English Practical Course

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English Practical Course

Arleen Ionescu Luiza Vlad Răzvan Vlad

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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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CONTENTS Unit 1..............................................................................................................9
Reading...............................................................................................................9 Ways with words..............................................................................................10 Grammar Reference........................................................................................12
Present Simple.............................................................................................................12 Present Continuous......................................................................................................14 Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English.......................................16

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................17

Unit 2............................................................................................................24
Reading.............................................................................................................24 Ways with Words.............................................................................................25 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................31
Past Simple..................................................................................................................31 Past Continuous...........................................................................................................33 Past Simple and Past Continuous................................................................................34

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................35 Grammar reference 2......................................................................................46
The Ordinal Numeral...................................................................................................46 The Fractional Numeral...............................................................................................46 The Multiplicative Numeral........................................................................................47

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................47

Unit 3............................................................................................................49
Reading.............................................................................................................49 Ways with Words.............................................................................................50 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................56
Present Perfect Simple.................................................................................................56

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English Practical Course

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple......................................................................58

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................59 Grammar Reference 2.....................................................................................64
Present Perfect Continuous..........................................................................................64

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................66

Progress Test 1............................................................................................73 Unit 4............................................................................................................79
Reading.............................................................................................................79 Ways with Words.............................................................................................80 Grammar Reference........................................................................................85
Indefinite Pronouns .....................................................................................................85 The Personal Pronoun..................................................................................................86

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................87

Unit 5............................................................................................................91
Reading.............................................................................................................91 Ways with Words.............................................................................................92
Past Perfect Simple......................................................................................................95 Past Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................96

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................97 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................100
The Imperative...........................................................................................................100

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................101

Unit 6..........................................................................................................103
Reading...........................................................................................................103 Ways with Words...........................................................................................104 Grammar Reference......................................................................................105

English Practical Course

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Future Simple.............................................................................................................105 Future Continuous.....................................................................................................107 Be Going to Future....................................................................................................107 Future Simple or Be Going to?..................................................................................108 Other Ways of Referring to the Future.....................................................................109 Future Perfect.............................................................................................................109 Future Perfect Progressive.........................................................................................110 Other future references..............................................................................................110

Controlled Practice:.......................................................................................110

Unit 7 .........................................................................................................115
Reading...........................................................................................................115 Ways with Words...........................................................................................116 Grammar Reference......................................................................................117
The Passive Voice .....................................................................................................117 Further Points on the Passive Voice..........................................................................118 Causative Forms........................................................................................................120

Controlled Practice........................................................................................121

Progress Test 2...........................................................................................138 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................143
Reading...........................................................................................................144 Ways with Words...........................................................................................144 Grammar Reference 1...................................................................................146
The Conjunction .......................................................................................................146 Coordinating Conjunctions........................................................................................146 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................................................................147

Controlled Practice 1.....................................................................................147 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................150
Number of nouns.......................................................................................................150

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................153

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English Practical Course

Unit 9..........................................................................................................156
Reading...........................................................................................................156 Ways with Words...........................................................................................157 Grammar Reference......................................................................................159
The Noun...................................................................................................................159 Gender........................................................................................................................159 Countable/uncountable nouns....................................................................................160 Nouns which may be uncountable or countable........................................................161 The Genitive/Possessive Case...................................................................................162

Controlled Practice........................................................................................164

Unit 10 .......................................................................................................177
Reading...........................................................................................................177 Ways with Words...........................................................................................178 Grammar Reference......................................................................................180
Prepositions................................................................................................................180 Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs....................................................................................181 Place of Prepositions in the Sentence........................................................................181 Prepositions of Time..................................................................................................182 Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place....................................................182

Controlled Practice........................................................................................185

Progress Test 3...........................................................................................198 Unit 11........................................................................................................202
Reading ..........................................................................................................202 Ways with Words...........................................................................................203 Grammar Reference......................................................................................204
Position of adjectives.................................................................................................204 The Order of Adjectives in a Series...........................................................................204 Capitalising proper adjectives....................................................................................205 Collective adjectives..................................................................................................205

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................English Practical Course 7 Adjectival opposites.....................................................................................................268 ..................................................................................................227 Reading...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................252 Third Conditional............................................................................................................207 Comparative Sentences.....................................................................................................................................232 Controlled Practice............................................................................................................239 Grammar Reference 1............................................................................243 Punctuation.......................................................................................210 Controlled Practice.........206 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................253 Mixed Conditionals..........229 Zero Article................................................................228 The Indefinite Article..............228 The Definite Article.......241 Grammar Reference 2........................................................................228 The Article..........................240 Controlled Practice 1..................................................254 Controlled Practice .....................................................233 Unit 13.....................251 Second Conditional.................................................................................................................................................243 Unit 14..............................................................227 Grammar Reference.............................................................................................................................................249 Grammar Reference..........................................................248 Reading................................................................................................210 UNIT 12.........................................240 The Adverb...............................................255 Unit 15.251 First Conditional.......................................................................................................................................248 Ways with Words...............................................

.............................................................................................269 Grammar Reference ................................................................................................................................................................286 Appendix 1..................................................................................................................................................292 Appendix 2....304 Bibliography..........271 Controlled Practice..........................................276 Progress Test 4.....8 English Practical Course Reading.......................................................................................................................306 .......................................................................................................271 Modal Auxiliaries....................................................268 Ways with Words..................................................................................................................................................................................................................300 .......................

and women housewives worried about fulfilling and achieving their roles.English Practical Course 9 Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Simple © Present Continuous © Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment on advertising. They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image. They do not learn their roles from this source. Advertising sets out to make people identify with characters in advertisements. if they buy BU. they believe that if they buy Diavolo they will look like Antonio Banderas. On the one side. to make them jealous of the person they would become if they bought the product. They do not . they will be a second Eva Herzigova. Underline the verbs which are in present tense simple and present continuous: Advertising is capitalism’s soft sell. Pay attention to the use of tenses. They may not be persuaded to buy products. are the foremost consumers. but they absorb the images. to buy it and to keep on buying. and so on. It is really interesting to notice that girls growing up. An anonymous mass of people called consumers have each to be persuaded to need whatever a product can give them. They see in advertising imagery reflections of society’s attitudes and ideals often taken to extremes. with their situation and needs. but it is a strong reinforcer.

Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree. c. Girls and housewives are the main consumers. Advertisements persuade potential consumers that they need a product. Start with the word on. advertising also captures girls’ fluttering images of themselves. Middle-aged women are particularly susceptible to advertisements. b. . the persuasive power of advertising c. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. Advertisements reinforce a woman’s view of herself. Try again. b. how advertising influences women d. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. Advertisements project an image of the ideal housewives. You will play a word game. On the other side. b.10 English Practical Course realize the difference between fancy and reality. e. 3. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. women as consumers b. a. c. Which if the following points are made in the passage? a. the image of women in advertisements 2. Follow directions: a. This is why they become that anonymous mass of people which we called consumers in the beginning. Which of these would be the best title for the passage? More than one possible answer is possible. II. Start with in: a. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. d. Ways with words 1.

Classified advertisements . Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill. 4. e. a. It’s just the difference between British English and American English. IV. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. b. III. b. Here are some of them: British English American English theatre theater centre center neighbour neighbor colour color travelling traveling organise organize analyse analyze 5. There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. Another word for too that ends with -so. c. Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can.English Practical Course 11 c. Start with an. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. Have you ever encountered the word organise spelled as organize? This is not a mistake. c. d. Find the words described below: a. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. Try again. Read the sentence: They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image again.

Sept. H. dining rm. & b. you find it full of small advertisements containing abbreviations. rm. Phone: (0803) 863664. S.A. hotel. Top class accom. Mrs. Excel. and shower. & c.’s.w.12 English Practical Course You are touring Britain on holiday with friends. Westbourne.. kit. –c. in bdrms.c. Spac. 2 bedrms. Mews Apartments. 11th onwards: £40/ £50 incl. lounge. sunny gdn. Yet opening the newspaper.50/£42 p. Can you decipher them? Bourbemouth – Warm welcome awaits you at Pinewood Guest House. Totnes 1 ¼ miles. kit. Games rm... Special Offer Spring Holiday and Oct.m. sit. Totnes. Grammar Reference Present Simple It is used to express: . – Holiday COTTAGES in medieval courtyard of Queen Anne Mansion. Phone 761001 Torquay. sitt. Reduced rates for chldn. Devon. £31. e. Special Spring terms from £45 plus V.m. after 6 p. Petersen. big. Large car park and gdns. after 7 p.m. Phone (06267)4590. B. B & b. bathrm. Torbay 6 miles.. 197 Holdenhurst Rd. [x21-0H Totnes. Bowden House. Spring. 2 w. Someone you meet recommends a weekly newspaper which contains advertisements for holiday accommodation. Vac. Bungalow for 7/8. Night storage heating. June...T. food. Access at all time. Tv. residential lic. – Quiet det.. Phone 292684 [1977-08S Bourbemouth – Linga-Longa Hotel. wing in House. bathrm. Ctly.

Wood floats on water. usually. • • states a fact which is always true (general truths and states): I don’t like gangster film. The Danube flows into the Black Sea. • momentary actions. radio and TV commentaries. completed almost at the same time they are performed (in ceremonial utterances. especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. never. regularly. Most evenings we go out. sometimes. forever. The door bell rings. • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. So when he enters the room he realises that his parents are there and… . cooking demonstrations. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. The Earth moves round the Sun. Romanian people like to travel. explanations.): I usually get up at 8. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. Note that the historic present in narrative of funny stories appears in informal speech to describe past events. She works in a very famous company. seldom. normally.English Practical Course 13 • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. rarely. headlines and stage directions): Her letter shows how painful the divorce was for her. frequently. continually. She listens quietly. occasionally. ever. hardly. constantly. often. etc.30. announcements.

I do. Present Continuous It is used to express: . leave or verbs expressing planned activity: begin. work? work do not (don’t) work work do not (don’t) work works does not (doesn’t) work in a university. Our summer holiday starts on July 1st. finish) The plane lands at 6:34 p. when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme (with verbs of motion: come. go. Does she speak Italian? No.m. she doesn’t. start. Form Affirmative and negative I You We They He She Interrogative Where do do I you we does they he she it Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. end.14 English Practical Course • planned future actions.

English Practical Course 15 • an activity happening now or around now (in this case the action extends over a slightly longer period of time. Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we doing? not are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working. You are always calling me at midnight. limited action/ behaviour (+an adverbial indicating present time): I live in Romania. including the moment of speaking) They are playing in their bedroom now. One’s immediate plans for the near future: a repeated action or habit which annoys the speaker I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. but I’m living in England these six months. • • Form Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the present participle of the main verb (verb+ -ing). • a temporary. . I am filling in a cloze test now. I’m writing an essay on Victorianism this week.

• verbs of cognition and achievement verbs: think. In fact. understand. But: I’m thinking about you. hear. taste. I’m not. etc. know. No. I’m having dinner with my boyfriend at a fancy restaurant tonight. (You generally are very smart. belong to. contain. He is a teacher of Italian. I am. But: You are being stupid now. hold. She can’t answer the phone at the moment. Is she watching TV? Yes. The meat doesn’t taste good at all. But: I’m tasting the meat to see if it’s done. smell. I think it’s a bit off. she isn’t. consider. suppose. I don’t remember your name. matter. etc. But: I am smelling the flower. But: She’s having a shower now. The house belongs to my mother. possess. but you behave rather stupidly now). etc. (This is my opinion). owe. recognize. forget. . I think you are right. she is. be. I smell gas. notice.16 English Practical Course is they he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. I have a very good car. No. ( I want to). expect. own. remember. realize. • verbs of having and being: have. Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English There are verbs in English which are not generally used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. mind.

I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. It often (rain) in summer. English and Italian. e. Pardon me. like. i. He wants to buy a new tool. g. I don’t mind his smoking. b. I (live) in Ploiesti. hate. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. But: Who is minding the baby? (Who is taking care of the baby?) Controlled Practice 1. This week we (study) the Middle Ages in the English Culture and Civilisation. refuse. d. He (come) to see me tonight. feel. j. Don’t touch it! l. f. But: “How are you feeling today?”. This bottle (hold) boric acid. Ann (resemble) her mother more and more. the doctor asked. The Rotring (belong) to Mary. . h. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. dislike. want. c. etc. It (rain) now. I’m feeling the material to see if it’s soft or not. forgive. Maria (come) from Spain this week. sir. She (speak) French. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland. This course (contain) 14 chapters. I feel I need to tell you that you let me down. k. n. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. love. m. wish. but this week.English Practical Course 17 • verbs of feeling (attitudinal verbs): care. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. I hate people calling me late at night. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses.

. I think/ am thinking that something is wrong with the radiator in this room. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. It lasts/ is lasting four hours.18 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.. c. d. People……. here come every summer to learn more about contemporary . where we ……. I’m thinking/ I think of you. things about learn Scottish and Irish writers. b.. What exactly does your job involve/ is your job involving? 3. h.. a good have time and at the same time we ……. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a. The film is extremely long and boring.. f. i. e. our spend summer in Edinburgh... She smells/ is smelling gas.. We have/ are having dinner now. at Edinburgh University. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I …... It gets/ is getting colder and colder. What’s wrong with you? Why are you looking/ do you look at me like this? g.

COMES .... like. we …… earlier. a paper on Samuel Beckett this week write and John ……. as we …. Sunset is at 9. visit literature museum. I …….. finish So it’s hard work. What is inside this book? CONTAIN f. The war in Irak is over. INCLUDES b. Kate 4.. a short story written by Angela read Carter. ALWAYS d.... so she doesn’t have too much spare time. at one. We …. We ……. up at half past eight every get morning and ……. She works hard. yet today. it here. courses from ten to half past twelve. THE SUN e. here stop in order to mail your postcard. Love.English Practical Course 19 literature.. I’m positive that you have no idea what the answer is. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same: a. But I …….. have We ……. MEANS h. so I …. BET g. The cost of the bus ticket is part of the transport fee.30 tonight. What is the weight of that bag you have as hand luggage? MUCH c. have a post-office in front of the Centre. John has the bad habit of eavesdropping to other people’s conversation. a eat..

/ I see a horse. The sweater feels soft. c. / I am feeling the sweater. g. She is having dinner. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. The grocer is weighing sugar./ We are thinking she is tall. HAVING 5. / Ann is being foolish today. / She has dinner . You cannot see Mary now: she (see) her boyfriend. k. l. I feel the sweater. n. / We are thinking about her. I am seeing a horse. BUYING j. / She looks angry.20 English Practical Course i. Hardly anyone (wear) tight pants nowadays. / She tastes the soup. /She is having a car. h. b. The actor is appearing on TV. She is looking angry. a. We think about her. George can’t watch his favourite TV program now because his father (watch) a movie. m. / The actor appears on TV. c. She is tasting the soup. f. I am looking at the picture. e. She has a car. Ann is foolish today. Choose the correct sentence: a. i. / I look at the picture. . / The dentist sees a patient. / The grocer weighs sugar. b. d. The number of people who own houses on the outskirts of the city is increasing. / The sweater is feeling soft. They are decorating my room now. 6. d. We think she is tall. The dentist is seeing a patient. j. They won’t go out as it (snow) and they (not have) warm clothes.

The train that we (look) at right now just (leave) for Arad. j.English Practical Course 21 e. Why you (listen) to this song. . The children are playing at hide-and-seek. d. The milkman comes to our house twice a week. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences. Mary? You (not listen) to this type of music as a rule. The family are celebrating the birth of their newest member. She’s busy at the moment. i. She (put) the baby to sleep. I usually read two books a week when I have time. She is wearing a strange. g. Our guests are talking to us in Russian. i. The two friends are listening to a rock concert. f. My father usually comes home from work by car. g. It takes five hours to reach the top of the mountain. f. What George (do) to his computer now? ~ I (think) he (format) it. yellow dress. b. That play (come) to our theatre next week. h. a. This novel is about a boy who (desert) his friends and (go) to enrol in the army. e. h. c. You (want) to see it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7.

22 English Practical Course j. a. E sâmbătă şi facem curat în casă. e. Tom never washes his trousers until somebody tells him to. Luăm micul dejun. Vacanţa de vară ţine două luni. Nu spune niciodată nimic interesant. d. Mama bea cafea. În fiecare vară mergem cinci zile la munte. De data asta însă rămânem acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa cinematografului dar tu întotdeauna citeşti la ora aceasta. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . g. f. iar tata mănâncă omletă. Bunica uită întotdeauna unde-şi pune pantofii şi de fiecare dată când are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Clujului. Eu fac paturile iar sora mea şterge praful din cameră. b. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Translate into English using the Present Simple or Continuous.

…………..? e. Add tag questions: a. I’m sure you know who stole that purse. ………….. …………..? j.. The pubs close at half past three. They hardly ever buy bread form this shop. They are meeting him at one o’clock today.? l. You’re not a doctor...? k.. ? b. He plays volleyball quite well.? g. The police never catch any thieves. …………. They say she works as an air-hostess. ………….? h.? o. …………..? p. She knows where he was last night. ………….? d.? m. She thinks we are running away from her. …………. …………. …………. This car belongs to Jack.? c. …………. My boss doesn’t employ teenagers...? f. Tom is having some whisky. It seems to me he is wasting his time. …………. ………….... I don’t think I’m the right person to teach him English. …………. …………. You look nice in this T-shirt.? .... ………….? i.? n.English Practical Course 23 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9.

only a few million people spoke English. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England. with the first settlements in North America. in all the continents of the world.24 English Practical Course Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Simple © Past Continuous © The Ordinal Numeral © The Multiplicative © The Fractional Numeral •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following text about English as a world language. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing . Pay attention to the use of the past tense. Underline the verbs which are in the past tense: Today.that in Shakespeare’s time. People started to import English in the seventeenth century. assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and . and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe. it is the great growth of population in the United States. when English is one of the major languages in the world. Above all. for example. and it was unknown to the rest of the world.

Have you: a. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. learned any songs in English? . Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes. As I could read in an article. used English in your studies or work? g. Spanish or French. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. I think I have. that has given the English language its present status in the world. due to the extension of computerised systems and softs which are mostly in English. Ways with Words 1.English Practical Course 25 twentieth century. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. read a scientific article in English? h. Again incredible. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. managed to translate anything into English? d. So. Incredibly enough. the quicker you learn it. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people? f. yet again English is the predominant language. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. been to an English-speaking country? b. the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field. passed any exams in English? c.

you should pretend that you have understood. B. B. loss. D. laughter. speak. tale.. A. D. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2. make. joke. fool. C. A. C. an oral exam.. a good idea is to tell a story or a . If you don’t understand anything you hear. certain of what someone has said. If you want to practise speaking. you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. practical. If you want to become . problem. matter. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. A. B.. skillful. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. take. When you . c. B. .. C. A. D. e. quite. confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent 3. b. you have to be co-operative.26 English Practical Course j. fairly. surely.. fluent... C. it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. A.. d. D. to someone. then listening to a tape is a . when you speak. of time. D.. go. B. very. C. handy. Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English.. waste. If you’re not .

without being told to.” says “Make yourself at home.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. Read and translate the following poems on the English language and pronunciation: A. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. A cricket is an insect. .” says “Have a good weekend. Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night.” B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. TV and records. To play it – it’s a game. every day possible. 5. Some words have different meanings And yet they’re spelled the same. Same to you. in real situations.English Practical Course 27 4. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher. in every way possible.” 6. from films.” “Come in!” “Thanks.

A trip is when you fall. Yet seized a wheel and spoke! A door may often be ajar. As you can plainly see. pray.28 English Practical Course On every hand. Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: Musicians of good taste Will very often form a band – I’ve one around my waist! You spin a top. who is to blame For different meanings to some words Pronounced and spelt the same? A little journey is a trip. And. Yet a jumper has to leap. ‘twas told me as a jokeA dumb man wouldn’t speak a word. It doesn’t mean you have to dance When’er you hold a ball. It’s very clear. A jumper is a thing you wear. Now here’s a most peculiar thing. Some people say that you’re a dear Yet dear is far from cheap. . The English language to explain. It’s thoroughly agreed. it’s very queer. Or spin a yarn maybeYet every spin’s a different spin. in every land. go for a spin. Is very hard indeed.

Ireson. thorough. It’s thoroughly agreed. A policeman is a copper. And adders. a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. And dead: t’s said like bed. in Verse That Is Fun. and now you wish perhaps To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard.English Practical Course 29 But give the door a slam And then your nerves receive a jarAnd then there’s jars of jam. I take it. laugh and through. And jams you give your thumbs. The English language. not beadAnd only Scotsmen call it deed! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. It’s a nickname (impolite!) Yet a copper in the kitchen Is an article you light. You’ve heard. 1962) B. Well done. On every hand. too. ed. of course. you already know. of traffic jams. one is a snake. but not you On hiccough. Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble. . The other adds up sums. Faber. The English language to explain Is very hard indeed! (Harry Hemsley. in every land.

2. pe cât. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. Hints on Pronunciation for Foreigners) 7. And do and go. as shown in Fig. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. broth in brother. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. as a rule = de regulã. as long as = atât timp cât. And cork and work and card and ward. and thwart and cartCome. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. . Read the sentence: As I could read in an article. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte. în principiu. as seen = dupã cum se vede. as far as = întrucât. And then there’s dose and rose and loseJust look them up – and goose and choose. I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man aliveI’d mastered it when I was five. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. ( Herbert Farjeon. Again. come. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. în mãsura în care. And font and front and word and sword.30 English Practical Course A moth is not a moth in mother. How do you translate as I could read. Nor both in bother.

I didn’t like reading. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. The industrialisation in England led to the change of people’s mentalities. The English literature teacher gave us a copy of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight yesterday. such as = astfel ca. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century. I met him every day on my way to the office. as well = deopotrivã. de asemenea. In those years. • habitual. tot aşa ca. as well as = cât şi.English Practical Course 31 as such = ca atare. Suddenly he remembered something. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. as yet/ so far/ up to now. Grammar Reference 1 Past Simple It is used to express: • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. up to the present = pânã în prezent. . put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. • a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room. ca în cazul în care. yesterday. He stood up and went out of the room. ca de exemplu. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic) or completed states: She always wore red. yesterday morning/ evening. as when = ca atunci când. He took off his shirt. in 1985.

There are many common irregular verbs. I did. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. No. arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. I You We They He/She Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did. When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes. I didn’t. . arrive? go? did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday.32 English Practical Course Form The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 299) I You We They He/She Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t).

• A past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. she was always looking through my diary. and the engine was making a huge noise. When she arrived. and little John was trying to draw something on my favourite poster. she did. I crossed the bridge over Seine all the time. • repeated actions (with a frequency adverb. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative . No.English Practical Course 33 Did she report the results obtained? Yes. My sister was playing with her dolls. they were waiting for her in the corridor. One of the headlights was continually falling off. without the sense of criticism mentioned above. Past Continuous It is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was lecturing my students on linguistics. Father was reading some news in the newspaper. it means criticism and is similar to the use of present continuous when expressing annoyance) When she came to me. Note that past continuous is not used to describe general habitual actions. Past simple is used for this meaning. of course. -refers to: • background descriptions in narrative I entered the room and looked around. When I lived in Paris. she didn’t.30 yesterday. • changing states: The car was getting worse all the time.

(I was in the middle of the activity. she wasn’t. she was.) They were producing such machines when those people started to buy shares in their company. I was. No. were were not They (weren’t) Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes.) I did my homework yesterday. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night. She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room.34 English Practical Course I He She You We was was not (wasn’t) working. (producing and looking are long activities. No. Something happened in the meantime to interrupt them). . I wasn’t. (I started and finished it. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes.

While I was learning/ learnt for my French exam. j. or French. d. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. There was someone to meet him on arrival. WAS c. Spanish. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. I didn’t exactly like swimming in those days. Latin played/ was playing an essential part in the development of languages such as Romanian. To get to the office on time I had to wake up at 5:30 every morning. a writer and an English interpreter. e. Our crew included/ was including a linguist. MEANT b. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. 2. i. The first important breakthrough was replacing/ replaced radios with television sets in the 50’s. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. c. b. We made / were making about 50 text analyses last year. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. When the house was decorated. f. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. the entire family moved/ was moving in. g.English Practical Course 35 Controlled Practice 1 1. WHEN . Italian. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. Do not alter the form of the words in any way and do not change the meaning of the sentence: a. h.

Someone was painting our house at that moment. PASSING h. HAD j. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: It (happen) in June 1985. The smell of the cheese stopped my eating the breakfast. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. I didn’t know about your departure. handsome man with piercing blue eyes and he (look) straight at my mother. We children (look for) worms and insects. “Arthur. “ she (say) in a kind of whisper. Her face (go) pale and her eyes (open) wide with shock. GOING f. PUT 3. My mother (read) and my uncle (just / doze) in the sun. did you notice the time? WHAT g. but I’m afraid that I completely forgot (it). THAT e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I intended to invite you at my party.36 English Practical Course d. HAVING i. Someone stole Diana’s bag yesterday. It (be) summer and we (all / lie out)in the garden. And then he (arrive). When you passed by the town hall clock. I (think) you (be) dead. He (be) a tall.

00 and it (burn) brightly when Mike came home at 9.m. He (insist) on finishing his task. m. At 3 a. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: a. h. This (annoy) the bull. ‘Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. g. I wonder who it (belong) to? l. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. I (not know) that you still (read) it. The admiral (study) the battle plans when he (receive) news of the invasion. The car (stop).00. which immediately (begin) to chase Mr. It looks very old. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. I just (open) the door when the wind (blow) and (break) all the windows in the room. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. ‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask). Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. k. Smith.English Practical Course 37 4. b. e. He (watch) the movie when the phone (ring).’ ‘I’m sorry.’ o. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. d. He (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. f. He (dig) his garden when he accidentally (cut) three of his toes. They suddenly (realize) that they (fly) with the wrong plane. j. Mrs. n. c. i. She lit the fire at 8. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years.

c. acolo îmi petreceam vacanţa de iarnă şi schiam în fiecare zi. cineva a bătut la uşă. dar tocmai în momentul când lua această hotărâre veni un prieten şi-l invită la un meci de fotbal. Te-am zărit alaltăieri în mulţimea de oameni care aştepta să se deschidă sala de spectacol. f. Anul trecut pe vremea asta eram la Predeal. Dan se gândi că trebuia să se apuce de lucru. Translate into English using the simple and continuous past tense whenever necessary: a. e. d. Încercau să găsească drumul către centru când au dat peste un tânăr care s-a oferit să îi însoţească şi care i-a condus la obiectivele turistice cele mai importante ale oraşului. În timp ce Diana asculta un concert la radio. a fost de-a dreptul imposibil. . Cum s-a întâmplat exact accidentul? Mergeam de la Bucureşti la Ploieşti şi tata tocmai ne povestea despre accidentul unor prieteni de-ai lui când deodată în faţa maşinii a sărit un câine. dar deşi am încercat să-mi croiesc drum până la tine. g. era cu mult în urmă. b. Mă uitam la televizor când a sosit poştaşul.38 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5.

Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the Simple Past or Past Continuous: a. l. Whenever the politician (…) his mouth to speak the crowd (…) insults. . My sister (…) wet while she (…) in the rain. i. j. I (…) when I (…) the road. What she (…) last night between 10 o’clock and 4? f. k. He not (…) the explosion because at that moment he (…). While the old lady (…) those scrambled eggs. the doorbell (…). she suddenly (…) they (…) off. g. e. d. While the maid (…) the room a skeleton (…) out of the cupboard. b. They (…) dinner when the girl next door (…) and (…) for a loaf of bread. I (…) my bag when I (…) the plane. De ce boli ai suferit când erai mic şi când ai fost ultima oară la medic? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. c. As soon as he (…) under the shower. h. While I (…) in London I (…) my money in my socks. She (…) the voice that (…) louder than the others as that of her father. m.English Practical Course 39 h. They (…) and (…) while they (…) the mountain.

Electric lights burned all day in offices and lecture rooms. The winter term at Rummidge was of ten weeks’ duration. Outside. As they (…) from Stockholm to Paris. the air was cold and clammy. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. The mornings were dark. the starboard engine (…) into flames. and the very chimes sounded muffled and despondent. It drained every colour and blurred every outline of the urban landscape. and the sun seldom broke through the cloud cover in the brief interval of daylight. like the autumn and summer terms. but seemed longer than the other two because of the cheerless season. o.40 English Practical Course n. When he (…) downhill. dusk came early. p. As it (…) their mother (…) the picnic. Translate the following texts into Romanian: A. q. The atmosphere chilled the bones . You could hardly see the face of the clock at the top of the University’s tower. the brakes (…) and he only (…) a serious accident by steering into a bush. When she (…) lunch a waiter (…) a plate of soup in her lap. thick with moisture and pollution.

Some people attributed the characteristic adenoidal whine of the local dialect to the winter climate.English Practical Course 41 and congested the lungs. No other reason would make anyone come here. except work. was the fate of the unemployed of Rummidge and environments. Nice Work) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . condemned to be idle in a place where there was nothing much to do. therefore. (David Lodge. All the more grim. which gave everybody runny noses and blocked sinuses for months open like fish gasping for air. grey place. Only work seemed to provide an answer. stay. At this time of the year it was certainly hard to understand why human beings had ever settled and multiplied in such a cold. or having come. damp.

too. “Jesus Christ. He was not sure of anything anymore. “We’ll probably clear it up tomorrow. He thanked the guard as he walked away. They may have telephone communication with the sector down the coast. has some information. Quayle knew then that here was a brick wall. too. “Down the coast.” Quayle did not feel himself completely conscious.” “That’s right. . He should have expected this. Maybe.”.” “Yes. He should have got Helen out long ago. He had never felt so completely unsure of himself and what he was doing. the Australian said. the Australian said. He didn’t know whether or not she had been sent back with the other women.42 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B. He turned around and started walking back.” Quayle was standing there uncertainly.Q. “Where is H.” “Yes. It’s cut off. He was not certain about what he was to do… Perhaps H.Q?” he asked the Australian. It had all happened too quickly.”. “Your wife’s probably all right. But it was not hopeless even if he did not know that she was all right. and he felt the vibration of his feet against the hard road.

and sometimes with two fibre suitcases walking with other women. (James Aldridge. and sometimes being surprised by German parachutists and shot. and he had vagueness about coming back or waiting to get down the coast and whether this invasion would fail. He caught a truck going through Suda Bay and then walked back to the airdrome. It was almost morning when he got there. But he could see her with sandals sometimes.English Practical Course 43 He was picturing Helen somewhere and he did not know where. He was not certain of anything. and he could hear the bombing him as he walked into the timber. Signed with their Honour) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

“There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons. I was the last one to leave the town of San-Carlos. “I will wait a little while.” He looked at me very blankly and tiredly. taking care of the animals. “Yes. “Oh.44 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ C. I am seventy-six years old.” he said. then said. But the others? . having to share this worry with someone. “I stayed. I am sure. “I was taking care of the animals”. “The cat will be all right.” I said. not quite understanding. women and children were crossing it. But the old man sat there without moving. An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. “only the animals I stated. trucks and men. “Where do you come from?” I asked him. There was a bridge across the river and cars. you see. “and then I will go. I have come twelve kilometres now and I think I can go no further.” “This is not a good place to stop. he explained.” he said and smiled.” he said.” “What animals were they?” I asked. I had to leave them. “From San-Carlos.” I said. “No.” “And you have no family?” I asked watching the far end of the bridge. He was too tired to go any farther.” he said.

I urged. I would go.” There was nothing to do about him. “I was taking care of the animals. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have. It was Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. “Get up and try to walk now.” he said dully. (Ernest Hemingway. “I was only taking care of the animals. “If you are rested.” he said and got to his feet. but no longer to me. so their planes were not up.” he said.” “Thank you.English Practical Course 45 Now what do you think about the others? What will they do under the artillery?” “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked”? I asked.” “Then they’ll fly. Old Man at the Bridge) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .” “But the others? It’s better not to think about the others. swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust. It was a grey overcast day with a low ceiling. “Yes.

46 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar reference 2 The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.06 one point nought six .000.04 (nought) point nought four 1.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.

La ora două şi un sfert iau autobuzul 85 şi merg în Piaţa Universităţii. 2 9/7. Deschideţi cartea la pagina 43 şi faceţi exerciţiul unu. 1958. . four times 10x tenfold. Read the following dates: July. Translate into English: a. aşa că nu fac mai mult de cinci minute. 1987. d. Cât e ceasul. April. f. 1980. March. 2. 5. 2002. Al cincilea modul este deja obositor pentru studenţi. 2001. El s-a născut la 23 octombrie 1974. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. a hundred times Controlled Practice 2 1. August. 4. ten times 100x a hundredfold. i. te rog? Douăsprezece şi un sfert. Cât faci de la facultate până la cămin? Căminul este lângă facultate.English Practical Course 47 The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. 43/42. 11x. 27. May. 2. 11. e. Între 13:20 şi 13:30 avem o pauză în care nimeni nu are timp să mănânce. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4.879. 12. 3. b. Câţi cenţi are un dolar? j. La 1 iunie sărbătorim ziua copilului. 8. g. January. 1974. three times 4x fourfold. h. c. „A douăsprezecea noapte” este o comedie scrisă de Shakespeare.

Cât ai obţinut? 0. o. Toate lunile au treizeci sau treizeci şi una de zile cu excepţia lunii februarie care are douăzeci şi opt de zile.48 English Practical Course k. Camera are 5 metri în lungime şi 4 şi jumătate în lăţime. El a scris o lucrare de trei ori mai bună decât a ta. m. O pătrime din avere îi aparţine lui Smith. p. n.78. Mă duc la bunica aproximativ de trei ori pe săptămână. l. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 49 Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Continuous © Differences between the Present Perfect and thePast Tense •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. That is why I did not get to start at the same time as the other runners. so he goes to talk to one of the judges about it. Joan. All of the other runners deserted me at the starting line. I am late to meet some friends for a camping trip in the desert. but my shoelace was undone. . Dialogue 1: The Race Jim has just come in last in a road race. Can't we do it again? Judge: I cannot discuss this with you any longer. Judge: I do not think that you can use that as an excuse. I would have won. Jim: I would like to contest the outcome of this contest. If you will excuse me. Margaret: Joan has told me this morning that she wants a career in the music business. and I had to bow down to fix it. They are discussing the latest news they have received from their daughter. She is packing to go to Nashville to record her first record right now. He feels that the race was unfair. Pay attention to the use of homographs. Jim: But the race was not fair. you were not even close to the winning runner. Read the following dialogues. At the close of the race. Case closed! Dialogue 2: The Singer Charlie and Margaret are a married couple who own a video store.

The English language has a very complex spelling system." or also "a device used to shoot an arrow. I know she would like that. The meanings of the following homographs change depending on the way they are pronounced. not far away. Homophones are words that sound the same." To close (v. She could work at the store.50 English Practical Course Charlie: What? She is going to subject the world to her singing voice? She is tone deaf! Margaret: Don't let her hear you say that. demonstrating gratitude or respect. Margaret: That's a great idea.) is "a tied ribbon. I will check with Joan first. Ways with Words 1. On a separate subject. It will bring her to tears." To bow (v. We will have to find a gentle way to separate her from the idea.) is "the action of bending forward at the waist and stooping low. you can tear them up.) describes "something very near. We need to put our heads together to find a solution.) refers to "the act of shutting something." CLOSE and CLOSE: Close (adj." . Charlie: Maybe we could show her that she could be of more use here. We could use another sales clerk. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (such as \'PREsent\ and \pre'SENT\). Margaret: OK. BOW and BOW: A bow (n. but are spelled differently (such as "hare" and "hair"). Practise these dialogues. It says on them that they are non-refundable. what should I do with Joan 's train tickets to Nashville? Charlie: If she decides to stay.

) something means "to leave it behind. or experiment." Separate (adj. sandy region.English Practical Course 51 CONTEST and CONTEST: A contest (n.) is "the act of writing information down.) is "the action of employing for some purpose." To contest (v." or it can also refer to "a phonograph album." To desert (v." DESERT and DESERT: A desert (n." or "documenting data (such as music) electronically.) describes "things that are isolated or unconnected. conversation." TEAR and TEAR: Tears (n.) means "to forgive.) is "an arid." SUBJECT and SUBJECT: A subject (n.) is "a reason or explanation for one's actions." To subject (v. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? ." To excuse (v.) means "to expose someone to something.) is "the event of employing something to serve a purpose.) is "written documentation of a past event.) means "to divide or segregate." Now practice these homographs in sentences of your own." EXCUSE and EXCUSE: An excuse (n." USE and USE: Use (n.) refers to "the act of disputing or objecting to something.) are "drops that fall from the eyes of someone who is crying." Tear (v." To record (v.) is "a competition that determines a winner." Use (v.) is "the topic of a book.) means "to rip something into pieces." RECORD and RECORD: A record (n." SEPARATE and SEPARATE: To separate (v.

you walk there get/jump/ rise to your feet etc –to stand up after you have been sitting be on your feet – to be standing for a long time without having time to sit down. the wife tells her husband: We need to put our heads together to find a solution. To put somebody’s heads together is an idiom. It means to discuss a difficult problem together. remembering facts head over heels in love – loving somebody very much heads with roll – used to say that some people will be punished severely for something that has happened Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. In the second dialogue. to feel better again after being ill and in bed . Let’s learn some idioms containing the word head. 3. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Foot on foot – if you go somewhere on foot. to stand up. from head to foot/toe – over your whole body have a good/fine head of hair – to have a lot of hair on your head do something in your head – calculate something in your mind go over your head – to be too difficult for you to understand a clear/cool head – the ability to think clearly or calmly in a difficult or dangerous situation need your head examined – be crazy use your head – to think about something sensibly keep your head above water – to manage to continue to live on your income or keep your business working in spite of money problems be hanging your head against a brick wall – to keep trying to do something which seems impossible have a head for figures/facts/ business – to be good at doing calculations.52 English Practical Course 2.

usually by having an argument have/keep both feet on the ground – to think in a sensible and practical way and not have ideas or aims that will be impossible to achieve have one foot in the grave – to be very old or very ill leave feet first – to die before you leave a place or job feet of clay –someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults that you did not realize they had Hair get in somebody’s hair – to annoy someone.holding each other’s hand.English Practical Course 53 be rushed off your feet/ be run off your feet – to be very busy put your foot in it . especially after working very hard make somebody’s hair stand on end – to make someone very frightened not turn a hair – to remain completely calm when something bad or surprising suddenly happens not harm/ touch a hair of somebody’s head – no to harm somebody in any way Hand take somebody by the hand – hold somebody’s hand in order to take them somewhere hand in hand . so that you embarrass or upset someone have two left feet – to be very clumsy get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly. especially by always being near them keep your hair on – (spoken) to tell someone to keep calm and not get annoyed let your hair down – (informal) to enjoy yourself and start to relax.to say something without thinking carefully. especially to show love .

you are not responsible for them anymore at hand –near in time or space on hand – close by and ready when needed first hand/ at first hand – by direct personal experience at second/third/fourth hand – passed from the first person who actually saw or heard something to a second. or the left hand rather than the right right/left hander – a player who uses mainly the right hand or mainly the left hand not do a hand’s turn . third.to influence or to be involved in something in good/safe/capable hands – being dealt with or looked after by someone who can be trusted off your hands – if something or somebody is off your hands. or fourth person by hand – delivered from one person to another. and sent through the post go hand in hand – to be closely connected get your hands on to obtain something– to catch somebody you are angry with .to start doing something new or practising a new skill keep your hand in – to keep practising something so you do not lose your skill a firm hand – strict control of someone get out of hand – to become impossible to control take something/somebody in hand – to bring someone or something under control in hand – being dealt with have a hand in .to do no work at all a dab hand – someone who is very good at doing something good with your hands – skillful at making things turn your hand to .54 English Practical Course right-handed/ left-handed – using the right hand for most actions rather than the left.

it looks so good you want to eat it immediately Nose red-nosed/ long-nosed – having a nose that is red.English Practical Course 55 lay your hands on – to find or obtain something have time on your hands – to have a lot of time because you have no work to do have your hands full –to be very busy or too busy out of hand – if you refuse something out of hand. especially in a bad or illegal activity on the one hand… on the other hand – used when comparing different or opposite facts or ideas give somebody a (big) hand (of applause) – to clap loudly in order to show your approval of a performer or speaker Mouth keep your mouth shut – not to tell other people about a secret. not to say anything because you might make a mistake big mouth – someone who is a big mouth or has a big mouth is annoying because they cannot keep secrets or they often say things they should not say make your mouth water – if food makes your mouth water.so close to somebody that they ought to notice. long right under somebody’s nose . you refuse immediately and completely hand in glove – closely connected with somebody. but they do not stick/ poke your nose into – to show too much interest in private matters that do not concern you look down your nose at – to behave as if you think somebody or something is not good enough for you .

(up to the present) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once. without a definite time given.56 English Practical Course with your nose in the air – behaving as if you are more important than other people and not talking to them on the nose – exactly keep your nose to the grindstone – to work very hard. (i. It is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. . (But: She met him there a few minutes ago.) Has English been used by people at this office in the last ten years? (But: Why was English used on such a large scale in 1999?) She has had four car accidents. without stopping to rest Grammar Reference 1 Present Perfect Simple It relates past actions and states to the present. He can drive it now). I can tell you the story). He has fixed his car.e. The recentness may be indicated by just. • activities completed in the immediate past (these events are recent. He has never used an English-English dictionary before. Sometimes these events happened at an unknown time in the past): She has just met him in the computer science laboratory. (i.e.

Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. I haven’t. she hasn’t. and for expresses a duration). There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page 299). How long have you worked as a translator? How long has it taken the English language to be used by so many people? Form have/has +verb (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. she has. No. No. I have. Affirmative and negative I We You They He has (‘s) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. She has not (hasn’t) Interrogative Have I we you Has they he been to the United Kingdom? she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. .English Practical Course 57 • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. (Since means from a definite point in the past till now.

and feels that the event is connected with the present. on the top shelf. . I’ve bought a house. Here the speaker may be about to return. I left the red bag in my room.) He has worked in this university for four years. Here the speaker may feel separated in time from the event. (But: He started working in this university four years ago) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. I’m going back to take it.58 English Practical Course Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do. Choice between past simple and present perfect for recent events may depend on the mental attitude of the speaker. I’m going back to take it. (definite) I bought the house after all. or be further away. I’ve left the red bag in my room. I found them behind a couple of other books. (implies definite reference: the house we talked about). (indefinite) I bought a house last month.) John Fowles has written very good short stories. I have. Where did you find them? (certainty).) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. This in turn may depend on whether the speaker feels distant in time or place from the event.) I lived in this flat for two years. (Now I live somewhere else. (He is still alive. (He is dead.

I (not hear) from you for a long time. Dan: Hello. I (pass) in December. I (be) on a tram. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.English Practical Course 59 Controlled Practice 1 1. Thomas (to meet) her for the first time the day he turned 20. that’s one piece of good news. My brother is still out of work. . I (not pass) my Lexicology exam yet. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your English Phonetics test. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks ago. Dan. Insert the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite: a. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. But what about you. …. but you (not see) me. I have. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. They just (give) me a pay rise. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. not really. Dan: Well. Maria: Well. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes.

They (to stand) in silence for a few minutes. d. he (to leave) quite a long time ago. you (not to eat) it. I don’t know why but I have the feeling that something (to happen). When ________________ the company? a) have you joined b) Had you joined c) did you join d) have you ever joined 2. h.60 English Practical Course b. f. but I (to wait) a month now and the confirmation still (not come). e. When I (to buy) my car I (to ask) the company to confirm my insurance by telephone. The company (to tell) me to wait for the response. I (to see) my friend’s name in the papers quite often lately. and (to translate) more than 25 pages. Mike. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. As far as I know. she (to speak) at last. Circle the correct answer: 1. ___________________ in Pakistan? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked . Mr Black (not to return) from the dentist’s. here is your cake. She (to read) about nine hours today. She (to begin) reading at 8 this morning and (to go) on reading until 11 o’clock when she (to stop) and (to have) something to eat. c.

a) I spoke b) I've already spoken c) I hadn’t spoken d) I will have spoken 6. a) didn’t rise have fallen b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen d) rose have fallen 9. The reason I look so brown is that _______________ from a business trip to Barbados a) I come back b) I came back c) I never came back d) I've just come back 8. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid. d) I've never had to deal with.English Practical Course 61 c) Had you ever worked d) Didn't you work 3. a) We have signed b) We signed c) We haven't signed d) We had signed 7. c) I've ever had to deal with. 5. That's the best presentation ______________ a) I never heard b) I didn't hear c) I used to hear d) I've ever heard 4. You ____________ to a word ____________ . He's the most difficult customer _____________________ a) I never dealt with. b) I never had to deal with. ___________________ to him last week. Sales ________ in 1995 but then _____ in 1996.

As a child. For your information I (…) home at 8 in the morning and (…) just before noon. Everybody enjoyed it. i.62 English Practical Course a) b) c) d) listened didn't listen listened haven't listened I haven't said I say saying I've said 10. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . e. c. f. Fill in with a suitable verb either in the Past Tense or Present Perfect: a. John cannot send the letter since he (…) it. You (…) her an e-mail yet? Yes. It's obvious that ________________ this report. You (…) all your life in this luxurious mansion? b. What are we going to do? We (…) the train and the next one leaves in the morning. d. It (…) very hot this summer. I wonder when it’s going to get colder. Now I (. h. j. I (…) catch a cold every month.. When I (…) school I (…) my hair and (…) it short ever since. a) you haven't read b) you didn't read c) you don't read d) you had read 4. The movie (…) at 12 and (…) for two hours. She just (…) her second ode. g. My sister (…) several poems.) a cold for more than two years. He (…) writing it at 5 and it’s 8 already.. I (…) it when you (…) at school.

Vecinul meu a scris şi câteva poveşti de adormit copiii. d. It is Sunday. le-a scris când era foarte tânăr. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been cancelled. (contact) b.English Practical Course 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. (point) e. (for) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. Rephrase the sentences below using the word in brackets: a. evident. Te-am căutat ieri vreo două ore şi te-am căutat şi astăzi. Mike has tried to give up smoking before. Am băut şi am dansat până acum. Pe unde ai umblat? b. c. (forward) f. Translate into English: a. When did you leave the country? (ago) c. The last time I saw Jane was on Monday. It was proposed that a new church should be built. . că de mâncat – am mâncat dimineaţă. (first) d. Cu ani în urmă creştea porumbei şi lilieci dar acum s-a apucat să planteze ananas. It’s been years since I last met Jim.

g. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new products for several years. especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect. Şi-a plătit-o încă de când a luat salariul./ They have created 2000 new products so far. după aceea s-a făcut nevăzut şi de atunci poliţia îl caută fără încetare. f. Nu am văzut în viaţa mea atâta suferinţă cât am văzut azi la acest azil de bătrâni. S-a purtat foarte frumos cu mine de când i-am spus că îi vând lui maşina mea. Grammar Reference 2 Present Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an activity which began in the past and is still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new products for several years. . I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. h. Vi se pare curios că tocmai şi-a luat lucrurile şi a plecat. Cumnatul meu a spart ieri casa fostului său director. in negative sentences. John şi-a plătit datoria. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses the present perfect simple can be also used. domnule. Tocmai am aflat vestea conform căreia preşedintele acelei ţări a căzut victimă unui atac terorist. There may be little contrast when some state verbs are used. după ce l-aţi înjurat că nu a avut bani să plătească chiria? j. • an activity which began in the past. Sigur. i.64 English Practical Course e.

I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. lie. stay and wait) prefer the continuous form. Completed: emphasis on achievement I’ve washed four skirts this morning. She has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? . in which case a nuance of reproach. Affirmative and negative I You We They He has been have been have not been (haven’t been) working. or recently completed: emphasis on duration. especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. I’ve been washing my skirts this morning. There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion.English Practical Course 65 How long have you lived here? How long have you been living here? Some verbs (especially sit. irritation. can be present. Incomplete. etc. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). • a repeated activity.

e. Your eyes are red. Te caut de o orã. i.66 English Practical Course Controlled Practice 2 1. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. You (run)? f. I saw her in August. You (cry). c. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. You’re out of breath. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous: a. Locuim în România de trei ani. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea. What she (do) all afternoon? h. Translate the following sentences into English. but (not see) her ever since. d. She (not write) the essay on Renaissance yet. Câte cuvinte ai căutat în dicţionar pânã acum? d. c. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. I (work) hard all day. g. b. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Pe unde ai umblat? b.. I’m tired. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

Rewrite each sentence. . f.. I have ……………………………………………………. so that the meaning stays the same: a. b. d. It’s a long time since I last saw such a good movie. No wonder you are overweight. There is definite improvement in your spelling recently. I haven’t seen ………………………………………. you have eaten chocolates in the afternoon and you are still eating chocolates now and it’s 5 pm. e. We haven’t seen each other for ages. It’s the first ……………………………………………. I bought my car in 1992 and I’m still driving it. I haven’t been to Barcelona before. You ……………………. c. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. Alan has been going/ has gone to South America. No wonder you are overweight. It’s ages ……………………………………………… c. beginning as shown. I don’t know where my glasses are. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half. Choose the correct verb form: a. Lately your spelling ……………………………………. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. You ate chocolates in the morning.English Practical Course 67 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. e. g. I’ve been ……………………………………………… d.

Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? f. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street. Peter: Actually.. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing. b. Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! g. but the dead man's brother (be) in the station all day. Eating this spicy Indian food is totally new to me. It is at home. I just (find) out. h. The police (not find) the murderer yet. Peter: You (telephone) for ages. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week. d. i. I have ……………………………………………………. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or continuous: a. e. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. I haven’t …………………………………………………. He only just (stop). But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. I haven’t …………………………………………………… 5. The last time I spoke to Jane was in 2001. c. I don’t have the textbook with me. The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries.68 English Practical Course h. I (watch) them from my window since they began. but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. i. j. . Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly.

they (have) a good many rows but this is the fifth time they (throw) crockery. Tom just (go) off with it. q. p. She's lucky. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. o. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one. I (do) mine already. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. n.English Practical Course 69 j. but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again. I always start at 6 a. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. This (happen) before? Well.m. k. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish). t. s. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat. l. We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good crop before. I'm afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. r. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. m.

I (look) through my old photograph album. I wonder what (happen) to them all. g. You look exhausted! Yes. Manager: I know: something (go) wrong with our computer. The mechanic (work) on it. d. e. j. so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinner. so I'm not used to it. and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). b. but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). “Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before!” “Well. c. I (stand) in this queue for ages. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. I hope he (find) out what's wrong. It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end. I (not be) out of the house for a week!” h. Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or continuous: a. George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one.70 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) out for lunch. . Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. it wasn't me. He (put) on a lot of weight? f. i. It was lovely at eleven o'clock. Since he became Mayor.

p. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. madam. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. I (build) a barbecue grid in the garden. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages.English Practical Course 71 k. but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I (wait) an hour now. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. q. They began widening this road three weeks ago. l. but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me. o. n. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? m. madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know.

Vecinul meu. e. de luna trecută îşi tot trimit mesaje de ameninţare prin poştă. N-ai adus încă maşina de la reparat? – Da’ de unde. Miroase a ars în bucătărie. b. sapă de azi dimineaţă dar nu a terminat decât un sfert din teren. Tocmai am terminat de săpat grădina. caut piese de schimb de mai bine de o lună şi n-am găsit nici una până acum. De 13 ani se chinuie românii să redreseze economia şi nici acum nu au reuşit să stabilizeze moneda naţională. Translate into English: a.72 English Practical Course 7. d. Iar a gătit soţul meu! c. f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Mihai e chiar culmea! Spală rufe de când am venit eu de la bâlci şi n-a terminat nici măcar pantalonii. Tony şi Nikki nu-şi mai vorbesc de o lună. săracul.

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Progress Test 1
1. Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense: In the past thirty years many social changes ……………… (take) place in Britain. The greatest of these ………..probably………….(be) in the economic and domestic lives of women. Almost all theoretical sex discrimination in political and legal rights has been removed. The changes …………(be) significant, but, because tradition and prejudice can still …………..(handicap) women in their working careers and personal lives, major legislation to help promote equality of opportunity and pay ………(appear) during the 70s. Since 1951 the proportion of married women who work …….. (grow) from just over a fifth to a half. Compared with their counterparts elsewhere in the European Community, British women comprise a relatively high proportion of the work-force, about two-fifths, but on average they …………(work) fewer hours, about 31 a week. There is still a significant difference between women’s average earnings and men’s, but the equal pay legislation which ………(come) into force at the end of 1975 seems to have helped to narrow the gap between women’s and men’s basic rates. During the 1970s women’s wages ……….(rise) proportionately more than men’s but …………..(remain) relatively low because women ……….(tend) to work in lowly-paid sectors of the economy, they often …….(work) in predominantly female work-forces, and they work less overtime than men. As more and more women joined the work-force in the 1960s and early 1970s there ……(be) an increase in the collective incomes of women as a whole and a major change in the economic role of large numbers of housewives. Families …… (come) to rely on married women’s earnings as an essential part of their income rather than as “pocket money”, or as a

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means of buying ”extras”. At the same time social roles within the family ……. (be) more likely to be shared, exchanged or altered.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same: a. I’ve had to wait all morning. I have been ………………….. b. I didn’t have any idea of my next move. I didn’t know ………………… c. The last time I was to Paris was in 1998. I haven’t ………………………. d. Go to the registration desk immediately on arrival. As ………………………………. e. Mary and John’s wedding is next weekend. Mary and John will ……………… f. I intended to tell you about it earlier, but I simply forgot. I was …………………………….. g. I wasn’t very keen on tennis in those days.

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I didn’t use ………………………. h. Whose car is that? Whom does ………………….. i. Your brother will get over his illness. Then his work will get better. Once ……………………………. 3. Choose the most suitable continuation for each sentence: a. You can borrow this book, A. I am not going to need it; B. won’t have been needing it; C. am not needing it. b. It’s no use calling Barbra at home. She A. will have left; B. is leaving; C. will leave c. When you passed the town hall clock, A. were you noticing what time it was?; B. have you noticed what time it was?; C. did you notice what time it was? d. I must apologise, I A. hadn’t realised that this seat was yours.; B. wasn’t realising that this seat was yours.; C. didn’t realise that this seat was yours. e. I realised that someone had stolen one of my bags when I A. was getting to the taxi.; B. got to the taxi.; C. have got to the taxi. f. Can you remember what A. you were doing five years ago today?; B. you did five years ago today?; C. you have been doing five years ago today? g. This is my new suit. Do you think it A. suited me? B. suits me? C. has suited me? h. Cleo! I didn’t expect to see you here. What A. are you doing in London? B. were you doing in London? C. have you done in London? i. I simply can’t understand what

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A. you are waiting for; B. you wait for; C. you will wait for.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the appropriate tense: a. Nu ştiu bine timpurile. b. Am încercat să-ţi telefonez toată ziua. Unde ai fost? c. Sunt căsătoriţi de zece ani. d. Era o femeie atât de bună încât toată lumea o iubea. e. Uite! Ţi-ai rupt tricoul. f. Am petrecut revelionul la ţară acum doi ani. g. Nimeni nu are voie să plece acasă până nu terminăm proiectul. h. De multă vreme nu mai ninge mult iarna. i. În ziua următoare şi-au continuat călătoria. j. Ai recunoscut-o pe fata care stătea lângă tine la cinema? k. Are maşina de două luni. Soţul ei i-a dăruit-o de întâi martie. l. L-ai văzut pe John? Da, ieri a trecut pe la noi. m. George locuia cu mama lui când aceasta a murit. n. Ploua cu găleata de trei ore când ne-am întors acasă. o. Ce făceai când a venit Maria la tine?

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English Practical Course

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. have taken; have been; have been; handicap; appeared; has grown; work; came; rose; remained; tend; work; was; came; were 2. a. I have been waiting all morning. b. I didn’t know what I would do next. c. I haven’t been to Paris since 1998. d. As you arrive, go to the registration desk. e. Mary and John will get married next weekend. f. I was going to tell you about it earlier. g. I didn’t use to play tennis in those days. h. Whom does the car belong to? i. Once your brother has got over his illness, his work will get better. 3. a. A; b. A; c. C; d. C; e. B; f. A; g. B.; h. A; i. A 4. a. I don’t know the tenses well. b. I have been trying to call you all day. Where have you been? c. They have been married for ten years. d. She was such a kind woman that everybody loved her. e. Look here! You’ve torn your T-shirt. f. We spent New Year’s Eve in the countryside last year. g. Nobody is allowed to go home until we have finished the project. h. It hasn’t snowed anymore in winter for a long time.

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English Practical Course

i. The next day he went on his trip. j. Have you recognised the girl sitting next to you at the cinema? k. She has had this car for two months. Her husband gave it to her in March. l. Have you seen John? Yes, he called on us yesterday. m. George was living with his mother when this one died. n. It had been raining cats and dogs for three hours when we came back home. o. What were you doing when Mary came to you?

Score: 1. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 4. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points

When can I take a peek? Mary: Sit still. John: Can't you just leave a hole where the pear is and fill it in later? I am hungry. I don't want you to see the painting until the whole thing is done. Fred agrees to pose for his wife.English Practical Course 79 Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Indefinite Pronouns © Personal Pronouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. Pay attention to the use of homophones. I don't want it in the picture. John: That sounds nice. . Mary: Well. I am still working on your face. and then I am going to eat it. John: It feels like I have been sitting here for hours. It is coming out great! I think I am at my artistic peak. Mary: What are you doing with that pear? John: I am going to pare it. who wants to paint his portrait. John: Are we still going to that inn in Vermont this weekend to celebrate our anniversary? Mary: Certainly! I bought a pair of tickets for a dinner show there on Saturday night. Read the following dialogues. Dialogue 1: The Portrait In honour of John and Mary's wedding anniversary. put it down.

Let's see if he can guess their weights. Bruce: That's correct! Hey. Let's go to his booth. Tammy: I am so glad we came today. The following are examples of easily confused homophones. These words are pronounced identically. Carnival worker: Hey. Guess. You took it off to paint. no! Where is my wedding ring? I hope it didn't go down the drain when I was wringing out those rags! John: No. They're good sports." . it's on the table. and he weighs one-seventy. Carnival worker: You weigh one hundred and thirty-seven pounds. I would hate to have lost that right before our anniversary! Dialogue 2: The Carnival Tammy and Bruce are spending the afternoon at a carnival. Oh.80 English Practical Course Mary: Okay. too! Tammy: I'll go get them." Whole (adj. Practice these dialogues.) is "an empty space. The sign says he can even guess what size you wear. Tammy: Okay. I can guess just by looking at you. you two! Do you want me to guess your weight? Whether you are fat or thin. Bruce: There's no wait to see him. look! There are Stan and Judy. total. Bruce: I agree. Ways with Words 1. I am having so much fun! This is ideal weather for a carnival. Where do you want to go next? Tammy: Look! That guy over there will guess your weight. yet they have different spellings and meanings: HOLE and WHOLE: A hole (n. we'll take a break. good. either. Mary: Oh.) means "entire.

" A peak (n.) means "to strike something for the purpose of creating a sound.) is "a small hotel. " TO." Ring (v.) means "the opposite of 'out.) refers to "the location of something." Where (adv.) is "the opposite of ''from. " There (adv." Now practise these homographs in sentences of your own." WEATHER and WHETHER: Weather (n.) means "two matched or corresponding things. " Too (adv." PAIR.'" An inn (n. TOO." To wring (v.) is "a fruit." Whether (conj.) is "the measurement of heaviness." WEAR and WHERE: Wear (v.) is "a cardinal number." Weight (n." They're is "a contraction of ''they are.) means "to twist something.) is "a summit or climax.English Practical Course 81 IN and INN: In (prep.) is "the possessive form of ''they. PARE. such as a bell.) refers to "the climate conditions.) means "to sneak a quick look at something. THERE. and TWO: To (prep.) means "to have an item of clothing or an object on one's body.) means "to pause or linger.) is used "to introduce two or more alternatives.) means " to peel." THEIR.) is "a circular object with a hole in the middle." WAIT and WEIGHT: To wait (v." RING and WRING: A ring (n." PEEK and PEAK: Peek (v. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? .) means "at a certain place." A pear (n.) means "also." Two (n. and PEAR: A pair (n. and THEY'RE: Their (pron." To pare (v.

you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. sir. A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. I want to know what it is now. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant.82 English Practical Course 2. didn’t you? Johnny: No. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear. not at all. Read the following children’s jokes. Why was the doctor angry? . he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave. you drink. Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. because there is a play on words. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. Johnny. Customer: I don’t care what it was. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue. Driver: Oh dear. The waiter asks him to pay.

as she still needs to work on his portrait. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word face. What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. give your right arm – to be willing to do anything to get or do something at arm’s length – if you hold something at arm’s length. She says: I am still working on your face. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Arm arm in arm – if you walk arm in arm with somebody. etc.English Practical Course 83 Because he had no patients. 3. plan.faced/ round. In the first dialogue. you hold it away from your body as long as your arm – (informal) a list or written document that is as long as your arm . and the other is heir to the throne. you are walking next to them with your arm in theirs welcome somebody/something with open arms – to show that you are happy to see somebody or eager to accept an idea. they are very close and in front of each other put a brave face (on) – to make an effort to behave in a happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own.faced etc – having a face that has a particular shape or colour serious-faced/ grim-faced etc – showing a particular expression on your face face to face – if two people are face to face. 3. Face pale. the wife tells her husband not to be hurried.

you look directly at them and they look directly at you run/cast eye over something – to look at something quickly without reading it in detail keep your eye on something/somebody – to look after someone or something and make sure they are safe keep you eyes open/peeled – (spoken) to carefully watch for anything . you forget it as soon as you have heard it keep your/an ear to the ground – to make sure that you always know what is happening in a situation Eye blue eyed/ one-eyed/bright-eye/ wide eyed etc – having blue eyes. especially because you do not trust them to do things properly clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something – to see somebody or something. – having long ears be all ears – (informal) to be very keen to hear someone is going to tell you smile/grin etc from ear to ear – to show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling so much give somebody a thick ear – (British English informal) to hit someone go in (at) one ear and out (at) the other – (informal) if information goes in one ear and out the other. you can see it without using any artificial help such as telescope or microscope be all eyes – to watch carefully what is happening or what someone is doing eye contact – if you have eye contact with someone. one eye.84 English Practical Course Ear long-eared/ short-eared etc. eyes that are wide open etc have/keep an eye on somebody – to be carefully watching everything that someone does. used especially when you are surprised or shocked the naked eye – if you can see something with the naked eye. bright eyes.

and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. valuable. so that you drop or break things have a finger in every pie – an expression meaning to be involved in many activities and have influence over them. much/many. even when this might seem impossible have a (good) eye for something – to be good at noticing and recognizing what is attractive. Grammar Reference Indefinite Pronouns some/any. of good quality in the eyes of the law/ the world/ the police etc – in the opinion or judgment of the law.English Practical Course 85 have eyes in the back of your head – to know what is happening all around you. the world. used especially when you think someone has too much influence twist/wrap somebody around your little finger – to be able to persuade someone to do anything that you want long-fingered/delicate-fingered etc –having long. usually used when you are pleased about it. a lot of/ lots of. . few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. the police one in the eye for – (British English) a defeat or disappointment for someone else. delicate fingers Practise them in sentences of your own. Finger not lift/ raise a finger – not to make any effort to help someone with their work keep your fingers crossed – to hope that something will happen the way you want be all fingers and thumbs – (British English) to use your hands in an awkard or careless way. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences.

Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. but only with a singular noun: There is some chocolate in this cake.86 English Practical Course Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. Form . He’s got a lot of money. There are lots of books in this library. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. We only need a little money to buy this. 4. There’s a lot of mineral water in my fridge. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited him when she deserted him 3. The Personal Pronoun The nominative. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. Is there any water in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house. Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many geologists work for this company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields. 2.

Will you give (I) permission to go home earlier? c. nobody. d. b. look for it while I am away. g. The old man asked (he) what the time was. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled Practice 1. f. anybody. Fill in the personal pronoun in the accusative or dative (required by prepositions): a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Please. everybody: . Will you let (they) to come to your anniversary? e. h. I’ll call for (they) when I think they forgot our little misunderstanding. He takes much interest in (you). Listen to (she). Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody.English Practical Course 87 Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she Plural we you they it The accusative/The dative. The doctor! Send for (he) at once.

h. …. who didn’t pass the English exam. e... ….. During a good performance of the actors …. . d. many. …… were there but listened to what she had to say. There must be the cleaning woman you sent for.88 English Practical Course a. I’m sorry. has to open the door for him! i. c. He didn’t give me too …… trouble. should know these rules. f. She was talking and …… was listening to what she was saying. I have never seen …. is knocking at the door.. Can …… help me with this? m. a little. j. if they have come back from Italy. …. g.. My knowledge in this field is very poor. l. like him. …. ….. Ask …. b.. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.. Ask …. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: much.. b.. …. few.knows that the semester will finish in June. We haven’t heard of …. just …….. came an hour ago and left this parcel for Mary. Do you have any questions? Just …… c. They are not difficult at all. from the French department. little. a few: a. speaks.. k. can tell you how mistaken you are.

money to buy this. e. te rog. totul se va rezolva. just …. darn nu-mi amintesc cu siguranţă când.. Are there many mistakes in her test paper? No. Cu puţină răbdare.English Practical Course 89 d. j. h. g. Este prea amară. I-am dat cuiva cartea. Lui i s-a părut că ceva nu este în regulă. e. i. Aş vrea să ştiu câţi studenţi au picat la acest examen.. c. aşa că s-a retras din cursă.. Mi-a fost decernat premiul Uniunii Scriitorilor acum trei ani. f. Despite the unfavourable weather …… did come to the meeting.. b. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Aş vrea puţin zahăr în cafea. The problem was ……. i. There wasn’t …… sugar left. d. Translate into English: a. I’ve got …. difficult. Se pare că i-a cucerit pe toţi. so I couldn’t make a coffee. but we finally managed. f. g. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Toată lumea o iubeşte. Nu este nevoie de foarte mult vin la friptură. We only need …. problems to solve. Mulţi elevi aşteaptă vacanţa cu nerăbdare. There is plenty of information here but …… has been read. h.

90 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .

went very high. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. no. as I thought. and had never known anything of the matter. who was but a young sailor. But it was enough to affect me then. and in this agony of mind I made many vows of resolutions. if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again. and the sea. go home to my father. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life. we should never rise more. and never set it into a ship again while I lived. that if it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage.English Practical Course 91 Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous © The Imperative •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. nor like what I saw a few days after. or troubles on shore. . I would go directly home to my father. in the trough or hollow of the sea. that I would take his advice. how comfortably he had lived all his days. Underline the verbs which are used in Past Perfect: All this while the storm increased. how easy. and I resolved that I would. I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up. And never had I been exposed to tempests at sea. which I had never been upon before. like a true repenting prodigal. though nothing like what I have seen many times since. and that every time the ship fell down.

" “A storm. when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful. It was a terrible storm.” replied he. give us but a good ship and sea-room. I had slept well in the night. last night. “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted. However. as I thought. but you’re but a fresh-water sailor. but towards night the weather cleared up. and I began to be a little inured to it. and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. being also a little sea-sick still. give us but a good ship and sea-room. you fool you. and was now no more sea-sick but very cheerful. my companion. I was very grave for all that day. the wind was quite over. that is the point = aceasta-i problema.92 English Practical Course These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm continued. comes to me: “Well. and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. and having little or no wind. . Bob. looking with wonder upon the sea that was so wrought and terrible the day before. Bob. and a smooth sea. “do you call that a storm? Why. the most delightful that ever I saw. d’you call it?” said I. the sight was.” says he. wa’n’t you. but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer. and we think nothing at all. and rose so the next morning. let us make a bowl of punch. the sun shining upon it. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” Ways with Words 1. And now lest my good resolutions should continue. and a charming fine evening followed. it was nothing at all. the sun went down perfectly clear. Come. and we’ll forget all that. Look at the following sentence belonging to this unit: I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up… Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. and indeed some time after. who had indeed enticed me away. clapping me on the shoulder.

to earn. to perform (an action). to make over = a transfera. to make out = a înţelege. . to construct. to make it possible = a face posibil. sã. in order that = pentru ca. to make do = a se descurca cu o soluţie alternativă inferioară. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. a profita la maximum de.English Practical Course 93 that much = cam atât. to make believe = a face sã creadã. like that (just like that) = aşa. Among other meanings of the verb to make. to serve as or become. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. a demonstra. to make it clear = a clarifica. to make ready = a fi gata. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” In this sentence to make means to produce. to make for = a contribui. let us make a bowl of punch. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. a (se) pregãti. for all that = cu toate acestea. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. and we’ll forget all that. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. we may mention: to create. a redacta. to bring about or produce. to establish. din aceastã cauzã. to amount to. Try to make up sentences in which to express each of its meanings. that is to say = adicã. 2. to cause to do or be. Read this sentence again: Come. a ceda. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

94 English Practical Course to make a stand = a se opune. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. to do an experiment to do one’s best to do a course to do the donkey work to do sbd. a good turn/ a favour to do sth. to make sure of = a se asigura de. but there are lots of exceptions: e. a pretinde ca şi cum. a finaliza. to do with . Generally speaking make is used with the meaning of create or produce and do with the meaning of carry out an action. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. 3.g. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. a închide etanş. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to make tight = a ermetiza. a face ceva repede. a face ca şi cum. to make use of = a întrebuinţa. with your eyes closed to do harm to do the shopping to do wonders to do the washing-up to have sth. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. a etanşeiza. a termina.

someone a favour. .……. ... an effort. a cup of tea..…….. . ……. . a mess. …. …….. an appointment. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 he had written books for five years. a fuss. a wish.sure.……. trouble. . a mistake.. ….…….……. .. Put make or do before the following nouns: …….fun of. ….……..up your mind. …….. Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she done? had had not (hadn’t) left. . your bed.. . He had lived in this flat since he was born. the shopping.……. your best... a phone call.……. .. my homework.…. .…….……. .. sense. .English Practical Course 95 Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own..……. .. ……. Past Perfect Simple It is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the students who had failed this exam four times? He had read his lecture before he went to university. an excuse.. Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.a noise...a difference.……. .. 4.

No. They had been living for generations in that house. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (v +-ing). No. I hadn’t. Past Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an action which started in the past before the time of speaking in the past and still going on at that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. .96 English Practical Course we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. he hadn’t. Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. I had. Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? been working on by that time. last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. he had.

Example: The bank clerk gave it to me./ She counted out the money. No. scarcely. Controlled Practice 1 1. Note that certain adverbs and adverb phrases (e. conversational English) In contexts containing hardly/ scarcely/ barely. she gave it to me. The tourists got out of the coach. In contexts containing no sooner. I hadn’t. Decide the order in which these things happened. They can also be used in other parts of the sentence without inversion. a. b. After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. not only) are followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary verb when they are used at the beginning of the sentence.g. rhetorical construction) / I had hardly entered the room when the phone started to ring. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. the connector between the two clauses is when: Hardly/ Scarcely/ Barely had they got out of the house when it started to rain. The prisoner ran across the yard. . no sooner. (emphatic./ They took photos. hardly. the connector between the two clauses is than: No sooner had the band begun to play when the electricity was cut off. After she had counted the money./ They got back in the coach./ He jumped out of the window. I had. Hardly had I entered the room when the phone started to ring./ He climbed over the wall. she counted the money. (ordinary./ She looked at my cheque.English Practical Course 97 Yes.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2./ He put the wheel back on. Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni. Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3./ She interviewed the people there. Îl aşteptam de o orã. d. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was. ./ She went to the scene of the accident. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. Translate into English: a. e.98 English Practical Course c. b./ She showed it to me./ He took the wheel off the car. The mechanic put a new tyre on. The reporter wrote a report on the accident. or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a. e./ She wrapped it. Use the simple past. când am aflat cã avusese un accident de maşină. c. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write).

I (write) for five hours. e. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and aspect (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous) : a. It was getting late. It (be midnight). d. h. i. Tom went out. after. f. . How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. b. etc. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. d. c. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. Alice said “Enter”. before. e. no sooner. The bell rang. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Use the simple past and the past perfect as appropriate: a. g.English Practical Course 99 b. Connect the following sentences using until. so we (decide) to go to bed. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. Then his colleague looked for him. hardly. We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. Then the pupils entered the classroom. Then he went home. 4. c. The phone started to ring. She told me his name after he (leave). No wonder I (be) so tired. Then he opened the door. The teacher corrected all the compositions. Then Susan answered it.

He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. a piece of advice. Affirmative Get ready! Negative Don’t get ready! Start working! Don’t start working! For the first and second person together. a threat. He just (leave) home when he came across John. or an instruction: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. g. After I (hear) the news. j. e. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. She didn’t even say “thank you” after all I (do) for her. When it started to rain. c. f. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. Grammar Reference 2 The Imperative It is a mood which expresses an order. a request. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. use let's (let us): Let's open the door.100 English Practical Course b. h. a wish. When I arrived. the concert already (begin). a greeting. When he finally reached London. d. a command. I congratulated him. (Negative command) Only a few groups of words may precede the imperative verb: • adverbs of frequency: . Let's not open the door. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. i.

Grăbeşte-te. pentru că nu am terminat ce am de spus! Haide cu mine să-ţi arăt ce ai putut să faci! g. Will and would are used for polite requests: Would (will) you open the door. Vino. e. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. te rog. Don't you open the door. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. please? Controlled Practice 2 1. Translate the following into English: a. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. open the door. Luaţi loc. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. Don't ever open the door to strangers. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. vã rog. pentru că o să-ţi pară rău. i. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. • • nouns of address: subject pronouns Jane. c. j. Nu pleca. h. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. mai ai doar cinci minute! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .English Practical Course 101 Always open the door slowly. doamnã! f. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã folosesc şi eu computerul pentru a formata niste dischete.

Pass me the salt. e. g. f. d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Throw the ball to John.102 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Be on time. j. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c. Make the following sentences negative: a. because English people are never late. h. Show me the letter. Give the waiter your order. please. Lend Ann your skates. i. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. Come here! b.

that there ought! And when I grow up. I almost wish I hadn’t gone down that rabbit-hole.but then.and yet. no wonder she felt unhappy. Underline the future tenses of the verbs: Luckily for Alice. and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me. I shouldn’t like that!” “Oh. and.” “But then. this sort of life! I do wonder what can have happened to me! When I used to read fairy tales. as there seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room again.” thought Alice. “shall I never get any older than I am now? That’ll be a comfort. and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable.and yetit’s rather curious. and being ordered about by mice and rabbits. “when one wasn’t always growing larger and smaller.English Practical Course 103 Unit 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Future Simple © Future Continuous © Be going to Future © Other Ways of Expressing Future •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Louis Carroll.always to have lessons to learn! Oh. you know.never to be an old woman. “It was much pleasanter at home.” thought poor Alice. I fancied that kind of thing never happened. the little magic bottle had now had its full effect.” she added in a sorrowful tone: “at least there’s no room to grow up any more here. one way.but I’m grown up now. I’ll write one. you foolish Alice” .

cu ajutorul. în mãsura în care. pânã în prezent. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe.never to be an old woman. . astfel încât. so much = atât de mult. în calitate de. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea. 2. “How can you learn lessons in here? Why. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. there’s hardly room for you.always to have lessons to learn!.104 English Practical Course she answered herself. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.but then. Read the sentence: And so she went on. In the sentence: That’ll be a comfort. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. by the way = apropo. taking first one side and then the other. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. so it seems = aşa se pare. the expression one way as is translated by pe de o parte. so far = pânã acum. one way. but after a few minutes she heard a voice outside. and no room at all for any lesson-books!” And so she went on. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. ca sã zicem aşa. taking first one side and then the other. Ways with Words 1. in this way = în acest mod. and stopped to listen. So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. so far as = întrucât.

The company will make a profit next year. way ahead = mult înainte. I’ll be late at school this morning. Grammar Reference Future Simple It is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. way off = la o bunã distanţã. way below = mai jos. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. in one way = într-un fel. a face carierã. in a general way = în genere/ în general. I shall be thirty next year. .English Practical Course 105 in every way = în toate privinţele. to give way to = a ceda la. under way = în curs de. and describes known facts. Note that: Will is normally known as the predictive future. way above = mult deasupra. This can also take the form of an assumption: That’ll be John coming so early at the party. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary. or what we suppose is true.

Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future. we stay inside.g.106 English Practical Course This means that I suppose that it is John. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come. I’ll be grateful to you. They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes. When it rains. We use will and shall in many other ways. Will is also used to express an immediate decision: I’ll take this one. not forms of Future simple): e. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday. apart from predicting the future (in this case they are modal verbs. I shall.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me.) 2. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way. help him? .

it may mean I don’t want to help you. • refers to fixed arrangements and plans The singers will be performing live in Washington Square this month. Note that in some contexts it sounds more polite than will Will you be going to the shops later? If you do. intention. She’s coming on Monday. . or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. Be Going to Future It is used • to express a future decision. particularly with the verbs go and come.English Practical Course 107 Note: No. could you get some bananas? Come round in the morning. rather than events which we choose to make happen: I won’t bother to look for you in advance. That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t. How long are they going to stay here? She isn’t going to attend this Grammar course. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. I’m going home. because I’ll be calling into the office anyway to see if you are there. I’ll be working on my project. Future Continuous • • describes an event which will be happening at a future point refers to events which are going to happen anyway.

I am..) . Form -the verb to be in Present +to +infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge). I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? Future Simple or Be Going to? Look at the use of the Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. I’m not. No. What language shall I learn? Er. Watch out! The box is going to fall. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking.108 English Practical Course • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. I know.. They Interrogative When Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes.

Similarly. . I’ll have been working for him for fifteen years. Be due to refers to scheduled times The flight is due at 5:54 p. calendar references use the present simple. • can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. By the end of the month. Christmas is on Wednesday next year. and refers to time which we look back at from a future point: In two years’ time I’ll have finished my PhD thesis. Future Perfect • has both simple and continuous forms. we’ll be leaving. we’ll have dinner. be due to Be about to and be on the point of both refer to the next moment I think it is about to rain. of course. • present simple is used to describe fixed events which are not simply the wishes of the speaker I retire next year. The cocktail party is due to start at 7. Present perfect can also be used instead of present simple when the completion of the event is emphasised When we’ve finished the work. I am on the point of moving to another company.m. This means I assume you haven’t heard the rumours. be on the point to. • present simple and present perfect Present simple is used to refer to future time in future time clauses When we get there.English Practical Course 109 Other Ways of Referring to the Future • be about to. You won’t have heard the rumours about their engagement.

Crezi cã veţi ajunge la spectacol în timp util? f. think) I think the plane will be late.110 English Practical Course Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense is formed by the future perfect of the verb to be and the present active participle of the main verb: It emphasizes the duration of one event taking place before another event in the future: In May 2000. g. b. Translate into English: a. Va deveni necesar sã citim mai mult de acum încolo. Îţi voi telefona imediat ce ajung la hotel. so I’m afraid you should leave the compartment. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. Other future references • other verbs followed by will. • just/ just about to Just can be used to describe something which is on the point of happening The train is just leaving/ is just about to leave. expect. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. • hope followed by either present or future tense I hope you’ll come and see me when you are in London. Controlled Practice: 1. . Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference (believe. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. c. Spectacolul nu va începe până la ora 5. I doubt that you will have the time to see all these places in a single day. our family will have been living here for 30 years. e. doubt. d.

Decide which is the correct verb form: a. Maria is going to be/ will be thirty-three next month so she will organise/ is going to organise a party. g. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. te rog să-i rogi să mă sune după ora 6. Dacă va întreba cineva de mine. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2.” b. j. i. Sper că ne veţi ajuta să reparăm calculatorul. . I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on a trip to the mountains. Come on. d. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain.” f.English Practical Course 111 h. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. hurry up or we’ll miss/ we will have missed the train. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. c. Ei nu ştiu când vor pleca.

Will you be going/ will you go to the market later? If you go. f. By the end of the month I (decide) what to do. d. He is always late. a. We’re sure everything (be) all right in the end. please buy some potatoes for lunch. e. i. b. 3. I (hope) it (not rain). g. j. That will be/ is Jim at the door. The trip will be great. we (call) you. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Decide whether the pairs of sentences A and B could be equally acceptable in the context given. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense: a. It’s my twenty-ninth birthday next month so I (have) a party. .112 English Practical Course h. h. i. I (go) out for half an hour. j. Maria is pregnant again. Would you like to come? c. In twenty four hours’ time I’ll relax/ I’ll be relaxing on the beach. or whether one is more appropriate. It’s only an hour’s travel. When we (get) there. Why don’t you come with us? A. I (come back) very soon. The trip is going to be great. Hurry up! The play (start). I (be) long. What (you do) on Monday? I (have) tickets to a violin concert. She (have) twins. B.

i. I’m getting angry in a minute. John ştie sigur că săptămâna viitoare când va începe şcoala. f. c. I’d like to pay you a short visit. vărul său va studia un manual de biologie umană. e. I’m going to watch TV. A. I’ve got no homework for tomorrow so A. will you! A. Când tu îţi vei face de cap în barul acela infect mâine. Are de gând să îl facă de râs în faţa clasei dacă nu va spune adevărul. What are you doing in the evening? d. Cred sincer că pe vremea asta săptămâna viitoare mă voi uita în sfârşit la HBO. g. . I’ll watch TV. Suntem înspăimântaţi de faptul că furtuna nu se va opri până diseară pe la şase.30 ne vom îmbarca în autocarul spre Grecia. e. What’ll you be doing in the evening? B. What are we doing now? B. A. toţi prietenii tăi îţi vor pregăti o pedeapsă proporţională cu vina. Ambasada va primi oaspeţii numai după ce aceştia vor fi percheziţionaţi. B. Stop that. Translate into English: a.English Practical Course 113 b. What are we going to do now? 5. b. c. Vor fi trecut şase ore de la ultimul atac dar apărătorii castelului tot nu se vor preda dacă nu li se vor împlini condiţiile. I’m going to get angry in a minute. j. We’re run out of petrol. Mâine la ora 5. B. Să nu uiţi de aniversarea prietenilor tăi: pe 24 ale lunii următoare ei vor fi locuit în această casă de 10 ani. h. d. Sper că până se va întoarce fratele tău de la cules de căpşuni tu vei fi spălat toate rufele murdare.

În timp ce preşedintele va ţine un discurs despre legea dreptului de autor. micuţul John va fi cântat la vioară de cel puţin 3 ore. l. m. Suntem prieteni de o viaţă şi ne-am hotărât: o să cumpărăm împreună casa aceea de la munte şi o s-o transformăm în azil pentru bătrâni.114 English Practical Course k. jurnaliştii vor inventa tot felul de întrebări care l-ar putea pune pe acesta în dificultate. Când mama se va întoarce de la ţară. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

of how he sang songs while his mother played and of how he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence and he felt sorry for him that he was not a magistrate like the other boys’ fathers. It seemed to him a solemn time: and he wondered if that was the time when the fellows in Clongowes wore blue coats with brass buttons and yellow waistcoats and caps of rabbitskin and drank beer like grownup people and kept greyhounds of their own to course the hares with. You could know the people of that time by their old dress.English Practical Course 115 Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment belonging to James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Translate the text into Romanian. must be a magistrate too like Saurin’s father and Nasty Roche’s father. who kept the racehorses. Look for those verbs which are used in the passive voice. He thought of his own father. Why did he not tell it? His father. Then why was he sent to that place with them? But his father had told him that he would be no stranger there because his granduncle had presented in address to the liberator there fifty years before. .

Try to think of the sentence […] he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence […]. month. a building society. Pierre is very worried because he is in ……….………… of $ 100 a month. For example a word set of the word time may include among other words: day. a deposit account. etc. was only $ 1000 a year. b.. d. nobody will lend him any money. Word sets. Now think of words connected to money. a cheque card. a monthly statement. . the Stock Market. to buy shares in a company. to cash a cheque. When she started with the company her …………. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money.. When Mr Michael retired he received a . a mortgage.. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. In this way you may create a word set.. having a personal bank account. a current account. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ………. c... e. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ……….. century. Now it’s at least four times that. year.. to earn 15% interest. year. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. saving and investing money. 2..116 English Practical Course Ways with Words 1. to put money in.

PASSIVE VOICE Houses are painted (by him). to look at.English Practical Course 117 Grammar Reference The Passive Voice The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. He would paint his His house would be painted. etc. to attend to. He will paint his His house will be painted. to look after. He was painting his His house was being painted. He had painted his His house had been painted. His house was painted. etc. house. Form: the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense as the active verb + the past participle of the lexical verb. He would have painted It would have been painted. He will have painted it. He is painting house. house. He painted his house. to send for. house. house. to speak to. . to resemble. TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Present Conditional Perfect ACTIVE VOICE He paints houses. He has painted his His house has been painted. to possess. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the passive voice such as: to have. It will have been painted. house. to hold. his His house is being painted.

• When we are interested in the action itself rather than the person who performs it: I was advised to save the files once in a while (by my friend). Use: • When the person who performs the action (agent) can easily be understood or is unknown: He has been arrested (by the police). He He should enjoys have It should have been painted. their houses.118 English Practical Course Conditional Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Gerund it. • When we avoid the naming of a specific person who is responsible for the action: All the cakes have been eaten (instead of: You have eaten all the cakes). . Further Points on the Passive Voice • • Make. My bag has been stolen. ~ It is thought that the factory went bankrupt/ The factory is thought to have gone bankrupt. He should paint his His house should be painted. see. people He enjoys being asked to painted it. Let becomes was/were allowed to in the passive or is followed by a reflexive pronoun+bare/short passive infinitive. Perfect Gerund He remembers paint her house. hear. • When it is necessary to express something more formally: People think that the factory went bankrupt. Jane He remembers having been having asked him to asked to paint Jane’s house. asking him to paint paint houses. house. help are followed by to+infinitive in the passive.

• Verbs followed by a certain preposition take the preposition immediately after them when put into the passive voice. lend. / The building can’t be repaired. / I was given some money. Don’t let him trick you. It + passive verb + that-clause Subject +passive verb + to-infinitive They believe she is a spy. give. think. ask. We change the active infinitive into passive infinitive. Columbus arrived in America in 1492. tell. / The room was entered (NOT gone into) by the Royal couple. know. say. / America was reached (NOT arrived in) by Columbus in 1492. bring. • Many passive voice sentences do not have an active voice counterpart: Shakespeare was born at Stratford. / I was allowed to go. This notion is based on a misconception. • Verbs which take two objects such as allow. pay. understand etc is formed in two ways: • • believed to be a spy. / Some money was given to me. • The passive voice with verbs of reporting such as assume. feel. • Prepositional verbs of movement when turned into the passive voice change to other synonymous verbs which take no preposition. The Royal couple went into the room arm in arm. believe. / She is . buy. He gave me some money.English Practical Course 119 She let me go. / It is believed that she is a spy. consider. write. • Modals do not change in the passive voice. teach. They can’t repair the building. report. / Don’t let yourself be tricked. She accused me of lying / I was accused of lying. etc have two passive forms.

Causative Forms • Have +object +past participle is used to suggest that we are instructing someone to do something for us. • Have/get + object +past participle can also be used to replace a passive verb usually describing an accident or a misfortune. • Have + object + bare infinitive is used for giving instructions and orders. These are sentences where the object is: (a) a reflexive pronoun: John has been washing himself for hours. The manager had the secretary type 20 letters. He had/got his car stolen. (c) a possessive pronoun: The teacher shook his head and sighed. Also: get moving. please. I’ll have my car repaired.120 English Practical Course It is alleged that the thief was caught. Once you get her talking about her children. (I’ll arrange for it to be done) Don’t have the files printed. she never stops. • Get +object + to infinitive means make or persuade somebody to do something. (b) a reciprocal pronoun: We can hardly see each other in the dark room. get going (without an object) • Want and need + object + past participle indicate that you would like or need something to be done . • Some sentences cannot be passivized. The teacher got the students to write the sentence five times. See if you can get Mary to help us with our homework. • Get + object + present participle (-ing) is used informally to mean make somebody / something start doing something.

g. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã structura acestei lucrări. I need the reports checked. • Compare: The Active Voice: I’m decorating the room. Translate the following sentences into English: a. (Someone else is doing it but the agent is not important. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. f. h. Mi s-au furat banii. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. Doctorul a fost chemat. e.English Practical Course 121 I want the room cleaned. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. b. d. (I am doing it myself) The Passive Voice: The room is being decorated. what interests us is the room) Causative: I am having the room decorated. c. i. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. Controlled Practice 1.

Children had cast stones. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . b. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. e. People in my town built this hospital last year. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. Who drew this picture? b. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. John can’t have done this. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. When no agent is given supply one: a. d.122 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. d. AIDS is thought to be curable. c. When was your car stolen? c.

When we have finished decorating the bedroom. Tickets ……………………………………………………………. c. Somebody punched John in the face at a volley match.. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. b. They say that Mary is difficult to work with. What caused this error…………………………………………… h. It is believed that the child was punished by his parents. Please turn off the lights. so that the meaning stays the same: a. The child …………………………………………………. i. I’d rather you ………………………………………………. Somebody directed me at the wrong address. They have no idea what caused this error. The fight ……………………………………………………………. j. The discovery of this new medicine is helping the fight against cancer. Ticket collectors work on the train on this line. John is thought ………………………………………………. 5. g.English Practical Course 123 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. I ……………………………………………………………………. Mary is said …………………………………………………….. e. f. we’ll paint the dining room. It is thought that the coins date from the Middle Ages. Complete the sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the passive tense suggested at the end of the sentence: . After the bedroom…………………………………………. The coins ……………………………………………………. d.

The police (instruct) to take firm action against beggars on the street. The army (instruct) to shoot if the enemy crosses the line. g. Mary (take) to the hospital by the end of the day. That person in the dock (let off) as it’s his first offence. (future) g. h. Something (do) if we want to rescue the rest of the crew. The girl who (bite) by a dog was given a serum. Many of Bucharest’s important buildings (destroy) by the earthquake in 1977. (gerund) i. Would she go to the cinema if she was to (invite)? f. d. The escaped man (arrest) a week later. e. A great deal of effort (make) lately to avoid a war with that country.124 English Practical Course a. (modal verb) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. Many block-of-flats (build) in the neighbourhood. (present perfect) e. Very few criminals (catch) if the population didn’t offer information. Foreign coins (not put) in parking meters in this part of the country. I was surprised to find out that you (get paid) twice in the same week. Has the search for the stolen car (give up) yet? f. (future perfect) j. John (think) to have broken that precious vase in the living room. . (present continuous) h. b. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct Passive Voice form: a. c. (past perfect) d.(past) b. (perfect conditional) c. My neighbour’s leg (not broken) if he hadn’t walked on ice. I’m sure. He strongly objected to (ask) about the accident.

p. Safes (…) not often by amateurs. Money (…) always in the bank for interest. The red car (rev up) ready for the policemen to start chasing the thieves. my sister never (…) by the customs before. All the persons in the room (…) for drugs. A sharp instrument (…) the old man. The police (…) in hearing from anyone who saw a 10-year-old child in front of the shop yesterday. i. (…) the reward to those who saved Jane? h. The giraffe (…) to the zoo when it escaped. Could violence (control) less effectively if the police didn’t carry guns? j. n. Use one of the Passive forms of a suitable verb in each of the following sentences: a. The carpet in your room (…) with orange juice. The lock (…) and the window (…) by the police. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. o. She doesn’t remember her purse (…) by the thief. Windows (…) on the inside to prevent the wind from breaking them. m. d. f.English Practical Course 125 i. They (…) a five year sentence by the High Court Judge. A lot of money (…) from a German bank two years ago. Who (…) you by at the hospital? j. g. b. e. It was the first time. When capital punishment (…) in Romania? . c. l. k.

it … … c. d. Shoplifting is on the increase. They (check the documents) before the case comes up next month. e.000 worth of merchandise … … d. My window is open instead of closed. He insisted that our neighbour … … f. all the people from the Middle East … … e. The evidence that one of the accused gave … … g. They (repaint it). the lock …… h. The room looks different. c. The customs officers (arrest him) if he tries to leave the country. Father (fit the burglar alarm) because his house had been broken into. all the rooms … … i. f. Look at that man’s green hair! He (dye it). George’s watch has disappeared from the table where he left it. I (vaccinate my child) against all the possible diseases when he was one year old. The house was found in a terrible condition. . Complete the sentences using a suitable Passive Voice verb and any necessary phrases: a. £ 20. b. Will the new laws … … j. There’ll be a big check at the customs tomorrow. There was a dreadful accident and all the cars … … 9. It’s very foggy tonight. Use the Passive form with the verb to have in the following sentences: a. the cars … … b.126 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8.

Before we buy the mansion. The car is covered in mud. so he (clean it) as soon as possible. j. The so-called poet did not write the poem himself. They … … 11. using the Passive form with either have or need: a. don’t you think they … …? i. Complete the following passage with the correct Passive forms: . There are many errors in your paper. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. I don’t think these translations are accurate. You … … j. Your back window squeaks. It … … c. It … … b. You shouldn’t (repair the sink) before the plumber had examined it. Someone (clean the kitchen) when mother arrived. Complete the following sentences. The roof is unsafe. h. he … … g. She is not quite sure but she thinks she (steal the money) in the train. This is quite bizarre! There are many questions that … … e. Your hair seems shorter. we should make sure that we … … h. You can’t take your luggage into the shop unless you … … d. Their washing-machine is working again. Have you … …? f.English Practical Course 127 g. i.

‘It is sad’. and John was aware that his fortune (leave) to him. everything that in his ordinary life needed (do). his wants (gratify). He had not (employ) as an accountant for the past ten years without acquiring a passion for minute details. But then. His bills (pay) regularly. He didn’t even suppose inspector Thomson would guess that the ladder (put) outside the bedroom window after his uncle (murder). John saw to it that it was (do). the criminal always gets (catch) after all. his car (service) every three months. Indeed. Besides he was rich. he had his hair (cut) once a month. His plans were (lay) with extreme precision. he was convinced that his crime wouldn’t ever (detect). It was entirely in his character that he had made up his mind to get rid of his uncle. He was known as being a methodical man. he needed (care for). John’s crime would probably never (discover) if it had not stopped raining just before he came home and if his uncle’s window had not (break) with a flower pot. but the important thing is to make it look as if it (do) while I was away. He was old. He had become a nuisance who should (remove) as quickly as possible. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . ‘that he has (kill) rather than die a natural death.128 English Practical Course When John Miller killed his uncle. he told to himself. his desires had (consider). as John himself said to the inspector.

It is reported that there has been an earthquake in the area. i. You hate to be interrupted from your research. k. d. g. The library is well provided with books. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. As you see. Change the following sentences into the Active Voice: a. The basement was flooded with water. h. No explanation had been given for his behaviour. They are forbidden to enter this room. his remarks are being received with enthusiasm. The pen has been lost in the fire. b. c. Tons of uranium have been stolen from this mine this year.English Practical Course 129 12. The students in this University are always recommended to apply for these jobs. e. m. My neighbour’s dog was run over by a truck. The problem will be dealt with I detail next week. l. All TV programs were suspended for nearly 6 hours.

g. Change the following intransitive verbs into the Passive Voice. knowing that transitive verbs admit two passive constructions: a. The teacher may give us the results tonight. You paid him that huge sum of money two days ago. My friends promised me immediate assistance.130 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. h. I give my child two bars of chocolate a day. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. The doorman showed us the way to the bathroom. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. paying attention to the prepositions following the verbs: a. d. George gave him a beautiful present. e. f. i. They have called for the mechanic to repair their car. They awarded the Best Actor Prize to George Clooney. The physician prescribed a bad medicine for the sick old man. j.born child. We showed them our newly. c. I told my parents the truth. b.

The employer insists upon a strict discipline in all our work. otherwise your mother will scold you. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. You spoke much about that young lady you had met a week before. Don’t put on that pink shirt. Translate into English: a. Se recomandă o mai atentă cercetare a acestui proiect. Se construiesc din ce în ce mai multe şcoli în acest orăşel. You must look after your kid sister. j. Orice defecţiune a maşinii se repară pe loc în acest atelier. Nobody has lived in this haunted house for more than 50 years. Nobody objected to their suggestions. c.English Practical Course 131 b. f. d. The former enemies have arrived at an agreement after many years of discussion. k. c. d. h. The pupils will have to comment upon that poem. i. your friends will laugh at you. g. În acest local se vorbeşte numai limba spaniolă. These spoiled children do not listen to their parents. e. Our parents often refer to him as being a wrong model for us. . b.

I s-a oferit un post de director economic la cea mai puternică corporaţie din ţară. r. n. Ni s-a spus că pantalonii vor fi cusuţi în fabrica noastră. Se vor reface unele străzi din acest oraş după ce se va topi zăpada. Dacă fratele tău nu se va simţi mai bine. h. j. în această seară se va trimite după doctor. o. Li se comunicase că dărâmarea prin implozie a acestei clădiri va fi făcută la mijlocul săptămânii următoare. Se vor înfiinţa centre de ocrotire a minorilor. Gunoiul se încarcă numai marţea şi joia. k. Mi s-a dat ocazia să-mi arăt talentul de compozitor. l. Din păcate nu s-a ajuns la nici un acord final. s. Turiştilor li s-a arătat un magazin cu lucruri foarte scumpe după ce acestora li se furaseră deja portofelele. q. p. S-a anunţat o reducere semnificativă la articolele de îmbrăcăminte de iarnă. S-a ridicat nivelul apelor Dunării cu 3 cm. g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Se bea mult vin roşu la acest tip de petrecere. f. Problema câinilor fără stăpân a fost dezbătută de mai multe ori săptămâna aceasta. i.132 English Practical Course e. m. S-a ajuns la bătaie după ce s-au certat toată ziua.

My paper … … b. We watched my brother drive the car into the garage. They’re buying a lot of copies of that volume of poetry. First prize was awarded to a freshman in our school. Leaving this shirt in the rain has made it shrink. He … … d. The referee refused him permission to enter the game. We … … f. I dropped the china cup and cracked it. The china cup … … i. We watched the car … … h. Tom has earned several thousand dollars from his new book. . This shirt … … g. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it: a. A freshman … … c. My cousin’s child completely destroyed my paper. She suggested we eat Mike’s new favourite meal.English Practical Course 133 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. Tom’s new book… … e. The sauce … … j. Mother added flour to the sauce and thickened it.

The coffee maker is out of order but I’m (…) fixed tomorrow. We (…) house broken into yesterday. b. Jack is quite a difficult person. Your decisions were rejected and you were (…) back down. but using the word given. j. George often tells his parents how much of his ill-luck is down to you. The lights in my room have been flickering for a while. They were (…) been given 15 more minutes to complete the test. I must (…) to look at the wiring for me. that’s something his friends will have (…) to. Children can get (…) in by burglars going from house to house. a. The issue was (…) been told where his wife disappeared. f. He wants it to be clear to his friends that he’s honest. c. h. (heard) . (rumoured) b. (seen) c. Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase: a. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. I suppose she needs (…) told to be careful with that acid solution. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 18. g. i. The package is believed (…) delivered by some strange people. Some of his neighbours are saying that he is selling marijuana.134 English Practical Course That volume of poetry … … 17. d. e.

(addressed) t. (rained) p. (repeated) f. There were thousands of strikers in the yard of the factory. (pilloried) r. His grandmother underwent a three-hour operation to remove the brain tumour that had been diagnosed. (overcome) v. They believe that the captain fell overboard and died.English Practical Course 135 d. (packed) s. Janine’s answer took the audience by surprise. (had) j. All of his friends spent last month repairing his boat. (borne) u. The rain forced our weekend trip to be cancelled. As a kid. (copied) m. Our professor of History was given the Academy Award by Oxford University. The plan was originally to complete the task by 3 o’clock. we’ve had more telephone calls than we can deal with. Never forget that friends will be friends. (aback) o. I don’t like very much my mother scolding me in front of my friends. She couldn’t find her way out of the labyrinth. (get) i. The House of Parliament is the tallest building in the area. (due) g. (dwarfed) q. His latest article about unemployment came in for sharp criticism in this newspaper. I became very emotional when I found out my wife had given birth to a daughter. Mary was not allowed to play with matches. Our teachers don’t want any repetition of such a ridiculous behaviour again. (having) l. (operated) w. (conferred) . (swamped) n. Our new manager wants us to call him “Sir”. (let) h. Subtracting is something one takes for granted after a while. Since we won the prize. It’s not difficult at all for Ben to copy the paper from his colleague. (got) k. (fallen) e.

You have vague memories of … … c.136 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 19. She didn’t remember that she had been called home by her mother. a. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. You vaguely remember that you drank five bottles of wine last night. Sometimes it is quite embarrassing when people laugh at you. Being … … . She has no recollection of … … b.

They really regret … … f. Never … … g. I can’t explain what it feels like for nobody’s ever given me the chance to fly a plane. That valuable …… l.English Practical Course 137 d. The glass … … i. People crave for justice and they need to see it done. The card is only … … k. Do not put the card in until the screen shows ‘Insert your card’. Having … … e. They’ve had to call the office five times to find out the result of the race. The Town Hall … … h. George was severely criticized for his bad jokes and was more attentive after that. Mice came into the room through a sort of hole in the wall. The room … … j. It’s over twenty years since anyone saw that valuable painting. I’m … … . They really wish they hadn’t been pushed to eat that horrible soup. The dentist is supposed to be filling one of my teeth this afternoon. Peter poured wine into the glass until it was full. The office … … n. The group of people moved towards the Town Hall from all sides. Justice must not … … m.

expressing future hope e. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. he wanted to know the time. g. A child asked me a question on my way home. Perhaps j. 10.138 English Practical Course Progress Test 2 1. offering country later? 7. The gust of wind blew the woman’s hat off. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. Will you have dinner with us on k. making a suggestion Sunday? 2. They consulted the doctor when they were ill. . I’ll report you to the police next g. f. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. 9. threatening they’ll understand. b. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. They are shutting the bank for the winter holidays. making a prediction c. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. She has burned the chicken in the oven. asking for a prediction Saturday. 2. He wrote the paper on time. Shall I go to the library for you? 6. promising/ stating an intention time. e. The wedding will take place next h. c. 11. . Will there be a general strike? 3. Explain it to them again. 8. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. making an invitation Friday. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. What will you call your new cat? d. Shall we take a drive into the b.b. making a request d. expressing future uncertainty f. a.

p. My brother has been looking after the dog for the last two years. l. s. i. We could read the note by the light of the candle. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Children ask a lot of questions. She soon lost sight of her friend. We didn’t fix the roof yesterday. j. The children have made him captain of their team. Someone is going to beat him soon! v. Father made her cry hard. n. I must pay the telephone bill at the end of the month. t. m.English Practical Course 139 h. k. o. r. We haven’t invited our friends to the party yet. u. People mustn’t walk on the grass in this park. They are going to write a song tonight. I found your bike in front of the cinema. The bodyguards requested us to show our tickets. q. Nobody asked Mike to come.

b. dwarfed a. My brother. your language in this newspaper article (…) inadequate for the public taste. Since her book on cooking came out. deemed. c. Impossible as it may seem. . we all agreed: his paper should (…) for last year’s Literature prize. g. overcome. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate verb from the list. inundated.140 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. (…) by almost all of his colleagues. d. Christine (…) the most beautiful girl in Europe. dubbed. Having read the manuscript. How he managed to obtain such a large sum of money (…) in mystery. All the neighbours I asked (…) by the reason of her disease. who is rather short. Unfortunately. h. shrouded. scheduled. baffled. The participles should be used with the verb to be in the appropriate tense: strewn. i. our clothes (…) all over the house. j. short-listed. f. The secretary (…) by exhaustion after 12-hour typing and had to go home. she (…) with requests for some more recipes. When we came back from the mountains. Richard’s new album (…) for release next year. e.

O să-mi dau maşina la reparat. Ei au de gând să-şi renoveze vila anul viitor. g. Translate into English: a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . b. i. pentru că i s-au defectat frânele. aşa că spectacolul se terminase deja la televizor. Am ajuns cam târziu acasă. d. h. El intenţionează să se înscrie la acest curs săptămâna viitoare. o să-mi iau şi haine subţiri şi haine groase. Noi vrem să ştim dacă ne puteţi ajuta sau nu. c. f. Când voi pleca la munte. e.English Practical Course 141 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. o să-ţi telefonez. De îndată ce voi termina raportul o să te informez în legătură cu rezultatele cercetării mele. Dacă voi avea timp. El fusese sunat de director de mai multe ori înainte de a veni la serviciu.

e. I was a asked question on my way home. He has been made captain of the children’s team. g. A song is going to be written tonight. Mike wasn’t asked to come. r. e. d. The telephone bill must be paid… n. The roof wasn’t fixed yesterday. The grass mustn’t be walked on in this park. The chicken has been burnt in the oven. f. a. 6. 11. 3. b. The dog has been looked after(by my brother) for the last two years. 2. k. q. 4. m. The paper was written on time. The bank is being shut for the winter holidays. 7.g. Our friends haven’t been invited to the party yet. u. 1. A lot of questions are asked by children l. 9. j. s. The woman’s hat was blown off (by a gust of wind). h. The doctor was consulted when they were ill.142 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. t. 5. c. a. Her friend was soon lost sight of. . The note could be read by the light of the candle. What will your new cat be called? d. He is going to be beaten soon! v. i. 10. b. j.h 2. She was made to cry hard (by Father). 8. k. Your bike was found in front of the cinema. c. o. i. he wanted to know the time. f. We were requested to show our tickets (by the bodyguards). p.

00 point each x 9 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Coordinating Conjunctions © Subordinating Conjunctions . e. a. were strewn. i. has been inundated. He had been called by the director several times before coming to work. for the brakes broke down. e. g. has been dubbed. They are going to have they villa redecorated next year.1 point + 0. When I go to the mountains I’ll take both light and warm clothes. g.1point each x 10 = 10 points 2. a. He is going to take up this course next week. is scheduled.90 points each x 10 = 10 points 4. I’ll have my car repaired. is dwarfed. We arrived home rather late. d. b. so the TV show had already been over. We want to know if you can help us or not. b. If I have time I’ll call you. j. c. f. As soon as I finish the report I’ll inform you on the results of my research. f.English Practical Course 143 3.1 point + 0. was short listed. were baffled. h.40 points each x 22 = 10 points 3. c. was overcome. has been deemed. Score: 1. d. is shrouded. i. h. 1 point + 1. 4.

Bennet perhaps surpassing the rest. I was sure you loved your girls too well to neglect such an acquaintance. as he spoke. Kitty. we cannot escape the acquaintance now.” The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. Bingley. and. Bennet! But I knew I should persuade you at last. though. when the first tumult of joy was over. my dear Mr. Ways with Words 1. Underline the coordinate conjunctions with one line and the subordinate ones with two lines: Mary wished to say something very sensible. but as I have actually paid the visit. he left the room. but knew not how.” said Mr. fatigued with the raptures of his wife. Bingley. In the last sentence from the text. Bennet. Pay attention to the conjunctions. too. It is very unlucky. that you should have gone this morning and never said a word about it till now. “I am sorry to hear that. . she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. “How good it was in you. that of Mrs. the preposition with appears.” “I am sick of Mr.144 English Practical Course © Number of Nouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. “While Mary is adjusting her ideas. how pleased I am! and it is such a good joke.” he continued. “let us return to Mr. but why did not you tell me so before? If I had known as much this morning I certainly would not have called on him.” cried his wife. you may cough as much as you choose.” “Now. Well.

2. How do you translate in all the while? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. as with = la fel ca şi. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. all at once = dintr-o datã. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. with a view of = în scopul de a. cu totul. . with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. all the better = cu atât mai bine. all worn out = complet uzat. cu privire la. it is all one to them = le este tot una.English Practical Course 145 with an eye to = urmãrind. pe bunã dreptate. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. together with = împreunã cu. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. of all kinds = de toate felurile. first of all = înainte de toate. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. to do away with = a înlãtura. fãrã a pierde din vedere. with reason = pe drept. asta-i tot. a termina cu. all over = peste tot. all in all = în întregime. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. referitor. that is about all = ca.

she also had dessert! Either my husband or I can drive you home.or. neither. Neither money nor power can make him happy.. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor.. He moved quickly but quietly. They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party.. . (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both. not only... (but also)...and..nor make the connection more intense. two phrases. • The second noun determines the number of the verb with neither.. Not only did she have two helpings.. Neither the students nor THE TEACHER is allowed to wear jeans. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket.146 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Conjunction Conjunctions join words.or: Neither the teacher nor THE STUDENTS are allowed to wear jeans.. The doctor told him not to smoke or drink.. nor and either. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. either. Punctuation with Coordinate Conjunctions • A comma is not necessary when only two elements (two words. two clauses) are joined by a coordinate conjunction.

women and children are welcome. and beyond. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. how. ……. a. women. into the Olympic Mountains. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. as. before. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. This is called a serial comma. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. He got a ticket because he was speeding. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America. since. when. Men. use commas after the first and second units.English Practical Course 147 • However. where. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. and children are welcome. if three or more units are joined. ……. To the west. although.. on the Olympic Peninsula. Along this coast. some sixty active glaciers slow- . that. c. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. whom She never saw him after he left town. ………. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. if. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. nature is the hand setting b.. is the brooding. who. d. because. Within the park are alpine meadows. unless. She has been very ill since her operation. majestic white-robed peaks. what. Controlled Practice 1 1. as much as. It is not compulsory to use a comma before the last unit: Men.

In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide. 50 miles wide. live more than 350 species of birds. hickory." g. islands and hyacinth pools. ……. On the western slopes of the mountains. Far to the east. ……. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. They are the largest living things on earth. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. e. ……. and averages only 6 inches deep. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. there is a more gentle forest. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. In Wyoming are the rugged. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. Although relatively small.148 English Practical Course sliding their relentless way down from the heights. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. River. are seemingly endless groves of oak.. These are softer mountains.. most mountain ranges. Mountain.. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. h. the Tetons have no foothills. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. ……. "Grassy Water. there is a remarkable rainforest. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. laying . To walk these cool.. A river that is 100 miles long. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14.. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee. in Shenandoah National Park i.000 feet. Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula. maple and other hardwoods. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. ……. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada. hammocks. serene. may be the most unusual river in the world. Sea.

the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles. n. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made.1794. all cut from stone by the delicate. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal. No longer shrouded in ice. minarets. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. m. There are castles and whimsical skylines. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . l. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. ……. The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o..English Practical Course 149 comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. ……. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. arches. powerful hand of water. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. towers. ……… seem to have once been alive.. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. time and wind. powerful strokes. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor.. Here is where glaciers come to die. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores.. j. ……. …….for the soul. …….

phenomenon-phenomena. -ch. -z. mouse-mice. boxboxes. cliff-cliffs. villas. geniuses. woman-women. diplomas) . genius-genii (spirits)/geniuses (men of genius) (but: bonuses. person-people/ persons • Foreign plurals . criterion-criteria (but: demons. louse-lice. appendixappendices (in books)/appendixes (anatomical) analysis-analyses. foot-feet. protons. stimulus-stimuli. formula-formulae/formulas (but: dilemmas.150 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 2 Number of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s: book-books. basis-bases.datum-data.index-indices (algebraic signs) /indexes (tables of contents). larva-larvae. thesis-theses . hoof-hooves/hoofs. leaf-leaves. medium-media (but: museums. hypothesis-hypotheses. ox-oxen. -ss.potatoes (But: photo-photos) -ves to nouns ending in -f(e): knife-knives. -o: bus-buses. ganglions) • Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: . brush-brushes. -x. tool-tools -es to singular nouns ending in -s. proof-proofs. axis-axes. viruses) .alga-algae. asylums) . neurones. -sh. diagnosisdiagnoses. handkerchief-handkerchiefs) -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: lady-ladies -s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy-toys Note: dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves. scarf-scarfs/scarves • Some nouns form their plural irregularly man-men.nucleus-nuclei. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs. goose-geese. crisis-crises. potato. tooth-teeth. child-children. match-matches.

) Custom (a traditional event)-customs (the government department which collects taxes on imported goods) a. premises (building). jury. choir. . pyjamas. Japanese. people. spacecraft. deer. • Some nouns have different meanings when turned into plural: Air (atmosphere)-airs (behaviour) Cloth (a piece of material)-clothes (garments) Compass (a magnetic compass)-compasses (an instrument for drawing circles) Content (what is written or spoken about in a piece of writing. crowd. according top the meaning. arms (weapons). company. team. clergy. union. means. class. series. species. (We refer to the individual members) The staff of the school consists of fifty people. sheep. plaice. scissors. club. orchestra. family. youth. regards. etc. b. pliers. etc. tools and instruments consisting of two parts: binoculars. lodgings. goods. speech)contents (the things contained in a box. greens (vegetables). glasses. trousers. • collective nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb. The staff were not in agreement with the new rules. outskirts. jeans. public. (We refer to the group as a unit) Some collective nouns are: audience. etc. cod. remains. scales. firm.English Practical Course 151 Craft. odds (chances). compasses. police. crew. garments. surroundings. clothes. belongings. pants. riches. thanks. trout • Some nouns are only plural: earnings. squid. place. oats. congratulations. savings. spectacles. committee. fish. government. etc. salmon. groceries. cattle.

also specs) Spirit (a person’s soul or mind. a place of manufacturing processes) Note: Some of the above nouns have their own regular plurals: minute/minutes • Compound nouns form their plural by adding –s/-es: by b. to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: cupboard – cupboards c.152 English Practical Course Damage(harm done to something)-damages (monetary compensation) Experience (gaining knowledge or skill over a period)-experiences (activities/events one has done/lived through) Fund (a sum of money saved for a purpose)-funds (money) Glass (a drinking receptacle)-glasses (spectacles) Hair (the hairy part of the head)-hairs (fine strands growing from the skin) Look (a style. customs) Minute (sixty seconds)-minutes (notes taken as a record of a meeting) Relation (a connection)-relations (members of the same family) Scale (the relative size of something)-scales (an instrument for weighing) Spectacle (an object of attention)-spectacles (glasses. an expression)-looks (a person’s appearance) Manner (a way in which something is done)-manners (social behaviour. a strong alcoholic drink) Wood (the hard material trees are made of)-woods (small forests) Work (employment)-works (the moving parts of a machine. a magical creature)-spirits (a person’s feelings. to the noun if the compound has only one noun: passer-by – passers- . to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition: mother-in-law – mothers-in-law a.

I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. 2.English Practical Course 153 d. Where have you put that box? . Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby. but the (information/informations) that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. and 2. d. (This/These) (new/news) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. he was taking a book from the shelf. b. Complete this newspaper article. at the end of the compound if it does not contain any nouns: breakdown – breakdowns Controlled Practice 2 1.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town. The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/goods) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/trousers)” and “Polymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. This child is a naughty one. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. e. When I entered the room. c. Make all other changes which are necessary: a. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Clayton Factory for Milchester The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. Make the nouns in these sentences plural.

e. b. Three (basketful /basketfuls) of oranges have been gathered so far. Jack will send some (memorandum) to the President. 4. Mars and Venus revolve on their (axis) like the Earth. b. A great deal of (datum) was stolen from our computers. f. f. He doesn’t like spending his time playing with mathematical (formula). Select the form you consider appropriate in each of the following sentences: a. j. The (women doctors /woman doctors) I met there are professionals. i. h. . c. I don’t like (two-hour-walks /two-hours-walks). It can be hilarious if translators make mistakes in their (analysis). They keep talking about the legend of (men-eaters /man-eaters). (Oasis) save sometimes Bedouins’ lives. Milk has lots of (by-products /bys-products). g. g. (Ninety-year-olds /ninety-years-old) don’t need to use (toothbrushes /teethbrushes).154 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. The (commander-in-chiefs /commanders-in chief) decided to surrender. George didn’t count his (footsteps /feetsteps) from the station to the library because he considered it useless. Fill in the correct plural for the words in brackets: a. All grammar books contain (index). d. (Mothers-in-laws /mothers-in-law) are considered by some men real shrews. e. c. His (brother-in-laws /brothers-in-law) have committed several crimes. d.

The (criterion) of success must be found through experience. k.English Practical Course 155 h. As a President. he had to face many international (crisis). l. You have to finish your (thesis) before the first of July. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . He knows almost all (genus) of animals. Ten (addendum) had been proposed before they arrived. j. i.

and inviting. Life to him seemed hollow. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a longhandled brush. he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank. dreamy. did it again.156 English Practical Course Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Gender of Nouns © Countable/Uncountable Nouns © Synthetical/ Analytical/ Double Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Chapter 2 (The Glorious Whitewasher) of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the farreaching continent of unwhite washed fence. abstract. Sighing. and all the summer world was bright and fresh. There was a song in every heart. There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. was green with vegetation. and it lay just far enough away to seem a Delectable Land. proper and common nouns: SATURDAY MORNING was come. Jim came skipping out at the gate with a tin pail. Cardiff Hill. repeated the operation. and brimming with life. and if the heart was young the music issued at the lips. He surveyed the fence. The locust trees were in bloom and the fragrance of the blossoms filled the air. and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit. and existence but a burden. and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. nine feet high. reposeful. Thirty yards of board fence. Underline the nouns and divide them into concrete. beyond the village and above it. and singing .

I ought to be there at noon. She say she spec’ Mars Tom gwine to ax me to whitewash. Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour. White. The following are expressions typical of North American English. . It is very hard to understand what he is saying due to the fact that first of all he speaks American English. That’s the way she always talks. mulatto.and even then somebody generally had to go after him. I’ll fetch the water if you’ll whitewash some. Gimme the bucket.” “O. resting. I otta be there at noon. = = = = He is going to wait here.English Practical Course 157 “Buffalo Gals. I have got to go now.” Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work in Tom’s eyes. skylarking. Jim.” Ways with Words 1. trading playthings. never you mind what she said. quarreling.I won’t be gone only a minute. fighting.” Jim shook his head and said: “Can’t. They wanna come at five. but now it did not strike him so. and negro boys and girls were always there waiting their turns. and he is highly uneducated. They are used only in informal speech: He's gonna wait here. Tom said: “Say. She won’t ever know. He remembered that there was company at the pump. Mars Tom. I gotta go now. Jim. Ole missis. Try to translate Jim’s speech. before. so he can’t speak grammatically correct Learn some Americanisms which you might need when you hear spoken American English. an’ she tole me go ‘long an’ ‘tend to my own businessshe ‘lowed she’d ‘tend to de whitewashin’. she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop foolin’ roun’ wid anybody. And he remembered that although the pump was only a hundred and fifty yards off. They want to come at five.

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He ain't * at home. Americanisms.

=

He is not at home.

* Ain't means am not, isn't, aren't. It is less frequently used than the other 2. In the sentence: There was a song in every heart, the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of place. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile; in all together = în total; in the beginning = la început; in contrast to/with = în contrast cu; in common with = în comun cu; in itself = în sine; in order to/ that = ca sã, pentru ca; in particular = în special; in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de; in practice = în principiu; in progress = în curs de; in print = tipãrit; in return for = în schimbul a; in quantity = în cantitate; in search of = în cãutare de; in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã; in such a manner = în aşa mod; in sum = pe scurt, în douã vorbe; in that = în aceea cã; in token of = în semn de, ca dovadã; in turn = cu rândul; to be interested in = a fi interesat de; to result in = a avea ca rezultat;

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to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes în; a reuşi în.(e.g. She succeeded in passing the exam). Now practice these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. Look for the preposition at in the text. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz; at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj; at ease = liniştit, pe îndelete; at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã; at intervals = la intervale, intermitent; at liberty = fãrã restricţii, liber; at most = cel mult; at once = imediat; at request = la cerere; at right angle = la unghi drept; at stake = în joc; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Noun
There are four kinds of nouns in English: abstract nouns (love, freedom thought); common/concrete nouns (book, table); collective nouns (family, herd); proper nouns (Greg, London).

Gender
Masculine: men and boys (he) Feminine: women, girls, cars, ships, countries (she)

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Neuter: babies, animals, things (it) Notes: - Babies and animals are referred to as male or female when we know their sex. - Cars, ships and countries are sometimes referred to as female but the neuter is more common in modern English. • • Most common nouns referring to people have the same form whether male or female: teacher (man or woman), doctor, etc. Some common nouns referring to people have different forms for male and female: Actor – actress Barman – barmaid Bachelor – spinster Boy – girl Bridegroom – bride Duke – duchess Emperor – empress Father – mother • gentleman – lady heir – heiress husband – wife hero – heroine host – hostess monk – nun nephew – niece prince – princess policeman – policewoman steward – stewardess son – daughter uncle – aunt widower – widow waiter – waitress

Some common nouns referring to animals have different forms for male and female: cock – hen gander – goose lion – lioness tiger – tigress stag – doe stallion – mare

Bull – cow Drake – duck Dog – bitch

Countable/uncountable nouns
Countable nouns are those which can be counted: one book, two books, three books. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full.

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Uncountable nouns are those which cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. They take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. The words some, any, no, (a) little, much, plenty of etc can be used with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are: Names of substances (materials, liquids, gases. etc): leather, paper, wood, metal, silver, water, coffee, bread, meat, butter, wine, flour Activities and sports: running, swimming, shopping, gardening, football, tennis Games ending in –s: billiards, darts, bowls, dominos etc Diseases ending in –s: mumps, rickets Names of subjects: history, mathematics, music, physics Languages: Russian, Greek, German, English Abstract nouns: love, hope, advice, information, intelligence, beauty, hunger, poverty Collective nouns: furniture, luggage, equipment, accommodation, traffic

Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. Chicken/a chicken, stone/a stone, hope/ a hope, education/an education Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety. Wine/an excellent wine, fruit/ a very sweet fruit In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a restaurant Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives:

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a piece of cake/information/baggage/advice/furniture/work/equipment; a glass of water/beer/wine; a jar of jam; a sheet of paper; an item of news; a drop of water/oil; a box of chocolates; a metre of cloth; a packet of biscuits; a pound of flour; a puff of smoke a strip/acre of land a grain of sand a set of cutlery an attack of fever a piece of music a slice of bread a loaf of bread a pot of tea a cup of tea a lump of sugar a game of chess a kilo of meat a bottle of wine a whiff of garlic a beam of light a pile of rubbish a stack of hay a word of advice a wink of sleep a tube of toothpaste a bar of soap/chocolate a blade of grass a flash of lightning a clap of thunder a cube of ice a roast of meat a pint of beer a gust of wind a breath of fresh air an article of clothing a ball of string a roar of laughter a feat of passion

a state of emergency a stroke of luck

The Genitive/Possessive Case
Form: o The ‘S Genitive/the Synthetical Genitive: the boy’s hat, the boys’ hat o The OF Genitive/the Analytical Genitive: the director of the museum o Double Genitive: a work of Milton’s 1. The Inflected/Synthetical Genitive (the ‘S Genitive) Form: • ‘s is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in –s: a man’s job, men’s work, the butcher’s (shop), a child’s voice, the children’s room

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• • • • • •

A simple apostrophe (‘) is used with plural nouns ending in –s: the girls’ school, the Smiths’ car Other names ending in –s can take ‘s or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones’s/ Mr Jones’ house With compounds, the last word takes the ‘s: my brother-in-law’s guitar ‘s can only be used after initials: the MP’s briefcase, the VIP’s escort ‘s is omitted in the phrase for … sake: for goodness sake ‘s is often added to a noun phrase (the group genitive): the Duke of York’s eldest son

If joint possession is intended, the apostrophe is placed on the last element: Tom and Mary’s baby Individual possession requires an apostrophe with each element of the series: America’s and England’s problems. • The local genitive is used to denote institutions of various kinds (restaurants, churches, theatres, etc), a home, a shop: at Joe’s, at the chemist’s, at my parents’ (home) The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • • • nouns denoting people or other beings (animate nouns): John’s lecture, my parents’ advice, the horse’s neck, the dog’s bark nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, size, distance, weight: a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper in expressions of money + worth: ten dollars’ worth of sugar collective nouns: the government’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.: England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat. names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day/a winter day

The Double Genitive Form: It is made up of the inflected genitive (‘s) and the of genitive: a nephew of Queen Mary’s. the welfare of the people If a genitive governs another genitive. at one’s wit’s end.phrase: the house of my sister’s neighbour With nouns coming from adjectives: the contempt of the rich When the governing noun is modified by a long phrase or clause: the intelligence of the woman across the street 3. their money’s worth • some idiomatic expressions: to one’s heart’s content. the water’s surface. The OF Genitive Form: It is formed by means of a noun which is preceded by the preposition of: the cover of the book. lyrics of Hugo’s. a bird’s eye view 2. It is mainly used with inanimate nouns Usage: • • • • In titles and formal speech or written text: the Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson. to a hair’s breadth. the former is expressed by the of. at a stone’s throw. within arm’s reach. to my mind’s eye. at his journey’s end. two friends of Jack’s Compare: A portrait of Dali (one portraying him) – a portrait of Dali’s (one painted by or belonging to him) Controlled Practice 1. Translate into English: .164 English Practical Course • • some expressions (these have an alternative with of): the water’s edge. for charity’s sake some other expressions (they do not have an alternative with of): at arm’s length.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. j. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte produse in Franta d. e. Aceasta este o mobilă prea veche pentru gustul nostru. c. Orice informaţie despre jaful de la bancă este vitală. Translate into English. Mi-a dat un sfat foarte important: să nu mănânc pâine după miezul nopţii. b. i. Un fulger urmat de un tunet asurzitor i-au speriat pe copii. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în medicină şi s-au descoperit medicamente împotriva cancerului . Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. taking into account the form of uncountable nouns: a. e. f.English Practical Course 165 a. g. A băut trei cafele şi l-a apucat ameţeala. Nu mai am strop de energie ca să urc şi panta aceasta. Alaltăieri am cumpărat cinci săpunuri şi astăzi nu găsesc nici unul. Bagajul meu se află între cele două doamne grase. Inventatorul telefonului este Graham Bell b. h. Povestea din război cu o pasiune extraordinară. Doi prieteni de-ai lui John i-au făcut o surpriză de ziua lui. c. I-am rugat să ne cumpere patru pâini de Extrapan.

were) against the war. c. are) asked to pay attention to the speech. are) a matter of no interest to me. Mathematics (was. have) been living in that chalet for years. are) all children. Use the correct form of the verb: a. The audience (is. beads stars beer rags grapes trees taxis flowers stairs cards energy laughter abuse trouble fever luck sleep endurance imprisonment emergency . Politics (is. My family (has. That team (is. Match: a bunch of a bundle of a fleet of a cluster of a clump of a flight of a string of a crate of a pack of a bouquet of a burst of an attack of a hint of an ounce of a stroke of a wink of a feat of a term of a word of a state of 4. The majority (was. f. b. d. were) my favourite subject.166 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. e.

The speech of the President was received with applause. 5. the daughter of the baker. The nephew of Chris and Liz is very smart. are) taking (its. is my best friend. have) been chasing the thieves for weeks. j. their) seats. There was a great variety of cars for the disabled in the fair. Mary. c. During the holiday of three weeks of their friends. i. h. Smith in almost every country. She took the coat of somebody else. Your heroics (was. h.English Practical Course 167 g. have) just come back and (is. Put into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. were) useless in that situation. I have done that for the sake of my cousin George. The police (has. The novels of Dickens and Hardy are very often read nowadays. e. b. g. The audience (has. i. the children had to go to the mountains. f. There is a magazine belonging to Mr. Cotroceni Palace is the residence of the President of Romania.

A ………. fleet. swarm. d. of buildings was destroyed by the earthquake. Rewrite the following sentences using the underlined words in the possessive case. h. − ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. e. Make any other necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a.168 English Practical Course 6.. . My cousin was bitten by a ……… of bees. row. bunch. f. I have seen a building of 450 metres in the city of Atlanta. She ate a ……… of grapes in two minutes. His mother bought some books which cost ten pounds. board: a. Although the forest caught fire. pack. some ………… of trees were still untouched. The jam I bought weighed half a kilogram. Mike bought some flowers costing a dollar. c. They granted them an interview lasting half an hour. Supply the correct collective nouns. clump. i. d. b. The teacher told them that wolves attack in ……… . The movie lasted three hours. g. colony. c. The man on the street weighs 250 kilograms. It was a journey of ten days. The highway to the next city was ninety kilometres. Choose from the following: bevy. e. b.

9. They will open a new ………. of rain. This morning a ………. j. Divorţul copiilor vecinilor noştri va avea loc luna viitoare. spell. That ………. of land is very rich in oil. h. They would like a ………… of pineapple juice. m. g. c. The …………. f. A ………… of termites was eating my furniture. drop(2). b. of road between Tokyo and Osaka. 8. pinch. a. George bought Mary a box of chocolates and a ……… of flowers on her birthday. litre.. i. A …………. l. A ……… of light from your candle was enough to find the lost ring. e. The killer cut a ……. acre. g.English Practical Course 169 f. They’ve had ………… of good weather so far. j. You should add a ……… of salt and mix the ingredients. She wrote the address on a ………… of paper. Translate into English: a. o. n. George has never drunk beer so he tried a ………. beam. Put in the missing partitive: stretch. gust. of mine. h. scrap. lock. A ……… of cloth is not enough to make the dress you have dreamt of. of hair of the victim to have a souvenir. of wind broke two windows of my house. hint. sip. My neighbours send for the police at the slightest ………. k. i.. A ……….. of managers decided to buy the product. of boys was laughing at the clown. A ………… of ships had been sent to rescue the survivors. d. of soup will help you get rid of your nausea. They went inside as they had felt a ………. metre. . of trouble. of green here and it will be perfect. bowl. The painting needs a ……….

d. turma ta se împrăştie în toate direcţiile! g. h. Are 93 de ani şi la vârsta ei o călătorie de 12 ore cu trenul este sinucidere curată. dar mobila de dinainte de război era de mare clasă. Write a before the nouns which are used as countable nouns: a. f. . amantul prietenei vărului meu. Spune-i domnului Cole. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. dacă ea avea un singur bagaj nu dura atât de mult. nu avem de mers mai mult de 15 minute până la aeroport. Am putea să ne întâlnim la şcoală. … Education does not just take place at school. Casa cea nouă a administratorului parcului naţional al oraşului nostru are cel puţin treizeci de camere. I am lucky to have had … very good education. fii atent. Face bagajele de cel puţin patru ore. i. fiecare informaţie este vitală. Piesa noastră de mobilier este foarte modernă. O turmă de oi mi-a invadat curtea.170 English Practical Course b. Trebuie să aflăm toate informaţiile necesare. că dacă îl prind îi rup oasele! c.

Tom has proved of … great help to me. The scissors (was/were) on the table a few minutes ago./many) women on the boat (was/were) getting seasick from the waves. please. e. f. His eyes are not very sensitive to … light. c. i. natural human feeling. I’m so glad I read it: it was … wonderful experience. I usually eat … fruit for dinner. I’ll have two cappuccinos and … whisky. j. Choose the right word from the brackets: a. k. Mary is … real beauty. I don’t usually drink … tea. Billiards (is/are) a very interesting game. … Beauty is my favourite concern. There (is/are) several means of reaching the chalet on daylight. d. b. h. I have to call my family because I desperately need … help. e. … Painting can be a really relaxing activity. That’s … very unusual fruit.English Practical Course 171 b. . … Fear is a protective. g. g. Would you like … baked potato? 11. l. I like red meat but I don’t eat … pork. His luggage (was/were) found without much effort. He has … great love of art. You were so hungry that you ate … whole turkey. You can’t get a job without … experience. He has … terrible fear of snakes. What is it? m. f. John thinks that’s … really beautiful painting. (much. A (little/few) knowledge (is/are) as dangerous as having none. c. The statue is built of … marble. Sometimes … love can solve all the problems. The news printed in that magazine (is/are) always accurate. This meal has … potato in it. Is there … light in Mike’s room? d. That is … beautiful stone.

Have you read (today. words). natural wonders). friends) were invited to the party. Do you know the (Moon. I’ll never forget (Helen. f. 12. 13. We are amazed by (that girl. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: a. c. c. h. you should take it into consideration. g. e. This is a … of good advice. i. piece. lies). the stairs) they realized that was not their house. With a … of luck you can still catch the train. The Amazonian jungle is one of the (world. e. newspaper)? . They will buy a new … of furniture for their bedroom. They painted only one (wall. We are allowed to take four … of luggage in our trip. distance) from the Sun? d.172 English Practical Course h. d. g. He wanted to buy a … of chocolate but the shop was closed. When they got to the (bottom. You gave me (much/many) ideas about the job but very (little/few) advice. their room). h. item. slice: a. there (isn’t/aren’t) (much/many) chairs and tables here. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar. bit. I cut several … of bread for my kid sister. b. How (much/many) information do you need to get it done? j. Your business depends on his (country. f. You can’t eat that … of cold beef left because it is off. i. The (neighbours. We should buy (much/many) furniture. b. future). There are three outrageous … of news in today’s paper.

chair). my son – he’s in his fifties now – sang it all day and all night. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. The (begin) of the book was boring. but also a good volley (play). ‘How many times must white dove fly before it sleeps in sand?’ And then answer to profound questions: ‘Answer. but impact he had in sixties and seventies was huge. is blowing in wind. There is a great (differ) between to remind and to remember. She will give the detective a detailed (describe) of the thief. (Visit) are requested to sign their names in the book. We were able to give a satisfactory (explain) for our (behave). Put in a/ an / the as appropriate: I remember in dim and distant past my children being obsessed by man called Bob Dylan. The (advertise) will have to be published in the morning paper. h. f. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: a. question like that can’t be taken seriously. for several years. can it? And. And it was so silly: ‘How many times must man look up before he can see sky?’ I mean. I have no idea if he’s still alive. g. I remember one song called ‘Blowing in Wind’.English Practical Course 173 j. He is a fantastic (basketball). month in and month out. In the following fragment. Children have a great deal of (curios). e. articles are missing. d. Father is trying to fix the (leg. 14. but the (end) was more exciting. my friend.’ Generation after mine didn’t know what life was . c. b.

There’s no need for us to discuss the (…) of this marriage. authorities. Put one of the nouns in each of the sentences. I suppose. The (…) opened and. just to see the (…). sights. heavens. sands. f. travels. Don’t be rude! What about her (…). so we got soaked. odds. What is the purpose of your going to Hawaii? Well. Funny world we live in. I say it’s funny world we live in. did they? We did. interests. basics. of course. dislikes.174 English Practical Course all about.’ ‘Night they invented champagne. matters. . ‘Very thought of you.’ They were real songs.’ ‘Just way you look tonight. can’t you imagine you hurt her? g. we didn’t have any umbrellas. hopes. expenses. arms. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. means. The actor thinks he can win the award but we suspect the (…) are against him. terms. e. The Blue Killer was never arrested and was never handed over to the (…). But what came next? ‘How many years can mountain exist before it is washed to sea?’ And there was whole generation singing alone to song. feelings. talks. c. Civilians are forbidden to carry (…) during peacetime. b. d. movements a.

(weathers) g. (odds) e. n. k. (open) . All the money they managed to earn was spent on clothes. a. raining or extreme cold. She wasn’t as innocent as it seemed to be. could you answer these questions. the policemen will arrest the suspects. (eye) f. George got on very well with his father-in-law. i. (means) c. (interests) i. I’m warning you. I don’t think John is planning to buy that expensive house. Mr. isn’t he? I hear that he is off on his (…) again. Mayor? 17. My boss’s likes and (…) shouldn’t be of any interest to the employees. Jack trusts his aunt. I won’t find any (…) of transport at this hour of the night. Peace (…) in Palestine are meant to put an end to the guerrilla fights. Once the causes of Mike’s death are made public.English Practical Course 175 h. if you keep teasing my daughter. (terms) d. even if it’s snowing. using the word given. (designs) h. He’s up and about. They play football. Have you found out what our enemies (…) are over the following days? o. Parents don’t agree with their children’s liberal ideas. p. We’ll have to get back to (…) to understand the grammar of the English language. Try as I might. This word must not be altered in any way. There’s little chance of raining this week. start considering yourself on shifting (…). he tells her all his (…) and fears. It will be best for her to help them right now. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence. q. I suppose they won’t claim travel (…) for their voyage to the island of Crete! j. In the (…) of the citizens. I’m sure the gangsters discussed a range of important (…) since the Godfather was present. (proceeds) b. l. m. r.

176 English Practical Course j. (high) − ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . She is convinced her daughter is going to be as successful as herself.

the moon streaming high in face of her. In what way are prepositions different in Romanian? Try to see when the use of the English prepositions is different from the use in Romanian: She hurried out of the side garden to the front. . she murmured to herself over and over again: “The nuisance! the nuisance!” She became aware of something about her. Lawrence. Morel gasped slightly in fear. and the air was charged with their perfume. They seemed to be stretching in the moonlight. almost blindingly. as with a presence. The tall white lilies were reeling in the moonlight. pallid flowers on their petals. Pay attention to the use of preposition in English. where she could stand as if in an immense gulf of white light. She put her hand into one white bin: the gold scarcely showed on her fingers by moonlight. With an effort she roused herself to see what it was that penetrated her consciousness. and filling the valley where the Bottoms crouched. H. the moonlight standing up from the hills in front.English Practical Course 177 Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Prepositions © Compound Prepositions © Place of Prepositions in the Sentence © Problematic Prepositions of Time and Space •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Sons and Lovers by D. Mrs. She touched the big. then shivered. There. She bent down to look at the binful of yellow pollen. panting and half weeping in reaction from the stress.

= în numele cuiva. and her consciousness in the child. Ways with Words 1. on behalf of sb. too. on record = cunoscut. din cauzã cã. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. all swum together in a kind of swoon. Except for a slight feeling of sickness. and so on = şi aşa mai departe. to turn on/ to switch on (the light. and she lost herself awhile. on the whole = în general.). on the score of = ca rezultat. on account of = pe baza. Mrs.etc. It almost made her dizzy. on this ground = din acest motiv. on the basis of = pe baza. looking out. în întregime. radioul. pe cale. on the verge of = pe punctul de. After a time the child. the radio. luând în consideraţie cã. on the contrary = din contrã. Morel leaned on the garden gate. and she rested with the hills and lilies and houses. . She did not know what she thought.178 English Practical Course but it only appeared dusky. în pragul. to be on duty = a fi de serviciu. melted with her in the mixing-pot of moonlight. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. on demand = la cerere. Then she drank a deep draught of the scent. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. How many times does the preposition on appear in the text? Learn some expressions containing this preposition. pale air. la nesfârşit.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. din partea cuiva. herself melted out like scent into the shiny. etc.

Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. on a sudden = brusc. pe neaşteptate. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. to the letter = întocmai. on purpose = dinadins. to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. deodatã. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. . în cea mai mare mãsurã. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. on principle = din principiu. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. intenţionat. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva. ici şi colo. to hand = la îndemânã. 2. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. mai degeaba. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. on trial = de probã. to little purpose = cu puţin efect. to this effect = în acest scop. ad litteram. on the first attempt = la prima încercare. How do you translate: She hurried out of the side garden to the front […]? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition to. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte.English Practical Course 179 on condition that = cu condiţia. to date = la zi. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva.

round. down. because of. pending. betwixt. between. around. until. touching. he disappeared. as far as. concerning. down to. respecting. below. since. from under. up. Complex: according to. noun phrases. for. Prepositional Phrases: . above across. till. as for. I can't get any work done. on. in. onto. of. beneath. upon. without. except. out of. c. Compound: alongside. up against. along. failing. according to form: a. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. but. from. amid. after. through. excepting. Because of you. d. under. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions. from inside. save. behind. before. inside. per. in between. except for. past. against. throughout.180 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Prepositions Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. with b. notwithstanding. instead of. up to. athwart. from among. regarding. off. saving. over against. underneath. to. into. Types of prepositions. outside. towards. over. along with. at. by. besides. during. Nouns. among. anent. considering. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase. within. Note that in English. as to. via. After telling the whole story. near. pronouns. Simple: about. beyond. round about.

next to. in consequence of. page 309) Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs When certain verbs and prepositions are combined. due to. with relation to. in lieu of. in opposition to. for fear of. in view of. in accordance with. in addition to. This is a book about which we were talking. the unit acquires a new meaning. with respect to. in prospect of. apart from. owing to. for the sake of. in the place of.English Practical Course 181 ahead of. with reference to. by reason of. in place of. We are talking about this novel. in front of. the preposition may be at the end of the sentence. by means of. and verb idioms. in obedience to. phrasal verbs. in regard to. in the middle of. in common with. at the back of. (see also Appendix 2. with regard to. in keeping with. thanks to. in the name of. in aid of. in case of. with a view to. in honour of. in praise of. by dint of. in want of. by the side of. as a result of. separated from its object. in comparison with. by way of. prior to. in company with. The verb-preposition phrase is listed together in the dictionary with its own meaning. in connection with. . In interrogative sentences and subordinate clauses. in order to. in behalf of. on account of. in default of. She was brought up in the suburbs. caused by. in the event of. in reward of. (was raised) Place of Prepositions in the Sentence A preposition usually precedes its object: I am voting for him. in spite of. in answer to. These verb-preposition combinations have several names: twopart verbs. Compare the following sentences: Whom are you voting for? For whom are you voting? This is a book (which) we were talking about.

the class. etc. the war. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you..182 English Practical Course The first sentence in each pair is common in informal speech. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the .. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb. winter. Prepositions of Time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening.. the moment On Saturday. Tuesday morning. the weekend. your free (spare) time. my holidays. etc.. etc. two weeks. midnight. etc. 25-th. the 1930s. etc. Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place Movement Place to at used with verbs of movement: go. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. my last birthday. university. London. 11-th January. 1988. For seven minutes. In formal writing and business communications. etc.. not used come. January.. two weeks’ time. keep the preposition and object together. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock. summer. But: I arrived at London Airport. etc. etc.. a long time. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop.. I came here During* the film. ages Since June. Monday. Easter/ Christmas. etc. February...

point. think. puff. speak. care. worry. distinguish. doubt. AFTER: aspire. cry. crave. tell. long. FOR: account. languish. glance. flee. revolt. atone. ask. prepare. AT: aim. pass. leave.English Practical Course 183 promenade. receive. strike. AGAINST: clamour. take. fight. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc. see. stand. fish. thunder. differentiate. suffer. rage. write. walk. throw. answer. strive. refrain. IN: . mock. reach. manufacture. talk. search. guard.) Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. exclaim. knock. smile. borrow. hanker. learn. extricate. derive. look. set. sneer. indemnify. drive. start. rush. fret. exact. obtain. FROM: absolve. lament. descent. protect. profit. recover. repine. mutter. hunt. stay. spring. ensue. excerpt. complain. buy/sell (sth) at a price. laugh. look. insure. divide. cry. fire a shot. banish. pay. wait. work. BY: begin. gaze. defend. warn. rejoice. hope. fall. grieve. hunger. call. expect. finish. purge. shoot. send. die. last. say. select. know. pine. purchase. withdraw. differ.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. call. sail. assess. sigh. take. yearn. murmur. pull. swear. wish. do. bargain.

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer, insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write. INTO: alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn. OF: accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain, consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn, relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think. ON: act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark, gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell. OVER: brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate. TO: adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal, aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain, consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead, listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return, seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend. WITH: agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond, deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet (~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side, sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie. UPON: act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist, look, play (~one’s feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample. Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:

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Addicted to, adequate for (smth.), adequate to (smb.), adverse to, affected by, amazed at, ambitious after, annoyed at, anxious about (smth.), anxious for (smb.), appalled by, apprehensive of (i.e. worried about), apt for, ashamed of, astonished at, averse to, bad at, beneficial to, bent on, busy with, capabale of, certain of, charmed at (smth.), charmed with (smb.), clever at (mathematics), compatible with, concerned about /with, concerned for (smb), connected with, consistent with, contended with, convenient for (smth.) convenient to (smb.), crazy about, cruel to, deficient in (smth.), delighted at, derogatory to, devoid of, dexterous at, diffident in, disappointed at, disgusted by (smth.), disgusted with (smb.), displeased at, dissatisfied with, doubtful of (smb.), dying for, eager for/about, earnest about, enraged by, essential for, excited at/over, fit for, frightened at, full of, good at, greedy of, hostile to (smb.), hungry for, identical to/with, ignorant of, immersed in (debts), immune against, immune from, impolite to, inadequate for smth/to smb, incensed at/with, inclined to /for, inconceivable to, independent of smb, indignant at/with, infatuate with, intent on, irritated at, offended at, opposite from, parallel to, paralyzed with, partial to, particular about, pleased at smth, prepared for, proficient in, prone to, resolved on, rude to, secure of, skillful at/in, slow at, solicitous about, sorry about smth, sorry for smb, subject to, suffering from, sufficient for, suited to, sure about smth, sure of smb, sympathetic to, tired with, true to, unfit for, unjust to, vexed at smth, vexed with smb

Controlled Practice
1. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.

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d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the recent discovery. j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology. 2. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I shut the door but left my key …..... it. b. He strolled carelessly .……. the road. c. They arrived late .……. the station. d. She ran all the way …….. the shop. e. I went …….. Paris last year. f. I met her …….. the rock concert. g. The baby crawled …….. the kitchen. h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 3. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England . ……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air . 4. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column A and then translate into Romanian: A in on under at with above out of by without off B work suspicion question joy love fire one’s breath fail heart duty

A interest lack ambition

B for in in

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delight advantage influence witness arrangement agreement declaration protection difference damage impatience A busy inferior satisfied advantageous superior mad new afraid excited interested

for between at over of of upon against to on to B to of at to at with to to in about

A run deal talk take

B in with after about

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divide think climb pass rely believe

on about; of by up into for

5. Read through the following and fill in the numbered blanks with a suitable preposition of time. Be careful, however, because in one or two cases no preposition is needed. My parents met (1)… the war: (2)… August 1943 to be precise. My father was home (3)… leave (4)… the front, and he decided to spend the first week with his aunt in Liverpool. He hadn’t seen her (5)… several years, even though she had brought him up (6)… his mother’s death. Liverpool is not the most beautiful city in the world, but it can be very pleasant (7)… summertime, especially early (8)… the morning. (9)… this particular morning, however, my father was in no mood to enjoy the sunrise over the Mersey. His train left Euston Station (10)… time, at midnight, but (11)… the time it got to Crewe, it was already three and a half hours (12)… schedule. So he was in a bad mood and very tired (13)… arrival at Lime Street Station. But something happened (14)… minutes of his arrival that changed not only his mood but also his whole life. Feeling thirsty (15)… his long journey, he decided to go and have a cup of tea in the station buffet. Typically, it was shut (16)… that early hour. A notice on the door read “Opening hours (17)… 7 a.m. (18)… 5.30 p.m.” He looked at the station clock: ten (19)… seven. The buffet should be open (20)… now, he thought. But, knowing station buffets, he realized that he could wait (21)… 8 or even 9 o’clock before it opened. Suddenly he noticed a pretty girl sitting on a bench. She was pouring some hot liquid from a thermos flask into a cup. Being something of a lady’s man, my father (at least this is what my mother

I’ll marry you and look after you (25)… the rest of my life!” Believe it or not. of going to the h. The police charged the man bank 5. The three men were found guilty 7. Choose a suitable ending from those marked a – p. He was arrested… 3. My brother is very conscious… the exam 2. Since the weather was so bad. Mr Bond is deputizing circus 10. into going to e. against going d. I wouldn’t be here (26)… now if the buffet hadn’t been shut (27)… that fateful day (28)… August 1943. 1. 6. he was discouraged to the dentist 12. In Britain. on her work c. gave him the tea. And I haven’t had a hot drink (24)… last night. He didn’t want her to go. for her today g. of his big f. from leaving k. having more than behavior 4. from taking . with murder j. and … well. about going i. Since Mrs Smith is ill. She takes great pride l. for robbing a b. so he tried to prevent her 11. we decided the party 8. He apologised nose 9.190 English Practical Course told me (22)… some years later) sat down and said “I’ve never seen such a pretty girl (23)… all my life as you. Most children are fond to the beach 6. Complete the following sentences. If you give me a drink of your tea. for his bad a. As he’d missed so many lessons. she smiled at him.

a prisoner 15. from memory h. in flames m. simultaneous 9. at daybreak c. in the nude n.English Practical Course 191 13. He complimented her 15. Complete the sentences below with one of the following adjectives plus a preposition. 1. You’re too young! 7. To tell you the truth. old-fashioned 12. It’s burning! 16. He tried to coax her 14. under age 8. . in her work o. recite a poem 2. in vogue o. gradually a. It really hurts! 13. no clothes 10. illegal 8. Try to match them up correctly. Each of the words and phrases on the left can be associated with one of the prepositional phrases on the right. of fraud n. against the law b. at the same time d. on an empty stomach p. in agony i. He was always very nervous tonight 16. very early 14.I haven’t eaten 11. behind schedule e. in disorder l. very fashionable 5. I’m not very keen law m. We’re late! 3. on going out p. in arrears j. What a mess! 4. I can’t pay! 6. behind bars k. by degrees g. against the 7. behind the times f.

Pop groups are … … smashing up hotel rooms. Life is … … surprises. TIMES c. inspired. aware. sympathetic a. d. I’m really … … mathematics. He was … … the race for taking drugs. Do you think politicians are … … telling lies? b.192 English Practical Course addicted. distracted. full. Although he wouldn’t admit it. expert. i. c. I hope to see you all again soon. h. Only unmarried women are … … membership. disqualified. Supply the missing prepositions. n. k. DATE b. bad. g. 9. a. o. ON . Don’t ask me to add up the bill. everyone could see that he was … … his wife’s success. involved. The flat wasn’t very big. He tried to work but was … … the noise from the traffic. capable. isn’t it? m. jealous. notorious. LONG d. ”Who else was … … the crime?” the policeman asked the suspect. e. He was nearly 16 before he first became … … the opposite sex. The teacher was … … her students for not doing their homework. but it was perfectly … … our needs. You’ll have to make your own bed in future. angry. Although they said they were … … our case. eligible. they were not prepared to support us officially. l. adequate. Never become … … cigarettes! f. Most of her clothes are no longer fashionable. j. You really make me angry sometimes. My neighbour is … … pruning fruit trees. The underlined expressions can be replaced by a time expression based on the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS. This piece of music was … … by Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata. p.

We’ll be in UK. The demonstration occupied the square for several hours until they were eventually driven away by the police. best of luck with your driving test. DAY l. END k. and immediately there were twenty young men offering to dance with her. Autumn is the time when fruit like apples and pears are available. PROGRESS. MEANTIME p. For each of the sentences below. Nobody wanted to buy his car. SEASON g. SECRET They … … d. FAMOUS Pisa … … b. This passport can be used inmost countries. MOMENT n. There is an examination going on. Are you and Jennifer related? RELATIVE . VALID This … … c. Everyone has heard about the leaning tower of Pisa. They didn’t tell anyone they were getting married. Wendy said that she would like to dance. We have given you the first word(s) of the new sentence. Now and then we like to spend a weekend in the mountains. TIME i. write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence using the word in CAPITAL LETTERS. BEING o. Until then. a.English Practical Course 193 e. but only briefly. LONG j. I hope to see you next month. Please be very quiet. and we don’t know even now what happened to her. DELAY m. Your Aunt Kate is using the spare bedroom now. Our daughter left home three years ago. so finally he had to give it away. …so you’ll have to sleep in the garden temporarily. TIME f. 10. Please complete the rest of your assignments right away. LENGTH h.

BORED She … … j. DIFFICULTY He … …. all she wanted to eat was jelly. Your car is just like one I used to own. VALUED The … … i. He found it hard to open the window. He would never tell you a lie. IMPRESSION . j. DOUBTFUL We … … i. My boss seems to enjoy humiliating people. CRAVING Mary … … m. SIMILAR I…… k. HABIT I…… o. She doesn’t find her present job very interesting. I don’t usually speak to strange men. The painting is worth$30. INCAPABLE He … … l. Pay no attention to what she says. When Mary was pregnant. I lent my cousin $5.194 English Practical Course Is … … e. We didn’t think she would pass the exam. The interview panel thought that Sarah had a very good manner. NOTICE Take … … h. Do you want a drink? CARE Would … … f. BORROWED My cousin … … g.000. COLLIDED A car … … h. PLEASURE My boss … … n. A car crashed into a bus this morning.

MEMORY I …… u. common. the expense. CONFIDENCE I…… r. favour. addition. with … to h. I can recite Wordsworth’s Prelude without looking at the book. out of … for j. Try to make up a sentence using each of the phrases. My father says that the moon is made of green cheese. odds. exchange. KEY Irish history … … q. TALENT Henry …… s. for … of j. with … of i. in … to d. in … with c. t. respect. in … for b. PRESSURE I …… 7. virtue a. the sake. Complete the prepositional phrases below by choosing a word from the following list. We have run out of the items you want. If you want to understand Yeats’ s poetry. account. in … of e.English Practical Course 195 Sarah … … p. at … with g. the exception. A. ACCORDING The moon ……. The way to get the best out of me is to make me work very hard. on … of . My best friend is someone I can really trust. STOCK The items …… v. regard. Henry really knew how to make people laugh. you need to study Irish history.

the influence. If you had a … … marrying for love or marrying for money. choice. The African elephant will be extinct within 20 years if an international … … the ivory trade is not started immediately. in … with h. answer. excuse. campaign. f. genius. cruelty. at … with d. by … of e. at … of k. trouble a. control. for … of f. opposite. the benefit. Do you have any … … my parking my car in front of your house? e. objection. in … of g. news. The … … chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too quickly. What is the … … “timid”? Is it “bold” or “brave”? c. agreement. under … of o. fall. work a. but that’s no … … not doing your homework. . aid. compensation. a cost. to … of n. freedom. in … to i. d. in … for j. good terms. peace. on … of k. which would you do? b. basis. at … of c. out of … for m. Complete the sentences below with one of the following nouns plus a preposition. strain. reference. the accompaniment. pity. the compliments. I know you have a cold. with … of 8. on … with l. knowledge. at … on b.196 English Practical Course f. behalf. with … to p. by … of B. means. grudge.

English Practical Course 197 g. we can do as we like: our teacher has no … … us at all. Since the salmonella scare. Overweight people should not jog. because it puts a great … … their hearts. Perhaps the three most important human rights are … … hunger. k. If you have to deal with overseas clients. i. j. there has been a considerable … … the consumption of eggs. fear and persecution. In our class. The RSPCA is concerned with prevention of … … animals. h. a … … foreign languages is very useful. . l.

Which words in column A can combine with words in column B? a gaggle of a school of a pride of a swarm of a colony of a flock of a pack of a litter of A on with beyond to in by off at under without A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud puppies geese locusts fish hounds birds bees lions B top the left a light heart praise land the mark war doubt earnest such circumstances B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! .198 English Practical Course Progress Test 3 1.

Pe de o parte nu-mi place grosolănia ta şi pe de altă parte mi-am terminat programul. i. 2. l. Translate into English: a. Ei s-au simţit foarte bine la mare anul trecut. a high mountain. Happy Birthday. loud music. strong wind. Francezii mănâncă mai multă pizza decât englezii. Happy Anniversary. in earnest. a high building. a swarm of bees. Ei au pornit să escaladeze Alpii. b. without doubt. g. n. Tamisa este un râu care trece prin Londra.Express-ul. a high price. a tall person. j. Acesta este cea mai bună piesă de teatru pe care am văzut-o. Ei şi-au dat mâna în final şi au plecat. Statele Unite cooperează cu Marea Britanie. El merge la şcoală dimineaţa. off the mark. by land. f. h. a litter of puppies. c. beyond praise. a school of fish. Unde a avut loc accidentul? Key: a gaggle of geese. . El a ajuns aseară şi este cazat la Hotelul Hilton. heavy smoker. a pack of hounds. Merry Christmas. Englezii sunt foarte politicoşi. Happy New Year. a tall tree.English Practical Course 199 2. heavy traffic. under such circumstances. o. to the left. e. heavy noise. with a light heart. Aş vrea să călătoresc cu Orient. a colony of locusts. k. a pride of lions. a high wall. on top. El este profesor la universitate. d. m. a flock of birds . El a devenit preşedintele Franţei în 1998. at war.

They had a very good time at the seaside last year. d. The United States and The United Kingdom co-operate. e.200 English Practical Course a. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points b. h. m. a. Where did the accident happen? Score: 1. 1 point + 0. b. The French eat more pizza than the English. He became (the) President of France in 2000. They shook hands and left. He is a teacher at the university.60 point each x15 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points . l. He arrived last night and is accommodated at the Hilton. I wish I travelled by the Orient Express. k. g. n. c. j. i. On the one hand I don’t like your rudeness and on the other my shift is over. He goes to school in the morning. The Thames is a river which crosses London. They set off to climb the Alps. This is the best play I have ever seen. o. 1 point + 0. The English are very polite. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points c.60 point each x15 = 10 points 2. f.

English Practical Course 201 .

bitter-sweet. the turbans. and the scent of orange rind. verb forms acting as adjectives. the cherry scent. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. in July. before a fire of coals. Angel. the cool clarion earth. He knew the good male smell of his father’s sittingroom. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth. and the robes. are underlined. He remembered yet the East India Tea house at the Fair. with the gaping horse-hair rent. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. the sandalwood. inside a farmer’s covered wagon. participles. but we’ve included them in our analysis of Wolve’s text. if the smooth worn leather sofa. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. Some people would argue that words that are part of a name – like East India Tea house – are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns – father’s. Adjectives are bold. of . of cantaloupe and crated peaches. the wet loaniness of the garden. farmer’s – are not technically adjectives.202 English Practical Course Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adjectives © The Order of Adjectives in a Series © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Consider the uses of modifiers in this paragraph rich in adjectives from Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward. Note that such an abundance of adjectives would be uncommon in contemporary prose.

.. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another.….than FULL-TIME. e. of the heated calf-skin bindings. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco. c. The management said salaries had INCREASED. .…. of warm nasturtiums. the opposite of old is young. of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter eggs. and milk. the opposite of short is long. stuck with a red flag. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee. For example.…………. of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored.English Practical Course 203 the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth. The first shop he opened was a BIG SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. Many people would rather work ………….……. Ways with Words 1. of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter.. d. of honey-suckle at night. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October. position. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . b. Now complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a. of a bakery-oven in the wind.. long closed.…. of the brown tired autumn earth.. 2. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being . Try to find the antonyms of the adjectives in the text.

Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. Observation adjectives. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. the fat lady. richest man. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. a serious commitment. perfect to interesting. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. etc. the unhappiest. demonstrative this tool II. because the order seems quite arbitrary. they appear in a set order according to category. the sixth (numerals. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. a fivemonth-old child. a month’s pay. which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. The Order of Adjectives in a Series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. and when they do. possessive chapter. her story. beautiful. adjectives. . There is however a pattern.204 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Position of adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun/ nouns in the sentence: the tall man. Unlike adverbs. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify.

a Shakespearian play. the. ancient denoting red. old. a Renaissance/ Romantic/ Victorian poet. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: . violet adjectives French. the oppressed. regarded as part of the passenger car. Qualifier is made of final limiter. VI. a Faulknerian style. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. short. green. the rich. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. it should probably be capitalised. blue. noun often hunting cover cabin. yellow. IV. the homeless. V. square young. Thus we write (about) Christian music. orange. brown. book Capitalising proper adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. Collective adjectives When the definite article. American. the Nixon era. English. the lonely. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour gorgeous to large. black. round. metallic. French fries. new. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. Romanian adjectives wooden. small. Polish.English Practical Course 205 III. Spanish. the English Parliaments.

A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet less worthy of consideration than another candidate. The rich are not supposed to help the poor. although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother.206 English Practical Course The rural poor have been ignored by the media. the opposite of young is old. the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. It’s probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already negative: He is less unlucky than his brother. . Adjectival opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. One way. The meaning itself can be tricky. is to find an antonym. for instance. the opposite of prudent is imprudent. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. the opposite of alcoholic is non-alcoholic. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix). the opposite of honourable is dishonourable. the opposite of being properly filled is misfilled. you will have to consult a dictionary. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. The opposite of beautiful is ugly. They are figures of speech. A third means of creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. of course. For instance. an euphuism is created if we say that This is the least beautiful city in the state instead of This is the ugliest city in the state.

farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more . °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively.y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting Irregular adjectives rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** syllables Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives double the consonant when the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel: fat/ fatter/ the fattest.English Practical Course 207 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in . hot/ hotter/ the hottest. etc. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).

Your essay should be a thousand words or less. people used typing machines instead of computers. it’s possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time. (The next bus comes in an hour.). the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. we use the word fewer. the next refers to order. The latter has also an abstract meaning. She had fewer chores.). use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It’s less than four miles to Dallas.) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. He’s less than six feet tall. *** Latter means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Philology. Fowles.). In these situations. the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). the first means initial (Americans claim that the first movie was made in the United States. we use the word less. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play). ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest library?). when we’re talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count.208 English Practical Course * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you.) Less versus fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. (Give me further details in order to understand it better.).). the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John. however. when we’re talking about countable things. but she also had less energy. Taller than I/me? . We do. Generally. quantity.

S. ) More than/ over? In the United States.. over 40. however. will argue that the word than should be allowed to function as a preposition. anyway – in formal. time or height: His sister is over forty. meaning in excess of or over. (We leave out the verb in the second clause. He knows very well who the murderer is. then (if than could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say. In England. We’ve been waiting well over two hours for her. am or is. He is taller than me/her. If we can say He is tall like me/ her. use the subject form in such comparisons. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as I like him better than she/her. you will commonly hear over in numerical expressions of age. We are looking for the subject form: He is taller than I am/ she. It’s an interesting argument. in the U. academic prose.) Some good writers. Good versus well In both casual speech and formal writing. we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. we usually use more than in countable numerical expressions.000 traffic deaths in one year. . For instance. He swims well. whereas in the UK.S. she is over six feet tall. With most verbs. there is no ambiguity: when modifying a verb. there is no such distinction.English Practical Course 209 When making a comparison with than we end with a subject form: taller than I/she. her would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. but – for now. use the adverb. however.000 traffic deaths would be acceptable. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. some editors would insist on more than 40. Even so in the U. She will mean that you like this person better than she likes him. we could write I like him better than she does or I like him better than I like her..

the+ comparative . In fact. Bad versus badly According to the same rule that applies to good versus well. Translate into English: a. If you felt badly it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives: Form: the+ comparative .... Comparative Sentences In relation to the degrees of comparison. Controlled Practice 1. and this is perfectly all right.210 English Practical Course However.. you can use the adjective instead. El colecţionează vase vechi. will use well after linking verbs relating to health. frumoase din porţelan.. b. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Literary Magazine”. . thank you. The more mass in the body. c. Many careful writers. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. You feel bad when something bad happens. the baby smells so good. the better. thank you. The bigger the essay. After a bath. the more fun we’ll have. How are you? I’m feeling good. The more we are. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you are OK physically but also that your spirits are high: How are you? I am well. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră.. use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings.. however. the less acceleration.

melancolic. Aş vrea să-mi cumpăr un pulover din lână scoţiană. c. Avem nevoie de mai multe computere în acest laborator. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche? e. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. coleric şi flegmatic. f. Women students are tempting new subjects. b. . Translate them into Romanian: She bought Egyptian cotton shirts. h. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. g. She fed her dog biscuits. Translate into English: a. 3. cu atât mai bine. f. El el reprezentantul angajaţilor tineri de la departamentul de marketing. Talk about the two possible meanings of the following sentences. Studentul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. Fumează două pachete de ţigări pe zi. d. patru tipuri de temperament: − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. g. Eroarea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul.English Practical Course 211 d. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. Cu cât aştept mai mult. e. El este un fumător învederat. cu atât mă enervez mai tare. Am discutat astăzi la psihologie cele sanguin.

iar al doilea este mai lung. Dintre cele douã romane. He needed (little) knowledge of computer skills than he thought they would expect him to. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. Today. j. h. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. i. She found (few) grammar mistakes in John’s essay than in Mary’s one. i. e. (Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. j. c.212 English Practical Course h. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working with now. The results were (bad) than expected. b. (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. f. g. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Ideea ta e mai bunã. d. Supply the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets: a. primul este mai scurt. He was unable to get (far) information. Engleza devine din ce în ce mai importantã în întreaga lume. He is (lazy) student in the class.

the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo. b. Los Angeles has ……. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. oldest city I have ever seen. London is.. of course. buildings than Athens. they are ……. for common people. Los Angeles is . . Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. .English Practical Course 213 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Tokyo’s exciting. but. parks....……. and. than Athens. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it.... but London has . Athens is …….…….……. ……. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited. There are five in the city centre.. London doesn’t have ……. parks than Tokyo.…….. and ……. much older ….. 7. even if their cars are very elegant and ……. but it isn’t …….. Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: . Los Angeles. Tokyo.. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. c. exciting of all. exciting ……. these are …….. interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. d.. the largest. but it has older ones …….. for an architect. the most expensive.. The Electrolite is . of course. London is ……. too expensive.. In comparison to our cities. 6.yet.. Some are facts and some are his opinions. e.. Complete his sentences: a. if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. Yet at the same time you should think that..

Almost all the currencies in this area are (convert). You are in the (envy) position of owning half of the firm. He has retired and few/ little friends visit him. c. g. His appearance at the party was (pleasure). d. Your first paper was good/ better but this one is even best/ better. The family of gipsy across the street live in a (pity) state. the more relaxed/ the most relaxed you will feel.-ible. k. f. i.214 English Practical Course a. Jack was extremely (mischief) that evening. b. l. I spent a most (enjoy) night talking to my old friend George. m. e. 8. Sometimes food eaten at home is the better/ better than food eaten in a restaurant. The weather here is very (change). Complete the sentences with adjectives ending in –able. There are very few types of plants (eat) on this island. they were very (patience). The (colour) balloons attract the children in the park. j. -uble. n. You should always be (confidence) in yourself to succeed. He needs some/ any months of training. h. They waited in the hall for five hours. e. -ed or -ant derived from the verbs and nouns given in brackets: a. From these two photographs the smaller is the best/the better. The sooner/ sooner you get here. . f. i. -ful. They have invited any/ many people. A bigger dictionary is always more complete/ completer than a smaller one. Those children’s minds are very (impress) sometimes. It was a (moment) opportunity. b. d. Which of the two students is more hardworking/ the more hardworking? h. c. g. -ous. Hungary has few (navigate) waterways.

. He is the greatest comic ever. Complete the sentences with negative adjectives derived from the verbs in brackets by using the suffixes –able. Heroes finally disappear. person: he lies and cheats everybody whenever he feels like. 10. his jokes are (imitate). overconfident. c. . I’ve never seen such a ………. He shouldn’t have believe your words. c. Freedom of speech is regarded today as an (alienate) right. but their words are (destroy). b. their decision to sell the house is (revoke). -ible. We are not cannibals! d. They are not ………. there are three places in Predeal which are ……… . he has been ………… .. your behaviour must be (courtesy). or –uble and the negative prefixes in. Because you have been so stubborn.. e. they take everything for granted. .English Practical Course 215 o. When you go to that refined place.or un-. Because of the snow. q. f. overwhelming. The roast beef is ……… . p. 9. they didn’t complain of the (object) smell from the garbage disposal. b. We like the privacy of a (fence) yard. a. crowd. d. Strangely enough. inaccessible. success due to the publication of her latest novel. dishonest. h. e. The story you want to publish is ………. unruly. They had to use guns against that ………. mistrustful. a. underdone. g. The Romanian word dor is almost (translate) into English. She had an ………. f. . there are too many obscenities in it. Complete each of these sentences with an adjective from the following list: unprintable. Adults change into old persons by almost (perceive) stages.

lowly). You have (hard. g. My friends entered (deep. coolly). h. d. English. i. Does he have (…) motorbike? (blue. ugly). (Russian. They were (deep. two pairs of. That blue dress cost (dear. e. for teaching foreign languages). My friend sold me the TV set (cheap. new). highly) in the sky. b. (two. valuable. (canvas. (new. young. white and red. very. Mary is looking for (…) fountain pen. i. (good. a. (Number) changes took place in the office while I was away. for jogging). This library has (…) books. They used to live in a (…) house. a. grey).216 English Practical Course g. country. She intends to buy (…) coat. deeply) in the cave. g. huge. e. . 11. Italian. This pair of trousers is especially made to be (shrink). he acted (cool. expensive. hardly) read anything this week. j. She used to work (hard. radio programmes. winter. Tom doesn’t like (…) children. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order: a. (woman. f. Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a. French. (…) shirts are a gift for me. those). thick). d. 12. f. black and white. i. light). He wasn’t allowed to hit (low. (blue. lowly) for fear he should hurt his opponent. (wool. (brick-built. Your position in this company is quite (low. old. deeply) impressed by our success. hardly) for the exam. b. racing. h. nasty. h. and interesting. Jet airliners can fly (high. Chinese. He is (…) teacher. j. a. They were the first to search that (penetrate) jungle. cheaply). c. two. these. silk. old. c. many. dearly). She has found (…) in the park. He stood firm on position. very). Several (…) began last week. pleasant).

This room is less wide than the previous one. h. i. c. … … students will get scholarships next year. My cousin is much less rich than he looks. b. This poem is less good than your last one. eldest) in the family? . Who is the (oldest. j. b. It is less dangerous to climb the Carpathians than to climb the Alps. This plant employs … … men than women. Choose the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a. She writes … … prose than poetry. After that heavy rain the air is less dry that it was before. d. His office is less near than mine. There are … … Italians than Greeks in our town. g. Which village is (further. g. h.English Practical Course 217 13. i. Reformulate them so that they express the same meaning but use the comparative of superiority of the antonym: a. farther. farthest) of all? b. A car is less quick than an airplane. e. f. The following sentences are incorrect. George has … … American cars than Jack. The wound is less bad than you thought at the beginning. The English drink … … tea than milk. Fill in with less or fewer: a. c. There will be … … snow this winter. e. The water was less deep than they hoped. You have always had … … toys than the other little boys. 15. We have … … money for our holiday than last year. There was … … rain last summer. 14. f. d.

later. I chose the (last. Este cu mult mai greu decât mi-am imaginat. f. e. Cu cât alergi mai mult. further) advice to continue your investigation. (Further. Se şubrezeşte pe zi ce trece. f. Nu am mai avut răbdare să stăm până la sfârşitul meciului pentru că a devenit din ce în ce mai puţin interesant. j. later). h. g. Aceasta este cea mai bună cale posibilă de a o face să renunţe la ţigări. d. My colleague’s (last. Translate into English using intensifiers: a. cu atât slăbeşti mai tare. Ţi-am adus cele mai proaspete fructe pe care le-am găsit. e. La auzul bubuiturii. I had to choose between French and English. Cu cât copiii sunt mai neascultători. I’ve bought two bananas and ate the (latter. latest) article has just been published. You needed (farther. I was wondering where the (nearest. She lived (nearest. latter). b. Noua sa bibliotecă e cu mult mai mare decât cea veche. g. Crede cu tărie că aceasta e absolut cea mai frumoasă dintre concurente. cu atât părinţii sunt mai nemulţumiţi. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . deveni din ce în ce mai neliniştit. next) bus station was. h. 16. c. next) door when she was young. i.218 English Practical Course c. Farther) Mike realised he must return the stolen goods at once. i. d.

dog. punch. pink. a. To tell a … … lie sometimes does not hurt anybody’s feelings. although normally he is as sober as (Sunday. grey. a mould. I was given the … … light to announce the winner. glue. a bank. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. She was as pleased as (a poppy. green.English Practical Course 219 17. mouse. d. c. Speak louder. The Jackson brothers get on like (a house on fire. Select the colour: white. yellow. he won’t listen to you. he has a memory like a (bucket. Putting your jewelry in this box is as safe as (houses. g. as (real. a sunflower. b. f. . They will never eat so much ice-cream. large) as life. You can shout at him until you are … … in the face. a. 18. lead. an elephant)! d. a leaf. gold bars. e. The shoes fit you like (a glove. h. j. blue. sieve). a priest. a judge. a pillowcase) since you mended them. They were tickled … … when the teacher congratulated them. good. fish and chips. pound notes) when she won the first prize. They never argue. a vault). He drunk a lot yesterday. they were as sick as a (pig poodle. you are as heavy as (a corpse. c. please! He is as deaf as (a post. I saw him last night. donkey). true. horse. a Muslim). My grandfather never remembers anything. i. clockwork). Explain the meaning. a politician). b. two peas in a pod. I can tell that you have eaten a lot lately. That vampire hasn’t been banished from town.

19. b. c. 20. Your proposal proves not too expensive. Confusing words: a. Kelly has always wanted to live in a (luxurious/luxuriant) mansion. Terry chose a (distinctive/distinct) nuance of red for her nail polish. d. f. he would like to live in the mountains. They were really … … to leave us here without protecting us. The food you are eating right now is quite (deficient/defective) in fats. They say that lacking … … matter is worse than lacking beauty. h. i. My parents have (decisive/conclusive) evidence that I smoke. I am not that (credible/credulous) to believe everything I am told. e. A (classic/classical) case of tuberculosis has been discovered in this school. f. Even if they got a lot of nice gifts. She doesn’t believe that these cigarettes are any (good) than the Russian ones.220 English Practical Course e. I’ve been trying to decipher the manuscript for more than 6 hours because his handwriting is totally (eligible/illegible). g. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. The President was very (official/officious) while giving his speech. d. He doesn’t like (urbane/urban) life. Your garden has (narrow) alleys than those from our park. Mary was … … with envy when her sister married a handsome young man. c. b. g. therefore it is (practicable/practical). please. they also got some … … elephants. In Australia there are (strict/severe) regulations with regard to kangaroos. k. h. Which are the (breath-taking) views in your country? . j. Try to be a little (precise).

b. Then the show became ever (funny). f. Parcul acela nu este foarte întins. The (cold) the weather. este cel mai puţin întins din tot oraşul. nights become (longer) till December. Primul film nu este atât de reuşit ca al doilea şi nici atât de haios. the (low) the temperatures. d. His story became (interesting) the more we listened. dar nu este atât de bine încât să se dea jos din pat. Pacientul se simte bine astăzi. the 22nd. They have the (complete) understanding of the problem. Translate into English: a. dar vărul său mai mare este cu 5 ani mai în vârstă decât el. Mulţi oameni perfect sănătoşi nu sunt la fel de utili societăţii ca unii oameni cu deficienţe fizice. i. c. Domnul Smith este foarte bătrân. .English Practical Course 221 e. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 21. e. In autumn. It is (hard) for my nephew to understand the problem than for his (old) sister. Fotoliul din odaia mea este greu. de fapt. George este chipeş. f. g. g. biroul este şi mai greu dar biblioteca este cea mai grea din casă. dar fratele său mai tânăr este cel mai chipeş băiat din câţi am văzut. h. Dicţionarul pe care l-ai cumpărat cu două zile în urmă este gros ca o cărămidă! h.

Nu am întâlnit o persoană mai cunoscută în cercul guvernamental decât ea. j. b. close/ are/ buddies/ extremely/ we. this/ man/ Pam/ wonder/ really/ I/ marry/ to/wants/if f. incredibly/ holiday/ wonderful/ was/ the. people/ true/pork/that/never/is/drink/it/these/alcohol/no/eat/and? g. Enormous/ they/ old/ staying/ house/ brown/ are/ an/ in. life/movie/in/such/I/never/my/seen/a/have/boring h. and/ looks/ now/ old/ she/ fresh/ rather. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22. e. Problema era mai delicată decât mi-am putut eu imagina vreodată. that/ motorbike/have/since/when/new/had/they? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .222 English Practical Course i. Rewrite the sentences putting the words into the correct order: a. c. d.

relax. It was a very restful holiday so we feel much more … now. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 24. c. e. Complete the sentences with participles as adjectives. keep beautifully. tailor beautifully. think clearly. love. If this is the case. I kept calling her by her nickname. then this is (disturbing) than anything else. embarrass. d. it was very … . One old client was heard to say that their new supplier was (professional) and (flexible) than we are. steal. bring up well. using the verbs below. boil. It is not easy to be the (good) but that is what we should be aiming for. This is no surprise due to the recession but what is (unacceptable) than this is the clear proof that some of our (old) clients have switched to another supplier. We used to have the (high) standing in the business but we are in danger of losing that for good. act well. park. I saw a very … play. b. continue. change. build well. The … kettle filled the little girl with fear. The economic situation is getting (critical) and if we don’t compare favorably with our (big) competitors. decline fast. The verbs with adverbs should be used to form compound adjectives: dry. a. write well.English Practical Course 223 23. He’s a very … boy: he always behaves himself well. We are aware that there are (cheap) suppliers than ourselves but this may not be the (essential) factor. brush well. plan badly. . then we will not survive. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form: The company’s twelve-monthly report shows that sales figures were (low) than the previous year. break.

o. dread. She never remembers your birthday. rely. n. motion. You may be charged with receiving … stolen cars. It was a very … article. submit.224 English Practical Course f. p. Her hair is always very … . it was thoroughly enjoyable. describe. It was a … escape and so it was doomed to failure. forget. They’re a very … family and they understand each other perfectly. I don’t know why she’s that … . Everybody believes what Jack says because he’s always been … . truth a. power. Shortage of gas is a … problem for us. They should not park near … cars. h. grace. tire. The increase in divorce shows a … attitude to marriage. That’s a … suit she has bought. m. e. . b. Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below plus a suffix: act. There’s nothing I can do about it. Our chalet is old but it’s very … . g. k. enjoy. change. s. comfort. She may have suffered of a … heart. care. I’m totally… . Sharon is a good person to have in meetings as she’s very … . My friend never seems to run out of energy. They had a lovely holiday. he’s completely … . q. r. j. l. Jane Austen was a very … writer. f. c. she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her novels. This is a … garden: you must spend at least three hours a day working on it. d. Bears are a … species in that part of the country as many of them are killed every summer. t. Mother needs some … fruit to put in the cake. i. 25.

i. honest. possible. h. perfect. The armchairs he has just bought are really … . polite. justified. They always do what you tell him to do: he’s just so… . He’s very… . how do you like living in the new place? . agreeable. Mary: So. explicable. l. The lion stayed … as it waited to pounce on the gazelle. m. separable. j. who lives in Leeds. mature. The situation in the oil-polluted gulf is … . Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form. who has recently moved to the countryside. My back never hurts while sitting in them. tasteful. legible. convenient. destructible. rational. significant. responsible. 26. It’s important to keep … after you retire. interesting. Some of the comparatives are formed with less: Mary.English Practical Course 225 g. attractive. flexible. mortal. soluble. friendly. reversible. You’re so … : you’re always dropping plates on the floor. He has said he’ll be here and I’m sure he will. Thousands of fish are dying every day. regular. I love to watch the swans on the lake: they’re so … . n. logical. is on the phone to her friend Jane. moral legal. k. literate. the weather can be completely different from one day to another. replaceable dis- Un- il- imimpatient in- ir- 27. Put the following adjectives into the correct column: patient. relevant. o. It’s a very … climate.

Going out shopping in Liverpool was so much … (interesting) than it is here. it’s very nice. Jane: Well. Who knows? Mary: Yes. It must be nice to walk around somewhere that’s much … (crowded). I personally think you’re really lucky to be where you are. Mary: Mm. But it’s so much … (busy) on the streets in Liverpool. The people here are so much … (varied) than they are in Liverpool. But it’s just so much … (quiet) here and that takes some time to get used to. Anyway. I thought it was one of the … (beautiful) places I had ever seen. The house is much … (spacious) than the house we had in Liverpool and one of the … (good) things is being able to walk out of the back door into our own garden. at least I’m going to Liverpool again next weekend. I suppose sometimes I miss the clamour of Liverpool. perhaps I’ll feel … (settled) here after a few weeks. sometimes it is. it’s much (good) than Liverpool. It’s certainly … (polluted) here and I think it’s … (stressful) and that must be good for me. I’m … (excited) about that than I am about anything here. that’s quite true. I’m not sure I would say that. . When I came to visit you. Mary: Oh dear. isn’t it? Jane: Well. probably. So. Mary: Yes. Jane: Well.226 English Practical Course Jane: Oh. that is wonderful. You seem to be thinking that you haven’t made the … (good) decision.

as if all these people sitting in orderly rows upon narrow benches had been enslaved by the fascination of his voice. He stood elevated in the witness-box. It was very loud. spellbound. out of red faces. and from below many eyes were looking at him out of dark faces. it was the only sound audible in the world.” The illustration was good: the questions were aiming at facts. it rang startling in his own ears. with burning cheeks in a cool lofty room: the big framework of punkahs moved gently to and fro high above his head. for the terribly . tried to tell honestly the truth of this experience. Underline the definite articles with one line and the indefinite articles with two lines: A month or so afterwards. he said.English Practical Course 227 UNIT 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Articles © Definite Articles © Indefinite Articles © Zero Articles •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad. Pay attention to the use of the article in English. in answer to pointed questions. out of white faces. speaking of the ship: “She went over whatever it was as easy as a snake crawling over a stick. out of faces attentive. and the official Inquiry was being held in the police court of an Eastern port. when Jim.

I’m reading a course for my exam now. She is an Australian. The Indefinite Article a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to objects that have not been specifically identified. .228 English Practical Course distinct questions that extorted his answers seemed to shape themselves in anguish and pain within his breast. religion. Give me an apple. the shame that made you burn.came to him poignant and silent like the terrible questioning of one’s conscience.within was the wind of great punkahs that made you shiver. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. They live in a flat. or it doesn’t matter which one): A pet is a big responsibility. £13 000 a year Formally per can replace a/an. sixty kilometres an hour. • in measuring Three times a month. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. Outside the court the sun blazed.. Here are the basic rules.45 a kilo. the attentive eyes whose glance stabbed. $3. It refers to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one.

The course I’m reading is very interesting. a usual case. but an ugly man. an ink well. An indefinite article is required after • • such. to take a seat. etc. a woman. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. Mind the baby! Mind your steps when you climb the stairs! The tiger is threatened with extinction. • it is used with a generic noun that represents a class: We saw a zebra at the zoo. as a matter of fact. what a pretty nose.English Practical Course 229 He is a Christian. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. A book is for reading. an heir. a university. such pretty eyes quite a. to have a headache. rather a: quite a large dog. rather a big decision An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (except for words beginning with a semivowel: the sound /j/ and /w/): an apple. a united party. an hour. what: such an ugly scar . The Definite Article the is used: • • to refer to classes before a singular or a plural noun. . a year. an unusual accident. to have a good time. an honest man. Tom is the teacher of these students. Compare: Tom is a teacher. Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown: A Mr Smith called and asked about you. to develop a disease. • to refer to unknown people.

I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. oceans.230 English Practical Course • before nouns expressing certain public places. The United States. The Suez Canal. denoting groups of islands. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. compass points/ areas. rivers. hotels. it is capitalised. mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn). The Pacific. the East. The Independent (as the is part of the title. the Middle East. The Garden House Hotel. The Bahamas. The Sahara. The Hilton. the sun Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe: The planet has a small moon. chains of mountains. then normal rules about zero article apply: Brown’s Restaurant. or if they represent a union). note that Edinburgh University changes into The University of Edinburgh. but The Tower of London. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons.) This does not apply to lakes: Lake Geneva. The Mediterranean. institutions. The is sometimes dropped in everyday speech: Have you seen “Phantom of the Opera”? As far as names of places are concerned. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural). We say London Bridge. deserts. channels. The Time. continents (Europe. The Alps. • Before unique objects the moon. countries (if they are in the plural. but Canvey Island. means of transport. The Netherlands. The Sunday Times. countries (France). . Note that titles of books and films do not have the unless there is postmodification: The Phantom of the Opera. The Thames. The same applies to geographical names: The Isle of Man. Asia). If the first part of a place name is another name. The Orient Express. seas. shops.

etc. the is more likely. but not essential. The precedes nouns of indefinite quantity or quality (mass nouns and abstract nouns) used to indicate a particular attribute: Gold is an important metal. on the whole. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. with the superlative degree of adjectives: with ordinals: in phrases: The woman who is standing near the door will give a speech.English Practical Course 231 • before nouns converted from adjectives. on the one hand.. • to express titles. The gold in this ring is very old. (postmodification) • • • • when a restrictive modifier follows a noun. the third day to tell the time. the ninth row. But: He became (the) President of Romania in 2000. It was the most important day in my life.. . nationality. If the title is post-modified. on the other hand. The English are very polite. at the moment. The singular is not formed in the same way: An Englishman would always excuse for being late. denoting a class. The French eat in restaurants more than the English. (postmodification) Emphatic use: This heavily stresses and emphasises the following noun: This country is the place to visit. the second chapter. These tend to be unique: The director of studies. by the way. For instance: He became President in 2000.

• • some unique organisations: Parliament. mountains. Europe. to make friends. lakes. to be in trouble. to take place. • in phrases: at night. months. regions. Translation problems Study these sentences. magazines and periodicals. The Strand and street names without preceding adjectives. to shake hands. continents. In what way do the English people use the article differently in comparison with the way Romanians use it? . prison. towns. streets. • proper nouns denoting persons. day by day. days of the week. festivals. Newsweek Most streets do not use an article. etc. countries. Paris. But: The school in my district is near my house. when we imply the use made of the institution (not the building): He goes to school (to learn). Sunday. etc. Compare: Holly Drive with The Drive. Gold and silver are important metals. by sea.: Mary/ Mount Everest. Babies need to drink milk. Exceptions are The High Street. but The (House of) Commons nouns like school. at dawn. Green Road. by mistake. Money is the root of all evil. Oxford Street. Gas is cheaper than electricity. January.232 English Practical Course Zero Article It is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. church.

degree in . Controlled Practice 1. exam but it seems that it was . an/the. B. hardest of all. . hammer and . director to come. A.. a/the. B or C best fits each space: a.. the/ a e../ . It’s a film about homeless people. . C./ . .. a.../ . .English Practical Course 233 A pound and a half of butter.. He had . an/a/the g. B. C. an/the/ .. the c... Hilton. the/the f. A. B. In order to fix the armchair he needs . Decide which answer A. a. a/ some d. the/ the. Mathematics. a/ the........ Most and the most Most without an article means the greater part. C./the. . A.. B. B.. a/ . Terry has flu. Physics and one in . bed as I was very tired. B.. C../a/the. In order to survive. plants need ../the. A. very good time at ./the.. so he was one of . water. C. He is speaking to . C. C. A.../the. B. nails.. I’ve got a splitting headache. A. This is the most expensive shop in town. They had . seat and waited for . excellent dinner and had . . the b. a/the/the/the h.... A. B.. I did my homework and then went directly to . I took .. I live in Birmingham most of the time. I thought you had passed .. C. A.. an..... best teachers in our highschool. . authority. the .

/ . If I had had time to call you. the/ . . c... She bought a Cezanne I was telling you about the last week. so he studies different writers. . A.. C. home now. B. j. I’m going to stand for Parliament at the next election.. h../ . yet not everyone admires . Lion is dangerous animal. yet they are busy at the moment. the/ . sincerity with which he spoke.. m. i./a j. a/ .234 English Practical Course i. o. Her office is in the Baker Street. . B. An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling streets had been instructed to issue clear warning before firing any shots.... I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. way./the.. f. Don’t you work in bookshop in the London? g. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. I don’t like cakes sold in a local bakery.. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. Smiths are at . . Everyone was impressed by . C. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. d. in London. you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening./ . n. Work in pairs to find the mistakes in each of the following sentences: a. He’s philologist. I would have done it. The burglaries are definitely on increase... 2. It is not first-class accommodation unless it has a private bathroom. l. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. The time you spend on a relaxing pastime is good for you. A. k. . e./ ... sincerity in such . b.

which many people feel has had a significant and adverse effect upon the economy. In order to explain this apparent contradiction. Decide which answer A. because it is in 5) ……… best interests of the managements to keep the workers as happy as possible. however. At the same time. however most of the same people would defend 3) ……. Successive governments have attempted in 2) ……… vain to reduce this unrest.. and often. Whenever the work-force in any firm feel themselves to be 4) ……… victims of injustice. they will receive a sympathetic ear. their options are somewhat limited. and unemployment is high. let us examine the arguments for and against the right to strike. or wish to present their case for a pay increase. of course. the management may be less willing to listen and may try to take advantage of the workers’ fear of losing their jobs.English Practical Course 235 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. appeal to the better nature of their employers. B or C best fits each space: Britain has 1) ……… unenviable reputation for industrial unrest and strikes. They can. When the economy is none too healthy. right of workers to strike. In .

These negative arguments all emphasize 13) ……… disruption and hardship caused by strikes.. Strikes disrupt the process of production and can. Withdrawing one’s labour should. conditions. create immense problems as regards long-term planning. and fair treatment by the managements. it is hard to imagine that 15) ……… employees in Britain would be as well treated as they are today. As a last resort. wages. The state of the nation’s economy is inextricably linked with 11) ……… fortunes of private enterprise. of course. the call to strike. But the practical argument against strikes would remain a constant. Governments in capitalist societies such as Britain inevitably serve the interests of management. there seems little alternative to the withdrawal of labour. be 14) ……… last resort and there should be fewer irresponsible industrial disputes. 10) ……. you may find both practical and ideological arguments against the right to strike. as a result. sense that the importance of the ideological argument may vary with changes of government. Such arguments are not sufficiently strong to warrant denying workers the right to strike.right to strike because it imposes limits on the management’s control of employees and contradicts the ideology of a harmony of interests which assigns legitimacy to managerial power. However they may wish to appear neutral. The government’s viewpoint is similar in 9) ……. which are an abuse of the right to strike.. The arguments against striking are numerous and vary somewhat depending on one’s point of view. Employers may also resent 8) ……. . one has to ask how employees can protect their interests as regards 6) …….236 English Practical Course such a situation. The disruptive effect of 12) ……… major strike upon the nation’s economy is therefore potentially dangerous. But without this right and without the efforts of trade unions over the years. As 7) ……… employer.

.. river is somewhat uninteresting. 11. C. and wanted to go to …… bed. – 2.. -. A. some 4. the. a. C. B. . an. some 6. George and I rowed up past……. A. a 10.. C. B. . Abert to ………Victoria Bridge. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate articles: After you pass ……… Old Windsor. C. B. It will be some time before I forget it. and when we got to …. the 5. the. A. a. the. B. which stretches along ……. A. ……. B.-.. the.15. right bank …….. some 12. It was …… Saturday before …….. C. C. some. the 14. B. hamper. C.. B. -. B. . C. -. A. the. –. Datcher.. A. B. the. -.English Practical Course 237 1. C. A. some 7. and does not become itself again until you are nearing …….. C. A. the. the. the. A the.. Home Park. the. C. B. . C. George asked me if I remembered our first trip up ……. C. B. Boveney.13. C. a 4. A. 9.. – 8. A. August Bank Holiday.. A. from ……. and as we were passing ……. B. river and when we landed at …… Datcher at ten o’clock at …… night. we took out …. A. an. B. B. the. B. A. Datcher. a 3. the. I answered that I did remember it. C. A. a. a. We were tired and hungry.. Some.

and …….. and started off to look for ……. diggings.. coats..238 English Practical Course ……. . two bags. and such like things.. rugs and …….

and it’ll all be out soon. you’ll not refuse me the kindness to pay it back for me: it was your brotherly love made you do it. before he went out. Underline the adverbs. and in no humour to stand any nonsense. you get the money yourself. whether I tell him or not. savagely.and just shake yourself sober and listen. or else tell him I gave it you. So. ‘Suppose. see and get the money. if ever he found you making away with his money again. will you?’ said Godfrey. just now. you know. coming nearer to his brother and looking into his face. Can you classify them? ‘Why. he should send word to Cox to distrain. for he’s threatening to distrain for it. The Squire’s short o’ cash. ‘I want to tell you. will you?’ ‘Oh!’ said Dunsey.English Practical Course 239 Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adverbs © Punctuation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Silas Marner by George Eliot. eh? Since you was so kind as to hand it over to me. and pretty quickly. now. and save me the trouble.’ . I must hand over that rent of Fowler’s to the Squire. sneeringly. this is what I want. He said. if Fowler didn’t come and pay up his arrears this week. trying to turn his gloom into uncalculating anger. and you know what he threatened. He had himself been drinking more than was good for him.

forever Adverbs of cause. aboard. after. when. hence. every time. result and concession: consequently. afterwards. why. fast Adverbs of place: away. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. ever. It can modify: a verb: We are talking about your report today. . reason. enough. measure. therefore.240 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. carefully. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. thus. Form Simple Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old adverbs far likewise everywhere fast afloat outdoors here homeward(s) outside late repeatedly thereby near hardly therefore now monthly today then bitterly tomorrow today happily wherein well excellently wherefore Adverbs of manner: badly. for this reason. excellently. degree and approximation: awfully. little Adverbs of frequency: always. a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. early Adverbs of quantity. a quality. again. above. where. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. extremely. a pronoun: Me too. wherefore.

I hope to visit England again. lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. thanks. isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. I don’t keep my plan. We talk. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. often here a lot next year there again hard soon . Love. I’ve finished for today. I had a lovely time last year. She’s rather tired. And you look pale/palely. It was called “The English Patient”. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. It would be great to see you. Maria 2. I’m trying to save some money. but I’ve been very busy. Thank you for your letter. I saw a marvelous film. Helen: No. Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. yours.English Practical Course 241 Controlled Practice 1 1. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily. They taste good/well. the party is going very nice/nicely. I’ve planned my revision. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well. And I’m hot/hotly. I’m working for my exams. Suzanne comes about once a week. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry.

Ea nu lipseşte niciodată de la şcoală. e. Toată lumea se simţea fericită când s-a aflat că el nu este vinovat. Maşina asta merge prea repede. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. g. thanks. b. El a venit târziu ieri. l. Arăţi destul de bine. dar astăzi o să fac o excepţie şi o să mănânc. John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. m. doesn’t it? Look. În general nu prea îmi plac prăjiturile.242 English Practical Course John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. d. h. n. j. I might be OK. El cumpără ieftin şi vinde scump. Helen: Thank you. that’s all right. too. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. Translate into English: a. 3. Noi vorbim bine englezeşte. dar au decis să continue lucrul la proiect pentru încă vreo câteva ore. . It seems rather loud/loudly. ca de obicei. şi acceptabil franceza. Eu nu mă trezesc niciodată devreme. spectatorii au început să ovaţioneze. Ce ţi-ai făcut la păr? f. Dacă îi vede poliţia o să-i amendeze. A ajuns acasă înaintea tatălui ei. De-abia s-a aşezat la masa de lucru că deja s-a simţit obosit şi s-a dus la culcare. my head aches quite bad/badly. Actually. Arăţi foarte tristă. Erau cam obosiţi. c. De îndată ce se trăseseră cortinele. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. i. Ce ţi s-a întâmplat? k. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse.

Here are some punctuation rules. este periculos să stai lângă macara. yet. . Independent in this company. a sentence by beginning Others think it is useless. Ordinaly. Sentence . or.English Practical Course 243 o.Some of us think we should dent clause is made into invest it with a capital letter and ending it with a period. Nu te apropia.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . Nu înveţi niciodată când trebuie să te fereşti de pericole! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar Reference 2 Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. every day. nor. and solve . and so. but it rained the words and. An indepen. but. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. The Draw the figure. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to make their meaning clear. clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. 1.

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first clause is usually the problem.

;

followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company; others are closely think it is useless

connected by joining

:

them with a semicolon. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have reduce next year’s

?

!

mark. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feelings may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an

exclamation mark. 2. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is necessary. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are compound, they charged to a major credit card. Guidelines Examples

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245

are usually joined I’m together with words such as and, or or without any punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Compounds

taking

Chemistry

(and)

a Physics and Maths this semester.

,

that England, Scotland, and Wales conscious

contain more than share the island of Great Britain. two elements are Environmentally called series. businesses use recycled paper,

Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet, and ceramic cups. a series, with words such as and or or usually between occuring the last

;

two items. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation, separation commas confusing, used instead. can by be and or reading; of grades; and test of and teacher have vocabulary, memory,

recommendations.

semicolons may be

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3. Word - Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences, There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. Punctuation Marks Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management

used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. An apostrophe is used He’s; didn’t; let’; Ma’am; four in constructions to o’clock. show where letters or 45’s; ABC’s. numbers have been omitted. A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00 mark shortened forms p.m. like abbreviations and initials. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four, self-confidence to

.

-

... insta -

form compound words When two modifiers The study included first- and containing hyphens second-year students. are joined together, common elements are often not repeated. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Guidelines Examples

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Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo words of someone else, they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know.” the text. If part of a quotation is She

... ....

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a When the omission comes in proper job, to find the the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas.” one or more sentences, four “Work of the tyre that points are used. B.W.R.A. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern, and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many .... There are factors which value out when in a up your selfish

affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used.” When writers insert something “In a fault, it [the crust of within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and caused different

[]

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brackets. layers of rock to slip.” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech. try again − if you let me”, he offered.

Unit 14
Reading
Read the following poem belonging to Rudyard Kipling. Pay attention to if clauses. Translate the poem into Romanian. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream- and not make dreams your master; If you can think- and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools;

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If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings- nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And- which is more- you’ll be a Man, my son!

Ways with Words
1. …If neither foes nor loving friends… Distinction should be made between foe, enemy and opponent, antagonist, adversary. Enemy and foe agree in denoting a person or body of persons that is hostile or that manifests hostility to another. Enemy stresses the antagonism that arises from a cherished hatred or a desire to harm or destroy, but it may suggest nothing more than active or evident dislike. He is a man with many friends and no enemies.

ance / . Which word does allowance come from? We call -ance a suffix. eg: teacher. employee eg: mountaineer.ess .hood .ery .ism .age preference . appearance. romanticist eg: adversity. -ency eg: utterance. 2. Let’s read a list of suffixes which are used in order to form nouns: . hostess.ancy. Foe is a more literary and poetic word than enemy. marrige . fishery eg: actress. engineer. Unlike the former group the latter does not necessarily imply personal animosity or hostility. -ence.ist . ascendency.250 English Practical Course Foe implies active enmity either literally or figuratively. identification eg: wisdom eg: refugee. translation. -or . Read the following line: But make allowance for their doubting too. He is the foe of all reform measures.er. slavery. Opponent is one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict of opinion. diplomacy. probability eg: democracy.ard / -art .ity eg: sluggard.ee . scepticism eg: satirist. drunkard. braggart eg: examination. tigress eg: neighbourhood. Antagonist implies sharper opposition in a struggle for supremacy or control.acy .dom . singer eg: backery.ation . Adversary implies not only the idea of mere opposition but active hostility.eer . childhood eg: realism. accuracy eg: passage. dancer. . violonist.

can/could. If he passes the baccalaureate. we can also use: present continuous. I’ll wrap it for you. I’ll pass my exams. If he’s still waiting for you. However. we can also use: ‘be going to’ future. present perfect continuous. booklet eg: Englishman. may/might. This is replaced by the present simple. sadness eg: friendship. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. movement.English Practical Course 251 . . fisherman eg: improvement. Will / would can be used to express polite requests or insistence: If you will wait for a moment. However.man . (insistence) The main clause usually has the verb in the future with will/shall. he must be very hungry. should/ought to. (request) If you will go on smoking. future perfect. should. I’ll buy this car. imperative. you’ll get worse. present perfect simple. must. We’ll destroy the environment if we don’t look after it.let . Main Clause If Clause Present/ Future Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard.ment . he’ll go to university.ure eg: hamlet. can.ship . eg: greateness. Grammar Reference First Conditional It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes.ness . departure Now practise them and find other words for each of them. future continuous. leadership eg: agriculture.

I wouldn’t have to work so hard. (But I’m not Prime Minister.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know.. you‘ll have to wear boots. .252 English Practical Course If Paul has received your letter. If I didn’t have debts. I‘ll tell him the good news. If I should see him. she would tell it to us immediately. Interrogative What will you do if you don’t go to any university? Where will she go she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? Second Conditional It is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. We can always say But. If you are late. If I were Prime Minister. I would (’d) /could buy a new computer. he must phone you today. we won’t wait for you. I’d have a party.) If I lived in a big house. ranches. (But my house is very small. If it’s been raining. etc. palaces.. Note: When we use if +should. If she knew/ were to know the answer. the condition is less likely to be performed. /go out more often. the verb in the conditional clause is in the present subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons. Main Clause If Clause Present Conditional Present Subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had more money.

I would (‘d) have bought this elegant car. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). If she had known the answer. he could have been killed. which can no longer be changed. The condition is highly hypothetical. If he had been travelling in that car.English Practical Course 253 Interrogative What would you do if you were me? Which countries would you visit it you travelled round the world? Third Conditional It is used to express impossible (unfulfilled) condition referring to the past. However. it contradicts reality. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). she would have passed the exam. If I hadn’t made so many mistakes. he might have been /could have been saved. If the ambulance had come sooner. Main clause If clause Past/Perfect conditional Perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. Interrogative What would you have done if you had seen such a wonderful movie? Which countries would you have visited if you had travelled round the world? Notes: . I wouldn’t have failed the driving license test. we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive in if clause. whereas in the main clause we can use the modals could and might before the perfect infinitive.

I’m sure we’d really have a good time with you (if we went). but we just can’t afford a holiday. (implied condition: If you come out with us. since. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. conditionals can also be introduced by other conjunctions: on (the) condition that. particularly in spoken English: Please come out with us tonight. The most common mixed conditional is: If + past perfect Other types: If you come to the party tomorrow. even if. (if you had told him) would/could/might + infinitive If I had worked harder at university. If he is honest. The context defines the meaning. as/so long as. whereas with second and third conditionals the tenses remain unchanged. He would have been furious. supposing. he would have told the truth. . if only. I would have finished it on time. assuming (that). when. …) With a bit more help (if I had more help). second and third conditionals. but for + gerund/noun. it is also possible to mix conditionals. suppose. Implied Conditionals Conditionals are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses.254 English Practical Course • In reported speech. I would have a degree now. she would have stayed with him. the verb tenses of first conditional sentences change in the usual way. If she loved him. even though. I’m glad you didn’t tell Mathew about this. unless. • Besides if. provided (that). as. Mixed Conditionals In addition to the tense variations we can use in the first. providing (that). I wouldn’t bring Mary with you.

Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. were or had in the if-clause. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. tell him to come at 8.English Practical Course 255 Inversion in If-Clauses When there is should. the subject and the auxiliary verb can be inverted and if is omitted. … If I had known earlier. Dacã voi putea. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. / Were I you. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. / Had I known earlier. I wouldn’t have done such a thing. I wouldn’t say that. . What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b. If he should ring.00. o sã ţi-l spun. eşti binevenit. … If I were you. / Should he ring. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. … Controlled Practice 1. c. Translate the following sentences into English: a. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. b.

I (ring) you . or as soon as into each gap. Maria: Thanks.. when. and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. John: Good. I (be) at the hotel at about 10. e. John: Great. I (ring).. but remember I’m going out. And remember. Put if. and I (pick) you up. Have a good trip. darling.. darling. I (arrive) at the hotel. Bye! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . the plane (arrive) on time. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. you (be) out .. Give me a ring . That’s 8. Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut.. you know the time of your flight back... Maria: Well. John: All right. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.00 your time.00. ..256 English Practical Course d. Maria: Thanks. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani.

Translate the following sentences into English: a. we would go inside. c. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. b. ţi le-aş spune.English Practical Course 257 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. d. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. d. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest raport. Dacã ar fi aici. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. e. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. I would have told you the truth. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. If I knew it. If you could do it. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: . you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. Dacã ai vrea. b. If it rained.

If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arabian. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. h. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. c. b. e. If she (go) to university so late. b. d. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g.258 English Practical Course a. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. I (pass) the exam in the winter session. . e. i. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. f. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confronted with) such storms. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. If I (know) this from the beginning. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. d.

d. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. nu aş fi picat acest examen. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. b. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile.English Practical Course 259 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. If he had asked you to do that job. you (accept)? e. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. b. . c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. d. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. e. Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. Translate into English: a. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. c. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. Dacã nu ar fi nins.

. If you had asked his permission... If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him.... If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. If the fire had been noticed earlier. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel... I’d have brought my compass if. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly.. ... If I buy this machine . g. If she practised more. i. d. c.. The substance would look better if. If the river rises any higher.. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. These are mixed conditional sentences.. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way.. f... taking care to use the correct tense.. Finish these sentences. i.260 English Practical Course f. If he had taken my advice. e. j. j. a. h. h.. I would lend it to you if. If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off. b.. g.

about this problem earlier. you could always ring them up. 4. J. If they don’t contact you soon. you wouldn’t be so busy this G. H. If you were a more sensitive person. E. If he hadn’t died so young. 12. he probably won’t be at the . 10. If I really wanted to have children. D. Write a sentence containing the underlined sentence as a main clause and an appropriate conditional clause. his wife would never have left him. If he didn’t work so hard all the time. If he was feeling ill this morning. I’m sure he’d be a famous musician by now. would you hurry up and get ready? F. 8. you wouldn’t have said that to her. 6.English Practical Course 261 11. 5. If the train hadn’t been delayed. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences: 1. we would be there by now. with us 9. 3. I would have had them by now. The condition is not stated in a conditional clause in the following underlined sentences. If you had told me meeting. C. I. If you’re coming month. everything would be all right now. A. 7. B. If you had worked harder last month. 2.

h. It would be horrible sitting out here otherwise. second or third conditional: . many more would have died. We’re lucky it’s sunny today. He wouldn’t be able to live on his own without the help of his neighbours. She would make a very good managing director. I hope those refugees aren’t deported. g. First. j. Mark should have told the truth. Without the help of the Red Cross doctors.262 English Practical Course a. but I think they will be. e. I think Alison should apply for the job. we’ll finish the job by the end of the day. I hear you’re thinking of going to Indonesia for the summer. d. I know that she could do really well. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. They may be imprisoned or even executed. I’m sure she would have forgiven him. The rain would have ruined them. b. f. i. It’s a good job you brought all those tables and chairs in from outside last night. With luck. You’ll love it there. c. The problem is that she doesn’t work very hard.

If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics. If that (happen). you (see) her. The government is expecting to win the next election. Apparently. h. I’m sure more people (use) the train and (leave) their cars at home. If we (not go) there. f. e. b. I’m sure she (help) us fix the car. g. I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment. the town (lose) a great deal of money. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If you (come) round earlier. i. It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . but if it (lose). She has everything she wants but she’s always moaning. They’ve been married for 20 years but I don’t think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was.English Practical Course 263 a. I never (meet) Adrian. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth. the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. the PM (resign) from politics. I’m so glad you took me to your friend’s party. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. I’m sure you (regret) one day. If it (be) a nice day. d. l. If fares (be) cheaper. I’m sure that if I (have) so much money I (moan) all the time. we (go) for a picnic. c. Jenny was here not long ago. but she knows even less than we do. k. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. j.

Had he… i. tell her to wait for me. As long as you … b. Since he doesn’t have any qualifications. Unless… You won’t …. But for… g. If… e. If you help me. If she happens to come. I’ll help you. As he couldn’t afford a holiday. you’ll have an accident. he stayed at home.264 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. I wouldn’t have my car now. Rewrite the sentences: a. If … f. He wasn’t on time. You had better take his advice. he can’t find a job. If it hadn’t been for my mother’s generosity. Were… c. Should… d. If you don’t drive carefully. so we missed the train. If I … . I’m not rich so I can’t afford a long holiday abroad. I’ll help you provided… h.

(long) c. you’d better go to the doctor’s. If I … k. (punctual) h.(so) j. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. If she were… l. I wouldn’t stay in this job. She must be out since she didn’t answer the phone. If you revise all your notes. where would you travel to? (to) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . If it wasn’t for the good pay. (shoes) e. (not) d. (better) b. a. his parents have spoiled him. You must use between three and eight words. I would not be late for the interview. If I had been you. If she had… 15. If I were him. you’ll be given the sack. (but) g. If Mary were feeling well. you’ll pass the exam. she would have come to Tom’s party. If someone gave you a free airline ticket. As I couldn’t answer any of the questions. (provided) f. including the word given. Since he is an only child. I wouldn’t be in my current job. (since) l. She must have lived in France because she has a perfect French accent. You won’t be punished provided you admit it was your mistake.(got) k. But for his help. I didn’t go out because I had a lot of work to do.English Practical Course 265 j. I would have punished him. I walked out of the Maths exam. Do not change the word given. (were) i. As you‘ve got a high temperature. If you don’t get to work on time.

care ar fi următoarea etapă a tratativelor? i. f. n-ai fi acum în situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere în tine. De data asta te-aş putea duce cu maşina mea dacă îmi promiţi să nu se mai repete. te rog reaminteşte-mi de promisiunea făcută. ai putea să intri şi să îi înapoiezi dicţionarul pe care l-ai împrumutat de la el. N-ar fi trebuit să câştige atât de mulţi bani şi n-ar fi dat de necaz dacă soţiei lui i-ar fi plăcut mai puţin luxul. Dacă se întâmplă să treci pe lângă biroul lui. e. Presupunând că partenerul dvs. j. Dacă n-ar fi nins.266 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. ar accepta aceste propuneri. Mi-a spus de câteva ori că va accepta postul cu condiţia ca salariul să fie mulţumitor. g. e numai o umbră din ce a fost o dată. excursia noastră la munte n-ar fi fost atât de plăcută. c. h. b. d. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc adăpostul dacă aş fi ştiut că se va întâmpla o nenorocire. Translate into English: a. În cazul în care voi uita. − _________________________________________________________ . Dacă n-ai fi atât de mincinos. Dacă l-ai vedea acum nu l-ai mai recunoaşte.

English Practical Course 267 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

the proprietor. horror. Underline the modal verbs: The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue. then. and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame. With this opulence and splendor. Pat Scully had performed a feat. But to the citizens of this prairie town. had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day. and to the people who would naturally stop there. was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swampish hush. classes. these creeds. they had no color in common. Pat Scully. passengers were overcome at the sight. and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. long lines of swaying Pullmans. .268 English Practical Course Unit 15 Reading Read the following fragment from The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane. and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. swept through Fort Romper. causing the bird to declare its position against any background. in a laugh. a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron. when the great transcontinental expresses. The Palace Hotel. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low clap-board houses which composed Fort Romper. It stood alone on the prairie. It is true that on clear days. egotisms. pity.

you certainly have a green thumb!” To be in the pink: “The doctor examined John thoroughly and finally said: “You’re in the pink of health”. his family is quite proud of him and of the transformation they see in his life. the police was waiting for him and caught him red-handed because he had been/ was careless. Her friends frequently say: “Helen. Let’s learn some idioms with colours. Its title is The Blue Hotel. Do you know any idioms containing the word blue? How do you translate out of the blue or once in a blue moon? 2. Both her flower garden and her vegetable garden always appear to be healthy and very productive. Helen Smith always seems to be successful in growing things. at the age of 14. Answer the following questions: . To which John replied: “It must because I take vitamins”. he decided to spend his living honestly and today he is no longer the black sheep of his family. This fragment belongs to a novel written by Stephen Crane. To have green fingers (thumbs): “Mrs.” Black sheep: “Ted ran away from home at age 15. On the contrary.” 2. But you should see Dorothy’. got captured and spent more time in prison.’ ‘Sometimes I’m blue on a grey day. Red – handed: “As the thief was climbing out the window with the stolen necklace. From there he robbed a bank. Feel Blue: ‘I feel blue so often when it’s cloudy and rainy. Be blue. He got into trouble and spent some time in prison.English Practical Course 269 Ways with Words 1. At least.

Is it possible that some of the following are feeling blue? • A man who has just lost all his money. A boy taking an apple from a basket in a store. A man who spends his summer evenings working in his garden to raise tomatoes. Is it possible that the persons described below could be said to have “a green thumb”? • • • A little boy who has got a new puppy for his birthday. Is it possible that some of the following are not in the pink? • • • • f. A ship captain whose ship has sunk in a bad storm. A couple that has just got married. Why do people feel blue? b. • • . • e. play golf. jog. A famous boxer who has been training for his next championship fight for six weeks.270 English Practical Course a. A family that have been shipwrecked and have only lived on an island for three months with coconuts to eat. A policeman driving around in his patrol car. • • • c. A man robbing a bank at ten o’clock in the morning. It is possible that some of the following persons be caught red-handed? • • A grandmother taking care of her small grandson. A woman who likes to spend her weekends at the beach. An old man who is 80 years of age but who can still swim. Have you ever felt blue? What has caused it? d. A wife whose husband has just given her a diamond necklace. cucumbers etc. An elderly woman who takes great pride in her lovely rose garden A nurse who has just finished working for 24 hours in a hospital and is exhausted.

The following are modal auxiliaries: Present form Can May Will Shall Must Ought to Need Past form could might would should • Modal auxiliaries always stay the same. could. Ability: can. I.English Practical Course 271 g. Grammar Reference Modal Auxiliaries • Modal auxiliaries are also sometimes called modal verbs or modals. They are followed by the infinitive in different forms. be able . do many families have a “black sheep”? i. They cannot be put into different tenses. as gerunds or present participles. Is it possible that some of the following might be considered a “black sheep”? • • • An old man who has been poor all his life Twin boys who decide to join the army A young woman who abandons her parents and starts a life thrill of robbing homes of jewels and money. used as infinitives. h. In your opinion. Restate the following sentence using the idiom “red-handed”: The mystery of the disappearing jam from the cellar was finally solved when they caught Jim eating a whole pot at night.

but not to the doing of it. use will + simple or continuous infinitive. Stamps can/may be bought at most shops which sell cards. possibility. The parcel may/might arrive tomorrow. could and could have in conditional sentences. . She can / can’t sing really well. • • We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility.272 English Practical Course • Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do something. Certainty. can and may are often followed by the passive infinitive. • Can and could refer to the ability to do something. We could go by train. (It is possible to take a train there if you wanted to do that). must. He could read when he was four. should. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition. use can or may. My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see them. • To talk about a present or future certainty. We use be able to talk about ability + the achievement of the action. • To talk about a future possibility. may. will. ought to • To talk about something that it is possible to do at any time. use may or might. He gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late. With this use. could. deduction: can. II. She can be very charming when she wants to be. We can also use could (it refers to a theoretical possibility). might. I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help. We use can. Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future.

have to. It can refer to present time or future time. III. Let’s go and see Cathy: she should have finished working by now. We must go and visit them more often. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting: he talked to me about it only this morning. . I don’t know why they’re so late. use must. have got to. use must/can’t (or couldn’t) + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). use should or ought to. • To talk about possibility in the present. You mustn’t let him talk to you like that. necessity: should. might. use may. I suppose they could have got lost. The train got in half an hour ago so they should be here soon. • To talk about possibility in the past. ought to. We often use should/ought to with I think … /Do(Don’t) you think …? Don’t you think you should/ought to stop seeing him? • To give strong advice and recommendations. I won’t phone Jennifer now because she might be working at home. use must (positive deduction) or can’t (negative deduction) + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. • We can use should or ought to + present infinitive to make assumptions about the present or the future and should or ought to + perfect infinitive to make assumptions about the past. • To make a deduction about something in the past. • To make a deduction about something in the present. use may. need • To give advice. Advice. could + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). He can’t be driving here: he hasn’t got a car. must. obligation. might or could + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive.English Practical Course 273 I will be waiting for you when you arrive.

We can use need as a modal verb in questions and negative sentences. Have got to is often interchangeable with have to but there is sometimes a difference: have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions whereas have got to can only be used for single actions. . (= I didn’t stay at home and my behaviour was wrong) • To talk about obligation. use should or ought to + perfect infinitive.274 English Practical Course • To criticise actions in the past. I should/ought to have stayed at home. I have got to get the bus into work today. (You are not allowed to wait here). use need. must – the obligation often comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. it comes from the situation. Do not use don’t have to = there is no obligation. (It is not necessary for you to wait here but you can if you want to). • To express a negative obligation. (The obligation is imposed by the airline who wrote the notice). You needn’t come if you don’t want to. • To express necessity. • We can also use have got to to express obligation. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. You don’t have to wait here. I have to get the bus into work today/I have to get the bus into work every day. use must. You mustn’t wait here. Have to – the obligation is often external. use mustn’t. Should /ought to in the past means that the subject did not do the right thing. We’ll have to get there before 5 o’clock because the shops close then. mustn’t or have to.

don’t have to. requests. Did you use to work here? Use would and used to to talk about past habits. used to • • Used to is not a modal: I used to work here. . When we were children. use needn’t + perfect infinitive or didn’t need to/didn’t have to + infinitive. Habit: would. I didn’t use to work here. When the speaker is giving the authority. Offers. may. would. We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures. could. my brother and I would fight all the time. don’t need to.. (It wasn’t necessary to go to the station early but I didn’t realise that and so I did get there early).. Would you like to …? V. use needn’t. • To express lack of necessity in the past. I needn’t have gone to the station so early. must.’ We’re eating out tonight so we don’t need/needn’t/don’t have to/haven’t got to buy any food. The train was nearly an hour late. my brother and I used to fight all the time.. haven’t got to. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it). would you mind • • • • • Asking permission: Can/Could/May/Might I …? Making a request: Can/Could/Would you …? To give or refuse permission: You can/can’t/may/may not/must/mustn’t … To make an offer: Can/Shall I. we often use needn’t. permission. shall. Teacher to students: ‘You’ve worked hard today so you needn’t do any homework tonight. might.English Practical Course 275 • To express lack of necessity. IV. suggestions: can. we …? Would you like…? To make a suggestion or an invitation: Shall we …? We could . When we were children.

j. He’s very fit for his age. He …(run) really fast. . e. …(speak) another language fluently is a great advantage. h. I’d like … (work) with you one day. He …(not climb) up to the top: he was too scared. We … (not phone her up) because her phone had broken. I … (not sleep) very well for the last four nights. She … (miss) the train. must and an infinitive in the appropriate form: a. I love … (spend) all morning in bed at weekends. Jonathan … (not say) anything until he was about three years old. I … (not understand) what he says: he speaks too quickly. • When we talk about past situations (not actions). Amy’s exam results weren’t very good. Complete the sentences with the correct form of can. o. Kerry’s rather late. I think you should go in the spring: it (be) very crowded there in summer. If they hadn’t phoned for an ambulance. it is necessary to use a past time reference. m. g. f. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference. should.. She … (do) better. may. but fortunately we . he …(die). will. (get) a message to her. … (you come) to the party on Sunday? 2. It’s been too hot. we can use used to but we can’t use would. l. n. a. i. could or be able to. c. We …(go) to that concert tomorrow if the tickets haven’t sold out. could. b. ought to. She tried to think of other things but she … (not put) that awful memory out of her mind.. might. d. Controlled Practice 1.276 English Practical Course • When we use would to talk about a past habit. Complete the sentences with can. k.

I saw them in town this morning. e. She (not still play) tennis: it’s been dark for the last hour. I … (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven’t decided yet. r. They’ve just rung the bell so the children … (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. She (run) to catch the bus. It … (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. I think she … (visit) her parents but I’m not sure about it. These glasses … (be) Tim’s: they look a bit like his. Her exam results are coming out soon. o. Let’s go and see her: she (be) hurt. m. s. They’re not answering the phone so they … (be) out. n. He … (miss) her. Jim’s been very quiet since his girlfriend went away.’ p. They (not move) house yet. ‘Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?’ ‘I don’t know. She worked very hard so she … (do) well. I don’t know where she is. d. Don’t phone her now. u. Travellers’ cheques … (be exchanged) at most banks. but you can never be sure. j. f. The roads are fairly quiet today so we … (have) a good journey. I’ll give you a ring to let you know. She was with a man I didn’t recognize. I … (come) and visit you at the weekends. g. h. t. Anyway. k. I told her you were coming so she … (expect) you. I sent the letter two days ago so he … (get) it by now. c. . It … (not rain): the ground’s completely dry. That woman’s just fallen over. i. l. I haven’t seen Joanna this week.English Practical Course 277 b. It … (be) the middle of the night in Australia.

278 English Practical Course 3. We … (leave) at 11 o’clock last night because the last bus went at 11. You … (not have) a bath now. g. b. It’s your own fault that you’re so tired. We haven’t had a good talk for a long time. You … (go) to that new French restaurant in town. d. Complete the sentences using the modals should. ought to. You … (come round) for dinner one evening. e. He would never forgive us. Paul … (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the house does. k. f. I … (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work. They can stay with us. n. We … (run) all the way to the station because we were late for the train. a. We’ve been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so we (not cook) our own meals. . He’s too young. You … (not tell) him what happened. t. h. They … (not pay) to stay in a hotel. It’s the best restaurant I’ve ever been to. c. p. You … (not eat) in the lecture hall: it’s against the college regulations. Why … the prisoners … (be locked) in their cells all day? i. l. I don’t like … (do) everything my boss tells me to do. If I fail any one of my exams. The taxi’s coming in twenty minutes. The wedding’s been cancelled so I … (not buy) that new suit: it was a waste of money. s. You … (not allow) David to walk home from school every day on his own. Hurry up. r. m.20. You … (not go) to bed so late. You’ve got enough work to do. I don’t think you … (offer) to help him. I … (take) all of them again in November. I … (tell) him what you really think of him next time you see him if I were you. o. j. must or need or the verb have to in the correct tense and form.

would you like. Ask that person if you can sit there. a. When I was a newly-trained teacher. d. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. b. Give someone permission to use your phone. f. You are in a café. must. Complete the sentences with would or used to. Request an appointment to see your bank manager. 4. e. There may be a number of possible answers.English Practical Course 279 u. You are in the train. There is a free seat next to someone. might. j. would you mind. g. . b. Where either form is possible. I … work till late every night preparing lessons. a. we … go out somewhere with a picnic every day. Offer to open the door for a stranger. c. 5. write them both. Offer to make someone a sandwich. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. Ask another passenger if you can open the window. may. Ask someone to answer the phone for you. I’d like you to come to the meeting but you … (not come) if you don’t want to. c. Invite a friend to go for a swim this morning. Ms Arnold. i. h. shall. I … have lots of free time before I started working here. Offer to answer the phone. They … be happy together but they are not now. would. Ask someone to wait here for you. could. In the long summer holidays. Write what to say using can. d. k.

It’s possible that they’ll be here soon. Is it possible for me to sit here? j. I don’t know who she is but it’s possible that she is Rick’s sister. He said that he intended to write to me soon. When they came to London. I promise to phone you next week. he still didn’t know how to read. f. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. p. He … be overweight but he’s much slimmer now. b. c. 6. In some sentences more than one modal is possible. He refuses to give me an answer. When we shared a flat together. I … drive everywhere. When I had a car. It’s not necessary for you to apologize.280 English Practical Course e. I want to help you but I am not able to. I will/’ll phone you next week. o. people … (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. I … go to the library to start work at 9 o’clock every morning. n. When Amy was a baby. g. It’s essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning. At the age of nine. d. . i. l. but now I’m much fitter because I always walk or cycle. Why don’t we go and see a film tonight? h. During my last year at university. I think it’s a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I’ve got a lot of work to do. we … (often) stay up talking late. k. a. h. i. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve. j. Am I allowed to smoke in here? m. g. It’s not a good idea for you to work so hard. f. they … (never) travel anywhere on the tube. Are you able to come with me tonight? e.

How do you feel about going on a trip? (like) i. (compulsory) j. a. You don’t have to inform the agency beforehand. It’s 7 o’clock. He was not able to understand the radio message because of the interference. t. (every) c. I assume that Clare will be here soon. (impossible) e. Could you come on Saturday? (suit) h. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep. (bound) d. Could he have been telling the truth? (likely) g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. I know he’s in but he’s not answering the phone. May I borrow your typewriter? (mind) . s. I’m sure that he is asleep. It’s very possible that he’ll be promoted. It is certain that he will return this afternoon. Do not tell him any of this: it’s vital that it remains a secret. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given.English Practical Course 281 r. Why haven’t you signed this page at the bottom? (sign) f. u. Shall we go out tonight? (how) b.

Chiar dacă ne-am strădui din răsputeri nu am reuşi să ajungem. Nu-i nevoie să suni. aşa că n-am putut închide uşa. You mustn’t start writing before the test starts. (prevented) l. Nu trebuie să conduci aşa repede. avem destul timp. . am eu cheie. Când era tânăr era foarte rezistent. N-aveam cheie.282 English Practical Course k. este o limitare de viteză aici. Ştiam bine oraşul aşa că am putut să le explic cu să ajungă la gară. (rules) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. You won’t be able to enter the country unless you have a visa. Dacă sunteţi amabil să aşteptaţi a clipă îl chem pe director. Când eram copil nu-i puteam înţelege pe adulţi şi acum că sunt adult nu-i mai pot înţelege pe copii. Nu-i voie să conduci aşa repede. Nu pot să nu mă gândesc ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă nu am fi putut rezolva problema. putea lucra toată ziua şi dansa toată noaptea. Drumul era acoperit cu gheaţă şi lui îi era groază să nu alunece. Translate into English using modal verbs: Ar trebui să-i spună fiicei ei o poveste. dacă vrea ca ea să adoarmă.

Citeam zeci de cărţi pe lună când eram student. Trebuie să-mi spăl maşina. Acum un an am avut un câine tare neascultător: nu vroia să-mi aducă papucii atunci când îi spuneam eu. am putut să merg la farmacie şi să cumpăr medicamente. M-ai auzit când am venit acasă seara trecută? – Nu. S-ar putea ca ei să îşi formateze sistemul acum. nu sunt tigrii în ţară la noi. Nu e cazul să-i reaminteşti de datorie. Este de datoria noastră să ne ajutăm părinţii atunci când sunt în dificultate. Uşa era deschisă.Nu se poate să fi văzut un tigru. Tocmai am terminat de udat florile. trebuie că adormisem. Cu siguranţă că în acest moment echipa adversă sărbătoreşte victoria. Dacă îi dai ocazia nu mai încetează cu poveştile din război. − _________________________________________________________ . Deşi afară plouă cu găleata de cel puţin trei ore. habar n-am.English Practical Course 283 Ar fi trebuit să verifice frânele înainte de plecare. . doar suntem într-un spital. L-am văzut pe stradă dar nu s-a oprit să-mi vorbească. este prea murdară. Am închis-o chiar eu la plecare. Nu era nevoie să-i cumperi volumul acesta de poezii. Am văzut un tigru ieri în pădure. este un om cu mult bun simţ. Probabil că era foarte grăbit. . uite cum plouă acum. îl mai are de două ori.Nu era nevoie să le uzi. Când era la şcoală putea merge în mâini distanţe lungi. Se poate ca ieri pe vremea asta fraţii lui să fi cărat cărămida de la fabrică. – Nu se poate să fi fost deschisă. Stătea pe bancă ore întregi şi se uita la stele. dar acum nu mai poate. Nu este voie să vorbeşti tare aici. Ar fi trebuit să o spăl cel puţin acum o lună.

284 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 285 .

Joan bears ………………………………………………………………… i. beginning as shown. The thing I’d really like …………………………………………………. I should really like someone to do all the housework for me. Can you play golf well enough to beat him? Is your ……………………………………………………………………… − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. The candidate was undoubtedly highly intelligent but she was not very suitable for the job. g. Joan is very alike her father.. so that the meaning stays the same: a. 4th. I’d like to have seen this movie. I should have never won the nomination. I’ve never seen such an exciting match before. h. She last………………………………………………………………… e. If it hadn’t ………………………………………………………. Without your support. Intelligent…………………………………………………………….. The cat ……………………………………………………………………… j. b. We can’t persuade the cat to come down from that tree. d. The telephone rang the moment I stepped into the room No sooner …………………………………………………………. f. c.286 English Practical Course Progress Test 4 1. She has not been to the office since November.. This match ………………………………………………………………. I wish …………………………………………………………………. Rewrite each sentence.

on March) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . very much) h. to me. They went (for a week and a half. at 4 o’clock. at six o’ clock) b. He goes (to the factory. I enjoyed my lunch (the day before yesterday. Mr. at home. in 1978. to England. I am born (on April. Insert the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: a. wonderfully) d. every morning. I read (all day. Smith came (into the office late) g. to the theatre. very much) i. at 7 o’clock) c. yesterday. We shall go (tonight. 5th.English Practical Course 287 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. the piano. in the street yesterday. My friend spoke (evening. 3rd) f. She played (last evening. very kindly) e. at the National Opera.

Translate into English: Stau câteodată şi-mi aduc aminte ce vremi şi ce oameni mai erau în părţile noastre pe când începusem şi eu. ci sat vechiu răzăşesc. de făceau mare cinste satului lor. dascălul bisericei. şi ce chilie durată s-a făcut la poarta bisericei pentru şcoală. ruşinos şi fricos şi de umbra mea. Ş-apoi Humuleştii. a mă ridica băieţaş la casa părinţilor mei. un sat de oameni fără căpătâiu. Doamne. împreună cu bădiţa Vasile a Ilioaei. care ştiau a învârti şi hora şi suveica. Delenii şi Bejenii. Şi unde nu s-au adunat o mulţime de băieţi şi fete la şcoală. cu flăcăi voinici şi fete mândre. drăgăliţă-Doamne. de vuia satul de vatale în toate părţile. ce mai de pomi s-au pus în ţinterim. nu erau numai aşa. împărţit în trei părţi. cu biserică frumoasă şi nişte preoţi şi dascăli şi poporeni ca aceia. un băiat prizărit. ş-apoi. să fi văzut pe neobositul părinte cum umbla prin sat din casă în casă. Şi părintele Ioan de sub deal. întemeiet în toată puterea cuvântului: cu gospodari tot unul şi unul. străşinit cu şindrilă. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . sat mare şi vesel. în satul Humuleştii. ce om vrednic şi cu bunătate mai era! Prin îndemnul său. care se ţin tot de una: Vatra satului. din târg drept peste apa Neamţului. şi sfătuia pe oameni să-şi deie copiii la învăţătură.288 English Practical Course 3. care era îngrădit cu zaplaz de bârne. un holteiu zdravăn. şi pe vremea aceea. frumos şi voinic. între care eram şi eu.

a. She played the piano wonderfully at the National Opera last evening. The cat wouldn’t come down from that tree. e. i. c. g. b. h.English Practical Course 289 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: a. This match is the most exciting I have ever seen. f. I wish I had seen this movie. If it hadn’t been for your support I should have never won the nomination. d. j. Is your golf handicap better than his? 2. She last was to the office on November. 4th. b. . Joan bears a resemblance with her father. No sooner had I stepped into the room than the telephone rang. We shall go to the theatre at six o’clock tonight. c. she was not very suitable for the job. The thing I’d really like is to have someone to do all the housework for me. He goes to the factory at 7 o’clock every morning. Intelligent as the candidate was.

It had a fine church and outstanding clergy. good-looking. g. I enjoyed my lunch very much the day before yesterday. My friend spoke very kindly to me in the street yesterday evening. so that the village would buzz with the sound of looms on every side. its reputation and standing having long since been assured. As for Father Ion. the son of Ilioaia. You should have seen this untiring priest going round the village. it was a large and cheerful village.290 English Practical Course d. on April. in 1978. The two of them would persuade people to send their children to get some schooling. They went to England for a week and a half on March. I am born at 4 o’clock. I sometimes stop and call to mind the customs and people there used to be in my part of the world at the time when I had. I read a lot at home all day yesterday. f. 3rd. Lord. entering one house after another. just begun to put a foot over the threshold of boyhood in my home in the village of Humuleşti. so to speak. Humuleşti in those days was not just a village of ne’er-do-wells but a prosperous and ancient village of freeholders. Master Vasile. the Deleni and the Bejeni. e. church elders and parishioners. with stalwart young men and comely girls who could swing the shuttle too. handsome bachelor. Moreover. a sturdy. together with one of his elders. divided into three closely connected parts: the village itself. and you should have seen the . 5th. who were a credit to their village. i. 3. what an active and kindly man he was! On his advice lots of trees were planted in the graveyard – which graveyard was surrounded by a high fence of thick planks with eaves of shingles – and the fine room at the gate of the church precincts was built to serve as a village school. Mr. Smith came into the office late. with farmers who knew their job. h. It faced the town on the other side of the waters o the River Neamţ. who lived at the foot of the hill.

1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 2.English Practical Course 291 number of boys and girls who flocked into the school from all parts. a puny. timid lad. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 3. afraid of my own shadow! (translated by Ana Cartianu) Score: 1. 1 point +9 points = 10 points Divided by 3 = 10 points . myself among them.

292 English Practical Course Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow to break blew broke blown broken a obliga a sufla a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma to bring to build to burn to burst brought built burnt burst brought built burnt burst a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

English Practical Course 293 to catch caught caught a turna a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi a tãia a se ocupa (cu) a distribui a sãpa a face a desena a schiţa a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea a alimenta a hrãni a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi to choose to cleave chose cleft clove chosen cleft cloven come cost crept to come cost to creep came cost crept to cut to deal to dig to do to draw cut dealt dug did drew cut dealt dug done drawn to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found .

294 English Practical Course a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear to hew to hide to hit had heard hewed hid hit had heard hewed hewn hidden hit a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi a ciopli a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni .

English Practical Course 295 to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa a cuprinde a rãni a lovi a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine a înnoda a tricota a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza a întinde a conduce a avansa a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla to hurt hurt hurt to keep kept kept to knit knit knit to know to lay knew laid known laid to lead led led to lean leant leant to learn to leave to lend to let to lie learnt left lent let lay learnt left lent let lain .

296 English Practical Course light to lose to make to mean to meet lit lost made meant met lit lost made meant met a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta a stabili a bate a scutura to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen to run ran run to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set to shake shook shaken .

English Practical Course 297 to shear to shed sheared shed shorn shed a vibra a tãia a mãrgini a arunca a difuza a vãrsa a strãluci a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi a turna a scinda a despica a (se) roti to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent to spill spilt spilt to split to spin split spun split spun .

298 English Practical Course to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde a sãri a izvorî a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula a lua a capta a necesita a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã a arunca to spring sprang sprung to stand stood stood to steal to stick to strike to string to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing stole stuck struck strung strove swore swelled swam swung stolen stuck struck strung striven sworn swollen swum swung to take took taken to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought to throw threw thrown .

English Practical Course 299 to thrust thrust thrust understood woken worn a împinge a înfige a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a (se) uza a toci a plânge a se prelinge a câştiga a a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge a scrie to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore to weep to win to wind to wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung to write wrote written .

to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth./ sb. about sth. to be at home to be aware of sth./ sth. sth.= something) (break sth. attentive at sth. to be careful about sth. at the beginning of sth. to assist in sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth.300 English Practical Course Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth. on sth. in the beginning to be afraid of. to be fed up with sth. to argue with sb. to be bored with sth./sb. to be full of (energy) .= somebody. sb.

in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. to be proud of sth. to be tired of sth./ sb.English Practical Course 301 to be fond of sb./ sb. to belong to sb. to be in love with sb. to go by bus/ train/plane. to be in charge of sth. to be similar to sth. else to complain about sth. to benefit from sth./ sth. to cooperate with sb. to be in a mess to be interested in sth. to believe in sth. change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. etc. with sth. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. to be impressed by sth. to be good at sth. to cope with sth. . to be married to sb. in the (20-th) century certain of sth.

/ sth. to have an interview for a job to invite sb. in the end at the end of sth. to fight against sb. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb. to get in touch with sb./ sb. else to dream about sb. deficiency in sth. to get on (well) with sb./sth. to listen to sth. to develop into sth. to laugh at sb. to go out with sb. ./ sth. to die of sth. to depend on sb./ sth./ sth./ deficient in sth. to find put about sv. to debate on sth. to be different from sb. etc./sth. to go home to have a degree in sth. from sth. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb./ sth./sth. to forget about sb./sth. to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. in the distance to distinguish sth.302 English Practical Course to deal with sth.

to look for sth. for ($300) to share sth. to participate in sth. similar to sb. to look at sth. (a gun) at sb. to search for sth./ sth representative of sb. to sell sth./ sb. to specialize in sth. a story about sth. to suffer from sth. with sb. preoccupation with sth./ sth. to speak to sb.English Practical Course 303 to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to look forward to doing sth. to originate in sth. about sth./ sth. . to merge with sth. to rely on sb./ sth. to point sth. to pay ($5000) for sth./ sb. to spend money on sth. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. resistance to sth. owing to sth. to talk to sb. to point at sb. about sth.

/ sth. a letter) to sb./ sth./ sb. to wait for sb. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you think of von Laue?) to throw sth. in view of sth. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth.304 English Practical Course thanks to sb. . a ticket for sth. to write (an e-mail. at sb.

English Practical Course 305 .

com Hulban Horia. Cambridge Certificate – A Course for First Certificate. 8.google. 3. Heinemann Educational Books. D. London. Macmillan. 10. Chiţoran. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Oxford Galea. Oxford University Press. Ed. Preparing for Proficiency. 9. Vocabulary Development. Stanciu. Dobrovici.306 English Practical Course Bibliography 1. The British Council. Bucuresti Eastwod. Viorica & Dorobat. Ileana. Bucharest ***. Enid. Editura Ştiinţifică.randomhouse. I. Margaret. Călina. 11. Nolan. . Cluj http://ccc. Tamara & Popescu Brandusa. 7. 1983. 13. English With Tears. 1999. New York.. Archer. 1996.Curs practic. Creţescu Gogălniceanu.com http://www. Competenţă şi performanţă. Stephen. 1978. Exercises. 6. 1983. 1984. ed. 12... Editura Amarcord. J. Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză. English for Science and Technology. Panovf. Virgil. Cavallioti Publishing House. 1972. 1984. Lee C. ***. English Grammar Exercises.Dacia. Limba engleza. Editura Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Tamara. Bucureşti Deighton. Didactica si Pedagogica. A Basic English Grammar. Bucureşti 2. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere. I. Poenaru.commnet. 5. 1998. Timişoara Andrews.. Luca-Lăcătuşu..edu/grammar/adjectives. 4. Dumitru & Luca.htm http://www. 1972.

Soars. 20. Hong Kong. Martinet. Oxford University Press.English Practical Course 307 14. A Practical English Grammar. Longman Malaysia.J. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. OUP. Martinet. Headway. Washington. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. Headway. Cluj 15. Clusium. Student’s Book. A. 1991.J. Oxford University Press. Marius. Oxford Vince. Michael. Oxford University Press.. S. 16. . 18. John & Liz. Macmillan. A Practical English Grammar. Reading Comprehension. 21. 17. A. 1984. 1986. E. Teora. Ed. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. pre-intermediate. John & Liz. Lougheed. Oxford Mistzal. Student’s Book. Heinemann.. Lin. A. upper-intermediate. Excel at First Certificate. London Edinburgh Walker. A. 19. 1986.. 23.V. 1996. 1991. Bucuresti Sanford.. Adrian B. Hong Thomson. Test Your English Grammar. A. The Great Preposition Mystery. Exercises 1. New York Soars. 22. Greere. Student’s Book.C. 1995. D. Thomson. 1985. 1989. English Teaching Division. M. Oxford. V. 1997. Katherine V. Bishop. CLP Zdrenghea.. and Elsworth. A Practical English Grammar.

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