Personal Pronoun..................................................................................................86

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................87

Unit 5............................................................................................................91
Reading.............................................................................................................91 Ways with Words.............................................................................................92
Past Perfect Simple......................................................................................................95 Past Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................96

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................97 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................100
The Imperative...........................................................................................................100

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................101

Unit 6..........................................................................................................103
Reading...........................................................................................................103 Ways with Words...........................................................................................104 Grammar Reference......................................................................................105

English Practical Course

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Future Simple.............................................................................................................105 Future Continuous.....................................................................................................107 Be Going to Future....................................................................................................107 Future Simple or Be Going to?..................................................................................108 Other Ways of Referring to the Future.....................................................................109 Future Perfect.............................................................................................................109 Future Perfect Progressive.........................................................................................110 Other future references..............................................................................................110

Controlled Practice:.......................................................................................110

Unit 7 .........................................................................................................115
Reading...........................................................................................................115 Ways with Words...........................................................................................116 Grammar Reference......................................................................................117
The Passive Voice .....................................................................................................117 Further Points on the Passive Voice..........................................................................118 Causative Forms........................................................................................................120

Controlled Practice........................................................................................121

Progress Test 2...........................................................................................138 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................143
Reading...........................................................................................................144 Ways with Words...........................................................................................144 Grammar Reference 1...................................................................................146
The Conjunction .......................................................................................................146 Coordinating Conjunctions........................................................................................146 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................................................................147

Controlled Practice 1.....................................................................................147 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................150
Number of nouns.......................................................................................................150

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................153

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English Practical Course

Unit 9..........................................................................................................156
Reading...........................................................................................................156 Ways with Words...........................................................................................157 Grammar Reference......................................................................................159
The Noun...................................................................................................................159 Gender........................................................................................................................159 Countable/uncountable nouns....................................................................................160 Nouns which may be uncountable or countable........................................................161 The Genitive/Possessive Case...................................................................................162

Controlled Practice........................................................................................164

Unit 10 .......................................................................................................177
Reading...........................................................................................................177 Ways with Words...........................................................................................178 Grammar Reference......................................................................................180
Prepositions................................................................................................................180 Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs....................................................................................181 Place of Prepositions in the Sentence........................................................................181 Prepositions of Time..................................................................................................182 Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place....................................................182

Controlled Practice........................................................................................185

Progress Test 3...........................................................................................198 Unit 11........................................................................................................202
Reading ..........................................................................................................202 Ways with Words...........................................................................................203 Grammar Reference......................................................................................204
Position of adjectives.................................................................................................204 The Order of Adjectives in a Series...........................................................................204 Capitalising proper adjectives....................................................................................205 Collective adjectives..................................................................................................205

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................253 Mixed Conditionals........................................248 Reading..........................................................................................229 Zero Article................................................243 Punctuation.................................................206 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives..................................................................................................................................................................................248 Ways with Words..........................251 First Conditional................................................................................................................................................................................239 Grammar Reference 1.........................................................240 Controlled Practice 1..........................................................................................228 The Indefinite Article........................228 The Definite Article........................................................................................210 UNIT 12............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................English Practical Course 7 Adjectival opposites.........................................207 Comparative Sentences...............................................................243 Unit 14....................................210 Controlled Practice.................................................232 Controlled Practice................................................................................................268 .................................................252 Third Conditional.........................................254 Controlled Practice ..............................................................................................................................................................................240 The Adverb....................................................................................................................................................................................................227 Grammar Reference........................................................................................................................................................233 Unit 13........................................241 Grammar Reference 2.......................................................................................................228 The Article.......................................................................255 Unit 15......251 Second Conditional...227 Reading.................................................249 Grammar Reference................................................................

.268 Ways with Words.................................................306 ..............................................................................................................................................................276 Progress Test 4....................................................................................................................................300 ...................................................................8 English Practical Course Reading..271 Controlled Practice......................................................................................................271 Modal Auxiliaries................................................292 Appendix 2......................................................................304 Bibliography...........286 Appendix 1...............................................................................269 Grammar Reference ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

They may not be persuaded to buy products. they will be a second Eva Herzigova. They do not learn their roles from this source. but it is a strong reinforcer. Pay attention to the use of tenses. Advertising sets out to make people identify with characters in advertisements. are the foremost consumers. to make them jealous of the person they would become if they bought the product. they believe that if they buy Diavolo they will look like Antonio Banderas. to buy it and to keep on buying. They see in advertising imagery reflections of society’s attitudes and ideals often taken to extremes. Underline the verbs which are in present tense simple and present continuous: Advertising is capitalism’s soft sell.English Practical Course 9 Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Simple © Present Continuous © Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment on advertising. It is really interesting to notice that girls growing up. if they buy BU. They do not . They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image. An anonymous mass of people called consumers have each to be persuaded to need whatever a product can give them. with their situation and needs. On the one side. but they absorb the images. and so on. and women housewives worried about fulfilling and achieving their roles.

Start with the word on.10 English Practical Course realize the difference between fancy and reality. Middle-aged women are particularly susceptible to advertisements. Ways with words 1. the persuasive power of advertising c. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. d. a. Advertisements project an image of the ideal housewives. This is why they become that anonymous mass of people which we called consumers in the beginning. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. the image of women in advertisements 2. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree. c. b. b. 3. b. Which if the following points are made in the passage? a. Try again. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. Start with in: a. advertising also captures girls’ fluttering images of themselves. e. Advertisements reinforce a woman’s view of herself. Which of these would be the best title for the passage? More than one possible answer is possible. c. Follow directions: a. how advertising influences women d. You will play a word game. On the other side. women as consumers b. II. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. . Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. Advertisements persuade potential consumers that they need a product. Girls and housewives are the main consumers.

Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can.English Practical Course 11 c. Find the words described below: a. IV. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. Have you ever encountered the word organise spelled as organize? This is not a mistake. d. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. 4. e. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill. b. a. Start with an. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. III. c. There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. Another word for too that ends with -so. Try again. Read the sentence: They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image again. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. Here are some of them: British English American English theatre theater centre center neighbour neighbor colour color travelling traveling organise organize analyse analyze 5. c. It’s just the difference between British English and American English. Classified advertisements . b.

Spring. 11th onwards: £40/ £50 incl.. Special Offer Spring Holiday and Oct. in bdrms. big. and shower. Excel. Access at all time. Ctly.. Mews Apartments. hotel. after 7 p. Bowden House. B & b. kit. Someone you meet recommends a weekly newspaper which contains advertisements for holiday accommodation. bathrm.m. after 6 p. residential lic. Bungalow for 7/8.w. you find it full of small advertisements containing abbreviations.. Totnes.T. [x21-0H Totnes. Games rm. & c. Mrs. Sept. 197 Holdenhurst Rd. Devon. Special Spring terms from £45 plus V. rm. Top class accom. –c.50/£42 p. H.m. 2 w. Can you decipher them? Bourbemouth – Warm welcome awaits you at Pinewood Guest House. Phone (06267)4590. Phone: (0803) 863664. bathrm.m. wing in House. B. Tv. kit. sunny gdn. 2 bedrms. Large car park and gdns.. food. Reduced rates for chldn. £31. – Quiet det. – Holiday COTTAGES in medieval courtyard of Queen Anne Mansion. & b. dining rm. lounge.12 English Practical Course You are touring Britain on holiday with friends...’s. sit. S. June. e. Torbay 6 miles.A. Yet opening the newspaper. Phone 761001 Torquay. Phone 292684 [1977-08S Bourbemouth – Linga-Longa Hotel.. Vac. Night storage heating. Westbourne. Grammar Reference Present Simple It is used to express: . Petersen. Totnes 1 ¼ miles.c. Spac. sitt.

frequently. The Danube flows into the Black Sea. never.30. continually. So when he enters the room he realises that his parents are there and… . ever. The door bell rings. cooking demonstrations. The Earth moves round the Sun. rarely.English Practical Course 13 • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. constantly. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. regularly. etc. She listens quietly. • momentary actions. explanations. often. usually. hardly.): I usually get up at 8. Note that the historic present in narrative of funny stories appears in informal speech to describe past events. occasionally. headlines and stage directions): Her letter shows how painful the divorce was for her. completed almost at the same time they are performed (in ceremonial utterances. Romanian people like to travel. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. seldom. Most evenings we go out. • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. radio and TV commentaries. normally. announcements. She works in a very famous company. Wood floats on water. sometimes. forever. • • states a fact which is always true (general truths and states): I don’t like gangster film.

when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme (with verbs of motion: come. go. she doesn’t. I do. Does she speak Italian? No. start. Our summer holiday starts on July 1st. end. Present Continuous It is used to express: . Form Affirmative and negative I You We They He She Interrogative Where do do I you we does they he she it Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. leave or verbs expressing planned activity: begin. finish) The plane lands at 6:34 p.m.14 English Practical Course • planned future actions. work? work do not (don’t) work work do not (don’t) work works does not (doesn’t) work in a university.

Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we doing? not are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working. • a temporary. limited action/ behaviour (+an adverbial indicating present time): I live in Romania. .English Practical Course 15 • an activity happening now or around now (in this case the action extends over a slightly longer period of time. You are always calling me at midnight. One’s immediate plans for the near future: a repeated action or habit which annoys the speaker I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. but I’m living in England these six months. • • Form Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the present participle of the main verb (verb+ -ing). I’m writing an essay on Victorianism this week. including the moment of speaking) They are playing in their bedroom now. I am filling in a cloze test now.

Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English There are verbs in English which are not generally used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. etc. hear. own. But: You are being stupid now. be. notice. But: I’m thinking about you. realize. I have a very good car. No. but you behave rather stupidly now). mind. . remember. recognize. she isn’t. matter. The meat doesn’t taste good at all. I’m having dinner with my boyfriend at a fancy restaurant tonight. In fact. But: I am smelling the flower. possess. I’m not. I think it’s a bit off. ( I want to). • verbs of having and being: have. He is a teacher of Italian. she is. No. etc. smell. I don’t remember your name. (You generally are very smart. taste. I am. Is she watching TV? Yes. etc. expect. But: I’m tasting the meat to see if it’s done. contain. • verbs of cognition and achievement verbs: think. know. consider. The house belongs to my mother. She can’t answer the phone at the moment. suppose. understand.16 English Practical Course is they he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. I think you are right. I smell gas. (This is my opinion). hold. But: She’s having a shower now. forget. belong to. owe.

feel. wish. Pardon me. English and Italian. He wants to buy a new tool. . Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. refuse. e. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland. I don’t mind his smoking. i. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. She (speak) French. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. g. He (come) to see me tonight. c. I hate people calling me late at night. j. f. like. d. This bottle (hold) boric acid. I (live) in Ploiesti. want. This week we (study) the Middle Ages in the English Culture and Civilisation. love.English Practical Course 17 • verbs of feeling (attitudinal verbs): care. It (rain) now. I feel I need to tell you that you let me down. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. n. the doctor asked. But: Who is minding the baby? (Who is taking care of the baby?) Controlled Practice 1. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. Maria (come) from Spain this week. sir. h. Ann (resemble) her mother more and more. etc. k. This course (contain) 14 chapters. hate. Don’t touch it! l. dislike. But: “How are you feeling today?”. I’m feeling the material to see if it’s soft or not. It often (rain) in summer. The Rotring (belong) to Mary. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. b. m. forgive. but this week. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest.

f. The film is extremely long and boring. b. things about learn Scottish and Irish writers. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. What’s wrong with you? Why are you looking/ do you look at me like this? g... Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I …. She smells/ is smelling gas.. at Edinburgh University.. I think/ am thinking that something is wrong with the radiator in this room. It lasts/ is lasting four hours.. e. h.18 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What exactly does your job involve/ is your job involving? 3... where we ……. c... I’m thinking/ I think of you. d. i. our spend summer in Edinburgh. here come every summer to learn more about contemporary .. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. People……. It gets/ is getting colder and colder. We have/ are having dinner now. a good have time and at the same time we …….

. so I …. so she doesn’t have too much spare time. What is the weight of that bag you have as hand luggage? MUCH c. The war in Irak is over. We …. have a post-office in front of the Centre. I ……. as we …. a eat. visit literature museum. Sunset is at 9.. courses from ten to half past twelve. we …… earlier... at one... Love. COMES . I’m positive that you have no idea what the answer is.. But I ……. Kate 4.. a paper on Samuel Beckett this week write and John ……. a short story written by Angela read Carter. We ……. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same: a. INCLUDES b. like. BET g. here stop in order to mail your postcard.30 tonight. The cost of the bus ticket is part of the transport fee. it here. THE SUN e. What is inside this book? CONTAIN f. finish So it’s hard work. MEANS h. ALWAYS d.English Practical Course 19 literature.. yet today... have We ……. John has the bad habit of eavesdropping to other people’s conversation. She works hard. up at half past eight every get morning and …….

The actor is appearing on TV. / She has dinner . The number of people who own houses on the outskirts of the city is increasing. She is having dinner. d. Ann is foolish today. They are decorating my room now. g. We think about her. / We are thinking about her. c. The grocer is weighing sugar. / The dentist sees a patient. You cannot see Mary now: she (see) her boyfriend. She is looking angry. / Ann is being foolish today. /She is having a car. / The sweater is feeling soft. h. e. j. b. She is tasting the soup. / I look at the picture. The dentist is seeing a patient. / I see a horse.20 English Practical Course i. / The actor appears on TV. The sweater feels soft. / I am feeling the sweater. I am looking at the picture. a. i. / She tastes the soup. b. c. l. f./ We are thinking she is tall. / She looks angry. I feel the sweater. George can’t watch his favourite TV program now because his father (watch) a movie. We think she is tall. BUYING j. I am seeing a horse. Choose the correct sentence: a. Hardly anyone (wear) tight pants nowadays. m. . They won’t go out as it (snow) and they (not have) warm clothes. d. n. She has a car. 6. k. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. / The grocer weighs sugar. HAVING 5.

You (want) to see it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. j. c. f. d.English Practical Course 21 e. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences. The family are celebrating the birth of their newest member. f. i. a. Why you (listen) to this song. The train that we (look) at right now just (leave) for Arad. i. The two friends are listening to a rock concert. Mary? You (not listen) to this type of music as a rule. This novel is about a boy who (desert) his friends and (go) to enrol in the army. b. Our guests are talking to us in Russian. yellow dress. She (put) the baby to sleep. e. She’s busy at the moment. My father usually comes home from work by car. I usually read two books a week when I have time. What George (do) to his computer now? ~ I (think) he (format) it. The children are playing at hide-and-seek. g. g. The milkman comes to our house twice a week. . It takes five hours to reach the top of the mountain. h. She is wearing a strange. h. That play (come) to our theatre next week.

Nu spune niciodată nimic interesant. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Translate into English using the Present Simple or Continuous. d. Luăm micul dejun. e. g. Vacanţa de vară ţine două luni.22 English Practical Course j. f. Mama bea cafea. iar tata mănâncă omletă. De data asta însă rămânem acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. a. b. Tom never washes his trousers until somebody tells him to. În fiecare vară mergem cinci zile la munte. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa cinematografului dar tu întotdeauna citeşti la ora aceasta. Bunica uită întotdeauna unde-şi pune pantofii şi de fiecare dată când are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. Eu fac paturile iar sora mea şterge praful din cameră. c. E sâmbătă şi facem curat în casă. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Clujului.

? p. My boss doesn’t employ teenagers.. They say she works as an air-hostess. The police never catch any thieves.? n. …………... The pubs close at half past three. …………. …………. ………….? g.English Practical Course 23 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. She thinks we are running away from her.. ? b...? c.. You’re not a doctor. This car belongs to Jack.. They hardly ever buy bread form this shop.. They are meeting him at one o’clock today.? l. ………….? i. You look nice in this T-shirt. …………. …………. …………. ………….. ………….? d... ………….? f. ………….? h..? m..? e.? o. She knows where he was last night. It seems to me he is wasting his time. I’m sure you know who stole that purse. I don’t think I’m the right person to teach him English..? k. Add tag questions: a. …………. …………. He plays volleyball quite well.. Tom is having some whisky.? j.? . …………. ………….

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. for example.24 English Practical Course Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Simple © Past Continuous © The Ordinal Numeral © The Multiplicative © The Fractional Numeral •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following text about English as a world language. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing . when English is one of the major languages in the world. and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe. only a few million people spoke English. with the first settlements in North America. People started to import English in the seventeenth century. Underline the verbs which are in the past tense: Today. in all the continents of the world. and it was unknown to the rest of the world. Pay attention to the use of the past tense.that in Shakespeare’s time. assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and . it is the great growth of population in the United States. Above all.

yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. Spanish or French. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. I think I have. Have you: a. that has given the English language its present status in the world. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes.English Practical Course 25 twentieth century. So. read a scientific article in English? h. Ways with Words 1. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German. managed to translate anything into English? d. been to an English-speaking country? b. yet again English is the predominant language. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Incredibly enough. the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. learned any songs in English? . used English in your studies or work? g. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people? f. due to the extension of computerised systems and softs which are mostly in English. Again incredible. As I could read in an article. passed any exams in English? c. the quicker you learn it.

C. C. when you speak. surely. B. If you want to practise speaking. If you want to become . loss. go. fool.. then listening to a tape is a . you have to be co-operative. e.26 English Practical Course j. speak.. A. it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. problem. B. fluent. D. quite. matter. certain of what someone has said. an oral exam. A. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. waste. B... skillful. . D. C. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. B. to someone. make.. When you . B.. d. take. c.. practical. D. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2. a good idea is to tell a story or a . Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English. D. of time. very.. you should pretend that you have understood. A. handy. C. joke. confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent 3. If you’re not . A. b.. laughter. tale. C. A.. D. you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. If you don’t understand anything you hear. fairly.

Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night.” says “Make yourself at home. from films. without being told to. Same to you.” says “Have a good weekend.” 6. Read and translate the following poems on the English language and pronunciation: A. Some words have different meanings And yet they’re spelled the same.” “Come in!” “Thanks. in every way possible. 5. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. To play it – it’s a game. . in real situations. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. A cricket is an insect. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher.English Practical Course 27 4.” B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. every day possible. TV and records.

Now here’s a most peculiar thing. Or spin a yarn maybeYet every spin’s a different spin. in every land. The English language to explain. It’s thoroughly agreed. . Is very hard indeed.28 English Practical Course On every hand. A jumper is a thing you wear. It doesn’t mean you have to dance When’er you hold a ball. Some people say that you’re a dear Yet dear is far from cheap. And. As you can plainly see. go for a spin. who is to blame For different meanings to some words Pronounced and spelt the same? A little journey is a trip. Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: Musicians of good taste Will very often form a band – I’ve one around my waist! You spin a top. ‘twas told me as a jokeA dumb man wouldn’t speak a word. Yet a jumper has to leap. Yet seized a wheel and spoke! A door may often be ajar. It’s very clear. A trip is when you fall. it’s very queer. pray.

English Practical Course 29 But give the door a slam And then your nerves receive a jarAnd then there’s jars of jam. . It’s a nickname (impolite!) Yet a copper in the kitchen Is an article you light. The other adds up sums. Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble. and now you wish perhaps To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard. It’s thoroughly agreed. not beadAnd only Scotsmen call it deed! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. A policeman is a copper. laugh and through. of traffic jams. The English language. of course. in Verse That Is Fun. On every hand. You’ve heard. The English language to explain Is very hard indeed! (Harry Hemsley. in every land. And dead: t’s said like bed. And jams you give your thumbs. one is a snake. a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. thorough. Well done. too. Faber. And adders. I take it. you already know. Ireson. 1962) B. but not you On hiccough. ed.

broth in brother. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. Nor both in bother. as far as = întrucât. în principiu. How do you translate as I could read. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man aliveI’d mastered it when I was five. pe cât. And cork and work and card and ward. as seen = dupã cum se vede. and thwart and cartCome. în mãsura în care. 2. Read the sentence: As I could read in an article. And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear.30 English Practical Course A moth is not a moth in mother. And font and front and word and sword. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. And then there’s dose and rose and loseJust look them up – and goose and choose. Again. as shown in Fig. ( Herbert Farjeon. as long as = atât timp cât. . And do and go. Hints on Pronunciation for Foreigners) 7. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. come. as a rule = de regulã.

English Practical Course 31 as such = ca atare. He took off his shirt. I didn’t like reading. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century. I met him every day on my way to the office. ca în cazul în care. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. such as = astfel ca. up to the present = pânã în prezent. The industrialisation in England led to the change of people’s mentalities. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. ca de exemplu. as well as = cât şi. He stood up and went out of the room. Suddenly he remembered something. • habitual. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. • a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. tot aşa ca. in 1985. de asemenea. as yet/ so far/ up to now. as when = ca atunci când. as well = deopotrivã. yesterday. In those years. Grammar Reference 1 Past Simple It is used to express: • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. The English literature teacher gave us a copy of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight yesterday. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic) or completed states: She always wore red. . yesterday morning/ evening.

. arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. I didn’t.32 English Practical Course Form The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. No. There are many common irregular verbs. arrive? go? did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 299) I You We They He/She Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t). I You We They He/She Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did. When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes. I did.

it means criticism and is similar to the use of present continuous when expressing annoyance) When she came to me. she didn’t. • A past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. without the sense of criticism mentioned above. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative . • repeated actions (with a frequency adverb.30 yesterday. When she arrived. and little John was trying to draw something on my favourite poster. • changing states: The car was getting worse all the time. When I lived in Paris. No. Past Continuous It is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was lecturing my students on linguistics. Note that past continuous is not used to describe general habitual actions. Father was reading some news in the newspaper. and the engine was making a huge noise. I crossed the bridge over Seine all the time.English Practical Course 33 Did she report the results obtained? Yes. they were waiting for her in the corridor. she did. One of the headlights was continually falling off. My sister was playing with her dolls. she was always looking through my diary. Past simple is used for this meaning. of course. -refers to: • background descriptions in narrative I entered the room and looked around.

she was. . I wasn’t.) I did my homework yesterday. She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. No. were were not They (weren’t) Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. (producing and looking are long activities. she wasn’t. I was. (I started and finished it.) They were producing such machines when those people started to buy shares in their company. No. (I was in the middle of the activity. Something happened in the meantime to interrupt them).34 English Practical Course I He She You We was was not (wasn’t) working.

I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. The first important breakthrough was replacing/ replaced radios with television sets in the 50’s. b. i. 2. h. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. g. We made / were making about 50 text analyses last year.English Practical Course 35 Controlled Practice 1 1. Spanish. Do not alter the form of the words in any way and do not change the meaning of the sentence: a. When the house was decorated. j. f. WAS c. MEANT b. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. Italian. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. or French. e. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. d. While I was learning/ learnt for my French exam. Our crew included/ was including a linguist. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. To get to the office on time I had to wake up at 5:30 every morning. WHEN . c. Latin played/ was playing an essential part in the development of languages such as Romanian. There was someone to meet him on arrival. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. I didn’t exactly like swimming in those days. a writer and an English interpreter. the entire family moved/ was moving in.

Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: It (happen) in June 1985. HAD j.36 English Practical Course d. “Arthur. PUT 3. I intended to invite you at my party. He (be) a tall. Someone was painting our house at that moment. THAT e. but I’m afraid that I completely forgot (it). Her face (go) pale and her eyes (open) wide with shock. The smell of the cheese stopped my eating the breakfast. When you passed by the town hall clock. We children (look for) worms and insects. And then he (arrive). “ she (say) in a kind of whisper. GOING f. I (think) you (be) dead. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . PASSING h. My mother (read) and my uncle (just / doze) in the sun. HAVING i. handsome man with piercing blue eyes and he (look) straight at my mother. Someone stole Diana’s bag yesterday. I didn’t know about your departure. did you notice the time? WHAT g. It (be) summer and we (all / lie out)in the garden. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in.

English Practical Course 37 4. He (insist) on finishing his task. He (watch) the movie when the phone (ring). I just (open) the door when the wind (blow) and (break) all the windows in the room. He (dig) his garden when he accidentally (cut) three of his toes. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden.00. ‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask). I wonder who it (belong) to? l. I (not know) that you still (read) it.’ ‘I’m sorry. At 3 a. He (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it.m. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . It looks very old. which immediately (begin) to chase Mr. b.00 and it (burn) brightly when Mike came home at 9. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. e. k. g. Smith. m. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. n. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. She lit the fire at 8. ‘Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. d. The car (stop). They suddenly (realize) that they (fly) with the wrong plane. f. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand.’ o. The admiral (study) the battle plans when he (receive) news of the invasion. h. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: a. Mrs. i. c. j. This (annoy) the bull.

d. acolo îmi petreceam vacanţa de iarnă şi schiam în fiecare zi. Încercau să găsească drumul către centru când au dat peste un tânăr care s-a oferit să îi însoţească şi care i-a condus la obiectivele turistice cele mai importante ale oraşului. era cu mult în urmă. c. . b. e. dar deşi am încercat să-mi croiesc drum până la tine.38 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. a fost de-a dreptul imposibil. g. cineva a bătut la uşă. Anul trecut pe vremea asta eram la Predeal. f. Te-am zărit alaltăieri în mulţimea de oameni care aştepta să se deschidă sala de spectacol. Dan se gândi că trebuia să se apuce de lucru. În timp ce Diana asculta un concert la radio. Mă uitam la televizor când a sosit poştaşul. Translate into English using the simple and continuous past tense whenever necessary: a. Cum s-a întâmplat exact accidentul? Mergeam de la Bucureşti la Ploieşti şi tata tocmai ne povestea despre accidentul unor prieteni de-ai lui când deodată în faţa maşinii a sărit un câine. dar tocmai în momentul când lua această hotărâre veni un prieten şi-l invită la un meci de fotbal.

c. While I (…) in London I (…) my money in my socks. I (…) when I (…) the road. While the old lady (…) those scrambled eggs. b.English Practical Course 39 h. g. She (…) the voice that (…) louder than the others as that of her father. . the doorbell (…). l. k. My sister (…) wet while she (…) in the rain. They (…) and (…) while they (…) the mountain. What she (…) last night between 10 o’clock and 4? f. I (…) my bag when I (…) the plane. De ce boli ai suferit când erai mic şi când ai fost ultima oară la medic? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. As soon as he (…) under the shower. h. j. e. While the maid (…) the room a skeleton (…) out of the cupboard. He not (…) the explosion because at that moment he (…). she suddenly (…) they (…) off. They (…) dinner when the girl next door (…) and (…) for a loaf of bread. Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the Simple Past or Past Continuous: a. d. i. m. Whenever the politician (…) his mouth to speak the crowd (…) insults.

dusk came early. It drained every colour and blurred every outline of the urban landscape. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. When she (…) lunch a waiter (…) a plate of soup in her lap. p. the air was cold and clammy. like the autumn and summer terms. The winter term at Rummidge was of ten weeks’ duration.40 English Practical Course n. When he (…) downhill. thick with moisture and pollution. and the sun seldom broke through the cloud cover in the brief interval of daylight. q. the brakes (…) and he only (…) a serious accident by steering into a bush. Electric lights burned all day in offices and lecture rooms. As they (…) from Stockholm to Paris. and the very chimes sounded muffled and despondent. You could hardly see the face of the clock at the top of the University’s tower. o. Translate the following texts into Romanian: A. The mornings were dark. the starboard engine (…) into flames. Outside. As it (…) their mother (…) the picnic. but seemed longer than the other two because of the cheerless season. The atmosphere chilled the bones .

Nice Work) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . All the more grim. therefore. Some people attributed the characteristic adenoidal whine of the local dialect to the winter climate. was the fate of the unemployed of Rummidge and environments. (David Lodge. condemned to be idle in a place where there was nothing much to do. which gave everybody runny noses and blocked sinuses for months open like fish gasping for air. stay. No other reason would make anyone come here. Only work seemed to provide an answer. At this time of the year it was certainly hard to understand why human beings had ever settled and multiplied in such a cold. damp. or having come. grey place. except work.English Practical Course 41 and congested the lungs.

”. too. He was not sure of anything anymore. “Where is H.Q?” he asked the Australian. It had all happened too quickly. “Jesus Christ. He was not certain about what he was to do… Perhaps H. the Australian said.42 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B.Q. Maybe.” Quayle was standing there uncertainly. He should have got Helen out long ago. He should have expected this. “Your wife’s probably all right.” Quayle did not feel himself completely conscious. But it was not hopeless even if he did not know that she was all right. has some information. Quayle knew then that here was a brick wall.” “That’s right. It’s cut off.” “Yes. the Australian said. He didn’t know whether or not she had been sent back with the other women. “We’ll probably clear it up tomorrow. He thanked the guard as he walked away.” “Yes.”. and he felt the vibration of his feet against the hard road. He had never felt so completely unsure of himself and what he was doing. . “Down the coast. too. They may have telephone communication with the sector down the coast. He turned around and started walking back.

But he could see her with sandals sometimes. and sometimes being surprised by German parachutists and shot. and sometimes with two fibre suitcases walking with other women. and he could hear the bombing him as he walked into the timber.English Practical Course 43 He was picturing Helen somewhere and he did not know where. He caught a truck going through Suda Bay and then walked back to the airdrome. Signed with their Honour) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . and he had vagueness about coming back or waiting to get down the coast and whether this invasion would fail. (James Aldridge. It was almost morning when he got there. He was not certain of anything.

taking care of the animals. “I was taking care of the animals”. I am sure. I am seventy-six years old. He was too tired to go any farther. I have come twelve kilometres now and I think I can go no further.” “What animals were they?” I asked. then said. I was the last one to leave the town of San-Carlos.” He looked at me very blankly and tiredly. “The cat will be all right. An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. “No. “and then I will go. But the others? . “Oh. There was a bridge across the river and cars. “Yes. “I stayed.” he said.” I said. “Where do you come from?” I asked him. women and children were crossing it. he explained. I had to leave them. “I will wait a little while.44 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ C. trucks and men.” “This is not a good place to stop.” he said. you see.” he said and smiled.” I said. But the old man sat there without moving. “only the animals I stated. not quite understanding.” he said.” “And you have no family?” I asked watching the far end of the bridge. “From San-Carlos. “There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons. having to share this worry with someone.

” he said. “I was taking care of the animals.” he said and got to his feet. so their planes were not up.” “Thank you. “If you are rested.” “But the others? It’s better not to think about the others. It was Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. “Get up and try to walk now.” he said dully. swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust.” “Then they’ll fly. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have. I urged. I would go. but no longer to me. “I was only taking care of the animals.English Practical Course 45 Now what do you think about the others? What will they do under the artillery?” “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked”? I asked. It was a grey overcast day with a low ceiling. Old Man at the Bridge) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . “Yes.” There was nothing to do about him. (Ernest Hemingway.

46 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar reference 2 The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.04 (nought) point nought four 1.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.000.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.06 one point nought six .

four times 10x tenfold. 11. Al cincilea modul este deja obositor pentru studenţi. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4. 2. three times 4x fourfold. 11x. Câţi cenţi are un dolar? j. 3.879. a hundred times Controlled Practice 2 1. g. Cât e ceasul. La ora două şi un sfert iau autobuzul 85 şi merg în Piaţa Universităţii. f. Read the following dates: July. Cât faci de la facultate până la cămin? Căminul este lângă facultate. 2. Translate into English: a. 2002. 1987. c. ten times 100x a hundredfold. August. h. Deschideţi cartea la pagina 43 şi faceţi exerciţiul unu. 8. 2 9/7. Între 13:20 şi 13:30 avem o pauză în care nimeni nu are timp să mănânce. 1980. 1974. „A douăsprezecea noapte” este o comedie scrisă de Shakespeare. 27. March. d. April. 4. . January.English Practical Course 47 The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. te rog? Douăsprezece şi un sfert. May. i. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. e. La 1 iunie sărbătorim ziua copilului. aşa că nu fac mai mult de cinci minute. 1958. 12. 2001. b. El s-a născut la 23 octombrie 1974. 43/42. 5.

48 English Practical Course k.78. Mă duc la bunica aproximativ de trei ori pe săptămână. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . p. Cât ai obţinut? 0. O pătrime din avere îi aparţine lui Smith. El a scris o lucrare de trei ori mai bună decât a ta. Camera are 5 metri în lungime şi 4 şi jumătate în lăţime. m. Toate lunile au treizeci sau treizeci şi una de zile cu excepţia lunii februarie care are douăzeci şi opt de zile. l. o. n.

I would have won. but my shoelace was undone. Dialogue 1: The Race Jim has just come in last in a road race. I am late to meet some friends for a camping trip in the desert. Margaret: Joan has told me this morning that she wants a career in the music business. They are discussing the latest news they have received from their daughter. All of the other runners deserted me at the starting line. you were not even close to the winning runner. At the close of the race.English Practical Course 49 Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Continuous © Differences between the Present Perfect and thePast Tense •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. Jim: But the race was not fair. . Jim: I would like to contest the outcome of this contest. Judge: I do not think that you can use that as an excuse. Joan. so he goes to talk to one of the judges about it. She is packing to go to Nashville to record her first record right now. He feels that the race was unfair. Can't we do it again? Judge: I cannot discuss this with you any longer. Pay attention to the use of homographs. Read the following dialogues. Case closed! Dialogue 2: The Singer Charlie and Margaret are a married couple who own a video store. and I had to bow down to fix it. If you will excuse me. That is why I did not get to start at the same time as the other runners.

I will check with Joan first. but are spelled differently (such as "hare" and "hair"). The meanings of the following homographs change depending on the way they are pronounced.) is "the action of bending forward at the waist and stooping low. It will bring her to tears. you can tear them up. Margaret: That's a great idea. We need to put our heads together to find a solution." To bow (v. We will have to find a gentle way to separate her from the idea.) is "a tied ribbon. Ways with Words 1. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (such as \'PREsent\ and \pre'SENT\).) describes "something very near. not far away." . Practise these dialogues. On a separate subject." or also "a device used to shoot an arrow.) refers to "the act of shutting something. It says on them that they are non-refundable." CLOSE and CLOSE: Close (adj. She could work at the store. I know she would like that. demonstrating gratitude or respect. We could use another sales clerk.50 English Practical Course Charlie: What? She is going to subject the world to her singing voice? She is tone deaf! Margaret: Don't let her hear you say that. what should I do with Joan 's train tickets to Nashville? Charlie: If she decides to stay. The English language has a very complex spelling system. Margaret: OK. Charlie: Maybe we could show her that she could be of more use here. BOW and BOW: A bow (n. Homophones are words that sound the same." To close (v.

" EXCUSE and EXCUSE: An excuse (n." To contest (v.) is "an arid.) something means "to leave it behind.) is "the topic of a book." To subject (v." Use (v." SEPARATE and SEPARATE: To separate (v.) is "the event of employing something to serve a purpose." To excuse (v.) means "to rip something into pieces.) is "a competition that determines a winner." or "documenting data (such as music) electronically." or it can also refer to "a phonograph album." Now practice these homographs in sentences of your own.) are "drops that fall from the eyes of someone who is crying." TEAR and TEAR: Tears (n.) is "the act of writing information down. or experiment." To record (v." To desert (v.) means "to expose someone to something.) is "the action of employing for some purpose.) refers to "the act of disputing or objecting to something. conversation." SUBJECT and SUBJECT: A subject (n. sandy region." Tear (v.English Practical Course 51 CONTEST and CONTEST: A contest (n.) is "a reason or explanation for one's actions.) is "written documentation of a past event.) means "to divide or segregate." USE and USE: Use (n." DESERT and DESERT: A desert (n. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? .) describes "things that are isolated or unconnected." RECORD and RECORD: A record (n." Separate (adj.) means "to forgive.

Let’s learn some idioms containing the word head. remembering facts head over heels in love – loving somebody very much heads with roll – used to say that some people will be punished severely for something that has happened Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Foot on foot – if you go somewhere on foot.52 English Practical Course 2. In the second dialogue. the wife tells her husband: We need to put our heads together to find a solution. to stand up. from head to foot/toe – over your whole body have a good/fine head of hair – to have a lot of hair on your head do something in your head – calculate something in your mind go over your head – to be too difficult for you to understand a clear/cool head – the ability to think clearly or calmly in a difficult or dangerous situation need your head examined – be crazy use your head – to think about something sensibly keep your head above water – to manage to continue to live on your income or keep your business working in spite of money problems be hanging your head against a brick wall – to keep trying to do something which seems impossible have a head for figures/facts/ business – to be good at doing calculations. 3. To put somebody’s heads together is an idiom. It means to discuss a difficult problem together. you walk there get/jump/ rise to your feet etc –to stand up after you have been sitting be on your feet – to be standing for a long time without having time to sit down. to feel better again after being ill and in bed .

so that you embarrass or upset someone have two left feet – to be very clumsy get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly. especially to show love . especially after working very hard make somebody’s hair stand on end – to make someone very frightened not turn a hair – to remain completely calm when something bad or surprising suddenly happens not harm/ touch a hair of somebody’s head – no to harm somebody in any way Hand take somebody by the hand – hold somebody’s hand in order to take them somewhere hand in hand .holding each other’s hand.to say something without thinking carefully. especially by always being near them keep your hair on – (spoken) to tell someone to keep calm and not get annoyed let your hair down – (informal) to enjoy yourself and start to relax. usually by having an argument have/keep both feet on the ground – to think in a sensible and practical way and not have ideas or aims that will be impossible to achieve have one foot in the grave – to be very old or very ill leave feet first – to die before you leave a place or job feet of clay –someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults that you did not realize they had Hair get in somebody’s hair – to annoy someone.English Practical Course 53 be rushed off your feet/ be run off your feet – to be very busy put your foot in it .

third. you are not responsible for them anymore at hand –near in time or space on hand – close by and ready when needed first hand/ at first hand – by direct personal experience at second/third/fourth hand – passed from the first person who actually saw or heard something to a second.to influence or to be involved in something in good/safe/capable hands – being dealt with or looked after by someone who can be trusted off your hands – if something or somebody is off your hands.to do no work at all a dab hand – someone who is very good at doing something good with your hands – skillful at making things turn your hand to . or the left hand rather than the right right/left hander – a player who uses mainly the right hand or mainly the left hand not do a hand’s turn .54 English Practical Course right-handed/ left-handed – using the right hand for most actions rather than the left. or fourth person by hand – delivered from one person to another. and sent through the post go hand in hand – to be closely connected get your hands on to obtain something– to catch somebody you are angry with .to start doing something new or practising a new skill keep your hand in – to keep practising something so you do not lose your skill a firm hand – strict control of someone get out of hand – to become impossible to control take something/somebody in hand – to bring someone or something under control in hand – being dealt with have a hand in .

English Practical Course 55 lay your hands on – to find or obtain something have time on your hands – to have a lot of time because you have no work to do have your hands full –to be very busy or too busy out of hand – if you refuse something out of hand. but they do not stick/ poke your nose into – to show too much interest in private matters that do not concern you look down your nose at – to behave as if you think somebody or something is not good enough for you . long right under somebody’s nose .so close to somebody that they ought to notice. especially in a bad or illegal activity on the one hand… on the other hand – used when comparing different or opposite facts or ideas give somebody a (big) hand (of applause) – to clap loudly in order to show your approval of a performer or speaker Mouth keep your mouth shut – not to tell other people about a secret. not to say anything because you might make a mistake big mouth – someone who is a big mouth or has a big mouth is annoying because they cannot keep secrets or they often say things they should not say make your mouth water – if food makes your mouth water. you refuse immediately and completely hand in glove – closely connected with somebody. it looks so good you want to eat it immediately Nose red-nosed/ long-nosed – having a nose that is red.

(i. without a definite time given. I can tell you the story). (up to the present) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. (i. without stopping to rest Grammar Reference 1 Present Perfect Simple It relates past actions and states to the present. He has fixed his car.) Has English been used by people at this office in the last ten years? (But: Why was English used on such a large scale in 1999?) She has had four car accidents. He has never used an English-English dictionary before. .e.56 English Practical Course with your nose in the air – behaving as if you are more important than other people and not talking to them on the nose – exactly keep your nose to the grindstone – to work very hard. • activities completed in the immediate past (these events are recent. Sometimes these events happened at an unknown time in the past): She has just met him in the computer science laboratory. It is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie.e. He can drive it now). The recentness may be indicated by just. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago.

. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. No. She has not (hasn’t) Interrogative Have I we you Has they he been to the United Kingdom? she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. How long have you worked as a translator? How long has it taken the English language to be used by so many people? Form have/has +verb (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. I haven’t. No. There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page 299). she hasn’t. and for expresses a duration).English Practical Course 57 • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. I have. Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. Affirmative and negative I We You They He has (‘s) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. she has.

and feels that the event is connected with the present. (But: He started working in this university four years ago) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. Where did you find them? (certainty). (indefinite) I bought a house last month. (implies definite reference: the house we talked about).) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. on the top shelf. Here the speaker may feel separated in time from the event.) He has worked in this university for four years. This in turn may depend on whether the speaker feels distant in time or place from the event. Here the speaker may be about to return. I’m going back to take it. . Choice between past simple and present perfect for recent events may depend on the mental attitude of the speaker. or be further away.58 English Practical Course Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. I found them behind a couple of other books. I’ve bought a house. (definite) I bought the house after all. I left the red bag in my room.) I lived in this flat for two years. I’m going back to take it. I have. (He is dead.) John Fowles has written very good short stories. (He is still alive. (Now I live somewhere else. I’ve left the red bag in my room.

Thomas (to meet) her for the first time the day he turned 20. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. But what about you. My brother is still out of work. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks ago. I (not pass) my Lexicology exam yet. Dan. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your English Phonetics test. They just (give) me a pay rise. Insert the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite: a. I (pass) in December. but you (not see) me. I (be) on a tram. Maria: Well. …. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. Dan: Hello. . not really. I (not hear) from you for a long time. Dan: Well. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. that’s one piece of good news.English Practical Course 59 Controlled Practice 1 1. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. I have. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet.

60 English Practical Course b. Mike. f. d. she (to speak) at last. They (to stand) in silence for a few minutes. you (not to eat) it. he (to leave) quite a long time ago. I (to see) my friend’s name in the papers quite often lately. Mr Black (not to return) from the dentist’s. c. As far as I know. e. When I (to buy) my car I (to ask) the company to confirm my insurance by telephone. She (to read) about nine hours today. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. g. and (to translate) more than 25 pages. but I (to wait) a month now and the confirmation still (not come). I don’t know why but I have the feeling that something (to happen). ___________________ in Pakistan? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked . The company (to tell) me to wait for the response. Circle the correct answer: 1. h. When ________________ the company? a) have you joined b) Had you joined c) did you join d) have you ever joined 2. She (to begin) reading at 8 this morning and (to go) on reading until 11 o’clock when she (to stop) and (to have) something to eat. here is your cake.

You ____________ to a word ____________ . ___________________ to him last week. Sales ________ in 1995 but then _____ in 1996. b) I never had to deal with. He's the most difficult customer _____________________ a) I never dealt with. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid. a) didn’t rise have fallen b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen d) rose have fallen 9. c) I've ever had to deal with. a) I spoke b) I've already spoken c) I hadn’t spoken d) I will have spoken 6. The reason I look so brown is that _______________ from a business trip to Barbados a) I come back b) I came back c) I never came back d) I've just come back 8. d) I've never had to deal with. a) We have signed b) We signed c) We haven't signed d) We had signed 7. 5. That's the best presentation ______________ a) I never heard b) I didn't hear c) I used to hear d) I've ever heard 4.English Practical Course 61 c) Had you ever worked d) Didn't you work 3.

. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Fill in with a suitable verb either in the Past Tense or Present Perfect: a. It's obvious that ________________ this report. I (…) it when you (…) at school. Now I (. When I (…) school I (…) my hair and (…) it short ever since. As a child. You (…) all your life in this luxurious mansion? b.62 English Practical Course a) b) c) d) listened didn't listen listened haven't listened I haven't said I say saying I've said 10. j. c. f. g. d. He (…) writing it at 5 and it’s 8 already. I (…) catch a cold every month. I wonder when it’s going to get colder.. My sister (…) several poems. e.) a cold for more than two years. What are we going to do? We (…) the train and the next one leaves in the morning. She just (…) her second ode. h. For your information I (…) home at 8 in the morning and (…) just before noon. Everybody enjoyed it. a) you haven't read b) you didn't read c) you don't read d) you had read 4. You (…) her an e-mail yet? Yes. It (…) very hot this summer. The movie (…) at 12 and (…) for two hours. John cannot send the letter since he (…) it. i.

When did you leave the country? (ago) c. le-a scris când era foarte tânăr. d. (contact) b. c. . Te-am căutat ieri vreo două ore şi te-am căutat şi astăzi. Rephrase the sentences below using the word in brackets: a. Translate into English: a. (forward) f. evident. Mike has tried to give up smoking before. The last time I saw Jane was on Monday. Cu ani în urmă creştea porumbei şi lilieci dar acum s-a apucat să planteze ananas. Am băut şi am dansat până acum. It is Sunday. Pe unde ai umblat? b. (for) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. că de mâncat – am mâncat dimineaţă. (point) e. Vecinul meu a scris şi câteva poveşti de adormit copiii. It’s been years since I last met Jim.English Practical Course 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. It was proposed that a new church should be built. (first) d. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been cancelled.

după aceea s-a făcut nevăzut şi de atunci poliţia îl caută fără încetare. S-a purtat foarte frumos cu mine de când i-am spus că îi vând lui maşina mea. Cumnatul meu a spart ieri casa fostului său director. . Sigur. in negative sentences.64 English Practical Course e. i. • an activity which began in the past. Nu am văzut în viaţa mea atâta suferinţă cât am văzut azi la acest azil de bătrâni. g. f. Grammar Reference 2 Present Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an activity which began in the past and is still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new products for several years. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. John şi-a plătit datoria. domnule. h. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses the present perfect simple can be also used. Şi-a plătit-o încă de când a luat salariul. Tocmai am aflat vestea conform căreia preşedintele acelei ţări a căzut victimă unui atac terorist. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new products for several years. Vi se pare curios că tocmai şi-a luat lucrurile şi a plecat. has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late./ They have created 2000 new products so far. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. There may be little contrast when some state verbs are used. după ce l-aţi înjurat că nu a avut bani să plătească chiria? j.

I’ve been washing my skirts this morning. etc. She has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? . in which case a nuance of reproach. Incomplete. especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. or recently completed: emphasis on duration. Completed: emphasis on achievement I’ve washed four skirts this morning. Affirmative and negative I You We They He has been have been have not been (haven’t been) working. • a repeated activity.English Practical Course 65 How long have you lived here? How long have you been living here? Some verbs (especially sit. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. lie. stay and wait) prefer the continuous form. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion. irritation. can be present.

g. I’m tired. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .66 English Practical Course Controlled Practice 2 1. She (not write) the essay on Renaissance yet. Your eyes are red. You’re out of breath. Te caut de o orã. Pe unde ai umblat? b. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. e. b. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. You (cry). c. What she (do) all afternoon? h. You (run)? f.. I saw her in August. Câte cuvinte ai căutat în dicţionar pânã acum? d. I (work) hard all day. Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous: a. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. i. Translate the following sentences into English. but (not see) her ever since. d. Locuim în România de trei ani. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.

I bought my car in 1992 and I’m still driving it. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. g. It’s ages ……………………………………………… c. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half. Choose the correct verb form: a. We haven’t seen each other for ages. No wonder you are overweight. No wonder you are overweight.. I’ve been ……………………………………………… d. You ate chocolates in the morning. It’s the first ……………………………………………. f. d. I haven’t been to Barcelona before.English Practical Course 67 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. so that the meaning stays the same: a. b. e. Alan has been going/ has gone to South America. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. beginning as shown. There is definite improvement in your spelling recently. I have ……………………………………………………. c. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. . e. I haven’t seen ………………………………………. you have eaten chocolates in the afternoon and you are still eating chocolates now and it’s 5 pm. Rewrite each sentence. Lately your spelling ……………………………………. It’s a long time since I last saw such a good movie. I don’t know where my glasses are. You …………………….

I have ……………………………………………………. i. h.68 English Practical Course h. I haven’t …………………………………………………… 5. Eating this spicy Indian food is totally new to me. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing.. I don’t have the textbook with me. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? f. i. I (watch) them from my window since they began. The police (not find) the murderer yet. I haven’t …………………………………………………. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. Peter: You (telephone) for ages. b. He only just (stop). I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. j. The last time I spoke to Jane was in 2001. Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. c. I just (find) out. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. Peter: Actually. But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. It is at home. . e. but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. d. but the dead man's brother (be) in the station all day. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or continuous: a. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street. Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! g.

I'm afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three. Tom just (go) off with it. l. t. and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one. p. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. q. k. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. I (do) mine already. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. m. They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. they (have) a good many rows but this is the fifth time they (throw) crockery. n. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet.m. s. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. She's lucky. r. I always start at 6 a. o. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish). I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good crop before.English Practical Course 69 j. This (happen) before? Well. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

g. I hope he (find) out what's wrong. I (look) through my old photograph album. It was lovely at eleven o'clock. The mechanic (work) on it. I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one. I (not be) out of the house for a week!” h. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinner. so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. so I'm not used to it. d. e. but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). Manager: I know: something (go) wrong with our computer. and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). You look exhausted! Yes. George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. I wonder what (happen) to them all. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. i. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. “Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before!” “Well. c. j. It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). He (put) on a lot of weight? f. I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years. it wasn't me. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) out for lunch.70 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. I (stand) in this queue for ages. . Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or continuous: a. b. Since he became Mayor.

q. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque. I (wait) an hour now. madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know. p. They began widening this road three weeks ago. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me. I (build) a barbecue grid in the garden. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? m. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour.English Practical Course 71 k. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. l. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity. madam. n. o. but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet.

d. e. De 13 ani se chinuie românii să redreseze economia şi nici acum nu au reuşit să stabilizeze moneda naţională. sapă de azi dimineaţă dar nu a terminat decât un sfert din teren. Mihai e chiar culmea! Spală rufe de când am venit eu de la bâlci şi n-a terminat nici măcar pantalonii. Iar a gătit soţul meu! c. Tocmai am terminat de săpat grădina. f. N-ai adus încă maşina de la reparat? – Da’ de unde.72 English Practical Course 7. Translate into English: a. de luna trecută îşi tot trimit mesaje de ameninţare prin poştă. b. Miroase a ars în bucătărie. caut piese de schimb de mai bine de o lună şi n-am găsit nici una până acum. Tony şi Nikki nu-şi mai vorbesc de o lună. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Vecinul meu. săracul.

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Progress Test 1
1. Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense: In the past thirty years many social changes ……………… (take) place in Britain. The greatest of these ………..probably………….(be) in the economic and domestic lives of women. Almost all theoretical sex discrimination in political and legal rights has been removed. The changes …………(be) significant, but, because tradition and prejudice can still …………..(handicap) women in their working careers and personal lives, major legislation to help promote equality of opportunity and pay ………(appear) during the 70s. Since 1951 the proportion of married women who work …….. (grow) from just over a fifth to a half. Compared with their counterparts elsewhere in the European Community, British women comprise a relatively high proportion of the work-force, about two-fifths, but on average they …………(work) fewer hours, about 31 a week. There is still a significant difference between women’s average earnings and men’s, but the equal pay legislation which ………(come) into force at the end of 1975 seems to have helped to narrow the gap between women’s and men’s basic rates. During the 1970s women’s wages ……….(rise) proportionately more than men’s but …………..(remain) relatively low because women ……….(tend) to work in lowly-paid sectors of the economy, they often …….(work) in predominantly female work-forces, and they work less overtime than men. As more and more women joined the work-force in the 1960s and early 1970s there ……(be) an increase in the collective incomes of women as a whole and a major change in the economic role of large numbers of housewives. Families …… (come) to rely on married women’s earnings as an essential part of their income rather than as “pocket money”, or as a

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means of buying ”extras”. At the same time social roles within the family ……. (be) more likely to be shared, exchanged or altered.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same: a. I’ve had to wait all morning. I have been ………………….. b. I didn’t have any idea of my next move. I didn’t know ………………… c. The last time I was to Paris was in 1998. I haven’t ………………………. d. Go to the registration desk immediately on arrival. As ………………………………. e. Mary and John’s wedding is next weekend. Mary and John will ……………… f. I intended to tell you about it earlier, but I simply forgot. I was …………………………….. g. I wasn’t very keen on tennis in those days.

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I didn’t use ………………………. h. Whose car is that? Whom does ………………….. i. Your brother will get over his illness. Then his work will get better. Once ……………………………. 3. Choose the most suitable continuation for each sentence: a. You can borrow this book, A. I am not going to need it; B. won’t have been needing it; C. am not needing it. b. It’s no use calling Barbra at home. She A. will have left; B. is leaving; C. will leave c. When you passed the town hall clock, A. were you noticing what time it was?; B. have you noticed what time it was?; C. did you notice what time it was? d. I must apologise, I A. hadn’t realised that this seat was yours.; B. wasn’t realising that this seat was yours.; C. didn’t realise that this seat was yours. e. I realised that someone had stolen one of my bags when I A. was getting to the taxi.; B. got to the taxi.; C. have got to the taxi. f. Can you remember what A. you were doing five years ago today?; B. you did five years ago today?; C. you have been doing five years ago today? g. This is my new suit. Do you think it A. suited me? B. suits me? C. has suited me? h. Cleo! I didn’t expect to see you here. What A. are you doing in London? B. were you doing in London? C. have you done in London? i. I simply can’t understand what

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A. you are waiting for; B. you wait for; C. you will wait for.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the appropriate tense: a. Nu ştiu bine timpurile. b. Am încercat să-ţi telefonez toată ziua. Unde ai fost? c. Sunt căsătoriţi de zece ani. d. Era o femeie atât de bună încât toată lumea o iubea. e. Uite! Ţi-ai rupt tricoul. f. Am petrecut revelionul la ţară acum doi ani. g. Nimeni nu are voie să plece acasă până nu terminăm proiectul. h. De multă vreme nu mai ninge mult iarna. i. În ziua următoare şi-au continuat călătoria. j. Ai recunoscut-o pe fata care stătea lângă tine la cinema? k. Are maşina de două luni. Soţul ei i-a dăruit-o de întâi martie. l. L-ai văzut pe John? Da, ieri a trecut pe la noi. m. George locuia cu mama lui când aceasta a murit. n. Ploua cu găleata de trei ore când ne-am întors acasă. o. Ce făceai când a venit Maria la tine?

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. have taken; have been; have been; handicap; appeared; has grown; work; came; rose; remained; tend; work; was; came; were 2. a. I have been waiting all morning. b. I didn’t know what I would do next. c. I haven’t been to Paris since 1998. d. As you arrive, go to the registration desk. e. Mary and John will get married next weekend. f. I was going to tell you about it earlier. g. I didn’t use to play tennis in those days. h. Whom does the car belong to? i. Once your brother has got over his illness, his work will get better. 3. a. A; b. A; c. C; d. C; e. B; f. A; g. B.; h. A; i. A 4. a. I don’t know the tenses well. b. I have been trying to call you all day. Where have you been? c. They have been married for ten years. d. She was such a kind woman that everybody loved her. e. Look here! You’ve torn your T-shirt. f. We spent New Year’s Eve in the countryside last year. g. Nobody is allowed to go home until we have finished the project. h. It hasn’t snowed anymore in winter for a long time.

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i. The next day he went on his trip. j. Have you recognised the girl sitting next to you at the cinema? k. She has had this car for two months. Her husband gave it to her in March. l. Have you seen John? Yes, he called on us yesterday. m. George was living with his mother when this one died. n. It had been raining cats and dogs for three hours when we came back home. o. What were you doing when Mary came to you?

Score: 1. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 4. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points

. Read the following dialogues. John: That sounds nice. I don't want you to see the painting until the whole thing is done. who wants to paint his portrait. John: It feels like I have been sitting here for hours. Fred agrees to pose for his wife. Mary: What are you doing with that pear? John: I am going to pare it.English Practical Course 79 Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Indefinite Pronouns © Personal Pronouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. put it down. Dialogue 1: The Portrait In honour of John and Mary's wedding anniversary. I don't want it in the picture. When can I take a peek? Mary: Sit still. Pay attention to the use of homophones. I am still working on your face. Mary: Well. It is coming out great! I think I am at my artistic peak. John: Can't you just leave a hole where the pear is and fill it in later? I am hungry. John: Are we still going to that inn in Vermont this weekend to celebrate our anniversary? Mary: Certainly! I bought a pair of tickets for a dinner show there on Saturday night. and then I am going to eat it.

Let's go to his booth. You took it off to paint.80 English Practical Course Mary: Okay. The following are examples of easily confused homophones. Bruce: There's no wait to see him. They're good sports. good. Where do you want to go next? Tammy: Look! That guy over there will guess your weight." . you two! Do you want me to guess your weight? Whether you are fat or thin. and he weighs one-seventy. I would hate to have lost that right before our anniversary! Dialogue 2: The Carnival Tammy and Bruce are spending the afternoon at a carnival. Bruce: That's correct! Hey. we'll take a break.) is "an empty space. Oh. Tammy: Okay. Let's see if he can guess their weights. it's on the table. Mary: Oh. The sign says he can even guess what size you wear. These words are pronounced identically. yet they have different spellings and meanings: HOLE and WHOLE: A hole (n. Guess. Ways with Words 1. total. either. too! Tammy: I'll go get them. Tammy: I am so glad we came today. look! There are Stan and Judy. Carnival worker: Hey." Whole (adj. no! Where is my wedding ring? I hope it didn't go down the drain when I was wringing out those rags! John: No. Bruce: I agree. Carnival worker: You weigh one hundred and thirty-seven pounds. Practice these dialogues. I can guess just by looking at you. I am having so much fun! This is ideal weather for a carnival.) means "entire.

and PEAR: A pair (n.) is "the possessive form of ''they.) means "to strike something for the purpose of creating a sound. such as a bell.) means "to pause or linger. TOO." WEAR and WHERE: Wear (v.) is "a circular object with a hole in the middle. " There (adv." Two (n.) is used "to introduce two or more alternatives." PEEK and PEAK: Peek (v." A pear (n." Where (adv." RING and WRING: A ring (n.) means "the opposite of 'out.) means "two matched or corresponding things. THERE.) refers to "the location of something. " Too (adv.) means " to peel." They're is "a contraction of ''they are.) refers to "the climate conditions." THEIR.) means "at a certain place.) is "a fruit.) is "the opposite of ''from. and TWO: To (prep. " TO." A peak (n." WEATHER and WHETHER: Weather (n." To wring (v." Now practise these homographs in sentences of your own." PAIR." WAIT and WEIGHT: To wait (v.) is "the measurement of heaviness.) means "to have an item of clothing or an object on one's body." Weight (n.'" An inn (n." Ring (v.) means "to twist something. PARE.) means "to sneak a quick look at something.) is "a small hotel. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? ." Whether (conj.) means "also." To pare (v.) is "a cardinal number. and THEY'RE: Their (pron.English Practical Course 81 IN and INN: In (prep.) is "a summit or climax.

Customer: I don’t care what it was. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear. Johnny.82 English Practical Course 2. not at all. he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. you drink. A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. sir. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue. you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. didn’t you? Johnny: No. Driver: Oh dear. Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. The waiter asks him to pay. Read the following children’s jokes. because there is a play on words. I want to know what it is now. Why was the doctor angry? . The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant.

English Practical Course 83 Because he had no patients. as she still needs to work on his portrait. you are walking next to them with your arm in theirs welcome somebody/something with open arms – to show that you are happy to see somebody or eager to accept an idea. give your right arm – to be willing to do anything to get or do something at arm’s length – if you hold something at arm’s length. etc. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Arm arm in arm – if you walk arm in arm with somebody. 3. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word face. plan. She says: I am still working on your face.faced etc – having a face that has a particular shape or colour serious-faced/ grim-faced etc – showing a particular expression on your face face to face – if two people are face to face. and the other is heir to the throne. you hold it away from your body as long as your arm – (informal) a list or written document that is as long as your arm .faced/ round. 3. What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. In the first dialogue. Face pale. the wife tells her husband not to be hurried. they are very close and in front of each other put a brave face (on) – to make an effort to behave in a happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own.

you look directly at them and they look directly at you run/cast eye over something – to look at something quickly without reading it in detail keep your eye on something/somebody – to look after someone or something and make sure they are safe keep you eyes open/peeled – (spoken) to carefully watch for anything . used especially when you are surprised or shocked the naked eye – if you can see something with the naked eye. one eye. – having long ears be all ears – (informal) to be very keen to hear someone is going to tell you smile/grin etc from ear to ear – to show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling so much give somebody a thick ear – (British English informal) to hit someone go in (at) one ear and out (at) the other – (informal) if information goes in one ear and out the other. bright eyes.84 English Practical Course Ear long-eared/ short-eared etc. you can see it without using any artificial help such as telescope or microscope be all eyes – to watch carefully what is happening or what someone is doing eye contact – if you have eye contact with someone. especially because you do not trust them to do things properly clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something – to see somebody or something. eyes that are wide open etc have/keep an eye on somebody – to be carefully watching everything that someone does. you forget it as soon as you have heard it keep your/an ear to the ground – to make sure that you always know what is happening in a situation Eye blue eyed/ one-eyed/bright-eye/ wide eyed etc – having blue eyes.

much/many. the world. valuable. delicate fingers Practise them in sentences of your own. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. the police one in the eye for – (British English) a defeat or disappointment for someone else. so that you drop or break things have a finger in every pie – an expression meaning to be involved in many activities and have influence over them. even when this might seem impossible have a (good) eye for something – to be good at noticing and recognizing what is attractive. . a lot of/ lots of. Finger not lift/ raise a finger – not to make any effort to help someone with their work keep your fingers crossed – to hope that something will happen the way you want be all fingers and thumbs – (British English) to use your hands in an awkard or careless way. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. of good quality in the eyes of the law/ the world/ the police etc – in the opinion or judgment of the law. used especially when you think someone has too much influence twist/wrap somebody around your little finger – to be able to persuade someone to do anything that you want long-fingered/delicate-fingered etc –having long. Grammar Reference Indefinite Pronouns some/any.English Practical Course 85 have eyes in the back of your head – to know what is happening all around you. usually used when you are pleased about it.

Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many geologists work for this company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited him when she deserted him 3. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. 4. 2. There are lots of books in this library. but only with a singular noun: There is some chocolate in this cake.86 English Practical Course Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. There’s a lot of mineral water in my fridge. Form . We only need a little money to buy this. Is there any water in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house. The Personal Pronoun The nominative. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. He’s got a lot of money.

nobody. b. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody.English Practical Course 87 Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she Plural we you they it The accusative/The dative. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. d. The doctor! Send for (he) at once. everybody: . look for it while I am away. The old man asked (he) what the time was. Fill in the personal pronoun in the accusative or dative (required by prepositions): a. Please. f. anybody. I’ll call for (they) when I think they forgot our little misunderstanding. g. Will you give (I) permission to go home earlier? c. Will you let (they) to come to your anniversary? e. h. Listen to (she). He takes much interest in (you). Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled Practice 1.

He didn’t give me too …… trouble. …… were there but listened to what she had to say. who didn’t pass the English exam. if they have come back from Italy. l. .. I’m sorry. came an hour ago and left this parcel for Mary. d. has to open the door for him! i. b.. e. like him.. c. should know these rules.. My knowledge in this field is very poor. can tell you how mistaken you are. f.88 English Practical Course a.knows that the semester will finish in June. We haven’t heard of …. She was talking and …… was listening to what she was saying. few. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. ….. Ask …. I have never seen …. …. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: much. They are not difficult at all. from the French department. a few: a. h.. g. Do you have any questions? Just …… c..... just ……. little. During a good performance of the actors …. is knocking at the door. speaks. j. Can …… help me with this? m. many. b. There must be the cleaning woman you sent for. …. …. ….. Ask …. k.. …. a little.

. Despite the unfavourable weather …… did come to the meeting. f.English Practical Course 89 d. just …. Mi-a fost decernat premiul Uniunii Scriitorilor acum trei ani. I’ve got …. darn nu-mi amintesc cu siguranţă când. f. There is plenty of information here but …… has been read. c. Translate into English: a.. g. Cu puţină răbdare. Nu este nevoie de foarte mult vin la friptură. but we finally managed.. te rog. money to buy this. Mulţi elevi aşteaptă vacanţa cu nerăbdare. j. h. d. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Aş vrea puţin zahăr în cafea. e. Are there many mistakes in her test paper? No. i. so I couldn’t make a coffee. Se pare că i-a cucerit pe toţi. i. problems to solve. There wasn’t …… sugar left. Aş vrea să ştiu câţi studenţi au picat la acest examen. Lui i s-a părut că ceva nu este în regulă. aşa că s-a retras din cursă. b. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. h. Este prea amară. Toată lumea o iubeşte. e.. totul se va rezolva. The problem was ……. We only need …. difficult. I-am dat cuiva cartea.

90 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .

that if it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage. how comfortably he had lived all his days. went very high. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. we should never rise more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life. go home to my father. and in this agony of mind I made many vows of resolutions. and had never known anything of the matter. and never set it into a ship again while I lived. though nothing like what I have seen many times since. if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again. and I resolved that I would. that I would take his advice. how easy. who was but a young sailor. nor like what I saw a few days after. as I thought. . Underline the verbs which are used in Past Perfect: All this while the storm increased. and that every time the ship fell down. in the trough or hollow of the sea. or troubles on shore. no. But it was enough to affect me then. I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up. I would go directly home to my father. and the sea. which I had never been upon before.English Practical Course 91 Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous © The Imperative •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. like a true repenting prodigal. And never had I been exposed to tempests at sea.

and a charming fine evening followed. the sun shining upon it. However. last night. and I began to be a little inured to it. when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful. but you’re but a fresh-water sailor. and was now no more sea-sick but very cheerful. the sun went down perfectly clear. comes to me: “Well.” replied he. the sight was. looking with wonder upon the sea that was so wrought and terrible the day before.92 English Practical Course These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm continued. but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer." “A storm. I was very grave for all that day. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” Ways with Words 1. as I thought. Look at the following sentence belonging to this unit: I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up… Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. and having little or no wind. and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. give us but a good ship and sea-room. and rose so the next morning. Bob. It was a terrible storm. Bob. give us but a good ship and sea-room. I had slept well in the night. and indeed some time after. who had indeed enticed me away.” says he. clapping me on the shoulder. “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted. my companion. and we think nothing at all. and we’ll forget all that. wa’n’t you. you fool you. d’you call it?” said I. but towards night the weather cleared up. and a smooth sea. it was nothing at all. the most delightful that ever I saw. Come. . “do you call that a storm? Why. and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. let us make a bowl of punch. And now lest my good resolutions should continue. being also a little sea-sick still. the wind was quite over.

in order that = pentru ca. to make it possible = a face posibil. a (se) pregãti. din aceastã cauzã. a demonstra. we may mention: to create. to serve as or become. to earn. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma.English Practical Course 93 that much = cam atât. to cause to do or be. to make for = a contribui. a ceda. . let us make a bowl of punch. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. to make it clear = a clarifica. a redacta. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. like that (just like that) = aşa. to construct. to make ready = a fi gata. to make believe = a face sã creadã. to establish. to make over = a transfera. Try to make up sentences in which to express each of its meanings. Among other meanings of the verb to make. to bring about or produce. a profita la maximum de. to perform (an action). that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” In this sentence to make means to produce. to make out = a înţelege. Read this sentence again: Come. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. to make do = a se descurca cu o soluţie alternativă inferioară. 2. for all that = cu toate acestea. that is to say = adicã. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. sã. to amount to. and we’ll forget all that.

a face ceva repede. a good turn/ a favour to do sth. a pretinde ca şi cum. to make sure of = a se asigura de. Generally speaking make is used with the meaning of create or produce and do with the meaning of carry out an action. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. a închide etanş. a finaliza. to make tight = a ermetiza. to do an experiment to do one’s best to do a course to do the donkey work to do sbd. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. but there are lots of exceptions: e. 3.g. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. a face ca şi cum. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. a etanşeiza. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. to do with .94 English Practical Course to make a stand = a se opune. with your eyes closed to do harm to do the shopping to do wonders to do the washing-up to have sth. to make use of = a întrebuinţa. a termina. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make.

…….. …….……. Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.up your mind. a phone call.……. .…….a difference.……..…. . • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 he had written books for five years. someone a favour. your best.……. a fuss.……... . ……..……. a cup of tea.. …. 4. . …...a noise. .. . the shopping.……..fun of. . a mistake.……. .……. my homework.... your bed..……. . Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. an excuse. sense. . .sure..English Practical Course 95 Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.. ….. ……. . Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she done? had had not (hadn’t) left. ……. an effort. a mess.. a wish. trouble. . Past Perfect Simple It is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the students who had failed this exam four times? He had read his lecture before he went to university. . an appointment. He had lived in this flat since he was born...

Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. he hadn’t. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (v +-ing). No. They had been living for generations in that house. Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? been working on by that time. .96 English Practical Course we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. I had. I hadn’t. he had. Past Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an action which started in the past before the time of speaking in the past and still going on at that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. No.

./ He climbed over the wall. scarcely. the connector between the two clauses is than: No sooner had the band begun to play when the electricity was cut off. No. conversational English) In contexts containing hardly/ scarcely/ barely. They can also be used in other parts of the sentence without inversion. The prisoner ran across the yard.English Practical Course 97 Yes./ She looked at my cheque. no sooner. In contexts containing no sooner. b. rhetorical construction) / I had hardly entered the room when the phone started to ring. she gave it to me./ She counted out the money./ He jumped out of the window. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. I had. Hardly had I entered the room when the phone started to ring. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. Controlled Practice 1 1. After she had counted the money. Note that certain adverbs and adverb phrases (e. (emphatic. she counted the money./ They got back in the coach. (ordinary. not only) are followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary verb when they are used at the beginning of the sentence.g. Decide the order in which these things happened. the connector between the two clauses is when: Hardly/ Scarcely/ Barely had they got out of the house when it started to rain. I hadn’t. hardly./ They took photos. a. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me. The tourists got out of the coach.

Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was. . Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write). e./ She showed it to me. or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a./ He took the wheel off the car. Îl aşteptam de o orã./ She wrapped it. The mechanic put a new tyre on. The reporter wrote a report on the accident. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. e. Use the simple past. b. Translate into English: a. c.98 English Practical Course c./ She interviewed the people there. d. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni./ He put the wheel back on./ She went to the scene of the accident. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. când am aflat cã avusese un accident de maşină.

. after. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. 4. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. d. Alice said “Enter”.English Practical Course 99 b. The bell rang. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. The teacher corrected all the compositions. h. It (be midnight). Tom went out. Then his colleague looked for him. e. so we (decide) to go to bed. c. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. before. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and aspect (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous) : a. g. It was getting late. f. c. The phone started to ring. i. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. hardly. etc. b. Then the pupils entered the classroom. Then he went home. Then Susan answered it. Use the simple past and the past perfect as appropriate: a. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. I (write) for five hours. no sooner. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. She told me his name after he (leave). No wonder I (be) so tired. e. Then he opened the door. Connect the following sentences using until. d.

Affirmative Get ready! Negative Don’t get ready! Start working! Don’t start working! For the first and second person together. a command. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. e. d. When I arrived. j. i.100 English Practical Course b. c. g. She didn’t even say “thank you” after all I (do) for her. Grammar Reference 2 The Imperative It is a mood which expresses an order. f. or an instruction: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. When it started to rain. Let's not open the door. a threat. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. I congratulated him. a greeting. a piece of advice. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. use let's (let us): Let's open the door. He just (leave) home when he came across John. the concert already (begin). (Negative command) Only a few groups of words may precede the imperative verb: • adverbs of frequency: . h. a request. a wish. After I (hear) the news. When he finally reached London.

h. Vino. mai ai doar cinci minute! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . doamnã! f. j. Don't ever open the door to strangers. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. pentru că o să-ţi pară rău. Translate the following into English: a. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. i. pentru că nu am terminat ce am de spus! Haide cu mine să-ţi arăt ce ai putut să faci! g. please? Controlled Practice 2 1. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. vã rog. c. Luaţi loc. Grăbeşte-te. Will and would are used for polite requests: Would (will) you open the door. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b.English Practical Course 101 Always open the door slowly. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã folosesc şi eu computerul pentru a formata niste dischete. open the door. Don't you open the door. • • nouns of address: subject pronouns Jane. e. Nu pleca. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. te rog.

Give the waiter your order. Throw the ball to John. i. d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Pass me the salt. f. Be on time. please. Show me the letter. e. g. h.102 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. Make the following sentences negative: a. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. Come here! b. because English people are never late. j. Lend Ann your skates. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow.

never to be an old woman. and. this sort of life! I do wonder what can have happened to me! When I used to read fairy tales. as there seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room again. I almost wish I hadn’t gone down that rabbit-hole. you foolish Alice” . no wonder she felt unhappy. and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me. that there ought! And when I grow up. Underline the future tenses of the verbs: Luckily for Alice. and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable. one way.but I’m grown up now.” she added in a sorrowful tone: “at least there’s no room to grow up any more here. you know.and yetit’s rather curious. the little magic bottle had now had its full effect.” thought Alice.” “But then. I shouldn’t like that!” “Oh.and yet.always to have lessons to learn! Oh. I fancied that kind of thing never happened. “It was much pleasanter at home.English Practical Course 103 Unit 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Future Simple © Future Continuous © Be going to Future © Other Ways of Expressing Future •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Louis Carroll.” thought poor Alice.but then. I’ll write one. “shall I never get any older than I am now? That’ll be a comfort. “when one wasn’t always growing larger and smaller. and being ordered about by mice and rabbits.

and no room at all for any lesson-books!” And so she went on. by the way = apropo. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât.but then. în mãsura în care.never to be an old woman. the expression one way as is translated by pe de o parte.always to have lessons to learn!. but after a few minutes she heard a voice outside. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. ca sã zicem aşa. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. “How can you learn lessons in here? Why. so far as = întrucât. there’s hardly room for you. . 2. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea. in this way = în acest mod. so it seems = aşa se pare. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. one way. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. în calitate de. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. Ways with Words 1. In the sentence: That’ll be a comfort. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. so far = pânã acum.104 English Practical Course she answered herself. astfel încât. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. taking first one side and then the other. so much = atât de mult. So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. taking first one side and then the other. cu ajutorul. pânã în prezent. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. Read the sentence: And so she went on. and stopped to listen.

in one way = într-un fel. or what we suppose is true. Note that: Will is normally known as the predictive future. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary. and describes known facts.English Practical Course 105 in every way = în toate privinţele. a face carierã. way ahead = mult înainte. way above = mult deasupra. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. in a general way = în genere/ în general. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. I shall be thirty next year. The company will make a profit next year. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. way below = mai jos. Grammar Reference Future Simple It is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. way off = la o bunã distanţã. This can also take the form of an assumption: That’ll be John coming so early at the party. I’ll be late at school this morning. under way = în curs de. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to give way to = a ceda la. .

) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me.) 2. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me.106 English Practical Course This means that I suppose that it is John. help him? . please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way. They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes. We use will and shall in many other ways. Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future. I’ll be grateful to you.g. not forms of Future simple): e. apart from predicting the future (in this case they are modal verbs. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come. I shall. When it rains. Will is also used to express an immediate decision: I’ll take this one.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday. we stay inside.

because I’ll be calling into the office anyway to see if you are there. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. She’s coming on Monday. I’m going home. Note that in some contexts it sounds more polite than will Will you be going to the shops later? If you do. How long are they going to stay here? She isn’t going to attend this Grammar course. Be Going to Future It is used • to express a future decision. I’ll be working on my project. Future Continuous • • describes an event which will be happening at a future point refers to events which are going to happen anyway. I won’t is not common because it is impolite.English Practical Course 107 Note: No. intention. it may mean I don’t want to help you. could you get some bananas? Come round in the morning. particularly with the verbs go and come. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. rather than events which we choose to make happen: I won’t bother to look for you in advance. • refers to fixed arrangements and plans The singers will be performing live in Washington Square this month. .

am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? Future Simple or Be Going to? Look at the use of the Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. No. I am. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking. I’m not.108 English Practical Course • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain.. Watch out! The box is going to fall. I know. Form -the verb to be in Present +to +infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work.. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). What language shall I learn? Er.) . They Interrogative When Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea.

Similarly. and refers to time which we look back at from a future point: In two years’ time I’ll have finished my PhD thesis. Future Perfect • has both simple and continuous forms. we’ll have dinner. The cocktail party is due to start at 7.m.English Practical Course 109 Other Ways of Referring to the Future • be about to. • can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. By the end of the month. be on the point to. be due to Be about to and be on the point of both refer to the next moment I think it is about to rain. I am on the point of moving to another company. I’ll have been working for him for fifteen years. • present simple and present perfect Present simple is used to refer to future time in future time clauses When we get there. Present perfect can also be used instead of present simple when the completion of the event is emphasised When we’ve finished the work. • present simple is used to describe fixed events which are not simply the wishes of the speaker I retire next year. Be due to refers to scheduled times The flight is due at 5:54 p. . calendar references use the present simple. You won’t have heard the rumours about their engagement. This means I assume you haven’t heard the rumours. of course. we’ll be leaving. Christmas is on Wednesday next year.

d. Spectacolul nu va începe până la ora 5. Controlled Practice: 1. b. . Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. g. • hope followed by either present or future tense I hope you’ll come and see me when you are in London. Other future references • other verbs followed by will.110 English Practical Course Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense is formed by the future perfect of the verb to be and the present active participle of the main verb: It emphasizes the duration of one event taking place before another event in the future: In May 2000. c. expect. Îţi voi telefona imediat ce ajung la hotel. Translate into English: a. Va deveni necesar sã citim mai mult de acum încolo. • just/ just about to Just can be used to describe something which is on the point of happening The train is just leaving/ is just about to leave. Crezi cã veţi ajunge la spectacol în timp util? f. doubt. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. our family will have been living here for 30 years. so I’m afraid you should leave the compartment. I doubt that you will have the time to see all these places in a single day. e. think) I think the plane will be late. Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference (believe.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.” b. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. j. Ei nu ştiu când vor pleca. i. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. d. Dacă va întreba cineva de mine. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. hurry up or we’ll miss/ we will have missed the train. Come on. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. g.English Practical Course 111 h. te rog să-i rogi să mă sune după ora 6. c. . “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on a trip to the mountains. Sper că ne veţi ajuta să reparăm calculatorul.” f. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. Maria is going to be/ will be thirty-three next month so she will organise/ is going to organise a party.

f. She (have) twins. Decide whether the pairs of sentences A and B could be equally acceptable in the context given. In twenty four hours’ time I’ll relax/ I’ll be relaxing on the beach. By the end of the month I (decide) what to do. I (be) long. j. I (hope) it (not rain). He is always late. please buy some potatoes for lunch. Hurry up! The play (start). The trip will be great. we (call) you. When we (get) there. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. b.112 English Practical Course h. It’s my twenty-ninth birthday next month so I (have) a party. j. B. g. or whether one is more appropriate. Would you like to come? c. e. . Maria is pregnant again. Will you be going/ will you go to the market later? If you go. We’re sure everything (be) all right in the end. h. What (you do) on Monday? I (have) tickets to a violin concert. It’s only an hour’s travel. The trip is going to be great. i. d. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense: a. I (come back) very soon. Why don’t you come with us? A. 3. That will be/ is Jim at the door. i. a. I (go) out for half an hour.

. Translate into English: a.30 ne vom îmbarca în autocarul spre Grecia. f. Să nu uiţi de aniversarea prietenilor tăi: pe 24 ale lunii următoare ei vor fi locuit în această casă de 10 ani. Vor fi trecut şase ore de la ultimul atac dar apărătorii castelului tot nu se vor preda dacă nu li se vor împlini condiţiile. I’ve got no homework for tomorrow so A. A. We’re run out of petrol. c. B. Sper că până se va întoarce fratele tău de la cules de căpşuni tu vei fi spălat toate rufele murdare. I’m going to get angry in a minute. g. I’d like to pay you a short visit. toţi prietenii tăi îţi vor pregăti o pedeapsă proporţională cu vina.English Practical Course 113 b. Stop that. i. e. Cred sincer că pe vremea asta săptămâna viitoare mă voi uita în sfârşit la HBO. Când tu îţi vei face de cap în barul acela infect mâine. Ambasada va primi oaspeţii numai după ce aceştia vor fi percheziţionaţi. h. will you! A. John ştie sigur că săptămâna viitoare când va începe şcoala. Are de gând să îl facă de râs în faţa clasei dacă nu va spune adevărul. Suntem înspăimântaţi de faptul că furtuna nu se va opri până diseară pe la şase. I’m getting angry in a minute. Mâine la ora 5. b. What are we doing now? B. What are we going to do now? 5. vărul său va studia un manual de biologie umană. I’m going to watch TV. e. d. What are you doing in the evening? d. B. What’ll you be doing in the evening? B. c. I’ll watch TV. A. j.

micuţul John va fi cântat la vioară de cel puţin 3 ore. Când mama se va întoarce de la ţară. m. Suntem prieteni de o viaţă şi ne-am hotărât: o să cumpărăm împreună casa aceea de la munte şi o s-o transformăm în azil pentru bătrâni.114 English Practical Course k. jurnaliştii vor inventa tot felul de întrebări care l-ar putea pune pe acesta în dificultate. În timp ce preşedintele va ţine un discurs despre legea dreptului de autor. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . l.

of how he sang songs while his mother played and of how he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence and he felt sorry for him that he was not a magistrate like the other boys’ fathers. You could know the people of that time by their old dress.English Practical Course 115 Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment belonging to James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. . Then why was he sent to that place with them? But his father had told him that he would be no stranger there because his granduncle had presented in address to the liberator there fifty years before. Look for those verbs which are used in the passive voice. Why did he not tell it? His father. It seemed to him a solemn time: and he wondered if that was the time when the fellows in Clongowes wore blue coats with brass buttons and yellow waistcoats and caps of rabbitskin and drank beer like grownup people and kept greyhounds of their own to course the hares with. He thought of his own father. must be a magistrate too like Saurin’s father and Nasty Roche’s father. Translate the text into Romanian. who kept the racehorses.

a monthly statement. month. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. Word sets. Now it’s at least four times that. to cash a cheque.116 English Practical Course Ways with Words 1. a deposit account. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a.. a building society. a cheque card.. having a personal bank account.………… of $ 100 a month.. etc. When she started with the company her …………. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. was only $ 1000 a year. year. When Mr Michael retired he received a . In this way you may create a word set.. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. year. to earn 15% interest. nobody will lend him any money.. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. c. Try to think of the sentence […] he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence […]. century. b. to buy shares in a company. . to put money in. saving and investing money.. d. e. a mortgage. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. the Stock Market.... Now think of words connected to money. a current account. 2. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. For example a word set of the word time may include among other words: day.

etc. house. to resemble. to speak to. .English Practical Course 117 Grammar Reference The Passive Voice The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. his His house is being painted. to possess. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the passive voice such as: to have. He has painted his His house has been painted. Form: the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense as the active verb + the past participle of the lexical verb. to hold. He is painting house. house. PASSIVE VOICE Houses are painted (by him). He will have painted it. to attend to. etc. His house was painted. He would paint his His house would be painted. He would have painted It would have been painted. It will have been painted. He was painting his His house was being painted. He will paint his His house will be painted. house. to send for. to look after. He painted his house. house. TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Present Conditional Perfect ACTIVE VOICE He paints houses. He had painted his His house had been painted. house. to look at.

help are followed by to+infinitive in the passive. He He should enjoys have It should have been painted. Use: • When the person who performs the action (agent) can easily be understood or is unknown: He has been arrested (by the police). their houses. house. . hear. people He enjoys being asked to painted it. see. • When it is necessary to express something more formally: People think that the factory went bankrupt.118 English Practical Course Conditional Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Gerund it. • When we are interested in the action itself rather than the person who performs it: I was advised to save the files once in a while (by my friend). Let becomes was/were allowed to in the passive or is followed by a reflexive pronoun+bare/short passive infinitive. asking him to paint paint houses. ~ It is thought that the factory went bankrupt/ The factory is thought to have gone bankrupt. Perfect Gerund He remembers paint her house. • When we avoid the naming of a specific person who is responsible for the action: All the cakes have been eaten (instead of: You have eaten all the cakes). He should paint his His house should be painted. Jane He remembers having been having asked him to asked to paint Jane’s house. Further Points on the Passive Voice • • Make. My bag has been stolen.

English Practical Course 119 She let me go. / The building can’t be repaired. / I was given some money. think. / America was reached (NOT arrived in) by Columbus in 1492. Columbus arrived in America in 1492. / She is . He gave me some money. consider. • Verbs followed by a certain preposition take the preposition immediately after them when put into the passive voice. • Verbs which take two objects such as allow. ask. • Prepositional verbs of movement when turned into the passive voice change to other synonymous verbs which take no preposition. teach. • Modals do not change in the passive voice. • The passive voice with verbs of reporting such as assume. / Don’t let yourself be tricked. understand etc is formed in two ways: • • believed to be a spy. pay. / I was allowed to go. report. bring. • Many passive voice sentences do not have an active voice counterpart: Shakespeare was born at Stratford. Don’t let him trick you. write. / Some money was given to me. She accused me of lying / I was accused of lying. They can’t repair the building. / The room was entered (NOT gone into) by the Royal couple. etc have two passive forms. This notion is based on a misconception. believe. know. tell. The Royal couple went into the room arm in arm. say. buy. It + passive verb + that-clause Subject +passive verb + to-infinitive They believe she is a spy. feel. give. / It is believed that she is a spy. We change the active infinitive into passive infinitive. lend.

• Have/get + object +past participle can also be used to replace a passive verb usually describing an accident or a misfortune. she never stops. • Get + object + present participle (-ing) is used informally to mean make somebody / something start doing something. He had/got his car stolen. please. (b) a reciprocal pronoun: We can hardly see each other in the dark room. • Get +object + to infinitive means make or persuade somebody to do something. I’ll have my car repaired. Once you get her talking about her children. Causative Forms • Have +object +past participle is used to suggest that we are instructing someone to do something for us. get going (without an object) • Want and need + object + past participle indicate that you would like or need something to be done .120 English Practical Course It is alleged that the thief was caught. The teacher got the students to write the sentence five times. • Have + object + bare infinitive is used for giving instructions and orders. (I’ll arrange for it to be done) Don’t have the files printed. The manager had the secretary type 20 letters. (c) a possessive pronoun: The teacher shook his head and sighed. Also: get moving. • Some sentences cannot be passivized. These are sentences where the object is: (a) a reflexive pronoun: John has been washing himself for hours. See if you can get Mary to help us with our homework.

Mi s-au furat banii. h. (Someone else is doing it but the agent is not important. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. what interests us is the room) Causative: I am having the room decorated. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. i. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea.English Practical Course 121 I want the room cleaned. e. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. • Compare: The Active Voice: I’m decorating the room. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. c. I need the reports checked. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. b. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã structura acestei lucrări. f. Translate the following sentences into English: a. (I am doing it myself) The Passive Voice: The room is being decorated. Controlled Practice 1. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. g. Doctorul a fost chemat.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. e. d. b. c. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. Who drew this picture? b. When was your car stolen? c. People in my town built this hospital last year. d. Children had cast stones. When no agent is given supply one: a. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. e.122 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. John can’t have done this. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . AIDS is thought to be curable.

Mary is said ……………………………………………………. Tickets ……………………………………………………………. The discovery of this new medicine is helping the fight against cancer. They say that Mary is difficult to work with. Please turn off the lights. i.English Practical Course 123 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. After the bedroom………………………………………….. When we have finished decorating the bedroom. The child …………………………………………………. so that the meaning stays the same: a. Somebody punched John in the face at a volley match. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. It is thought that the coins date from the Middle Ages. Ticket collectors work on the train on this line. b. The fight ……………………………………………………………. What caused this error…………………………………………… h. The coins ……………………………………………………. we’ll paint the dining room.. Somebody directed me at the wrong address. It is believed that the child was punished by his parents. e. 5. c. j. I ……………………………………………………………………. John is thought ………………………………………………. f. I’d rather you ………………………………………………. g. They have no idea what caused this error. Complete the sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the passive tense suggested at the end of the sentence: . d.

c. The girl who (bite) by a dog was given a serum. A great deal of effort (make) lately to avoid a war with that country. Many of Bucharest’s important buildings (destroy) by the earthquake in 1977. My neighbour’s leg (not broken) if he hadn’t walked on ice. (present continuous) h. (future perfect) j. g. He strongly objected to (ask) about the accident. Foreign coins (not put) in parking meters in this part of the country. The army (instruct) to shoot if the enemy crosses the line. b. (present perfect) e. (gerund) i. Something (do) if we want to rescue the rest of the crew. (modal verb) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. Mary (take) to the hospital by the end of the day. Has the search for the stolen car (give up) yet? f. (future) g. I was surprised to find out that you (get paid) twice in the same week. I’m sure.(past) b. h.124 English Practical Course a. d. Very few criminals (catch) if the population didn’t offer information. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct Passive Voice form: a. . (perfect conditional) c. Many block-of-flats (build) in the neighbourhood. John (think) to have broken that precious vase in the living room. The escaped man (arrest) a week later. That person in the dock (let off) as it’s his first offence. e. Would she go to the cinema if she was to (invite)? f. (past perfect) d. The police (instruct) to take firm action against beggars on the street.

The carpet in your room (…) with orange juice. i. She doesn’t remember her purse (…) by the thief. All the persons in the room (…) for drugs. Windows (…) on the inside to prevent the wind from breaking them. (…) the reward to those who saved Jane? h. It was the first time. When capital punishment (…) in Romania? . A sharp instrument (…) the old man. Use one of the Passive forms of a suitable verb in each of the following sentences: a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. c. A lot of money (…) from a German bank two years ago. n. b. Could violence (control) less effectively if the police didn’t carry guns? j. k. p. my sister never (…) by the customs before. The lock (…) and the window (…) by the police. d. They (…) a five year sentence by the High Court Judge. e. The red car (rev up) ready for the policemen to start chasing the thieves. Safes (…) not often by amateurs. f. g. m. The giraffe (…) to the zoo when it escaped. The police (…) in hearing from anyone who saw a 10-year-old child in front of the shop yesterday. o. Money (…) always in the bank for interest. Who (…) you by at the hospital? j.English Practical Course 125 i. l.

. the lock …… h.000 worth of merchandise … … d. £ 20. all the rooms … … i. Complete the sentences using a suitable Passive Voice verb and any necessary phrases: a. Look at that man’s green hair! He (dye it). f. The house was found in a terrible condition. the cars … … b. There was a dreadful accident and all the cars … … 9. The evidence that one of the accused gave … … g. George’s watch has disappeared from the table where he left it.126 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. It’s very foggy tonight. I (vaccinate my child) against all the possible diseases when he was one year old. The room looks different. Will the new laws … … j. it … … c. The customs officers (arrest him) if he tries to leave the country. There’ll be a big check at the customs tomorrow. They (check the documents) before the case comes up next month. Father (fit the burglar alarm) because his house had been broken into. He insisted that our neighbour … … f. Shoplifting is on the increase. d. b. Use the Passive form with the verb to have in the following sentences: a. They (repaint it). My window is open instead of closed. e. all the people from the Middle East … … e. c.

The roof is unsafe. h. so he (clean it) as soon as possible. I don’t think these translations are accurate. Complete the following passage with the correct Passive forms: . You can’t take your luggage into the shop unless you … … d. Complete the following sentences. he … … g. Their washing-machine is working again. You … … j. Your back window squeaks. Have you … …? f. Someone (clean the kitchen) when mother arrived. don’t you think they … …? i. j. The so-called poet did not write the poem himself. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Your hair seems shorter. It … … b. You shouldn’t (repair the sink) before the plumber had examined it. She is not quite sure but she thinks she (steal the money) in the train. The car is covered in mud. we should make sure that we … … h. Before we buy the mansion. This is quite bizarre! There are many questions that … … e. They … … 11. i.English Practical Course 127 g. It … … c. using the Passive form with either have or need: a. There are many errors in your paper.

his desires had (consider). He was old. But then. He had become a nuisance who should (remove) as quickly as possible. everything that in his ordinary life needed (do). and John was aware that his fortune (leave) to him. he needed (care for). ‘It is sad’. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . He had not (employ) as an accountant for the past ten years without acquiring a passion for minute details. he told to himself. It was entirely in his character that he had made up his mind to get rid of his uncle. He was known as being a methodical man. His bills (pay) regularly. Indeed. Besides he was rich. as John himself said to the inspector.128 English Practical Course When John Miller killed his uncle. He didn’t even suppose inspector Thomson would guess that the ladder (put) outside the bedroom window after his uncle (murder). His plans were (lay) with extreme precision. John’s crime would probably never (discover) if it had not stopped raining just before he came home and if his uncle’s window had not (break) with a flower pot. the criminal always gets (catch) after all. his car (service) every three months. he was convinced that his crime wouldn’t ever (detect). John saw to it that it was (do). he had his hair (cut) once a month. but the important thing is to make it look as if it (do) while I was away. ‘that he has (kill) rather than die a natural death. his wants (gratify).

g. All TV programs were suspended for nearly 6 hours. The students in this University are always recommended to apply for these jobs. The pen has been lost in the fire. f. c.English Practical Course 129 12. m. You hate to be interrupted from your research. l. e. No explanation had been given for his behaviour. his remarks are being received with enthusiasm. j. The problem will be dealt with I detail next week. The basement was flooded with water. They are forbidden to enter this room. b. My neighbour’s dog was run over by a truck. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . As you see. k. i. d. The library is well provided with books. It is reported that there has been an earthquake in the area. Change the following sentences into the Active Voice: a. Tons of uranium have been stolen from this mine this year. h.

They awarded the Best Actor Prize to George Clooney. I told my parents the truth. j. . knowing that transitive verbs admit two passive constructions: a. h.130 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. The teacher may give us the results tonight. paying attention to the prepositions following the verbs: a. g. b. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. d. We showed them our newly. My friends promised me immediate assistance. They have called for the mechanic to repair their car.born child. The physician prescribed a bad medicine for the sick old man. You paid him that huge sum of money two days ago. i. The doorman showed us the way to the bathroom. f. Change the following intransitive verbs into the Passive Voice. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. George gave him a beautiful present. c. I give my child two bars of chocolate a day.

j. i. These spoiled children do not listen to their parents. Se recomandă o mai atentă cercetare a acestui proiect. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. d. Translate into English: a. c. Nobody objected to their suggestions. d. You spoke much about that young lady you had met a week before. b. k. Our parents often refer to him as being a wrong model for us. Orice defecţiune a maşinii se repară pe loc în acest atelier. Nobody has lived in this haunted house for more than 50 years. The former enemies have arrived at an agreement after many years of discussion. your friends will laugh at you. The employer insists upon a strict discipline in all our work. You must look after your kid sister. c.English Practical Course 131 b. Don’t put on that pink shirt. Se construiesc din ce în ce mai multe şcoli în acest orăşel. f. The pupils will have to comment upon that poem. e. otherwise your mother will scold you. h. În acest local se vorbeşte numai limba spaniolă. .

q. S-a ridicat nivelul apelor Dunării cu 3 cm. l. S-a ajuns la bătaie după ce s-au certat toată ziua. Dacă fratele tău nu se va simţi mai bine. I s-a oferit un post de director economic la cea mai puternică corporaţie din ţară. r.132 English Practical Course e. Problema câinilor fără stăpân a fost dezbătută de mai multe ori săptămâna aceasta. S-a anunţat o reducere semnificativă la articolele de îmbrăcăminte de iarnă. m. g. Se bea mult vin roşu la acest tip de petrecere. h. s. n. Ni s-a spus că pantalonii vor fi cusuţi în fabrica noastră. Li se comunicase că dărâmarea prin implozie a acestei clădiri va fi făcută la mijlocul săptămânii următoare. j. o. Mi s-a dat ocazia să-mi arăt talentul de compozitor. i. p. f. k. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Din păcate nu s-a ajuns la nici un acord final. Gunoiul se încarcă numai marţea şi joia. Turiştilor li s-a arătat un magazin cu lucruri foarte scumpe după ce acestora li se furaseră deja portofelele. Se vor înfiinţa centre de ocrotire a minorilor. în această seară se va trimite după doctor. Se vor reface unele străzi din acest oraş după ce se va topi zăpada.

He … … d. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it: a. This shirt … … g. The sauce … … j. My cousin’s child completely destroyed my paper. We watched the car … … h. My paper … … b. She suggested we eat Mike’s new favourite meal.English Practical Course 133 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. The china cup … … i. I dropped the china cup and cracked it. Tom’s new book… … e. A freshman … … c. We watched my brother drive the car into the garage. Mother added flour to the sauce and thickened it. Leaving this shirt in the rain has made it shrink. They’re buying a lot of copies of that volume of poetry. We … … f. Tom has earned several thousand dollars from his new book. The referee refused him permission to enter the game. . First prize was awarded to a freshman in our school.

a. The lights in my room have been flickering for a while. (seen) c. Children can get (…) in by burglars going from house to house. i. b. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. h. I suppose she needs (…) told to be careful with that acid solution. The coffee maker is out of order but I’m (…) fixed tomorrow. The issue was (…) been told where his wife disappeared. We (…) house broken into yesterday. (heard) . Jack is quite a difficult person. d. George often tells his parents how much of his ill-luck is down to you.134 English Practical Course That volume of poetry … … 17. Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase: a. g. I must (…) to look at the wiring for me. They were (…) been given 15 more minutes to complete the test. j. He wants it to be clear to his friends that he’s honest. Some of his neighbours are saying that he is selling marijuana. e. Your decisions were rejected and you were (…) back down. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 18. that’s something his friends will have (…) to. (rumoured) b. but using the word given. The package is believed (…) delivered by some strange people. c. f.

(got) k. Never forget that friends will be friends. Our new manager wants us to call him “Sir”. His grandmother underwent a three-hour operation to remove the brain tumour that had been diagnosed. (due) g. (get) i. (packed) s. (let) h. I became very emotional when I found out my wife had given birth to a daughter. The House of Parliament is the tallest building in the area. (conferred) . (pilloried) r. (copied) m.English Practical Course 135 d. It’s not difficult at all for Ben to copy the paper from his colleague. (fallen) e. There were thousands of strikers in the yard of the factory. As a kid. All of his friends spent last month repairing his boat. They believe that the captain fell overboard and died. The rain forced our weekend trip to be cancelled. (operated) w. Mary was not allowed to play with matches. (rained) p. Since we won the prize. The plan was originally to complete the task by 3 o’clock. She couldn’t find her way out of the labyrinth. we’ve had more telephone calls than we can deal with. (overcome) v. Our professor of History was given the Academy Award by Oxford University. (aback) o. (borne) u. Our teachers don’t want any repetition of such a ridiculous behaviour again. (had) j. (addressed) t. (swamped) n. Subtracting is something one takes for granted after a while. (dwarfed) q. His latest article about unemployment came in for sharp criticism in this newspaper. Janine’s answer took the audience by surprise. (repeated) f. I don’t like very much my mother scolding me in front of my friends. (having) l.

Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. You have vague memories of … … c. She didn’t remember that she had been called home by her mother.136 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 19. Sometimes it is quite embarrassing when people laugh at you. You vaguely remember that you drank five bottles of wine last night. a. Being … … . She has no recollection of … … b.

I’m … … . The room … … j. That valuable …… l. Peter poured wine into the glass until it was full. The glass … … i. George was severely criticized for his bad jokes and was more attentive after that. The dentist is supposed to be filling one of my teeth this afternoon. They really wish they hadn’t been pushed to eat that horrible soup. The office … … n. The Town Hall … … h. The group of people moved towards the Town Hall from all sides. Never … … g. I can’t explain what it feels like for nobody’s ever given me the chance to fly a plane. They’ve had to call the office five times to find out the result of the race. Mice came into the room through a sort of hole in the wall. Justice must not … … m. Having … … e. They really regret … … f.English Practical Course 137 d. Do not put the card in until the screen shows ‘Insert your card’. The card is only … … k. It’s over twenty years since anyone saw that valuable painting. People crave for justice and they need to see it done.

We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. Will there be a general strike? 3. threatening they’ll understand. g. . b. promising/ stating an intention time. Perhaps j. What will you call your new cat? d. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. . a. They are shutting the bank for the winter holidays. She has burned the chicken in the oven. I’ll report you to the police next g. They consulted the doctor when they were ill. offering country later? 7. he wanted to know the time. making an invitation Friday.138 English Practical Course Progress Test 2 1.b. c. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. making a request d. 8. making a prediction c. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. expressing future uncertainty f. making a suggestion Sunday? 2. Will you have dinner with us on k. 11. expressing future hope e. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. A child asked me a question on my way home. Explain it to them again. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. Shall we take a drive into the b. The gust of wind blew the woman’s hat off. 2. e. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. 10. asking for a prediction Saturday. f. 9. The wedding will take place next h. He wrote the paper on time. Shall I go to the library for you? 6.

i. u. They are going to write a song tonight. Father made her cry hard. I must pay the telephone bill at the end of the month. Children ask a lot of questions. o. Nobody asked Mike to come. s. The bodyguards requested us to show our tickets. l. t. n. The children have made him captain of their team. k.English Practical Course 139 h. We didn’t fix the roof yesterday. r. p. We haven’t invited our friends to the party yet. She soon lost sight of her friend. People mustn’t walk on the grass in this park. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . j. I found your bike in front of the cinema. Someone is going to beat him soon! v. q. My brother has been looking after the dog for the last two years. m. We could read the note by the light of the candle.

Richard’s new album (…) for release next year. f. . short-listed. shrouded. our clothes (…) all over the house. overcome. My brother. Christine (…) the most beautiful girl in Europe. (…) by almost all of his colleagues. i. Since her book on cooking came out. The secretary (…) by exhaustion after 12-hour typing and had to go home. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate verb from the list. c. dwarfed a. Impossible as it may seem. who is rather short. When we came back from the mountains. The participles should be used with the verb to be in the appropriate tense: strewn. j. baffled. she (…) with requests for some more recipes. deemed. scheduled. d. your language in this newspaper article (…) inadequate for the public taste. h. All the neighbours I asked (…) by the reason of her disease. g. dubbed. b.140 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. we all agreed: his paper should (…) for last year’s Literature prize. How he managed to obtain such a large sum of money (…) in mystery. Unfortunately. inundated. e. Having read the manuscript.

f. Ei au de gând să-şi renoveze vila anul viitor. i. b. Translate into English: a. El fusese sunat de director de mai multe ori înainte de a veni la serviciu. El intenţionează să se înscrie la acest curs săptămâna viitoare. O să-mi dau maşina la reparat. Când voi pleca la munte. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . g. o să-ţi telefonez. o să-mi iau şi haine subţiri şi haine groase. c. Noi vrem să ştim dacă ne puteţi ajuta sau nu. d. De îndată ce voi termina raportul o să te informez în legătură cu rezultatele cercetării mele. Dacă voi avea timp. h. pentru că i s-au defectat frânele. aşa că spectacolul se terminase deja la televizor. e. Am ajuns cam târziu acasă.English Practical Course 141 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.

e. The roof wasn’t fixed yesterday. 5. 9. m. 8. he wanted to know the time. h. Our friends haven’t been invited to the party yet. g. We were requested to show our tickets (by the bodyguards). I was a asked question on my way home. j. r. Mike wasn’t asked to come. t. Her friend was soon lost sight of. s. i. b. The doctor was consulted when they were ill. 1. j. a.h 2. k. The woman’s hat was blown off (by a gust of wind). A lot of questions are asked by children l. e. f. c. a. p. f. u. Your bike was found in front of the cinema. 4. The telephone bill must be paid… n. The paper was written on time. c. He has been made captain of the children’s team. 6. q. b.142 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. The dog has been looked after(by my brother) for the last two years. . What will your new cat be called? d. The note could be read by the light of the candle. The grass mustn’t be walked on in this park. She was made to cry hard (by Father). d. A song is going to be written tonight. 7. 11. i. The bank is being shut for the winter holidays. He is going to be beaten soon! v.g. 2. 10. 3. o. k. The chicken has been burnt in the oven.

b. was overcome. They are going to have they villa redecorated next year. c. a. j. e. is dwarfed.1point each x 10 = 10 points 2. As soon as I finish the report I’ll inform you on the results of my research.40 points each x 22 = 10 points 3. h. a. has been deemed.90 points each x 10 = 10 points 4. has been dubbed. 1 point + 1. He had been called by the director several times before coming to work. f.1 point + 0. We arrived home rather late. g.00 point each x 9 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Coordinating Conjunctions © Subordinating Conjunctions .1 point + 0. f. were strewn. We want to know if you can help us or not. Score: 1. 4. i. He is going to take up this course next week. I’ll have my car repaired. If I have time I’ll call you. d. e. d. c. i. is shrouded.English Practical Course 143 3. was short listed. g. is scheduled. were baffled. for the brakes broke down. has been inundated. When I go to the mountains I’ll take both light and warm clothes. so the TV show had already been over. h. b.

but knew not how. he left the room. In the last sentence from the text. though. “I am sorry to hear that. we cannot escape the acquaintance now. when the first tumult of joy was over. but as I have actually paid the visit. that you should have gone this morning and never said a word about it till now. “let us return to Mr.144 English Practical Course © Number of Nouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. but why did not you tell me so before? If I had known as much this morning I certainly would not have called on him. she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. Pay attention to the conjunctions.” “I am sick of Mr. .” cried his wife. too. I was sure you loved your girls too well to neglect such an acquaintance. fatigued with the raptures of his wife. Bennet perhaps surpassing the rest. Bennet. Bingley. Well. Ways with Words 1. the preposition with appears. you may cough as much as you choose. “While Mary is adjusting her ideas. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit.” said Mr. my dear Mr. Bingley.” “Now. how pleased I am! and it is such a good joke. Bennet! But I knew I should persuade you at last. and. “How good it was in you. It is very unlucky.” The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished.” he continued. Underline the coordinate conjunctions with one line and the subordinate ones with two lines: Mary wished to say something very sensible. that of Mrs. as he spoke. Kitty.

of all kinds = de toate felurile. referitor. all worn out = complet uzat. as with = la fel ca şi. first of all = înainte de toate.English Practical Course 145 with an eye to = urmãrind. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. all over = peste tot. 2. all at once = dintr-o datã. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. all the better = cu atât mai bine. asta-i tot. pe bunã dreptate. cu totul. together with = împreunã cu. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. with a view of = în scopul de a. a termina cu. . it is all one to them = le este tot una. that is about all = ca. all in all = în întregime. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. How do you translate in all the while? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. cu privire la. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. with reason = pe drept. to do away with = a înlãtura. fãrã a pierde din vedere.

and. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket.. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly.146 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Conjunction Conjunctions join words... neither. Neither money nor power can make him happy. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both.nor make the connection more intense.. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. two phrases.or: Neither the teacher nor THE STUDENTS are allowed to wear jeans. They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party. she also had dessert! Either my husband or I can drive you home. not only... .or. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor... Neither the students nor THE TEACHER is allowed to wear jeans. Punctuation with Coordinate Conjunctions • A comma is not necessary when only two elements (two words. • The second noun determines the number of the verb with neither. nor and either. either.. The doctor told him not to smoke or drink. He moved quickly but quietly. two clauses) are joined by a coordinate conjunction.. Not only did she have two helpings... (but also).

The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. nature is the hand setting b. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. She has been very ill since her operation. because. a. ……. Along this coast. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. ………. and children are welcome. women. whom She never saw him after he left town. Controlled Practice 1 1. before. that. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. It is not compulsory to use a comma before the last unit: Men. who. when. Within the park are alpine meadows.. He got a ticket because he was speeding. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. as. To the west. into the Olympic Mountains. women and children are welcome. some sixty active glaciers slow- . since. d. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America.English Practical Course 147 • However. majestic white-robed peaks. as much as. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. on the Olympic Peninsula. where. c. what. ……. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. use commas after the first and second units. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. unless. if three or more units are joined. if. and beyond. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. although. is the brooding. This is called a serial comma. Men.. how.

the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. serene. ……. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f.. These are softer mountains. h. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. On the western slopes of the mountains. e. Far to the east. the Tetons have no foothills. maple and other hardwoods. most mountain ranges. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. They are the largest living things on earth. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains.. live more than 350 species of birds. hammocks. Mountain. In Wyoming are the rugged. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.148 English Practical Course sliding their relentless way down from the heights." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. Although relatively small. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula. in Shenandoah National Park i. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles.. ……. To walk these cool. "Grassy Water. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee. Sea. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. River.. there is a remarkable rainforest. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. are seemingly endless groves of oak. and averages only 6 inches deep. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life. may be the most unusual river in the world. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. islands and hyacinth pools. hickory. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. A river that is 100 miles long. laying . there is a more gentle forest. 50 miles wide. ……. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14." g. …….. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide.000 feet. …….

towers. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. n. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. ……. minarets. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. Here is where glaciers come to die.English Practical Course 149 comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed. powerful hand of water. ……. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. arches. ……… seem to have once been alive. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made.." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. l.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores.1794.for the soul. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. m. ……. powerful strokes. all cut from stone by the delicate. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park.. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal.. j. ……. ……. time and wind. There are castles and whimsical skylines. The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. No longer shrouded in ice.

appendixappendices (in books)/appendixes (anatomical) analysis-analyses.phenomenon-phenomena. protons. child-children. thesis-theses .potatoes (But: photo-photos) -ves to nouns ending in -f(e): knife-knives. ox-oxen. goose-geese. -z. formula-formulae/formulas (but: dilemmas. tool-tools -es to singular nouns ending in -s. diagnosisdiagnoses.index-indices (algebraic signs) /indexes (tables of contents). crisis-crises. potato. genius-genii (spirits)/geniuses (men of genius) (but: bonuses. match-matches. neurones. tooth-teeth.datum-data. brush-brushes. ganglions) • Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: . hoof-hooves/hoofs. criterion-criteria (but: demons. boxboxes. foot-feet.alga-algae. louse-lice. proof-proofs. axis-axes. -o: bus-buses. geniuses. villas. mouse-mice. woman-women. viruses) . -x. diplomas) . person-people/ persons • Foreign plurals . shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs. basis-bases. leaf-leaves. asylums) . scarf-scarfs/scarves • Some nouns form their plural irregularly man-men. cliff-cliffs. -ch. stimulus-stimuli. -ss.nucleus-nuclei. medium-media (but: museums. hypothesis-hypotheses. handkerchief-handkerchiefs) -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: lady-ladies -s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy-toys Note: dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves. larva-larvae. -sh.150 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 2 Number of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s: book-books.

) Custom (a traditional event)-customs (the government department which collects taxes on imported goods) a. (We refer to the individual members) The staff of the school consists of fifty people. congratulations. trousers. jeans. plaice. deer. jury. surroundings. etc. place. crew. greens (vegetables). pliers. scales. glasses. odds (chances). spectacles. premises (building). clothes. . public. union. savings. arms (weapons). people. lodgings. trout • Some nouns are only plural: earnings. belongings. tools and instruments consisting of two parts: binoculars. groceries. b. means. youth. clergy. etc. etc. police. according top the meaning. etc. speech)contents (the things contained in a box. regards. committee. scissors. club. family. pants. class. pyjamas. sheep. government. riches. The staff were not in agreement with the new rules. fish. • collective nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb. garments. goods. spacecraft.English Practical Course 151 Craft. company. Japanese. oats. cod. series. orchestra. species. (We refer to the group as a unit) Some collective nouns are: audience. cattle. remains. outskirts. crowd. • Some nouns have different meanings when turned into plural: Air (atmosphere)-airs (behaviour) Cloth (a piece of material)-clothes (garments) Compass (a magnetic compass)-compasses (an instrument for drawing circles) Content (what is written or spoken about in a piece of writing. squid. choir. compasses. thanks. salmon. team. firm.

to the noun if the compound has only one noun: passer-by – passers- . a place of manufacturing processes) Note: Some of the above nouns have their own regular plurals: minute/minutes • Compound nouns form their plural by adding –s/-es: by b. an expression)-looks (a person’s appearance) Manner (a way in which something is done)-manners (social behaviour.152 English Practical Course Damage(harm done to something)-damages (monetary compensation) Experience (gaining knowledge or skill over a period)-experiences (activities/events one has done/lived through) Fund (a sum of money saved for a purpose)-funds (money) Glass (a drinking receptacle)-glasses (spectacles) Hair (the hairy part of the head)-hairs (fine strands growing from the skin) Look (a style. to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition: mother-in-law – mothers-in-law a. customs) Minute (sixty seconds)-minutes (notes taken as a record of a meeting) Relation (a connection)-relations (members of the same family) Scale (the relative size of something)-scales (an instrument for weighing) Spectacle (an object of attention)-spectacles (glasses. also specs) Spirit (a person’s soul or mind. to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: cupboard – cupboards c. a strong alcoholic drink) Wood (the hard material trees are made of)-woods (small forests) Work (employment)-works (the moving parts of a machine. a magical creature)-spirits (a person’s feelings.

The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/goods) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/trousers)” and “Polymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town. This child is a naughty one. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists. d. Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. Complete this newspaper article. b. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Clayton Factory for Milchester The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. Make all other changes which are necessary: a. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. 2. and 2. Where have you put that box? . at the end of the compound if it does not contain any nouns: breakdown – breakdowns Controlled Practice 2 1. e. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. but the (information/informations) that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. he was taking a book from the shelf. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. (This/These) (new/news) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. c. When I entered the room.English Practical Course 153 d. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby.

(Mothers-in-laws /mothers-in-law) are considered by some men real shrews. d. It can be hilarious if translators make mistakes in their (analysis). Fill in the correct plural for the words in brackets: a. The (commander-in-chiefs /commanders-in chief) decided to surrender. 4. f. b. f. Three (basketful /basketfuls) of oranges have been gathered so far. b. . g. d. (Ninety-year-olds /ninety-years-old) don’t need to use (toothbrushes /teethbrushes). Milk has lots of (by-products /bys-products). His (brother-in-laws /brothers-in-law) have committed several crimes. George didn’t count his (footsteps /feetsteps) from the station to the library because he considered it useless. They keep talking about the legend of (men-eaters /man-eaters). Mars and Venus revolve on their (axis) like the Earth. A great deal of (datum) was stolen from our computers. e.154 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. j. He doesn’t like spending his time playing with mathematical (formula). c. All grammar books contain (index). Select the form you consider appropriate in each of the following sentences: a. i. g. e. h. The (women doctors /woman doctors) I met there are professionals. I don’t like (two-hour-walks /two-hours-walks). c. (Oasis) save sometimes Bedouins’ lives. Jack will send some (memorandum) to the President.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . j. l. i. k.English Practical Course 155 h. As a President. You have to finish your (thesis) before the first of July. he had to face many international (crisis). The (criterion) of success must be found through experience. He knows almost all (genus) of animals. Ten (addendum) had been proposed before they arrived.

beyond the village and above it. did it again. The locust trees were in bloom and the fragrance of the blossoms filled the air. Underline the nouns and divide them into concrete. compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the farreaching continent of unwhite washed fence. abstract. and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. He surveyed the fence. Life to him seemed hollow. There was a song in every heart. Sighing. nine feet high. and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit. and singing . Jim came skipping out at the gate with a tin pail. reposeful. and it lay just far enough away to seem a Delectable Land. he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank. There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a longhandled brush. Cardiff Hill. repeated the operation. Thirty yards of board fence. dreamy. proper and common nouns: SATURDAY MORNING was come. and existence but a burden. and brimming with life. was green with vegetation.156 English Practical Course Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Gender of Nouns © Countable/Uncountable Nouns © Synthetical/ Analytical/ Double Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Chapter 2 (The Glorious Whitewasher) of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. and if the heart was young the music issued at the lips. and inviting. and all the summer world was bright and fresh.

and he is highly uneducated. White.English Practical Course 157 “Buffalo Gals. The following are expressions typical of North American English. I ought to be there at noon. I have got to go now. That’s the way she always talks.” Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work in Tom’s eyes.and even then somebody generally had to go after him. Jim.” Jim shook his head and said: “Can’t. Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour. I otta be there at noon. Try to translate Jim’s speech. She won’t ever know. . an’ she tole me go ‘long an’ ‘tend to my own businessshe ‘lowed she’d ‘tend to de whitewashin’. she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop foolin’ roun’ wid anybody. They want to come at five. Gimme the bucket. They are used only in informal speech: He's gonna wait here. And he remembered that although the pump was only a hundred and fifty yards off. before. skylarking. never you mind what she said. so he can’t speak grammatically correct Learn some Americanisms which you might need when you hear spoken American English. quarreling. Tom said: “Say. mulatto. Ole missis. I’ll fetch the water if you’ll whitewash some. and negro boys and girls were always there waiting their turns. I gotta go now. trading playthings.” “O. = = = = He is going to wait here. She say she spec’ Mars Tom gwine to ax me to whitewash. but now it did not strike him so. They wanna come at five. Mars Tom.I won’t be gone only a minute.” Ways with Words 1. He remembered that there was company at the pump. fighting. resting. It is very hard to understand what he is saying due to the fact that first of all he speaks American English. Jim.

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He ain't * at home. Americanisms.

=

He is not at home.

* Ain't means am not, isn't, aren't. It is less frequently used than the other 2. In the sentence: There was a song in every heart, the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of place. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile; in all together = în total; in the beginning = la început; in contrast to/with = în contrast cu; in common with = în comun cu; in itself = în sine; in order to/ that = ca sã, pentru ca; in particular = în special; in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de; in practice = în principiu; in progress = în curs de; in print = tipãrit; in return for = în schimbul a; in quantity = în cantitate; in search of = în cãutare de; in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã; in such a manner = în aşa mod; in sum = pe scurt, în douã vorbe; in that = în aceea cã; in token of = în semn de, ca dovadã; in turn = cu rândul; to be interested in = a fi interesat de; to result in = a avea ca rezultat;

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to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes în; a reuşi în.(e.g. She succeeded in passing the exam). Now practice these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. Look for the preposition at in the text. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz; at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj; at ease = liniştit, pe îndelete; at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã; at intervals = la intervale, intermitent; at liberty = fãrã restricţii, liber; at most = cel mult; at once = imediat; at request = la cerere; at right angle = la unghi drept; at stake = în joc; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Noun
There are four kinds of nouns in English: abstract nouns (love, freedom thought); common/concrete nouns (book, table); collective nouns (family, herd); proper nouns (Greg, London).

Gender
Masculine: men and boys (he) Feminine: women, girls, cars, ships, countries (she)

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Neuter: babies, animals, things (it) Notes: - Babies and animals are referred to as male or female when we know their sex. - Cars, ships and countries are sometimes referred to as female but the neuter is more common in modern English. • • Most common nouns referring to people have the same form whether male or female: teacher (man or woman), doctor, etc. Some common nouns referring to people have different forms for male and female: Actor – actress Barman – barmaid Bachelor – spinster Boy – girl Bridegroom – bride Duke – duchess Emperor – empress Father – mother • gentleman – lady heir – heiress husband – wife hero – heroine host – hostess monk – nun nephew – niece prince – princess policeman – policewoman steward – stewardess son – daughter uncle – aunt widower – widow waiter – waitress

Some common nouns referring to animals have different forms for male and female: cock – hen gander – goose lion – lioness tiger – tigress stag – doe stallion – mare

Bull – cow Drake – duck Dog – bitch

Countable/uncountable nouns
Countable nouns are those which can be counted: one book, two books, three books. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full.

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Uncountable nouns are those which cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. They take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. The words some, any, no, (a) little, much, plenty of etc can be used with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are: Names of substances (materials, liquids, gases. etc): leather, paper, wood, metal, silver, water, coffee, bread, meat, butter, wine, flour Activities and sports: running, swimming, shopping, gardening, football, tennis Games ending in –s: billiards, darts, bowls, dominos etc Diseases ending in –s: mumps, rickets Names of subjects: history, mathematics, music, physics Languages: Russian, Greek, German, English Abstract nouns: love, hope, advice, information, intelligence, beauty, hunger, poverty Collective nouns: furniture, luggage, equipment, accommodation, traffic

Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. Chicken/a chicken, stone/a stone, hope/ a hope, education/an education Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety. Wine/an excellent wine, fruit/ a very sweet fruit In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a restaurant Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives:

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a piece of cake/information/baggage/advice/furniture/work/equipment; a glass of water/beer/wine; a jar of jam; a sheet of paper; an item of news; a drop of water/oil; a box of chocolates; a metre of cloth; a packet of biscuits; a pound of flour; a puff of smoke a strip/acre of land a grain of sand a set of cutlery an attack of fever a piece of music a slice of bread a loaf of bread a pot of tea a cup of tea a lump of sugar a game of chess a kilo of meat a bottle of wine a whiff of garlic a beam of light a pile of rubbish a stack of hay a word of advice a wink of sleep a tube of toothpaste a bar of soap/chocolate a blade of grass a flash of lightning a clap of thunder a cube of ice a roast of meat a pint of beer a gust of wind a breath of fresh air an article of clothing a ball of string a roar of laughter a feat of passion

a state of emergency a stroke of luck

The Genitive/Possessive Case
Form: o The ‘S Genitive/the Synthetical Genitive: the boy’s hat, the boys’ hat o The OF Genitive/the Analytical Genitive: the director of the museum o Double Genitive: a work of Milton’s 1. The Inflected/Synthetical Genitive (the ‘S Genitive) Form: • ‘s is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in –s: a man’s job, men’s work, the butcher’s (shop), a child’s voice, the children’s room

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• • • • • •

A simple apostrophe (‘) is used with plural nouns ending in –s: the girls’ school, the Smiths’ car Other names ending in –s can take ‘s or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones’s/ Mr Jones’ house With compounds, the last word takes the ‘s: my brother-in-law’s guitar ‘s can only be used after initials: the MP’s briefcase, the VIP’s escort ‘s is omitted in the phrase for … sake: for goodness sake ‘s is often added to a noun phrase (the group genitive): the Duke of York’s eldest son

If joint possession is intended, the apostrophe is placed on the last element: Tom and Mary’s baby Individual possession requires an apostrophe with each element of the series: America’s and England’s problems. • The local genitive is used to denote institutions of various kinds (restaurants, churches, theatres, etc), a home, a shop: at Joe’s, at the chemist’s, at my parents’ (home) The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • • • nouns denoting people or other beings (animate nouns): John’s lecture, my parents’ advice, the horse’s neck, the dog’s bark nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, size, distance, weight: a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper in expressions of money + worth: ten dollars’ worth of sugar collective nouns: the government’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.: England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat. names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day/a winter day

164 English Practical Course • • some expressions (these have an alternative with of): the water’s edge. to a hair’s breadth. to my mind’s eye. the welfare of the people If a genitive governs another genitive.phrase: the house of my sister’s neighbour With nouns coming from adjectives: the contempt of the rich When the governing noun is modified by a long phrase or clause: the intelligence of the woman across the street 3. The OF Genitive Form: It is formed by means of a noun which is preceded by the preposition of: the cover of the book. at his journey’s end. at a stone’s throw. at one’s wit’s end. lyrics of Hugo’s. Translate into English: . the former is expressed by the of. the water’s surface. for charity’s sake some other expressions (they do not have an alternative with of): at arm’s length. The Double Genitive Form: It is made up of the inflected genitive (‘s) and the of genitive: a nephew of Queen Mary’s. It is mainly used with inanimate nouns Usage: • • • • In titles and formal speech or written text: the Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson. their money’s worth • some idiomatic expressions: to one’s heart’s content. within arm’s reach. a bird’s eye view 2. two friends of Jack’s Compare: A portrait of Dali (one portraying him) – a portrait of Dali’s (one painted by or belonging to him) Controlled Practice 1.

Orice informaţie despre jaful de la bancă este vitală. e. Doi prieteni de-ai lui John i-au făcut o surpriză de ziua lui. Bagajul meu se află între cele două doamne grase. h. I-am rugat să ne cumpere patru pâini de Extrapan. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. A băut trei cafele şi l-a apucat ameţeala. c. Aceasta este o mobilă prea veche pentru gustul nostru. Inventatorul telefonului este Graham Bell b. Mi-a dat un sfat foarte important: să nu mănânc pâine după miezul nopţii. Povestea din război cu o pasiune extraordinară. Alaltăieri am cumpărat cinci săpunuri şi astăzi nu găsesc nici unul. b. Un fulger urmat de un tunet asurzitor i-au speriat pe copii. c. e. g. taking into account the form of uncountable nouns: a. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte produse in Franta d. j.English Practical Course 165 a. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. i. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în medicină şi s-au descoperit medicamente împotriva cancerului . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Translate into English. d. Nu mai am strop de energie ca să urc şi panta aceasta. f.

were) against the war. d. Use the correct form of the verb: a. beads stars beer rags grapes trees taxis flowers stairs cards energy laughter abuse trouble fever luck sleep endurance imprisonment emergency . have) been living in that chalet for years. The majority (was.166 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. were) my favourite subject. b. are) asked to pay attention to the speech. Politics (is. Mathematics (was. f. are) a matter of no interest to me. My family (has. Match: a bunch of a bundle of a fleet of a cluster of a clump of a flight of a string of a crate of a pack of a bouquet of a burst of an attack of a hint of an ounce of a stroke of a wink of a feat of a term of a word of a state of 4. e. c. That team (is. are) all children. The audience (is.

Cotroceni Palace is the residence of the President of Romania. There is a magazine belonging to Mr. Smith in almost every country. The police (has. the daughter of the baker. Put into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. The nephew of Chris and Liz is very smart. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. I have done that for the sake of my cousin George. j. 5. Mary. c. i. Your heroics (was. is my best friend. During the holiday of three weeks of their friends. h. e. i. There was a great variety of cars for the disabled in the fair.English Practical Course 167 g. are) taking (its. their) seats. The audience (has. d. were) useless in that situation. The novels of Dickens and Hardy are very often read nowadays. have) just come back and (is. h. b. the children had to go to the mountains. have) been chasing the thieves for weeks. The speech of the President was received with applause. She took the coat of somebody else. g.

clump. The man on the street weighs 250 kilograms. h. − ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. Choose from the following: bevy. fleet. Rewrite the following sentences using the underlined words in the possessive case. They granted them an interview lasting half an hour. d. colony. The movie lasted three hours. e.168 English Practical Course 6. Although the forest caught fire. c. b. e. c. i. Make any other necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. swarm. row. b. d. She ate a ……… of grapes in two minutes. f. My cousin was bitten by a ……… of bees. Supply the correct collective nouns. bunch. I have seen a building of 450 metres in the city of Atlanta. The teacher told them that wolves attack in ……… . His mother bought some books which cost ten pounds. Mike bought some flowers costing a dollar. some ………… of trees were still untouched. The highway to the next city was ninety kilometres. g. . The jam I bought weighed half a kilogram.. A ………. pack. board: a. It was a journey of ten days. of buildings was destroyed by the earthquake.

of rain. of road between Tokyo and Osaka. n. g. drop(2).English Practical Course 169 f. a. A …………. of hair of the victim to have a souvenir. A ……… of light from your candle was enough to find the lost ring. . You should add a ……… of salt and mix the ingredients. i. Divorţul copiilor vecinilor noştri va avea loc luna viitoare. The …………... They will open a new ………. pinch. A ………… of ships had been sent to rescue the survivors. of wind broke two windows of my house. j. George has never drunk beer so he tried a ………. Translate into English: a. of managers decided to buy the product. litre. gust. acre. A ……… of cloth is not enough to make the dress you have dreamt of. of green here and it will be perfect. They went inside as they had felt a ………. f. i. They’ve had ………… of good weather so far. of mine. hint. metre. They would like a ………… of pineapple juice. spell. A ………. k. My neighbours send for the police at the slightest ………. j. d. scrap. She wrote the address on a ………… of paper. l. This morning a ………. George bought Mary a box of chocolates and a ……… of flowers on her birthday. A ………… of termites was eating my furniture. o. beam. g. sip. of soup will help you get rid of your nausea. h. 9. of land is very rich in oil. of trouble. lock. e. The killer cut a ……. m. Put in the missing partitive: stretch. of boys was laughing at the clown. bowl. 8. That ……….. h. b. c. The painting needs a ……….

i. nu avem de mers mai mult de 15 minute până la aeroport. Trebuie să aflăm toate informaţiile necesare. amantul prietenei vărului meu. … Education does not just take place at school. Write a before the nouns which are used as countable nouns: a. dacă ea avea un singur bagaj nu dura atât de mult. Spune-i domnului Cole. Piesa noastră de mobilier este foarte modernă. e. Face bagajele de cel puţin patru ore. Casa cea nouă a administratorului parcului naţional al oraşului nostru are cel puţin treizeci de camere. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. O turmă de oi mi-a invadat curtea. .170 English Practical Course b. fii atent. f. dar mobila de dinainte de război era de mare clasă. d. că dacă îl prind îi rup oasele! c. Am putea să ne întâlnim la şcoală. I am lucky to have had … very good education. fiecare informaţie este vitală. turma ta se împrăştie în toate direcţiile! g. h. Are 93 de ani şi la vârsta ei o călătorie de 12 ore cu trenul este sinucidere curată.

This meal has … potato in it. That’s … very unusual fruit. c. c. Is there … light in Mike’s room? d. g. I’ll have two cappuccinos and … whisky. I have to call my family because I desperately need … help. You can’t get a job without … experience. Sometimes … love can solve all the problems. A (little/few) knowledge (is/are) as dangerous as having none. b. You were so hungry that you ate … whole turkey. I’m so glad I read it: it was … wonderful experience. That is … beautiful stone. He has … terrible fear of snakes. John thinks that’s … really beautiful painting. j. d. please. Would you like … baked potato? 11. … Painting can be a really relaxing activity. k.English Practical Course 171 b. f. He has … great love of art./many) women on the boat (was/were) getting seasick from the waves. Tom has proved of … great help to me. The news printed in that magazine (is/are) always accurate. Choose the right word from the brackets: a. e. … Fear is a protective. natural human feeling. The statue is built of … marble. His luggage (was/were) found without much effort. i. Mary is … real beauty. . What is it? m. g. l. f. I don’t usually drink … tea. (much. There (is/are) several means of reaching the chalet on daylight. … Beauty is my favourite concern. The scissors (was/were) on the table a few minutes ago. I like red meat but I don’t eat … pork. e. h. I usually eat … fruit for dinner. Billiards (is/are) a very interesting game. His eyes are not very sensitive to … light.

item. Do you know the (Moon. You gave me (much/many) ideas about the job but very (little/few) advice. friends) were invited to the party. I cut several … of bread for my kid sister. slice: a. their room). When they got to the (bottom. Your business depends on his (country. bit. h. b. you should take it into consideration. You can’t eat that … of cold beef left because it is off. We should buy (much/many) furniture. b. I’ll never forget (Helen. The (neighbours. They will buy a new … of furniture for their bedroom. the stairs) they realized that was not their house. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: a. g. How (much/many) information do you need to get it done? j. 12. This is a … of good advice. c. piece. We are allowed to take four … of luggage in our trip. h. distance) from the Sun? d. He wanted to buy a … of chocolate but the shop was closed. c. They painted only one (wall. There are three outrageous … of news in today’s paper. 13. i. d. e. there (isn’t/aren’t) (much/many) chairs and tables here. newspaper)? . We are amazed by (that girl. natural wonders). The Amazonian jungle is one of the (world. Have you read (today. i. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar.172 English Practical Course h. f. future). With a … of luck you can still catch the train. words). e. f. g. lies).

e. is blowing in wind. In the following fragment.’ Generation after mine didn’t know what life was . month in and month out. but the (end) was more exciting. b.English Practical Course 173 j. Children have a great deal of (curios). can it? And. f. I have no idea if he’s still alive. He is a fantastic (basketball). chair). 14. c. (Visit) are requested to sign their names in the book. my friend. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. h. The (advertise) will have to be published in the morning paper. I remember one song called ‘Blowing in Wind’. ‘How many times must white dove fly before it sleeps in sand?’ And then answer to profound questions: ‘Answer. She will give the detective a detailed (describe) of the thief. but also a good volley (play). g. question like that can’t be taken seriously. Father is trying to fix the (leg. We were able to give a satisfactory (explain) for our (behave). The (begin) of the book was boring. And it was so silly: ‘How many times must man look up before he can see sky?’ I mean. Put in a/ an / the as appropriate: I remember in dim and distant past my children being obsessed by man called Bob Dylan. but impact he had in sixties and seventies was huge. d. for several years. There is a great (differ) between to remind and to remember. articles are missing. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: a. my son – he’s in his fifties now – sang it all day and all night.

sands. odds. dislikes. can’t you imagine you hurt her? g. There’s no need for us to discuss the (…) of this marriage.174 English Practical Course all about. means. The actor thinks he can win the award but we suspect the (…) are against him. d. matters. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16.’ ‘Just way you look tonight. Put one of the nouns in each of the sentences.’ They were real songs. so we got soaked. Don’t be rude! What about her (…). travels. basics. did they? We did. feelings. of course. movements a. The (…) opened and. Civilians are forbidden to carry (…) during peacetime. c. I say it’s funny world we live in. heavens. f. terms. expenses.’ ‘Night they invented champagne. authorities. . just to see the (…). b. ‘Very thought of you. we didn’t have any umbrellas. Funny world we live in. e. What is the purpose of your going to Hawaii? Well. sights. I suppose. hopes. arms. The Blue Killer was never arrested and was never handed over to the (…). interests. talks. But what came next? ‘How many years can mountain exist before it is washed to sea?’ And there was whole generation singing alone to song.

m. (odds) e. isn’t he? I hear that he is off on his (…) again. It will be best for her to help them right now. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence. George got on very well with his father-in-law. (interests) i. I’m warning you. This word must not be altered in any way. q. Parents don’t agree with their children’s liberal ideas. i. start considering yourself on shifting (…). (means) c. He’s up and about. Try as I might. p. raining or extreme cold. r. I’m sure the gangsters discussed a range of important (…) since the Godfather was present. In the (…) of the citizens. Mayor? 17. the policemen will arrest the suspects. even if it’s snowing. using the word given. (designs) h. he tells her all his (…) and fears. Peace (…) in Palestine are meant to put an end to the guerrilla fights. Once the causes of Mike’s death are made public. (proceeds) b. Mr. Have you found out what our enemies (…) are over the following days? o. I suppose they won’t claim travel (…) for their voyage to the island of Crete! j. (open) . They play football.English Practical Course 175 h. Jack trusts his aunt. n. (eye) f. (terms) d. l. could you answer these questions. I won’t find any (…) of transport at this hour of the night. She wasn’t as innocent as it seemed to be. My boss’s likes and (…) shouldn’t be of any interest to the employees. if you keep teasing my daughter. All the money they managed to earn was spent on clothes. We’ll have to get back to (…) to understand the grammar of the English language. (weathers) g. There’s little chance of raining this week. I don’t think John is planning to buy that expensive house. k. a.

(high) − ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .176 English Practical Course j. She is convinced her daughter is going to be as successful as herself.

. Mrs. They seemed to be stretching in the moonlight. then shivered. and the air was charged with their perfume.English Practical Course 177 Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Prepositions © Compound Prepositions © Place of Prepositions in the Sentence © Problematic Prepositions of Time and Space •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Sons and Lovers by D. panting and half weeping in reaction from the stress. With an effort she roused herself to see what it was that penetrated her consciousness. almost blindingly. as with a presence. Lawrence. She bent down to look at the binful of yellow pollen. H. she murmured to herself over and over again: “The nuisance! the nuisance!” She became aware of something about her. the moonlight standing up from the hills in front. She put her hand into one white bin: the gold scarcely showed on her fingers by moonlight. pallid flowers on their petals. where she could stand as if in an immense gulf of white light. In what way are prepositions different in Romanian? Try to see when the use of the English prepositions is different from the use in Romanian: She hurried out of the side garden to the front. There. Morel gasped slightly in fear. The tall white lilies were reeling in the moonlight. Pay attention to the use of preposition in English. the moon streaming high in face of her. and filling the valley where the Bottoms crouched. She touched the big.

to turn on/ to switch on (the light. în întregime. and she lost herself awhile.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. pale air. Then she drank a deep draught of the scent. too. After a time the child. în pragul. . and she rested with the hills and lilies and houses. and her consciousness in the child. She did not know what she thought. din cauzã cã. on the score of = ca rezultat. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. on the basis of = pe baza. luând în consideraţie cã.etc. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. the radio. din partea cuiva. la nesfârşit. looking out. pe cale. It almost made her dizzy. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. How many times does the preposition on appear in the text? Learn some expressions containing this preposition. herself melted out like scent into the shiny. = în numele cuiva. Ways with Words 1. on behalf of sb. radioul. to be on duty = a fi de serviciu.178 English Practical Course but it only appeared dusky. melted with her in the mixing-pot of moonlight. Except for a slight feeling of sickness. all swum together in a kind of swoon. on this ground = din acest motiv. Mrs. Morel leaned on the garden gate. on account of = pe baza. on the verge of = pe punctul de.). on record = cunoscut. on the contrary = din contrã. on demand = la cerere. on the whole = în general. and so on = şi aşa mai departe. etc.

on the first attempt = la prima încercare. on trial = de probã. to hand = la îndemânã. ici şi colo. în cea mai mare mãsurã. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. 2. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu.English Practical Course 179 on condition that = cu condiţia. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. How do you translate: She hurried out of the side garden to the front […]? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition to. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. intenţionat. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. on principle = din principiu. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva. on a sudden = brusc. . to little purpose = cu puţin efect. ad litteram. on purpose = dinadins. to this effect = în acest scop. to date = la zi. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. pe neaşteptate. to the letter = întocmai. deodatã. mai degeaba.

beneath. for. per. except. via. till. pending.180 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Prepositions Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. above across. Nouns. amid. he disappeared. without. near. over against. down. betwixt. along. according to form: a. inside. Prepositional Phrases: . in between. Simple: about. failing. at. during. against. out of. through. below. c. round. notwithstanding. behind. by. on. of. from. anent. because of. as to. from among. respecting. along with. except for. since. from inside. until. in. regarding. from under. around. throughout. beyond. onto. Compound: alongside. upon. up. After telling the whole story. round about. considering. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. with b. to. save. past. among. over. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase. Note that in English. underneath. Types of prepositions. into. d. touching. athwart. I can't get any work done. down to. under. concerning. within. besides. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. noun phrases. towards. as for. between. excepting. pronouns. off. up to. up against. as far as. Complex: according to. saving. outside. after. Because of you. instead of. but. before.

in spite of. with relation to. in keeping with. at the back of. by way of. in common with. . in place of. in connection with. in accordance with. in view of. She was brought up in the suburbs. prior to. with regard to. page 309) Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs When certain verbs and prepositions are combined. in regard to. by means of. as a result of. in front of. on account of. in consequence of. for the sake of. caused by. for fear of. These verb-preposition combinations have several names: twopart verbs. in the name of. in reward of. We are talking about this novel. in aid of. This is a book about which we were talking. in default of. due to. the preposition may be at the end of the sentence. Compare the following sentences: Whom are you voting for? For whom are you voting? This is a book (which) we were talking about. with reference to. in behalf of. (was raised) Place of Prepositions in the Sentence A preposition usually precedes its object: I am voting for him. in obedience to. by the side of. in the place of. in company with. by reason of. in order to. by dint of. and verb idioms. in lieu of. separated from its object. with respect to. in addition to. in answer to. in the event of. owing to. in comparison with. thanks to.English Practical Course 181 ahead of. next to. The verb-preposition phrase is listed together in the dictionary with its own meaning. In interrogative sentences and subordinate clauses. in honour of. in case of. in prospect of. in the middle of. with a view to. in praise of. the unit acquires a new meaning. apart from. in opposition to. in want of. phrasal verbs. (see also Appendix 2.

. my last birthday.. etc.. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. 25-th. February. ages Since June. the war. the 1930s. I came here During* the film. etc.. Easter/ Christmas. two weeks. your free (spare) time. etc. a long time. the weekend. For seven minutes. university. keep the preposition and object together. 1988. etc. Monday. midnight. my holidays. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. summer.. 11-th January. the moment On Saturday. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you. etc. winter. January. etc. etc. the class. London. etc. But: I arrived at London Airport... In formal writing and business communications.. not used come. Prepositions of Time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening. Tuesday morning. two weeks’ time. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock.. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the . etc.182 English Practical Course The first sentence in each pair is common in informal speech. Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place Movement Place to at used with verbs of movement: go.. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb.

talk. suffer. BY: begin. pine. protect. descent. withdraw. sail. knock. swear. doubt. FOR: account. profit. say. pull. send. call. exact. laugh. hanker. sneer. rage. indemnify. glance. repine. throw. prepare. exclaim. select. crave. worry. smile. do. receive. borrow. bargain. fire a shot. point. thunder. purge. wait. excerpt.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. spring. manufacture. obtain. puff. know. derive. shoot. set. die. fret. call. flee. AFTER: aspire. write. fish. take. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. stand. take. think. differ. answer. gaze. cry. last. mutter. buy/sell (sth) at a price.English Practical Course 183 promenade. AT: aim. leave.) Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. wish. drive. recover. look. long. distinguish. complain. expect. learn. purchase. cry. fall. assess. strike. FROM: absolve. banish. stay. hunt. IN: . refrain. insure. fight. ask. strive. search. languish. ensue. look. hunger. extricate. speak. walk. revolt. differentiate. hope. rush. yearn. finish. rejoice. divide. grieve. atone. reach. warn. murmur. care. pass. defend. pay. see. start. sigh. lament. guard. AGAINST: clamour. mock. work. tell.

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer, insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write. INTO: alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn. OF: accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain, consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn, relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think. ON: act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark, gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell. OVER: brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate. TO: adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal, aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain, consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead, listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return, seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend. WITH: agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond, deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet (~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side, sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie. UPON: act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist, look, play (~one’s feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample. Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:

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185

Addicted to, adequate for (smth.), adequate to (smb.), adverse to, affected by, amazed at, ambitious after, annoyed at, anxious about (smth.), anxious for (smb.), appalled by, apprehensive of (i.e. worried about), apt for, ashamed of, astonished at, averse to, bad at, beneficial to, bent on, busy with, capabale of, certain of, charmed at (smth.), charmed with (smb.), clever at (mathematics), compatible with, concerned about /with, concerned for (smb), connected with, consistent with, contended with, convenient for (smth.) convenient to (smb.), crazy about, cruel to, deficient in (smth.), delighted at, derogatory to, devoid of, dexterous at, diffident in, disappointed at, disgusted by (smth.), disgusted with (smb.), displeased at, dissatisfied with, doubtful of (smb.), dying for, eager for/about, earnest about, enraged by, essential for, excited at/over, fit for, frightened at, full of, good at, greedy of, hostile to (smb.), hungry for, identical to/with, ignorant of, immersed in (debts), immune against, immune from, impolite to, inadequate for smth/to smb, incensed at/with, inclined to /for, inconceivable to, independent of smb, indignant at/with, infatuate with, intent on, irritated at, offended at, opposite from, parallel to, paralyzed with, partial to, particular about, pleased at smth, prepared for, proficient in, prone to, resolved on, rude to, secure of, skillful at/in, slow at, solicitous about, sorry about smth, sorry for smb, subject to, suffering from, sufficient for, suited to, sure about smth, sure of smb, sympathetic to, tired with, true to, unfit for, unjust to, vexed at smth, vexed with smb

Controlled Practice
1. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.

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d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the recent discovery. j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology. 2. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I shut the door but left my key …..... it. b. He strolled carelessly .……. the road. c. They arrived late .……. the station. d. She ran all the way …….. the shop. e. I went …….. Paris last year. f. I met her …….. the rock concert. g. The baby crawled …….. the kitchen. h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 3. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England . ……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air . 4. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column A and then translate into Romanian: A in on under at with above out of by without off B work suspicion question joy love fire one’s breath fail heart duty

A interest lack ambition

B for in in

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delight advantage influence witness arrangement agreement declaration protection difference damage impatience A busy inferior satisfied advantageous superior mad new afraid excited interested

for between at over of of upon against to on to B to of at to at with to to in about

A run deal talk take

B in with after about

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divide think climb pass rely believe

on about; of by up into for

5. Read through the following and fill in the numbered blanks with a suitable preposition of time. Be careful, however, because in one or two cases no preposition is needed. My parents met (1)… the war: (2)… August 1943 to be precise. My father was home (3)… leave (4)… the front, and he decided to spend the first week with his aunt in Liverpool. He hadn’t seen her (5)… several years, even though she had brought him up (6)… his mother’s death. Liverpool is not the most beautiful city in the world, but it can be very pleasant (7)… summertime, especially early (8)… the morning. (9)… this particular morning, however, my father was in no mood to enjoy the sunrise over the Mersey. His train left Euston Station (10)… time, at midnight, but (11)… the time it got to Crewe, it was already three and a half hours (12)… schedule. So he was in a bad mood and very tired (13)… arrival at Lime Street Station. But something happened (14)… minutes of his arrival that changed not only his mood but also his whole life. Feeling thirsty (15)… his long journey, he decided to go and have a cup of tea in the station buffet. Typically, it was shut (16)… that early hour. A notice on the door read “Opening hours (17)… 7 a.m. (18)… 5.30 p.m.” He looked at the station clock: ten (19)… seven. The buffet should be open (20)… now, he thought. But, knowing station buffets, he realized that he could wait (21)… 8 or even 9 o’clock before it opened. Suddenly he noticed a pretty girl sitting on a bench. She was pouring some hot liquid from a thermos flask into a cup. Being something of a lady’s man, my father (at least this is what my mother

And I haven’t had a hot drink (24)… last night. As he’d missed so many lessons. I’ll marry you and look after you (25)… the rest of my life!” Believe it or not. 6. from leaving k. from taking . having more than behavior 4. for her today g. If you give me a drink of your tea. Since Mrs Smith is ill.190 English Practical Course told me (22)… some years later) sat down and said “I’ve never seen such a pretty girl (23)… all my life as you. I wouldn’t be here (26)… now if the buffet hadn’t been shut (27)… that fateful day (28)… August 1943. She takes great pride l. she smiled at him. My brother is very conscious… the exam 2. The three men were found guilty 7. of going to the h. The police charged the man bank 5. against going d. with murder j. on her work c. Mr Bond is deputizing circus 10. for his bad a. Choose a suitable ending from those marked a – p. In Britain. so he tried to prevent her 11. into going to e. we decided the party 8. and … well. about going i. He didn’t want her to go. gave him the tea. Since the weather was so bad. He was arrested… 3. He apologised nose 9. he was discouraged to the dentist 12. Complete the following sentences. 1. of his big f. for robbing a b. Most children are fond to the beach 6.

illegal 8. in flames m. It really hurts! 13. We’re late! 3. against the 7. under age 8. To tell you the truth. at the same time d. Each of the words and phrases on the left can be associated with one of the prepositional phrases on the right. old-fashioned 12. behind the times f. of fraud n. 1.I haven’t eaten 11.English Practical Course 191 13. I can’t pay! 6. a prisoner 15. He tried to coax her 14. He was always very nervous tonight 16. gradually a. recite a poem 2. very early 14. at daybreak c. in arrears j. Complete the sentences below with one of the following adjectives plus a preposition. in disorder l. It’s burning! 16. in vogue o. no clothes 10. from memory h. in agony i. simultaneous 9. behind schedule e. in her work o. I’m not very keen law m. very fashionable 5. You’re too young! 7. . in the nude n. on going out p. behind bars k. against the law b. Try to match them up correctly. by degrees g. What a mess! 4. on an empty stomach p. He complimented her 15.

d. 9. adequate. isn’t it? m. DATE b. g. bad. i. Supply the missing prepositions. inspired. aware. You really make me angry sometimes. The teacher was … … her students for not doing their homework. capable. but it was perfectly … … our needs. j. He was … … the race for taking drugs.192 English Practical Course addicted. The flat wasn’t very big. expert. LONG d. My neighbour is … … pruning fruit trees. k. n. full. h. sympathetic a. Never become … … cigarettes! f. everyone could see that he was … … his wife’s success. they were not prepared to support us officially. I hope to see you all again soon. jealous. Do you think politicians are … … telling lies? b. angry. disqualified. He was nearly 16 before he first became … … the opposite sex. Don’t ask me to add up the bill. e. I’m really … … mathematics. involved. Only unmarried women are … … membership. o. l. a. p. ”Who else was … … the crime?” the policeman asked the suspect. Pop groups are … … smashing up hotel rooms. Although he wouldn’t admit it. Most of her clothes are no longer fashionable. The underlined expressions can be replaced by a time expression based on the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS. Life is … … surprises. He tried to work but was … … the noise from the traffic. Although they said they were … … our case. This piece of music was … … by Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata. c. ON . TIMES c. You’ll have to make your own bed in future. notorious. eligible. distracted.

SECRET They … … d. Please be very quiet. …so you’ll have to sleep in the garden temporarily. FAMOUS Pisa … … b. Now and then we like to spend a weekend in the mountains. write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence using the word in CAPITAL LETTERS. Our daughter left home three years ago. We’ll be in UK. 10. For each of the sentences below. Your Aunt Kate is using the spare bedroom now. SEASON g. Please complete the rest of your assignments right away. They didn’t tell anyone they were getting married. We have given you the first word(s) of the new sentence. Wendy said that she would like to dance. and immediately there were twenty young men offering to dance with her. DAY l. Everyone has heard about the leaning tower of Pisa. Nobody wanted to buy his car. There is an examination going on. so finally he had to give it away. Until then. TIME f. PROGRESS. and we don’t know even now what happened to her. VALID This … … c. a. END k. This passport can be used inmost countries.English Practical Course 193 e. LONG j. but only briefly. MOMENT n. DELAY m. BEING o. I hope to see you next month. LENGTH h. The demonstration occupied the square for several hours until they were eventually driven away by the police. best of luck with your driving test. Are you and Jennifer related? RELATIVE . MEANTIME p. TIME i. Autumn is the time when fruit like apples and pears are available.

HABIT I…… o.194 English Practical Course Is … … e. all she wanted to eat was jelly. A car crashed into a bus this morning. Pay no attention to what she says. IMPRESSION . I don’t usually speak to strange men. DIFFICULTY He … …. The interview panel thought that Sarah had a very good manner. BORROWED My cousin … … g. I lent my cousin $5. Your car is just like one I used to own. Do you want a drink? CARE Would … … f. j. DOUBTFUL We … … i. SIMILAR I…… k. He found it hard to open the window. COLLIDED A car … … h. We didn’t think she would pass the exam. My boss seems to enjoy humiliating people. INCAPABLE He … … l. BORED She … … j. NOTICE Take … … h. He would never tell you a lie. When Mary was pregnant. CRAVING Mary … … m. The painting is worth$30. VALUED The … … i. She doesn’t find her present job very interesting. PLEASURE My boss … … n.000.

out of … for j. PRESSURE I …… 7. the sake. STOCK The items …… v. common. odds. t. virtue a. regard. for … of j. CONFIDENCE I…… r. in … to d.English Practical Course 195 Sarah … … p. If you want to understand Yeats’ s poetry. A. in … with c. you need to study Irish history. the expense. TALENT Henry …… s. I can recite Wordsworth’s Prelude without looking at the book. MEMORY I …… u. on … of . favour. Complete the prepositional phrases below by choosing a word from the following list. in … of e. in … for b. We have run out of the items you want. Try to make up a sentence using each of the phrases. ACCORDING The moon ……. account. KEY Irish history … … q. My best friend is someone I can really trust. with … to h. addition. at … with g. My father says that the moon is made of green cheese. The way to get the best out of me is to make me work very hard. respect. exchange. Henry really knew how to make people laugh. with … of i. the exception.

basis. genius. grudge. campaign. agreement. at … on b. on … of k. knowledge. choice. but that’s no … … not doing your homework. for … of f. in … with h. with … of 8. on … with l. d. control. at … of c. in … of g. a cost. cruelty. I know you have a cold. objection. which would you do? b. excuse. Do you have any … … my parking my car in front of your house? e. the accompaniment. f. by … of B. by … of e. news. fall. compensation. under … of o. opposite. means. reference.196 English Practical Course f. the benefit. Complete the sentences below with one of the following nouns plus a preposition. What is the … … “timid”? Is it “bold” or “brave”? c. aid. pity. freedom. good terms. If you had a … … marrying for love or marrying for money. in … to i. with … to p. peace. answer. in … for j. The … … chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too quickly. The African elephant will be extinct within 20 years if an international … … the ivory trade is not started immediately. the compliments. trouble a. strain. to … of n. the influence. at … with d. at … of k. work a. behalf. out of … for m. .

English Practical Course 197 g. Since the salmonella scare. The RSPCA is concerned with prevention of … … animals. there has been a considerable … … the consumption of eggs. we can do as we like: our teacher has no … … us at all. i. In our class. If you have to deal with overseas clients. h. fear and persecution. because it puts a great … … their hearts. l. . Perhaps the three most important human rights are … … hunger. a … … foreign languages is very useful. Overweight people should not jog. k. j.

198 English Practical Course Progress Test 3 1. Which words in column A can combine with words in column B? a gaggle of a school of a pride of a swarm of a colony of a flock of a pack of a litter of A on with beyond to in by off at under without A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud puppies geese locusts fish hounds birds bees lions B top the left a light heart praise land the mark war doubt earnest such circumstances B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! .

h. i. off the mark. Happy Birthday. Merry Christmas. o. under such circumstances. to the left. a swarm of bees. Ei au pornit să escaladeze Alpii. without doubt. . a high price. a high wall. on top. Happy New Year. Francezii mănâncă mai multă pizza decât englezii. Happy Anniversary. Aş vrea să călătoresc cu Orient. b. heavy noise. heavy traffic. a pack of hounds. at war. Acesta este cea mai bună piesă de teatru pe care am văzut-o. with a light heart. a high building. n. a pride of lions. in earnest. Ei s-au simţit foarte bine la mare anul trecut.Express-ul. Ei şi-au dat mâna în final şi au plecat. d. Pe de o parte nu-mi place grosolănia ta şi pe de altă parte mi-am terminat programul. El a ajuns aseară şi este cazat la Hotelul Hilton. El este profesor la universitate. beyond praise. c.English Practical Course 199 2. a litter of puppies. El a devenit preşedintele Franţei în 1998. by land. Statele Unite cooperează cu Marea Britanie. a high mountain. Tamisa este un râu care trece prin Londra. strong wind. a colony of locusts. a tall tree. f. El merge la şcoală dimineaţa. 2. a flock of birds . m. a school of fish. l. j. g. heavy smoker. Unde a avut loc accidentul? Key: a gaggle of geese. a tall person. k. e. Englezii sunt foarte politicoşi. loud music. Translate into English: a.

The United States and The United Kingdom co-operate. The Thames is a river which crosses London. This is the best play I have ever seen. l. k.60 point each x15 = 10 points 2. m. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points c. 1 point + 0. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points b. The English are very polite. They set off to climb the Alps. They shook hands and left. He became (the) President of France in 2000. n. He arrived last night and is accommodated at the Hilton. d. i. j.60 point each x15 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points . They had a very good time at the seaside last year. h. I wish I travelled by the Orient Express. c. 1 point + 0. b.200 English Practical Course a. He goes to school in the morning. The French eat more pizza than the English. a. He is a teacher at the university. On the one hand I don’t like your rudeness and on the other my shift is over. f. g. e. o. Where did the accident happen? Score: 1.

English Practical Course 201 .

farmer’s – are not technically adjectives. He remembered yet the East India Tea house at the Fair. before a fire of coals. and the scent of orange rind. participles. the cool clarion earth. are underlined. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name – like East India Tea house – are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns – father’s. of cantaloupe and crated peaches. Adjectives are bold. the cherry scent. the sandalwood. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. bitter-sweet. but we’ve included them in our analysis of Wolve’s text. inside a farmer’s covered wagon. in July. of . Angel. He knew the good male smell of his father’s sittingroom. the turbans. verb forms acting as adjectives. if the smooth worn leather sofa. and the robes.202 English Practical Course Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adjectives © The Order of Adjectives in a Series © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Consider the uses of modifiers in this paragraph rich in adjectives from Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward. the wet loaniness of the garden. with the gaping horse-hair rent. Note that such an abundance of adjectives would be uncommon in contemporary prose. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth.

of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored.. of a bakery-oven in the wind.. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. the opposite of old is young. long closed. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . 2. position.. and milk. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October. d. stuck with a red flag. For example. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . Ways with Words 1.than FULL-TIME. . Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. of warm nasturtiums.……. of the heated calf-skin bindings..…. of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter. of the brown tired autumn earth..English Practical Course 203 the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth. Many people would rather work …………. The first shop he opened was a BIG SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. Now complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter eggs. e. the opposite of short is long. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco. b.…………. The management said salaries had INCREASED.…. of honey-suckle at night. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee.…. c. Try to find the antonyms of the adjectives in the text.

Observation adjectives. adjectives. The Order of Adjectives in a Series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. the unhappiest. possessive chapter. the sixth (numerals. . Unlike adverbs. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. There is however a pattern. etc. a fivemonth-old child.204 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Position of adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun/ nouns in the sentence: the tall man. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. and when they do. a serious commitment. the fat lady. her story. beautiful. demonstrative this tool II. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. a month’s pay. richest man. perfect to interesting. which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. because the order seems quite arbitrary. they appear in a set order according to category.

round. square young. new. French fries. Polish. the English Parliaments. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. V. metallic. Thus we write (about) Christian music. brown. the lonely. the Nixon era. old.English Practical Course 205 III. black. it should probably be capitalised. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. Qualifier is made of final limiter. noun often hunting cover cabin. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. a Shakespearian play. American. the rich. ancient denoting red. VI. green. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour gorgeous to large. the oppressed. a Renaissance/ Romantic/ Victorian poet. the homeless. English. yellow. Romanian adjectives wooden. a Faulknerian style. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: . regarded as part of the passenger car. IV. blue. book Capitalising proper adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. small. Spanish. the. orange. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. violet adjectives French. short. Collective adjectives When the definite article.

the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. for instance. of course. an euphuism is created if we say that This is the least beautiful city in the state instead of This is the ugliest city in the state. the opposite of young is old. you will have to consult a dictionary. . The opposite of beautiful is ugly. although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. the opposite of prudent is imprudent. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. One way. A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet less worthy of consideration than another candidate. The meaning itself can be tricky. the opposite of being properly filled is misfilled. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. Adjectival opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. A third means of creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. For instance. the opposite of honourable is dishonourable. The rich are not supposed to help the poor. They are figures of speech. as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix). the opposite of alcoholic is non-alcoholic. is to find an antonym.206 English Practical Course The rural poor have been ignored by the media. It’s probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already negative: He is less unlucky than his brother. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes.

etc. °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively.English Practical Course 207 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in .y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting Irregular adjectives rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** syllables Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives double the consonant when the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more . hot/ hotter/ the hottest. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).

however. we use the word less. We do. Generally.) Less versus fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play). Your essay should be a thousand words or less. The latter has also an abstract meaning. quantity. Taller than I/me? . people used typing machines instead of computers. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time. use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It’s less than four miles to Dallas. but she also had less energy. the next refers to order. He’s less than six feet tall. ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest library?). (The next bus comes in an hour. the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). when we’re talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count. the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John. it’s possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures.).). *** Latter means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Philology.) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. we use the word fewer. In these situations. when we’re talking about countable things.).208 English Practical Course * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first movie was made in the United States. (Give me further details in order to understand it better.). She had fewer chores. Fowles.).

we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. We’ve been waiting well over two hours for her. He is taller than me/her. whereas in the UK.. there is no such distinction. Even so in the U. In England. will argue that the word than should be allowed to function as a preposition. ) More than/ over? In the United States. If we can say He is tall like me/ her.000 traffic deaths would be acceptable. . then (if than could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say.English Practical Course 209 When making a comparison with than we end with a subject form: taller than I/she. in the U. He knows very well who the murderer is. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as I like him better than she/her. time or height: His sister is over forty. however. (We leave out the verb in the second clause. however. use the subject form in such comparisons. some editors would insist on more than 40. For instance. Good versus well In both casual speech and formal writing. her would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. am or is. She will mean that you like this person better than she likes him.S. use the adverb.S. we could write I like him better than she does or I like him better than I like her. over 40. you will commonly hear over in numerical expressions of age. anyway – in formal. we usually use more than in countable numerical expressions. there is no ambiguity: when modifying a verb. He swims well. academic prose. she is over six feet tall. but – for now. We are looking for the subject form: He is taller than I am/ she. meaning in excess of or over. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. With most verbs.000 traffic deaths in one year.. It’s an interesting argument.) Some good writers.

Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Literary Magazine”. c.. After a bath.. use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you are OK physically but also that your spirits are high: How are you? I am well.. thank you. Comparative Sentences In relation to the degrees of comparison... The bigger the essay. El colecţionează vase vechi. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră.210 English Practical Course However. the+ comparative .. Many careful writers. and this is perfectly all right. however. you can use the adjective instead. Translate into English: a. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. Controlled Practice 1. The more mass in the body. the less acceleration. the baby smells so good. the better. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives: Form: the+ comparative . Bad versus badly According to the same rule that applies to good versus well. thank you. You feel bad when something bad happens. The more we are. will use well after linking verbs relating to health. If you felt badly it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. b. frumoase din porţelan. . How are you? I’m feeling good. the more fun we’ll have. In fact..

She fed her dog biscuits. 3. Avem nevoie de mai multe computere în acest laborator.English Practical Course 211 d. Fumează două pachete de ţigări pe zi. Studentul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. cu atât mă enervez mai tare. coleric şi flegmatic. b. c. d. f. Eroarea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. g. Translate them into Romanian: She bought Egyptian cotton shirts. e. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. El este un fumător învederat. Cu cât aştept mai mult. Women students are tempting new subjects. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. El el reprezentantul angajaţilor tineri de la departamentul de marketing. f. patru tipuri de temperament: − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. h. cu atât mai bine. Aş vrea să-mi cumpăr un pulover din lână scoţiană. . Am discutat astăzi la psihologie cele sanguin. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche? e. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. Translate into English: a. melancolic. g. Talk about the two possible meanings of the following sentences.

primul este mai scurt. b.212 English Practical Course h. He was unable to get (far) information. He is (lazy) student in the class. Supply the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets: a. c. Engleza devine din ce în ce mai importantã în întreaga lume. g. d. j. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. The results were (bad) than expected. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. Today. i. h. (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. Dintre cele douã romane. He needed (little) knowledge of computer skills than he thought they would expect him to. e. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists. Ideea ta e mai bunã. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . i. f. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold. iar al doilea este mai lung. j. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working with now. She found (few) grammar mistakes in John’s essay than in Mary’s one. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4.

.. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo.... parks than Tokyo. Tokyo’s exciting. but it isn’t ……. parks. but London has . Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: . ……. too expensive. the largest. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. but it has older ones ……. Complete his sentences: a... c.. b. and ……. Los Angeles. the most expensive. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. exciting ……. There are five in the city centre.……. London doesn’t have …….……. Athens is ……... interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. Yet at the same time you should think that. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited. 6. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. London is …….. than Athens. of course. Los Angeles has ……. even if their cars are very elegant and ……. and. London is. The Electrolite is . these are …….. e. they are ……. buildings than Athens.……. . but. for an architect.. oldest city I have ever seen... In comparison to our cities. of course. Tokyo. d..yet.……. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. much older …. exciting of all.. Some are facts and some are his opinions. if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. for common people. .English Practical Course 213 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5.. 7.. Los Angeles is ..

214 English Practical Course a. c. You are in the (envy) position of owning half of the firm. g. f. The sooner/ sooner you get here. f. They have invited any/ many people. You should always be (confidence) in yourself to succeed. A bigger dictionary is always more complete/ completer than a smaller one.-ible. Complete the sentences with adjectives ending in –able. c. l. i. Which of the two students is more hardworking/ the more hardworking? h. It was a (moment) opportunity. Jack was extremely (mischief) that evening. From these two photographs the smaller is the best/the better. -uble. i. they were very (patience). He has retired and few/ little friends visit him. They waited in the hall for five hours. h. Your first paper was good/ better but this one is even best/ better. 8. e. His appearance at the party was (pleasure). -ed or -ant derived from the verbs and nouns given in brackets: a. Those children’s minds are very (impress) sometimes. e. the more relaxed/ the most relaxed you will feel. I spent a most (enjoy) night talking to my old friend George. d. There are very few types of plants (eat) on this island. Sometimes food eaten at home is the better/ better than food eaten in a restaurant. Almost all the currencies in this area are (convert). n. -ous. j. k. -ful. b. The (colour) balloons attract the children in the park. The family of gipsy across the street live in a (pity) state. He needs some/ any months of training. b. m. The weather here is very (change). d. Hungary has few (navigate) waterways. g. .

I’ve never seen such a ………. f. 10. Heroes finally disappear. -ible. overwhelming. The Romanian word dor is almost (translate) into English. they take everything for granted. They are not ………. crowd. . dishonest. b. mistrustful. They had to use guns against that ………. The story you want to publish is ………. f.. 9. b. Adults change into old persons by almost (perceive) stages. or –uble and the negative prefixes in. unruly. The roast beef is ……… . their decision to sell the house is (revoke). c. e. Complete the sentences with negative adjectives derived from the verbs in brackets by using the suffixes –able. He is the greatest comic ever. there are too many obscenities in it. your behaviour must be (courtesy).. . he has been ………… . g. overconfident.English Practical Course 215 o. p. they didn’t complain of the (object) smell from the garbage disposal. d.or un-. inaccessible. She had an ………. underdone. We like the privacy of a (fence) yard. person: he lies and cheats everybody whenever he feels like. When you go to that refined place. Freedom of speech is regarded today as an (alienate) right. his jokes are (imitate). q. a. Complete each of these sentences with an adjective from the following list: unprintable. success due to the publication of her latest novel. a. Strangely enough. He shouldn’t have believe your words. Because of the snow. c. h.. but their words are (destroy). . there are three places in Predeal which are ……… . We are not cannibals! d. Because you have been so stubborn. e.

lowly). j. h. b. (new. (good. They used to live in a (…) house. racing. expensive. valuable. black and white. Italian. he acted (cool. Does he have (…) motorbike? (blue. e. Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a. d. Tom doesn’t like (…) children. ugly). c. Mary is looking for (…) fountain pen. f. He is (…) teacher. (Number) changes took place in the office while I was away. English. nasty. coolly). (canvas. h. a. grey). two. (blue. these. (woman. That blue dress cost (dear. They were (deep. very. b. deeply) in the cave. winter. and interesting. f. (wool. (two. cheaply). Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order: a. thick). She intends to buy (…) coat. a. huge. 12. g. i. two pairs of. Your position in this company is quite (low. old. (brick-built. My friends entered (deep. d. young. hardly) for the exam. This library has (…) books. He stood firm on position. old.216 English Practical Course g. She used to work (hard. silk. They were the first to search that (penetrate) jungle. She has found (…) in the park. Chinese. Jet airliners can fly (high. He wasn’t allowed to hit (low. Several (…) began last week. hardly) read anything this week. i. deeply) impressed by our success. white and red. new). 11. radio programmes. dearly). . highly) in the sky. g. c. pleasant). for teaching foreign languages). You have (hard. very). e. those). i. h. French. country. (Russian. This pair of trousers is especially made to be (shrink). many. for jogging). light). lowly) for fear he should hurt his opponent. (…) shirts are a gift for me. j. a. My friend sold me the TV set (cheap.

b. This plant employs … … men than women. f. c. h. The wound is less bad than you thought at the beginning. George has … … American cars than Jack. e. Who is the (oldest. A car is less quick than an airplane. The English drink … … tea than milk. There will be … … snow this winter. d. This room is less wide than the previous one.English Practical Course 217 13. g. eldest) in the family? . My cousin is much less rich than he looks. Which village is (further. 14. Fill in with less or fewer: a. His office is less near than mine. The water was less deep than they hoped. She writes … … prose than poetry. i. i. d. Choose the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a. j. h. b. After that heavy rain the air is less dry that it was before. g. farthest) of all? b. You have always had … … toys than the other little boys. Reformulate them so that they express the same meaning but use the comparative of superiority of the antonym: a. There are … … Italians than Greeks in our town. There was … … rain last summer. 15. e. This poem is less good than your last one. It is less dangerous to climb the Carpathians than to climb the Alps. We have … … money for our holiday than last year. c. farther. The following sentences are incorrect. f. … … students will get scholarships next year.

f. I chose the (last. You needed (farther. Noua sa bibliotecă e cu mult mai mare decât cea veche. e. Aceasta este cea mai bună cale posibilă de a o face să renunţe la ţigări. I had to choose between French and English. e. Ţi-am adus cele mai proaspete fructe pe care le-am găsit. i. next) door when she was young. My colleague’s (last. latter). Este cu mult mai greu decât mi-am imaginat. g. d. j. b. later). c. next) bus station was. Crede cu tărie că aceasta e absolut cea mai frumoasă dintre concurente. h. latest) article has just been published. La auzul bubuiturii. I’ve bought two bananas and ate the (latter. She lived (nearest. d. f. h. Cu cât alergi mai mult. Se şubrezeşte pe zi ce trece. later. cu atât slăbeşti mai tare. 16. deveni din ce în ce mai neliniştit. Nu am mai avut răbdare să stăm până la sfârşitul meciului pentru că a devenit din ce în ce mai puţin interesant. (Further. Translate into English using intensifiers: a. Farther) Mike realised he must return the stolen goods at once. further) advice to continue your investigation. g. cu atât părinţii sunt mai nemulţumiţi. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I was wondering where the (nearest. Cu cât copiii sunt mai neascultători.218 English Practical Course c. i.

true. f. sieve). yellow. b. blue. j. The shoes fit you like (a glove. punch. . i. gold bars. large) as life. mouse. Select the colour: white. pound notes) when she won the first prize. lead. fish and chips. They were tickled … … when the teacher congratulated them. a sunflower. I saw him last night. an elephant)! d. pink. he won’t listen to you. they were as sick as a (pig poodle. 18. g. as (real. He drunk a lot yesterday. Speak louder. b. two peas in a pod. h. I can tell that you have eaten a lot lately. green. I was given the … … light to announce the winner. you are as heavy as (a corpse. e. a mould. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. Explain the meaning. They will never eat so much ice-cream. a. My grandfather never remembers anything. good.English Practical Course 219 17. a bank. please! He is as deaf as (a post. a politician). a. glue. he has a memory like a (bucket. c. You can shout at him until you are … … in the face. They never argue. d. To tell a … … lie sometimes does not hurt anybody’s feelings. a judge. although normally he is as sober as (Sunday. a Muslim). That vampire hasn’t been banished from town. Putting your jewelry in this box is as safe as (houses. She was as pleased as (a poppy. a priest. a leaf. grey. clockwork). dog. c. The Jackson brothers get on like (a house on fire. a vault). donkey). a pillowcase) since you mended them. horse.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. k. d. g. g. He doesn’t like (urbane/urban) life. b. Kelly has always wanted to live in a (luxurious/luxuriant) mansion. Even if they got a lot of nice gifts. In Australia there are (strict/severe) regulations with regard to kangaroos.220 English Practical Course e. c. Terry chose a (distinctive/distinct) nuance of red for her nail polish. 20. She doesn’t believe that these cigarettes are any (good) than the Russian ones. They were really … … to leave us here without protecting us. They say that lacking … … matter is worse than lacking beauty. 19. c. Confusing words: a. I am not that (credible/credulous) to believe everything I am told. Try to be a little (precise). f. A (classic/classical) case of tuberculosis has been discovered in this school. therefore it is (practicable/practical). f. j. h. he would like to live in the mountains. please. My parents have (decisive/conclusive) evidence that I smoke. Mary was … … with envy when her sister married a handsome young man. i. Your garden has (narrow) alleys than those from our park. Your proposal proves not too expensive. I’ve been trying to decipher the manuscript for more than 6 hours because his handwriting is totally (eligible/illegible). h. The food you are eating right now is quite (deficient/defective) in fats. e. d. b. they also got some … … elephants. The President was very (official/officious) while giving his speech. Which are the (breath-taking) views in your country? .

b. este cel mai puţin întins din tot oraşul. the 22nd. f. Mulţi oameni perfect sănătoşi nu sunt la fel de utili societăţii ca unii oameni cu deficienţe fizice. dar vărul său mai mare este cu 5 ani mai în vârstă decât el. George este chipeş. They have the (complete) understanding of the problem. biroul este şi mai greu dar biblioteca este cea mai grea din casă. In autumn. de fapt. nights become (longer) till December. c. h. Fotoliul din odaia mea este greu. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 21. Translate into English: a. f. It is (hard) for my nephew to understand the problem than for his (old) sister. Dicţionarul pe care l-ai cumpărat cu două zile în urmă este gros ca o cărămidă! h. Parcul acela nu este foarte întins. e. The (cold) the weather. j. . g. His story became (interesting) the more we listened. the (low) the temperatures. dar fratele său mai tânăr este cel mai chipeş băiat din câţi am văzut. g. Pacientul se simte bine astăzi. d. i. Then the show became ever (funny). Primul film nu este atât de reuşit ca al doilea şi nici atât de haios. Domnul Smith este foarte bătrân. dar nu este atât de bine încât să se dea jos din pat.English Practical Course 221 e.

incredibly/ holiday/ wonderful/ was/ the. d. people/ true/pork/that/never/is/drink/it/these/alcohol/no/eat/and? g. close/ are/ buddies/ extremely/ we. this/ man/ Pam/ wonder/ really/ I/ marry/ to/wants/if f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22. j. c. Rewrite the sentences putting the words into the correct order: a.222 English Practical Course i. e. and/ looks/ now/ old/ she/ fresh/ rather. life/movie/in/such/I/never/my/seen/a/have/boring h. that/ motorbike/have/since/when/new/had/they? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Nu am întâlnit o persoană mai cunoscută în cercul guvernamental decât ea. b. Enormous/ they/ old/ staying/ house/ brown/ are/ an/ in. Problema era mai delicată decât mi-am putut eu imagina vreodată.

. The … kettle filled the little girl with fear. break. write well. c. It is not easy to be the (good) but that is what we should be aiming for. then we will not survive. build well. We are aware that there are (cheap) suppliers than ourselves but this may not be the (essential) factor. We used to have the (high) standing in the business but we are in danger of losing that for good. keep beautifully. think clearly. The economic situation is getting (critical) and if we don’t compare favorably with our (big) competitors. a. park. He’s a very … boy: he always behaves himself well. The verbs with adverbs should be used to form compound adjectives: dry. steal. If this is the case. I kept calling her by her nickname. continue. brush well. decline fast. Complete the sentences with participles as adjectives. One old client was heard to say that their new supplier was (professional) and (flexible) than we are. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form: The company’s twelve-monthly report shows that sales figures were (low) than the previous year. it was very … . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 24. act well. plan badly. love. embarrass. relax. change. then this is (disturbing) than anything else. d. This is no surprise due to the recession but what is (unacceptable) than this is the clear proof that some of our (old) clients have switched to another supplier. I saw a very … play. bring up well.English Practical Course 223 23. boil. e. It was a very restful holiday so we feel much more … now. tailor beautifully. b. using the verbs below.

p. comfort. r. k. b. Our chalet is old but it’s very … . change. care. forget. My friend never seems to run out of energy. They’re a very … family and they understand each other perfectly. q. f. Sharon is a good person to have in meetings as she’s very … . rely. m. It was a … escape and so it was doomed to failure. i. It was a very … article. grace. submit. tire. That’s a … suit she has bought. g. h. Her hair is always very … . motion. d. l. e.224 English Practical Course f. Shortage of gas is a … problem for us. 25. The increase in divorce shows a … attitude to marriage. You may be charged with receiving … stolen cars. She may have suffered of a … heart. c. I’m totally… . She never remembers your birthday. he’s completely … . . dread. enjoy. Bears are a … species in that part of the country as many of them are killed every summer. truth a. power. Everybody believes what Jack says because he’s always been … . I don’t know why she’s that … . They had a lovely holiday. n. describe. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her novels. Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below plus a suffix: act. t. There’s nothing I can do about it. j. Jane Austen was a very … writer. They should not park near … cars. This is a … garden: you must spend at least three hours a day working on it. o. s. Mother needs some … fruit to put in the cake. it was thoroughly enjoyable.

is on the phone to her friend Jane. mature. relevant. m. Some of the comparatives are formed with less: Mary. The situation in the oil-polluted gulf is … . rational. perfect. o. 26. k. who has recently moved to the countryside. flexible. It’s important to keep … after you retire. attractive. My back never hurts while sitting in them. Thousands of fish are dying every day. He has said he’ll be here and I’m sure he will. possible. separable. They always do what you tell him to do: he’s just so… . the weather can be completely different from one day to another. Put the following adjectives into the correct column: patient. j. agreeable. Mary: So. The lion stayed … as it waited to pounce on the gazelle. tasteful. significant. literate. reversible. n. logical. He’s very… . destructible. l. soluble. mortal. It’s a very … climate. regular. honest. responsible. interesting. moral legal. friendly. who lives in Leeds.English Practical Course 225 g. The armchairs he has just bought are really … . h. replaceable dis- Un- il- imimpatient in- ir- 27. I love to watch the swans on the lake: they’re so … . Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form. convenient. justified. legible. how do you like living in the new place? . You’re so … : you’re always dropping plates on the floor. i. polite. explicable.

But it’s just so much … (quiet) here and that takes some time to get used to. Anyway. perhaps I’ll feel … (settled) here after a few weeks. sometimes it is. Mary: Yes. that is wonderful. So. It’s certainly … (polluted) here and I think it’s … (stressful) and that must be good for me. . probably. The house is much … (spacious) than the house we had in Liverpool and one of the … (good) things is being able to walk out of the back door into our own garden. It must be nice to walk around somewhere that’s much … (crowded). Going out shopping in Liverpool was so much … (interesting) than it is here. Jane: Well. I suppose sometimes I miss the clamour of Liverpool. that’s quite true. When I came to visit you. it’s much (good) than Liverpool. isn’t it? Jane: Well. You seem to be thinking that you haven’t made the … (good) decision. The people here are so much … (varied) than they are in Liverpool.226 English Practical Course Jane: Oh. Mary: Oh dear. it’s very nice. at least I’m going to Liverpool again next weekend. I thought it was one of the … (beautiful) places I had ever seen. I’m not sure I would say that. Jane: Well. I personally think you’re really lucky to be where you are. Mary: Mm. I’m … (excited) about that than I am about anything here. Who knows? Mary: Yes. But it’s so much … (busy) on the streets in Liverpool.

He stood elevated in the witness-box. speaking of the ship: “She went over whatever it was as easy as a snake crawling over a stick. for the terribly . out of red faces. Underline the definite articles with one line and the indefinite articles with two lines: A month or so afterwards. It was very loud. he said.” The illustration was good: the questions were aiming at facts. Pay attention to the use of the article in English. out of faces attentive. when Jim. in answer to pointed questions. with burning cheeks in a cool lofty room: the big framework of punkahs moved gently to and fro high above his head. it was the only sound audible in the world. out of white faces. and the official Inquiry was being held in the police court of an Eastern port. it rang startling in his own ears.English Practical Course 227 UNIT 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Articles © Definite Articles © Indefinite Articles © Zero Articles •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad. and from below many eyes were looking at him out of dark faces. tried to tell honestly the truth of this experience. spellbound. as if all these people sitting in orderly rows upon narrow benches had been enslaved by the fascination of his voice.

and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. Outside the court the sun blazed. Give me an apple. £13 000 a year Formally per can replace a/an. I’m reading a course for my exam now. the attentive eyes whose glance stabbed. religion. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession.within was the wind of great punkahs that made you shiver. It refers to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. $3.45 a kilo.. the shame that made you burn.228 English Practical Course distinct questions that extorted his answers seemed to shape themselves in anguish and pain within his breast. They live in a flat. or it doesn’t matter which one): A pet is a big responsibility. Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. Here are the basic rules. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. sixty kilometres an hour. • in measuring Three times a month. . She is an Australian. The Indefinite Article a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to objects that have not been specifically identified.came to him poignant and silent like the terrible questioning of one’s conscience.

but an ugly man. etc.English Practical Course 229 He is a Christian. as a matter of fact. a university. A book is for reading. an heir. an hour. to develop a disease. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. rather a: quite a large dog. Mind the baby! Mind your steps when you climb the stairs! The tiger is threatened with extinction. to have a good time. a united party. An indefinite article is required after • • such. what: such an ugly scar . an honest man. an ink well. . an unusual accident. Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown: A Mr Smith called and asked about you. to have a headache. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. Tom is the teacher of these students. • to refer to unknown people. what a pretty nose. a usual case. such pretty eyes quite a. The course I’m reading is very interesting. The Definite Article the is used: • • to refer to classes before a singular or a plural noun. rather a big decision An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (except for words beginning with a semivowel: the sound /j/ and /w/): an apple. • it is used with a generic noun that represents a class: We saw a zebra at the zoo. a woman. Compare: Tom is a teacher. a year. to take a seat.

rivers. institutions. chains of mountains. We say London Bridge. the East. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. The Suez Canal. seas. The Sunday Times. Asia). the Middle East. Note that titles of books and films do not have the unless there is postmodification: The Phantom of the Opera. but Canvey Island. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. it is capitalised. means of transport. The Mediterranean. The Netherlands. The Garden House Hotel. compass points/ areas. The is sometimes dropped in everyday speech: Have you seen “Phantom of the Opera”? As far as names of places are concerned. then normal rules about zero article apply: Brown’s Restaurant. The Orient Express. countries (France). oceans. continents (Europe. but The Tower of London. The Hilton. If the first part of a place name is another name. The United States. shops. The Pacific. channels. The Independent (as the is part of the title. The same applies to geographical names: The Isle of Man. the sun Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe: The planet has a small moon. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. denoting groups of islands. The Time. The Thames.230 English Practical Course • before nouns expressing certain public places. deserts. mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn). . The Sahara. The Alps. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural). hotels. The Bahamas. countries (if they are in the plural. or if they represent a union). • Before unique objects the moon. note that Edinburgh University changes into The University of Edinburgh.) This does not apply to lakes: Lake Geneva.

English Practical Course 231 • before nouns converted from adjectives. But: He became (the) President of Romania in 2000. If the title is post-modified. These tend to be unique: The director of studies. the third day to tell the time. • to express titles. The English are very polite. but not essential. The French eat in restaurants more than the English. at the moment. by the way. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. The precedes nouns of indefinite quantity or quality (mass nouns and abstract nouns) used to indicate a particular attribute: Gold is an important metal. the ninth row. on the one hand. (postmodification) Emphatic use: This heavily stresses and emphasises the following noun: This country is the place to visit.. The gold in this ring is very old. . the is more likely. on the whole. denoting a class. For instance: He became President in 2000.. the second chapter. (postmodification) • • • • when a restrictive modifier follows a noun. etc. with the superlative degree of adjectives: with ordinals: in phrases: The woman who is standing near the door will give a speech. The singular is not formed in the same way: An Englishman would always excuse for being late. nationality. on the other hand. It was the most important day in my life.

mountains. to shake hands. But: The school in my district is near my house. Translation problems Study these sentences. • proper nouns denoting persons. but The (House of) Commons nouns like school. by mistake. Green Road. to be in trouble. Compare: Holly Drive with The Drive. at dawn. Babies need to drink milk. January. continents. • in phrases: at night. towns. Money is the root of all evil. to take place. months. festivals. day by day. Gas is cheaper than electricity. prison. streets. Newsweek Most streets do not use an article. In what way do the English people use the article differently in comparison with the way Romanians use it? . etc. regions. Europe.232 English Practical Course Zero Article It is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. church. etc. • • some unique organisations: Parliament. days of the week. Gold and silver are important metals. Oxford Street. when we imply the use made of the institution (not the building): He goes to school (to learn). lakes. The Strand and street names without preceding adjectives. magazines and periodicals. by sea. Paris. to make friends. Sunday. countries. Exceptions are The High Street.: Mary/ Mount Everest.

/ . C... seat and waited for . A. a/ some d.. the/the f. B. .. a/ the. . They had ./ . hammer and . an/the. plants need . B. C. B.. C. Mathematics. C.. the/ the... A./the. A../a/the.. B. exam but it seems that it was . the c.. It’s a film about homeless people. B.. water. B. nails. A. A. an/the/ .. hardest of all... an.... the/ a e./the.. Physics and one in . C. degree in . a/the.English Practical Course 233 A pound and a half of butter. .. best teachers in our highschool.. Most and the most Most without an article means the greater part.. . a. the b. In order to survive... Controlled Practice 1./the. the . a/the/the/the h. . .. very good time at . A.. an/a/the g.. a. B./the. B./ . authority. Hilton. a/ . I live in Birmingham most of the time. excellent dinner and had ... He had ... In order to fix the armchair he needs .. I did my homework and then went directly to . C. I’ve got a splitting headache. I took .. A.. This is the most expensive shop in town.. A.. I thought you had passed . C. director to come. C. He is speaking to . B or C best fits each space: a. bed as I was very tired. so he was one of . Decide which answer A. .. Terry has flu.

I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. I don’t like cakes sold in a local bakery. The time you spend on a relaxing pastime is good for you. A. way./ .. C. An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling streets had been instructed to issue clear warning before firing any shots../ .. He’s philologist..... a/ . sincerity with which he spoke. I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment./the. i. Work in pairs to find the mistakes in each of the following sentences: a./ .234 English Practical Course i. sincerity in such . C. I would have done it. B. so he studies different writers. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. h.. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. k. Don’t you work in bookshop in the London? g. ... o. . Everyone was impressed by . If I had had time to call you. B. j. .. She bought a Cezanne I was telling you about the last week. home now. l. Smiths are at . I’m going to stand for Parliament at the next election. f. The burglaries are definitely on increase. . yet not everyone admires .. the/ . d. Lion is dangerous animal. in London. . Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. n. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. Her office is in the Baker Street.. 2. e. c./a j.. b.. m. A./ . It is not first-class accommodation unless it has a private bathroom. the/ . yet they are busy at the moment.

When the economy is none too healthy. of course. B or C best fits each space: Britain has 1) ……… unenviable reputation for industrial unrest and strikes.. Whenever the work-force in any firm feel themselves to be 4) ……… victims of injustice.English Practical Course 235 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Successive governments have attempted in 2) ……… vain to reduce this unrest. because it is in 5) ……… best interests of the managements to keep the workers as happy as possible. let us examine the arguments for and against the right to strike. however. the management may be less willing to listen and may try to take advantage of the workers’ fear of losing their jobs. Decide which answer A. or wish to present their case for a pay increase. They can. and often. their options are somewhat limited. they will receive a sympathetic ear. In order to explain this apparent contradiction. which many people feel has had a significant and adverse effect upon the economy. and unemployment is high. however most of the same people would defend 3) ……. In . At the same time. right of workers to strike. appeal to the better nature of their employers.

But the practical argument against strikes would remain a constant.. The arguments against striking are numerous and vary somewhat depending on one’s point of view. and fair treatment by the managements. Such arguments are not sufficiently strong to warrant denying workers the right to strike. The government’s viewpoint is similar in 9) ……. be 14) ……… last resort and there should be fewer irresponsible industrial disputes. The state of the nation’s economy is inextricably linked with 11) ……… fortunes of private enterprise. Withdrawing one’s labour should.. As a last resort. as a result. conditions. of course. it is hard to imagine that 15) ……… employees in Britain would be as well treated as they are today. Strikes disrupt the process of production and can. . create immense problems as regards long-term planning. there seems little alternative to the withdrawal of labour. These negative arguments all emphasize 13) ……… disruption and hardship caused by strikes. As 7) ……… employer. Employers may also resent 8) ……. which are an abuse of the right to strike. But without this right and without the efforts of trade unions over the years. you may find both practical and ideological arguments against the right to strike. one has to ask how employees can protect their interests as regards 6) ……. the call to strike.236 English Practical Course such a situation.right to strike because it imposes limits on the management’s control of employees and contradicts the ideology of a harmony of interests which assigns legitimacy to managerial power. 10) ……. sense that the importance of the ideological argument may vary with changes of government. Governments in capitalist societies such as Britain inevitably serve the interests of management. However they may wish to appear neutral. wages. The disruptive effect of 12) ……… major strike upon the nation’s economy is therefore potentially dangerous.

. -.. the 5. a 4. A. A. river is somewhat uninteresting. A. We were tired and hungry. C. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate articles: After you pass ……… Old Windsor.. Home Park. a.. B. hamper. C. George and I rowed up past……. C. Abert to ………Victoria Bridge. A. B. C. A. the. the. – 2. the. the. C. B. B. A. the. A the. . 9. A. a. . A.15. ……. and when we got to …. the. C. 11. It will be some time before I forget it. . the. an. C. B.. B. some. B.. -.. George asked me if I remembered our first trip up ……. C.. Boveney. C. from …….. C. the. some 4. A. right bank ……. and wanted to go to …… bed. and does not become itself again until you are nearing ……. B. . C..13. C. A. Datcher. It was …… Saturday before ……. Some. and as we were passing ……. A. –. some 6. which stretches along ……. the.. B. we took out …. an. the. a 10. C. -. B.-. river and when we landed at …… Datcher at ten o’clock at …… night. the. C.. – 8. Datcher.. B. a. B. B. A.. I answered that I did remember it. a 3. B. A.English Practical Course 237 1. -. the. some 7. A. a. some 12. B. the 14. August Bank Holiday. C.

.. and ……..238 English Practical Course …….. diggings. . and started off to look for ……. two bags. coats. and such like things. rugs and …….

will you?’ said Godfrey. you get the money yourself. before he went out. if ever he found you making away with his money again.and just shake yourself sober and listen.’ . Can you classify them? ‘Why. So. you’ll not refuse me the kindness to pay it back for me: it was your brotherly love made you do it. now. I must hand over that rent of Fowler’s to the Squire. see and get the money. trying to turn his gloom into uncalculating anger. if Fowler didn’t come and pay up his arrears this week. The Squire’s short o’ cash. whether I tell him or not. eh? Since you was so kind as to hand it over to me. sneeringly. he should send word to Cox to distrain. for he’s threatening to distrain for it.English Practical Course 239 Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adverbs © Punctuation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Silas Marner by George Eliot. ‘I want to tell you. or else tell him I gave it you. and save me the trouble. and you know what he threatened. He said. and pretty quickly. and it’ll all be out soon. savagely. coming nearer to his brother and looking into his face. and in no humour to stand any nonsense. Underline the adverbs. you know. He had himself been drinking more than was good for him. just now. ‘Suppose. will you?’ ‘Oh!’ said Dunsey. this is what I want.

after. aboard. above. where. therefore. reason. hence. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. forever Adverbs of cause. a pronoun: Me too. enough. afterwards. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. measure. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. little Adverbs of frequency: always. ever. It can modify: a verb: We are talking about your report today. thus. Form Simple Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old adverbs far likewise everywhere fast afloat outdoors here homeward(s) outside late repeatedly thereby near hardly therefore now monthly today then bitterly tomorrow today happily wherein well excellently wherefore Adverbs of manner: badly. every time. excellently. when. wherefore. again.240 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. early Adverbs of quantity. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. a quality. for this reason. . result and concession: consequently. extremely. why. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. fast Adverbs of place: away. degree and approximation: awfully. carefully.

Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. Maria 2. And you look pale/palely. She’s rather tired. I’ve finished for today. the party is going very nice/nicely. Suzanne comes about once a week. I’m working for my exams. And I’m hot/hotly. thanks. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. They taste good/well.English Practical Course 241 Controlled Practice 1 1. We talk. Thank you for your letter. I hope to visit England again. lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. Love. It would be great to see you. I had a lovely time last year. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well. It was called “The English Patient”. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily. I don’t keep my plan. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. but I’ve been very busy. yours. Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry. often here a lot next year there again hard soon . I’m trying to save some money. I’ve planned my revision. I saw a marvelous film. Helen: No. isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary.

John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. my head aches quite bad/badly.242 English Practical Course John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. thanks. b. too. n. that’s all right. De-abia s-a aşezat la masa de lucru că deja s-a simţit obosit şi s-a dus la culcare. Helen: Thank you. . doesn’t it? Look. 3. Ce ţi-ai făcut la păr? f. Ce ţi s-a întâmplat? k. şi acceptabil franceza. De îndată ce se trăseseră cortinele. Noi vorbim bine englezeşte. El a venit târziu ieri. A ajuns acasă înaintea tatălui ei. Ea nu lipseşte niciodată de la şcoală. g. h. j. Maşina asta merge prea repede. It seems rather loud/loudly. El cumpără ieftin şi vinde scump. l. I might be OK. Erau cam obosiţi. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse. Toată lumea se simţea fericită când s-a aflat că el nu este vinovat. Translate into English: a. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. c. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. dar astăzi o să fac o excepţie şi o să mănânc. În general nu prea îmi plac prăjiturile. Actually. ca de obicei. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. Arăţi foarte tristă. Eu nu mă trezesc niciodată devreme. dar au decis să continue lucrul la proiect pentru încă vreo câteva ore. spectatorii au început să ovaţioneze. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. Arăţi destul de bine. m. d. i. Dacă îi vede poliţia o să-i amendeze. e.

a sentence by beginning Others think it is useless. 1. and so. . An indepen. clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . este periculos să stai lângă macara. Nu înveţi niciodată când trebuie să te fereşti de pericole! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar Reference 2 Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. nor. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. every day. Independent in this company. The Draw the figure. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to make their meaning clear. Sentence . or.Some of us think we should dent clause is made into invest it with a capital letter and ending it with a period.English Practical Course 243 o. yet. Here are some punctuation rules. but. Ordinaly. Nu te apropia. but it rained the words and. and solve .

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first clause is usually the problem.

;

followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company; others are closely think it is useless

connected by joining

:

them with a semicolon. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have reduce next year’s

?

!

mark. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feelings may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an

exclamation mark. 2. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is necessary. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are compound, they charged to a major credit card. Guidelines Examples

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245

are usually joined I’m together with words such as and, or or without any punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Compounds

taking

Chemistry

(and)

a Physics and Maths this semester.

,

that England, Scotland, and Wales conscious

contain more than share the island of Great Britain. two elements are Environmentally called series. businesses use recycled paper,

Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet, and ceramic cups. a series, with words such as and or or usually between occuring the last

;

two items. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation, separation commas confusing, used instead. can by be and or reading; of grades; and test of and teacher have vocabulary, memory,

recommendations.

semicolons may be

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3. Word - Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences, There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. Punctuation Marks Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management

used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. An apostrophe is used He’s; didn’t; let’; Ma’am; four in constructions to o’clock. show where letters or 45’s; ABC’s. numbers have been omitted. A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00 mark shortened forms p.m. like abbreviations and initials. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four, self-confidence to

.

-

... insta -

form compound words When two modifiers The study included first- and containing hyphens second-year students. are joined together, common elements are often not repeated. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Guidelines Examples

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247

Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo words of someone else, they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know.” the text. If part of a quotation is She

... ....

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a When the omission comes in proper job, to find the the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas.” one or more sentences, four “Work of the tyre that points are used. B.W.R.A. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern, and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many .... There are factors which value out when in a up your selfish

affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used.” When writers insert something “In a fault, it [the crust of within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and caused different

[]

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brackets. layers of rock to slip.” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech. try again − if you let me”, he offered.

Unit 14
Reading
Read the following poem belonging to Rudyard Kipling. Pay attention to if clauses. Translate the poem into Romanian. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream- and not make dreams your master; If you can think- and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools;

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If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings- nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And- which is more- you’ll be a Man, my son!

Ways with Words
1. …If neither foes nor loving friends… Distinction should be made between foe, enemy and opponent, antagonist, adversary. Enemy and foe agree in denoting a person or body of persons that is hostile or that manifests hostility to another. Enemy stresses the antagonism that arises from a cherished hatred or a desire to harm or destroy, but it may suggest nothing more than active or evident dislike. He is a man with many friends and no enemies.

Which word does allowance come from? We call -ance a suffix. engineer.ard / -art . identification eg: wisdom eg: refugee. Opponent is one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict of opinion.250 English Practical Course Foe implies active enmity either literally or figuratively. braggart eg: examination. scepticism eg: satirist. childhood eg: realism. appearance.acy .ee . violonist. tigress eg: neighbourhood. Antagonist implies sharper opposition in a struggle for supremacy or control. Let’s read a list of suffixes which are used in order to form nouns: . Read the following line: But make allowance for their doubting too. ascendency. diplomacy. fishery eg: actress. employee eg: mountaineer.age preference . . He is the foe of all reform measures. accuracy eg: passage. romanticist eg: adversity.ist .ess . Unlike the former group the latter does not necessarily imply personal animosity or hostility.ery . hostess. marrige . -ence.ancy.hood .eer . drunkard. -or . -ency eg: utterance.dom . probability eg: democracy. slavery. singer eg: backery.ity eg: sluggard.ism .ation . 2. Foe is a more literary and poetic word than enemy. Adversary implies not only the idea of mere opposition but active hostility.er. eg: teacher.ance / . translation. dancer.

you’ll get worse. leadership eg: agriculture. eg: greateness. I’ll pass my exams. we can also use: present continuous.let .ment . . can. should/ought to.ness . I’ll buy this car. imperative. future continuous. (request) If you will go on smoking.ure eg: hamlet. movement. departure Now practise them and find other words for each of them. (insistence) The main clause usually has the verb in the future with will/shall. fisherman eg: improvement. However. should.English Practical Course 251 . If he’s still waiting for you. sadness eg: friendship. booklet eg: Englishman. may/might. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. I’ll wrap it for you. If he passes the baccalaureate. We’ll destroy the environment if we don’t look after it. present perfect continuous. can/could. present perfect simple. he’ll go to university.ship . future perfect. must. he must be very hungry. Will / would can be used to express polite requests or insistence: If you will wait for a moment. Main Clause If Clause Present/ Future Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard.man . This is replaced by the present simple. However. we can also use: ‘be going to’ future. Grammar Reference First Conditional It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes.

Interrogative What will you do if you don’t go to any university? Where will she go she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? Second Conditional It is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. If she knew/ were to know the answer. I‘ll tell him the good news. palaces. . the verb in the conditional clause is in the present subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons. I would (’d) /could buy a new computer. (But my house is very small. etc. If I should see him. (But I’m not Prime Minister. /go out more often.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. ranches.. We can always say But.252 English Practical Course If Paul has received your letter. If you are late. Note: When we use if +should. I’d have a party. you‘ll have to wear boots. If I were Prime Minister. she would tell it to us immediately.) If I lived in a big house. If I didn’t have debts. I wouldn’t have to work so hard. the condition is less likely to be performed. If it’s been raining. we won’t wait for you. Main Clause If Clause Present Conditional Present Subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had more money. he must phone you today..

Interrogative What would you have done if you had seen such a wonderful movie? Which countries would you have visited if you had travelled round the world? Notes: . If she had known the answer. he could have been killed. she would have passed the exam. Main clause If clause Past/Perfect conditional Perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. he might have been /could have been saved. If he had been travelling in that car. However. I would (‘d) have bought this elegant car. which can no longer be changed. If the ambulance had come sooner. The condition is highly hypothetical. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb).English Practical Course 253 Interrogative What would you do if you were me? Which countries would you visit it you travelled round the world? Third Conditional It is used to express impossible (unfulfilled) condition referring to the past. we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive in if clause. whereas in the main clause we can use the modals could and might before the perfect infinitive. If I hadn’t made so many mistakes. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). I wouldn’t have failed the driving license test. it contradicts reality.

it is also possible to mix conditionals. the verb tenses of first conditional sentences change in the usual way. He would have been furious. • Besides if. as.254 English Practical Course • In reported speech. …) With a bit more help (if I had more help). conditionals can also be introduced by other conjunctions: on (the) condition that. If he is honest. unless. Implied Conditionals Conditionals are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses. particularly in spoken English: Please come out with us tonight. but we just can’t afford a holiday. . I’m sure we’d really have a good time with you (if we went). If she loved him. The most common mixed conditional is: If + past perfect Other types: If you come to the party tomorrow. even though. even if. he would have told the truth. I would have a degree now. second and third conditionals. she would have stayed with him. (implied condition: If you come out with us. (if you had told him) would/could/might + infinitive If I had worked harder at university. as/so long as. providing (that). if only. I’m glad you didn’t tell Mathew about this. since. I wouldn’t bring Mary with you. I would have finished it on time. assuming (that). provided (that). suppose. Mixed Conditionals In addition to the tense variations we can use in the first. whereas with second and third conditionals the tenses remain unchanged. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. supposing. when. but for + gerund/noun. The context defines the meaning.

Dacã voi putea. the subject and the auxiliary verb can be inverted and if is omitted. I wouldn’t say that. o sã ţi-l spun. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. … Controlled Practice 1. I wouldn’t have done such a thing. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. … If I had known earlier. … If I were you. tell him to come at 8. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. Translate the following sentences into English: a. / Should he ring.English Practical Course 255 Inversion in If-Clauses When there is should. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. c. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. If he should ring. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. eşti binevenit. / Had I known earlier. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an.00. b. were or had in the if-clause. / Were I you. . What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b.

00 your time. John: Great. Give me a ring . but remember I’m going out. you know the time of your flight back.00. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. darling. e. when.. or as soon as into each gap. Put if. Bye! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. I (arrive) at the hotel. That’s 8. I (ring)... Maria: Thanks. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . Have a good trip. Maria: Well.. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. the plane (arrive) on time. John: Good.. I (ring) you . and I (pick) you up.256 English Practical Course d.. Maria: Thanks. And remember. John: All right. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. darling. you (be) out ... I (be) at the hotel at about 10.

English Practical Course 257 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. If you could do it. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: . e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. Dacã ai vrea. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. b. ţi le-aş spune. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. d. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. I would have told you the truth. we would go inside. If I knew it. If it rained. c. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest raport. Translate the following sentences into English: a. e. b. d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. Dacã ar fi aici.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. e. i. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. b. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. d. . If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. e. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. f. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arabian. h. d. If I (know) this from the beginning. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confronted with) such storms. b. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.258 English Practical Course a. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. c. If she (go) to university so late. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. c.

b. c. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. you (accept)? e. nu aş fi picat acest examen. c.English Practical Course 259 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. e. If he had asked you to do that job. Dacã nu ar fi nins. Translate into English: a. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. d. d. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. b.

j. a.. c. If I buy this machine .. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel. I would lend it to you if.. h.260 English Practical Course f. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.. If he had taken my advice. g.. f. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly.. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way.. g. i. I’d have brought my compass if.. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10.. j. If the river rises any higher. .. taking care to use the correct tense.. These are mixed conditional sentences... e.. If she practised more.. h.. If the fire had been noticed earlier. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.... d. b.. The substance would look better if. i. Finish these sentences. If you had asked his permission.

he probably won’t be at the . 2. 6. If he didn’t work so hard all the time. A. J. If you had told me meeting. 5. D. you could always ring them up. we would be there by now. E. you wouldn’t have said that to her. The condition is not stated in a conditional clause in the following underlined sentences. C. B. If they don’t contact you soon.English Practical Course 261 11. If you’re coming month. I’m sure he’d be a famous musician by now. you wouldn’t be so busy this G. I would have had them by now. H. I. If you had worked harder last month. 7. everything would be all right now. about this problem earlier. If he hadn’t died so young. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences: 1. If he was feeling ill this morning. 3. with us 9. Write a sentence containing the underlined sentence as a main clause and an appropriate conditional clause. 10. his wife would never have left him. 12. would you hurry up and get ready? F. 8. 4. If the train hadn’t been delayed. If you were a more sensitive person. If I really wanted to have children.

i. The problem is that she doesn’t work very hard. We’re lucky it’s sunny today. f. I think Alison should apply for the job. many more would have died. The rain would have ruined them. First. I hear you’re thinking of going to Indonesia for the summer. She would make a very good managing director. g. but I think they will be. It would be horrible sitting out here otherwise. e.262 English Practical Course a. Without the help of the Red Cross doctors. You’ll love it there. c. h. With luck. Mark should have told the truth. b. He wouldn’t be able to live on his own without the help of his neighbours. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. I hope those refugees aren’t deported. j. d. They may be imprisoned or even executed. second or third conditional: . I know that she could do really well. I’m sure she would have forgiven him. we’ll finish the job by the end of the day. It’s a good job you brought all those tables and chairs in from outside last night.

the town (lose) a great deal of money. I’m sure that if I (have) so much money I (moan) all the time. we (go) for a picnic. If fares (be) cheaper. I’m sure you (regret) one day. If that (happen). but she knows even less than we do. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. Apparently. If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics. It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. Jenny was here not long ago. k. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I’m so glad you took me to your friend’s party. the PM (resign) from politics. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth. b. I never (meet) Adrian. e. If it (be) a nice day. f. c. The government is expecting to win the next election. j. g. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible.English Practical Course 263 a. They’ve been married for 20 years but I don’t think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was. h. I’m sure more people (use) the train and (leave) their cars at home. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. l. If you (come) round earlier. you (see) her. If we (not go) there. I’m sure she (help) us fix the car. She has everything she wants but she’s always moaning. i. d. the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. but if it (lose). I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment.

You had better take his advice. If… e. As long as you … b. If she happens to come. As he couldn’t afford a holiday.264 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. Since he doesn’t have any qualifications. you’ll have an accident. If I … . If … f. Had he… i. I’m not rich so I can’t afford a long holiday abroad. If you help me. he can’t find a job. I’ll help you provided… h. I wouldn’t have my car now. If you don’t drive carefully. He wasn’t on time. he stayed at home. If it hadn’t been for my mother’s generosity. But for… g. tell her to wait for me. Should… d. Unless… You won’t …. so we missed the train. Rewrite the sentences: a. I’ll help you. Were… c.

If you revise all your notes. If she were… l. She must be out since she didn’t answer the phone. If you don’t get to work on time. you’d better go to the doctor’s. If Mary were feeling well. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. (were) i. If I had been you. she would have come to Tom’s party. You won’t be punished provided you admit it was your mistake. I would not be late for the interview. As you‘ve got a high temperature. But for his help. She must have lived in France because she has a perfect French accent. (long) c. I would have punished him. (shoes) e. (punctual) h. (better) b. If she had… 15. I didn’t go out because I had a lot of work to do. (since) l. where would you travel to? (to) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I walked out of the Maths exam. I wouldn’t stay in this job.English Practical Course 265 j. a. Since he is an only child. his parents have spoiled him.(so) j. you’ll pass the exam. If someone gave you a free airline ticket. I wouldn’t be in my current job. If it wasn’t for the good pay. You must use between three and eight words. (provided) f. (but) g.(got) k. If I were him. As I couldn’t answer any of the questions. you’ll be given the sack. (not) d. including the word given. If I … k. Do not change the word given.

Dacă n-ai fi atât de mincinos. f. e. N-ar fi trebuit să câştige atât de mulţi bani şi n-ar fi dat de necaz dacă soţiei lui i-ar fi plăcut mai puţin luxul. ar accepta aceste propuneri. Dacă l-ai vedea acum nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. Presupunând că partenerul dvs. care ar fi următoarea etapă a tratativelor? i. Mi-a spus de câteva ori că va accepta postul cu condiţia ca salariul să fie mulţumitor. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc adăpostul dacă aş fi ştiut că se va întâmpla o nenorocire. n-ai fi acum în situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere în tine. j. Translate into English: a. Dacă n-ar fi nins.266 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. g. În cazul în care voi uita. h. c. − _________________________________________________________ . e numai o umbră din ce a fost o dată. Dacă se întâmplă să treci pe lângă biroul lui. De data asta te-aş putea duce cu maşina mea dacă îmi promiţi să nu se mai repete. d. excursia noastră la munte n-ar fi fost atât de plăcută. b. te rog reaminteşte-mi de promisiunea făcută. ai putea să intri şi să îi înapoiezi dicţionarul pe care l-ai împrumutat de la el.

English Practical Course 267 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

classes. But to the citizens of this prairie town. It stood alone on the prairie. the proprietor. The Palace Hotel. a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron. swept through Fort Romper. It is true that on clear days. horror. Pat Scully. they had no color in common. had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. egotisms. With this opulence and splendor. and to the people who would naturally stop there. and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. passengers were overcome at the sight. . Underline the modal verbs: The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue. when the great transcontinental expresses. was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swampish hush. causing the bird to declare its position against any background. pity. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low clap-board houses which composed Fort Romper. these creeds. that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day. Pat Scully had performed a feat. long lines of swaying Pullmans. then. and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame. and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. in a laugh.268 English Practical Course Unit 15 Reading Read the following fragment from The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane.

the police was waiting for him and caught him red-handed because he had been/ was careless. On the contrary. He got into trouble and spent some time in prison.’ ‘Sometimes I’m blue on a grey day.English Practical Course 269 Ways with Words 1. To have green fingers (thumbs): “Mrs. his family is quite proud of him and of the transformation they see in his life. Her friends frequently say: “Helen. But you should see Dorothy’. Answer the following questions: .” Black sheep: “Ted ran away from home at age 15. At least. This fragment belongs to a novel written by Stephen Crane. From there he robbed a bank. Be blue. Red – handed: “As the thief was climbing out the window with the stolen necklace.” 2. got captured and spent more time in prison. Helen Smith always seems to be successful in growing things. Its title is The Blue Hotel. Let’s learn some idioms with colours. Feel Blue: ‘I feel blue so often when it’s cloudy and rainy. To which John replied: “It must because I take vitamins”. you certainly have a green thumb!” To be in the pink: “The doctor examined John thoroughly and finally said: “You’re in the pink of health”. Do you know any idioms containing the word blue? How do you translate out of the blue or once in a blue moon? 2. at the age of 14. he decided to spend his living honestly and today he is no longer the black sheep of his family. Both her flower garden and her vegetable garden always appear to be healthy and very productive.

Is it possible that some of the following are not in the pink? • • • • f. • • • c. • • . It is possible that some of the following persons be caught red-handed? • • A grandmother taking care of her small grandson. cucumbers etc. • e. A ship captain whose ship has sunk in a bad storm. A woman who likes to spend her weekends at the beach. Is it possible that the persons described below could be said to have “a green thumb”? • • • A little boy who has got a new puppy for his birthday. A couple that has just got married.270 English Practical Course a. Is it possible that some of the following are feeling blue? • A man who has just lost all his money. An old man who is 80 years of age but who can still swim. Why do people feel blue? b. jog. A wife whose husband has just given her a diamond necklace. A family that have been shipwrecked and have only lived on an island for three months with coconuts to eat. play golf. Have you ever felt blue? What has caused it? d. A man who spends his summer evenings working in his garden to raise tomatoes. A policeman driving around in his patrol car. A boy taking an apple from a basket in a store. A famous boxer who has been training for his next championship fight for six weeks. A man robbing a bank at ten o’clock in the morning. An elderly woman who takes great pride in her lovely rose garden A nurse who has just finished working for 24 hours in a hospital and is exhausted.

Grammar Reference Modal Auxiliaries • Modal auxiliaries are also sometimes called modal verbs or modals. could. be able . The following are modal auxiliaries: Present form Can May Will Shall Must Ought to Need Past form could might would should • Modal auxiliaries always stay the same. They are followed by the infinitive in different forms. Ability: can. Is it possible that some of the following might be considered a “black sheep”? • • • An old man who has been poor all his life Twin boys who decide to join the army A young woman who abandons her parents and starts a life thrill of robbing homes of jewels and money. Restate the following sentence using the idiom “red-handed”: The mystery of the disappearing jam from the cellar was finally solved when they caught Jim eating a whole pot at night. do many families have a “black sheep”? i. In your opinion. h.English Practical Course 271 g. They cannot be put into different tenses. I. as gerunds or present participles. used as infinitives.

must. should. ought to • To talk about something that it is possible to do at any time. could and could have in conditional sentences. We use be able to talk about ability + the achievement of the action. She can be very charming when she wants to be. • • We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility. (It is possible to take a train there if you wanted to do that). The parcel may/might arrive tomorrow. could. She can / can’t sing really well. • Can and could refer to the ability to do something. will. Stamps can/may be bought at most shops which sell cards. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition. I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help. might. can and may are often followed by the passive infinitive.272 English Practical Course • Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do something. • To talk about a future possibility. use may or might. but not to the doing of it. deduction: can. Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future. may. With this use. My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see them. We can also use could (it refers to a theoretical possibility). use can or may. use will + simple or continuous infinitive. We could go by train. He could read when he was four. He gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late. II. Certainty. We use can. . • To talk about a present or future certainty. possibility.

obligation. use may. use should or ought to. use must/can’t (or couldn’t) + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). III. Advice. • To talk about possibility in the past. have got to. • To make a deduction about something in the present. need • To give advice. . ought to. It can refer to present time or future time. might or could + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive.English Practical Course 273 I will be waiting for you when you arrive. have to. I suppose they could have got lost. We must go and visit them more often. I don’t know why they’re so late. must. • To make a deduction about something in the past. might. use must (positive deduction) or can’t (negative deduction) + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. The train got in half an hour ago so they should be here soon. could + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). necessity: should. use may. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting: he talked to me about it only this morning. Let’s go and see Cathy: she should have finished working by now. use must. • To talk about possibility in the present. He can’t be driving here: he hasn’t got a car. You mustn’t let him talk to you like that. • We can use should or ought to + present infinitive to make assumptions about the present or the future and should or ought to + perfect infinitive to make assumptions about the past. We often use should/ought to with I think … /Do(Don’t) you think …? Don’t you think you should/ought to stop seeing him? • To give strong advice and recommendations. I won’t phone Jennifer now because she might be working at home.

Should /ought to in the past means that the subject did not do the right thing. • To express a negative obligation. use should or ought to + perfect infinitive. I have got to get the bus into work today. You mustn’t wait here. We’ll have to get there before 5 o’clock because the shops close then. . • We can also use have got to to express obligation. (= I didn’t stay at home and my behaviour was wrong) • To talk about obligation. Have to – the obligation is often external. I should/ought to have stayed at home. You needn’t come if you don’t want to. Do not use don’t have to = there is no obligation. use must.274 English Practical Course • To criticise actions in the past. You don’t have to wait here. • To express necessity. must – the obligation often comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. it comes from the situation. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. use mustn’t. use need. (It is not necessary for you to wait here but you can if you want to). mustn’t or have to. I have to get the bus into work today/I have to get the bus into work every day. Have got to is often interchangeable with have to but there is sometimes a difference: have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions whereas have got to can only be used for single actions. (The obligation is imposed by the airline who wrote the notice). We can use need as a modal verb in questions and negative sentences. (You are not allowed to wait here).

I didn’t use to work here. could. permission.English Practical Course 275 • To express lack of necessity. Habit: would. The train was nearly an hour late. suggestions: can. When the speaker is giving the authority. shall. When we were children. must. I needn’t have gone to the station so early.’ We’re eating out tonight so we don’t need/needn’t/don’t have to/haven’t got to buy any food. Offers. we …? Would you like…? To make a suggestion or an invitation: Shall we …? We could . my brother and I used to fight all the time. may... don’t have to. requests. use needn’t. Teacher to students: ‘You’ve worked hard today so you needn’t do any homework tonight. would. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it).. would you mind • • • • • Asking permission: Can/Could/May/Might I …? Making a request: Can/Could/Would you …? To give or refuse permission: You can/can’t/may/may not/must/mustn’t … To make an offer: Can/Shall I. might. used to • • Used to is not a modal: I used to work here. IV. • To express lack of necessity in the past. We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures. haven’t got to. When we were children. we often use needn’t. my brother and I would fight all the time. Would you like to …? V. Did you use to work here? Use would and used to to talk about past habits. use needn’t + perfect infinitive or didn’t need to/didn’t have to + infinitive. (It wasn’t necessary to go to the station early but I didn’t realise that and so I did get there early). . don’t need to.

. i. Complete the sentences with can. Kerry’s rather late. She … (miss) the train. j. Controlled Practice 1. e. c. it is necessary to use a past time reference. He …(run) really fast. a. If they hadn’t phoned for an ambulance. Amy’s exam results weren’t very good. I think you should go in the spring: it (be) very crowded there in summer. I … (not understand) what he says: he speaks too quickly. We … (not phone her up) because her phone had broken. d. He’s very fit for his age. h.276 English Practical Course • When we use would to talk about a past habit. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference. l. She tried to think of other things but she … (not put) that awful memory out of her mind. could or be able to. I … (not sleep) very well for the last four nights. g.. m. Jonathan … (not say) anything until he was about three years old. I love … (spend) all morning in bed at weekends. o. n. Complete the sentences with the correct form of can. • When we talk about past situations (not actions). k. It’s been too hot. he …(die). might. we can use used to but we can’t use would. may. He …(not climb) up to the top: he was too scared. but fortunately we . b. We …(go) to that concert tomorrow if the tickets haven’t sold out. should. f. ought to. …(speak) another language fluently is a great advantage. must and an infinitive in the appropriate form: a. will. could. I’d like … (work) with you one day. … (you come) to the party on Sunday? 2. She … (do) better. . (get) a message to her.

c. n. I’ll give you a ring to let you know. It … (not rain): the ground’s completely dry. k. She (run) to catch the bus. These glasses … (be) Tim’s: they look a bit like his. l. o. It … (be) the middle of the night in Australia. Jim’s been very quiet since his girlfriend went away. ‘Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?’ ‘I don’t know. t. I … (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven’t decided yet. Travellers’ cheques … (be exchanged) at most banks. Don’t phone her now. Anyway. u. They’re not answering the phone so they … (be) out. The roads are fairly quiet today so we … (have) a good journey. That woman’s just fallen over.English Practical Course 277 b. They (not move) house yet. h. j. . She (not still play) tennis: it’s been dark for the last hour.’ p. I don’t know where she is. but you can never be sure. e. I told her you were coming so she … (expect) you. s. They’ve just rung the bell so the children … (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. d. I … (come) and visit you at the weekends. It … (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. m. f. Let’s go and see her: she (be) hurt. I saw them in town this morning. I haven’t seen Joanna this week. Her exam results are coming out soon. g. She was with a man I didn’t recognize. She worked very hard so she … (do) well. I think she … (visit) her parents but I’m not sure about it. r. He … (miss) her. i. I sent the letter two days ago so he … (get) it by now.

n. You … (not have) a bath now. b. You … (not allow) David to walk home from school every day on his own. You … (not eat) in the lecture hall: it’s against the college regulations. ought to. p. Why … the prisoners … (be locked) in their cells all day? i. He’s too young. You’ve got enough work to do. He would never forgive us. The wedding’s been cancelled so I … (not buy) that new suit: it was a waste of money. You … (go) to that new French restaurant in town. c. e. Complete the sentences using the modals should. I … (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work. You … (not tell) him what happened.278 English Practical Course 3. r. l. They can stay with us. I … (take) all of them again in November. The taxi’s coming in twenty minutes. I … (tell) him what you really think of him next time you see him if I were you. j. k. must or need or the verb have to in the correct tense and form. You … (come round) for dinner one evening. It’s the best restaurant I’ve ever been to. If I fail any one of my exams. a. I don’t think you … (offer) to help him. We … (run) all the way to the station because we were late for the train. o. Paul … (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the house does.20. You … (not go) to bed so late. h. Hurry up. We … (leave) at 11 o’clock last night because the last bus went at 11. f. . t. d. I don’t like … (do) everything my boss tells me to do. They … (not pay) to stay in a hotel. We haven’t had a good talk for a long time. s. We’ve been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so we (not cook) our own meals. m. It’s your own fault that you’re so tired. g.

Invite a friend to go for a swim this morning. I … have lots of free time before I started working here. . Offer to answer the phone. Ask that person if you can sit there. c. h. There may be a number of possible answers. j. Request an appointment to see your bank manager. I’d like you to come to the meeting but you … (not come) if you don’t want to. Give someone permission to use your phone. could. They … be happy together but they are not now. Write what to say using can. may. 5.English Practical Course 279 u. In the long summer holidays. a. When I was a newly-trained teacher. a. You are in a café. would you like. Ask someone to wait here for you. would. Complete the sentences with would or used to. d. b. k. Offer to make someone a sandwich. 4. There is a free seat next to someone. i. b. f. Ms Arnold. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. Where either form is possible. might. must. we … go out somewhere with a picnic every day. would you mind. d. e. write them both. Offer to open the door for a stranger. c. Ask someone to answer the phone for you. g. shall. You are in the train. I … work till late every night preparing lessons. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. Ask another passenger if you can open the window.

k. c. I don’t know who she is but it’s possible that she is Rick’s sister. It’s not necessary for you to apologize. He … be overweight but he’s much slimmer now. he still didn’t know how to read. l. b. g. Is it possible for me to sit here? j. I will/’ll phone you next week. It’s essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning. When I had a car. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve. h. He refuses to give me an answer.280 English Practical Course e. When we shared a flat together. Are you able to come with me tonight? e. He said that he intended to write to me soon. we … (often) stay up talking late. Why don’t we go and see a film tonight? h. I promise to phone you next week. i. I … drive everywhere. I think it’s a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I’ve got a lot of work to do. Am I allowed to smoke in here? m. d. It’s not a good idea for you to work so hard. o. 6. p. It’s possible that they’ll be here soon. f. g. n. When Amy was a baby. people … (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. a. In some sentences more than one modal is possible. j. they … (never) travel anywhere on the tube. f. I … go to the library to start work at 9 o’clock every morning. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. but now I’m much fitter because I always walk or cycle. At the age of nine. When they came to London. During my last year at university. . I want to help you but I am not able to. i.

Why haven’t you signed this page at the bottom? (sign) f. a. Shall we go out tonight? (how) b. (bound) d. s. I assume that Clare will be here soon. It is certain that he will return this afternoon. He was not able to understand the radio message because of the interference. May I borrow your typewriter? (mind) . (impossible) e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. Could you come on Saturday? (suit) h. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. It’s 7 o’clock. Could he have been telling the truth? (likely) g. I’m sure that he is asleep. (every) c. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep. How do you feel about going on a trip? (like) i. I know he’s in but he’s not answering the phone.English Practical Course 281 r. It’s very possible that he’ll be promoted. Do not tell him any of this: it’s vital that it remains a secret. (compulsory) j. u. t. You don’t have to inform the agency beforehand.

Chiar dacă ne-am strădui din răsputeri nu am reuşi să ajungem. (rules) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Nu-i voie să conduci aşa repede. este o limitare de viteză aici. Nu-i nevoie să suni. Translate into English using modal verbs: Ar trebui să-i spună fiicei ei o poveste. You mustn’t start writing before the test starts. am eu cheie. You won’t be able to enter the country unless you have a visa. Ştiam bine oraşul aşa că am putut să le explic cu să ajungă la gară. Drumul era acoperit cu gheaţă şi lui îi era groază să nu alunece. Dacă sunteţi amabil să aşteptaţi a clipă îl chem pe director. Când eram copil nu-i puteam înţelege pe adulţi şi acum că sunt adult nu-i mai pot înţelege pe copii. dacă vrea ca ea să adoarmă.282 English Practical Course k. Nu pot să nu mă gândesc ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă nu am fi putut rezolva problema. aşa că n-am putut închide uşa. avem destul timp. (prevented) l. . Nu trebuie să conduci aşa repede. Când era tânăr era foarte rezistent. N-aveam cheie. putea lucra toată ziua şi dansa toată noaptea.

Când era la şcoală putea merge în mâini distanţe lungi. Este de datoria noastră să ne ajutăm părinţii atunci când sunt în dificultate.Nu era nevoie să le uzi.English Practical Course 283 Ar fi trebuit să verifice frânele înainte de plecare. Stătea pe bancă ore întregi şi se uita la stele. doar suntem într-un spital. îl mai are de două ori. Citeam zeci de cărţi pe lună când eram student. Probabil că era foarte grăbit. − _________________________________________________________ . uite cum plouă acum. este prea murdară. . Nu e cazul să-i reaminteşti de datorie. S-ar putea ca ei să îşi formateze sistemul acum. Am închis-o chiar eu la plecare. Tocmai am terminat de udat florile. Se poate ca ieri pe vremea asta fraţii lui să fi cărat cărămida de la fabrică. M-ai auzit când am venit acasă seara trecută? – Nu. trebuie că adormisem. Nu era nevoie să-i cumperi volumul acesta de poezii. . L-am văzut pe stradă dar nu s-a oprit să-mi vorbească. am putut să merg la farmacie şi să cumpăr medicamente.Nu se poate să fi văzut un tigru. habar n-am. este un om cu mult bun simţ. Uşa era deschisă. Dacă îi dai ocazia nu mai încetează cu poveştile din război. Acum un an am avut un câine tare neascultător: nu vroia să-mi aducă papucii atunci când îi spuneam eu. nu sunt tigrii în ţară la noi. Am văzut un tigru ieri în pădure. – Nu se poate să fi fost deschisă. Ar fi trebuit să o spăl cel puţin acum o lună. Cu siguranţă că în acest moment echipa adversă sărbătoreşte victoria. Nu este voie să vorbeşti tare aici. dar acum nu mai poate. Trebuie să-mi spăl maşina. Deşi afară plouă cu găleata de cel puţin trei ore.

284 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 285 .

b. Can you play golf well enough to beat him? Is your ……………………………………………………………………… − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . The candidate was undoubtedly highly intelligent but she was not very suitable for the job. beginning as shown. d. h... g. Joan bears ………………………………………………………………… i. She has not been to the office since November. Rewrite each sentence.286 English Practical Course Progress Test 4 1. I wish …………………………………………………………………. so that the meaning stays the same: a. This match ……………………………………………………………….. I should have never won the nomination. The cat ……………………………………………………………………… j. I should really like someone to do all the housework for me. She last………………………………………………………………… e. We can’t persuade the cat to come down from that tree. The telephone rang the moment I stepped into the room No sooner ………………………………………………………….. f. The thing I’d really like …………………………………………………. c. Intelligent……………………………………………………………. Joan is very alike her father. I’d like to have seen this movie. 4th. I’ve never seen such an exciting match before. Without your support. If it hadn’t ……………………………………………………….

3rd) f. wonderfully) d. I am born (on April. at the National Opera. very much) h. I enjoyed my lunch (the day before yesterday. to the theatre. at 4 o’clock. to me. She played (last evening.English Practical Course 287 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. My friend spoke (evening. 5th. at six o’ clock) b. Insert the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: a. We shall go (tonight. I read (all day. the piano. yesterday. Smith came (into the office late) g. very kindly) e. in 1978. at 7 o’clock) c. every morning. He goes (to the factory. to England. in the street yesterday. very much) i. on March) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . at home. Mr. They went (for a week and a half.

străşinit cu şindrilă. Ş-apoi Humuleştii. Doamne. cu flăcăi voinici şi fete mândre. drăgăliţă-Doamne. Delenii şi Bejenii. ruşinos şi fricos şi de umbra mea. întemeiet în toată puterea cuvântului: cu gospodari tot unul şi unul. împărţit în trei părţi. să fi văzut pe neobositul părinte cum umbla prin sat din casă în casă. cu biserică frumoasă şi nişte preoţi şi dascăli şi poporeni ca aceia. şi ce chilie durată s-a făcut la poarta bisericei pentru şcoală. un holteiu zdravăn. şi pe vremea aceea.288 English Practical Course 3. ce om vrednic şi cu bunătate mai era! Prin îndemnul său. un băiat prizărit. care ştiau a învârti şi hora şi suveica. nu erau numai aşa. a mă ridica băieţaş la casa părinţilor mei. Şi unde nu s-au adunat o mulţime de băieţi şi fete la şcoală. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . ce mai de pomi s-au pus în ţinterim. care se ţin tot de una: Vatra satului. împreună cu bădiţa Vasile a Ilioaei. care era îngrădit cu zaplaz de bârne. şi sfătuia pe oameni să-şi deie copiii la învăţătură. frumos şi voinic. Şi părintele Ioan de sub deal. ci sat vechiu răzăşesc. dascălul bisericei. ş-apoi. din târg drept peste apa Neamţului. de vuia satul de vatale în toate părţile. de făceau mare cinste satului lor. între care eram şi eu. Translate into English: Stau câteodată şi-mi aduc aminte ce vremi şi ce oameni mai erau în părţile noastre pe când începusem şi eu. sat mare şi vesel. în satul Humuleştii. un sat de oameni fără căpătâiu.

The thing I’d really like is to have someone to do all the housework for me. b. e. c. Joan bears a resemblance with her father. She last was to the office on November. Intelligent as the candidate was. No sooner had I stepped into the room than the telephone rang. The cat wouldn’t come down from that tree. h. This match is the most exciting I have ever seen. she was not very suitable for the job. d.English Practical Course 289 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: a. If it hadn’t been for your support I should have never won the nomination. He goes to the factory at 7 o’clock every morning. b. i. g. Is your golf handicap better than his? 2. . She played the piano wonderfully at the National Opera last evening. a. I wish I had seen this movie. 4th. c. We shall go to the theatre at six o’clock tonight. f. j.

I sometimes stop and call to mind the customs and people there used to be in my part of the world at the time when I had. Smith came into the office late. It faced the town on the other side of the waters o the River Neamţ. I read a lot at home all day yesterday.290 English Practical Course d. I enjoyed my lunch very much the day before yesterday. The two of them would persuade people to send their children to get some schooling. 3rd. e. divided into three closely connected parts: the village itself. in 1978. Master Vasile. a sturdy. the son of Ilioaia. entering one house after another. so to speak. good-looking. h. Lord. so that the village would buzz with the sound of looms on every side. who were a credit to their village. its reputation and standing having long since been assured. It had a fine church and outstanding clergy. 3. Humuleşti in those days was not just a village of ne’er-do-wells but a prosperous and ancient village of freeholders. the Deleni and the Bejeni. You should have seen this untiring priest going round the village. handsome bachelor. My friend spoke very kindly to me in the street yesterday evening. i. f. Moreover. I am born at 4 o’clock. church elders and parishioners. who lived at the foot of the hill. As for Father Ion. together with one of his elders. Mr. it was a large and cheerful village. with stalwart young men and comely girls who could swing the shuttle too. 5th. with farmers who knew their job. on April. g. what an active and kindly man he was! On his advice lots of trees were planted in the graveyard – which graveyard was surrounded by a high fence of thick planks with eaves of shingles – and the fine room at the gate of the church precincts was built to serve as a village school. just begun to put a foot over the threshold of boyhood in my home in the village of Humuleşti. and you should have seen the . They went to England for a week and a half on March.

1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 3. myself among them. afraid of my own shadow! (translated by Ana Cartianu) Score: 1. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 2.English Practical Course 291 number of boys and girls who flocked into the school from all parts. 1 point +9 points = 10 points Divided by 3 = 10 points . timid lad. a puny.

292 English Practical Course Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow to break blew broke blown broken a obliga a sufla a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma to bring to build to burn to burst brought built burnt burst brought built burnt burst a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

English Practical Course 293 to catch caught caught a turna a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi a tãia a se ocupa (cu) a distribui a sãpa a face a desena a schiţa a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea a alimenta a hrãni a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi to choose to cleave chose cleft clove chosen cleft cloven come cost crept to come cost to creep came cost crept to cut to deal to dig to do to draw cut dealt dug did drew cut dealt dug done drawn to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found .

294 English Practical Course a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear to hew to hide to hit had heard hewed hid hit had heard hewed hewn hidden hit a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi a ciopli a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni .

English Practical Course 295 to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa a cuprinde a rãni a lovi a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine a înnoda a tricota a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza a întinde a conduce a avansa a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla to hurt hurt hurt to keep kept kept to knit knit knit to know to lay knew laid known laid to lead led led to lean leant leant to learn to leave to lend to let to lie learnt left lent let lay learnt left lent let lain .

296 English Practical Course light to lose to make to mean to meet lit lost made meant met lit lost made meant met a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta a stabili a bate a scutura to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen to run ran run to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set to shake shook shaken .

English Practical Course 297 to shear to shed sheared shed shorn shed a vibra a tãia a mãrgini a arunca a difuza a vãrsa a strãluci a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi a turna a scinda a despica a (se) roti to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent to spill spilt spilt to split to spin split spun split spun .

298 English Practical Course to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde a sãri a izvorî a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula a lua a capta a necesita a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã a arunca to spring sprang sprung to stand stood stood to steal to stick to strike to string to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing stole stuck struck strung strove swore swelled swam swung stolen stuck struck strung striven sworn swollen swum swung to take took taken to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought to throw threw thrown .

English Practical Course 299 to thrust thrust thrust understood woken worn a împinge a înfige a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a (se) uza a toci a plânge a se prelinge a câştiga a a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge a scrie to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore to weep to win to wind to wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung to write wrote written .

to be careful about sth. to be fed up with sth.= somebody. to argue with sb.300 English Practical Course Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb. about sth. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth. at the beginning of sth./sb. to be bored with sth. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth. on sth. to assist in sth. attentive at sth. in the beginning to be afraid of. sb.= something) (break sth. sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth./ sb./ sth. to be full of (energy) . an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to be at home to be aware of sth.

to be impressed by sth. with sth. to be in a mess to be interested in sth.English Practical Course 301 to be fond of sb. . to be similar to sth. to cooperate with sb. to cope with sth. to belong to sb. to believe in sth. to be tired of sth. to be good at sth./ sth. to benefit from sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth. to be in love with sb. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. to be in charge of sth. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. else to complain about sth. etc./ sb. to go by bus/ train/plane. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth./ sb. to be married to sb. to be proud of sth.

/ sth. to depend on sb. to die of sth. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. to go home to have a degree in sth. to listen to sth. to debate on sth./ deficient in sth. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. . to find put about sv. deficiency in sth. to develop into sth. to get in touch with sb. to be different from sb./ sb. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb. in the end at the end of sth./sth.302 English Practical Course to deal with sth. to forget about sb. in the distance to distinguish sth. to laugh at sb. else to dream about sb./ sth./sth. etc./sth. to go out with sb. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb./sth./ sth./ sth./ sth. to fight against sb. to get on (well) with sb. from sth.

to point at sb./ sb. to specialize in sth./ sth. similar to sb. to point sth. to look forward to doing sth. to rely on sb. to merge with sth. to suffer from sth. for ($300) to share sth. about sth. to participate in sth. (a gun) at sb.English Practical Course 303 to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to speak to sb. to search for sth. preoccupation with sth. to look at sth. to originate in sth. to talk to sb./ sth representative of sb. owing to sth. to look for sth. about sth. to pay ($5000) for sth./ sb./ sth. with sb. resistance to sth. to sell sth. a story about sth. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb./ sth. . to spend money on sth.

at sb./ sb. in view of sth./ sth.304 English Practical Course thanks to sb./ sth. to write (an e-mail. . a ticket for sth. to wait for sb. a letter) to sb. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you think of von Laue?) to throw sth.

English Practical Course 305 .

Nolan. New York.com http://www. 12. 1984. Ileana. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Ed. English With Tears. The British Council.Curs practic.htm http://www. Virgil. 3. Stanciu. Dobrovici. Exercises. Competenţă şi performanţă. 1996. Limba engleza. Viorica & Dorobat. Panovf.. Luca-Lăcătuşu. Creţescu Gogălniceanu. 11.. English for Science and Technology. Margaret. D. Tamara & Popescu Brandusa. ed.. Macmillan.. 1972. Lee C.commnet.. 8. J. 4. I. London. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere. 1983. Cluj http://ccc. Oxford Galea. Heinemann Educational Books. Dumitru & Luca. 1999. Cambridge Certificate – A Course for First Certificate. Poenaru. Tamara. 13. Editura Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Bucharest ***. Archer. Bucureşti 2. English Grammar Exercises. 9. Bucureşti Deighton. 1984. 1998. Timişoara Andrews.edu/grammar/adjectives.Dacia. . 1978. Vocabulary Development. Enid. Chiţoran. Preparing for Proficiency. Didactica si Pedagogica. Bucuresti Eastwod. 7. I. 10. Editura Amarcord. Stephen.306 English Practical Course Bibliography 1.com Hulban Horia. A Basic English Grammar. Cavallioti Publishing House. Oxford University Press. 1972. Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză.randomhouse. Călina.google. Editura Ştiinţifică. 5. 6. ***. 1983.

1989. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students.English Practical Course 307 14. Marius. E. Adrian B. . Bishop. D. Katherine V. Excel at First Certificate. A. 1991. Student’s Book. 1991. 17. Washington. Heinemann. 1995.. Headway. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Oxford Mistzal. 19. Macmillan. 1996. A. London Edinburgh Walker. Martinet. Oxford. Teora. and Elsworth.. 23. A. Student’s Book. Test Your English Grammar. 22. John & Liz. 1985. A. Greere. Soars. pre-intermediate. Thomson. Longman Malaysia. Bucuresti Sanford.. OUP. A Practical English Grammar.V. 16. M. New York Soars. 1984. Lin. 1986.J. A Practical English Grammar. V. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press. Ed. A.J. Michael. 20. Lougheed. S. Clusium. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. upper-intermediate. 1997. CLP Zdrenghea. 18. 1986. Headway. English Teaching Division.. Reading Comprehension. John & Liz. Hong Thomson. Cluj 15. The Great Preposition Mystery. 21.C. Student’s Book. Oxford Vince. Oxford University Press. Exercises 1.. Martinet. Hong Kong. Oxford University Press.

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