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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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Sections

  • Unit 1
  • Reading
  • Ways with words
  • Grammar Reference
  • Present Simple
  • Present Continuous
  • Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English
  • Controlled Practice
  • Unit 2
  • Ways with Words
  • Grammar Reference 1
  • Past Simple
  • Past Continuous
  • Past Simple and Past Continuous
  • Controlled Practice 1
  • Grammar reference 2
  • The Ordinal Numeral
  • The Fractional Numeral
  • The Multiplicative Numeral
  • Controlled Practice 2
  • Unit 3
  • Present Perfect Simple
  • Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
  • Grammar Reference 2
  • Present Perfect Continuous
  • Progress Test 1
  • Unit 4
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • The Personal Pronoun
  • Unit 5
  • Past Perfect Simple
  • Past Perfect Continuous
  • The Imperative
  • Unit 6
  • Future Simple
  • Future Continuous
  • Be Going to Future
  • Future Simple or Be Going to?
  • Other Ways of Referring to the Future
  • Future Perfect
  • Future Perfect Progressive
  • Other future references
  • Controlled Practice:
  • Unit 7
  • The Passive Voice
  • Further Points on the Passive Voice
  • Causative Forms
  • Progress Test 2
  • Unit 8
  • The Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Number of nouns
  • Unit 9
  • The Noun
  • Gender
  • Countable/uncountable nouns
  • Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
  • The Genitive/Possessive Case
  • Unit 10
  • Prepositions
  • Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs
  • Place of Prepositions in the Sentence
  • Prepositions of Time
  • Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place
  • Progress Test 3
  • Unit 11
  • Position of adjectives
  • The Order of Adjectives in a Series
  • Capitalising proper adjectives
  • Collective adjectives
  • Adjectival opposites
  • Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
  • Comparative Sentences
  • UNIT 12
  • The Article
  • The Indefinite Article
  • The Definite Article
  • Zero Article
  • Unit 13
  • The Adverb
  • Punctuation
  • Unit 14
  • First Conditional
  • Second Conditional
  • Third Conditional
  • Mixed Conditionals
  • Unit 15
  • Modal Auxiliaries
  • Progress Test 4
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2
  • Bibliography

English Practical Course

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English Practical Course

Arleen Ionescu Luiza Vlad Răzvan Vlad

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English Practical Course

English Practical Course

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CONTENTS Unit 1..............................................................................................................9
Reading...............................................................................................................9 Ways with words..............................................................................................10 Grammar Reference........................................................................................12
Present Simple.............................................................................................................12 Present Continuous......................................................................................................14 Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English.......................................16

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................17

Unit 2............................................................................................................24
Reading.............................................................................................................24 Ways with Words.............................................................................................25 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................31
Past Simple..................................................................................................................31 Past Continuous...........................................................................................................33 Past Simple and Past Continuous................................................................................34

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................35 Grammar reference 2......................................................................................46
The Ordinal Numeral...................................................................................................46 The Fractional Numeral...............................................................................................46 The Multiplicative Numeral........................................................................................47

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................47

Unit 3............................................................................................................49
Reading.............................................................................................................49 Ways with Words.............................................................................................50 Grammar Reference 1.....................................................................................56
Present Perfect Simple.................................................................................................56

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English Practical Course

Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple......................................................................58

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................59 Grammar Reference 2.....................................................................................64
Present Perfect Continuous..........................................................................................64

Controlled Practice 2.......................................................................................66

Progress Test 1............................................................................................73 Unit 4............................................................................................................79
Reading.............................................................................................................79 Ways with Words.............................................................................................80 Grammar Reference........................................................................................85
Indefinite Pronouns .....................................................................................................85 The Personal Pronoun..................................................................................................86

Controlled Practice..........................................................................................87

Unit 5............................................................................................................91
Reading.............................................................................................................91 Ways with Words.............................................................................................92
Past Perfect Simple......................................................................................................95 Past Perfect Continuous...............................................................................................96

Controlled Practice 1.......................................................................................97 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................100
The Imperative...........................................................................................................100

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................101

Unit 6..........................................................................................................103
Reading...........................................................................................................103 Ways with Words...........................................................................................104 Grammar Reference......................................................................................105

English Practical Course

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Future Simple.............................................................................................................105 Future Continuous.....................................................................................................107 Be Going to Future....................................................................................................107 Future Simple or Be Going to?..................................................................................108 Other Ways of Referring to the Future.....................................................................109 Future Perfect.............................................................................................................109 Future Perfect Progressive.........................................................................................110 Other future references..............................................................................................110

Controlled Practice:.......................................................................................110

Unit 7 .........................................................................................................115
Reading...........................................................................................................115 Ways with Words...........................................................................................116 Grammar Reference......................................................................................117
The Passive Voice .....................................................................................................117 Further Points on the Passive Voice..........................................................................118 Causative Forms........................................................................................................120

Controlled Practice........................................................................................121

Progress Test 2...........................................................................................138 Unit 8 .........................................................................................................143
Reading...........................................................................................................144 Ways with Words...........................................................................................144 Grammar Reference 1...................................................................................146
The Conjunction .......................................................................................................146 Coordinating Conjunctions........................................................................................146 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................................................................147

Controlled Practice 1.....................................................................................147 Grammar Reference 2...................................................................................150
Number of nouns.......................................................................................................150

Controlled Practice 2.....................................................................................153

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English Practical Course

Unit 9..........................................................................................................156
Reading...........................................................................................................156 Ways with Words...........................................................................................157 Grammar Reference......................................................................................159
The Noun...................................................................................................................159 Gender........................................................................................................................159 Countable/uncountable nouns....................................................................................160 Nouns which may be uncountable or countable........................................................161 The Genitive/Possessive Case...................................................................................162

Controlled Practice........................................................................................164

Unit 10 .......................................................................................................177
Reading...........................................................................................................177 Ways with Words...........................................................................................178 Grammar Reference......................................................................................180
Prepositions................................................................................................................180 Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs....................................................................................181 Place of Prepositions in the Sentence........................................................................181 Prepositions of Time..................................................................................................182 Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place....................................................182

Controlled Practice........................................................................................185

Progress Test 3...........................................................................................198 Unit 11........................................................................................................202
Reading ..........................................................................................................202 Ways with Words...........................................................................................203 Grammar Reference......................................................................................204
Position of adjectives.................................................................................................204 The Order of Adjectives in a Series...........................................................................204 Capitalising proper adjectives....................................................................................205 Collective adjectives..................................................................................................205

..................................................239 Grammar Reference 1...............240 Controlled Practice 1.......228 The Definite Article.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................233 Unit 13............................251 First Conditional..................................................................................................................................................................................249 Grammar Reference.................................................................................................................227 Grammar Reference..............................................................................................248 Ways with Words.......................................................................251 Second Conditional.................................................................206 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives..241 Grammar Reference 2...............................255 Unit 15...............207 Comparative Sentences...........................................................232 Controlled Practice...........................................................................................................243 Punctuation.......................................................................................254 Controlled Practice ...............................227 Reading..................................................210 Controlled Practice...............................................................240 The Adverb..................................................................................................................210 UNIT 12...........................................................................................................................................................................................253 Mixed Conditionals........................................................................228 The Article.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................248 Reading........English Practical Course 7 Adjectival opposites...............................................................................................................................................................252 Third Conditional.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................228 The Indefinite Article.............................................................243 Unit 14................................................................................................................268 ...................................................................................229 Zero Article......................

276 Progress Test 4.....................306 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................286 Appendix 1..........................................8 English Practical Course Reading.................................300 .....................................................................................304 Bibliography..................292 Appendix 2..................................271 Modal Auxiliaries..............269 Grammar Reference ....271 Controlled Practice..................................................................................................................................................................268 Ways with Words........................................................................................................................................................................

They see in advertising imagery reflections of society’s attitudes and ideals often taken to extremes. They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image. if they buy BU. and so on. they believe that if they buy Diavolo they will look like Antonio Banderas. but they absorb the images. On the one side.English Practical Course 9 Unit 1 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Simple © Present Continuous © Verbs which do not take a continuous aspect •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment on advertising. An anonymous mass of people called consumers have each to be persuaded to need whatever a product can give them. with their situation and needs. but it is a strong reinforcer. It is really interesting to notice that girls growing up. to buy it and to keep on buying. are the foremost consumers. they will be a second Eva Herzigova. and women housewives worried about fulfilling and achieving their roles. Underline the verbs which are in present tense simple and present continuous: Advertising is capitalism’s soft sell. Pay attention to the use of tenses. They may not be persuaded to buy products. They do not . to make them jealous of the person they would become if they bought the product. Advertising sets out to make people identify with characters in advertisements. They do not learn their roles from this source.

Girls and housewives are the main consumers. You will play a word game. women as consumers b. advertising also captures girls’ fluttering images of themselves. Try again. . Start with in: a. b. Start with the word on. Follow the directions and check your answers with the answer key: I. Which if the following points are made in the passage? a. Which of these would be the best title for the passage? More than one possible answer is possible. Middle-aged women are particularly susceptible to advertisements. Ways with words 1. c. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound. Advertisements project an image of the ideal housewives. d. b. c. Advertisements persuade potential consumers that they need a product. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight. On the other side. the image of women in advertisements 2. II. e. Advertisements reinforce a woman’s view of herself. how advertising influences women d. This is why they become that anonymous mass of people which we called consumers in the beginning. Follow directions: a. b. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small piece of rock. a. the persuasive power of advertising c.10 English Practical Course realize the difference between fancy and reality. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten things together. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree. 3.

Another word for too that ends with -so. Have you ever encountered the word organise spelled as organize? This is not a mistake. 4. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough. Classified advertisements . IV. It’s just the difference between British English and American English. Here are some of them: British English American English theatre theater centre center neighbour neighbor colour color travelling traveling organise organize analyse analyze 5. c. Find the words described below: a. There are several differences in spelling words between British English and American English. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill. a. b. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word that means not enough. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together. Try again. Read the sentence: They do not realise that this is in fact a fake image again. III. b. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for backbone. c. d.English Practical Course 11 c. e. Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the opposite of can. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to leave. Start with an.

[x21-0H Totnes.. – Quiet det..’s.. Bowden House. 2 bedrms. Torbay 6 miles. residential lic. £31. Games rm. Phone: (0803) 863664. Sept. Phone (06267)4590.A. Spac. H. Yet opening the newspaper. Grammar Reference Present Simple It is used to express: . Excel. Night storage heating.. dining rm. bathrm. Special Spring terms from £45 plus V.w. Large car park and gdns. Totnes 1 ¼ miles. Devon. food. sit. S. sitt. after 6 p. kit. big. – Holiday COTTAGES in medieval courtyard of Queen Anne Mansion. Special Offer Spring Holiday and Oct. Phone 761001 Torquay. kit. Reduced rates for chldn.m. Ctly.12 English Practical Course You are touring Britain on holiday with friends. B & b. & b. Vac. after 7 p. lounge. Petersen. and shower. Someone you meet recommends a weekly newspaper which contains advertisements for holiday accommodation. & c. hotel. bathrm. you find it full of small advertisements containing abbreviations. Can you decipher them? Bourbemouth – Warm welcome awaits you at Pinewood Guest House. wing in House.. Westbourne. sunny gdn. Mews Apartments. 197 Holdenhurst Rd. June. B. Bungalow for 7/8. Top class accom.c. Mrs. 2 w. Phone 292684 [1977-08S Bourbemouth – Linga-Longa Hotel. e. Totnes.50/£42 p. –c.T.m. 11th onwards: £40/ £50 incl. Access at all time. rm. in bdrms.. Tv.m. Spring..

• momentary actions. often. Romanian people like to travel. continually. The Danube flows into the Black Sea. usually. constantly. A window opens and a masked man enters the room. • a fact which is true for a long time I live in Ploiesti. regularly. Wood floats on water. sometimes. announcements. ever. explanations. headlines and stage directions): Her letter shows how painful the divorce was for her. never. forever. occasionally. radio and TV commentaries.30. especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic. She listens quietly. completed almost at the same time they are performed (in ceremonial utterances. Note that the historic present in narrative of funny stories appears in informal speech to describe past events. I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven. seldom. hardly.): I usually get up at 8. etc.English Practical Course 13 • a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency such as: always. The Earth moves round the Sun. • • states a fact which is always true (general truths and states): I don’t like gangster film. frequently. Most evenings we go out. The door bell rings. normally. cooking demonstrations. She works in a very famous company. So when he enters the room he realises that his parents are there and… . rarely.

when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme (with verbs of motion: come. I do.m. leave or verbs expressing planned activity: begin. work? work do not (don’t) work work do not (don’t) work works does not (doesn’t) work in a university. Present Continuous It is used to express: . go. Our summer holiday starts on July 1st.14 English Practical Course • planned future actions. Form Affirmative and negative I You We They He She Interrogative Where do do I you we does they he she it Short answer Do you like summer? Yes. Does she speak Italian? No. she doesn’t. start. finish) The plane lands at 6:34 p. end.

limited action/ behaviour (+an adverbial indicating present time): I live in Romania. including the moment of speaking) They are playing in their bedroom now. One’s immediate plans for the near future: a repeated action or habit which annoys the speaker I’m meeting you at 10 o’clock tomorrow. but I’m living in England these six months. • a temporary. . You are always calling me at midnight. I am filling in a cloze test now. • • Form Present Continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be followed by the present participle of the main verb (verb+ -ing). Affirmative and negative I am (‘m) am not (‘m) You We They He She It Interrogative What am are I you we doing? not are (‘re) are (aren‘t) is (‘s) is not (isn’t) not working. I’m writing an essay on Victorianism this week.English Practical Course 15 • an activity happening now or around now (in this case the action extends over a slightly longer period of time.

But: She’s having a shower now. smell. I think it’s a bit off. • verbs of having and being: have. I am. I have a very good car. she is. Verbs which do not take the Continuous Aspect in English There are verbs in English which are not generally used in the continuous aspect: • verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see. No. mind. suppose. (You generally are very smart. In fact. The house belongs to my mother. (This is my opinion). matter. He is a teacher of Italian. remember. possess. hear. forget. realize. she isn’t. own. I think you are right. understand. notice. taste. consider.16 English Practical Course is they he she it Short answer Are you coming? Yes. etc. be. etc. I smell gas. hold. No. expect. know. contain. But: I’m thinking about you. I’m having dinner with my boyfriend at a fancy restaurant tonight. recognize. But: I am smelling the flower. . • verbs of cognition and achievement verbs: think. belong to. I’m not. The meat doesn’t taste good at all. ( I want to). But: You are being stupid now. owe. But: I’m tasting the meat to see if it’s done. She can’t answer the phone at the moment. I don’t remember your name. etc. but you behave rather stupidly now). Is she watching TV? Yes.

The Rotring (belong) to Mary. . He (come) to see me tonight. n. He wants to buy a new tool. i. It often (rain) in summer. I don’t mind his smoking. but I (think) you (stand) on my feet. the doctor asked. English and Italian. feel. hate. This course (contain) 14 chapters. j. we (go) on a trip to Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it. d. etc. Pardon me. I feel I need to tell you that you let me down. c. refuse. What you (do) here? I (look) for my glasses. Ann (resemble) her mother more and more. I hate people calling me late at night. love. I (live) in Ploiesti. But: “How are you feeling today?”. Don’t touch it! l. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. sir. I’m feeling the material to see if it’s soft or not. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continuous: a. like. h. e. g. dislike. as I (attend) a course in Bucharest.English Practical Course 17 • verbs of feeling (attitudinal verbs): care. She (speak) French. But: Who is minding the baby? (Who is taking care of the baby?) Controlled Practice 1. f. want. This bottle (hold) boric acid. but this week. k. I (stay) with my uncle in Calea Floreasca. wish. m. Maria (come) from Spain this week. This week we (study) the Middle Ages in the English Culture and Civilisation. forgive. b. It (rain) now.

Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following sentences: a.. It lasts/ is lasting four hours.. b.18 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. here come every summer to learn more about contemporary . f. d. c. things about learn Scottish and Irish writers. i... What’s wrong with you? Why are you looking/ do you look at me like this? g. It gets/ is getting colder and colder. The film is extremely long and boring. e... What exactly does your job involve/ is your job involving? 3. where we ……. People……. I’m thinking/ I think of you. our spend summer in Edinburgh. h. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is having a bath right now. Mother is tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt... She smells/ is smelling gas. We have/ are having dinner now. I think/ am thinking that something is wrong with the radiator in this room. a good have time and at the same time we ……. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right: Greetings from Scotland! John and I ….. at Edinburgh University..

BET g.. courses from ten to half past twelve. She works hard.. finish So it’s hard work.English Practical Course 19 literature. yet today. The war in Irak is over. John has the bad habit of eavesdropping to other people’s conversation. Kate 4.. THE SUN e. MEANS h. What is the weight of that bag you have as hand luggage? MUCH c.. visit literature museum.. like. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same: a. a paper on Samuel Beckett this week write and John ……. have We ……. up at half past eight every get morning and …….30 tonight. Love. a short story written by Angela read Carter. I ……. ALWAYS d. a eat. The cost of the bus ticket is part of the transport fee. We …. here stop in order to mail your postcard.. COMES . But I ……. it here. at one. have a post-office in front of the Centre.. INCLUDES b. I’m positive that you have no idea what the answer is.. so she doesn’t have too much spare time. What is inside this book? CONTAIN f... Sunset is at 9.. we …… earlier. We ……. so I …. as we ….

e. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense. / The sweater is feeling soft. The grocer is weighing sugar. I am seeing a horse. d.20 English Practical Course i./ We are thinking she is tall. c. / She looks angry. She is looking angry. Hardly anyone (wear) tight pants nowadays. l. / We are thinking about her. / She has dinner . She has a car. She is having dinner. / I see a horse. They won’t go out as it (snow) and they (not have) warm clothes. c. k. / I look at the picture. / The actor appears on TV. They are decorating my room now. HAVING 5. / She tastes the soup. m. Ann is foolish today. f. / The dentist sees a patient. /She is having a car. The number of people who own houses on the outskirts of the city is increasing. d. b. I feel the sweater. n. The dentist is seeing a patient. I am looking at the picture. b. 6. You cannot see Mary now: she (see) her boyfriend. George can’t watch his favourite TV program now because his father (watch) a movie. We think about her. / The grocer weighs sugar. / Ann is being foolish today. . h. Choose the correct sentence: a. The sweater feels soft. a. / I am feeling the sweater. i. She is tasting the soup. j. BUYING j. We think she is tall. g. The actor is appearing on TV.

g. It takes five hours to reach the top of the mountain. You (want) to see it? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. She’s busy at the moment. f. yellow dress. The two friends are listening to a rock concert. j. b. Ask questions about the underlined parts of the following sentences. g. Our guests are talking to us in Russian. Mary? You (not listen) to this type of music as a rule. She (put) the baby to sleep. This novel is about a boy who (desert) his friends and (go) to enrol in the army. The milkman comes to our house twice a week. The children are playing at hide-and-seek. The train that we (look) at right now just (leave) for Arad. d. e. i. The family are celebrating the birth of their newest member. a. . c. My father usually comes home from work by car. I usually read two books a week when I have time. i.English Practical Course 21 e. What George (do) to his computer now? ~ I (think) he (format) it. That play (come) to our theatre next week. She is wearing a strange. h. f. h. Why you (listen) to this song.

g. Translate into English using the Present Simple or Continuous. Bunica uită întotdeauna unde-şi pune pantofii şi de fiecare dată când are nevoie de ei îi caută prin toată casa. Nu spune niciodată nimic interesant. f. Tom never washes his trousers until somebody tells him to. Mama bea cafea. E sâmbătă şi facem curat în casă. În fiecare vară mergem cinci zile la munte. b. Luăm micul dejun. Vacanţa de vară ţine două luni.22 English Practical Course j. De data asta însă rămânem acasă pentru că aşteptăm nişte musafiri. Eu fac paturile iar sora mea şterge praful din cameră. Prietenii tăi te aşteaptă în faţa cinematografului dar tu întotdeauna citeşti la ora aceasta. a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. e. c. În mod obişnuit ne petrecem sfârşitul de săptămână într-un sat din apropierea Clujului. iar tata mănâncă omletă.

The pubs close at half past three. You look nice in this T-shirt. …………. …………..? d. I’m sure you know who stole that purse.. …………. …………..? c.? .. …………. The police never catch any thieves.? e. She thinks we are running away from her.? j.. My boss doesn’t employ teenagers. Tom is having some whisky.? g. It seems to me he is wasting his time. ………….. They say she works as an air-hostess. …………. ………….? o. ? b. ………….? i. They are meeting him at one o’clock today... I don’t think I’m the right person to teach him English.. This car belongs to Jack.. He plays volleyball quite well.? n. You’re not a doctor. …………... ………….. ………….English Practical Course 23 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9.? k.. ………….? h. ………….? p.? f. They hardly ever buy bread form this shop. ………….? l. …………. She knows where he was last night.. Add tag questions: a.? m..

Pay attention to the use of the past tense. it doesn’t require too much effort of our imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing .24 English Practical Course Unit 2 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Simple © Past Continuous © The Ordinal Numeral © The Multiplicative © The Fractional Numeral •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following text about English as a world language. and it was unknown to the rest of the world. for example. only a few million people spoke English. People started to import English in the seventeenth century. it is the great growth of population in the United States. when English is one of the major languages in the world. and this was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe.that in Shakespeare’s time. Underline the verbs which are in the past tense: Today. with the first settlements in North America. in all the continents of the world. Above all. assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and . English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England.

yet again English is the predominant language. had any conversations with English native speakers? e. Spanish or French. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. read a scientific article in English? h. learned any songs in English? . Have you: a. International literary or scientific publications are generally printed in English and other languages such as German. yet true is the fact that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty million beginners. So. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people? f. As I could read in an article. passed any exams in English? c. Ways with Words 1. that has given the English language its present status in the world. I think I have. managed to translate anything into English? d.English Practical Course 25 twentieth century. the more opportunities you may have to read interesting materials connected to your field. Again incredible. used English in your studies or work? g. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists? i. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our achievements and successes. been to an English-speaking country? b. due to the extension of computerised systems and softs which are mostly in English. the quicker you learn it. Incredibly enough. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions about English: Model: Have you improved your accent? Yes.

skillful. D. confident determined independent courageous serious handsome ambitious energetic well-organised patient enthusiastic charming steady intelligent 3. C. joke. If you’re not . go. When you . Example: You don’t have to be serious to learn English. waste. B. D. A.. A. surely. D. B. loss. A... e. tale. A. you should forget about making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible. to someone. very. C. C. when you speak. you should pretend that you have understood. d. a good idea is to tell a story or a . practical. an oral exam. matter. D. B. speak. it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after each word. problem. c. then listening to a tape is a . Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a foreign language. laughter. D.26 English Practical Course j. b. quite. If you want to become . of time.. C. . If you don’t understand anything you hear. take.. C.. If you want to practise speaking. certain of what someone has said. fairly. Choose the word which best completes each sentence: a. you have to be co-operative. A. B. B. discovered any differences between English and your own language? 2... handy.. fool.. fluent. make.

Same to you. Read and translate the following poems on the English language and pronunciation: A. from films. A cricket is an insect. TV and records. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings from A and suitable endings from B. Choose from the phrases in column B: A answers the phone? knocks on the door? says you are late? is in danger? gets married? passes an exam? drinks with you? is in your way? says “Good morning!’ says “How do you do!” thanks you? is ill? sneezes? says “Good night.” 6. Some words have different meanings And yet they’re spelled the same.” “Look out!” “How do you do!” “Hello?” “Sleep well!” “Good morning. in every way possible.” B “Get well soon!” “Cheers!” ”Excuse me!” “Don’t mention it!” “Well done!” “Congratulations! “Sorry!” “Bless you!” “Thanks. . without being told to.” says “Make yourself at home. 5. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A.” “Come in!” “Thanks. every day possible. in real situations. There are many possible answers: A good language learner: A borrows books writes things down guesses words tries to study tries to learn practises speaking B without a teacher. To play it – it’s a game.” says “Have a good weekend.English Practical Course 27 4.

A trip is when you fall.28 English Practical Course On every hand. It doesn’t mean you have to dance When’er you hold a ball. It’s thoroughly agreed. go for a spin. . Yet a jumper has to leap. ‘twas told me as a jokeA dumb man wouldn’t speak a word. Yet seized a wheel and spoke! A door may often be ajar. It’s very clear. The English language to explain. Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: Musicians of good taste Will very often form a band – I’ve one around my waist! You spin a top. A jumper is a thing you wear. in every land. And. pray. Is very hard indeed. who is to blame For different meanings to some words Pronounced and spelt the same? A little journey is a trip. Now here’s a most peculiar thing. Some people say that you’re a dear Yet dear is far from cheap. it’s very queer. As you can plainly see. Or spin a yarn maybeYet every spin’s a different spin.

It’s a nickname (impolite!) Yet a copper in the kitchen Is an article you light. And jams you give your thumbs. Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble. you already know. not beadAnd only Scotsmen call it deed! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. On every hand.English Practical Course 29 But give the door a slam And then your nerves receive a jarAnd then there’s jars of jam. The English language to explain Is very hard indeed! (Harry Hemsley. And dead: t’s said like bed. Ireson. and now you wish perhaps To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard. but not you On hiccough. a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. You’ve heard. . The English language. Well done. The other adds up sums. too. one is a snake. laugh and through. I take it. thorough. Faber. 1962) B. And adders. A policeman is a copper. in Verse That Is Fun. in every land. ed. of course. It’s thoroughly agreed. of traffic jams.

Hints on Pronunciation for Foreigners) 7. one person in seven of the world’s entire population speaks English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent in it. And then there’s dose and rose and loseJust look them up – and goose and choose. come. Let’s learn some expressions containing the word as: as compared with = în comparaţie cu. Nor both in bother. as regards = în ceea ce priveşte.30 English Practical Course A moth is not a moth in mother. . And cork and work and card and ward. as a rule = de regulã. în mãsura în care. Read the sentence: As I could read in an article. ( Herbert Farjeon. as follows = precum/ dupã cum urmeazã. as a consequence of = ca o consecinţã a. as seen = dupã cum se vede. Again. pe cât. And here is not a match for there Nor dear and fear for bear and pear. broth in brother. 2. as far as it goes = în ceea ce priveşte. I’ve hardly made a start! A dreadful language? Man aliveI’d mastered it when I was five. And font and front and word and sword. And do and go. as shown in Fig. în principiu. as if/ as though = ca şi cum. How do you translate as I could read. and thwart and cartCome. as long as = atât timp cât. 2 = cum s-a arãtat în Fig. as far as = întrucât.

The English literature teacher gave us a copy of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight yesterday. such as = astfel ca. ca în cazul în care. In those years. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. as well as = cât şi. tot aşa ca. He took off his shirt. de asemenea. as yet/ so far/ up to now. Suddenly he remembered something. as when = ca atunci când. repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent characteristic) or completed states: She always wore red. five years/ two days/ four weeks ago. He stood up and went out of the room. . I met him every day on my way to the office. put on a T-shirt and sat down in the armchair. yesterday. Grammar Reference 1 Past Simple It is used to express: • a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions: last year/ month/ week/. in 1985. • a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past) Tom came into the room.English Practical Course 31 as such = ca atare. • habitual. ca de exemplu. up to the present = pânã în prezent. as well = deopotrivã. The industrialisation in England led to the change of people’s mentalities. I didn’t like reading. yesterday morning/ evening. etc): They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century.

arrive? go? did not (didn’t) arrive did not (didn’t) go to Sinaia yesterday. I did. When did Where did I you we they he she Short answer Did you go to work yesterday? Yes.32 English Practical Course Form The form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons. No. arrived went to Sinaia yesterday. There are many common irregular verbs. . I You We They He/She Interrogative -the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did. Affirmative The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed. I didn’t. In order to create this tense you need the second form of the verb (see the list on page 299) I You We They He/She Negative -the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not (didn’t).

and the engine was making a huge noise. • A past activity happening over a period of time I was reading from 4 to 6. • repeated actions (with a frequency adverb. I crossed the bridge over Seine all the time.30 yesterday. My sister was playing with her dolls. she didn’t. Past Continuous It is used to express: • an action in progress at some time in the past What were you doing at 10 o’clock yesterday? I was lecturing my students on linguistics. Note that past continuous is not used to describe general habitual actions. Father was reading some news in the newspaper. Form was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle) Affirmative and negative . • changing states: The car was getting worse all the time. Past simple is used for this meaning. she was always looking through my diary. One of the headlights was continually falling off. it means criticism and is similar to the use of present continuous when expressing annoyance) When she came to me. without the sense of criticism mentioned above.English Practical Course 33 Did she report the results obtained? Yes. When she arrived. and little John was trying to draw something on my favourite poster. she did. -refers to: • background descriptions in narrative I entered the room and looked around. of course. they were waiting for her in the corridor. When I lived in Paris. No.

She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room. (I was in the middle of the activity.) They were producing such machines when those people started to buy shares in their company. (I started and finished it. . (producing and looking are long activities. were were not They (weren’t) Interrogative What was I he were she you we they Short answer Were you working at this time yesterday? Yes. Something happened in the meantime to interrupt them). No. Was she studying when you entered the room? Yes. I wasn’t. she wasn’t.) I did my homework yesterday. I was. doing? Past Simple and Past Continuous I was doing my homework at 7 o’clock last night.34 English Practical Course I He She You We was was not (wasn’t) working. No. she was.

I didn’t exactly like swimming in those days. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night. j. b. c. h. the entire family moved/ was moving in. Italian. There was someone to meet him on arrival. Latin played/ was playing an essential part in the development of languages such as Romanian. e. When the house was decorated. or French. I was dropping/ dropped the knife. Do not alter the form of the words in any way and do not change the meaning of the sentence: a. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals. 2. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed the wire. We made / were making about 50 text analyses last year. Spanish. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was starting/ started to ring. Our crew included/ was including a linguist. g. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. While I was learning/ learnt for my French exam. somebody was knocking/ knocked at the door. but the jet’s engines went/ were going wrong. i.English Practical Course 35 Controlled Practice 1 1. WHEN . MEANT b. WAS c. To get to the office on time I had to wake up at 5:30 every morning. The first important breakthrough was replacing/ replaced radios with television sets in the 50’s. f. d. a writer and an English interpreter. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . My mother (read) and my uncle (just / doze) in the sun. I intended to invite you at my party. GOING f. PASSING h. The smell of the cheese stopped my eating the breakfast. I had to go past your house so I decided to drop in. HAVING i. handsome man with piercing blue eyes and he (look) straight at my mother. I didn’t know about your departure. Someone was painting our house at that moment. HAD j. but I’m afraid that I completely forgot (it). It (be) summer and we (all / lie out)in the garden. And then he (arrive).36 English Practical Course d. He (be) a tall. “Arthur. THAT e. “ she (say) in a kind of whisper. Someone stole Diana’s bag yesterday. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: It (happen) in June 1985. When you passed by the town hall clock. Her face (go) pale and her eyes (open) wide with shock. We children (look for) worms and insects. did you notice the time? WHAT g. PUT 3. I (think) you (be) dead.

f. She lit the fire at 8. The car (stop). ‘Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. d. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house. Mrs. n. i. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. I (not know) that you still (read) it. He (dig) his garden when he accidentally (cut) three of his toes.00. j. He (watch) the movie when the phone (ring). He (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. They suddenly (realize) that they (fly) with the wrong plane. He (insist) on finishing his task. h. I just (open) the door when the wind (blow) and (break) all the windows in the room. He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. ‘You (smoke) when I (come) in?’ he (ask).m. I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. which immediately (begin) to chase Mr. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or continuous: a.English Practical Course 37 4. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand.’ o. The admiral (study) the battle plans when he (receive) news of the invasion. At 3 a. Mother (make) a cake when the light (go) out. I wonder who it (belong) to? l. Smith. b.’ ‘I’m sorry. m. This (annoy) the bull.00 and it (burn) brightly when Mike came home at 9. g. k. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . c. It looks very old.

b. era cu mult în urmă. a fost de-a dreptul imposibil. Anul trecut pe vremea asta eram la Predeal. c. . dar tocmai în momentul când lua această hotărâre veni un prieten şi-l invită la un meci de fotbal. dar deşi am încercat să-mi croiesc drum până la tine. e. f. În timp ce Diana asculta un concert la radio. Încercau să găsească drumul către centru când au dat peste un tânăr care s-a oferit să îi însoţească şi care i-a condus la obiectivele turistice cele mai importante ale oraşului. g. Cum s-a întâmplat exact accidentul? Mergeam de la Bucureşti la Ploieşti şi tata tocmai ne povestea despre accidentul unor prieteni de-ai lui când deodată în faţa maşinii a sărit un câine. cineva a bătut la uşă. Translate into English using the simple and continuous past tense whenever necessary: a. Mă uitam la televizor când a sosit poştaşul. d. acolo îmi petreceam vacanţa de iarnă şi schiam în fiecare zi. Te-am zărit alaltăieri în mulţimea de oameni care aştepta să se deschidă sala de spectacol.38 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Dan se gândi că trebuia să se apuce de lucru.

e. I (…) my bag when I (…) the plane. They (…) and (…) while they (…) the mountain. she suddenly (…) they (…) off. j. While the maid (…) the room a skeleton (…) out of the cupboard. d. They (…) dinner when the girl next door (…) and (…) for a loaf of bread. h. De ce boli ai suferit când erai mic şi când ai fost ultima oară la medic? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. l. the doorbell (…). While the old lady (…) those scrambled eggs. My sister (…) wet while she (…) in the rain. She (…) the voice that (…) louder than the others as that of her father. b.English Practical Course 39 h. i. Whenever the politician (…) his mouth to speak the crowd (…) insults. c. While I (…) in London I (…) my money in my socks. g. Fill in the gaps with suitable verbs in the Simple Past or Past Continuous: a. What she (…) last night between 10 o’clock and 4? f. m. k. As soon as he (…) under the shower. He not (…) the explosion because at that moment he (…). . I (…) when I (…) the road.

and the sun seldom broke through the cloud cover in the brief interval of daylight. and the very chimes sounded muffled and despondent. the air was cold and clammy. The mornings were dark. like the autumn and summer terms. the brakes (…) and he only (…) a serious accident by steering into a bush. Electric lights burned all day in offices and lecture rooms. As they (…) from Stockholm to Paris. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. You could hardly see the face of the clock at the top of the University’s tower. dusk came early. It drained every colour and blurred every outline of the urban landscape. but seemed longer than the other two because of the cheerless season. The winter term at Rummidge was of ten weeks’ duration. When she (…) lunch a waiter (…) a plate of soup in her lap. The atmosphere chilled the bones . p. When he (…) downhill. o. q. Outside. thick with moisture and pollution.40 English Practical Course n. the starboard engine (…) into flames. As it (…) their mother (…) the picnic. Translate the following texts into Romanian: A.

Nice Work) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Some people attributed the characteristic adenoidal whine of the local dialect to the winter climate.English Practical Course 41 and congested the lungs. No other reason would make anyone come here. therefore. or having come. condemned to be idle in a place where there was nothing much to do. grey place. except work. stay. (David Lodge. was the fate of the unemployed of Rummidge and environments. At this time of the year it was certainly hard to understand why human beings had ever settled and multiplied in such a cold. damp. All the more grim. Only work seemed to provide an answer. which gave everybody runny noses and blocked sinuses for months open like fish gasping for air.

”.Q?” he asked the Australian. “Jesus Christ. “Down the coast. It had all happened too quickly.” “Yes.42 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ B. and he felt the vibration of his feet against the hard road. too.” “That’s right. He didn’t know whether or not she had been sent back with the other women. He was not sure of anything anymore. Quayle knew then that here was a brick wall.Q. He should have expected this. “Your wife’s probably all right. They may have telephone communication with the sector down the coast. too. “We’ll probably clear it up tomorrow. “Where is H. He thanked the guard as he walked away. He was not certain about what he was to do… Perhaps H. Maybe. the Australian said. He should have got Helen out long ago.”. the Australian said. . It’s cut off. He had never felt so completely unsure of himself and what he was doing.” “Yes.” Quayle was standing there uncertainly. But it was not hopeless even if he did not know that she was all right. has some information. He turned around and started walking back.” Quayle did not feel himself completely conscious.

It was almost morning when he got there. He was not certain of anything. (James Aldridge.English Practical Course 43 He was picturing Helen somewhere and he did not know where. But he could see her with sandals sometimes. Signed with their Honour) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . and he could hear the bombing him as he walked into the timber. and sometimes being surprised by German parachutists and shot. and sometimes with two fibre suitcases walking with other women. and he had vagueness about coming back or waiting to get down the coast and whether this invasion would fail. He caught a truck going through Suda Bay and then walked back to the airdrome.

“I stayed. I was the last one to leave the town of San-Carlos. But the others? .” I said. not quite understanding. An old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. “only the animals I stated. “No. I had to leave them. “Where do you come from?” I asked him.” He looked at me very blankly and tiredly.” “And you have no family?” I asked watching the far end of the bridge. he explained. you see.” he said.” “This is not a good place to stop. women and children were crossing it. I have come twelve kilometres now and I think I can go no further. But the old man sat there without moving. trucks and men. “Yes. “Oh. He was too tired to go any farther. having to share this worry with someone.” I said. There was a bridge across the river and cars. “From San-Carlos. “and then I will go. “I will wait a little while.” he said. “There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons. I am sure.” “What animals were they?” I asked. “I was taking care of the animals”.” he said and smiled.44 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ C. then said. I am seventy-six years old. taking care of the animals.” he said. “The cat will be all right.

(Ernest Hemingway. Old Man at the Bridge) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I urged. It was Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro.” “But the others? It’s better not to think about the others.” “Then they’ll fly. but no longer to me. “I was only taking care of the animals. It was a grey overcast day with a low ceiling.” “Thank you.” he said.” he said dully. swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust. “I was taking care of the animals. “Get up and try to walk now. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have. “Yes.English Practical Course 45 Now what do you think about the others? What will they do under the artillery?” “Did you leave the dove cage unlocked”? I asked.” There was nothing to do about him. so their planes were not up.” he said and got to his feet. “If you are rested. I would go.

000th the (one) thousandth 622nd the (six) hundredth 1.06 one point nought six .000.000 the (one) millionth and twenty-second The Fractional Numeral The forms of the fractional numeral Common fractions 1/2 a (one) half 3/6 three sixths 2/3 two thirds 8 6/5 eight six fifths Decimal fractions 34.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven 56.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight 0.46 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar reference 2 The Ordinal Numeral The form of the ordinal numeral 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first 22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fourtieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 1.04 (nought) point nought four 1.

April. 11x. March. e. . 12. La ora două şi un sfert iau autobuzul 85 şi merg în Piaţa Universităţii. a hundred times Controlled Practice 2 1. b. El s-a născut la 23 octombrie 1974. 1974. „A douăsprezecea noapte” este o comedie scrisă de Shakespeare. Cât faci de la facultate până la cămin? Căminul este lângă facultate. 4. La 1 iunie sărbătorim ziua copilului. August. Între 13:20 şi 13:30 avem o pauză în care nimeni nu are timp să mănânce. g. 2002. May. Translate into English: a. Cât e ceasul. once 2 double/ twice/ twofold 3x triple/ threefold. 11. 2. 2. 2001. 5. f. January. 1987. c. 8. 3. 27. Read the following numerals: 3 2/4. te rog? Douăsprezece şi un sfert. Deschideţi cartea la pagina 43 şi faceţi exerciţiul unu. ten times 100x a hundredfold. three times 4x fourfold. i. 1980. 2 9/7.879. four times 10x tenfold. Al cincilea modul este deja obositor pentru studenţi. h. aşa că nu fac mai mult de cinci minute. Câţi cenţi are un dolar? j. 1958.English Practical Course 47 The Multiplicative Numeral The forms of the multiplicative numeral 1x single. Read the following dates: July. d. 43/42.

48 English Practical Course k. Toate lunile au treizeci sau treizeci şi una de zile cu excepţia lunii februarie care are douăzeci şi opt de zile. l. Mă duc la bunica aproximativ de trei ori pe săptămână. O pătrime din avere îi aparţine lui Smith. Cât ai obţinut? 0.78. m. Camera are 5 metri în lungime şi 4 şi jumătate în lăţime. o. El a scris o lucrare de trei ori mai bună decât a ta. n. p. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

Can't we do it again? Judge: I cannot discuss this with you any longer. Joan.English Practical Course 49 Unit 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Present Perfect Simple © Present Perfect Continuous © Differences between the Present Perfect and thePast Tense •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. . Case closed! Dialogue 2: The Singer Charlie and Margaret are a married couple who own a video store. Pay attention to the use of homographs. so he goes to talk to one of the judges about it. At the close of the race. you were not even close to the winning runner. If you will excuse me. All of the other runners deserted me at the starting line. and I had to bow down to fix it. She is packing to go to Nashville to record her first record right now. Jim: But the race was not fair. Read the following dialogues. He feels that the race was unfair. Margaret: Joan has told me this morning that she wants a career in the music business. They are discussing the latest news they have received from their daughter. but my shoelace was undone. Jim: I would like to contest the outcome of this contest. I would have won. Dialogue 1: The Race Jim has just come in last in a road race. I am late to meet some friends for a camping trip in the desert. Judge: I do not think that you can use that as an excuse. That is why I did not get to start at the same time as the other runners.

I know she would like that. It will bring her to tears. what should I do with Joan 's train tickets to Nashville? Charlie: If she decides to stay." To close (v." or also "a device used to shoot an arrow. Charlie: Maybe we could show her that she could be of more use here. Ways with Words 1. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently (such as \'PREsent\ and \pre'SENT\). We could use another sales clerk. She could work at the store. but are spelled differently (such as "hare" and "hair"). The meanings of the following homographs change depending on the way they are pronounced. Margaret: OK." ." CLOSE and CLOSE: Close (adj. Homophones are words that sound the same. We will have to find a gentle way to separate her from the idea. We need to put our heads together to find a solution. The English language has a very complex spelling system. BOW and BOW: A bow (n.) is "a tied ribbon. you can tear them up. Practise these dialogues.) describes "something very near.) refers to "the act of shutting something.50 English Practical Course Charlie: What? She is going to subject the world to her singing voice? She is tone deaf! Margaret: Don't let her hear you say that. It says on them that they are non-refundable. not far away. demonstrating gratitude or respect." To bow (v. I will check with Joan first. On a separate subject. Margaret: That's a great idea.) is "the action of bending forward at the waist and stooping low.

" or it can also refer to "a phonograph album.) means "to forgive.) is "a competition that determines a winner." To desert (v." SEPARATE and SEPARATE: To separate (v." SUBJECT and SUBJECT: A subject (n.) is "the topic of a book." To excuse (v.English Practical Course 51 CONTEST and CONTEST: A contest (n.) is "the act of writing information down.) describes "things that are isolated or unconnected." USE and USE: Use (n.) are "drops that fall from the eyes of someone who is crying.) is "the event of employing something to serve a purpose." Tear (v.) means "to expose someone to something." To record (v.) is "a reason or explanation for one's actions.) is "an arid. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? ." or "documenting data (such as music) electronically.) something means "to leave it behind.) means "to divide or segregate. or experiment." RECORD and RECORD: A record (n. sandy region." Separate (adj." To contest (v." TEAR and TEAR: Tears (n." Use (v." DESERT and DESERT: A desert (n." To subject (v.) means "to rip something into pieces.) refers to "the act of disputing or objecting to something.) is "written documentation of a past event." Now practice these homographs in sentences of your own.) is "the action of employing for some purpose." EXCUSE and EXCUSE: An excuse (n. conversation.

from head to foot/toe – over your whole body have a good/fine head of hair – to have a lot of hair on your head do something in your head – calculate something in your mind go over your head – to be too difficult for you to understand a clear/cool head – the ability to think clearly or calmly in a difficult or dangerous situation need your head examined – be crazy use your head – to think about something sensibly keep your head above water – to manage to continue to live on your income or keep your business working in spite of money problems be hanging your head against a brick wall – to keep trying to do something which seems impossible have a head for figures/facts/ business – to be good at doing calculations. To put somebody’s heads together is an idiom. remembering facts head over heels in love – loving somebody very much heads with roll – used to say that some people will be punished severely for something that has happened Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. the wife tells her husband: We need to put our heads together to find a solution. 3.52 English Practical Course 2. to stand up. to feel better again after being ill and in bed . It means to discuss a difficult problem together. In the second dialogue. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Foot on foot – if you go somewhere on foot. you walk there get/jump/ rise to your feet etc –to stand up after you have been sitting be on your feet – to be standing for a long time without having time to sit down. Let’s learn some idioms containing the word head.

English Practical Course 53 be rushed off your feet/ be run off your feet – to be very busy put your foot in it . especially after working very hard make somebody’s hair stand on end – to make someone very frightened not turn a hair – to remain completely calm when something bad or surprising suddenly happens not harm/ touch a hair of somebody’s head – no to harm somebody in any way Hand take somebody by the hand – hold somebody’s hand in order to take them somewhere hand in hand . so that you embarrass or upset someone have two left feet – to be very clumsy get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly. especially by always being near them keep your hair on – (spoken) to tell someone to keep calm and not get annoyed let your hair down – (informal) to enjoy yourself and start to relax. especially to show love . usually by having an argument have/keep both feet on the ground – to think in a sensible and practical way and not have ideas or aims that will be impossible to achieve have one foot in the grave – to be very old or very ill leave feet first – to die before you leave a place or job feet of clay –someone that you admire who has feet of clay has faults that you did not realize they had Hair get in somebody’s hair – to annoy someone.holding each other’s hand.to say something without thinking carefully.

to influence or to be involved in something in good/safe/capable hands – being dealt with or looked after by someone who can be trusted off your hands – if something or somebody is off your hands. or fourth person by hand – delivered from one person to another. or the left hand rather than the right right/left hander – a player who uses mainly the right hand or mainly the left hand not do a hand’s turn . third.to do no work at all a dab hand – someone who is very good at doing something good with your hands – skillful at making things turn your hand to .54 English Practical Course right-handed/ left-handed – using the right hand for most actions rather than the left. you are not responsible for them anymore at hand –near in time or space on hand – close by and ready when needed first hand/ at first hand – by direct personal experience at second/third/fourth hand – passed from the first person who actually saw or heard something to a second.to start doing something new or practising a new skill keep your hand in – to keep practising something so you do not lose your skill a firm hand – strict control of someone get out of hand – to become impossible to control take something/somebody in hand – to bring someone or something under control in hand – being dealt with have a hand in . and sent through the post go hand in hand – to be closely connected get your hands on to obtain something– to catch somebody you are angry with .

so close to somebody that they ought to notice. it looks so good you want to eat it immediately Nose red-nosed/ long-nosed – having a nose that is red. but they do not stick/ poke your nose into – to show too much interest in private matters that do not concern you look down your nose at – to behave as if you think somebody or something is not good enough for you . especially in a bad or illegal activity on the one hand… on the other hand – used when comparing different or opposite facts or ideas give somebody a (big) hand (of applause) – to clap loudly in order to show your approval of a performer or speaker Mouth keep your mouth shut – not to tell other people about a secret.English Practical Course 55 lay your hands on – to find or obtain something have time on your hands – to have a lot of time because you have no work to do have your hands full –to be very busy or too busy out of hand – if you refuse something out of hand. not to say anything because you might make a mistake big mouth – someone who is a big mouth or has a big mouth is annoying because they cannot keep secrets or they often say things they should not say make your mouth water – if food makes your mouth water. you refuse immediately and completely hand in glove – closely connected with somebody. long right under somebody’s nose .

• activities completed in the immediate past (these events are recent. (But: She met him there a few minutes ago. The recentness may be indicated by just. He has never used an English-English dictionary before.56 English Practical Course with your nose in the air – behaving as if you are more important than other people and not talking to them on the nose – exactly keep your nose to the grindstone – to work very hard.e.) Has English been used by people at this office in the last ten years? (But: Why was English used on such a large scale in 1999?) She has had four car accidents. . Sometimes these events happened at an unknown time in the past): She has just met him in the computer science laboratory. without stopping to rest Grammar Reference 1 Present Perfect Simple It relates past actions and states to the present. He has fixed his car. I can tell you the story). He can drive it now). (up to the present) • activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of Experience): I have been to Scotland once.e. It is used to express: • a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still having an effect (Present Perfect of Result): I have already seen that movie. (i. without a definite time given. (i.

How long have you worked as a translator? How long has it taken the English language to be used by so many people? Form have/has +verb (past participle) The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. No. Affirmative and negative I We You They He has (‘s) have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) worked in a petroleum factory. I haven’t. No. She has not (hasn’t) Interrogative Have I we you Has they he been to the United Kingdom? she Short answer Have you ever been to France? Yes. . (Since means from a definite point in the past till now. and for expresses a duration). she has. There are many common irregular verbs (see the list on page 299). she hasn’t.English Practical Course 57 • an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present I’ve known you for five years/ since 1996. Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer? Yes. I have.

Here the speaker may be about to return. This in turn may depend on whether the speaker feels distant in time or place from the event. (He is dead. (But: He started working in this university four years ago) Have you found your books? (uncertainty) Yes. Choice between past simple and present perfect for recent events may depend on the mental attitude of the speaker.) I lived in this flat for two years. I’ve bought a house. . Where did you find them? (certainty). I have. I’m going back to take it. (Now I live somewhere else. I’m going back to take it. or be further away. (indefinite) I bought a house last month. I’ve left the red bag in my room.58 English Practical Course Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences: I’ve lived in this flat for six months (I still do.) Shakespeare wrote very good plays. on the top shelf. (He is still alive. I found them behind a couple of other books. (definite) I bought the house after all. Here the speaker may feel separated in time from the event. I left the red bag in my room. (implies definite reference: the house we talked about). and feels that the event is connected with the present.) John Fowles has written very good short stories.) He has worked in this university for four years.

I (not hear) from you for a long time. My brother is still out of work. Insert the Present Perfect or Past Indefinite: a. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past: Maria: Hello. Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn? Dan: Yes. But what about you. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Dan. that’s one piece of good news. Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks ago. Maria: Are you still working at Scott’s? Dan: Yes. . Dan: Hello. you (pass) it yet? Maria: Yes. how are you? I remember that you were learning for your English Phonetics test. Dan: Well. I (be) on a tram.English Practical Course 59 Controlled Practice 1 1. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet. …. Maria: Well. They just (give) me a pay rise. I (pass) in December. I (not pass) my Lexicology exam yet. I have. not really. Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately? Dan: No. Thomas (to meet) her for the first time the day he turned 20. but you (not see) me.

___________________ in Pakistan? a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked . I (to see) my friend’s name in the papers quite often lately. Circle the correct answer: 1. She (to read) about nine hours today. h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Mr Black (not to return) from the dentist’s. d. g. e. She (to begin) reading at 8 this morning and (to go) on reading until 11 o’clock when she (to stop) and (to have) something to eat. but I (to wait) a month now and the confirmation still (not come). As far as I know. you (not to eat) it. When ________________ the company? a) have you joined b) Had you joined c) did you join d) have you ever joined 2. he (to leave) quite a long time ago. When I (to buy) my car I (to ask) the company to confirm my insurance by telephone. I don’t know why but I have the feeling that something (to happen). and (to translate) more than 25 pages. she (to speak) at last.60 English Practical Course b. here is your cake. Mike. c. f. The company (to tell) me to wait for the response. They (to stand) in silence for a few minutes.

d) I've never had to deal with. b) I never had to deal with. a) We have signed b) We signed c) We haven't signed d) We had signed 7. c) I've ever had to deal with. a) didn’t rise have fallen b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen d) rose have fallen 9. Sales ________ in 1995 but then _____ in 1996. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid. You ____________ to a word ____________ .English Practical Course 61 c) Had you ever worked d) Didn't you work 3. 5. ___________________ to him last week. That's the best presentation ______________ a) I never heard b) I didn't hear c) I used to hear d) I've ever heard 4. a) I spoke b) I've already spoken c) I hadn’t spoken d) I will have spoken 6. He's the most difficult customer _____________________ a) I never dealt with. The reason I look so brown is that _______________ from a business trip to Barbados a) I come back b) I came back c) I never came back d) I've just come back 8.

As a child. It (…) very hot this summer.62 English Practical Course a) b) c) d) listened didn't listen listened haven't listened I haven't said I say saying I've said 10. Fill in with a suitable verb either in the Past Tense or Present Perfect: a. You (…) her an e-mail yet? Yes. h. I wonder when it’s going to get colder. It's obvious that ________________ this report. For your information I (…) home at 8 in the morning and (…) just before noon. e. i. You (…) all your life in this luxurious mansion? b..) a cold for more than two years. Everybody enjoyed it. d. What are we going to do? We (…) the train and the next one leaves in the morning. g. c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . When I (…) school I (…) my hair and (…) it short ever since. The movie (…) at 12 and (…) for two hours. John cannot send the letter since he (…) it. Now I (. f. He (…) writing it at 5 and it’s 8 already. I (…) catch a cold every month. I (…) it when you (…) at school. j.. She just (…) her second ode. a) you haven't read b) you didn't read c) you don't read d) you had read 4. My sister (…) several poems.

Te-am căutat ieri vreo două ore şi te-am căutat şi astăzi. It was proposed that a new church should be built. He was going to leave for London when he heard his flight has been cancelled. Vecinul meu a scris şi câteva poveşti de adormit copiii. evident. Mike has tried to give up smoking before. le-a scris când era foarte tânăr. (contact) b. Am băut şi am dansat până acum. Rephrase the sentences below using the word in brackets: a. (first) d.English Practical Course 63 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. It’s been years since I last met Jim. The last time I saw Jane was on Monday. c. Translate into English: a. Pe unde ai umblat? b. (point) e. că de mâncat – am mâncat dimineaţă. . d. Cu ani în urmă creştea porumbei şi lilieci dar acum s-a apucat să planteze ananas. (for) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. (forward) f. It is Sunday. When did you leave the country? (ago) c.

S-a purtat foarte frumos cu mine de când i-am spus că îi vând lui maşina mea. i./ They have created 2000 new products so far. . especially with those verbs which are not normally in the continuous aspect.64 English Practical Course e. f. Cumnatul meu a spart ieri casa fostului său director. • an activity which began in the past. Şi-a plătit-o încă de când a luat salariul. Grammar Reference 2 Present Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an activity which began in the past and is still in progress at the moment of speaking: They have been creating new products for several years. Tocmai am aflat vestea conform căreia preşedintele acelei ţări a căzut victimă unui atac terorist. Vi se pare curios că tocmai şi-a luat lucrurile şi a plecat. has only just finished and is relevant to the current situation: Sorry I’m late. and when reference is made to the number of things that have been done: They have created/ have been creating new products for several years. Sigur. There may be little contrast when some state verbs are used. după ce l-aţi înjurat că nu a avut bani să plătească chiria? j. h. g. I’ve been waiting for an hour and he still hasn’t turned up. după aceea s-a făcut nevăzut şi de atunci poliţia îl caută fără încetare. John şi-a plătit datoria. in negative sentences. Have you been waiting long? Note: In both these uses the present perfect simple can be also used. Nu am văzut în viaţa mea atâta suferinţă cât am văzut azi la acest azil de bătrâni. domnule.

can be present. Affirmative and negative I You We They He has been have been have not been (haven’t been) working. Completed: emphasis on achievement I’ve washed four skirts this morning. lie. or recently completed: emphasis on duration. There may be a contrast between completion and incompletion. irritation. in which case a nuance of reproach.English Practical Course 65 How long have you lived here? How long have you been living here? Some verbs (especially sit. I’ve been washing my skirts this morning. especially if the number of items completed is mentioned. stay and wait) prefer the continuous form. etc. Why don’t you answer the phone? Form It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (verb+-ing). • a repeated activity. Incomplete. I’ve been calling you for the past twenty minutes. She has not been (hasn’t been) Interrogative What have I have you have we have they has he has she been doing? .

What she (do) all afternoon? h. Te caut de o orã. How long you (learn) Chinese? e. Pe unde ai umblat? b.66 English Practical Course Controlled Practice 2 1. Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous: a. I’m tired. Supply the simple present perfect or the continuous present perfect of the verbs in brackets: a. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o veste de la el. but (not see) her ever since. They already (speak) to me about that experiment. You (cry). Câte cuvinte ai căutat în dicţionar pânã acum? d. c. Locuim în România de trei ani. d. I (work) hard all day. b. I saw her in August. g. i. Your eyes are red. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . She (not write) the essay on Renaissance yet. Translate the following sentences into English. e. You’re out of breath.. c. You (run)? f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. N-am mai vãzut-o de când a terminat facultatea.

How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house? b.English Practical Course 67 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. You ate chocolates in the morning. There is definite improvement in your spelling recently. . you have eaten chocolates in the afternoon and you are still eating chocolates now and it’s 5 pm. b. Rewrite each sentence. I haven’t been to Barcelona before. You ……………………. We haven’t seen each other for ages. so that the meaning stays the same: a. It’s a long time since I last saw such a good movie. He’s tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all day. I have …………………………………………………….. It’s ages ……………………………………………… c. Choose the correct verb form: a. No wonder you are overweight. e. f. e. It’s the first ……………………………………………. Lately your spelling ……………………………………. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten years and a half. I haven’t seen ………………………………………. c. d. I’ve been ……………………………………………… d. g. beginning as shown. Alan has been going/ has gone to South America. No wonder you are overweight. I don’t know where my glasses are. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English? 4. I bought my car in 1992 and I’m still driving it.

Why you (not bring) me the letters for signature? You (not type) them yet? f. He only just (stop). Eating this spicy Indian food is totally new to me. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect simple or continuous: a. But she (practise) reversing for the last week and I think she (get) a bit better at it. I (try) to get our Paris office but the line (be) engaged all morning. i. h. Ann (fail) her driving test three times because she's so bad at reversing. I haven’t …………………………………………………. d. Tom (looking up absent-mindedly as Mary comes in): You (sunbathe)? Mary (crossly): Don't be ridiculous! It (rain) all day! g. i. It is at home. I (watch) them from my window since they began. I just (find) out. I have ……………………………………………………. . The police say that he (help) them with their enquiries. The police (not find) the murderer yet. I haven’t …………………………………………………… 5. but the dead man's brother (be) in the station all day. Peter: You (telephone) for ages.68 English Practical Course h. They (pull) down most of the houses in this street. A pair of robins (build) a nest in the porch since last week.. I don’t have the textbook with me. Tom: I often (wonder) why Bill left the country so suddenly. c. e. j. but they (not touch) the old shop at the corner yet. Peter: Actually. The last time I spoke to Jane was in 2001. He (play) the bagpipes since six o'clock this morning. You not nearly (finish)? Jack: I (not get) through yet. b.

She's lucky. o. s. I (do) housework all morning and I (not finish) yet. I (do) mine already. Peter (be) a junior clerk for three years. She just (sell) two of her own paintings. q. I just (pick) ten pounds of strawberries! I (grow) strawberries for years but I never (have) such a good crop before. I'm afraid I (use) it to make holes in this tin. I (paint) for five years and I (not sell) a single picture yet. and now the sewing machine (break) down so we'll be even slower with the next one.m. Lately he (look) for a better post but so far he (not find) anything. The firm just (present) him with a gold watch as a sign of their appreciation. What you (do) with the corkscrew? The point is broken off. but I think I (wait) too long and the prices are beginning to go up again.English Practical Course 69 j. Tom is convinced that there is gold in these hills but we (search) for six months and (not see) any sign of it. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . We (mend) sheets all morning but we only (do) three. t. l. m. He (work) for Crow Brothers for forty years and never once (be) late. He says he'll bring it back when he (finish). I always start at 6 a. I (wait) for the prices of the houses to come down before buying a house. p. they (have) a good many rows but this is the fifth time they (throw) crockery. r. What you (do) with my typewriter? I can't find it anywhere. n. k. Tom just (go) off with it. This (happen) before? Well. They are throwing crockery at each other in the next flat.

my brother reckons that he (eat) 30 official lunches and 22 official dinner. “Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before!” “Well. i. The Town Council (consider) my application for permission to build a garage for three months. It (not move) at all in the last five minutes. it wasn't me. I wonder what (happen) to them all. d. I'm afraid the fine spell (come) to an end. Manager: I know: something (go) wrong with our computer. so I'm not used to it. They just (give) my neighbour permission to build one.70 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. e. and he (lose) count of the number of receptions and parties that he (attend). It's full of photographs of people whose names I completely (forget). I hope he (find) out what's wrong. b. c. He (put) on a lot of weight? f. Since he became Mayor. Now he (collect) so many that he doesn't know where to put them. I think the man in the ticket office just (shut) his window and (go) out for lunch. George (collect) matchboxes ever since he left school. . Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple or continuous: a. I (look) through my old photograph album. but since then the sky (get) steadily darker and the wind (rise). Secretary: Customers (ring) up all morning complaining about getting incorrect bills. I (not be) out of the house for a week!” h. It was lovely at eleven o'clock. You look exhausted! Yes. j. I (stand) in this queue for ages. so I hope they (decide) to let me have one too. I (play) tennis and I (not play) for years. The mechanic (work) on it. g.

I (wait) an hour now. He probably thinks that you (pay) and he (lose) the cheque. q. n. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (go)? m. Mrs Brown (live) next door for quite a long time now but she never (say) more than 'Good morning' to me. I (build) a barbecue grid in the garden. p. madam? Customer: But I (shop) here for fifteen years! Shop assistant: I know.English Practical Course 71 k. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . It is the first time you (be) late with the rent in 25 years. madam. Shop assistant: Could you give me some proof of your identity. They began widening this road three weeks ago. He often (keep) me waiting but he never (be) quite so late as this. o. That man (stand) at the bus stop for the last half hour. I wonder if anything (happen) to Tom. but the workmen (be) on strike for the last fortnight so they (not get) very far with it. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. I just (remember) that I (not pay) the rent yet. but apparently the company (lose) a lot of money lately through dud cheques and they (make) new regulations which we (be told) to apply to all customers no matter how long we (know) them. l. I am surprised that the landlord (not ring) me up to remind me.

b. d. Mihai e chiar culmea! Spală rufe de când am venit eu de la bâlci şi n-a terminat nici măcar pantalonii.72 English Practical Course 7. Tony şi Nikki nu-şi mai vorbesc de o lună. Miroase a ars în bucătărie. Vecinul meu. Iar a gătit soţul meu! c. Translate into English: a. sapă de azi dimineaţă dar nu a terminat decât un sfert din teren. De 13 ani se chinuie românii să redreseze economia şi nici acum nu au reuşit să stabilizeze moneda naţională. e. caut piese de schimb de mai bine de o lună şi n-am găsit nici una până acum. f. Tocmai am terminat de săpat grădina. de luna trecută îşi tot trimit mesaje de ameninţare prin poştă. săracul. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . N-ai adus încă maşina de la reparat? – Da’ de unde.

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Progress Test 1
1. Put the verbs between brackets in the right tense: In the past thirty years many social changes ……………… (take) place in Britain. The greatest of these ………..probably………….(be) in the economic and domestic lives of women. Almost all theoretical sex discrimination in political and legal rights has been removed. The changes …………(be) significant, but, because tradition and prejudice can still …………..(handicap) women in their working careers and personal lives, major legislation to help promote equality of opportunity and pay ………(appear) during the 70s. Since 1951 the proportion of married women who work …….. (grow) from just over a fifth to a half. Compared with their counterparts elsewhere in the European Community, British women comprise a relatively high proportion of the work-force, about two-fifths, but on average they …………(work) fewer hours, about 31 a week. There is still a significant difference between women’s average earnings and men’s, but the equal pay legislation which ………(come) into force at the end of 1975 seems to have helped to narrow the gap between women’s and men’s basic rates. During the 1970s women’s wages ……….(rise) proportionately more than men’s but …………..(remain) relatively low because women ……….(tend) to work in lowly-paid sectors of the economy, they often …….(work) in predominantly female work-forces, and they work less overtime than men. As more and more women joined the work-force in the 1960s and early 1970s there ……(be) an increase in the collective incomes of women as a whole and a major change in the economic role of large numbers of housewives. Families …… (come) to rely on married women’s earnings as an essential part of their income rather than as “pocket money”, or as a

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means of buying ”extras”. At the same time social roles within the family ……. (be) more likely to be shared, exchanged or altered.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same: a. I’ve had to wait all morning. I have been ………………….. b. I didn’t have any idea of my next move. I didn’t know ………………… c. The last time I was to Paris was in 1998. I haven’t ………………………. d. Go to the registration desk immediately on arrival. As ………………………………. e. Mary and John’s wedding is next weekend. Mary and John will ……………… f. I intended to tell you about it earlier, but I simply forgot. I was …………………………….. g. I wasn’t very keen on tennis in those days.

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I didn’t use ………………………. h. Whose car is that? Whom does ………………….. i. Your brother will get over his illness. Then his work will get better. Once ……………………………. 3. Choose the most suitable continuation for each sentence: a. You can borrow this book, A. I am not going to need it; B. won’t have been needing it; C. am not needing it. b. It’s no use calling Barbra at home. She A. will have left; B. is leaving; C. will leave c. When you passed the town hall clock, A. were you noticing what time it was?; B. have you noticed what time it was?; C. did you notice what time it was? d. I must apologise, I A. hadn’t realised that this seat was yours.; B. wasn’t realising that this seat was yours.; C. didn’t realise that this seat was yours. e. I realised that someone had stolen one of my bags when I A. was getting to the taxi.; B. got to the taxi.; C. have got to the taxi. f. Can you remember what A. you were doing five years ago today?; B. you did five years ago today?; C. you have been doing five years ago today? g. This is my new suit. Do you think it A. suited me? B. suits me? C. has suited me? h. Cleo! I didn’t expect to see you here. What A. are you doing in London? B. were you doing in London? C. have you done in London? i. I simply can’t understand what

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A. you are waiting for; B. you wait for; C. you will wait for.

_________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into English, using the appropriate tense: a. Nu ştiu bine timpurile. b. Am încercat să-ţi telefonez toată ziua. Unde ai fost? c. Sunt căsătoriţi de zece ani. d. Era o femeie atât de bună încât toată lumea o iubea. e. Uite! Ţi-ai rupt tricoul. f. Am petrecut revelionul la ţară acum doi ani. g. Nimeni nu are voie să plece acasă până nu terminăm proiectul. h. De multă vreme nu mai ninge mult iarna. i. În ziua următoare şi-au continuat călătoria. j. Ai recunoscut-o pe fata care stătea lângă tine la cinema? k. Are maşina de două luni. Soţul ei i-a dăruit-o de întâi martie. l. L-ai văzut pe John? Da, ieri a trecut pe la noi. m. George locuia cu mama lui când aceasta a murit. n. Ploua cu găleata de trei ore când ne-am întors acasă. o. Ce făceai când a venit Maria la tine?

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. have taken; have been; have been; handicap; appeared; has grown; work; came; rose; remained; tend; work; was; came; were 2. a. I have been waiting all morning. b. I didn’t know what I would do next. c. I haven’t been to Paris since 1998. d. As you arrive, go to the registration desk. e. Mary and John will get married next weekend. f. I was going to tell you about it earlier. g. I didn’t use to play tennis in those days. h. Whom does the car belong to? i. Once your brother has got over his illness, his work will get better. 3. a. A; b. A; c. C; d. C; e. B; f. A; g. B.; h. A; i. A 4. a. I don’t know the tenses well. b. I have been trying to call you all day. Where have you been? c. They have been married for ten years. d. She was such a kind woman that everybody loved her. e. Look here! You’ve torn your T-shirt. f. We spent New Year’s Eve in the countryside last year. g. Nobody is allowed to go home until we have finished the project. h. It hasn’t snowed anymore in winter for a long time.

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i. The next day he went on his trip. j. Have you recognised the girl sitting next to you at the cinema? k. She has had this car for two months. Her husband gave it to her in March. l. Have you seen John? Yes, he called on us yesterday. m. George was living with his mother when this one died. n. It had been raining cats and dogs for three hours when we came back home. o. What were you doing when Mary came to you?

Score: 1. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points 2. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points 4. 1 point + 0,60 points each x15 =10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points

put it down. I am still working on your face. Fred agrees to pose for his wife. John: That sounds nice. . I don't want you to see the painting until the whole thing is done. Dialogue 1: The Portrait In honour of John and Mary's wedding anniversary. Read the following dialogues. John: Can't you just leave a hole where the pear is and fill it in later? I am hungry. Mary: Well. I don't want it in the picture. Pay attention to the use of homophones. who wants to paint his portrait.English Practical Course 79 Unit 4 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Indefinite Pronouns © Personal Pronouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading 1. Mary: What are you doing with that pear? John: I am going to pare it. It is coming out great! I think I am at my artistic peak. When can I take a peek? Mary: Sit still. and then I am going to eat it. John: It feels like I have been sitting here for hours. John: Are we still going to that inn in Vermont this weekend to celebrate our anniversary? Mary: Certainly! I bought a pair of tickets for a dinner show there on Saturday night.

Bruce: That's correct! Hey. Tammy: Okay. Mary: Oh. I can guess just by looking at you. Let's go to his booth. look! There are Stan and Judy. Oh. no! Where is my wedding ring? I hope it didn't go down the drain when I was wringing out those rags! John: No. Carnival worker: You weigh one hundred and thirty-seven pounds. too! Tammy: I'll go get them. Where do you want to go next? Tammy: Look! That guy over there will guess your weight. Guess.) means "entire. The following are examples of easily confused homophones. Bruce: There's no wait to see him. we'll take a break. These words are pronounced identically.) is "an empty space. Ways with Words 1. I would hate to have lost that right before our anniversary! Dialogue 2: The Carnival Tammy and Bruce are spending the afternoon at a carnival. You took it off to paint. Practice these dialogues. total." .80 English Practical Course Mary: Okay. it's on the table." Whole (adj. yet they have different spellings and meanings: HOLE and WHOLE: A hole (n. and he weighs one-seventy. Let's see if he can guess their weights. They're good sports. Tammy: I am so glad we came today. either. I am having so much fun! This is ideal weather for a carnival. you two! Do you want me to guess your weight? Whether you are fat or thin. Carnival worker: Hey. good. The sign says he can even guess what size you wear. Bruce: I agree.

" Ring (v.) means "to sneak a quick look at something. and PEAR: A pair (n." A peak (n.) is "a small hotel.) is "a fruit. such as a bell." Now practise these homographs in sentences of your own. PARE.) means "to pause or linger.) means "two matched or corresponding things.) is "a summit or climax." Whether (conj." WAIT and WEIGHT: To wait (v.) is used "to introduce two or more alternatives.) is "the opposite of ''from.) is "a cardinal number.) refers to "the location of something.) means "at a certain place." Weight (n. " Too (adv." WEATHER and WHETHER: Weather (n. THERE.) means "the opposite of 'out." THEIR.) means "to have an item of clothing or an object on one's body. and TWO: To (prep.) is "a circular object with a hole in the middle.) means "to twist something.) means " to peel.) means "to strike something for the purpose of creating a sound." WEAR and WHERE: Wear (v. " TO." Two (n." To wring (v. " There (adv." To pare (v.) is "the possessive form of ''they.English Practical Course 81 IN and INN: In (prep." A pear (n." Where (adv. and THEY'RE: Their (pron.'" An inn (n." PAIR. Can you add other homophones to the ones listed above? ." RING and WRING: A ring (n." PEEK and PEAK: Peek (v.) refers to "the climate conditions." They're is "a contraction of ''they are. TOO.) means "also.) is "the measurement of heaviness.

Johnny. Teacher: You missed school yesterday. didn’t you? Johnny: No. he orders Coke and salad and wants to leave. I want to know what it is now. A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones. you have a good time and you pay money when you leave. The waiter asks him to pay. They have an argument and they decide to look up the word restaurant. sir. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear.82 English Practical Course 2. What did the salad say to the tomato? Lettuce get married. Customer: I don’t care what it was. The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats vegetables and leaves. What shape should it be? What colour would you paint the sun and the wind? The sun rose and the wind blue. Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this? Waiter: It’s bean soup. you drink. Driver: Oh dear. A Panda bear goes to a restaurant. because there is a play on words. The definition of the word restaurant is: a place where you eat. Read the following children’s jokes. Why was the doctor angry? . Mechanic: Your battery’s flat. not at all.

Let’s learn some idioms containing the word face. you hold it away from your body as long as your arm – (informal) a list or written document that is as long as your arm . 3. etc. they are very close and in front of each other put a brave face (on) – to make an effort to behave in a happy cheerful way when you are upset or disappointed Now practise these idioms in sentences of your own. and the other is heir to the throne. you are walking next to them with your arm in theirs welcome somebody/something with open arms – to show that you are happy to see somebody or eager to accept an idea. What’s the difference between a ball and a prince? One is thrown in the air. Face pale. In the first dialogue. plan.faced/ round. 3.faced etc – having a face that has a particular shape or colour serious-faced/ grim-faced etc – showing a particular expression on your face face to face – if two people are face to face. as she still needs to work on his portrait. She says: I am still working on your face.English Practical Course 83 Because he had no patients. the wife tells her husband not to be hurried. Let’s learn more idioms containing words which refer to parts of the body: Arm arm in arm – if you walk arm in arm with somebody. give your right arm – to be willing to do anything to get or do something at arm’s length – if you hold something at arm’s length.

– having long ears be all ears – (informal) to be very keen to hear someone is going to tell you smile/grin etc from ear to ear – to show that you are very happy or pleased by smiling so much give somebody a thick ear – (British English informal) to hit someone go in (at) one ear and out (at) the other – (informal) if information goes in one ear and out the other.84 English Practical Course Ear long-eared/ short-eared etc. one eye. you forget it as soon as you have heard it keep your/an ear to the ground – to make sure that you always know what is happening in a situation Eye blue eyed/ one-eyed/bright-eye/ wide eyed etc – having blue eyes. especially because you do not trust them to do things properly clap/lay/set eyes on somebody/something – to see somebody or something. eyes that are wide open etc have/keep an eye on somebody – to be carefully watching everything that someone does. bright eyes. you can see it without using any artificial help such as telescope or microscope be all eyes – to watch carefully what is happening or what someone is doing eye contact – if you have eye contact with someone. used especially when you are surprised or shocked the naked eye – if you can see something with the naked eye. you look directly at them and they look directly at you run/cast eye over something – to look at something quickly without reading it in detail keep your eye on something/somebody – to look after someone or something and make sure they are safe keep you eyes open/peeled – (spoken) to carefully watch for anything .

and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences: I’ve got some tools. few (a few)/ little (a little) 1. valuable. usually used when you are pleased about it. used especially when you think someone has too much influence twist/wrap somebody around your little finger – to be able to persuade someone to do anything that you want long-fingered/delicate-fingered etc –having long. even when this might seem impossible have a (good) eye for something – to be good at noticing and recognizing what is attractive. Grammar Reference Indefinite Pronouns some/any. so that you drop or break things have a finger in every pie – an expression meaning to be involved in many activities and have influence over them.English Practical Course 85 have eyes in the back of your head – to know what is happening all around you. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative sentences. of good quality in the eyes of the law/ the world/ the police etc – in the opinion or judgment of the law. delicate fingers Practise them in sentences of your own. the world. Finger not lift/ raise a finger – not to make any effort to help someone with their work keep your fingers crossed – to hope that something will happen the way you want be all fingers and thumbs – (British English) to use your hands in an awkard or careless way. much/many. . the police one in the eye for – (British English) a defeat or disappointment for someone else. a lot of/ lots of.

4. We only need a little money to buy this. There are lots of books in this library. but only with a singular noun: There is some chocolate in this cake. 2. Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and negative sentences. Is there any water in this well? We haven’t got any butter in the house. There’s a lot of mineral water in my fridge. Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative sentences: How much money have you got? There wasn’t much disappointment that awaited him when she deserted him 3. The Personal Pronoun The nominative.86 English Practical Course Are there any books of Physics in the house? We don’t need any apples for this pie. Form . Countable nouns are used with many in interrogative and negative sentences: How many geologists work for this company? We haven’t discovered many new oil fields. while uncountable nouns are used with little/ a little: I’ve got a few problems at the moment. He’s got a lot of money. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of: We’ve got a lot of uniforms.

He takes much interest in (you). Listen to (she). anybody. g. f. I’ll call for (they) when I think they forgot our little misunderstanding. Will you give (I) permission to go home earlier? c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Fill in the personal pronoun in the accusative or dative (required by prepositions): a. h. d. Please. Form Person First person Second person Third person Singular (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it Plural (to) us (to) you (to) them Controlled Practice 1. The doctor! Send for (he) at once. Will you let (they) to come to your anniversary? e. The old man asked (he) what the time was. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: somebody.English Practical Course 87 Person First person Second person Third person Singular I you he she Plural we you they it The accusative/The dative. everybody: . look for it while I am away. nobody. b.

. Fill in the indefinite pronouns: much. is knocking at the door. speaks. There must be the cleaning woman you sent for.knows that the semester will finish in June. e. like him. h. I have never seen …. just ……. can tell you how mistaken you are. Ask …. a few: a.. l. …. came an hour ago and left this parcel for Mary. from the French department.. b. c. if they have come back from Italy. …… were there but listened to what she had to say. …. He didn’t give me too …… trouble. Ask …. j. has to open the door for him! i. few. b. many. . We haven’t heard of …. ….. d. I’m sorry. k. My knowledge in this field is very poor.. g. should know these rules. a little.. They are not difficult at all. Can …… help me with this? m. Do you have any questions? Just …… c.. She was talking and …… was listening to what she was saying. During a good performance of the actors ….. …. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3.... f.. …. who didn’t pass the English exam. little. ….88 English Practical Course a.

English Practical Course 89 d. i. Are there many mistakes in her test paper? No. e. te rog. aşa că s-a retras din cursă. just …. g. Se pare că i-a cucerit pe toţi. Aş vrea să ştiu câţi studenţi au picat la acest examen.. Despite the unfavourable weather …… did come to the meeting. h. Lui i s-a părut că ceva nu este în regulă. i. h. Cu puţină răbdare. but we finally managed. I-am dat cuiva cartea. d. j. We only need …. Aş vrea puţin zahăr în cafea. Translate into English: a. c.. e.. b. Mi-a fost decernat premiul Uniunii Scriitorilor acum trei ani. problems to solve. f. The problem was ……. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. I’ve got …. Mulţi elevi aşteaptă vacanţa cu nerăbdare. There is plenty of information here but …… has been read. Nu este nevoie de foarte mult vin la friptură. darn nu-mi amintesc cu siguranţă când. f. totul se va rezolva. so I couldn’t make a coffee. There wasn’t …… sugar left. Este prea amară. difficult. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .. g. money to buy this. Toată lumea o iubeşte.

90 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .

or troubles on shore. which I had never been upon before. that if it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage. and that every time the ship fell down. Underline the verbs which are used in Past Perfect: All this while the storm increased. go home to my father. and the sea. and never set it into a ship again while I lived. nor like what I saw a few days after. as I thought. . and had never known anything of the matter. And never had I been exposed to tempests at sea. how comfortably he had lived all his days. in the trough or hollow of the sea. though nothing like what I have seen many times since. I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up. and I resolved that I would. I would go directly home to my father. and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. went very high. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life. that I would take his advice. no. like a true repenting prodigal.English Practical Course 91 Unit 5 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Past Perfect Simple © Past Perfect Continuous © The Imperative •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. who was but a young sailor. we should never rise more. But it was enough to affect me then. if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again. and in this agony of mind I made many vows of resolutions. how easy.

92 English Practical Course These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm continued. being also a little sea-sick still. I was very grave for all that day. and a charming fine evening followed. comes to me: “Well. I had slept well in the night. give us but a good ship and sea-room. It was a terrible storm. and I began to be a little inured to it. and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after. clapping me on the shoulder. when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful. you fool you. and a smooth sea. Bob. Bob. and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. but you’re but a fresh-water sailor. and we think nothing at all. the sun went down perfectly clear. and rose so the next morning. my companion. and indeed some time after. wa’n’t you. but towards night the weather cleared up. Look at the following sentence belonging to this unit: I expected that every wave would have swallowed us up… Here are some expressions containing the word that: that far = atât de departe. give us but a good ship and sea-room. “how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted. . And now lest my good resolutions should continue. that is the point = aceasta-i problema. looking with wonder upon the sea that was so wrought and terrible the day before. the sight was. Come. let us make a bowl of punch. and having little or no wind.” replied he. but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer. the most delightful that ever I saw. d’you call it?” said I.” says he. However. who had indeed enticed me away. the wind was quite over. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” Ways with Words 1." “A storm. and was now no more sea-sick but very cheerful. last night. as I thought. and we’ll forget all that. it was nothing at all. “do you call that a storm? Why. the sun shining upon it.

to perform (an action). let us make a bowl of punch. to make it clear = a clarifica. to serve as or become. sã. that’s how it happened = aşa s-a întâmplat. to amount to. to make an attempt = a face o încercare. and we’ll forget all that. d’ye see what charming weather ‘tis now?” In this sentence to make means to produce. Let’s learn some expressions in which the verb to make occurs. Read this sentence again: Come. for all that = cu toate acestea. but for that = dacã nu ar fi fost asta. Try to make up sentences in which to express each of its meanings. that is why (that’s why) = de aceea. in order that = pentru ca. to cause to do or be. . a redacta. to establish. a demonstra. a (se) pregãti. to make the best of = a trage cât mai mult profit de pe urma. to make out = a înţelege. we may mention: to create. a ceda. to make believe = a face sã creadã. 2. din aceastã cauzã. that is to say = adicã. to bring about or produce. Among other meanings of the verb to make.English Practical Course 93 that much = cam atât. to make it possible = a face posibil. a profita la maximum de. to earn. to make for = a contribui. to make do = a se descurca cu o soluţie alternativă inferioară. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to construct. like that (just like that) = aşa. to make over = a transfera. to make ready = a fi gata.

with your eyes closed to do harm to do the shopping to do wonders to do the washing-up to have sth. to make up for one’s losses = a-şi recupera pierderile. but there are lots of exceptions: e. to make up one’s mind = a se hotãrî. to do with . a good turn/ a favour to do sth. to make short work of/ sth = a scurta. a închide etanş. to make up for lost time = a recâştiga timpul pierdut. to do an experiment to do one’s best to do a course to do the donkey work to do sbd.94 English Practical Course to make a stand = a se opune. to make tight = a ermetiza. Generally speaking make is used with the meaning of create or produce and do with the meaning of carry out an action. to make use of = a întrebuinţa. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way. to make as if/ though = a pãrea ca şi cum. to make sure of = a se asigura de. a finaliza. a pretinde ca şi cum.g. 3. a etanşeiza. a face ceva repede. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. a termina. there are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make. to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru. a face ca şi cum.

Affirmative and negative I You He/ She We They Interrogative What had I you he/she done? had had not (hadn’t) left. a wish. . .……. sense.……. your bed.……. a cup of tea.. .……. …. ……..……. . someone a favour.a noise.. . trouble... . ..English Practical Course 95 Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. 4. • an action which began before another moment in the past and continued up to that time or into it: In 1999 he had written books for five years...up your mind. .. Put make or do before the following nouns: ……. an effort.. .. .……. …... a fuss.a difference. …….. a mistake. your best. my homework. a phone call. ..……... . Form -it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.sure. He had lived in this flat since he was born.. a mess.……. an appointment. …. …….fun of. an excuse. …….…. Past Perfect Simple It is used to express: • an action completed before another action or moment in the past: What happened to the students who had failed this exam four times? He had read his lecture before he went to university. .……. . the shopping..…….……..…….

last year? had been had been not (hadn’t) working for a year. I hadn’t. No. Form -it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb (v +-ing). Past Perfect Continuous It is used to express: • an action which started in the past before the time of speaking in the past and still going on at that time or possibly after: By that time we had been working on the project for two years. . No. Affirmative and negative By that time I you he/she we they Interrogative What had I you he/she we they Short answer Had you been working on that project by that time for a year? been working on by that time.96 English Practical Course we they Short answer Had you read the novel before we saw the film? Yes. I had. he had. They had been living for generations in that house. Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course? Yes. he hadn’t.

The prisoner ran across the yard. Example: The bank clerk gave it to me.g./ He jumped out of the window. I had. hardly. the connector between the two clauses is than: No sooner had the band begun to play when the electricity was cut off. not only) are followed by inversion of subject and auxiliary verb when they are used at the beginning of the sentence. Note that certain adverbs and adverb phrases (e. The tourists got out of the coach. (emphatic. b. I hadn’t. Decide the order in which these things happened./ They took photos. no sooner. scarcely. After she had counted the money./ He climbed over the wall. she counted the money. Controlled Practice 1 1. They can also be used in other parts of the sentence without inversion. No. the connector between the two clauses is when: Hardly/ Scarcely/ Barely had they got out of the house when it started to rain. Then write two sentences using after and the past perfect. In contexts containing no sooner. . After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque. a. Hardly had I entered the room when the phone started to ring. she gave it to me./ They got back in the coach./ She counted out the money. conversational English) In contexts containing hardly/ scarcely/ barely. (ordinary.English Practical Course 97 Yes. rhetorical construction) / I had hardly entered the room when the phone started to ring./ She looked at my cheque.

Pânã atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de douã luni./ She went to the scene of the accident. Translate into English: a./ She wrapped it. b. Îl aşteptam de o orã. c.98 English Practical Course c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. ./ He put the wheel back on. The reporter wrote a report on the accident. Se cunoşteau de trei ani. d. The mechanic put a new tyre on. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ He took the wheel off the car. e. e. când am aflat cã avusese un accident de maşină. Ce s-a întâmplat dupã ce am plecat? d. or the simple/ continuous past perfect form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences below: a./ She showed it to me. Yesterday afternoon Joan (go) to school and (hand in) the paper she (write). Despre ce vorbeaţi când ne-am întâlnit? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Use the simple past./ She interviewed the people there.

h. as everybody (be) interested in the story of the prime minister. The teacher corrected all the compositions. d. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and aspect (Past Perfect Simple or Continuous) : a. c. No wonder I (be) so tired. How long you (work) outside when it (start) to rain? j. e. . after. It was getting late. Alice said “Enter”. e. She told me his name after he (leave). We (sit down) to dinner when the doorbell (start) to ring. Then he opened the door. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. c. before. Then his colleague looked for him. f. no sooner. d. hardly. As soon as they (have) lunch they (leave) the restaurant. b. It (be midnight). Then the pupils entered the classroom. Then Susan answered it. etc. Tom went out. 4. Connect the following sentences using until. She (say) that she (study) for two hours. The man (sell) fifty newspapers for five minutes.English Practical Course 99 b. Use the simple past and the past perfect as appropriate: a. i. so we (decide) to go to bed. The bell rang. She (change) from Channel 1 to Channel 3 as she (already see) the movie on Channel 1. g. How long Monica (watch) TV by 12 o’ clock? She (watch) TV for an hour. Then he went home. I (write) for five hours. The phone started to ring.

a piece of advice. c. d. i. a command. When he finally reached London. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. She didn’t even say “thank you” after all I (do) for her. When it started to rain. a greeting. g. the concert already (begin). Affirmative Get ready! Negative Don’t get ready! Start working! Don’t start working! For the first and second person together. use let's (let us): Let's open the door. j. e. When I arrived. I congratulated him. After I (hear) the news.100 English Practical Course b. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. a request. a threat. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. f. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. Grammar Reference 2 The Imperative It is a mood which expresses an order. He just (leave) home when he came across John. or an instruction: Come here! Leave me alone! Watch your step! Form -the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural. a wish. (Negative command) Only a few groups of words may precede the imperative verb: • adverbs of frequency: . Let's not open the door. h.

pentru că nu am terminat ce am de spus! Haide cu mine să-ţi arăt ce ai putut să faci! g. Grăbeşte-te. i. Îi dai un deget şi îţi ia toatã mâna! d. pentru cã dupã aceea trebuie sã folosesc şi eu computerul pentru a formata niste dischete. Serveşte-te şi serveşte-i şi pe ceilalţi! b. c. open the door. Don't you open the door. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator. te rog. Will and would are used for polite requests: Would (will) you open the door. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru că sunt sub tensiune. mai ai doar cinci minute! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . h. j. Du-te şi vezi dacă au terminat cursul. pentru că o să-ţi pară rău. la noi sã ne ajuţi sã rezolvãm o problemã de chimie organicã. Vino. Don't ever open the door to strangers. e. vã rog. • • nouns of address: subject pronouns Jane. please? Controlled Practice 2 1. Nu încerca să mă faci să mă răzgândesc. Luaţi loc. Nu pleca. Translate the following into English: a.English Practical Course 101 Always open the door slowly. doamnã! f.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . g. Work faster as we need to finish this until two o’clock. Go home and we’ll finish this tomorrow. j. Come here! b. Give the waiter your order. Throw the ball to John. Lend Ann your skates. because English people are never late. Make the following sentences negative: a. d. Pass me the salt. please. f. h. Show me the letter. Be on time. Get ready as we are in a hurry! c.102 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. e. i.

” thought poor Alice. this sort of life! I do wonder what can have happened to me! When I used to read fairy tales. I’ll write one. that there ought! And when I grow up.but I’m grown up now. I shouldn’t like that!” “Oh. as there seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room again.and yetit’s rather curious. “shall I never get any older than I am now? That’ll be a comfort. you know.but then. I almost wish I hadn’t gone down that rabbit-hole.and yet. the little magic bottle had now had its full effect. and. I fancied that kind of thing never happened.never to be an old woman. “when one wasn’t always growing larger and smaller. and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable. and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me. “It was much pleasanter at home. one way. no wonder she felt unhappy.” she added in a sorrowful tone: “at least there’s no room to grow up any more here.” thought Alice.English Practical Course 103 Unit 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Future Simple © Future Continuous © Be going to Future © Other Ways of Expressing Future •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Alice’s Adventures in the Wonderland by Louis Carroll.always to have lessons to learn! Oh. you foolish Alice” . and being ordered about by mice and rabbits. Underline the future tenses of the verbs: Luckily for Alice.” “But then.

so it seems = aşa se pare. astfel încât.never to be an old woman.always to have lessons to learn!. so to say/ so to speak = aşa zicând. and no room at all for any lesson-books!” And so she went on. one way. so on and so forth = şi aşa mai departe. în calitate de. so far as = întrucât. there’s hardly room for you. In the sentence: That’ll be a comfort.but then. and stopped to listen. but after a few minutes she heard a voice outside.104 English Practical Course she answered herself. Now learn more expressions containing the word way: by way of = prin mijlocirea. taking first one side and then the other. So is a word which is generally used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English. by the way = apropo. Ways with Words 1. in a week or so = cam într-o sãptãmânã. în mãsura în care. so far = pânã acum. 2. taking first one side and then the other. pânã în prezent. Read the sentence: And so she went on. cu ajutorul. . ca sã zicem aşa. “How can you learn lessons in here? Why. in so far as… is concerned = întrucât priveşte. in so doing = procedând astfel/ aşa. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the word so: so as/ that = aşa încât. so much = atât de mult. in this way = în acest mod. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. and making quite a conversation of it altogether. the expression one way as is translated by pe de o parte.

under way = în curs de. . way off = la o bunã distanţã. Note that: Will is normally known as the predictive future. to give way to = a ceda la. out of the way = afarã din cale/ drum. in one way = într-un fel. I shall be thirty next year.English Practical Course 105 in every way = în toate privinţele. way above = mult deasupra. to make one’s way = a-şi croi drum. way below = mai jos. a face carierã. way ahead = mult înainte. and describes known facts. This can also take the form of an assumption: That’ll be John coming so early at the party. I’ll be late at school this morning. one way or another = într-un fel sau altul. Grammar Reference Future Simple It is used to express: • actions to be performed in the future. or what we suppose is true. in a general way = în genere/ în general. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. The company will make a profit next year. When will you graduate from university? She will work for our company if we give her a good salary.

We use will and shall in many other ways. Form Affirmative and negative I We You He/ She shall (‘ll) shall not (shan’t) will (‘ll) will not (won’t) come.) 2. not forms of Future simple): e. I’ll be grateful to you. They Interrogative When shall will I we you he/she they Short answer Will you help me finish my drilling project? Yes. When it rains.106 English Practical Course This means that I suppose that it is John. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause: If you help me. please?) -offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?) -suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?) -threats (Just wait and see! You’ll regret this!) -decisions (I’ll stop and ask the way.) -request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me. Will is also used to express an immediate decision: I’ll take this one.: -intentions/ promises (I’ll buy you a bike for your birthday.g. help him? . apart from predicting the future (in this case they are modal verbs. Decisions expressed with going to refer to a more distant point in the future. we stay inside. I shall.

I’m going home. • refers to fixed arrangements and plans The singers will be performing live in Washington Square this month. because I’ll be calling into the office anyway to see if you are there. it may mean I don’t want to help you. could you get some bananas? Come round in the morning. Note that in some contexts it sounds more polite than will Will you be going to the shops later? If you do. particularly with the verbs go and come. I’ll be working on my project. She’s coming on Monday. . That is why a polite answer would be: I’m afraid I can’t.English Practical Course 107 Note: No. I won’t is not common because it is impolite. rather than events which we choose to make happen: I won’t bother to look for you in advance. Note: The Present Continuous can be used in a similar way for a plan or arrangement. How long are they going to stay here? She isn’t going to attend this Grammar course. intention. Future Continuous • • describes an event which will be happening at a future point refers to events which are going to happen anyway. or plan made before the moment of speaking We’re going to move to Bucharest. Be Going to Future It is used • to express a future decision.

. No. ( I decided that and I may have bought books to improve my knowledge).108 English Practical Course • when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the future Look at those grey clouds! It’s going to rain. (I decided to learn English at the moment of speaking. What language shall I learn? Er.) .. am I is he/ she/ it are we/you/ they going to arrive? Future Simple or Be Going to? Look at the use of the Future Simple and to be going to in the following sentences: I’m going to improve my English. I’ll learn some English! That’s a good idea. I know. I’m not. Watch out! The box is going to fall. Form -the verb to be in Present +to +infinitive Affirmative and negative I He She It We You am (‘m) am (‘m) not is (’s) is not (isn’t) are (‘re) are not (aren’t) going to work. They Interrogative When Short answer Are you going to attend his lecture? Yes. I am.

Future Perfect • has both simple and continuous forms. I am on the point of moving to another company. . of course. calendar references use the present simple. • present simple is used to describe fixed events which are not simply the wishes of the speaker I retire next year. By the end of the month. Similarly. This means I assume you haven’t heard the rumours. and refers to time which we look back at from a future point: In two years’ time I’ll have finished my PhD thesis. The cocktail party is due to start at 7. we’ll have dinner. Christmas is on Wednesday next year.English Practical Course 109 Other Ways of Referring to the Future • be about to.m. Be due to refers to scheduled times The flight is due at 5:54 p. be due to Be about to and be on the point of both refer to the next moment I think it is about to rain. You won’t have heard the rumours about their engagement. I’ll have been working for him for fifteen years. be on the point to. we’ll be leaving. Present perfect can also be used instead of present simple when the completion of the event is emphasised When we’ve finished the work. • can also be used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker. • present simple and present perfect Present simple is used to refer to future time in future time clauses When we get there.

doubt. I doubt that you will have the time to see all these places in a single day. expect. Controlled Practice: 1. . Other future references • other verbs followed by will. so I’m afraid you should leave the compartment. b. • just/ just about to Just can be used to describe something which is on the point of happening The train is just leaving/ is just about to leave. c. d. Îţi voi telefona imediat ce ajung la hotel. • hope followed by either present or future tense I hope you’ll come and see me when you are in London. Te voi chema când voi ajunge acasã. Most verbs of thinking can be followed by will if there is future reference (believe. our family will have been living here for 30 years. Va deveni necesar sã citim mai mult de acum încolo. Translate into English: a. Spectacolul nu va începe până la ora 5. Îl voi vedea sãptãmâna viitoare. Crezi cã veţi ajunge la spectacol în timp util? f.110 English Practical Course Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense is formed by the future perfect of the verb to be and the present active participle of the main verb: It emphasizes the duration of one event taking place before another event in the future: In May 2000. Azi avem repetiţie la ora douã. think) I think the plane will be late. e. g.

Come on. d. We’ll go/ We’re going to a conference next week. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?” “France. te rog să-i rogi să mă sune după ora 6. . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. I bought some warm boots because I’ll go/I’m going on a trip to the mountains. c. “My suitcase is so heavy!” “Give it to me. I’ll/I’m going to carry it for you. i. g. hurry up or we’ll miss/ we will have missed the train. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain. Ei nu ştiu când vor pleca. Sper că ne veţi ajuta să reparăm calculatorul.English Practical Course 111 h.” f. What about you?” “We don’t know yet. j. Decide which is the correct verb form: a. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations! e. Dacă va întreba cineva de mine. Maria is going to be/ will be thirty-three next month so she will organise/ is going to organise a party.” b.

g. or whether one is more appropriate. What (you do) on Monday? I (have) tickets to a violin concert. It’s only an hour’s travel. i. The trip will be great. It’s my twenty-ninth birthday next month so I (have) a party. Hurry up! The play (start). j. 3. Why don’t you come with us? A. a. . we (call) you.112 English Practical Course h. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense: a. She (have) twins. He is always late. b. Would you like to come? c. j. i. In twenty four hours’ time I’ll relax/ I’ll be relaxing on the beach. We’re sure everything (be) all right in the end. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. I (go) out for half an hour. h. Will you be going/ will you go to the market later? If you go. d. Decide whether the pairs of sentences A and B could be equally acceptable in the context given. By the end of the month I (decide) what to do. I (be) long. f. Maria is pregnant again. That will be/ is Jim at the door. please buy some potatoes for lunch. I (come back) very soon. e. B. I (hope) it (not rain). The trip is going to be great. When we (get) there.

I’m going to watch TV. j. B. Mâine la ora 5. b. e. e. g. i. Să nu uiţi de aniversarea prietenilor tăi: pe 24 ale lunii următoare ei vor fi locuit în această casă de 10 ani. h. A. I’d like to pay you a short visit. will you! A. Are de gând să îl facă de râs în faţa clasei dacă nu va spune adevărul. What are we doing now? B. Vor fi trecut şase ore de la ultimul atac dar apărătorii castelului tot nu se vor preda dacă nu li se vor împlini condiţiile. vărul său va studia un manual de biologie umană. I’ll watch TV. . John ştie sigur că săptămâna viitoare când va începe şcoala. Ambasada va primi oaspeţii numai după ce aceştia vor fi percheziţionaţi. We’re run out of petrol. c. A. f. Stop that. What’ll you be doing in the evening? B. What are we going to do now? 5. Suntem înspăimântaţi de faptul că furtuna nu se va opri până diseară pe la şase. I’ve got no homework for tomorrow so A. c.English Practical Course 113 b. toţi prietenii tăi îţi vor pregăti o pedeapsă proporţională cu vina. I’m getting angry in a minute. What are you doing in the evening? d. Translate into English: a. Cred sincer că pe vremea asta săptămâna viitoare mă voi uita în sfârşit la HBO. Sper că până se va întoarce fratele tău de la cules de căpşuni tu vei fi spălat toate rufele murdare.30 ne vom îmbarca în autocarul spre Grecia. Când tu îţi vei face de cap în barul acela infect mâine. B. d. I’m going to get angry in a minute.

Când mama se va întoarce de la ţară. În timp ce preşedintele va ţine un discurs despre legea dreptului de autor. Suntem prieteni de o viaţă şi ne-am hotărât: o să cumpărăm împreună casa aceea de la munte şi o s-o transformăm în azil pentru bătrâni. micuţul John va fi cântat la vioară de cel puţin 3 ore. m. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .114 English Practical Course k. l. jurnaliştii vor inventa tot felul de întrebări care l-ar putea pune pe acesta în dificultate.

It seemed to him a solemn time: and he wondered if that was the time when the fellows in Clongowes wore blue coats with brass buttons and yellow waistcoats and caps of rabbitskin and drank beer like grownup people and kept greyhounds of their own to course the hares with. . Then why was he sent to that place with them? But his father had told him that he would be no stranger there because his granduncle had presented in address to the liberator there fifty years before. Why did he not tell it? His father. He thought of his own father. Translate the text into Romanian. Look for those verbs which are used in the passive voice.English Practical Course 115 Unit 7 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Passive Voice •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment belonging to James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. of how he sang songs while his mother played and of how he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence and he felt sorry for him that he was not a magistrate like the other boys’ fathers. who kept the racehorses. must be a magistrate too like Saurin’s father and Nasty Roche’s father. You could know the people of that time by their old dress.

. a building society. century.. year. In this way you may create a word set.. When Mr Michael retired he received a . Word sets... a deposit account.. e. etc. to earn 15% interest. Pierre is very worried because he is in ………. Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money.. saving and investing money. Sometimes the same word will fit different categories: -to withdraw money. a mortgage.. For example a word set of the word time may include among other words: day. b. Use your dictionary and divide them into the following categories: -borrowing money. Now think of words connected to money. a cheque card. d. was only $ 1000 a year. to buy shares in a company. month. a current account. Now it’s at least four times that. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ………. having a personal bank account. 2. the Stock Market. to put money in. Try to think of the sentence […] he always gave him a shilling when he asked for sixpence […]. a monthly statement.116 English Practical Course Ways with Words 1. year. to cash a cheque.………… of $ 100 a month. c. When she started with the company her …………. Now complete the following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject of money: a. nobody will lend him any money... If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a ……….

to attend to. He would paint his His house would be painted. to hold. TENSES Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Past Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Future Perfect Present Conditional Perfect ACTIVE VOICE He paints houses. house. to send for. He is painting house. to look at.English Practical Course 117 Grammar Reference The Passive Voice The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some prepositional verbs such as: to account for. He was painting his His house was being painted. His house was painted. Form: the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense as the active verb + the past participle of the lexical verb. He will have painted it. house. his His house is being painted. . It will have been painted. He will paint his His house will be painted. house. He had painted his His house had been painted. etc. etc. to look after. to possess. He has painted his His house has been painted. to speak to. to resemble. PASSIVE VOICE Houses are painted (by him). He would have painted It would have been painted. There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the passive voice such as: to have. house. He painted his house. house.

people He enjoys being asked to painted it. Use: • When the person who performs the action (agent) can easily be understood or is unknown: He has been arrested (by the police). • When we avoid the naming of a specific person who is responsible for the action: All the cakes have been eaten (instead of: You have eaten all the cakes). My bag has been stolen. Perfect Gerund He remembers paint her house. asking him to paint paint houses. house. help are followed by to+infinitive in the passive. • When it is necessary to express something more formally: People think that the factory went bankrupt.118 English Practical Course Conditional Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Gerund it. • When we are interested in the action itself rather than the person who performs it: I was advised to save the files once in a while (by my friend). hear. He should paint his His house should be painted. Jane He remembers having been having asked him to asked to paint Jane’s house. Let becomes was/were allowed to in the passive or is followed by a reflexive pronoun+bare/short passive infinitive. see. Further Points on the Passive Voice • • Make. their houses. . ~ It is thought that the factory went bankrupt/ The factory is thought to have gone bankrupt. He He should enjoys have It should have been painted.

understand etc is formed in two ways: • • believed to be a spy. buy. This notion is based on a misconception. / She is . report. bring. Columbus arrived in America in 1492. give. feel.English Practical Course 119 She let me go. She accused me of lying / I was accused of lying. / The building can’t be repaired. • Prepositional verbs of movement when turned into the passive voice change to other synonymous verbs which take no preposition. / Don’t let yourself be tricked. / Some money was given to me. • The passive voice with verbs of reporting such as assume. ask. • Modals do not change in the passive voice. We change the active infinitive into passive infinitive. know. He gave me some money. • Verbs which take two objects such as allow. / I was given some money. pay. Don’t let him trick you. tell. • Verbs followed by a certain preposition take the preposition immediately after them when put into the passive voice. The Royal couple went into the room arm in arm. • Many passive voice sentences do not have an active voice counterpart: Shakespeare was born at Stratford. They can’t repair the building. believe. / It is believed that she is a spy. write. think. / The room was entered (NOT gone into) by the Royal couple. lend. It + passive verb + that-clause Subject +passive verb + to-infinitive They believe she is a spy. teach. etc have two passive forms. / I was allowed to go. say. consider. / America was reached (NOT arrived in) by Columbus in 1492.

Causative Forms • Have +object +past participle is used to suggest that we are instructing someone to do something for us. Once you get her talking about her children. • Get +object + to infinitive means make or persuade somebody to do something. These are sentences where the object is: (a) a reflexive pronoun: John has been washing himself for hours. • Have/get + object +past participle can also be used to replace a passive verb usually describing an accident or a misfortune. (b) a reciprocal pronoun: We can hardly see each other in the dark room. Also: get moving. • Some sentences cannot be passivized. I’ll have my car repaired. See if you can get Mary to help us with our homework. • Have + object + bare infinitive is used for giving instructions and orders. The teacher got the students to write the sentence five times. (c) a possessive pronoun: The teacher shook his head and sighed. (I’ll arrange for it to be done) Don’t have the files printed. she never stops. get going (without an object) • Want and need + object + past participle indicate that you would like or need something to be done . please.120 English Practical Course It is alleged that the thief was caught. • Get + object + present participle (-ing) is used informally to mean make somebody / something start doing something. He had/got his car stolen. The manager had the secretary type 20 letters.

English Practical Course 121 I want the room cleaned. Controlled Practice 1. • Compare: The Active Voice: I’m decorating the room. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele acestea. Tu vei fi chematã de director mâine sã explici decizia ta. El a fost ales preşedintele companiei în 1997. (I am doing it myself) The Passive Voice: The room is being decorated. h. Translate the following sentences into English: a. f. Problema a fost rezolvatã recent prin introducerea internetului. El este întrebat dacã este vegetarian. Mi s-au furat banii. I need the reports checked. Doctorul a fost chemat. i. what interests us is the room) Causative: I am having the room decorated. e. Soluţia a fost gãsitã de fratele meu. b. g. Copiii sunt întrebaţi dacã ştiu în ce constã structura acestei lucrări. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (Someone else is doing it but the agent is not important. c. d.

122 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. e. The prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new building. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. c. The girl has been made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . d. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000. John can’t have done this. d. People in my town built this hospital last year. When was your car stolen? c. e. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. Children had cast stones. Put the following sentences into the Passive: a. When no agent is given supply one: a. Who drew this picture? b. AIDS is thought to be curable. The soldiers shall hand in all their weapons. b.

Complete the sentences using the verbs given in brackets in the passive tense suggested at the end of the sentence: . d. Tickets ……………………………………………………………. b. They have no idea what caused this error. What caused this error…………………………………………… h. I ……………………………………………………………………. Somebody directed me at the wrong address. we’ll paint the dining room. It is believed that the child was punished by his parents. g. Mary is said …………………………………………………….English Practical Course 123 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown. The discovery of this new medicine is helping the fight against cancer. 5. John is thought ………………………………………………. so that the meaning stays the same: a. i. Somebody punched John in the face at a volley match. They say that Mary is difficult to work with. The fight ……………………………………………………………. The child …………………………………………………. The coins ……………………………………………………. j. I’d rather you ………………………………………………. When we have finished decorating the bedroom. It is thought that the coins date from the Middle Ages.. e. Ticket collectors work on the train on this line. f. After the bedroom…………………………………………. c. Please turn off the lights..

c. (past perfect) d. John (think) to have broken that precious vase in the living room. h. Many block-of-flats (build) in the neighbourhood. Something (do) if we want to rescue the rest of the crew.124 English Practical Course a. A great deal of effort (make) lately to avoid a war with that country. g.(past) b. e. (modal verb) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. (present continuous) h. b. Foreign coins (not put) in parking meters in this part of the country. That person in the dock (let off) as it’s his first offence. Mary (take) to the hospital by the end of the day. Many of Bucharest’s important buildings (destroy) by the earthquake in 1977. The police (instruct) to take firm action against beggars on the street. The army (instruct) to shoot if the enemy crosses the line. . (future perfect) j. (gerund) i. Has the search for the stolen car (give up) yet? f. The escaped man (arrest) a week later. Very few criminals (catch) if the population didn’t offer information. Would she go to the cinema if she was to (invite)? f. (perfect conditional) c. (present perfect) e. (future) g. The girl who (bite) by a dog was given a serum. He strongly objected to (ask) about the accident. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct Passive Voice form: a. I was surprised to find out that you (get paid) twice in the same week. d. I’m sure. My neighbour’s leg (not broken) if he hadn’t walked on ice.

They (…) a five year sentence by the High Court Judge. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. b. m. d. Who (…) you by at the hospital? j. l. Safes (…) not often by amateurs. A lot of money (…) from a German bank two years ago. The giraffe (…) to the zoo when it escaped. i. Money (…) always in the bank for interest. c. g. The lock (…) and the window (…) by the police. my sister never (…) by the customs before. o. It was the first time. p. Use one of the Passive forms of a suitable verb in each of the following sentences: a. f. Could violence (control) less effectively if the police didn’t carry guns? j. The carpet in your room (…) with orange juice. She doesn’t remember her purse (…) by the thief. The red car (rev up) ready for the policemen to start chasing the thieves.English Practical Course 125 i. k. e. When capital punishment (…) in Romania? . n. (…) the reward to those who saved Jane? h. The police (…) in hearing from anyone who saw a 10-year-old child in front of the shop yesterday. A sharp instrument (…) the old man. All the persons in the room (…) for drugs. Windows (…) on the inside to prevent the wind from breaking them.

e. Complete the sentences using a suitable Passive Voice verb and any necessary phrases: a. Use the Passive form with the verb to have in the following sentences: a. There’ll be a big check at the customs tomorrow. the cars … … b. He insisted that our neighbour … … f. They (check the documents) before the case comes up next month. They (repaint it). Will the new laws … … j. Shoplifting is on the increase. The house was found in a terrible condition. c. b. It’s very foggy tonight. £ 20. I (vaccinate my child) against all the possible diseases when he was one year old. all the rooms … … i. Father (fit the burglar alarm) because his house had been broken into. d. The customs officers (arrest him) if he tries to leave the country. all the people from the Middle East … … e.000 worth of merchandise … … d.126 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. f. The room looks different. it … … c. Look at that man’s green hair! He (dye it). My window is open instead of closed. . The evidence that one of the accused gave … … g. the lock …… h. George’s watch has disappeared from the table where he left it. There was a dreadful accident and all the cars … … 9.

It … … c. You … … j. Complete the following passage with the correct Passive forms: . Complete the following sentences. we should make sure that we … … h. This is quite bizarre! There are many questions that … … e. don’t you think they … …? i. he … … g. There are many errors in your paper. using the Passive form with either have or need: a. She is not quite sure but she thinks she (steal the money) in the train. Your hair seems shorter. Someone (clean the kitchen) when mother arrived.English Practical Course 127 g. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. They … … 11. Before we buy the mansion. Have you … …? f. The roof is unsafe. i. It … … b. j. Your back window squeaks. I don’t think these translations are accurate. You shouldn’t (repair the sink) before the plumber had examined it. The so-called poet did not write the poem himself. The car is covered in mud. Their washing-machine is working again. h. so he (clean it) as soon as possible. You can’t take your luggage into the shop unless you … … d.

He was old. Indeed. his wants (gratify). John saw to it that it was (do). his car (service) every three months. everything that in his ordinary life needed (do). he needed (care for). It was entirely in his character that he had made up his mind to get rid of his uncle. he told to himself. ‘It is sad’. as John himself said to the inspector. ‘that he has (kill) rather than die a natural death. His plans were (lay) with extreme precision. He was known as being a methodical man. But then. and John was aware that his fortune (leave) to him. He didn’t even suppose inspector Thomson would guess that the ladder (put) outside the bedroom window after his uncle (murder). John’s crime would probably never (discover) if it had not stopped raining just before he came home and if his uncle’s window had not (break) with a flower pot. but the important thing is to make it look as if it (do) while I was away.128 English Practical Course When John Miller killed his uncle. the criminal always gets (catch) after all. his desires had (consider). His bills (pay) regularly. He had become a nuisance who should (remove) as quickly as possible. he was convinced that his crime wouldn’t ever (detect). − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . He had not (employ) as an accountant for the past ten years without acquiring a passion for minute details. he had his hair (cut) once a month. Besides he was rich.

The problem will be dealt with I detail next week. They are forbidden to enter this room. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . The basement was flooded with water. his remarks are being received with enthusiasm. g. All TV programs were suspended for nearly 6 hours. It is reported that there has been an earthquake in the area. The students in this University are always recommended to apply for these jobs. Tons of uranium have been stolen from this mine this year. d. l. No explanation had been given for his behaviour. Change the following sentences into the Active Voice: a. i. You hate to be interrupted from your research. h. My neighbour’s dog was run over by a truck. f. j. The pen has been lost in the fire. k. c. e. As you see.English Practical Course 129 12. The library is well provided with books. b. m.

Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. g. b. c. f. The doorman showed us the way to the bathroom. You paid him that huge sum of money two days ago. I told my parents the truth. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. knowing that transitive verbs admit two passive constructions: a. They have called for the mechanic to repair their car. h. e. They awarded the Best Actor Prize to George Clooney.born child. The teacher may give us the results tonight. i.130 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. George gave him a beautiful present. d. paying attention to the prepositions following the verbs: a. We showed them our newly. . I give my child two bars of chocolate a day. Change the following intransitive verbs into the Passive Voice. The physician prescribed a bad medicine for the sick old man. My friends promised me immediate assistance. j.

Orice defecţiune a maşinii se repară pe loc în acest atelier. Se recomandă o mai atentă cercetare a acestui proiect. Se construiesc din ce în ce mai multe şcoli în acest orăşel. j. You must look after your kid sister. otherwise your mother will scold you. Nobody objected to their suggestions. The employer insists upon a strict discipline in all our work. You spoke much about that young lady you had met a week before. În acest local se vorbeşte numai limba spaniolă. Don’t put on that pink shirt. c. b. k. d. Nobody has lived in this haunted house for more than 50 years.English Practical Course 131 b. The former enemies have arrived at an agreement after many years of discussion. c. These spoiled children do not listen to their parents. f. i. your friends will laugh at you. . Translate into English: a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. The pupils will have to comment upon that poem. h. e. Our parents often refer to him as being a wrong model for us. d. g.

Se vor înfiinţa centre de ocrotire a minorilor. Ni s-a spus că pantalonii vor fi cusuţi în fabrica noastră. în această seară se va trimite după doctor. Din păcate nu s-a ajuns la nici un acord final. f. k. l. Se vor reface unele străzi din acest oraş după ce se va topi zăpada. g. Gunoiul se încarcă numai marţea şi joia. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . i. Li se comunicase că dărâmarea prin implozie a acestei clădiri va fi făcută la mijlocul săptămânii următoare.132 English Practical Course e. S-a ajuns la bătaie după ce s-au certat toată ziua. Problema câinilor fără stăpân a fost dezbătută de mai multe ori săptămâna aceasta. Mi s-a dat ocazia să-mi arăt talentul de compozitor. I s-a oferit un post de director economic la cea mai puternică corporaţie din ţară. n. Se bea mult vin roşu la acest tip de petrecere. Dacă fratele tău nu se va simţi mai bine. p. h. q. m. s. S-a anunţat o reducere semnificativă la articolele de îmbrăcăminte de iarnă. j. S-a ridicat nivelul apelor Dunării cu 3 cm. o. Turiştilor li s-a arătat un magazin cu lucruri foarte scumpe după ce acestora li se furaseră deja portofelele. r.

Leaving this shirt in the rain has made it shrink. The sauce … … j. The china cup … … i. The referee refused him permission to enter the game. A freshman … … c. First prize was awarded to a freshman in our school.English Practical Course 133 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it: a. My cousin’s child completely destroyed my paper. . He … … d. We watched the car … … h. Tom’s new book… … e. We watched my brother drive the car into the garage. They’re buying a lot of copies of that volume of poetry. This shirt … … g. I dropped the china cup and cracked it. Mother added flour to the sauce and thickened it. She suggested we eat Mike’s new favourite meal. Tom has earned several thousand dollars from his new book. My paper … … b. We … … f.

Children can get (…) in by burglars going from house to house. i. The coffee maker is out of order but I’m (…) fixed tomorrow. d. that’s something his friends will have (…) to. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. but using the word given. George often tells his parents how much of his ill-luck is down to you. f. Jack is quite a difficult person. Some of his neighbours are saying that he is selling marijuana. They were (…) been given 15 more minutes to complete the test. The lights in my room have been flickering for a while. (seen) c. I suppose she needs (…) told to be careful with that acid solution. e. (heard) . He wants it to be clear to his friends that he’s honest. I must (…) to look at the wiring for me. j. Your decisions were rejected and you were (…) back down. h. We (…) house broken into yesterday. c.134 English Practical Course That volume of poetry … … 17. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 18. b. The issue was (…) been told where his wife disappeared. Fill in each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase: a. g. (rumoured) b. The package is believed (…) delivered by some strange people. a.

It’s not difficult at all for Ben to copy the paper from his colleague. (due) g. All of his friends spent last month repairing his boat. Our teachers don’t want any repetition of such a ridiculous behaviour again. There were thousands of strikers in the yard of the factory. (operated) w. Our new manager wants us to call him “Sir”. (packed) s. I became very emotional when I found out my wife had given birth to a daughter. Subtracting is something one takes for granted after a while. The House of Parliament is the tallest building in the area. I don’t like very much my mother scolding me in front of my friends. (addressed) t. His latest article about unemployment came in for sharp criticism in this newspaper. Our professor of History was given the Academy Award by Oxford University. Janine’s answer took the audience by surprise. They believe that the captain fell overboard and died. (aback) o. (dwarfed) q. (copied) m. The rain forced our weekend trip to be cancelled.English Practical Course 135 d. (borne) u. Never forget that friends will be friends. (had) j. Since we won the prize. His grandmother underwent a three-hour operation to remove the brain tumour that had been diagnosed. (overcome) v. we’ve had more telephone calls than we can deal with. The plan was originally to complete the task by 3 o’clock. (having) l. (rained) p. As a kid. (got) k. (get) i. (conferred) . (swamped) n. She couldn’t find her way out of the labyrinth. Mary was not allowed to play with matches. (fallen) e. (repeated) f. (pilloried) r. (let) h.

She has no recollection of … … b. You vaguely remember that you drank five bottles of wine last night.136 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 19. You have vague memories of … … c. a. Sometimes it is quite embarrassing when people laugh at you. She didn’t remember that she had been called home by her mother. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. Being … … .

Having … … e. They really regret … … f. It’s over twenty years since anyone saw that valuable painting. George was severely criticized for his bad jokes and was more attentive after that. I can’t explain what it feels like for nobody’s ever given me the chance to fly a plane. I’m … … . They’ve had to call the office five times to find out the result of the race. Never … … g. The dentist is supposed to be filling one of my teeth this afternoon. The Town Hall … … h. Justice must not … … m. The group of people moved towards the Town Hall from all sides. The room … … j. The card is only … … k. Do not put the card in until the screen shows ‘Insert your card’. Mice came into the room through a sort of hole in the wall. People crave for justice and they need to see it done. Peter poured wine into the glass until it was full.English Practical Course 137 d. That valuable …… l. The glass … … i. The office … … n. They really wish they hadn’t been pushed to eat that horrible soup.

expressing future uncertainty f. I hope you’ll come and see us on i. 8. making a prediction c. The wedding will take place next h. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice: a. expressing future hope e. We’ll have a thunderstorm tonight. asking for a prediction Saturday. They consulted the doctor when they were ill. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right: A B 1. . b. making a request d. f. Will you have dinner with us on k. promising/ stating an intention time. e. a. Shall I go to the library for you? 6. They are shutting the bank for the winter holidays. I’ll report you to the police next g. Will you send me an e-mail? 5. He wrote the paper on time. . Perhaps j. making an invitation Friday. g.b. She has burned the chicken in the oven. offering country later? 7. 11. A child asked me a question on my way home. 2. Explain it to them again. stating a planned arrangement I’m sure. 9. making a suggestion Sunday? 2. The gust of wind blew the woman’s hat off. Will there be a general strike? 3.138 English Practical Course Progress Test 2 1. he wanted to know the time. I’ll send you a card from Paris 4. c. 10. threatening they’ll understand. What will you call your new cat? d. Shall we take a drive into the b.

Someone is going to beat him soon! v. The children have made him captain of their team. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . l. k. q. Father made her cry hard. s. My brother has been looking after the dog for the last two years. She soon lost sight of her friend. We didn’t fix the roof yesterday. We haven’t invited our friends to the party yet. Nobody asked Mike to come. Children ask a lot of questions. I found your bike in front of the cinema. I must pay the telephone bill at the end of the month. People mustn’t walk on the grass in this park. j.English Practical Course 139 h. They are going to write a song tonight. p. r. i. t. m. The bodyguards requested us to show our tickets. o. n. We could read the note by the light of the candle. u.

e. scheduled. Having read the manuscript. Richard’s new album (…) for release next year. (…) by almost all of his colleagues. The participles should be used with the verb to be in the appropriate tense: strewn. All the neighbours I asked (…) by the reason of her disease. .140 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. baffled. When we came back from the mountains. Christine (…) the most beautiful girl in Europe. she (…) with requests for some more recipes. overcome. short-listed. we all agreed: his paper should (…) for last year’s Literature prize. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with an appropriate verb from the list. Since her book on cooking came out. our clothes (…) all over the house. Unfortunately. d. h. f. inundated. Impossible as it may seem. dwarfed a. g. j. My brother. How he managed to obtain such a large sum of money (…) in mystery. b. dubbed. i. shrouded. who is rather short. The secretary (…) by exhaustion after 12-hour typing and had to go home. c. your language in this newspaper article (…) inadequate for the public taste. deemed.

Noi vrem să ştim dacă ne puteţi ajuta sau nu. e. b. O să-mi dau maşina la reparat. pentru că i s-au defectat frânele. Translate into English: a. o să-ţi telefonez. g. Am ajuns cam târziu acasă. d. El fusese sunat de director de mai multe ori înainte de a veni la serviciu. i. o să-mi iau şi haine subţiri şi haine groase. c. El intenţionează să se înscrie la acest curs săptămâna viitoare. h. Ei au de gând să-şi renoveze vila anul viitor. De îndată ce voi termina raportul o să te informez în legătură cu rezultatele cercetării mele. Când voi pleca la munte.English Practical Course 141 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. f. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . aşa că spectacolul se terminase deja la televizor. Dacă voi avea timp.

q. g. p. .g. j. r. k. Mike wasn’t asked to come. The telephone bill must be paid… n. A song is going to be written tonight. i. f. 7. Our friends haven’t been invited to the party yet. he wanted to know the time. a. 11.h 2. 3. The note could be read by the light of the candle. 1. j. m. Your bike was found in front of the cinema. e. He has been made captain of the children’s team. A lot of questions are asked by children l. What will your new cat be called? d. s. u. The grass mustn’t be walked on in this park. c. a. I was a asked question on my way home.142 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: 1. The chicken has been burnt in the oven. 2. The paper was written on time. The doctor was consulted when they were ill. b. h. o. He is going to be beaten soon! v. b. 8. The roof wasn’t fixed yesterday. 5. The bank is being shut for the winter holidays. i. We were requested to show our tickets (by the bodyguards). 4. She was made to cry hard (by Father). e. The woman’s hat was blown off (by a gust of wind). 6. d. c. Her friend was soon lost sight of. k. f. 10. t. The dog has been looked after(by my brother) for the last two years. 9.

As soon as I finish the report I’ll inform you on the results of my research. a.1 point + 0. is dwarfed. was overcome. We want to know if you can help us or not.English Practical Course 143 3. When I go to the mountains I’ll take both light and warm clothes. has been deemed. I’ll have my car repaired. Score: 1. i.40 points each x 22 = 10 points 3. h. has been inundated. were baffled. e. d. j. was short listed. b. for the brakes broke down. f. b.1 point + 0. were strewn. 4. a. c. f. so the TV show had already been over. They are going to have they villa redecorated next year.00 point each x 9 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points Unit 8 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Coordinating Conjunctions © Subordinating Conjunctions .90 points each x 10 = 10 points 4. We arrived home rather late. d. is shrouded. c. h. He is going to take up this course next week. g. e. He had been called by the director several times before coming to work. is scheduled. 1 point + 1. has been dubbed. i. If I have time I’ll call you.1point each x 10 = 10 points 2. g.

but knew not how. you may cough as much as you choose. that of Mrs. Underline the coordinate conjunctions with one line and the subordinate ones with two lines: Mary wished to say something very sensible. the preposition with appears. but as I have actually paid the visit. “let us return to Mr.” The astonishment of the ladies was just what he wished. but why did not you tell me so before? If I had known as much this morning I certainly would not have called on him. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition with: with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit. Bennet perhaps surpassing the rest. “I am sorry to hear that. It is very unlucky. though. my dear Mr. Bennet. he left the room. In the last sentence from the text. too. I was sure you loved your girls too well to neglect such an acquaintance. fatigued with the raptures of his wife.” “Now. and. as he spoke.” “I am sick of Mr.144 English Practical Course © Number of Nouns •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Bingley. Pay attention to the conjunctions. “How good it was in you. she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. “While Mary is adjusting her ideas. Bennet! But I knew I should persuade you at last.” cried his wife. Well. we cannot escape the acquaintance now. . Ways with Words 1. when the first tumult of joy was over. Bingley. Kitty. that you should have gone this morning and never said a word about it till now.” he continued.” said Mr. how pleased I am! and it is such a good joke.

asta-i tot. cu privire la. with full steam on = cu toatã viteza înainte. cu totul. of all kinds = de toate felurile. pe bunã dreptate. all in good time = toate la timpul lor. first of all = înainte de toate. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: she began to declare that it was what she had expected all the while. all over = peste tot. with reference/ respect to = în privinţa. together with = împreunã cu. to do away with = a înlãtura. it is all one to them = le este tot una. all the better = cu atât mai bine. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. with a view of = în scopul de a. Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. How do you translate in all the while? Now learn some expressions with the adjective all. fãrã a pierde din vedere. a termina cu. all worn out = complet uzat. beyond all doubt = în afarã de orice îndoialã. referitor. all the more as = cu atât mai mult cu cât. . as with = la fel ca şi. all at once = dintr-o datã.English Practical Course 145 with an eye to = urmãrind. with reason = pe drept. 2. with the exception of = cu excepţia cã. that is about all = ca. all in all = în întregime. once for all = o datã pentru totdeauna.

Neither money nor power can make him happy. He moved quickly but quietly.. ..or: Neither the teacher nor THE STUDENTS are allowed to wear jeans. phrases and clauses: He slipped and fell on the floor. either.or. she also had dessert! Either my husband or I can drive you home. Coordinating Conjunctions • Coordinating conjunctions join units that are equal grammatically ( have the same function in the sentence): He slipped and fell on the floor.. nor and either. (And joins two verbs) He moved quickly but quietly.. (but also). two phrases. neither. • The second noun determines the number of the verb with neither.. They are also called correlative conjunctions: Both Lisa and I will go to the party...and.nor make the connection more intense. Not only did she have two helpings.. not only. Please watch my baggage while I buy my train ticket. two clauses) are joined by a coordinate conjunction.. Punctuation with Coordinate Conjunctions • A comma is not necessary when only two elements (two words. The doctor told him not to smoke or drink...146 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Conjunction Conjunctions join words.. Neither the students nor THE TEACHER is allowed to wear jeans. (But joins two adverbs) • Conjunctions both.

who. when. and children are welcome. ……. unless. c. use commas after the first and second units. is the brooding. how. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions join elements of unequal rank. She has been very ill since her operation. Along this coast. into the Olympic Mountains. the relentless sea chiseled away the softer stone. as. Men. Controlled Practice 1 1. and beyond. majestic white-robed peaks. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions: after. if. ………. what. because. It is not compulsory to use a comma before the last unit: Men. women and children are welcome.. It is to feel once more the power of the old myths. where. although. This is called a serial comma. He got a ticket because he was speeding. Complete each sentence with an appropriate coordinate or subordinate conjunction: A journey to the National Parks of the United States is a rare and unforgettable walk on the wild side. some sixty active glaciers slow- . To the west. d. whom She never saw him after he left town. on the Olympic Peninsula. is one of the most diverse wilderness areas in North America. if three or more units are joined. primordial coastline of Olympic National Park. The great rocks rising from the sea were once a part of the landmass. before.English Practical Course 147 • However. as much as.. that. since. ……… craddle endlessly rocking. women. ……. creating the haunting monoliths rising from the tides. Within the park are alpine meadows. nature is the hand setting b. to once again know that the land is the cradle of life. a.

Slowly flowing through the entire southern reaches of the Florida Peninsula. They are the largest living things on earth. ……. …….. 50 miles wide. To walk these cool. the Colorado River must surely be the most powerful river of them all. The Seminoles called it "Pa-hay-okee. On the western slopes of the mountains. ……. laying . in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.. live more than 350 species of birds." g. To travel from one end of the canyon to the other would be a journey of 277 serpentine miles. They rise dramatically to a height of almost 14. majestic battlements and spires of the Teton Mountains. there is a remarkable rainforest. Within its labyrinth of cypress swamps. These are softer mountains. the giant sequoias are the survivors of a forest realm that has endured for millennia. Some of these patriarchs have stood for more than 2000 years. the Everglades teems with an extraordinary variety of life.148 English Practical Course sliding their relentless way down from the heights. Sea.. In the ancient mountains of southern Appalachia. For the Colorado River carved the Grand Canyon. Within the National Parks of North America there are vast reaches of forest. vaulted byways is to feel an intimacy with nature rarely found in this modern world where man and nature are too often strangers. h. are seemingly endless groves of oak. maple and other hardwoods. Mountain.000 feet. hammocks. may be the most unusual river in the world. Each has had a powerful impact on human experience. On the slopes of the Sierra Nevada. serene. Far to the east. most mountain ranges. perhaps the most ancient influence has been the forest. and averages only 6 inches deep. there is a more gentle forest. In Wyoming are the rugged." Here is the central feature of Everglades National Park. Far to the south and the east of the Colorado are the gentle waters of f. Although relatively small. River. A river that is 100 miles long. ……. "Grassy Water. hickory. Sometimes the walls of the canyon are less than a half mile wide.. the Tetons have no foothills. islands and hyacinth pools.. ……. e. in Shenandoah National Park i.

Here within the valley and in the high country are stone cliffs towering taller than anything man has made. The lands and landscapes of Yosemite are a banquet for the eye o. ……. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . arches." Bryce Canyon seems like an enchanted city built by mythical giants long departed. minarets. towers. the formations of Bryce are delicately carved. Waterfalls dance in the heights like angels in lace and then fall thundering through the sunlight into the lap of the valley. all cut from stone by the delicate. powerful hand of water. Among the marvels of Yosemite are two so powerful they will dwell in the eye of the mind forever. Eighty miles west of Bryce Canyon are the massive walls and towers of Zion National Park. …….English Practical Course 149 comfortably on the earth as if sleeping within their counterpanes of mist. the bay is a theater where one of nature's most spectacular dramas is performed. the glacier has receded more than 75 miles..for the soul. l. No longer shrouded in ice. Here is where glaciers come to die. The Cherokee called these woodlands "The Place of Blue Smoke. n. m. Within the avenues of the city are magnificent silent shapes k. ……… seem to have once been alive. There are castles and whimsical skylines.. ……. Vertical canyon walls rise thousands of feet from the valley floor. time and wind.. ……. powerful strokes. the temples of Zion seem to have been hacked from the earth with bold.Captain George Vancouver first explored these shores. Here are glacial lakes and alpine meadows and streams of liquid crystal. ……. Some of the walls are 600 feet long and 200 feet high.1794..

thesis-theses . appendixappendices (in books)/appendixes (anatomical) analysis-analyses.potatoes (But: photo-photos) -ves to nouns ending in -f(e): knife-knives. neurones. person-people/ persons • Foreign plurals . handkerchief-handkerchiefs) -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: lady-ladies -s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy-toys Note: dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves. diplomas) . mouse-mice. tooth-teeth. axis-axes. villas. proof-proofs. potato. louse-lice. stimulus-stimuli. leaf-leaves. viruses) . -ch.index-indices (algebraic signs) /indexes (tables of contents). foot-feet. formula-formulae/formulas (but: dilemmas. genius-genii (spirits)/geniuses (men of genius) (but: bonuses. goose-geese. child-children.alga-algae. boxboxes. scarf-scarfs/scarves • Some nouns form their plural irregularly man-men. protons.nucleus-nuclei.phenomenon-phenomena. basis-bases. shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs. match-matches. tool-tools -es to singular nouns ending in -s. larva-larvae. medium-media (but: museums. woman-women. -ss. brush-brushes. hypothesis-hypotheses. -x. geniuses. hoof-hooves/hoofs. -sh. ox-oxen. crisis-crises.150 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 2 Number of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s: book-books. cliff-cliffs. ganglions) • Some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: . criterion-criteria (but: demons. -o: bus-buses. diagnosisdiagnoses.datum-data. asylums) . -z.

union. riches. surroundings. etc. garments. compasses. premises (building). groceries. etc. spacecraft. committee. clothes. thanks. • collective nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb. police. crowd. company. trout • Some nouns are only plural: earnings. team. spectacles. youth. species. odds (chances).English Practical Course 151 Craft. government. public. scales. place. cattle. oats. family. arms (weapons). jeans. according top the meaning. greens (vegetables). means. salmon. choir. speech)contents (the things contained in a box. club. crew. lodgings.) Custom (a traditional event)-customs (the government department which collects taxes on imported goods) a. etc. regards. orchestra. goods. pants. etc. • Some nouns have different meanings when turned into plural: Air (atmosphere)-airs (behaviour) Cloth (a piece of material)-clothes (garments) Compass (a magnetic compass)-compasses (an instrument for drawing circles) Content (what is written or spoken about in a piece of writing. glasses. jury. savings. trousers. Japanese. clergy. pliers. (We refer to the individual members) The staff of the school consists of fifty people. outskirts. class. plaice. The staff were not in agreement with the new rules. series. deer. (We refer to the group as a unit) Some collective nouns are: audience. sheep. tools and instruments consisting of two parts: binoculars. remains. firm. squid. cod. belongings. fish. people. scissors. . congratulations. b. pyjamas.

to the noun if the compound has only one noun: passer-by – passers- .152 English Practical Course Damage(harm done to something)-damages (monetary compensation) Experience (gaining knowledge or skill over a period)-experiences (activities/events one has done/lived through) Fund (a sum of money saved for a purpose)-funds (money) Glass (a drinking receptacle)-glasses (spectacles) Hair (the hairy part of the head)-hairs (fine strands growing from the skin) Look (a style. a magical creature)-spirits (a person’s feelings. to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition: mother-in-law – mothers-in-law a. to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: cupboard – cupboards c. also specs) Spirit (a person’s soul or mind. an expression)-looks (a person’s appearance) Manner (a way in which something is done)-manners (social behaviour. a place of manufacturing processes) Note: Some of the above nouns have their own regular plurals: minute/minutes • Compound nouns form their plural by adding –s/-es: by b. a strong alcoholic drink) Wood (the hard material trees are made of)-woods (small forests) Work (employment)-works (the moving parts of a machine. customs) Minute (sixty seconds)-minutes (notes taken as a record of a meeting) Relation (a connection)-relations (members of the same family) Scale (the relative size of something)-scales (an instrument for weighing) Spectacle (an object of attention)-spectacles (glasses.

Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/jobs) there will be. Make all other changes which are necessary: a. and 2. When I entered the room. Mr Clayton spent the morning in Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby. Choose the correct singular or plural form in the brackets: Clayton Factory for Milchester The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in Milchester. c. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. e. Where have you put that box? . The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and (is/are) famous for its “Polymode” (good/goods) The slogans “You’re never alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/trousers)” and “Polymode (jean/jeans) (is/are) the (one/ones) for you” are well known. b. This child is a naughty one. Complete this newspaper article. 2.English Practical Course 153 d. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove. at the end of the compound if it does not contain any nouns: breakdown – breakdowns Controlled Practice 2 1. he was taking a book from the shelf. but the (information/informations) that there will be (work/works) (is/are) hard to find at the moment. The company’s profit last year of two million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business. That phenomenon was interpreted by the geologists. (This/These) (new/news) (was/were) announced by company chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. d.000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small town.

(Ninety-year-olds /ninety-years-old) don’t need to use (toothbrushes /teethbrushes). j. Select the form you consider appropriate in each of the following sentences: a. b. d. Fill in the correct plural for the words in brackets: a. Milk has lots of (by-products /bys-products). c. h. The (commander-in-chiefs /commanders-in chief) decided to surrender. g. g. Mars and Venus revolve on their (axis) like the Earth. It can be hilarious if translators make mistakes in their (analysis). . (Mothers-in-laws /mothers-in-law) are considered by some men real shrews. e. b. f. George didn’t count his (footsteps /feetsteps) from the station to the library because he considered it useless. I don’t like (two-hour-walks /two-hours-walks). A great deal of (datum) was stolen from our computers. i. e. He doesn’t like spending his time playing with mathematical (formula). 4. Three (basketful /basketfuls) of oranges have been gathered so far. The (women doctors /woman doctors) I met there are professionals. f. (Oasis) save sometimes Bedouins’ lives. Jack will send some (memorandum) to the President.154 English Practical Course − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. All grammar books contain (index). d. They keep talking about the legend of (men-eaters /man-eaters). His (brother-in-laws /brothers-in-law) have committed several crimes. c.

The (criterion) of success must be found through experience. Ten (addendum) had been proposed before they arrived. i.English Practical Course 155 h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . You have to finish your (thesis) before the first of July. he had to face many international (crisis). l. As a President. k. He knows almost all (genus) of animals. j.

Life to him seemed hollow. and if the heart was young the music issued at the lips. proper and common nouns: SATURDAY MORNING was come. Jim came skipping out at the gate with a tin pail. compared the insignificant whitewashed streak with the farreaching continent of unwhite washed fence. dreamy. Underline the nouns and divide them into concrete. and it lay just far enough away to seem a Delectable Land. reposeful. and sat down on a tree-box discouraged. Thirty yards of board fence. beyond the village and above it. Cardiff Hill. was green with vegetation. and singing . he dipped his brush and passed it along the topmost plank. and brimming with life. There was cheer in every face and a spring in every step. Sighing. and all the summer world was bright and fresh. There was a song in every heart. Tom appeared on the sidewalk with a bucket of whitewash and a longhandled brush.156 English Practical Course Unit 9 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Gender of Nouns © Countable/Uncountable Nouns © Synthetical/ Analytical/ Double Genitive •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Chapter 2 (The Glorious Whitewasher) of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain. did it again. and existence but a burden. and inviting. The locust trees were in bloom and the fragrance of the blossoms filled the air. abstract. nine feet high. He surveyed the fence. repeated the operation. and all gladness left him and a deep melancholy settled down upon his spirit.

Try to translate Jim’s speech. skylarking. She say she spec’ Mars Tom gwine to ax me to whitewash. Jim.I won’t be gone only a minute.” “O. It is very hard to understand what he is saying due to the fact that first of all he speaks American English. I’ll fetch the water if you’ll whitewash some. They are used only in informal speech: He's gonna wait here. and he is highly uneducated. . but now it did not strike him so. quarreling. He remembered that there was company at the pump. Jim never got back with a bucket of water under an hour. They want to come at five. Gimme the bucket. never you mind what she said.and even then somebody generally had to go after him. = = = = He is going to wait here. She won’t ever know.” Ways with Words 1. And he remembered that although the pump was only a hundred and fifty yards off. White.English Practical Course 157 “Buffalo Gals. resting. before. Ole missis.” Jim shook his head and said: “Can’t. trading playthings. Jim. I ought to be there at noon. fighting. Mars Tom. an’ she tole me go ‘long an’ ‘tend to my own businessshe ‘lowed she’d ‘tend to de whitewashin’. They wanna come at five. and negro boys and girls were always there waiting their turns. I otta be there at noon. That’s the way she always talks. The following are expressions typical of North American English. I gotta go now. she tole me I got to go an’ git dis water an’ not stop foolin’ roun’ wid anybody. so he can’t speak grammatically correct Learn some Americanisms which you might need when you hear spoken American English. mulatto. I have got to go now. Tom said: “Say.” Bringing water from the town pump had always been hateful work in Tom’s eyes.

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He ain't * at home. Americanisms.

=

He is not at home.

* Ain't means am not, isn't, aren't. It is less frequently used than the other 2. In the sentence: There was a song in every heart, the preposition in introduces an Adverbial of place. Now let’s learn some expressions containing the preposition in: in all probability = dupã toate probabilitãţile; in all together = în total; in the beginning = la început; in contrast to/with = în contrast cu; in common with = în comun cu; in itself = în sine; in order to/ that = ca sã, pentru ca; in particular = în special; in the place of/ in lieu of = în loc de; in practice = în principiu; in progress = în curs de; in print = tipãrit; in return for = în schimbul a; in quantity = în cantitate; in search of = în cãutare de; in spite of = în ciuda faptului cã; in such a manner = în aşa mod; in sum = pe scurt, în douã vorbe; in that = în aceea cã; in token of = în semn de, ca dovadã; in turn = cu rândul; to be interested in = a fi interesat de; to result in = a avea ca rezultat;

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to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes în; a reuşi în.(e.g. She succeeded in passing the exam). Now practice these expressions in sentences of your own. 3. Look for the preposition at in the text. Now learn some expressions containing the preposition at: at best = în cel mai bun caz; at a disadvantage = în dezavantaj; at ease = liniştit, pe îndelete; at full load = cu sarcinã plinã/ totalã; at intervals = la intervale, intermitent; at liberty = fãrã restricţii, liber; at most = cel mult; at once = imediat; at request = la cerere; at right angle = la unghi drept; at stake = în joc; Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

Grammar Reference
The Noun
There are four kinds of nouns in English: abstract nouns (love, freedom thought); common/concrete nouns (book, table); collective nouns (family, herd); proper nouns (Greg, London).

Gender
Masculine: men and boys (he) Feminine: women, girls, cars, ships, countries (she)

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Neuter: babies, animals, things (it) Notes: - Babies and animals are referred to as male or female when we know their sex. - Cars, ships and countries are sometimes referred to as female but the neuter is more common in modern English. • • Most common nouns referring to people have the same form whether male or female: teacher (man or woman), doctor, etc. Some common nouns referring to people have different forms for male and female: Actor – actress Barman – barmaid Bachelor – spinster Boy – girl Bridegroom – bride Duke – duchess Emperor – empress Father – mother • gentleman – lady heir – heiress husband – wife hero – heroine host – hostess monk – nun nephew – niece prince – princess policeman – policewoman steward – stewardess son – daughter uncle – aunt widower – widow waiter – waitress

Some common nouns referring to animals have different forms for male and female: cock – hen gander – goose lion – lioness tiger – tigress stag – doe stallion – mare

Bull – cow Drake – duck Dog – bitch

Countable/uncountable nouns
Countable nouns are those which can be counted: one book, two books, three books. Countable nouns can be singular or plural: This cup is empty. These cups are full.

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Uncountable nouns are those which cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns can only be singular: The water is cold. The weather is fine. The coal has a good quality. They take a singular verb and are not used with a/an. The words some, any, no, (a) little, much, plenty of etc can be used with uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are: Names of substances (materials, liquids, gases. etc): leather, paper, wood, metal, silver, water, coffee, bread, meat, butter, wine, flour Activities and sports: running, swimming, shopping, gardening, football, tennis Games ending in –s: billiards, darts, bowls, dominos etc Diseases ending in –s: mumps, rickets Names of subjects: history, mathematics, music, physics Languages: Russian, Greek, German, English Abstract nouns: love, hope, advice, information, intelligence, beauty, hunger, poverty Collective nouns: furniture, luggage, equipment, accommodation, traffic

Nouns which may be uncountable or countable
Some nouns are uncountable when we talk about the substance, material or abstract concept but countable when we talk about one specific item. Chicken/a chicken, stone/a stone, hope/ a hope, education/an education Some nouns which are usually uncountable can be countable when we refer to a particular variety. Wine/an excellent wine, fruit/ a very sweet fruit In informal English, drinks and some types of food which are normally uncountable can be counted, particularly when we are making an order in a restaurant Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives:

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a piece of cake/information/baggage/advice/furniture/work/equipment; a glass of water/beer/wine; a jar of jam; a sheet of paper; an item of news; a drop of water/oil; a box of chocolates; a metre of cloth; a packet of biscuits; a pound of flour; a puff of smoke a strip/acre of land a grain of sand a set of cutlery an attack of fever a piece of music a slice of bread a loaf of bread a pot of tea a cup of tea a lump of sugar a game of chess a kilo of meat a bottle of wine a whiff of garlic a beam of light a pile of rubbish a stack of hay a word of advice a wink of sleep a tube of toothpaste a bar of soap/chocolate a blade of grass a flash of lightning a clap of thunder a cube of ice a roast of meat a pint of beer a gust of wind a breath of fresh air an article of clothing a ball of string a roar of laughter a feat of passion

a state of emergency a stroke of luck

The Genitive/Possessive Case
Form: o The ‘S Genitive/the Synthetical Genitive: the boy’s hat, the boys’ hat o The OF Genitive/the Analytical Genitive: the director of the museum o Double Genitive: a work of Milton’s 1. The Inflected/Synthetical Genitive (the ‘S Genitive) Form: • ‘s is used with singular and plural nouns not ending in –s: a man’s job, men’s work, the butcher’s (shop), a child’s voice, the children’s room

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• • • • • •

A simple apostrophe (‘) is used with plural nouns ending in –s: the girls’ school, the Smiths’ car Other names ending in –s can take ‘s or the apostrophe alone: Mr Jones’s/ Mr Jones’ house With compounds, the last word takes the ‘s: my brother-in-law’s guitar ‘s can only be used after initials: the MP’s briefcase, the VIP’s escort ‘s is omitted in the phrase for … sake: for goodness sake ‘s is often added to a noun phrase (the group genitive): the Duke of York’s eldest son

If joint possession is intended, the apostrophe is placed on the last element: Tom and Mary’s baby Individual possession requires an apostrophe with each element of the series: America’s and England’s problems. • The local genitive is used to denote institutions of various kinds (restaurants, churches, theatres, etc), a home, a shop: at Joe’s, at the chemist’s, at my parents’ (home) The synthetical genitive (‘s genitive) is used after: • • • • • • nouns denoting people or other beings (animate nouns): John’s lecture, my parents’ advice, the horse’s neck, the dog’s bark nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, size, distance, weight: a two months’ practice, yesterday’s newspaper in expressions of money + worth: ten dollars’ worth of sugar collective nouns: the government’s decisions, the Parliament’s laws geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.: England’s mountains, the spaceship’s crew, the afternoon’s heat. names of seasons, months, days: a winter’s day/a winter day

164 English Practical Course • • some expressions (these have an alternative with of): the water’s edge. the water’s surface. at a stone’s throw.phrase: the house of my sister’s neighbour With nouns coming from adjectives: the contempt of the rich When the governing noun is modified by a long phrase or clause: the intelligence of the woman across the street 3. lyrics of Hugo’s. at one’s wit’s end. their money’s worth • some idiomatic expressions: to one’s heart’s content. the former is expressed by the of. The Double Genitive Form: It is made up of the inflected genitive (‘s) and the of genitive: a nephew of Queen Mary’s. for charity’s sake some other expressions (they do not have an alternative with of): at arm’s length. to my mind’s eye. within arm’s reach. to a hair’s breadth. at his journey’s end. a bird’s eye view 2. The OF Genitive Form: It is formed by means of a noun which is preceded by the preposition of: the cover of the book. It is mainly used with inanimate nouns Usage: • • • • In titles and formal speech or written text: the Poetical Works of Alfred Tennyson. Translate into English: . the welfare of the people If a genitive governs another genitive. two friends of Jack’s Compare: A portrait of Dali (one portraying him) – a portrait of Dali’s (one painted by or belonging to him) Controlled Practice 1.

Bagajul meu se află între cele două doamne grase. Povestea din război cu o pasiune extraordinară. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . f. Orice informaţie despre jaful de la bancă este vitală. Translate into English. Mi-a dat un sfat foarte important: să nu mănânc pâine după miezul nopţii. I-am rugat să ne cumpere patru pâini de Extrapan. h. Tatãl studentului a venit la universitate sã vorbeascã cu profesorul de chimie. Aceasta este o mobilă prea veche pentru gustul nostru. j. S-au fãcut progrese semnificative în medicină şi s-au descoperit medicamente împotriva cancerului .English Practical Course 165 a. Alaltăieri am cumpărat cinci săpunuri şi astăzi nu găsesc nici unul. b. taking into account the form of uncountable nouns: a. i. El foloseşte multe maşini-unelte produse in Franta d. g. c. Nu mai am strop de energie ca să urc şi panta aceasta. c. Un fulger urmat de un tunet asurzitor i-au speriat pe copii. Doi prieteni de-ai lui John i-au făcut o surpriză de ziua lui. A băut trei cafele şi l-a apucat ameţeala. e. Inventatorul telefonului este Graham Bell b. d.

166 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. That team (is. are) asked to pay attention to the speech. d. Match: a bunch of a bundle of a fleet of a cluster of a clump of a flight of a string of a crate of a pack of a bouquet of a burst of an attack of a hint of an ounce of a stroke of a wink of a feat of a term of a word of a state of 4. Politics (is. c. b. The majority (was. e. were) against the war. have) been living in that chalet for years. Use the correct form of the verb: a. beads stars beer rags grapes trees taxis flowers stairs cards energy laughter abuse trouble fever luck sleep endurance imprisonment emergency . are) all children. Mathematics (was. My family (has. were) my favourite subject. f. are) a matter of no interest to me. The audience (is.

g. is my best friend. The novels of Dickens and Hardy are very often read nowadays. The speech of the President was received with applause. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . Cotroceni Palace is the residence of the President of Romania. i. 5. their) seats. The police (has. the children had to go to the mountains. I have done that for the sake of my cousin George. Smith in almost every country. There is a magazine belonging to Mr. d. Mary. have) just come back and (is. The nephew of Chris and Liz is very smart. b. f. e. h. c. h. The audience (has. were) useless in that situation. She took the coat of somebody else. There was a great variety of cars for the disabled in the fair. are) taking (its. During the holiday of three weeks of their friends. Put into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. i.English Practical Course 167 g. have) been chasing the thieves for weeks. Your heroics (was. the daughter of the baker. j.

I have seen a building of 450 metres in the city of Atlanta. of buildings was destroyed by the earthquake. swarm. Choose from the following: bevy. A ………. g. b. bunch. h. i. − ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 7. f. My cousin was bitten by a ……… of bees.168 English Practical Course 6. pack. b. d. It was a journey of ten days. . The jam I bought weighed half a kilogram.. e. The movie lasted three hours. Rewrite the following sentences using the underlined words in the possessive case. fleet. His mother bought some books which cost ten pounds. e. colony. clump. Supply the correct collective nouns. c. The teacher told them that wolves attack in ……… . row. The highway to the next city was ninety kilometres. Although the forest caught fire. some ………… of trees were still untouched. Mike bought some flowers costing a dollar. The man on the street weighs 250 kilograms. She ate a ……… of grapes in two minutes. Make any other necessary changes in the wordings of the sentences: a. d. c. They granted them an interview lasting half an hour. board: a.

The …………. k. i.. lock. gust. A ……… of cloth is not enough to make the dress you have dreamt of. My neighbours send for the police at the slightest ………. of trouble. The killer cut a ……. d.. Translate into English: a. of boys was laughing at the clown. h.English Practical Course 169 f. acre. 9. metre. pinch. She wrote the address on a ………… of paper. f. j. j. beam. They would like a ………… of pineapple juice. h. A …………. drop(2). of rain. George bought Mary a box of chocolates and a ……… of flowers on her birthday. They went inside as they had felt a ………. A ……… of light from your candle was enough to find the lost ring. That ………. b. n. of managers decided to buy the product. hint. This morning a ………. i. of hair of the victim to have a souvenir. spell. bowl. They will open a new ………. of soup will help you get rid of your nausea. You should add a ……… of salt and mix the ingredients. They’ve had ………… of good weather so far. of road between Tokyo and Osaka. of wind broke two windows of my house. A ………… of ships had been sent to rescue the survivors. e. Divorţul copiilor vecinilor noştri va avea loc luna viitoare. Put in the missing partitive: stretch. o. 8. sip. of mine. g. The painting needs a ……….. . of green here and it will be perfect. l. George has never drunk beer so he tried a ………. c. litre. a. g. A ………… of termites was eating my furniture. of land is very rich in oil. scrap. A ………. m.

amantul prietenei vărului meu. O turmă de oi mi-a invadat curtea. nu avem de mers mai mult de 15 minute până la aeroport. Are 93 de ani şi la vârsta ei o călătorie de 12 ore cu trenul este sinucidere curată. e. Write a before the nouns which are used as countable nouns: a. dar mobila de dinainte de război era de mare clasă. că dacă îl prind îi rup oasele! c. Trebuie să aflăm toate informaţiile necesare. h. f. Face bagajele de cel puţin patru ore. Am putea să ne întâlnim la şcoală. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. .170 English Practical Course b. Piesa noastră de mobilier este foarte modernă. dacă ea avea un singur bagaj nu dura atât de mult. fii atent. turma ta se împrăştie în toate direcţiile! g. i. d. Casa cea nouă a administratorului parcului naţional al oraşului nostru are cel puţin treizeci de camere. fiecare informaţie este vitală. … Education does not just take place at school. I am lucky to have had … very good education. Spune-i domnului Cole.

The statue is built of … marble. What is it? m. h. This meal has … potato in it. natural human feeling./many) women on the boat (was/were) getting seasick from the waves. That is … beautiful stone. The scissors (was/were) on the table a few minutes ago. His luggage (was/were) found without much effort. Mary is … real beauty. I’m so glad I read it: it was … wonderful experience. . e. (much. j. c. He has … great love of art. f. I don’t usually drink … tea. c. Is there … light in Mike’s room? d. His eyes are not very sensitive to … light. I usually eat … fruit for dinner. Choose the right word from the brackets: a.English Practical Course 171 b. Would you like … baked potato? 11. John thinks that’s … really beautiful painting. … Painting can be a really relaxing activity. Billiards (is/are) a very interesting game. … Fear is a protective. The news printed in that magazine (is/are) always accurate. g. e. There (is/are) several means of reaching the chalet on daylight. k. I like red meat but I don’t eat … pork. That’s … very unusual fruit. … Beauty is my favourite concern. A (little/few) knowledge (is/are) as dangerous as having none. You can’t get a job without … experience. i. g. b. I have to call my family because I desperately need … help. d. please. l. f. Sometimes … love can solve all the problems. You were so hungry that you ate … whole turkey. He has … terrible fear of snakes. Tom has proved of … great help to me. I’ll have two cappuccinos and … whisky.

lies). Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar. There are three outrageous … of news in today’s paper. future). item. their room). When they got to the (bottom. distance) from the Sun? d. Use either the analytical or the synthetical genitive with the nouns in brackets: a. friends) were invited to the party. h. there (isn’t/aren’t) (much/many) chairs and tables here. 12. piece. Do you know the (Moon. f. He wanted to buy a … of chocolate but the shop was closed. You can’t eat that … of cold beef left because it is off. e. c. bit. b. the stairs) they realized that was not their house. They will buy a new … of furniture for their bedroom. g. I’ll never forget (Helen. b. h. Your business depends on his (country. g. slice: a. natural wonders). f. c. The Amazonian jungle is one of the (world. you should take it into consideration. newspaper)? . 13. This is a … of good advice. I cut several … of bread for my kid sister. We should buy (much/many) furniture. We are amazed by (that girl. They painted only one (wall. How (much/many) information do you need to get it done? j. d. With a … of luck you can still catch the train. The (neighbours.172 English Practical Course h. e. We are allowed to take four … of luggage in our trip. Have you read (today. words). You gave me (much/many) ideas about the job but very (little/few) advice. i. i.

chair). 14. We were able to give a satisfactory (explain) for our (behave).English Practical Course 173 j. but impact he had in sixties and seventies was huge. There is a great (differ) between to remind and to remember. ‘How many times must white dove fly before it sleeps in sand?’ And then answer to profound questions: ‘Answer. c. but also a good volley (play). Put in a/ an / the as appropriate: I remember in dim and distant past my children being obsessed by man called Bob Dylan. I remember one song called ‘Blowing in Wind’. e. for several years. my friend. b. The (advertise) will have to be published in the morning paper. question like that can’t be taken seriously. articles are missing. is blowing in wind. my son – he’s in his fifties now – sang it all day and all night. can it? And. h. I have no idea if he’s still alive. g. but the (end) was more exciting. He is a fantastic (basketball). month in and month out. And it was so silly: ‘How many times must man look up before he can see sky?’ I mean. The (begin) of the book was boring. d.’ Generation after mine didn’t know what life was . In the following fragment. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 15. Fill in the blanks with nouns derived from the words in brackets: a. (Visit) are requested to sign their names in the book. f. Children have a great deal of (curios). Father is trying to fix the (leg. She will give the detective a detailed (describe) of the thief.

e. we didn’t have any umbrellas. d. can’t you imagine you hurt her? g. movements a. hopes. There’s no need for us to discuss the (…) of this marriage. dislikes. Civilians are forbidden to carry (…) during peacetime. interests. Put one of the nouns in each of the sentences. odds. The (…) opened and. The Blue Killer was never arrested and was never handed over to the (…).’ ‘Just way you look tonight. of course. What is the purpose of your going to Hawaii? Well. authorities. sights. b. But what came next? ‘How many years can mountain exist before it is washed to sea?’ And there was whole generation singing alone to song. The actor thinks he can win the award but we suspect the (…) are against him.’ ‘Night they invented champagne. did they? We did. matters. expenses. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. arms. just to see the (…). heavens. terms. feelings. . so we got soaked. basics. talks. Don’t be rude! What about her (…).174 English Practical Course all about. I say it’s funny world we live in. sands. travels. Funny world we live in.’ They were real songs. I suppose. f. means. c. ‘Very thought of you.

(odds) e. r. All the money they managed to earn was spent on clothes. (designs) h. (eye) f. (terms) d. Once the causes of Mike’s death are made public. He’s up and about. My boss’s likes and (…) shouldn’t be of any interest to the employees. I don’t think John is planning to buy that expensive house.English Practical Course 175 h. Mr. We’ll have to get back to (…) to understand the grammar of the English language. if you keep teasing my daughter. even if it’s snowing. he tells her all his (…) and fears. In the (…) of the citizens. George got on very well with his father-in-law. m. They play football. using the word given. p. (means) c. I won’t find any (…) of transport at this hour of the night. Parents don’t agree with their children’s liberal ideas. There’s little chance of raining this week. a. She wasn’t as innocent as it seemed to be. i. Mayor? 17. It will be best for her to help them right now. (interests) i. q. l. Try as I might. Peace (…) in Palestine are meant to put an end to the guerrilla fights. (proceeds) b. I suppose they won’t claim travel (…) for their voyage to the island of Crete! j. Jack trusts his aunt. could you answer these questions. Write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence. start considering yourself on shifting (…). I’m warning you. This word must not be altered in any way. Have you found out what our enemies (…) are over the following days? o. I’m sure the gangsters discussed a range of important (…) since the Godfather was present. isn’t he? I hear that he is off on his (…) again. k. raining or extreme cold. the policemen will arrest the suspects. n. (open) . (weathers) g.

(high) − ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .176 English Practical Course j. She is convinced her daughter is going to be as successful as herself.

the moonlight standing up from the hills in front. With an effort she roused herself to see what it was that penetrated her consciousness. She touched the big. then shivered. and filling the valley where the Bottoms crouched. H. . as with a presence. the moon streaming high in face of her. Pay attention to the use of preposition in English. She put her hand into one white bin: the gold scarcely showed on her fingers by moonlight. Mrs. In what way are prepositions different in Romanian? Try to see when the use of the English prepositions is different from the use in Romanian: She hurried out of the side garden to the front. The tall white lilies were reeling in the moonlight.English Practical Course 177 Unit 10 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Prepositions © Compound Prepositions © Place of Prepositions in the Sentence © Problematic Prepositions of Time and Space •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Sons and Lovers by D. Morel gasped slightly in fear. pallid flowers on their petals. panting and half weeping in reaction from the stress. She bent down to look at the binful of yellow pollen. There. and the air was charged with their perfume. where she could stand as if in an immense gulf of white light. They seemed to be stretching in the moonlight. she murmured to herself over and over again: “The nuisance! the nuisance!” She became aware of something about her. Lawrence. almost blindingly.

looking out. Except for a slight feeling of sickness. herself melted out like scent into the shiny. radioul.178 English Practical Course but it only appeared dusky. pale air. etc. on the score of = ca rezultat. How many times does the preposition on appear in the text? Learn some expressions containing this preposition. She did not know what she thought. all swum together in a kind of swoon. and she rested with the hills and lilies and houses. It almost made her dizzy. în pragul. on this ground = din acest motiv. on the verge of = pe punctul de.). to be on duty = a fi de serviciu.etc. and she lost herself awhile. Ways with Words 1. din cauzã cã. melted with her in the mixing-pot of moonlight. luând în consideraţie cã. to turn on/ to switch on (the light. Then she drank a deep draught of the scent. . Mrs. on behalf of sb. and so on = şi aşa mai departe.) = a deschide/ a aprinde (lumina. on record = cunoscut. and her consciousness in the child. = în numele cuiva. la nesfârşit. on account of = pe baza. too. pe cale. on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri. on and on = fãrã întrerupere. on the basis of = pe baza. Morel leaned on the garden gate. on the contrary = din contrã. After a time the child. the radio. on the whole = în general. on demand = la cerere. din partea cuiva. on a large/small scale = pe scarã mare/micã. în întregime.

Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own. to the dot (of an i) = pânã în cele mai mici amãnunte. to my knowledge = dupã câte ştiu. . to the utmost = (pânã) la maximum. ici şi colo. to little purpose = cu puţin efect. to the best of one’s power/ ability = dupã puterea/ capacitatea cuiva. deodatã. to date = la zi. pe neaşteptate. to a fraction = pânã la milimetru. How do you translate: She hurried out of the side garden to the front […]? Now learn some expressions containing the preposition to. on purpose = dinadins. mai degeaba. to hand = la îndemânã. ad litteram. 2. on a sudden = brusc. to the letter = întocmai. to and fro = înainte şi înapoi. on the first attempt = la prima încercare. to advantage = cu profit/ folos. on trial = de probã. intenţionat. to cut the matter short = pe scurt. on principle = din principiu. în cea mai mare mãsurã. to this effect = în acest scop. to one’s mind = dupã pãrerea cuiva.English Practical Course 179 on condition that = cu condiţia. to the very moment = chiar pânã în clipa. short and to the point = scurt şi la obiect Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

above across. towards. considering. touching. underneath. by. via. but. behind. over against. saving. respecting. onto. up against. round. Complex: according to. through. athwart. prepositions usually precede their objects: Put it on the chair and leave! Look at him. within. A preposition followed by a complement (object) forms a prepositional phrase. to. up to. as far as. along with. notwithstanding. pending. After telling the whole story. against. except for. as for. over. down to. at. in between. since. out of. Compound: alongside. upon. failing. because of. throughout. below. Simple: about. betwixt. around. along. beyond. concerning. near. d. from. c. among. before. past. beneath. after. he disappeared. per. gerunds or noun clauses can be complements (objects) of prepositions.180 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Prepositions Prepositions are connecting words that show relationships between words in a sentence. as to. instead of. except. besides. on. outside. from under. I can't get any work done. pronouns. without. between. from among. during. anent. Because of you. in. down. into. of. save. until. noun phrases. off. under. till. round about. excepting. with b. Nouns. Prepositional Phrases: . Note that in English. according to form: a. from inside. up. for. amid. regarding. Types of prepositions. inside.

in reward of. . and verb idioms. in accordance with. in comparison with. in the name of. owing to. in the event of. in the place of. in consequence of. in behalf of. the unit acquires a new meaning. as a result of. separated from its object. In interrogative sentences and subordinate clauses. at the back of. The verb-preposition phrase is listed together in the dictionary with its own meaning. in want of. with relation to. thanks to. in honour of. in lieu of. in keeping with. in the middle of. in company with. with reference to. in view of. in case of. due to. by reason of. in connection with. on account of. in front of. in addition to.English Practical Course 181 ahead of. in default of. page 309) Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs When certain verbs and prepositions are combined. in place of. in prospect of. caused by. for fear of. in aid of. (was raised) Place of Prepositions in the Sentence A preposition usually precedes its object: I am voting for him. by means of. She was brought up in the suburbs. prior to. in praise of. apart from. with a view to. These verb-preposition combinations have several names: twopart verbs. Compare the following sentences: Whom are you voting for? For whom are you voting? This is a book (which) we were talking about. for the sake of. in spite of. in obedience to. with respect to. phrasal verbs. in opposition to. the preposition may be at the end of the sentence. (see also Appendix 2. by dint of. in common with. in regard to. in answer to. in order to. We are talking about this novel. next to. with regard to. This is a book about which we were talking. by the side of. by way of.

etc.. two weeks. university. London. my last birthday.. etc. etc. February.182 English Practical Course The first sentence in each pair is common in informal speech.. midnight. the war. I came here During* the film. For seven minutes. a long time.. etc. But: I arrived at London Airport. the moment On Saturday. etc. Easter/ Christmas. 25-th. the class. your free (spare) time. 11-th January. the weekend. In formal writing and business communications. even when meaning is different: She goes to house. ages Since June. the 1930s. Monday. January.. summer.. into/out of in (=contained by/ inside) used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in walked out of the shop. 1988. winter. keep the preposition and object together. etc. etc.. good/ bad weather At six o ‘clock. during is replaced by while: While I was coming to you. Prepositions of Time In the morning/ afternoon/ evening. Tuesday morning.. not used come. etc. Problematic Prepositions of Movement and Place Movement Place to at used with verbs of movement: go. (=place) across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of) other: She went across the with verbs of the movement: I arrived at the . etc. summer _____________________________________________________________ * In a sentence containing a subject and a verb. my holidays.. two weeks’ time..

atone. glance. speak. expect. flee. learn. recover. gaze. bargain. receive.English Practical Course 183 promenade. search. answer. sneer. knock. FOR: account. die. purge. defend.) towards (=in the direction of: I’m going towards Cluj. complain. send. grieve. pull. hope. smile. talk. rage. IN: . AT: aim. manufacture. murmur. AGAINST: clamour. buy / sell (sth) by the pound etc.) Verbs with Obligatory Preposition: ABOUT: argue. set. mock. divide. distinguish. pass. cry. spring. laugh. prepare. rejoice. wait. sail. excerpt. select. point. worry. banish. finish. profit. fire a shot. hanker. long. say. insure. strike. languish. throw. refrain. guard. warn. protect. look. fret. extricate. descent. borrow. doubt. BY: begin. AFTER: aspire. revolt. suffer. wish. tell. reach. differ. lament. rush. know. see. assess. write. mutter. purchase. ensue. call. exact. strive. thunder. puff. exclaim. think. stay. differentiate. shoot. yearn. sigh. last. hunger. withdraw. leave. pay. FROM: absolve. start. stand. care. call. indemnify. obtain. crave. repine. do. derive. swear. cry. drive. work. buy/sell (sth) at a price. ask. pine. walk. fight. fall. look. fish. take. hunt. take.

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abound, believe, confide, consist, deal, employ (sb), entangle, hammer, insert, interfere, paint, succeed, write. INTO: alter, break, change, divide, look, merge, pitch, put, thrust, turn. OF: accuse, acquit, allow, approve, avail (oneself), become, beware, complain, consist, cure, deprive, die, disapprove, dispose, doubt, dream, hear, learn, relieve, remind, speak, suspect, talk, think. ON: act, agree, bet, comment, concentrate, congratulate, count, depend, embark, gloat, inculcate, insist, jar, operate, rely, stumble, tattle, tell. OVER: brood, cry, exult, muse, quarrel, rule, ruminate. TO: adapt, adhere, adjust, agree, allude, amount, announce, apologise, appeal, aspire, attach, attend, attest, belong, cling, come, compare, complain, consent, correspond, drink, entitle, explain, give, go, help (oneself), lead, listen, nod, object, oppose, point, prove, refer, reply, resort, respond, return, seem, set (to work), speak, stick, subscribe, succeed, take, tend. WITH: agree, combine, compare, comply, connect, contend, contrast, correspond, deal, differ, disagree, do, fight, interfere, intermeddle, join, meet (~hardships), mingle, quarrel, quiver, reconcile, rhyme, shiver, side, sympathize, talk, tremble, trifle, vie. UPON: act, bear, call, chance, depend, enter, fall, fix, force, frown, impose, insist, look, play (~one’s feelings), rest, smile (about fate), trample. Adjectives with Obligatory Preposition:

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185

Addicted to, adequate for (smth.), adequate to (smb.), adverse to, affected by, amazed at, ambitious after, annoyed at, anxious about (smth.), anxious for (smb.), appalled by, apprehensive of (i.e. worried about), apt for, ashamed of, astonished at, averse to, bad at, beneficial to, bent on, busy with, capabale of, certain of, charmed at (smth.), charmed with (smb.), clever at (mathematics), compatible with, concerned about /with, concerned for (smb), connected with, consistent with, contended with, convenient for (smth.) convenient to (smb.), crazy about, cruel to, deficient in (smth.), delighted at, derogatory to, devoid of, dexterous at, diffident in, disappointed at, disgusted by (smth.), disgusted with (smb.), displeased at, dissatisfied with, doubtful of (smb.), dying for, eager for/about, earnest about, enraged by, essential for, excited at/over, fit for, frightened at, full of, good at, greedy of, hostile to (smb.), hungry for, identical to/with, ignorant of, immersed in (debts), immune against, immune from, impolite to, inadequate for smth/to smb, incensed at/with, inclined to /for, inconceivable to, independent of smb, indignant at/with, infatuate with, intent on, irritated at, offended at, opposite from, parallel to, paralyzed with, partial to, particular about, pleased at smth, prepared for, proficient in, prone to, resolved on, rude to, secure of, skillful at/in, slow at, solicitous about, sorry about smth, sorry for smb, subject to, suffering from, sufficient for, suited to, sure about smth, sure of smb, sympathetic to, tired with, true to, unfit for, unjust to, vexed at smth, vexed with smb

Controlled Practice
1. Supply the right preposition: a. She is very fond ... children. b. The new teacher is very patient... us. c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd.

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d. I was interested ... nuclear Physics. e. What are you afraid ...? f. I’m proud ... your success. g. She has never been successful ... anything she has done so far. h. We are going there early ... the morning, yet don’t expect us until late ... night. i. The results depended ... the recent discovery. j. A paleontologist is a person who has specialized ... paleontology. 2. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition: a. I shut the door but left my key …..... it. b. He strolled carelessly .……. the road. c. They arrived late .……. the station. d. She ran all the way …….. the shop. e. I went …….. Paris last year. f. I met her …….. the rock concert. g. The baby crawled …….. the kitchen. h. There’s a strike …….. our factory. i. She has left. She must be …….. work. j. The money fell ... my pocket. 3. Put in the missing prepositions: …….. a Monday evening …..... September 1931, …….. about eight o’clock, the ship “Voyager” sank. The ship had been sailing …….. the end of September, when she left London, and was on her way …….. England . ……. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called William Batty, who saved himself …….. swimming two miles. He spent three years …….. an island ……. the middle of the Indian Ocean.

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The island was quite small, and he could walk …..... the whole of it …….. an hour. He climbed …….. the one hill and put a flag ….... it …….. a signal. ……. night Batty slept .……. a cave, where he felt quite …….. home …….. the day, he often fished …..... a home-made net. He cooked the fish …….. a wood fire. Batty stayed …….. the island ……... almost three years. …….. August 1934, a ship was sailing ……. the island, and the captain saw Batty’s signal. The sailors found a man .……. a long blue coat …….. dark hair and a beard, looking rather …..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years later he finally arrived in Australia …….. air . 4. Choose the nouns in column B which require the prepositions in column A and then translate into Romanian: A in on under at with above out of by without off B work suspicion question joy love fire one’s breath fail heart duty

A interest lack ambition

B for in in

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delight advantage influence witness arrangement agreement declaration protection difference damage impatience A busy inferior satisfied advantageous superior mad new afraid excited interested

for between at over of of upon against to on to B to of at to at with to to in about

A run deal talk take

B in with after about

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divide think climb pass rely believe

on about; of by up into for

5. Read through the following and fill in the numbered blanks with a suitable preposition of time. Be careful, however, because in one or two cases no preposition is needed. My parents met (1)… the war: (2)… August 1943 to be precise. My father was home (3)… leave (4)… the front, and he decided to spend the first week with his aunt in Liverpool. He hadn’t seen her (5)… several years, even though she had brought him up (6)… his mother’s death. Liverpool is not the most beautiful city in the world, but it can be very pleasant (7)… summertime, especially early (8)… the morning. (9)… this particular morning, however, my father was in no mood to enjoy the sunrise over the Mersey. His train left Euston Station (10)… time, at midnight, but (11)… the time it got to Crewe, it was already three and a half hours (12)… schedule. So he was in a bad mood and very tired (13)… arrival at Lime Street Station. But something happened (14)… minutes of his arrival that changed not only his mood but also his whole life. Feeling thirsty (15)… his long journey, he decided to go and have a cup of tea in the station buffet. Typically, it was shut (16)… that early hour. A notice on the door read “Opening hours (17)… 7 a.m. (18)… 5.30 p.m.” He looked at the station clock: ten (19)… seven. The buffet should be open (20)… now, he thought. But, knowing station buffets, he realized that he could wait (21)… 8 or even 9 o’clock before it opened. Suddenly he noticed a pretty girl sitting on a bench. She was pouring some hot liquid from a thermos flask into a cup. Being something of a lady’s man, my father (at least this is what my mother

and … well. of going to the h. having more than behavior 4. gave him the tea. My brother is very conscious… the exam 2. for her today g. She takes great pride l. Since the weather was so bad. we decided the party 8. with murder j. Most children are fond to the beach 6. As he’d missed so many lessons. If you give me a drink of your tea. And I haven’t had a hot drink (24)… last night. from leaving k. for his bad a. I’ll marry you and look after you (25)… the rest of my life!” Believe it or not. Since Mrs Smith is ill. Mr Bond is deputizing circus 10. He apologised nose 9. on her work c. into going to e. He didn’t want her to go.190 English Practical Course told me (22)… some years later) sat down and said “I’ve never seen such a pretty girl (23)… all my life as you. In Britain. so he tried to prevent her 11. of his big f. I wouldn’t be here (26)… now if the buffet hadn’t been shut (27)… that fateful day (28)… August 1943. about going i. 1. The police charged the man bank 5. He was arrested… 3. he was discouraged to the dentist 12. Complete the following sentences. 6. she smiled at him. from taking . for robbing a b. The three men were found guilty 7. Choose a suitable ending from those marked a – p. against going d.

in arrears j. He complimented her 15. behind bars k. on an empty stomach p. Try to match them up correctly. illegal 8. by degrees g. . recite a poem 2. gradually a. against the 7. at daybreak c. It’s burning! 16. behind the times f.I haven’t eaten 11. in disorder l. in agony i. old-fashioned 12. simultaneous 9. We’re late! 3. at the same time d. in flames m. It really hurts! 13. He tried to coax her 14. To tell you the truth. very early 14. of fraud n. You’re too young! 7. a prisoner 15. Each of the words and phrases on the left can be associated with one of the prepositional phrases on the right. very fashionable 5. in vogue o. I’m not very keen law m. He was always very nervous tonight 16. on going out p. 1. against the law b. in her work o. Complete the sentences below with one of the following adjectives plus a preposition. under age 8.English Practical Course 191 13. I can’t pay! 6. in the nude n. from memory h. no clothes 10. behind schedule e. What a mess! 4.

g. Only unmarried women are … … membership. a. You’ll have to make your own bed in future. c. o. everyone could see that he was … … his wife’s success. Don’t ask me to add up the bill. full. capable. I hope to see you all again soon. j. involved. This piece of music was … … by Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata. bad. He tried to work but was … … the noise from the traffic. He was nearly 16 before he first became … … the opposite sex. adequate. Life is … … surprises.192 English Practical Course addicted. LONG d. sympathetic a. Never become … … cigarettes! f. expert. isn’t it? m. The underlined expressions can be replaced by a time expression based on the word given in CAPITAL LETTERS. i. Supply the missing prepositions. disqualified. inspired. My neighbour is … … pruning fruit trees. Most of her clothes are no longer fashionable. The teacher was … … her students for not doing their homework. eligible. DATE b. d. Although he wouldn’t admit it. aware. ON . You really make me angry sometimes. angry. Do you think politicians are … … telling lies? b. 9. He was … … the race for taking drugs. I’m really … … mathematics. TIMES c. p. Pop groups are … … smashing up hotel rooms. l. The flat wasn’t very big. h. notorious. but it was perfectly … … our needs. they were not prepared to support us officially. n. distracted. Although they said they were … … our case. k. e. jealous. ”Who else was … … the crime?” the policeman asked the suspect.

LONG j. Are you and Jennifer related? RELATIVE . and we don’t know even now what happened to her. END k. DAY l. a. SECRET They … … d. For each of the sentences below. but only briefly. SEASON g. so finally he had to give it away. Everyone has heard about the leaning tower of Pisa. 10. BEING o. Please be very quiet. VALID This … … c. write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence using the word in CAPITAL LETTERS. FAMOUS Pisa … … b. Until then.English Practical Course 193 e. This passport can be used inmost countries. best of luck with your driving test. MEANTIME p. There is an examination going on. MOMENT n. Please complete the rest of your assignments right away. Your Aunt Kate is using the spare bedroom now. LENGTH h. TIME i. Wendy said that she would like to dance. Nobody wanted to buy his car. Our daughter left home three years ago. …so you’ll have to sleep in the garden temporarily. I hope to see you next month. The demonstration occupied the square for several hours until they were eventually driven away by the police. We have given you the first word(s) of the new sentence. Autumn is the time when fruit like apples and pears are available. We’ll be in UK. PROGRESS. DELAY m. TIME f. and immediately there were twenty young men offering to dance with her. Now and then we like to spend a weekend in the mountains. They didn’t tell anyone they were getting married.

IMPRESSION . PLEASURE My boss … … n.194 English Practical Course Is … … e. My boss seems to enjoy humiliating people. DOUBTFUL We … … i. DIFFICULTY He … …. HABIT I…… o. BORED She … … j. Your car is just like one I used to own.000. A car crashed into a bus this morning. The interview panel thought that Sarah had a very good manner. NOTICE Take … … h. The painting is worth$30. Pay no attention to what she says. I lent my cousin $5. j. BORROWED My cousin … … g. SIMILAR I…… k. He found it hard to open the window. CRAVING Mary … … m. When Mary was pregnant. all she wanted to eat was jelly. COLLIDED A car … … h. INCAPABLE He … … l. I don’t usually speak to strange men. She doesn’t find her present job very interesting. He would never tell you a lie. VALUED The … … i. We didn’t think she would pass the exam. Do you want a drink? CARE Would … … f.

We have run out of the items you want. PRESSURE I …… 7. MEMORY I …… u. CONFIDENCE I…… r. Henry really knew how to make people laugh. A. The way to get the best out of me is to make me work very hard. in … to d. out of … for j. Try to make up a sentence using each of the phrases. If you want to understand Yeats’ s poetry. with … to h. TALENT Henry …… s. the exception. t. virtue a. account.English Practical Course 195 Sarah … … p. KEY Irish history … … q. with … of i. favour. in … for b. respect. on … of . ACCORDING The moon ……. My best friend is someone I can really trust. the sake. addition. you need to study Irish history. Complete the prepositional phrases below by choosing a word from the following list. odds. in … of e. in … with c. for … of j. at … with g. STOCK The items …… v. regard. the expense. exchange. I can recite Wordsworth’s Prelude without looking at the book. My father says that the moon is made of green cheese. common.

behalf. the compliments. f. good terms. at … on b. cruelty. fall. d. with … to p. reference. to … of n. in … to i. in … for j. out of … for m. peace. campaign. at … with d. objection. I know you have a cold. the accompaniment. The … … chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too quickly. answer. What is the … … “timid”? Is it “bold” or “brave”? c. control. Complete the sentences below with one of the following nouns plus a preposition. which would you do? b. at … of c. If you had a … … marrying for love or marrying for money.196 English Practical Course f. excuse. news. a cost. opposite. under … of o. freedom. agreement. means. the benefit. on … of k. grudge. by … of e. the influence. by … of B. pity. work a. The African elephant will be extinct within 20 years if an international … … the ivory trade is not started immediately. trouble a. at … of k. in … of g. aid. strain. on … with l. knowledge. genius. in … with h. for … of f. basis. . with … of 8. compensation. choice. Do you have any … … my parking my car in front of your house? e. but that’s no … … not doing your homework.

because it puts a great … … their hearts. Since the salmonella scare. h. k. The RSPCA is concerned with prevention of … … animals. . i. l. there has been a considerable … … the consumption of eggs.English Practical Course 197 g. fear and persecution. j. Perhaps the three most important human rights are … … hunger. we can do as we like: our teacher has no … … us at all. In our class. Overweight people should not jog. If you have to deal with overseas clients. a … … foreign languages is very useful.

Which words in column A can combine with words in column B? a gaggle of a school of a pride of a swarm of a colony of a flock of a pack of a litter of A on with beyond to in by off at under without A tall high B person tree mountain wall building price A heavy strong loud puppies geese locusts fish hounds birds bees lions B top the left a light heart praise land the mark war doubt earnest such circumstances B music noise traffic smoker wind A Happy Merry B New Year! Anniversary! Christmas! Birthday! .198 English Practical Course Progress Test 3 1.

a colony of locusts. Ei s-au simţit foarte bine la mare anul trecut. on top. a high mountain. Aş vrea să călătoresc cu Orient. by land. Happy Birthday. El este profesor la universitate. beyond praise. a high wall. without doubt. strong wind. . a flock of birds . a tall person. i. a litter of puppies. heavy traffic. off the mark. Merry Christmas. j. loud music. a pride of lions. Ei au pornit să escaladeze Alpii. c. f. n. h. in earnest. Pe de o parte nu-mi place grosolănia ta şi pe de altă parte mi-am terminat programul. a high building. Englezii sunt foarte politicoşi. d. with a light heart. under such circumstances. Translate into English: a. Unde a avut loc accidentul? Key: a gaggle of geese. a high price. El a ajuns aseară şi este cazat la Hotelul Hilton. a pack of hounds. Happy Anniversary. l. e. Ei şi-au dat mâna în final şi au plecat. heavy smoker. at war. Statele Unite cooperează cu Marea Britanie. a school of fish.English Practical Course 199 2. b. to the left. 2. k. El a devenit preşedintele Franţei în 1998. a swarm of bees. g. El merge la şcoală dimineaţa. Happy New Year. m. Tamisa este un râu care trece prin Londra. heavy noise. Francezii mănâncă mai multă pizza decât englezii. Acesta este cea mai bună piesă de teatru pe care am văzut-o. o.Express-ul. a tall tree.

c. n. The French eat more pizza than the English. h. 1 point + 0. The English are very polite. o. He is a teacher at the university. On the one hand I don’t like your rudeness and on the other my shift is over. 1 point + 0. m. a. I wish I travelled by the Orient Express. k.60 point each x15 = 10 points 2. The United States and The United Kingdom co-operate. They had a very good time at the seaside last year. Where did the accident happen? Score: 1. e. They shook hands and left. He became (the) President of France in 2000. He arrived last night and is accommodated at the Hilton. They set off to climb the Alps. i. l. f. b.60 point each x15 = 10 points Divided by 4 = 10 points . d. The Thames is a river which crosses London.200 English Practical Course a. He goes to school in the morning. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points c. 1 point + 1 point each x9 = 10 points b. j. This is the best play I have ever seen. g.

English Practical Course 201 .

Some people would argue that words that are part of a name – like East India Tea house – are not really adjectival and that possessive nouns – father’s. with the gaping horse-hair rent. in July. of . the cherry scent. the sandalwood. of watermelons bedded in sweet hay. Adjectives are bold. He remembered yet the East India Tea house at the Fair. the cool interior and the smell of India tea. farmer’s – are not technically adjectives. are underlined. the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of blossoms. Note that such an abundance of adjectives would be uncommon in contemporary prose. and the scent of orange rind. if the smooth worn leather sofa. of cantaloupe and crated peaches. verb forms acting as adjectives.202 English Practical Course Unit 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adjectives © The Order of Adjectives in a Series © Comparative and Superlative Adjectives © Comparative Sentences •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Consider the uses of modifiers in this paragraph rich in adjectives from Thomas Wolfe’s Look Homeward. before a fire of coals. the wet loaniness of the garden. participles. the turbans. but we’ve included them in our analysis of Wolve’s text. and the robes. inside a farmer’s covered wagon. the cool clarion earth. and he had felt now the nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring. Angel. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth. bitter-sweet. He knew the good male smell of his father’s sittingroom.

of a clean ruddy farmer who comes weekly with printed butter eggs.……. e.…. c. The management said salaries had INCREASED. of warm nasturtiums. Now complete the following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the word in capital letters: a.. . long closed. of a bakery-oven in the wind. of Concord grapes in their long white baskets. For example. of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have been stored. the opposite of short is long..than FULL-TIME. but official reports showed that as a matter of fact they had . of large deep-hued stringbeans smoking-hot and seasoned well with salt and butter.. of the heated calf-skin bindings. and milk. b. 2.…. of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee. of the brown tired autumn earth. Many people would rather work …………. d. position. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a ……. of honey-suckle at night. the opposite of old is young. Ways with Words 1..………….English Practical Course 203 the blistered varnished wood upon the hearth. of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October.. of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco.…. Try to find the antonyms of the adjectives in the text. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. stuck with a red flag. The first shop he opened was a BIG SUCCESS but the second was a total ……. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being .

demonstrative this tool II. Observation adjectives. a serious commitment. the fat lady.) postdeterminers limiter adjectives adjectives subject and real. which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence. richest man. because the order seems quite arbitrary. The categories in the following table can be described as follows: Word order I. Unlike adverbs. they appear in a set order according to category. a month’s pay. perfect to interesting. adjectives. Types of adjectives Determiners Examples articles and other limiters four people. possessive chapter.204 English Practical Course Grammar Reference Position of adjectives Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun/ nouns in the sentence: the tall man. beautiful. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive. . etc. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives. and when they do. the sixth (numerals. The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. There is however a pattern. a fivemonth-old child. adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. her story. The Order of Adjectives in a Series It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and not Italian blue sports car. the unhappiest.

English. a Faulknerian style. V.English Practical Course 205 III. Spanish. metallic. IV. yellow. Material denominal denoting what something woolen VIII. book Capitalising proper adjectives When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun. regarded as part of the passenger car. a Renaissance/ Romantic/ Victorian poet. brown. ancient denoting red. the. is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people. Thus we write (about) Christian music. black. the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor. VI. noun often hunting cover cabin. round. The difference between a collective noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb: . the homeless. it should probably be capitalised. the rich. American. the English Parliaments. violet adjectives French. French fries. Origin denominal denoting source of noun VII. small. square young. short. new. the lonely. the oppressed. Qualifier is made of final limiter. a Shakespearian play. green. Romanian adjectives wooden. orange. Size and shape Age Colour subjective measure adjectives subject objective measure adjectives denoting age adjectives colour gorgeous to large. the Nixon era. old. blue. Polish. Collective adjectives When the definite article.

the opposite of honourable is dishonourable. For instance. an euphuism is created if we say that This is the least beautiful city in the state instead of This is the ugliest city in the state. flammable and inflammable mean the same thing. One way. although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. The opposite of beautiful is ugly. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix). Adjectival opposites The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. The young at heart are always a joy to be around. The rich are not supposed to help the poor.206 English Practical Course The rural poor have been ignored by the media. is to find an antonym. A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet less worthy of consideration than another candidate. the opposite of young is old. The meaning itself can be tricky. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people. They are figures of speech. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate. . A third means of creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate. for instance. It’s probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already negative: He is less unlucky than his brother. the opposite of alcoholic is non-alcoholic. you will have to consult a dictionary. of course. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. the opposite of prudent is imprudent. use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people. as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. the opposite of being properly filled is misfilled.

etc.y early heavy Adjectives with careful two or more expensive difficult interesting Irregular adjectives rapid good bad little far* fore** late*** syllables Comparative cheaper smaller bigger fatter older/ elder funnier earlier heavier more careful more expensive more difficult more interesting more rapid better worse less farther/ further former later/latter Superlative the cheapest the smallest the biggest the fattest the oldest/ the eldest the funniest the earliest the heaviest the most careful the most expensive the most difficult the most interesting the most rapid the best the worst the most the least the the first the latest/ the last near**** nearer the nearest/ the next ° Short adjectives double the consonant when the final consonant is preceded by a short vowel: fat/ fatter/ the fattest. farthest/ foremost/ the the furthest many/ much more . hot/ hotter/ the hottest. °° Elder and the eldest are used only attributively. in family relationships (My elder brother is twenty four).English Practical Course 207 Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Form Adjectives Short adjectives Positive cheap small big° fat° old°° Adjectives that funny end in .

the foremost means chief (The foremost welder in this factory is John. it’s possible to regard the quantities as sums of countable measures. In these situations. use less when referring to statistical or numerical expressions: It’s less than four miles to Dallas. the next refers to order. the last means final: ( Shakespeare’s last play). He’s less than six feet tall. She had fewer chores. when we’re talking about countable things. we use the word fewer. when we’re talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count. ****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the nearest library?).).208 English Practical Course * Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you. The latter has also an abstract meaning.). the latest means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. but she also had less energy. however.) ** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times. (The next bus comes in an hour. Your essay should be a thousand words or less. Generally.).). (Give me further details in order to understand it better.) Less versus fewer When making a comparison between quantities we often have to make a choice between the words fewer and less. quantity. people used typing machines instead of computers. further/ the furthest are used in relation to time. We do. the first means initial (Americans claim that the first movie was made in the United States. we use the word less. Taller than I/me? . *** Latter means the second of two (I’ve met John and Cindy: the former is a student in Philology. the latter is a student in Foreign Languages). Fowles.).

we usually use more than in countable numerical expressions. In England. meaning in excess of or over. use the adverb. she is over six feet tall. We are looking for the subject form: He is taller than I am/ she. her would mean that you like this male person better than you like that female person. If we can say He is tall like me/ her. ) More than/ over? In the United States. there is no such distinction.000 traffic deaths in one year. but – for now.S. am or is. there is no ambiguity: when modifying a verb. will argue that the word than should be allowed to function as a preposition. With most verbs.. some editors would insist on more than 40. He knows very well who the murderer is.) Some good writers. time or height: His sister is over forty. (To avoid ambiguity and the slippery use of than. you will commonly hear over in numerical expressions of age. academic prose. She will mean that you like this person better than she likes him. whereas in the UK. we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. however. we could write I like him better than she does or I like him better than I like her. We’ve been waiting well over two hours for her. however. It’s an interesting argument. We also want to be careful in a sentence such as I like him better than she/her.000 traffic deaths would be acceptable. use the subject form in such comparisons. then (if than could be prepositional like like) we should be able to say. .S. in the U. For instance. Good versus well In both casual speech and formal writing.. He is taller than me/her. anyway – in formal.English Practical Course 209 When making a comparison with than we end with a subject form: taller than I/she. He swims well. (We leave out the verb in the second clause. over 40. Even so in the U.

the more fun we’ll have. the less acceleration. frumoase din porţelan.. thank you. c. The more we are. the baby smells so good.. Many careful writers. Ea avea o maşinã sport albastră. How are you? I’m feeling good.. you can use the adjective instead. Comparative Sentences In relation to the degrees of comparison. and this is perfectly all right. when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses. . use the adjective form after verbs that have to do with human feelings. however. there are idiomatic expressions with two comparatives: Form: the+ comparative . thank you.. The bigger the essay. will use well after linking verbs relating to health. In fact. Translate into English: a.. If you felt badly it would mean that something was wrong with your faculties for feeling.210 English Practical Course However.. to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you are OK physically but also that your spirits are high: How are you? I am well. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5 pagini în “Literary Magazine”. The more mass in the body. b. the+ comparative . Bad versus badly According to the same rule that applies to good versus well. After a bath. El colecţionează vase vechi. the better.. You feel bad when something bad happens. Controlled Practice 1.

Studentul acesta este cel mai tânãr dintre toţi. g. Women students are tempting new subjects. El este un fumător învederat.English Practical Course 211 d. g. Fumează două pachete de ţigări pe zi. f. El el reprezentantul angajaţilor tineri de la departamentul de marketing. 3. Talk about the two possible meanings of the following sentences. Ai încercat să descifrezi acel text din engleza veche? e. c. Cu cât aştept mai mult. b. f. Eroarea este mai mare în al doilea caz decât în primul. . Translate into English: a. She fed her dog biscuits. Ei fac în continuare investigaţii. Avem nevoie de mai multe computere în acest laborator. cu atât mai bine. Aş vrea să-mi cumpăr un pulover din lână scoţiană. Problema aceasta este cea mai dificilã cu care m-am confruntat vreodatã. Am discutat astăzi la psihologie cele sanguin. patru tipuri de temperament: − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. coleric şi flegmatic. melancolic. h. cu atât mă enervez mai tare. Cu cât mai repede învãţãm engleza. Translate them into Romanian: She bought Egyptian cotton shirts. e. d.

(Difficult) problem was solved by means of computerised technology. The results were (bad) than expected. c. d. Engleza devine din ce în ce mai importantã în întreaga lume. i. iar al doilea este mai lung. b. primul este mai scurt. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Ideea ta e mai bunã. She found (few) grammar mistakes in John’s essay than in Mary’s one. i. Today. f. Dintre cele douã romane. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome) scientists. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (great) care is taken to prevent accidents. He was unable to get (far) information. j. He needed (little) knowledge of computer skills than he thought they would expect him to. dar soluţia mea este mai ieftinã decât a ta. He is (lazy) student in the class. h. (Many) heating devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold. She is looking for a (big) company than the one she is working with now.212 English Practical Course h. j. Supply the comparative or the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets: a. g.

parks. exciting ……. Some are facts and some are his opinions. 7. ……. if you want to have a car for a life save your money and buy it. d.. London is. .…….yet... Complete his sentences: a.. but. 6. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below: Missing phrases: environmentally friendly. parks than Tokyo..English Practical Course 213 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5.. too expensive. interesting from the point of view of the buildings people built there. more environmentally sound If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design. e. and ……. Los Angeles.……. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited.. buildings than Athens. than the others as it is equipped with a filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. the Mercedes is far more attractive than any others. London is ……. Yet at the same time you should think that. for an architect. than Athens. the most expensive.…….. exciting of all.. but it isn’t …….. even if their cars are very elegant and ……. Tokyo’s exciting.. the largest. Athens is ……. but it has older ones ……. oldest city I have ever seen. b. The Electrolite is .……. In comparison to our cities. Tokyo.. but London has . Los Angeles has ……. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo.. The latest Mercedes model is of course ……. There are five in the city centre.. much older …. c.. . Los Angeles is . of course.. for common people.... London doesn’t have ……. of course. these are ……. and. Fill in the adequate form of the adjective: . they are ……..

e. Complete the sentences with adjectives ending in –able. He needs some/ any months of training. m. Hungary has few (navigate) waterways. He has retired and few/ little friends visit him. Which of the two students is more hardworking/ the more hardworking? h. i. i. f. Jack was extremely (mischief) that evening. -uble. c. the more relaxed/ the most relaxed you will feel. b. l. b. f. A bigger dictionary is always more complete/ completer than a smaller one.-ible. His appearance at the party was (pleasure). e. The (colour) balloons attract the children in the park. they were very (patience). They have invited any/ many people. -ous. g. The sooner/ sooner you get here. Sometimes food eaten at home is the better/ better than food eaten in a restaurant. They waited in the hall for five hours. The weather here is very (change). The family of gipsy across the street live in a (pity) state. n. 8. d. . Almost all the currencies in this area are (convert).214 English Practical Course a. It was a (moment) opportunity. There are very few types of plants (eat) on this island. -ful. You are in the (envy) position of owning half of the firm. k. g. c. Those children’s minds are very (impress) sometimes. h. d. Your first paper was good/ better but this one is even best/ better. -ed or -ant derived from the verbs and nouns given in brackets: a. From these two photographs the smaller is the best/the better. I spent a most (enjoy) night talking to my old friend George. j. You should always be (confidence) in yourself to succeed.

inaccessible. b. person: he lies and cheats everybody whenever he feels like. success due to the publication of her latest novel. Because you have been so stubborn. . unruly. We are not cannibals! d. f.. Freedom of speech is regarded today as an (alienate) right. 9. The roast beef is ……… . 10. . q. crowd. g. he has been ………… . d. We like the privacy of a (fence) yard. They had to use guns against that ………. Strangely enough.English Practical Course 215 o. She had an ………. Complete the sentences with negative adjectives derived from the verbs in brackets by using the suffixes –able. f. Heroes finally disappear. your behaviour must be (courtesy). He is the greatest comic ever. they didn’t complain of the (object) smell from the garbage disposal. c.or un-. his jokes are (imitate). I’ve never seen such a ………. e. overconfident. p. Complete each of these sentences with an adjective from the following list: unprintable. e. their decision to sell the house is (revoke).. they take everything for granted. Because of the snow. They are not ………. Adults change into old persons by almost (perceive) stages. c.. underdone. The story you want to publish is ………. b. When you go to that refined place. but their words are (destroy). a. dishonest. or –uble and the negative prefixes in. The Romanian word dor is almost (translate) into English. mistrustful. overwhelming. there are three places in Predeal which are ……… . . He shouldn’t have believe your words. -ible. a. h. there are too many obscenities in it.

pleasant). racing. very). (Russian. old. those). French. for jogging). a. deeply) impressed by our success. Several (…) began last week. (two. g. (wool. Does he have (…) motorbike? (blue. a. 11. Italian. i. grey). b. . deeply) in the cave. c. young. and interesting. hardly) read anything this week. English. h. Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order: a. 12. for teaching foreign languages). lowly) for fear he should hurt his opponent. country. Jet airliners can fly (high. winter. He wasn’t allowed to hit (low. a. He is (…) teacher. lowly). very. nasty. h. radio programmes. j. g. thick). (new.216 English Practical Course g. That blue dress cost (dear. b. She has found (…) in the park. these. (blue. silk. This library has (…) books. two pairs of. She used to work (hard. many. (Number) changes took place in the office while I was away. Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning: a. (…) shirts are a gift for me. he acted (cool. black and white. valuable. My friend sold me the TV set (cheap. highly) in the sky. new). You have (hard. My friends entered (deep. h. e. Your position in this company is quite (low. This pair of trousers is especially made to be (shrink). old. Tom doesn’t like (…) children. two. cheaply). He stood firm on position. c. hardly) for the exam. They were (deep. f. (canvas. light). expensive. She intends to buy (…) coat. (brick-built. They were the first to search that (penetrate) jungle. (good. huge. f. ugly). coolly). white and red. (woman. e. d. Mary is looking for (…) fountain pen. Chinese. d. i. j. dearly). They used to live in a (…) house. i.

The wound is less bad than you thought at the beginning. farthest) of all? b. h. 14. f. c. e. e. c. Which village is (further. There will be … … snow this winter. My cousin is much less rich than he looks. … … students will get scholarships next year. We have … … money for our holiday than last year. farther. She writes … … prose than poetry. After that heavy rain the air is less dry that it was before. j. h. Fill in with less or fewer: a. The water was less deep than they hoped. d. Reformulate them so that they express the same meaning but use the comparative of superiority of the antonym: a. Who is the (oldest. You have always had … … toys than the other little boys. This poem is less good than your last one. 15. g. f. i. George has … … American cars than Jack. d. This room is less wide than the previous one. eldest) in the family? . There was … … rain last summer. i.English Practical Course 217 13. Choose the correct form of the adjective in brackets: a. b. b. The following sentences are incorrect. There are … … Italians than Greeks in our town. g. This plant employs … … men than women. The English drink … … tea than milk. His office is less near than mine. A car is less quick than an airplane. It is less dangerous to climb the Carpathians than to climb the Alps.

j. I had to choose between French and English. Cu cât alergi mai mult. d. next) door when she was young. h.218 English Practical Course c. cu atât slăbeşti mai tare. i. She lived (nearest. g. next) bus station was. b. I’ve bought two bananas and ate the (latter. latest) article has just been published. later). i. Este cu mult mai greu decât mi-am imaginat. I chose the (last. Farther) Mike realised he must return the stolen goods at once. c. La auzul bubuiturii. Ţi-am adus cele mai proaspete fructe pe care le-am găsit. Nu am mai avut răbdare să stăm până la sfârşitul meciului pentru că a devenit din ce în ce mai puţin interesant. You needed (farther. (Further. deveni din ce în ce mai neliniştit. I was wondering where the (nearest. Noua sa bibliotecă e cu mult mai mare decât cea veche. f. e. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . e. d. Cu cât copiii sunt mai neascultători. latter). later. further) advice to continue your investigation. Aceasta este cea mai bună cale posibilă de a o face să renunţe la ţigări. My colleague’s (last. 16. Crede cu tărie că aceasta e absolut cea mai frumoasă dintre concurente. Se şubrezeşte pe zi ce trece. g. h. f. cu atât părinţii sunt mai nemulţumiţi. Translate into English using intensifiers: a.

a. gold bars. My grandfather never remembers anything. She was as pleased as (a poppy. a Muslim). He drunk a lot yesterday. Select the colour: white. glue. donkey). The shoes fit you like (a glove. I was given the … … light to announce the winner. please! He is as deaf as (a post. a priest. a judge. 18. a leaf. you are as heavy as (a corpse.English Practical Course 219 17. They never argue. c. good. punch. Choose the word or phrase which best completes each sentence. large) as life. green. as (real. j. two peas in a pod. Putting your jewelry in this box is as safe as (houses. a. although normally he is as sober as (Sunday. sieve). b. an elephant)! d. I can tell that you have eaten a lot lately. d. yellow. I saw him last night. Speak louder. e. b. i. You can shout at him until you are … … in the face. g. true. a vault). f. The Jackson brothers get on like (a house on fire. lead. mouse. he won’t listen to you. a mould. They were tickled … … when the teacher congratulated them. a pillowcase) since you mended them. c. To tell a … … lie sometimes does not hurt anybody’s feelings. clockwork). dog. fish and chips. Explain the meaning. That vampire hasn’t been banished from town. . pink. a politician). h. a bank. pound notes) when she won the first prize. They will never eat so much ice-cream. they were as sick as a (pig poodle. grey. a sunflower. horse. he has a memory like a (bucket. blue.

g. Mary was … … with envy when her sister married a handsome young man. They were really … … to leave us here without protecting us. 20.220 English Practical Course e. He doesn’t like (urbane/urban) life. The President was very (official/officious) while giving his speech. g. I am not that (credible/credulous) to believe everything I am told. f. In Australia there are (strict/severe) regulations with regard to kangaroos. My parents have (decisive/conclusive) evidence that I smoke. The food you are eating right now is quite (deficient/defective) in fats. i. A (classic/classical) case of tuberculosis has been discovered in this school. please. e. Your proposal proves not too expensive. 19. d. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the adjectives in brackets: a. therefore it is (practicable/practical). h. I’ve been trying to decipher the manuscript for more than 6 hours because his handwriting is totally (eligible/illegible). b. Even if they got a lot of nice gifts. b. Kelly has always wanted to live in a (luxurious/luxuriant) mansion. c. Try to be a little (precise). Terry chose a (distinctive/distinct) nuance of red for her nail polish. Which are the (breath-taking) views in your country? . k. She doesn’t believe that these cigarettes are any (good) than the Russian ones. h. Confusing words: a. j. Your garden has (narrow) alleys than those from our park. They say that lacking … … matter is worse than lacking beauty. they also got some … … elephants. c. d. f. he would like to live in the mountains.

the 22nd. h. Mulţi oameni perfect sănătoşi nu sunt la fel de utili societăţii ca unii oameni cu deficienţe fizice. g. b. c. de fapt. It is (hard) for my nephew to understand the problem than for his (old) sister. dar vărul său mai mare este cu 5 ani mai în vârstă decât el. Fotoliul din odaia mea este greu.English Practical Course 221 e. i. nights become (longer) till December. Parcul acela nu este foarte întins. f. Then the show became ever (funny). the (low) the temperatures. . In autumn. Primul film nu este atât de reuşit ca al doilea şi nici atât de haios. este cel mai puţin întins din tot oraşul. The (cold) the weather. George este chipeş. Domnul Smith este foarte bătrân. dar fratele său mai tânăr este cel mai chipeş băiat din câţi am văzut. His story became (interesting) the more we listened. Translate into English: a. They have the (complete) understanding of the problem. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 21. g. Dicţionarul pe care l-ai cumpărat cu două zile în urmă este gros ca o cărămidă! h. Pacientul se simte bine astăzi. f. e. d. dar nu este atât de bine încât să se dea jos din pat. biroul este şi mai greu dar biblioteca este cea mai grea din casă.

222 English Practical Course i. and/ looks/ now/ old/ she/ fresh/ rather. b. life/movie/in/such/I/never/my/seen/a/have/boring h. this/ man/ Pam/ wonder/ really/ I/ marry/ to/wants/if f. incredibly/ holiday/ wonderful/ was/ the. c. e. Problema era mai delicată decât mi-am putut eu imagina vreodată. Nu am întâlnit o persoană mai cunoscută în cercul guvernamental decât ea. Rewrite the sentences putting the words into the correct order: a. that/ motorbike/have/since/when/new/had/they? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . people/ true/pork/that/never/is/drink/it/these/alcohol/no/eat/and? g. d. Enormous/ they/ old/ staying/ house/ brown/ are/ an/ in. close/ are/ buddies/ extremely/ we. j. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 22.

Complete the sentences with participles as adjectives. tailor beautifully. decline fast. park. One old client was heard to say that their new supplier was (professional) and (flexible) than we are. bring up well. using the verbs below. continue. embarrass. then this is (disturbing) than anything else. steal.English Practical Course 223 23. Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form: The company’s twelve-monthly report shows that sales figures were (low) than the previous year. it was very … . change. brush well. a. keep beautifully. He’s a very … boy: he always behaves himself well. This is no surprise due to the recession but what is (unacceptable) than this is the clear proof that some of our (old) clients have switched to another supplier. c. plan badly. It was a very restful holiday so we feel much more … now. The economic situation is getting (critical) and if we don’t compare favorably with our (big) competitors. d. e. break. write well. . act well. We used to have the (high) standing in the business but we are in danger of losing that for good. The … kettle filled the little girl with fear. The verbs with adverbs should be used to form compound adjectives: dry. b. I kept calling her by her nickname. It is not easy to be the (good) but that is what we should be aiming for. relax. build well. love. then we will not survive. I saw a very … play. think clearly. boil. If this is the case. We are aware that there are (cheap) suppliers than ourselves but this may not be the (essential) factor. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 24.

Jane Austen was a very … writer. You may be charged with receiving … stolen cars. Complete the following sentences with an adjective formed from one of the verbs or nouns below plus a suffix: act. It was a very … article. i. dread. . c. tire. describe. It was a … escape and so it was doomed to failure. l. Our chalet is old but it’s very … . she gives you a very good feel for the places and characters in her novels. Bears are a … species in that part of the country as many of them are killed every summer. 25. s. The increase in divorce shows a … attitude to marriage. grace. She never remembers your birthday. Sharon is a good person to have in meetings as she’s very … . t. q. m. rely. n. Everybody believes what Jack says because he’s always been … . e. motion. I’m totally… . it was thoroughly enjoyable. She may have suffered of a … heart. he’s completely … . This is a … garden: you must spend at least three hours a day working on it. enjoy. o. power. care. They had a lovely holiday. b. j. They’re a very … family and they understand each other perfectly. My friend never seems to run out of energy. comfort. g. k. change. I don’t know why she’s that … . p. Her hair is always very … . That’s a … suit she has bought. r. There’s nothing I can do about it. truth a. f. Shortage of gas is a … problem for us. They should not park near … cars. submit. forget.224 English Practical Course f. d. Mother needs some … fruit to put in the cake. h.

Put the adjectives in brackets into the comparative or superlative form. possible. mortal. n. He’s very… . explicable. separable. Mary: So. moral legal. legible. The situation in the oil-polluted gulf is … . It’s important to keep … after you retire. how do you like living in the new place? . 26. significant. m. You’re so … : you’re always dropping plates on the floor. regular. I love to watch the swans on the lake: they’re so … . rational. responsible. logical.English Practical Course 225 g. interesting. The armchairs he has just bought are really … . flexible. justified. j. o. literate. It’s a very … climate. Put the following adjectives into the correct column: patient. My back never hurts while sitting in them. He has said he’ll be here and I’m sure he will. agreeable. friendly. who lives in Leeds. l. Thousands of fish are dying every day. i. honest. convenient. mature. destructible. h. replaceable dis- Un- il- imimpatient in- ir- 27. perfect. polite. is on the phone to her friend Jane. k. the weather can be completely different from one day to another. soluble. relevant. Some of the comparatives are formed with less: Mary. reversible. attractive. The lion stayed … as it waited to pounce on the gazelle. They always do what you tell him to do: he’s just so… . who has recently moved to the countryside. tasteful.

sometimes it is. . isn’t it? Jane: Well. probably. Mary: Yes. perhaps I’ll feel … (settled) here after a few weeks. I’m … (excited) about that than I am about anything here. Mary: Oh dear. You seem to be thinking that you haven’t made the … (good) decision. that’s quite true. I personally think you’re really lucky to be where you are.226 English Practical Course Jane: Oh. The people here are so much … (varied) than they are in Liverpool. Jane: Well. I thought it was one of the … (beautiful) places I had ever seen. Going out shopping in Liverpool was so much … (interesting) than it is here. It’s certainly … (polluted) here and I think it’s … (stressful) and that must be good for me. But it’s so much … (busy) on the streets in Liverpool. But it’s just so much … (quiet) here and that takes some time to get used to. So. that is wonderful. Jane: Well. it’s very nice. When I came to visit you. Who knows? Mary: Yes. Mary: Mm. I suppose sometimes I miss the clamour of Liverpool. I’m not sure I would say that. The house is much … (spacious) than the house we had in Liverpool and one of the … (good) things is being able to walk out of the back door into our own garden. Anyway. It must be nice to walk around somewhere that’s much … (crowded). at least I’m going to Liverpool again next weekend. it’s much (good) than Liverpool.

It was very loud. speaking of the ship: “She went over whatever it was as easy as a snake crawling over a stick. Underline the definite articles with one line and the indefinite articles with two lines: A month or so afterwards. Pay attention to the use of the article in English. He stood elevated in the witness-box. he said. tried to tell honestly the truth of this experience.” The illustration was good: the questions were aiming at facts.English Practical Course 227 UNIT 12 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Articles © Definite Articles © Indefinite Articles © Zero Articles •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad. with burning cheeks in a cool lofty room: the big framework of punkahs moved gently to and fro high above his head. for the terribly . and the official Inquiry was being held in the police court of an Eastern port. out of faces attentive. in answer to pointed questions. as if all these people sitting in orderly rows upon narrow benches had been enslaved by the fascination of his voice. spellbound. it rang startling in his own ears. when Jim. and from below many eyes were looking at him out of dark faces. out of white faces. out of red faces. it was the only sound audible in the world.

. I’m reading a course for my exam now. $3.45 a kilo. sixty kilometres an hour. religion. the shame that made you burn.came to him poignant and silent like the terrible questioning of one’s conscience. Here are the basic rules. Give me an apple. She is an Australian.228 English Practical Course distinct questions that extorted his answers seemed to shape themselves in anguish and pain within his breast.within was the wind of great punkahs that made you shiver. or it doesn’t matter which one): A pet is a big responsibility. It refers to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we don’t know which one. the attentive eyes whose glance stabbed.. £13 000 a year Formally per can replace a/an. Grammar Reference The Article The use of articles in English is complex. class): That’s an instrument for measuring distance. Outside the court the sun blazed. • to describe what something or someone is (a profession. The Indefinite Article a (before a word beginning with a consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is used • to refer to objects that have not been specifically identified. and there are a lot of exceptions that need to be known. • in measuring Three times a month. They live in a flat.

an honest man. an heir. The Definite Article the is used: • • to refer to classes before a singular or a plural noun. an hour. . • to refer to unknown people. but an ugly man. rather a: quite a large dog. a university. to develop a disease. Use of a/an emphasises that a person is unknown: A Mr Smith called and asked about you. An indefinite article is required after • • such. • in phrases: to be in a hurry. a united party. rather a big decision An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (except for words beginning with a semivowel: the sound /j/ and /w/): an apple. a woman. Compare: Tom is a teacher. to take a seat. to have a good time. what a pretty nose. an unusual accident. an ink well.English Practical Course 229 He is a Christian. The course I’m reading is very interesting. • it is used with a generic noun that represents a class: We saw a zebra at the zoo. Tom is the teacher of these students. a usual case. Mind the baby! Mind your steps when you climb the stairs! The tiger is threatened with extinction. what: such an ugly scar . such pretty eyes quite a. a year. to have a headache. when both the speaker and the listener know which specific object is being referred to: They live in the blue house on top of the hill. etc. A book is for reading. as a matter of fact.

channels. The Sahara. I have to go to the bank to pay my bills. or if they represent a union). the East. • before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural).) This does not apply to lakes: Lake Geneva. countries (France). The Netherlands. The Thames. The is sometimes dropped in everyday speech: Have you seen “Phantom of the Opera”? As far as names of places are concerned. The Sunday Times. means of transport. then normal rules about zero article apply: Brown’s Restaurant. The Independent (as the is part of the title. note that Edinburgh University changes into The University of Edinburgh. The Bahamas. compass points/ areas. rivers. The Suez Canal. The Garden House Hotel. If the first part of a place name is another name. chains of mountains. shops.230 English Practical Course • before nouns expressing certain public places. We say London Bridge. mountain peaks: Everest (but The Matterhorn). The Hilton. but Canvey Island. The Alps. especially when referring to them in a general way: I went to the cinema last night. The United States. continents (Europe. The Pacific. deserts. The same applies to geographical names: The Isle of Man. The Mediterranean. oceans. but The Tower of London. . Asia). • Before unique objects the moon. it is capitalised. hotels. newspapers and magazines: The Johnsons. The Time. the sun Note that there are other suns and moons in the universe: The planet has a small moon. Note that titles of books and films do not have the unless there is postmodification: The Phantom of the Opera. seas. countries (if they are in the plural. institutions. the Middle East. denoting groups of islands. The Orient Express.

at the moment. on the other hand. the second chapter. etc.. The precedes nouns of indefinite quantity or quality (mass nouns and abstract nouns) used to indicate a particular attribute: Gold is an important metal.English Practical Course 231 • before nouns converted from adjectives. It was the most important day in my life. denoting a class. The gold in this ring is very old. If the title is post-modified. the ninth row.. the is more likely. The French eat in restaurants more than the English. with the superlative degree of adjectives: with ordinals: in phrases: The woman who is standing near the door will give a speech. The singular is not formed in the same way: An Englishman would always excuse for being late. These tend to be unique: The director of studies. on the one hand. the third day to tell the time. (postmodification) Emphatic use: This heavily stresses and emphasises the following noun: This country is the place to visit. on the whole. For instance: He became President in 2000. The English are very polite. But: He became (the) President of Romania in 2000. nationality. or an abstraction: The rich should help the poor. • to express titles. but not essential. by the way. . (postmodification) • • • • when a restrictive modifier follows a noun.

months. The Strand and street names without preceding adjectives. continents.232 English Practical Course Zero Article It is used with: • plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general. days of the week. but The (House of) Commons nouns like school. • • some unique organisations: Parliament. countries. to be in trouble. Europe. Gas is cheaper than electricity.: Mary/ Mount Everest. to take place. Translation problems Study these sentences. lakes. Compare: Holly Drive with The Drive. Paris. prison. by mistake. by sea. magazines and periodicals. when we imply the use made of the institution (not the building): He goes to school (to learn). streets. to shake hands. Babies need to drink milk. day by day. to make friends. Oxford Street. • in phrases: at night. mountains. etc. church. • proper nouns denoting persons. at dawn. towns. Green Road. Exceptions are The High Street. regions. But: The school in my district is near my house. Newsweek Most streets do not use an article. January. Gold and silver are important metals. festivals. Money is the root of all evil. Sunday. etc. In what way do the English people use the article differently in comparison with the way Romanians use it? .

/a/the. C. nails. a/ . B or C best fits each space: a. A. C.. C. plants need .. an/the. the . I took .. authority. B.. A. In order to survive./the./ . degree in ... the c./ . C. A. .. I thought you had passed . B... C... A. I’ve got a splitting headache. Hilton. B.. the/ the. Most and the most Most without an article means the greater part... B. B./the. Physics and one in ... I live in Birmingham most of the time. an/the/ .. . Mathematics. Controlled Practice 1.. an/a/the g..... B.. A. the/ a e.. Terry has flu. director to come. very good time at . C. A. best teachers in our highschool. Decide which answer A. an. C. hammer and . bed as I was very tired. In order to fix the armchair he needs . They had . a. excellent dinner and had . a/ the./the.. so he was one of ./the.. B.. He is speaking to . C. a/the/the/the h. This is the most expensive shop in town. seat and waited for . a.. hardest of all. . A. exam but it seems that it was .. . the b. I did my homework and then went directly to .. . . .... a/ some d.. He had . the/the f./ . water.. a/the. A...English Practical Course 233 A pound and a half of butter. It’s a film about homeless people. B.

I don’t like cakes sold in a local bakery. It is not first-class accommodation unless it has a private bathroom. j.. C. the/ . An army spokesman stressed that all troops patrolling streets had been instructed to issue clear warning before firing any shots./the. Big cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example. yet not everyone admires . A. i. A. B. in London.. l.. Don’t you work in bookshop in the London? g. Everyone was impressed by .234 English Practical Course i. . you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in evening. . . I’m going to stand for Parliament at the next election../ .. sincerity with which he spoke. 2. He’s philologist. I would have done it.. so he studies different writers. I want a government to do something about the problem of unemployment. The burglaries are definitely on increase. d. f. way.. o. Lion is dangerous animal. Work in pairs to find the mistakes in each of the following sentences: a.. She bought a Cezanne I was telling you about the last week. I want to borrow one hundred pounds. home now.. m. Smiths are at . e./ . b../ . c.. sincerity in such ... C.. She goes to the work in the City by train every day. h. If I had had time to call you. The time you spend on a relaxing pastime is good for you. yet they are busy at the moment. . k../ . the/ . a/ . . Her office is in the Baker Street. B./a j. n. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager.

let us examine the arguments for and against the right to strike. Successive governments have attempted in 2) ……… vain to reduce this unrest.. their options are somewhat limited. they will receive a sympathetic ear. appeal to the better nature of their employers. At the same time. of course. Whenever the work-force in any firm feel themselves to be 4) ……… victims of injustice. B or C best fits each space: Britain has 1) ……… unenviable reputation for industrial unrest and strikes. or wish to present their case for a pay increase. and often. and unemployment is high. however. Decide which answer A. In order to explain this apparent contradiction. In . which many people feel has had a significant and adverse effect upon the economy. They can. however most of the same people would defend 3) ……. the management may be less willing to listen and may try to take advantage of the workers’ fear of losing their jobs.English Practical Course 235 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. right of workers to strike. because it is in 5) ……… best interests of the managements to keep the workers as happy as possible. When the economy is none too healthy.

. The disruptive effect of 12) ……… major strike upon the nation’s economy is therefore potentially dangerous. 10) ……. However they may wish to appear neutral. As 7) ……… employer.. conditions. Withdrawing one’s labour should. wages. create immense problems as regards long-term planning.236 English Practical Course such a situation. it is hard to imagine that 15) ……… employees in Britain would be as well treated as they are today. one has to ask how employees can protect their interests as regards 6) ……. Strikes disrupt the process of production and can. be 14) ……… last resort and there should be fewer irresponsible industrial disputes. As a last resort. and fair treatment by the managements. The government’s viewpoint is similar in 9) …….right to strike because it imposes limits on the management’s control of employees and contradicts the ideology of a harmony of interests which assigns legitimacy to managerial power.. sense that the importance of the ideological argument may vary with changes of government. These negative arguments all emphasize 13) ……… disruption and hardship caused by strikes. Employers may also resent 8) ……. But without this right and without the efforts of trade unions over the years. which are an abuse of the right to strike. But the practical argument against strikes would remain a constant. of course. The arguments against striking are numerous and vary somewhat depending on one’s point of view. Governments in capitalist societies such as Britain inevitably serve the interests of management. Such arguments are not sufficiently strong to warrant denying workers the right to strike. you may find both practical and ideological arguments against the right to strike. there seems little alternative to the withdrawal of labour. The state of the nation’s economy is inextricably linked with 11) ……… fortunes of private enterprise. as a result. the call to strike.

A. right bank …….. . the. C. –. 11.-. Datcher. the 14. and wanted to go to …… bed. A. B. B.15. a 10. the. a. Home Park. B. – 8. a. B. It will be some time before I forget it. .English Practical Course 237 1. and does not become itself again until you are nearing ……. the. an. A. -. C. C. -. and when we got to ….. B. B. some 12. It was …… Saturday before ……. C. A. from ……. B. river is somewhat uninteresting. A. B.. the.. the. Abert to ………Victoria Bridge. B. . an.. hamper. the. George asked me if I remembered our first trip up ……. – 2. the. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate articles: After you pass ……… Old Windsor.. river and when we landed at …… Datcher at ten o’clock at …… night. C. we took out …. the. which stretches along ……. A. August Bank Holiday. ……. George and I rowed up past……. some 4. B.. B. a. the. the. C. the.. the. C. B. A.. We were tired and hungry. B. the 5. A. Some. A.. a 3. A. -. A. B. a 4. C... C. 9. A. C. C. -. C. a. some 7.13. ... Datcher. A. some. A the. C. I answered that I did remember it. Boveney. and as we were passing ……. some 6. C. B. C. A.

rugs and ……. and ……..238 English Practical Course ……... and such like things. . and started off to look for …….. two bags. diggings. coats.

this is what I want. you get the money yourself. He had himself been drinking more than was good for him. So. for he’s threatening to distrain for it. He said.’ . coming nearer to his brother and looking into his face. savagely. will you?’ ‘Oh!’ said Dunsey. before he went out. now. if Fowler didn’t come and pay up his arrears this week. and it’ll all be out soon.English Practical Course 239 Unit 13 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• In this unit you will learn: © Adverbs © Punctuation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Reading Read the following fragment from Silas Marner by George Eliot. ‘I want to tell you. sneeringly. he should send word to Cox to distrain. Underline the adverbs. or else tell him I gave it you. trying to turn his gloom into uncalculating anger. will you?’ said Godfrey. and pretty quickly. and in no humour to stand any nonsense. ‘Suppose. I must hand over that rent of Fowler’s to the Squire. and save me the trouble. Can you classify them? ‘Why. see and get the money.and just shake yourself sober and listen. you’ll not refuse me the kindness to pay it back for me: it was your brotherly love made you do it. and you know what he threatened. eh? Since you was so kind as to hand it over to me. you know. whether I tell him or not. The Squire’s short o’ cash. just now. if ever he found you making away with his money again.

reason. It can modify: a verb: We are talking about your report today. enough. therefore. wherefore. after. aboard. why. thus. for this reason. a clause: Maybe I will come to your party. . a noun: Only John knows the whole truth. measure. an adjective: He was bitterly disappointed. hence. result and concession: consequently. where. when. a pronoun: Me too. afterwards. excellently. anywhere Adverbs of time: already. degree and approximation: awfully.240 English Practical Course Grammar Reference 1 The Adverb The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state. carefully. Form Simple Derived adverbs Compound adverbs Adverbial phrases at least at once by the way by all means in full in general in all probability now and then of old adverbs far likewise everywhere fast afloat outdoors here homeward(s) outside late repeatedly thereby near hardly therefore now monthly today then bitterly tomorrow today happily wherein well excellently wherefore Adverbs of manner: badly. a quality. so that Interrogative adverbs: how. again. every time. forever Adverbs of cause. above. another adverb: She spoke extremely loud. early Adverbs of quantity. fast Adverbs of place: away. extremely. ever. little Adverbs of frequency: always.

It would be great to see you. I’m working for my exams. yours. Have you seen it? I don’t go out. I’ve finished for today. Thank you for your letter. How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply. She’s rather tired. We talk. Helen: No. lately already carefully usually just of course yesterday yet actually. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. Are you all right? Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. the party is going very nice/nicely. Is it five months since I last really wrote? I’m sorry. Suzanne comes about once a week. I had a lovely time last year. And I’m hot/hotly. Love. I work until about ten o’clock in the evening. and she’s left some of the words out by mistake. I’ve planned my revision. It was called “The English Patient”. often here a lot next year there again hard soon . isn’t it? Have one of these sausages. They taste good/well. I saw a marvelous film. John: You don’t sound very happy/happily. Maria 2. And you look pale/palely. I’m trying to save some money. I don’t keep my plan. Rewrite Maria’s letter to Mary putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right: Dear Mary. I hope to visit England again. but I’ve been very busy. thanks. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets: John: Well.English Practical Course 241 Controlled Practice 1 1.

spectatorii au început să ovaţioneze. thanks. l. It seems rather loud/loudly. isn’t it? Well I can easy/ easily open this window here. g. şi acceptabil franceza. that’s all right. c. Arăţi destul de bine. my head aches quite bad/badly. De îndată ce se trăseseră cortinele. Arăţi foarte tristă.242 English Practical Course John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here. John: I’m sure/surely the music isn’t helping too much. În general nu prea îmi plac prăjiturile. I might be OK. m. Eu nu mă trezesc niciodată devreme. I think it’s slow/slowly getting worse. n. dar au decis să continue lucrul la proiect pentru încă vreo câteva ore. A ajuns acasă înaintea tatălui ei. Toată lumea se simţea fericită când s-a aflat că el nu este vinovat. Ce ţi-ai făcut la păr? f. e. would you like me to take you home? Helen: No. Ce ţi s-a întâmplat? k. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere for a few minutes. d. j. Maşina asta merge prea repede. 3. Ea nu lipseşte niciodată de la şcoală. Erau cam obosiţi. too. b. John: I’ll ask Susan if there’s somewhere you can go. doesn’t it? Look. ca de obicei. Helen: Thank you. Translate into English: a. dar astăzi o să fac o excepţie şi o să mănânc. El a venit târziu ieri. El cumpără ieftin şi vinde scump. Actually. Noi vorbim bine englezeşte. De-abia s-a aşezat la masa de lucru că deja s-a simţit obosit şi s-a dus la culcare. h. Dacă îi vede poliţia o să-i amendeze. i. .

nor. 1. este periculos să stai lângă macara. Ordinaly. Sentence . Independent in this company. clauses The forecast promised may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast one sentence by using of the North Sea. but. Nu te apropia. An indepen. At one extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. and so.Some of us think we should dent clause is made into invest it with a capital letter and ending it with a period. .English Practical Course 243 o. Nu înveţi niciodată când trebuie să te fereşti de pericole! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Grammar Reference 2 Punctuation There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. yet. a sentence by beginning Others think it is useless. every day. The Draw the figure. or.Level Punctuation Punctuation Marks Guidelines Examples . but it rained the words and. At the other extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to make their meaning clear. and solve . Here are some punctuation rules.

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first clause is usually the problem.

;

followed by a comma. The writer can indicate Some of us think we should that clauses independent invest in this company; others are closely think it is useless

connected by joining

:

them with a semicolon. When one independent There’s only one solution: we clause is followed by must another that explains or budget. exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we The second clause may take steps needed to protect or may not begin with a the environment? capital letter. Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that question should be region? followed by a question What percentage of oil have reduce next year’s

?

!

mark. you recovered here? Sentences that express Watch out! strong feelings may be That’s a rude thing to say! followed by an

exclamation mark. 2. Separating Elements in Clauses When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is necessary. Punctuation Marks When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or are compound, they charged to a major credit card. Guidelines Examples

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245

are usually joined I’m together with words such as and, or or without any punctuation. Occasionally more than two elements are joined in this way. Compounds

taking

Chemistry

(and)

a Physics and Maths this semester.

,

that England, Scotland, and Wales conscious

contain more than share the island of Great Britain. two elements are Environmentally called series. businesses use recycled paper,

Commas are used photocopy on both sides of a to separate items in sheet, and ceramic cups. a series, with words such as and or or usually between occuring the last

;

two items. When the items in Students were selected on the a series are very basis long internal punctuation, separation commas confusing, used instead. can by be and or reading; of grades; and test of and teacher have vocabulary, memory,

recommendations.

semicolons may be

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3. Word - Level Punctuation The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences, There are also punctuation marks that are used with words. Punctuation Marks Guidelines The apostrophe Examples is The company’s management

used with nouns to resisted the union’s demands. show possession. An apostrophe is used He’s; didn’t; let’; Ma’am; four in constructions to o’clock. show where letters or 45’s; ABC’s. numbers have been omitted. A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00 mark shortened forms p.m. like abbreviations and initials. A hyphen is used to end a line of text when bility part of a word must be carried over the next line Hyphens sometimes used are twenty-four, self-confidence to

.

-

... insta -

form compound words When two modifiers The study included first- and containing hyphens second-year students. are joined together, common elements are often not repeated. Other uses of Punctuation Marks Punctuation Guidelines Examples

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247

Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo words of someone else, they Emerson wrote “I hate must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what set them off from the rest of you know.” the text. If part of a quotation is She

... ....

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: “If you want marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a When the omission comes in proper job, to find the the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should points are used. When the give omission includes the end of ideas.” one or more sentences, four “Work of the tyre that points are used. B.W.R.A. is doing is of greatest carried sufficiently comprehensive pattern, and it is much to be hoped that the framers of codes will give it full weight many .... There are factors which value out when in a up your selfish

affect a pressure vessel of the types commonly used.” When writers insert something “In a fault, it [the crust of within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked insertion should be set off with and caused different

[]

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brackets. layers of rock to slip.” The dash can be used to “Well − uh − I’d like to indicate hesitations in speech. try again − if you let me”, he offered.

Unit 14
Reading
Read the following poem belonging to Rudyard Kipling. Pay attention to if clauses. Translate the poem into Romanian. If If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too: If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don’t deal in lies, Or being hated don’t give way to hating, And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream- and not make dreams your master; If you can think- and not make thoughts your aim, If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster And treat those two impostors just the same: If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools;

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If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings, And never breathe a word about your loss: If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!” If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings- nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much: If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And- which is more- you’ll be a Man, my son!

Ways with Words
1. …If neither foes nor loving friends… Distinction should be made between foe, enemy and opponent, antagonist, adversary. Enemy and foe agree in denoting a person or body of persons that is hostile or that manifests hostility to another. Enemy stresses the antagonism that arises from a cherished hatred or a desire to harm or destroy, but it may suggest nothing more than active or evident dislike. He is a man with many friends and no enemies.

appearance. tigress eg: neighbourhood.er. childhood eg: realism. romanticist eg: adversity. Unlike the former group the latter does not necessarily imply personal animosity or hostility. drunkard. Adversary implies not only the idea of mere opposition but active hostility. diplomacy. He is the foe of all reform measures. translation. engineer. Let’s read a list of suffixes which are used in order to form nouns: .dom . -or . singer eg: backery. eg: teacher. marrige .ery . Antagonist implies sharper opposition in a struggle for supremacy or control. Which word does allowance come from? We call -ance a suffix. probability eg: democracy. identification eg: wisdom eg: refugee.ess .ee . violonist. slavery.ancy. scepticism eg: satirist.ist .ism .age preference . braggart eg: examination. 2. -ence.hood . ascendency. fishery eg: actress.acy . accuracy eg: passage. employee eg: mountaineer.250 English Practical Course Foe implies active enmity either literally or figuratively.ance / . Read the following line: But make allowance for their doubting too. .ity eg: sluggard. hostess. dancer.ard / -art . -ency eg: utterance.eer . Opponent is one who is on the opposite side in a contest or in a conflict of opinion.ation . Foe is a more literary and poetic word than enemy.

(insistence) The main clause usually has the verb in the future with will/shall. I’ll buy this car. If he’s still waiting for you. If he passes the baccalaureate. should.man . future perfect. sadness eg: friendship. We’ll destroy the environment if we don’t look after it.ure eg: hamlet. movement. present perfect simple. However. may/might. I’ll pass my exams.let . we can also use: ‘be going to’ future. he’ll go to university. can. present perfect continuous. we can also use: present continuous. (request) If you will go on smoking. booklet eg: Englishman. future continuous. eg: greateness. Will / would can be used to express polite requests or insistence: If you will wait for a moment. you’ll get worse. imperative. must. Main Clause If Clause Present/ Future Present Affirmative and negative If I work hard.ness . .ment .English Practical Course 251 . can/could. However. fisherman eg: improvement. he must be very hungry. should/ought to. Grammar Reference First Conditional It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future: If my cheque comes. leadership eg: agriculture. I’ll wrap it for you.ship . departure Now practise them and find other words for each of them. This is replaced by the present simple. Form No future tense occurs in the conditional clause.

If I didn’t have debts. If it’s been raining.) If I lived in a big house. palaces. If you are late. etc. he must phone you today. I’d increase taxes on properties such as castles. Main Clause If Clause Present Conditional Present Subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had more money. If I were Prime Minister. (But my house is very small. The condition is unreal because it is different from the facts that we know.) Form The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive). If she knew/ were to know the answer. you‘ll have to wear boots. /go out more often. Note: When we use if +should. the condition is less likely to be performed.252 English Practical Course If Paul has received your letter. ranches. the verb in the conditional clause is in the present subjunctive which is similar to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were for all the persons.. We can always say But. I’d have a party. we won’t wait for you.. Interrogative What will you do if you don’t go to any university? Where will she go she can’t find a job in the petroleum field? Second Conditional It is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical condition) and its probable result in the present or future. If I should see him. (But I’m not Prime Minister. I wouldn’t have to work so hard. I‘ll tell him the good news. she would tell it to us immediately. I would (’d) /could buy a new computer. .

If I hadn’t made so many mistakes. If the ambulance had come sooner. she would have passed the exam. Form The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+ the third form of the verb). I would (‘d) have bought this elegant car. while the verb in the conditional clause is in the perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect). which can no longer be changed. Main clause If clause Past/Perfect conditional Perfect subjunctive Affirmative and negative If I had had more money. The condition is highly hypothetical. If he had been travelling in that car. whereas in the main clause we can use the modals could and might before the perfect infinitive. he could have been killed. I wouldn’t have failed the driving license test. If she had known the answer. However. Interrogative What would you have done if you had seen such a wonderful movie? Which countries would you have visited if you had travelled round the world? Notes: . he might have been /could have been saved.English Practical Course 253 Interrogative What would you do if you were me? Which countries would you visit it you travelled round the world? Third Conditional It is used to express impossible (unfulfilled) condition referring to the past. it contradicts reality. we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive in if clause.

particularly in spoken English: Please come out with us tonight. (implied condition: If you come out with us. The most common mixed conditional is: If + past perfect Other types: If you come to the party tomorrow. I would have finished it on time. she would have stayed with him. suppose. even though. I’m sure you’ll enjoy it. conditionals can also be introduced by other conjunctions: on (the) condition that. supposing. If she loved him. (if you had told him) would/could/might + infinitive If I had worked harder at university. since. provided (that). If he is honest. he would have told the truth. Mixed Conditionals In addition to the tense variations we can use in the first. Implied Conditionals Conditionals are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses. • Besides if. when. as/so long as. second and third conditionals. but we just can’t afford a holiday. . I’m sure we’d really have a good time with you (if we went). I wouldn’t bring Mary with you. whereas with second and third conditionals the tenses remain unchanged.254 English Practical Course • In reported speech. The context defines the meaning. I would have a degree now. …) With a bit more help (if I had more help). but for + gerund/noun. even if. it is also possible to mix conditionals. unless. as. the verb tenses of first conditional sentences change in the usual way. assuming (that). I’m glad you didn’t tell Mathew about this. providing (that). if only. He would have been furious.

Dacã voi putea.00.English Practical Course 255 Inversion in If-Clauses When there is should. I wouldn’t have done such a thing. tell him to come at 8. were or had in the if-clause. / Were I you. Dacã voi şti rãspunsul. / Should he ring. … If I had known earlier. … If I were you. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident? − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. c. o sã ţi-l spun. Dacã vrei sã ne însoţeşti. Translate the following sentences into English: a. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job? e. eşti binevenit. the subject and the auxiliary verb can be inverted and if is omitted. b. What happens if you don’t pass this exam? b. / Had I known earlier. If he should ring. … Controlled Practice 1. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper? d. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real type: a. What presents will you buy if you go to that party? c. . I wouldn’t say that.

00. you (be) out . darling. Voi pleca în vacanţã dacã voi avea bani. and I (pick) you up. John: Great. I (be) at the hotel at about 10. I (ring) you . Bye! − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . John: Good. e.. or as soon as into each gap. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. ...00 your time. That’s 8..256 English Practical Course d. What time do you expect you’ll be there? Mary: . Vei învãţa mai bine dacã accepţi sã te ajut. Maria: Thanks. Put if. Maria: Well. darling.. when. I (leave) a message on the answer phone so you know I’ve arrived safely. Have a good trip. but remember I’m going out. John: All right. the plane (arrive) on time. Maria: Thanks.... and put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense: John: Bye. And remember. Give me a ring . I (ring). I (arrive) at the hotel.. you know the time of your flight back.

− _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 6. I would have told you the truth. Dacã ai vrea. If it rained. If you could do it. Translate the following sentences into Romanian: a. we would go inside.English Practical Course 257 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. If she helped me I wouldn’t be late to work. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: . Ne-ar face plãcere sã venim la petrecerea ta de terminare a facultãţii dacã nu am avea altceva de fãcut. you wouldn’t ask me to tell you how to do it. Dacã ar fi aici. m-ai putea ajuta sã termin proiectul acesta? c. I’d like to hear her news if she were here. ţi le-aş spune. e. d. L-ar asculta dacã ar avea urechi de auzit. b. Translate the following sentences into English: a. Dacã aş şti mai multe amãnunte despre acest raport. e. am termina treaba mai repede şi am putea ieşi la o cafea. c. If I knew it. d. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. b.

b. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be of any use. If it had rained it (be) a disaster. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. I (buy) shares in this company if I had some money. b. she wouldn’t have had these problems in her career. c. e. c. If you (stay) on that drilling rig and (be confronted with) such storms. i. f. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension? g. If I (know) this from the beginning. If she (go) to university so late. If you (speak) more slowly he would understand you. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arabian. d. . h. e. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you are going. If I had known how to solve the problems in chemistry. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see what is missing.258 English Practical Course a. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a. d. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many mistakes. I wouldn’t have asked you to do it for me. I don’t think you would argue against my leaving that place. I (pass) the exam in the winter session.

c. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago. Dacã aş fi învãţat mai bine. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you. dacã nu aţi fi avut aceastã problemã de rezolvat în acelaşi timp. Translate into English: a. . Dacã aş fi putut sã te ajut. d. you (accept)? e. b. V-aţi fi distrat mai bine. Dacã ar fi ştiut rãspunsurile la toate întrebãrile. aş fi fãcut-o încã de atunci. I shouldn’t have believed you when telling me about that driller’s accident if I (not see) it with my own eyes. If you (arrive) fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat. nu ar fi luat o notã aşa de micã. If he had asked you to do that job. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses: a. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 9. Dacã nu ar fi nins. b. nu aş fi picat acest examen. c. d. e.English Practical Course 259 − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. nu am fi plecat la munte de Crãciun.

The substance would look better if. If I (be) ready when he called he would have taken me with him. Finish these sentences.. j.. taking care to use the correct tense.. If you had asked his permission. a. b. You wouldn’t have had so much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly... If she listened to my directions she (not turn) the lights off.. ... If he had taken my advice. I (take) a taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way. If I buy this machine . − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. h... d.. c. If the fire had been noticed earlier..... I’d have brought my compass if. I would lend it to you if.. These are mixed conditional sentences. f.260 English Practical Course f.. j. If she rings while I’m in the tunnel.. h. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. g. If she practised more. If the river rises any higher.. i. i. g.. e.

7. H. 8. I’m sure he’d be a famous musician by now. 12. with us 9. I. D. 6. If you’re coming month. I would have had them by now.English Practical Course 261 11. 5. you could always ring them up. 3. 2. we would be there by now. C. The condition is not stated in a conditional clause in the following underlined sentences. If he was feeling ill this morning. If he didn’t work so hard all the time. Write a sentence containing the underlined sentence as a main clause and an appropriate conditional clause. you wouldn’t be so busy this G. 4. If you had worked harder last month. everything would be all right now. about this problem earlier. If the train hadn’t been delayed. you wouldn’t have said that to her. If I really wanted to have children. If you had told me meeting. If he hadn’t died so young. E. If they don’t contact you soon. Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences: 1. would you hurry up and get ready? F. he probably won’t be at the . B. J. A. If you were a more sensitive person. his wife would never have left him. 10.

c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13. many more would have died. She would make a very good managing director. f. I’m sure she would have forgiven him. b. but I think they will be. i. You’ll love it there. The problem is that she doesn’t work very hard. e. It would be horrible sitting out here otherwise. First. j. d. I know that she could do really well. I think Alison should apply for the job. g. He wouldn’t be able to live on his own without the help of his neighbours. The rain would have ruined them. second or third conditional: . h.262 English Practical Course a. With luck. Without the help of the Red Cross doctors. Mark should have told the truth. They may be imprisoned or even executed. We’re lucky it’s sunny today. we’ll finish the job by the end of the day. It’s a good job you brought all those tables and chairs in from outside last night. I hope those refugees aren’t deported. I hear you’re thinking of going to Indonesia for the summer.

If it (be) a nice day. If that (happen). the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. She has everything she wants but she’s always moaning. They’ve been married for 20 years but I don’t think she (marry) him if she (know) what a selfish man he was. b. If fares (be) cheaper. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. g. c. I’m sure more people (use) the train and (leave) their cars at home. h. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . you (see) her. The government is expecting to win the next election. e. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. I’m sure that if I (have) so much money I (moan) all the time. I’m so glad you took me to your friend’s party. I never (meet) Adrian. the town (lose) a great deal of money. I’m sure you (regret) one day. but she knows even less than we do. the PM (resign) from politics. j. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not tell) him the truth. f. If Alison (know) anything about car mechanics. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If we (not go) there. I’m sure she (help) us fix the car. Jenny was here not long ago. we (go) for a picnic. l.English Practical Course 263 a. If you (come) round earlier. I (help) you with it if I (have) more time but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at the moment. i. k. but if it (lose). Apparently. It (be) a disaster if it (happen) in the middle of the day. d.

I’ll help you. you’ll have an accident. If she happens to come. If… e. But for… g. tell her to wait for me. As long as you … b. he can’t find a job.264 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 14. If I … . I’ll help you provided… h. Rewrite the sentences: a. Were… c. If it hadn’t been for my mother’s generosity. If you don’t drive carefully. Had he… i. You had better take his advice. He wasn’t on time. I wouldn’t have my car now. If you help me. Since he doesn’t have any qualifications. Unless… You won’t …. so we missed the train. If … f. he stayed at home. I’m not rich so I can’t afford a long holiday abroad. Should… d. As he couldn’t afford a holiday.

If I … k. I would not be late for the interview. Since he is an only child. (shoes) e. (not) d. including the word given. where would you travel to? (to) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . (were) i.(got) k. (punctual) h. As I couldn’t answer any of the questions. As you‘ve got a high temperature. You won’t be punished provided you admit it was your mistake. But for his help. his parents have spoiled him. If I had been you. (provided) f. If she were… l. (but) g. I wouldn’t be in my current job. I would have punished him. you’d better go to the doctor’s. She must be out since she didn’t answer the phone. I didn’t go out because I had a lot of work to do. If it wasn’t for the good pay. If she had… 15. I wouldn’t stay in this job. you’ll be given the sack.(so) j. Do not change the word given. (since) l. (long) c. If you revise all your notes. If Mary were feeling well. If you don’t get to work on time. You must use between three and eight words.English Practical Course 265 j. She must have lived in France because she has a perfect French accent. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. you’ll pass the exam. (better) b. she would have come to Tom’s party. I walked out of the Maths exam. If someone gave you a free airline ticket. If I were him. a.

excursia noastră la munte n-ar fi fost atât de plăcută. ar accepta aceste propuneri. ai putea să intri şi să îi înapoiezi dicţionarul pe care l-ai împrumutat de la el. care ar fi următoarea etapă a tratativelor? i. f. te rog reaminteşte-mi de promisiunea făcută. N-aş fi consimţit niciodată să părăsesc adăpostul dacă aş fi ştiut că se va întâmpla o nenorocire. Dacă se întâmplă să treci pe lângă biroul lui. Dacă n-ai fi atât de mincinos. j. De data asta te-aş putea duce cu maşina mea dacă îmi promiţi să nu se mai repete. Dacă l-ai vedea acum nu l-ai mai recunoaşte. e numai o umbră din ce a fost o dată. − _________________________________________________________ . În cazul în care voi uita. Translate into English: a. c. b. Dacă n-ar fi nins. d. Mi-a spus de câteva ori că va accepta postul cu condiţia ca salariul să fie mulţumitor. g.266 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. n-ai fi acum în situaţia regretabilă ca nimeni să nu aibă încredere în tine. e. Presupunând că partenerul dvs. N-ar fi trebuit să câştige atât de mulţi bani şi n-ar fi dat de necaz dacă soţiei lui i-ar fi plăcut mai puţin luxul. h.

English Practical Course 267 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

egotisms. and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. the proprietor. Pat Scully. Pat Scully had performed a feat. was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swampish hush. and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame. With this opulence and splendor. long lines of swaying Pullmans. But to the citizens of this prairie town. then. a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron. passengers were overcome at the sight. and to the people who would naturally stop there. had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. pity. horror. The Palace Hotel. classes. It is true that on clear days. swept through Fort Romper. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low clap-board houses which composed Fort Romper. that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day. causing the bird to declare its position against any background.268 English Practical Course Unit 15 Reading Read the following fragment from The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane. and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. . in a laugh. they had no color in common. It stood alone on the prairie. Underline the modal verbs: The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue. these creeds. when the great transcontinental expresses.

On the contrary. This fragment belongs to a novel written by Stephen Crane. at the age of 14. At least.English Practical Course 269 Ways with Words 1. But you should see Dorothy’.” 2. To have green fingers (thumbs): “Mrs. Red – handed: “As the thief was climbing out the window with the stolen necklace.’ ‘Sometimes I’m blue on a grey day. Be blue. He got into trouble and spent some time in prison. the police was waiting for him and caught him red-handed because he had been/ was careless. To which John replied: “It must because I take vitamins”. Helen Smith always seems to be successful in growing things. Let’s learn some idioms with colours. his family is quite proud of him and of the transformation they see in his life. got captured and spent more time in prison. Its title is The Blue Hotel. Answer the following questions: . Both her flower garden and her vegetable garden always appear to be healthy and very productive. you certainly have a green thumb!” To be in the pink: “The doctor examined John thoroughly and finally said: “You’re in the pink of health”. he decided to spend his living honestly and today he is no longer the black sheep of his family. Her friends frequently say: “Helen. From there he robbed a bank.” Black sheep: “Ted ran away from home at age 15. Feel Blue: ‘I feel blue so often when it’s cloudy and rainy. Do you know any idioms containing the word blue? How do you translate out of the blue or once in a blue moon? 2.

A man robbing a bank at ten o’clock in the morning. It is possible that some of the following persons be caught red-handed? • • A grandmother taking care of her small grandson. Is it possible that some of the following are feeling blue? • A man who has just lost all his money. A policeman driving around in his patrol car. A ship captain whose ship has sunk in a bad storm. Is it possible that the persons described below could be said to have “a green thumb”? • • • A little boy who has got a new puppy for his birthday. A boy taking an apple from a basket in a store. play golf. A man who spends his summer evenings working in his garden to raise tomatoes. An elderly woman who takes great pride in her lovely rose garden A nurse who has just finished working for 24 hours in a hospital and is exhausted. • e. • • • c. jog.270 English Practical Course a. A family that have been shipwrecked and have only lived on an island for three months with coconuts to eat. A wife whose husband has just given her a diamond necklace. A woman who likes to spend her weekends at the beach. A couple that has just got married. • • . Is it possible that some of the following are not in the pink? • • • • f. Have you ever felt blue? What has caused it? d. cucumbers etc. An old man who is 80 years of age but who can still swim. Why do people feel blue? b. A famous boxer who has been training for his next championship fight for six weeks.

I. Ability: can. be able . In your opinion. The following are modal auxiliaries: Present form Can May Will Shall Must Ought to Need Past form could might would should • Modal auxiliaries always stay the same.English Practical Course 271 g. Restate the following sentence using the idiom “red-handed”: The mystery of the disappearing jam from the cellar was finally solved when they caught Jim eating a whole pot at night. as gerunds or present participles. Is it possible that some of the following might be considered a “black sheep”? • • • An old man who has been poor all his life Twin boys who decide to join the army A young woman who abandons her parents and starts a life thrill of robbing homes of jewels and money. They cannot be put into different tenses. used as infinitives. h. They are followed by the infinitive in different forms. do many families have a “black sheep”? i. could. Grammar Reference Modal Auxiliaries • Modal auxiliaries are also sometimes called modal verbs or modals.

will.272 English Practical Course • Can (present or future) and could (past) refer to a general ability to do something. • To talk about a future possibility. Stamps can/may be bought at most shops which sell cards. must. We could go by train. We can also use could (it refers to a theoretical possibility). could and could have in conditional sentences. ought to • To talk about something that it is possible to do at any time. We also use them in sentences with an implied condition. She can be very charming when she wants to be. The parcel may/might arrive tomorrow. can and may are often followed by the passive infinitive. might. My parents live quite a distance away so we’re not able to/can’t see them. • Can and could refer to the ability to do something. should. deduction: can. use will + simple or continuous infinitive. She can / can’t sing really well. He could read when he was four. With this use. use can or may. . use may or might. • • We use can + be + adjective or noun to talk about possibility. • To talk about a present or future certainty. We use can. Certainty. but not to the doing of it. possibility. could. We use be able to talk about ability + the achievement of the action. may. (It is possible to take a train there if you wanted to do that). Can is also used to refer to an ability to do something specific at a time in the future. He gave me a lift home so I was able to stay at the party till late. I couldn’t have done it if I hadn’t had your help. II.

need • To give advice. have got to. might. use should or ought to.English Practical Course 273 I will be waiting for you when you arrive. use must. might or could + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. We often use should/ought to with I think … /Do(Don’t) you think …? Don’t you think you should/ought to stop seeing him? • To give strong advice and recommendations. • To talk about possibility in the present. . The train got in half an hour ago so they should be here soon. obligation. He can’t be driving here: he hasn’t got a car. We must go and visit them more often. • To make a deduction about something in the past. necessity: should. You mustn’t let him talk to you like that. I suppose they could have got lost. use may. • To talk about possibility in the past. It can refer to present time or future time. • To make a deduction about something in the present. Let’s go and see Cathy: she should have finished working by now. Advice. III. I don’t know why they’re so late. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting: he talked to me about it only this morning. I won’t phone Jennifer now because she might be working at home. could + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous). use may. have to. ought to. use must (positive deduction) or can’t (negative deduction) + simple infinitive (usually the verb to be) or continuous infinitive. • We can use should or ought to + present infinitive to make assumptions about the present or the future and should or ought to + perfect infinitive to make assumptions about the past. must. use must/can’t (or couldn’t) + perfect infinitive (simple or continuous).

. • To express a negative obligation. Have got to is often interchangeable with have to but there is sometimes a difference: have to can be used for habitual actions and single actions whereas have got to can only be used for single actions. Should /ought to in the past means that the subject did not do the right thing. use should or ought to + perfect infinitive. use mustn’t. I have got to get the bus into work today. • We can also use have got to to express obligation. use must. (= I didn’t stay at home and my behaviour was wrong) • To talk about obligation. You needn’t come if you don’t want to. • To express necessity. We can use need as a modal verb in questions and negative sentences. I have to get the bus into work today/I have to get the bus into work every day. Passengers must fasten their seat belts. (It is not necessary for you to wait here but you can if you want to). it comes from the situation. Have to – the obligation is often external. You don’t have to wait here. must – the obligation often comes from the speaker or writer of the sentence. We’ll have to get there before 5 o’clock because the shops close then. You mustn’t wait here. Do not use don’t have to = there is no obligation. mustn’t or have to. I should/ought to have stayed at home. (The obligation is imposed by the airline who wrote the notice). (You are not allowed to wait here). use need.274 English Practical Course • To criticise actions in the past.

requests. I needn’t have gone to the station so early. (It wasn’t necessary and so we didn’t do it). IV. When we were children. shall. (It wasn’t necessary to go to the station early but I didn’t realise that and so I did get there early).. Habit: would. must. Did you use to work here? Use would and used to to talk about past habits. suggestions: can. my brother and I would fight all the time. Teacher to students: ‘You’ve worked hard today so you needn’t do any homework tonight. Offers. might. used to • • Used to is not a modal: I used to work here. permission.English Practical Course 275 • To express lack of necessity. we …? Would you like…? To make a suggestion or an invitation: Shall we …? We could . When we were children.. we often use needn’t.’ We’re eating out tonight so we don’t need/needn’t/don’t have to/haven’t got to buy any food. may. would. could. Would you like to …? V. When the speaker is giving the authority. use needn’t + perfect infinitive or didn’t need to/didn’t have to + infinitive. I didn’t use to work here. use needn’t. . don’t need to. don’t have to. The train was nearly an hour late. would you mind • • • • • Asking permission: Can/Could/May/Might I …? Making a request: Can/Could/Would you …? To give or refuse permission: You can/can’t/may/may not/must/mustn’t … To make an offer: Can/Shall I. my brother and I used to fight all the time. • To express lack of necessity in the past. haven’t got to. We didn’t need to/didn’t have to get up early this morning because we had no lectures..

We … (not phone her up) because her phone had broken. • When we talk about past situations (not actions). I love … (spend) all morning in bed at weekends. h. l. I … (not understand) what he says: he speaks too quickly. I’d like … (work) with you one day. She tried to think of other things but she … (not put) that awful memory out of her mind. …(speak) another language fluently is a great advantage. might. (get) a message to her. … (you come) to the party on Sunday? 2. We …(go) to that concert tomorrow if the tickets haven’t sold out. must and an infinitive in the appropriate form: a. If they hadn’t phoned for an ambulance. could.276 English Practical Course • When we use would to talk about a past habit. Complete the sentences with can. e. Jonathan … (not say) anything until he was about three years old. d. b. She … (miss) the train. a. Kerry’s rather late. Complete the sentences with the correct form of can. I think you should go in the spring: it (be) very crowded there in summer. should. could or be able to. g. o. but fortunately we . c. He’s very fit for his age. He …(not climb) up to the top: he was too scared. He …(run) really fast. will. Used to can be used with or without a past time reference. i.. Amy’s exam results weren’t very good. ought to. he …(die). She … (do) better. f. . It’s been too hot. it is necessary to use a past time reference. k. may.. I … (not sleep) very well for the last four nights. Controlled Practice 1. j. m. we can use used to but we can’t use would. n.

Anyway. j. I’ll give you a ring to let you know. They’re not answering the phone so they … (be) out. That woman’s just fallen over. Don’t phone her now. Her exam results are coming out soon. r. Jim’s been very quiet since his girlfriend went away. f. They (not move) house yet.English Practical Course 277 b. m. d. These glasses … (be) Tim’s: they look a bit like his. s. but you can never be sure. I haven’t seen Joanna this week. I sent the letter two days ago so he … (get) it by now. It … (not rain): the ground’s completely dry. n. Let’s go and see her: she (be) hurt. o. She worked very hard so she … (do) well. I … (come) and visit you at the weekends. He … (miss) her. Travellers’ cheques … (be exchanged) at most banks.’ p. I don’t know where she is. ‘Why do you think Tricia was in such a hurry?’ ‘I don’t know. The roads are fairly quiet today so we … (have) a good journey. l. She (not still play) tennis: it’s been dark for the last hour. It … (be) the middle of the night in Australia. She (run) to catch the bus. It … (be) her brother because he looked a bit like her. e. I told her you were coming so she … (expect) you. I think she … (visit) her parents but I’m not sure about it. She was with a man I didn’t recognize. They’ve just rung the bell so the children … (be) out of the classrooms in a minute. u. I saw them in town this morning. h. i. k. c. . g. I … (join) the sports club in the summer but I haven’t decided yet. t.

j. If I fail any one of my exams. I … (tell) him what you really think of him next time you see him if I were you. g. t. You … (come round) for dinner one evening.278 English Practical Course 3. . I don’t think you … (offer) to help him. I don’t like … (do) everything my boss tells me to do. You … (not allow) David to walk home from school every day on his own. You … (not tell) him what happened. must or need or the verb have to in the correct tense and form. b. c. It’s the best restaurant I’ve ever been to. h. d. You … (not eat) in the lecture hall: it’s against the college regulations. He’s too young. We haven’t had a good talk for a long time. We … (run) all the way to the station because we were late for the train. They can stay with us. r. p. a. They … (not pay) to stay in a hotel. We’ve been staying in a hotel for the last two weeks so we (not cook) our own meals. ought to. He would never forgive us. m. It’s your own fault that you’re so tired. You … (go) to that new French restaurant in town. You’ve got enough work to do. e. s. Why … the prisoners … (be locked) in their cells all day? i. I … (take) all of them again in November. k. The wedding’s been cancelled so I … (not buy) that new suit: it was a waste of money. You … (not have) a bath now. The taxi’s coming in twenty minutes. Complete the sentences using the modals should. f. You … (not go) to bed so late. We … (leave) at 11 o’clock last night because the last bus went at 11. l. I … (take) the children to school every morning before I go to work. o. n.20. Hurry up. Paul … (not get up) early in the morning but everyone else in the house does.

Ask that person if you can sit there. would you mind. I’d like you to come to the meeting but you … (not come) if you don’t want to. must. 4. a. Request an appointment to see your bank manager. write them both. f. 5. Ask someone to answer the phone for you. we … go out somewhere with a picnic every day. There is a free seat next to someone. k. could. e. I … work till late every night preparing lessons. would. Offer to open the door for a stranger. You are in the train. Ms Arnold. Ask another passenger if you can open the window. Write what to say using can. j. c. Where either form is possible. . d. In the long summer holidays. They … be happy together but they are not now. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. might. h. Give someone permission to use your phone. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. There may be a number of possible answers. i. a. d. g. Ask someone to wait here for you. When I was a newly-trained teacher. may.English Practical Course 279 u. Invite a friend to go for a swim this morning. b. shall. Complete the sentences with would or used to. You are in a café. Offer to make someone a sandwich. b. I … have lots of free time before I started working here. would you like. c. Offer to answer the phone.

During my last year at university. In some sentences more than one modal is possible. k. He knew how to speak four languages by the time he was twelve. Are you able to come with me tonight? e. a. It’s not necessary for you to apologize. It’s not a good idea for you to work so hard. g. people … (often) come up to me and tell me how beautiful she was. i. d. When Amy was a baby. f. It’s possible that they’ll be here soon. . p. o. When I had a car. I will/’ll phone you next week. he still didn’t know how to read. He … be overweight but he’s much slimmer now. we … (often) stay up talking late. they … (never) travel anywhere on the tube. Why don’t we go and see a film tonight? h. He refuses to give me an answer. l. When we shared a flat together. Rewrite the following sentences using a modal. I want to help you but I am not able to. g. He said that he intended to write to me soon. I think it’s a good idea for me to stay in tonight: I’ve got a lot of work to do. 6. c. I don’t know who she is but it’s possible that she is Rick’s sister. i.280 English Practical Course e. b. Is it possible for me to sit here? j. Am I allowed to smoke in here? m. I promise to phone you next week. At the age of nine. It’s essential that we leave on time tomorrow morning. h. but now I’m much fitter because I always walk or cycle. When they came to London. f. I … go to the library to start work at 9 o’clock every morning. n. j. I … drive everywhere.

I assume that Clare will be here soon. You don’t have to inform the agency beforehand. (every) c. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. t. May I borrow your typewriter? (mind) . It’s very possible that he’ll be promoted. Shall we go out tonight? (how) b. Could you come on Saturday? (suit) h.English Practical Course 281 r. It is certain that he will return this afternoon. I intend to finish this essay before I go to sleep. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence using the word given. He was not able to understand the radio message because of the interference. (compulsory) j. How do you feel about going on a trip? (like) i. s. Could he have been telling the truth? (likely) g. It’s 7 o’clock. Do not tell him any of this: it’s vital that it remains a secret. u. Why haven’t you signed this page at the bottom? (sign) f. I’m sure that he is asleep. a. I know he’s in but he’s not answering the phone. (bound) d. (impossible) e.

Când eram copil nu-i puteam înţelege pe adulţi şi acum că sunt adult nu-i mai pot înţelege pe copii. N-aveam cheie.282 English Practical Course k. Nu trebuie să conduci aşa repede. (prevented) l. . Nu-i nevoie să suni. (rules) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 8. Nu pot să nu mă gândesc ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă nu am fi putut rezolva problema. Drumul era acoperit cu gheaţă şi lui îi era groază să nu alunece. You mustn’t start writing before the test starts. Ştiam bine oraşul aşa că am putut să le explic cu să ajungă la gară. este o limitare de viteză aici. aşa că n-am putut închide uşa. Când era tânăr era foarte rezistent. putea lucra toată ziua şi dansa toată noaptea. You won’t be able to enter the country unless you have a visa. dacă vrea ca ea să adoarmă. Dacă sunteţi amabil să aşteptaţi a clipă îl chem pe director. Nu-i voie să conduci aşa repede. avem destul timp. Chiar dacă ne-am strădui din răsputeri nu am reuşi să ajungem. am eu cheie. Translate into English using modal verbs: Ar trebui să-i spună fiicei ei o poveste.

Stătea pe bancă ore întregi şi se uita la stele. Dacă îi dai ocazia nu mai încetează cu poveştile din război. Tocmai am terminat de udat florile. este un om cu mult bun simţ.Nu se poate să fi văzut un tigru. L-am văzut pe stradă dar nu s-a oprit să-mi vorbească. Deşi afară plouă cu găleata de cel puţin trei ore. . Citeam zeci de cărţi pe lună când eram student. Probabil că era foarte grăbit. M-ai auzit când am venit acasă seara trecută? – Nu. .English Practical Course 283 Ar fi trebuit să verifice frânele înainte de plecare. Cu siguranţă că în acest moment echipa adversă sărbătoreşte victoria. am putut să merg la farmacie şi să cumpăr medicamente. Când era la şcoală putea merge în mâini distanţe lungi. Se poate ca ieri pe vremea asta fraţii lui să fi cărat cărămida de la fabrică. Nu este voie să vorbeşti tare aici. Nu era nevoie să-i cumperi volumul acesta de poezii.Nu era nevoie să le uzi. trebuie că adormisem. Am închis-o chiar eu la plecare. nu sunt tigrii în ţară la noi. Nu e cazul să-i reaminteşti de datorie. doar suntem într-un spital. dar acum nu mai poate. Acum un an am avut un câine tare neascultător: nu vroia să-mi aducă papucii atunci când îi spuneam eu. este prea murdară. Am văzut un tigru ieri în pădure. S-ar putea ca ei să îşi formateze sistemul acum. – Nu se poate să fi fost deschisă. − _________________________________________________________ . Este de datoria noastră să ne ajutăm părinţii atunci când sunt în dificultate. Uşa era deschisă. Ar fi trebuit să o spăl cel puţin acum o lună. Trebuie să-mi spăl maşina. habar n-am. îl mai are de două ori. uite cum plouă acum.

284 English Practical Course _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ .

English Practical Course 285 .

I’ve never seen such an exciting match before. The cat ……………………………………………………………………… j. This match ……………………………………………………………….. I wish …………………………………………………………………. If it hadn’t ……………………………………………………….286 English Practical Course Progress Test 4 1. We can’t persuade the cat to come down from that tree.. Without your support. She last………………………………………………………………… e. I should have never won the nomination. She has not been to the office since November. g.. I should really like someone to do all the housework for me. Joan is very alike her father. Rewrite each sentence. Can you play golf well enough to beat him? Is your ……………………………………………………………………… − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . c. I’d like to have seen this movie. so that the meaning stays the same: a. 4th. The candidate was undoubtedly highly intelligent but she was not very suitable for the job. The telephone rang the moment I stepped into the room No sooner …………………………………………………………. f.. d. b. The thing I’d really like …………………………………………………. beginning as shown. h. Joan bears ………………………………………………………………… i. Intelligent…………………………………………………………….

3rd) f. at six o’ clock) b. in 1978. at 7 o’clock) c. very much) i. Smith came (into the office late) g. My friend spoke (evening. Mr. the piano. to England. at 4 o’clock. in the street yesterday. every morning. He goes (to the factory. They went (for a week and a half. to me. very much) h. We shall go (tonight. wonderfully) d. I am born (on April. She played (last evening. 5th. at home. yesterday. I enjoyed my lunch (the day before yesterday. very kindly) e. to the theatre. on March) − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . I read (all day. at the National Opera.English Practical Course 287 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Insert the adverbs in brackets in the correct place: a.

un holteiu zdravăn. care se ţin tot de una: Vatra satului. un sat de oameni fără căpătâiu. străşinit cu şindrilă. Ş-apoi Humuleştii. frumos şi voinic. − _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . de vuia satul de vatale în toate părţile. care era îngrădit cu zaplaz de bârne. Doamne. care ştiau a învârti şi hora şi suveica. drăgăliţă-Doamne. din târg drept peste apa Neamţului. întemeiet în toată puterea cuvântului: cu gospodari tot unul şi unul. între care eram şi eu. Translate into English: Stau câteodată şi-mi aduc aminte ce vremi şi ce oameni mai erau în părţile noastre pe când începusem şi eu.288 English Practical Course 3. de făceau mare cinste satului lor. împărţit în trei părţi. şi sfătuia pe oameni să-şi deie copiii la învăţătură. Şi unde nu s-au adunat o mulţime de băieţi şi fete la şcoală. cu flăcăi voinici şi fete mândre. şi ce chilie durată s-a făcut la poarta bisericei pentru şcoală. un băiat prizărit. ş-apoi. ce om vrednic şi cu bunătate mai era! Prin îndemnul său. ruşinos şi fricos şi de umbra mea. Şi părintele Ioan de sub deal. ci sat vechiu răzăşesc. în satul Humuleştii. să fi văzut pe neobositul părinte cum umbla prin sat din casă în casă. Delenii şi Bejenii. şi pe vremea aceea. împreună cu bădiţa Vasile a Ilioaei. a mă ridica băieţaş la casa părinţilor mei. ce mai de pomi s-au pus în ţinterim. dascălul bisericei. cu biserică frumoasă şi nişte preoţi şi dascăli şi poporeni ca aceia. sat mare şi vesel. nu erau numai aşa.

4th. This match is the most exciting I have ever seen. b. He goes to the factory at 7 o’clock every morning. she was not very suitable for the job. d. f. e. No sooner had I stepped into the room than the telephone rang. The thing I’d really like is to have someone to do all the housework for me. c. . Joan bears a resemblance with her father. g. b. I wish I had seen this movie. If it hadn’t been for your support I should have never won the nomination. The cat wouldn’t come down from that tree. j. a.English Practical Course 289 _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Key: a. Intelligent as the candidate was. She last was to the office on November. h. She played the piano wonderfully at the National Opera last evening. Is your golf handicap better than his? 2. i. We shall go to the theatre at six o’clock tonight. c.

290 English Practical Course d. its reputation and standing having long since been assured. Smith came into the office late. It faced the town on the other side of the waters o the River Neamţ. Moreover. e. f. the Deleni and the Bejeni. so to speak. in 1978. just begun to put a foot over the threshold of boyhood in my home in the village of Humuleşti. church elders and parishioners. It had a fine church and outstanding clergy. i. entering one house after another. Master Vasile. and you should have seen the . I enjoyed my lunch very much the day before yesterday. They went to England for a week and a half on March. Lord. with farmers who knew their job. the son of Ilioaia. I sometimes stop and call to mind the customs and people there used to be in my part of the world at the time when I had. h. good-looking. so that the village would buzz with the sound of looms on every side. You should have seen this untiring priest going round the village. The two of them would persuade people to send their children to get some schooling. 5th. it was a large and cheerful village. As for Father Ion. together with one of his elders. I am born at 4 o’clock. a sturdy. handsome bachelor. who lived at the foot of the hill. who were a credit to their village. 3rd. what an active and kindly man he was! On his advice lots of trees were planted in the graveyard – which graveyard was surrounded by a high fence of thick planks with eaves of shingles – and the fine room at the gate of the church precincts was built to serve as a village school. on April. Mr. with stalwart young men and comely girls who could swing the shuttle too. I read a lot at home all day yesterday. g. Humuleşti in those days was not just a village of ne’er-do-wells but a prosperous and ancient village of freeholders. 3. My friend spoke very kindly to me in the street yesterday evening. divided into three closely connected parts: the village itself.

English Practical Course 291 number of boys and girls who flocked into the school from all parts. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 3. 1 point + 1 point each x 9 = 10 points 2. timid lad. 1 point +9 points = 10 points Divided by 3 = 10 points . myself among them. afraid of my own shadow! (translated by Ana Cartianu) Score: 1. a puny.

292 English Practical Course Appendix 1 Irregular verbs Base form to be to beat Past Simple was/were beat Past Participle been beaten Translation a fi a bate a lovi to become to bend to begin to bid became bent began bid bade to bind bound become bent begun bid bidden bound a învinge a deveni a (se) îndoi a începe a ordona a porunci a oferi a uni a lega to blow to break blew broke blown broken a obliga a sufla a sparge a rupe a sfãrâma to bring to build to burn to burst brought built burnt burst brought built burnt burst a degrada a aduce a produce a clãdi a construi a arde a ataca a izbucni a exploda to buy to cast bought cast bought cast a crãpa a cumpãra a arunca .

English Practical Course 293 to catch caught caught a turna a prinde a capta a bloca a colecta a selecta a alege a (se) despica a (se) scinda a separa a veni a ajunge a costa a (se) târî a aluneca a se alungi a tãia a se ocupa (cu) a distribui a sãpa a face a desena a schiţa a atrage a visa a bea a acţiona a conduce a mânca a cãdea a alimenta a hrãni a (se) simţi a combate a (se) lupta a gãsi to choose to cleave chose cleft clove chosen cleft cloven come cost crept to come cost to creep came cost crept to cut to deal to dig to do to draw cut dealt dug did drew cut dealt dug done drawn to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found .

294 English Practical Course a descoperi to fling flung flung a constata a lansa a arunca to fly to forecast to forbid to forget to freeze to get flew forecast forbade forgot froze got flown forecast forbidden forgotten frozen got a izbucni a zbura a lansa a prevedea a interzice a uita a îngheţa a refrigera a obţine a primi to give gave given a deveni (a ajunge) a da a acorda a transmite a aviza to go went gone a preda a merge a funcţiona to grow to hang grew hung grown hung a circula a se mãri a dezvolta a suspenda a agãţa to have to hear to hew to hide to hit had heard hewed hid hit had heard hewed hewn hidden hit a pune receptorul în furcã a avea a auzi a ciopli a tãia a ascunde a lovi a ciocni .

English Practical Course 295 to hold held held a izbi a ţine a bloca a opri a fixa a cuprinde a rãni a lovi a avaria a ţine a reţine a menţine a întreţine a înnoda a tricota a îmbina a şti a cunoaşte a pune a aşeza a întinde a conduce a avansa a comanda a înclina a (se) apleca a se sprijini a învãţa a pleca a pãrãsi a împrumuta a lãsa a permite a se afla to hurt hurt hurt to keep kept kept to knit knit knit to know to lay knew laid known laid to lead led led to lean leant leant to learn to leave to lend to let to lie learnt left lent let lay learnt left lent let lain .

296 English Practical Course light to lose to make to mean to meet lit lost made meant met lit lost made meant met a consta în a aprinde a pierde a fabrica a face a însemna a vrea să spunã a (se) întâlni a intersecta a încrucişa a plãti a achita a pune a aşeza a citi a cãlãri a suna a chema (la telefon) a (se) ridica a (se) urca a rãsãri a alerga a funcţiona a administra a spune a tãia cu ferãstrãul a vedea a cãuta a cerceta a vinde a trimite a regla a ajusta a stabili a bate a scutura to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise paid put read rode rang rose paid put read ridden rung risen to run ran run to say to saw to see to seek to sell to send to set said sawed saw sought sold sent set said sawn seen sought sold sent set to shake shook shaken .

English Practical Course 297 to shear to shed sheared shed shorn shed a vibra a tãia a mãrgini a arunca a difuza a vãrsa a strãluci a arãta a manifesta a împuşca a filma a se contracta a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a îngropa a sta jos a dormi a aluneca a glisa a arunca a lansa a mirosi a izbi a vorbi a accelera a scrie literã cu literã a silabisi a petrece a cheltui a întrebuinţa a vãrsa a risipi a turna a scinda a despica a (se) roti to shine to show to shoot to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to smell to smite to speak to speed to spell to spend shone showed shot shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung smelt smote spoke sped spelt spent shone shown shot shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung smelt smitten spoken sped spelt spent to spill spilt spilt to split to spin split spun split spun .

298 English Practical Course to spread spread spread a rãspândi a acoperi a extinde a sãri a izvorî a se arcui a sta (vertical) a rezista a suporta a fura a (se) lipi a se fixa a lovi a izbi a înşira a lega a se strãdui a se lupta a jura a (se) umfla a creşte a înota a oscila a (se) balansa a pendula a lua a capta a necesita a preda a rupe a spune a reflecta a gândi a socoti cã a arunca to spring sprang sprung to stand stood stood to steal to stick to strike to string to strive to swear to swell to swim to swing stole stuck struck strung strove swore swelled swam swung stolen stuck struck strung striven sworn swollen swum swung to take took taken to teach to tear to tell to think taught tore told thought taught torn told thought to throw threw thrown .

English Practical Course 299 to thrust thrust thrust understood woken worn a împinge a înfige a înţelege a (se) trezi a purta a (se) uza a toci a plânge a se prelinge a câştiga a a stoarce a rãsuci a smulge a scrie to understand understood to wake woke to wear wore to weep to win to wind to wring wept won wound wrung wept won wound wrung to write wrote written .

at the beginning of sth. an advertisement for sth afraid of (storms) at the age of (twenty) to agree with sb. to apply for (a job) appropriate for sth. on sth.) by accident according to (the weather forecast) to account for sth.= somebody. to assist in sth. to be at home to be aware of sth. about sth. to be bored with sth. in the beginning to be afraid of.= something) (break sth. to argue with sb. sb. to be careful about sth./sb. to arrive at (the railway station) to arrive in (Europe) as a result to ask for sth. attentive at sth. sth. to be fed up with sth. to be full of (energy) .300 English Practical Course Appendix 2 WORD+PREPOSITION (sb./ sth./ sb.

change for (a dollar) to come from England/ Romania to compare sth. to be similar to sth. to be in a mess to be interested in sth. in the (20-th) century certain of sth. to be proud of sth. to cope with sth. etc. to cooperate with sb. to be tired of sth. with sth. to be on strike to be out of order to be patient with sb. to be good at sth. to be married to sb. to be in charge of sth. else to complain about sth./ sb. . to benefit from sth./ sth. to be impressed by sth. to believe in sth. to be in love with sb. to go by bus/ train/plane.English Practical Course 301 to be fond of sb. in (good/bad) condition in/ under these conditions in contrast with sth. to belong to sb./ sb.

to (a party) or for (dinner) in the North/ South. etc. to a (certain/great) extent to fight against sb. to die of sth. in the end at the end of sth./ sth. on a flight to (Paris) to fight against sb. to go out with sb. to depend on sb./sth. to fight against sb. to forget about sb. else to dream about sb. to go home to have a degree in sth. to be different from sb. to listen to sth. to get on (well) with sb./ sth. in the distance to distinguish sth. to laugh at sb./ sth. to find put about sv./sth. from sth.302 English Practical Course to deal with sth./ deficient in sth. to develop into sth. to get in touch with sb./ sth./sth./ sth./sth. . to have an interview for a job to invite sb. deficiency in sth./ sb. to debate on sth.

to originate in sth./ sth. to talk to sb. to rely on sb. with sb. by mistake at the/that moment to operate on sb. to pay ($5000) for sth. resistance to sth. about sth. similar to sb. to speak to sb. about sth./ sth. . for ($300) to share sth./ sb. to search for sth. to point sth./ sth representative of sb. to suffer from sth. to participate in sth./ sb.English Practical Course 303 to live on the third/fourth floor to look after sb. to look at sth. preoccupation with sth. to specialize in sth./ sth. to look for sth. a story about sth. to look forward to doing sth. to spend money on sth. owing to sth. to point at sb. to sell sth. to merge with sth. (a gun) at sb.

/ sth./ sth. on television to think about (What are you thinking about?) to think of (What do you think of von Laue?) to throw sth.304 English Practical Course thanks to sb. to wait for sb. on the way (to school) to work as (a teacher) to work for (an organization) to worry about sth./ sb. in view of sth. at sb. . to write (an e-mail. a letter) to sb. a ticket for sth.

English Practical Course 305 .

Macmillan. Didactica si Pedagogica. Stephen. D. Lee C. 1998. Sinteze şi exerciţii pentru examenele de bacalaureat şi admitere. Chiţoran. Poenaru. Editura Amarcord. The British Council. Cambridge Certificate – A Course for First Certificate. 11. English With Tears.. Bucureşti 2. Heinemann Educational Books. London. 10. Ileana. Tamara & Popescu Brandusa. Archer. 1983. ***. Editura Ştiinţifică. Luca-Lăcătuşu. 1984. I.. 8. 1996. I. 9. 1972. Limba engleza. Vocabulary Development.google. Dumitru & Luca. J. 6.com Hulban Horia. Ed. 1983.. 1978. Nolan. 1972. Viorica & Dorobat. Dobrovici. Timişoara Andrews. Editura Stiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Cluj http://ccc. Preparing for Proficiency. Creţescu Gogălniceanu.Curs practic. Virgil. Bucharest ***. Enid. A Basic English Grammar. English for Science and Technology. Bucuresti Eastwod. 1984. Cavallioti Publishing House. 4. 1999. Margaret. 13. 7. 12. English Grammar Exercises. Tamara.com http://www.randomhouse.edu/grammar/adjectives. Călina.htm http://www. Exercises. 3.commnet. ed.. 5. New York.. Panovf. Competenţă şi performanţă. Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză. Oxford Galea. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Oxford University Press.Dacia. . Stanciu.306 English Practical Course Bibliography 1. Bucureşti Deighton.

16. The Great Preposition Mystery. OUP. upper-intermediate. Excel at First Certificate. 1985. A. Bucuresti Sanford. Marius. 1986. 21.English Practical Course 307 14.. E.C. Adrian B. Headway.V. 1991. Test Your English Grammar. S. A. Ed.J. Martinet. Grammar Review for Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL. 18. Thomson. Oxford University Press. 17.. Longman Malaysia.. Soars. Teora. Exercises 1. Greere. Student’s Book. Heinemann. Cluj 15. Student’s Book. Headway. Bishop. Student’s Book. 23. Washington. Martinet. Macmillan. Oxford University Press. Clusium. Lougheed. Oxford. Katherine V. 1997. 1984.J. English Teaching Division. . V. and Elsworth. Hong Kong. A. M. Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate Students. A. 19. Michael.. 20. Reading Comprehension. A Practical English Grammar. 1995. 1989.. New York Soars. John & Liz. Lin. 22. A. London Edinburgh Walker. A Practical English Grammar. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. D. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press. CLP Zdrenghea. pre-intermediate. 1991. Oxford Vince. Hong Thomson. Oxford Mistzal. 1996. John & Liz. 1986.

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