RAMONA MIHĂILĂ CURRENT ISSUES

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României MIHĂILĂ, RAMONA Current issues / Ramona Mihăilă – Bucureşti; Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2006 176 p., 20,5 cm ISBN (10) 973-725-644-1 (13) 978-973-725-644-7 811.111(075.8)

© Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, 2006

Redactor: Andreea DINU Tehnoredactor: Vasilichia IONESCU Coperta: Marilena BĂLAN Bun de tipar: 21.11.2006; Coli tipar: 11 Format: 16/61×86 Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine Bulevarul Timişoara nr. 58, Bucureşti, Sector 6 Tel./Fax 021/444.20.91; www.spiruharet.ro e-mail: contact@edituraromaniademaine.ro

UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET
DEPARTAMENTUL DE LIMBAJE SPECIALIZATE

RAMONA MIHĂILĂ

CURRENT ISSUES

EDITURA FUNDAŢIEI ROMÂNIA DE MÂINE Bucureşti, 2006

CONTENTS

UNIT 1. Making an Impression ……………………………………….. The Adjective ………………………………………………... Fashion and Clothes …………………………………………. Idioms of the Body …………………………………………... Verbs not Normally Used in the Continuous Form …………. UNIT 2. Making a Living ……………………………………………... Families ……………………………………………………… Immigration ………………………………………………….. The Simple Present Tense …………………………………… The Present Continuous Tense ………………………………. UNIT 3. Globalization ………………………………………………… Privacy ………………………………………………………. The Simple Past Tense ………………………………………. The Past Continuous Tense ………………………………….. UNIT 4. Society ……………………………………………………….. Tomorrow’s World ………………………………………….. The Natural World …………………………………………... The Present Perfect Simple Tense …………………………... The Present Perfect Continuous Tense ……………………… UNIT 5. The Living Planet ……………………………………………. The Past Perfect Simple Tense ………………………………. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense …………………………. UNIT 6. Means of Transport ………………………………………….. Ways of Expressing Future ………………………………….. The Future Simple Tense ………………………………… The Future Continuous Tense …………………………….

7 10 11 14 15 17 21 24 25 26 29 31 34 35 38 41 42 44 45 48 52 53 56 60 60 61 5

UNIT 7. Cities, Towns and Villages ………………………………….. Going Shopping ……………………………………………... Meals ………………………………………………………… The Plural of Nouns …………………………………………. Uncountable Nouns ………………………………………….. UNIT 8. In a Foreign Country ………………………………………… Holidays ……………………………………………………... Weather ……………………………………………………… The Future Perfect Simple …………………………………... The Future Perfect Continuous ……………………………… “Be Going To” Future ……………………………………….. Be To + Infinitive/Be About To + Infinitive ………………. Future in the Past …………………………………………….. UNIT 9. Politics ……………………………………………………….. Elections ……………………………………………………... Passive Voice ………………………………………………... UNIT 10. Communication Language ………………………………… Racism and Sexism ………………………………………... Reported Speech …………………………………………... UNIT 11. Crime and Law ……………………………………………... Reported Speech …………………………………………… UNIT 12. Business and Money ……………………………………….. Money ……………………………………………………… “If” Clause …………………………………………………. UNIT 13. World of Sports …………………………………………….. The Definite Article ………………………………………... The Indefinite Article ………………………………………. UNIT 14. Revision ……………………………………………………. ANNEXES Annex 1. Irregular Verbs …………………………………………... Annex 2. Euro Acronyms ………………………………………….. Annex 3. Abbreviations ……………………………………………. Annex 4. Television Style …………………………………………. Annex 5. Country, Capital, Language, Nationality and Currency … Annex 6. Politics …………………………………………………... Annex 7. American English/British English ………………………. Annex 8. ……….…………………………………………………... 6

63 64 67 71 72 75 76 83 85 85 86 86 86 89 92 95 99 102 106 109 115 119 123 126 130 136 137 140 156 159 161 166 167 171 172 175

UNIT 1

MAKING AN IMPRESSION I. Answer the following questions: 1. How important are the following factors: physical appearance, clothes, facial expression, body language in making an impression upon someone? 2. When you first meet new people how important is “to break the ice”? How is a typical conversation” different in your country? 3. Which of the following adjectives would you choose to describe yourself: aggressive, approachable, a bore, a bully, chatty, conceited, dull and boring, easy-going, easy to get on with, good company, outgoing, reserved, self confident, shy, sociable II. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. First impressions When people are asked what they (1) ………most like to change about themselves, the two most (2) ………responses are: (3) ……… weight and (4) ………up smoking. At first glance (5) ………seem daunting enterprises. Researchers have found that 97 per cent of people who try to lose weight still weigh (6) ……… much if not more a year later. This (7) ……… not mean that it is impossible to lose weight. Most people (8) ………go on a diet do not need to. They are (9) ………medically overweight and are often unrealistic in the targets (10) ……… set themselves. More important, severe dieting is a very inefficient (11) ……… to lose weight in anything more than the short term. So most dieters have chosen the (12) ……… thing to change, and the wrong way to change it. As for smoking, a recent survey of ex-smokers reveals that (13) ……… six per cent felt bad-tempered or put on weight as a (14) ……… of giving up tobacco. More than half of those questioned claimed they had been surprised (15) ……… how easy the process has been.
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III. Fill the gaps in the following paragraph with suitable words from the list below:
a) bilingual b) body language c) blush d) colloquial e) expression f) eye contact g) feelings h) gestures i) intonation j) jargon k) messages l) reveal m) sarcastic n) slang o) tone of voice

We can often find out about people’s feeling by listening to their (1) …… and watching their (2) …… and (3) …… A person’s (4) …… may convey their real (5) …… better than the words they speak. If someone says that your project is “wonderful” they may be sincere or they may be being (6) …… Every day we use our body to send (7) …… - nodding instead of saying “yes” or shaking to say “hello”. But even when we don’t want people to know how we are feeling, certain things may still (8) …… the truth. When we tell a lie, our bodies often give the trick away when we (9) … … or avoiding (10) ……, swallow or cover our mouth with our hand. IV. In 1984, just before the elections for the European Parliament, a French cartoonist attributed stereotypes in the box below to the ten member states of that time. Try to decide which stereotype he put with which nationality. Belgium ……, Denmark……, France ……, Germany……, Greece……, Holland……, Italy……, Luxembourg ……, Republic of Ireland ……, the U.K. …… 1. calm, 2. disciplined, 3. discreet, 4. elegant, 5. funny, 6. gallant, 7. hospitable, 8. prolific, 9. serious, 10. virile V. Read the article below “Colour Sense” (The Telegraph Sunday Magazine) about how the colours influence human personality and underline the word which best fits each space.
ICI colour consultant Jack Widgery painted one police interview room light green, and another (lively/strong) red. Subsequently, the police found that suspects (gave/spoke) statements more quickly when they were in the red room, again enforcing the idea that too much red (makes/creates) a feeling of being pressurized. The soft green room was for (interviewing/requesting) victims and their families, and there are many (examples/ways) of light colours being used to (play up/run up) feelings and encourage relaxation. 8

Some institutions in the USA have special pink areas to cool the (tempers/moods) of angry prisoners, service recruits and patients. Soft blues, greens and beiges seem to be (leisurely/restful) and hospitals, schools and dentists are beginning to take this into (view/ account) when choosing colour schemes. An airline which (changed/turned) from a yellow and brown interior scheme to one (from/of) green and blue reported a forty-five per cent decrease (of/in) airsickness. But the workplace is the biggest challenge: (no/neither) too much nor too (few/little) energy will do. The (current/nowadays) fashion for grey with a few details in brighter colours may be a good (result/solution). VI. Choose the correct colour to complete each sentence: 1. The low production figures really made the manager see …… 1. If you keep your bank account in the ……… you won’t pay any bank charges. 2. His neighbour’s new car and luxurious life style made John ……… with envy. 3. They used to be good friends and they visited very often while now they only see each other once in a ……… moon. 4. Things are going well for the married couple at the moment. They really look in the ……… 5. The bank adviser told him that his account is in the ……… at the moment so he can’t afford a holiday. 6. The office block they built has turned out to be a real ……… elephant. They spent an earth on it and nobody wants to move there. 7. The lawyer was completely ……… when he first pleaded in front of a jury. Now he has a lot of experience. 8. The editor saw the number of sold issues and now he is screaming ……… murder. 9. Helen told the policeman a ……… lie about her crossing the street on the ……… light.

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THE ADJECTIVE There are various ways of making comparisons in English: One syllable adjectives have forms like these: Complete the chart above with the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. positive comparative - er big bigger tall ………. fat fatter hot ………. thin thinner superlative the -est …………. the tallest ………… the hottest …………..

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

positive good bad/ill much/many little old

comparative better worse more less older/(elder)

superlative the best the worst the most the least the oldest/(the eldest)

Two-syllable adjectives ending in a consonant followed by “y” are formed like this: Complete the chart above with the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. positive happy lazy ugly juicy dirty comparative happier ………….. uglier ………….. dirtier comparative the happiest …………….. …………….. the juiciest ………………

Two or more syllable adjectives
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Complete the chart above with the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. positive comparative superlative more the most the most interesting interesting …………………. …………………… more difficult difficult ……………………… the most beautiful beautiful ……………………. more careful careful …………………….. ……………………. boring Some common two-syllable adjectives (clever, common, cruel, gentle, likely, narrow, pleasant, polite, simple) have both forms. FASHION AND CLOTHES I. Read the following text about fashion industry. Do you agree with its point of view? Why is that fashion houses design their clothes for the youngest and skinnest men and women? We may not actually want to look like supermodels, but it is a fact that the most emaciated figures have dominated the world’s catwalks for a long time. It seems it is not in the interests of the fashion industry to represent an “average” person. Although “slimmer” may not always mean “more desirable” in the real world, fashion succeeds because it carries with it that image of the least attainable figure. (to) dress fashion fashionable in fashion/out of fashion (to) put on size (to) take off worn out bathing suit belt blouse boots bow-tie cap cardigan coat dress gloves hat jacket jersey pullover sandals scarf shirt shoes skirt slippers socks stockings suit sweater tie trainers T-shirt waistcoat
II. In pairs describe what your colleagues are wearing today using the words from the box above. Then list topic vocabulary under these headings, adding to the words given. Clothes: sweatshirt, skirt,…………………………………….. Footwear: (flat/high-)heeled shoes, ……………………………. 11

clothes

Materials: cotton, leather, ……………………………………… Headgear: cap, helmet, ………………………………………… Hairstyle: curly, spiky …………………………………………. Jewellery: earings, pendant,…………………………………….. Appearance: smart, stylish, ………………………………..…… III. Do you agree with any of the views expressed below? How important do you think it is to dress or speak in a particular way? 1. The way people dress does not mean they are showing disrespect. 2. Unconventional dress sense can mean greater imagination. 3. Young employees should use a different style of language to address their older colleagues. 4. Older employees should be more tolerant of their younger colleagues. 5. Young people think any kind of behavior is acceptable these days. IV. Choose the appropriate verbs in the following sentences: 1. He tried on three pairs of shoes but they didn’t fit/suit him. 2. Yesterday she wore a red and black blouse with a white and pink skirt. Her clothes didn’t match/suit. 3. They liked to dress up/get dressed when they went to the restaurant. 4. That shirt didn’t suit/match him. The color made him look pale. 5. The children dressed up/got dressed quickly because they were late for school. 6. She never dressed/wore trousers to work. 7. His riding boots served him well for ten years before they finally wore out/wore off. V. Order the following sentences of a dialogue between a shop-assistant and a buyer Shop-assistant: Yes, you can. That comes to 100 pounds altogether. ……… Buyer: Yes, please. ……… Shop-assistant: Are they good? ……… Buyer: Do you have these black shoes in size 7, please? ……… Shop-assistant: Here’s your change. Good bye. ………
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Buyer: A small one. This is perfect. I will buy it. Can I pay by credit card? ……… Shop-assistant: Good afternoon. Can I help you? ……… Buyer: Yes, they fit very well. And I need a bag to match them with. ……… Shop-assistant: A big or a small one? ……… Buyer: Here you are. Thank you very much. ……… Shop-assistant: Let me see. Yes, we’ve got. Do you want to try them on? ……… VI. Complete the dialogue between a buyer and a shop-assistant: Shop-assistant: Good afternoon. ……………….. you? Buyer: Do you have ……………….., please? Shop-assistant: ………….. No, we’ve got nothing in …... Do you want ……………..? Buyer: Yes, please. Shop-assistant: ……………….? Buyer: Yes, ………………………. And I need ………………….. Shop-assistant: ……………………………..? Buyer: …………………………………..I will buy it. Shop-assistant: That comes to 100 pounds altogether. Buyer: …………….. Thank you very much. Shop-assistant: ……………………………. Good bye. VII. Can you explain what these newspaper headlines mean?

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IDIOMS OF THE BODY I. Complete these idioms with the correct part of the body: arm, ear, eye(s), feet, finger, hand, head, heart, heels, leg, mouth, neck, nose, shoulder, tongue and then match the idiom with its meaning. 1. to be banging your ……… a) to watch and listen carefully to against a brick wall what is happening around 2. to cast your ……… over b) a very annoying person, thing something or task 3. to say something …….… c) to coerce by or as if by -in-cheek physical force 4. to keep your ……… to the d) have lots of experience ground 5. to turn your ……… up at e) to despair something 6. be an old ……… at something f) begin, do something for the first time 7. get one’s ……… wet g) to be very expensive 8. a pain in the … h) to disregard 9. put your ……… on something i) to fall madly and completely in love 10. to twist someone’s ……… j) to have a quick look at something 11. to feel your … ……sink k) to be ironic 12. to live from ……… to ……… l) to identify 13. to fall ……… over ……… m) to look down on something in love 14. to cost a(n) … …. and a … … n) to be ironic 15. a ……… shoulder o) to keep asking someone to do something which they never do II. Use the following words to complete the sentences blood, body, ears, elbow, foot, hands, heel, mouth, neck, nose, shoulder, stomach, toe, thumb, wrist 1. They celebrated his retirement in a fancy restaurant as the company … the bill. 2. This house doesn’t look right at all. It sticks out like a sore …
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3. The new manager is not prepared to … all the responsibilities. 4. The reporter said that many people … their way to the front of the theatre queue. 5. They are a very good television crew, but their leader is their Achilles’s … 6. This brandy has plenty of … and a very fine … 7. The vice president couldn’t … his secretary’s rude behavior anymore. 8. The Chief Inspector gives silly tasks to his department people. He is a pain in the … 9. The spokeswoman looked so down in the … She could barely say few words. 10. The workers decided that it wasn’t worth arguing with their manager and decided to …the line. 11. When his boss takes the credit for work I’ve done, it makes his …boil! 12. Robert’s really got his … full with all the wedding preparations. 13. She wouldn’t have sold the house if the creditors hadn’t twisted my … 14.The Johnsons can’t afford anything. They are up to their … in debt. VERBS NOT NORMALLY USED IN THE CONTINUOUS FORM Look through the list of common stative verbs below and classify them into the groups suggested: appear, believe, belong to, consider, dislike, doubt, feel, guess, hate, have, imagine, know, like, love, mind, own, prefer, realize, regard, remember, seem, smell, sound, suppose, taste, understand, want 1. verbs related to appearance …………………………..……… 2. verbs related to emotional states …………………...………… 3. verbs related to possession …………………..……….………. 4. verbs related to the senses ……………………………………. 5. verbs related to thinking ……………………………...……….
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it is possible to use TO BE in continuous tenses, if it is followed by certain adjectives: quiet, noisy, good, bad, wise, foolish, annoying, cautious, clever, stupid, difficult, economical, extravagant, formal, funny, helpful, generous, mean, irritating, mysterious, optimistic, pessimistic, polite, selfish, unselfish Tom is being foolish.= “To be” implies that the subject is showing this quality at this time “To have” meaning to take and to give can be used in continuous tenses: We are having lunch very late. Meaning changes in the stative verbs. In the following pair of sentences, put the verb into the correct tense, and explain the differences in meaning between the simple and progressive forms of the verbs. 1. The judge will (hear) ……… the case tomorrow morning. The audience can barely (hear) ……… what the lecturer is saying. 2. They (have) ………a business lunch at this time yesterday. He (have) ……… a party next Saturday. She (have) ……… a baby next month. The company (have) ………. one hundred employees last year. He (have)……… a shower when I phoned him. 3. The policeman said that the old woman must (imagine) ……… the thing someone broke her house. We (imagine) …….. nobody believed her. 4. Their little boy (be) ……… rather naughty at the moment. They assured me the play (be) ……… a success. 5. The audience (not listen) quietly……… to the concert last evening. The professor (listen) ……… some students to their projects. 6. The workers on strike (see) ………. their manager today. The ministers (see) ……… the president off the airport. My glasses are so dirty I can’t (see)……… a thing. 7. “What ……… the director (think)…….. about?. He (think)………about his new movie and the main actor who (appear) ……… in another movie this month. 8. The policemen stated in their report that there (appear) ……… to be a fight between hooligans and supporters. 9. The headmaster (consider)……… expelling the students who sold drugs in the school yard. The teachers (consider)……… the headmaster is perfectly right. 10. She (not mind) ……… her children smoking. Who (mind) ……… the children, anyway?
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TO BE AND TO HAVE IN CERTAIN USES

UNIT 2

MAKING A LIVING I. Discuss the conditions necessary to accomplish a job that you like it very much using the tips given below: ● a good career structure ● a high salary and/or high status ● independence or working under supervision ● job security ● lots of variety or repetitive tasks ● strenuous physical work ● traveling a lot for the job ● working as a part of a team or on your own; freelance work ● working flexible or fixed working hours; a 9-5 job; shift work; seasonal work ● working in a competitive environment ● working under pressure to tight deadlines II. Complete the gaps with the following words: tougher legislation, getting promoted, unfair dismissal, discrimination, inbuilt advantage 1. The researchers talked about the introduction of a law to protect people against ……… 2. Men have better changes of ………. than women. 3.………. should be introduced to help people not to be discriminated anymore. 4. Attractive people have a(n) ……… over others when it comes to getting a job. 5.……… against people on the basis of physical characteristics should be prohibited.
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III. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Research has shown that majority of people (1) ……… that luck plays an important part in their (2) ……… lives. About 60% of the people questioned thought (3) ……… lucky in everything from health to personal relationships to money. They also (4) ………to be fortunate in the future and thought that their luck was (5) ……… to their own abilities. The 20% of people who felt they were (6) ……… believed their bad luck would continue. They were rather (7) ……… and felt they were born unfortunate. It was very noticeable that the (8) ……… people were outgoing while the unlucky (9) ……… often suffered from shyness and it may be that the lucky people are remembering successful events, and putting to the (10) ……… of their minds those that did not work out well. IV. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. Managers of the companies have to consider the age of the population when they are … new staff. a) enrolling b) enlisting c) recruiting d) raising 2. The agent has a … interest in getting people to sign life insurances because he gets paid for every person she recruits. a) financial b) hidden c) ulterior d) vested 3. The two men were … out of 200 applicants for the positions of counselors. a) short-handed b) short-listed c) short-sighted d) short-changed 4. It is forbidden to dismiss an employee on the … of personal appearance. a) basis b) evidence c) foundation d) ground 5. The employers should avoid … people on the first impression. a) assessing b) estimating c) judging d) regarding 6. As news about the recession … down, the company began to invest in new staff. a) burnt b) died c) ran d) tore
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7. He knew that he would have to … his mark early on in his career if he was going to chair the company one day. a) do b) have c) make d) show 8. Most people find their careers … smoothly until the age of 35 when they start to get restless. a) come b) go c) make d) progress 9. The fashion magazines say that pink is … this summer, so everyone will be buying pink clothes. a) down b) in c) out d) up 10. If he wants to succeed in this job he will have to learn to get … with his colleagues a little better. a) along b) around c) back d) together 11. Most places of work have a code of … for their employees. a) behaviour b) conduct c) manner d) way 12. There were some very strong candidates for the job but none of them … the manager’s expectation. a) gave b) made c) met d) took 13. When they offered him a job in the Geneva branch he just … at the chance. a) dived b) leapt c) plunged d) rushed V. Match the following idioms about hard work to their meanings: a. burn the midnight oil 1. to work hard and seriously 2. to fail to do well b. do back-breaking work c. fall down on the job 3. to study in a serious way d. goof off 4. to work hard all the time e. hit the books 5. to do very difficult physical work f. keeps one’s nose to the 6. to study very late at night grindstone g. work one’s fingers to the bone 7. to not work seriously h. work as a dog 8. to study hard VI. Fill each of the blank spaces with a suitable word or phrase: 1. In addition …………………………………..a full-time job, she also manages to look after her family. 2. They can’t move to their new office until the end of the year, so ……….……………. being they are working from home.
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3. His fluent English and French give him an advantage ………the other applicants. 4. The secretary got a …………………. on the knuckles from her boss for being late for work two days running. 5. Psychologists believe you can tell if someone is …………… by their body language. 6. The singer, ……… single has just hit the top of the charts will give an open air concert on Friday. VII. Match the following idioms about experience to their meanings: a. be an old hand at something 1. begin, do something for the first time b. be green 2. have a special knowledge of a job c. to be wet behind the ears 3. have lots of experience d. get one’s feet wet 4. not be inexperienced and easily fooled e. go to school of hard knocks 5. learn more as life goes on f. know something like the back 6. lack training and experience of one’s hand g. know the ropes 7. learn from work and troubles h. live and learn 8. not know how to do something i. not be born yesterday 9. know thoroughly and completely VIII. Write a new sentence using the word given: 1. The job was too badly paid so the translator didn’t accept it. down The translator ………………………..it was too badly paid. 2. This tailor makes all the clothes by hand so it’s very timeconsuming. such It …………………………………………time because all the clothes are hand-made. 3. The actress decided to appear less in public as she grew older. appearance The actress decided ………………………………………as she grew older.
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4. Why not turn professional, as he is such a good orator. so He speaks ………………….………………………………… turn professional. 5. The singer became quite famous as an interviewer. name The singer ……………………………………………… as an interviewer. 6. He admits he isn’t one of the important members of the welcome committee. cog He admits he …………………………………………………… 7.The new employees will have to share an office as a temporary measure. being The new employees will have to share an office……………….. FAMILIES I. Choose from the list A-H the best phrase to fill each of the spaces.
CUPID’S TARGET

Why is the heart the organ that represents love? In some ancient religions it was regarded as (1) … and in the West it has always been associated with moral courage. In medieval Europe the hearts of monarchs were often buried in the lands they conquered and their bodies (2) … . A flaming heart was a frequent symbol in Western art of religious intensity and saints’ hearts have become revered relics. Strangely, (3) … what the anatomical function of the heart really was. It was the English surgeon William Harvey, who after years of research, discovered that (4) …. Even after Harvey announced his discovery in 1628 the romantic mystery surrounding the heart (5) … . Poets like Shakespeare were increasingly inclined to use it as a metaphor for love. In the second half of the nineteenth century it became fashionable to put (6) … as a symbol of romantic love on cards. Today modern medical science can (7) … to save lives. It is, after all, just a pumping muscle. But try (8) ….They know where love lies.
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A. until the seventh century no one knew B. stylized images of heart C. it was a rather simple pump D. mimic the mechanics of the heart E. the place where the spirit dwelled F. telling that to the broken hearted G. returned to the places they had come from II. Complete the sentences below using one of the words from the box
WEDDING OF STRANGERS

commitment, competition, criticism, defiantly, dismissive, expectation, figures, hopeful, luxury, panel, peak- time, relationship, surprisingly, wedding, work A (1) … between two strangers who met for the first time when they exchanged marital vows during a (2) … radio broadcast has come in for widespread (3) … . Carla Germaine and Greg Cordell were married after winning each other in a “lonely hearts” (4) … organized by BRMB radio station. The service, perhaps (5) …, attracted the highest ratings (6) … of the year. The model and the salesman were (7) … of their critics and say they have made a serious (8) … to make their marriage (9) …. “Everyone seems to have the (10) … that we will split up, but we’re going to prove them wrong, ” Cordell said (11) … The couple were selected from 200 (12) … candidates by a (13) … including (14) … counselors and an astrologer. As well as each other, they won a free honeymoon in the Bahamas, a sports car and a (15) … two-bedroom apartment. III. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. Although the numbers of elderly and disabled people are rising, the support provided by the state has not increased. (1) ……… to a recent report by a leading charity, very (2) ……… of them are in fact cared (3) ……… in institutions, and the vast majority depend almost entirely (4) ……… family or friends. This allows the elderly and
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disabled to (5) ……… a much better quality of life than they might (6) ……… have, and the fact that this army of workers is unpaid also (7) ……… that the state is relieved of a considerable burden. However, it is (8) ………nothing that there is a hidden cost to society on (9) ……… of the fact that these cares are prevented from (10) ……… part in any economic activity outside the home. IV. Use male and female words (boy, brother, girl, grandfather, grandmother, man, men, mother, wives) to complete the idioms and sayings: 1. “Big ……… is watching you” comes from George Orwell’s novel “1984”. 2. He was always her blue-eyed ……… and she spoiled him too much. 3. I’ve been writing for this newspaper for years. Don’t teach your … to suck eggs. 4. Her article looks like an old ………’s tale. 5. She learned to sing at his ………’s knee. 6. It is a good old-fashioned ………. –meets- ………movie with a happy ending. 7. Is Romanian your ………. tongue? 8. All work and no entertainment makes Robert a dull ……… 9. One ………’s meat is another ………’s poison. 10. “The Merry ……… of Windsor” is a well-known play written by Shakespeare. 11. It’s quite a difficult test. It certainly separates the ……… from the ………s. V. Match the following idioms about independence to their meanings: a. be a copycat 1. be overly dependent on one’s mother b. be a mama’s boy 2. have full control on someone c. be a yes-man 3. sever a dependency from one’s mother d. be on one’s own 4. depend on oneself e. be tied to one’s mother’s 5. be overly dependent on one’s apron strings mother
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f. cut the apron strings g. have a mind of one’s own h. lead someone by the nose i. stand on one’s own two feet

6. try to be liked by agreeing with everyone 7. imitate someone 8. be an independent thinker 9. live independently of others/ work without help or guidance

IMMIGRATION I. Complete the sentences using the words from the box. Make any changes to the word that are necessary. asylum emigrate exile get used to fit in homesick hospitable immigrate refugee resident settle down working visa (Green Card) 1. Many couples agree to a marriage of convenience in order to get a/an ……………. 2. The ex Communist president spent the rest of his life in ………. in a distant country. 3. Hundreds of African ………. filled the ships to Spain as they tried to escape from the war zone. 4. Even if his foreign hosts are extremely …………… he feels so ………. and wishes he could go home to see his family and friends. 5. They escaped from their country and asked for political ………….. in the U.S.A. 6. At first they found it very difficult to ………. in a foreign country. The culture and food were so different, but finally they managed to …………most things. 7. It was very difficult for her to really ………. with the other students because the color of her skin and her hair made her look different. 8. They had to convince the ………. officials that there is a strong family connection between them. 9. Although his permanent residence is in Greece, he is now a …… in Canada and wants to ……… to this country. II. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. The Statue of Liberty The Statue was a present from the (1) … of France to the U.S.A. to mark the (2) … between the two nations. In her right hand Liberty (3) … a torch and in her left a tablet on (4) … the date July 4th 1776
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is (5) … . The sculptor who (6) … it was Frederic Bartholdi. It is made of copper sheets. It was finished in 1885. It (7) … 25 tones. The statue is 151 feet high without the pedestal. With the pedestal its (8) …in meters is 93. (9)… are 171 steps to the observation point. The statue was dedicated by President Grover Cleveland. III. Fill each of the blank spaces with a suitable word or phrase: 1. Most European languages are believed ………………………. evolved from a protolanguage from the middle East. 2. The computers for the orphanages were very expensive but they don’t work – it was a complete ………………..…………money. 3. If this type of research ……………………………..., it must be carefully supervised. 4. For the first twelve hours the treatment worked because the patient………………………..……………………the antidote. 5. Corporal … ………………………is no longer legal in the majority of schools in Europe. 6. The people in some American states have voted to bring back the death…………… 7. 70% of teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds have a ……… record by the age of 18. 8. The refugees’ only hope of …………….. is to be taken to their embassy. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE:

I/We/You/They + Verb They write articles every week. He/She/It + Verb (ending in -s,-es) He writes articles every week. It is added –es at verbs ending in: ss: (I miss - He misses); sh: (I rush - He rushes) ch: (I watch - He watches); x: ( I fix - He fixes); o: (I do – He does) Verbs ending in Y: When y follows a vowel we add –s: I say - He says When y follows a consonant we change the y into i and add - es: I try He tries
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DO + I/we/you/they + Verb? DOES + he/she/it + Verb?
NEGATIVE:

INTERROGATIVE:

Do they write articles every day? Does he write articles every day?

I/We/You/They + DO NOT + Verb They don’t write articles every day. He/She/It + DOES NOT + Verb He doesn’t write articles every day. - the Simple Present Tense is often used with: always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, every (day, week, year), in (January, summer), on Monday - it expresses habitual actions: He works every day. - in newspaper headlines: Prime Minister Visits China - for dramatic narrative: When the curtain rises, a door opens and a man enters. - in radio or TV sportive commentaries: John gets the ball and throws it to Jim. - to express general truths: The Earth moves round the sun. Wood floats on water. - cooking demonstrations on TV: I now mix the butter with the cocoa. - for a planned future action or series actions particularly when they refer to a journey: We leave London at 10:00 next Tuesday and arrive in Paris at 13:00. - in conditional sentences, type 1: If the article is good he will get a prize. - in time clauses: When the article is ready they will print it. - to express the date: Tomorrow is Saturday. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE: -it is formed with the present tense of the

auxiliary verb To Be + the present participle: They are writing an article now. INTERROGATIVE: TO BE + Subject + VERB-ing? Are they writing an article now? NEGATIVE: Subject + TO BE + NOT + V-ing They are not (aren’t) writing an article. is used: - for temporary situations: They are living in the country this year. - for an action happening now (right now, at this moment): The eye-witness is writing.
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- when two continuous tenses having the same subject are joined by and, the auxiliary may be dropped before the second verb: He is writing and listening to music. - for a definite arrangement in the near future: They are getting married next month. - with always for an action which appears to be continuous. He is always working. This sort of action quite often annoys the speaker but doesn’t necessarily do so, it could imply that he spends too much time working, could also be said in a tone of approval. - The spelling of the present participle: - when a verb ends in a single e, this e is dropped before ING: write - writing - when a verb of one syllable has one vowel and ends in a single consonant, this consonant is doubled before ING: hit – hitting, run – running, stop – stopping I. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense 1. How do you know that the article (not tell) ……………….. the truth? 2. These thieves (meet) ……………… and (work) …………… at night. 3. How much these workers (owe)………………………………. their employer? 4. This message has just arrived and the man (wait) …………… ……………………... in case you (want) to send a reply ………… ………………………………………. 5. This is our itinerary. We leave home on the 7th, (arrive) ………………. in Paris on the 8th, (spend) ……………… the day there and (set) ……………that night for Italy. 6. What the courier (wait) ………….for? you (have) ………… ….. to send the letters? 7. The people (hear)…………………. what the lecturer (say) ………………………….. 8. What (make) ………………… this terrible noise? It (annoy) …………….. everybody. 9. It is a lovely spring day. The sun (shine) ……….. and the birds (sing)………………...
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10. What this word (mean) ………….? This dictionary (not give) an explanation………. II. Translate into English the following sentences: 1. Sondajul de opinie îl arată pe el preşedinte. …………………...…… …………………………………………………………………………. 2. Extremiştii de stânga au un congres anual. ………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. 3. El nu vrea să candideze pentru preşedenţie. ……………………..… …………………………………………………………………………. 4. Ei numară voturile acum. ……………………………………….….. …………………………………………………………………………. 5. De ce scriu două persoane în cabina de vot? …………………..…… …………………………………………………………………………. 6. Parlamentarii vor să reexamineze această ordonanţă……..………… …………………………………………………………………………. 7. Ministrul Învăţământului discută cu profesorii grevişti. ….………... …………………………………………………………………………. 8. Mereu comentează telenovelele de pe acest program…………….… …………………………………………………………………………. 9.De ce îl arestează pe acel bărbat? …………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………. 10.Curtea Supremă ascultă ce are de zis acuzatul. …….……………… ………………………………………………………………………….

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UNIT 3

GLOBALIZATION I. Read the text, put a line through each unnecessary word and then write the word in the space provided at the end of the line. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick against the line number. (The Economist, 2000)
It does not help that some globalization can mean many things to ……………...… many people, but a minimum much definition would probably include a …….…… diminishing role for a one national borders and the gradual fusing of separate ……... national markers into a single global market place. The term “globalization” …….... was probably first coined in the 1980s, but the idea has been all around for a ………... long time ago. Indeed, by some measures the world was more globalized a ………... century ago than it is now: certainly people were far more likelier to emigrate ……. to find work. After an anti-trade backlash in the 1920s and 30s, globalization ……. has been accelerating during the past three decades. And thanks to the ………..….. innovations in communications and transport that has let people and capital ……… travel at a great speed, it is now moving into a different gear altogether. ………..…

II. Read the following article Cat in the ‘At’ about the universal term “@” What do a cinnamon bun, an ear and a monkey’s tail have in common? They’re all terms used to describe “@” in different languages. National Taiwan University’s Karen Chung discovered that many cultures have creative names for what English speakers refer to simply as the “at” symbol Mandarin Chinese: little mouse; Danish: elephant’s trunk; Dutch: monkey’s tail Hungarian: worm/maggot; Swedish: cat’s foot; Arabic/German/Turkish: ear; Hebrew: strudel; Swedish: cinnamon bun; Serbian: crazy “a” (Newsweek, May, 2000) III. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): merchant @ florence: The ubiquitous symbol of Internet era communications, The @ sign used in e-mail addresses is actually a 500year-old invention of Italian merchants, a Rome academic, Giorgio
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Stabile, has (1)… . He claims to have stumbled on the earliest known example of the symbol’s use, as an (2) … of a measure of weight or volume. He said the @ sign (3) … an amphora, a measure of capacity based on the terracotta jars used to transport grain and liquid in the ancient Mediterranean world. The first known (4) … of its use occurred in a letter written by a Florentine merchant on May 4, 1536. The ancient symbol was (5) … in the course of research for a visual history of the 20th century. (6) …, the sign had made its way along trade routes to northern Europe, where it (7) … its contemporary accountancy meaning: ‘at the price of’. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) a) indicated a) point a) represented a) illustration a) unwrapped a) Apparently a) lift b) revealed b) indication b) substituted b) notice b) located b) Outwardly b) enhance c) illustrated c) pound c) expressed c) instance c) exposed c) Actually c) strengthen d) pointed d) scale d) described d) remark d) unearthed d) Logically d) elevate

IV. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the passage with one suitable word
ESPERANTO

The best-known of all the artificial languages, Esperanto, (1) … the invention of a Polish oculist, Ludwig Zamenhof. He made the first draft of his international (2) … when he was fifteen. (3) … own language background was very mixed: Russian was used at home, with Yiddish and Polish outside, and French, German, Latin, Greek and English taught in school. The scheme was first published in Russian in 1887. The first Esperanto journal was (4) … in 1889 and the first congress was (5) … in 1905, bringing together nearly 700 delegates from 20 countries. Today Esperanto is frequently encountered (6) … international conferences. Several journals and newspapers are published (7) … the language and (8) … is a large translated literature in addition to original work written in Esperanto. Despite its popularity, Esperanto has (9)… to achieve official status as an international language. A proposal to the United Nations in 1966 was signed by nearly a million people from
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74 countries, (10) … favor English as a world language, and from supporters of other artificial languages. Several criticisms have been (11) … of the language, (12) … it is generally easy to learn to read Esperanto. (13) … always with language learning, (14) …, passive competence is much easier to achieve than active use, and a (15) … deal of memory work is still needed before fluency is acquired. Loan Words A very large proportion of every day English words has Latin or Greek origins, for example et cetera, exit, per annum, vice versa. V. Complete each sentence with one of the Latin words or phrases given ad hoc alias alibi curriculum vitae de facto incognito interim in vitro persona non grata verbatim 1. The accused woman seemed to have a perfect … until the private investigator searched further. 2. Mr Johnson may have no legal authority but he is … the headmaster of the high school and he could have paid more attention to the candidate’s … 3. A/an … committee was set up at once to welcome the foreign guests. 4. He was a very interesting professor so all the students were trying to write down his lectures … 5. The manager announced the bankruptcy of the company and all the employees received a/an … payment. 6. The ambassador was declared … and sent back to his own. 7. The president did not want to be recognized, so he traveled … 8. There are a lot of conferences about the ethics of … fertilization. 9. Tom Finn, … Daniel Marlow, is accused of having kidnapped a little boy. PRIVACY I. Which of the following rights to privacy are important to you? • privacy of communications: security of mail, e-mail, faxes and telephone calls
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• confidentiality of data: personal details such as medical records, credit information and school records to be kept secret. • freedom from intrusion: respect for individuals’ property or personal space such as their house, office, desk • protection from false stories in newspapers, television or other media, including the Internet • solitude: the right to be left alone when they wish, without being observed II. What do these people do? - eavesdropper, hacker, informer, insider, intruder, paparazzo, private investigator, spy, stalker, trespasser In what situations might the following methods of identifying people be used: • DNA samples, fingerprints, hand geometry, retina scan, voice recognition III. Match the following idioms about privacy to their meanings: a. be at someone’s elbow 1. attend a social function without an invitation b. breathe down someone’s neck 2. drive too closely behind another car c. breathing space 3. force oneself upon others d. crash a party 4. be very close e. elbow one’s way in 5. avoid someone’s company f. elbow room 6. stand very near and watch someone very closely g. feel fenced/hemmed in 7. take over something that belongs to another h. keep someone at arm’s length 8. enough room i. move in on someone 9. feel kept from doing what one would like j. tailgate 10. enough room to move around comfortably IV. Read the text below and think of one word which fits each space Grave concern has been (1) … following the publication of a European Parliament report (2) … that the US National Security Agency is routinely (3) … all telephone, fax and e-mail
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communications (4) … Europe and elsewhere in the world. The intelligence-gathering system, known (5) … “Echelon”, scans all messages for key (6) … and then sends target information to Fort Meade in Maryland (7) … further analysis. One member (8) … the Socialist Group described the report’s findings as outrageous and demanded tighter controls (9) … what she called “this blatant infringement of our citizens’ right to privacy”. V. Here is a description of the world’s first truly interactive TV programme, Big Brother. Read the description and decide which answer best fits each gap: 'Ten people. Ten weeks. One house.` Big Brother, Gran Hermano, Il Grande Fratello … probably the world’s most successful `Real Life` TV show. In this 24-hour online soap opera ten contestants are 1) … from tens of thousands of hopefuls. They live together for two and a half months in a house completely 2) … from the rest of the world with no access to TV, radio and newspapers and no means of 3) … their family and friends. Mobile phones are 4) … and the contestants’ 5) … moment is recorded 6) … dozens of television cameras and microphones placed throughout the house. From the kitchen to the garden. From the bedrooms to the bathroom. The programme 7) … the people in the house in an interesting, if difficult, position. They must 8) … together or the ten weeks could turn into a living hell, but they must also compete against each other to win the votes and support of the viewing public. Every week the viewers decide which one of the candidates will be 9) … from the house. At the end of the ten weeks there is only one winner. The idea of locking twelve strangers in a house and letting millions of the viewing public watch the minutae of their daily routine must have seemed to some producers a 10) … idiotic way of eating in their budget. But it is proved that the doubters were 11) … wrong. The sight of these 12) … confident people making contact with each other, only to be kicked out of the house, 13) … embarrassed, a week or ten later has gripped tv audience like few programmes before. 14) … everyone’s amazement, this is popular TV. But like George Orwell’s Big Brother, it’s 15) … clear that television is taking us down roads that no one in their right mind would wish for the medium.
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1. a) chosen 2. a) apart 3. a) calling 4. a) banned 5. a) any 6. a) by 7. a) arranges 8. a) get in 9. a) evicted 10. a) comprehensively 11. a) extremely 12. a) abudantly 13. a) acutely 14. a) At

b) drawn b) cut off b) communicating b) forbidden b) each b) for b) places b) get on b) pushed away b) finally b) fully b) conspicuous b) glaringly b) By

c) picked c) cut out c) contacting c) stopped c) every c) on c) puts c) get off c) sent away c) sheer c) perfectly c) downright c) purely c) On

d) taken d) depicted d) phoning d) taken d) single d) with d) situates d) get with d) sent out d) totally d) quite d) supremely d) wholly d) To

VI. Answer the following questions: 1. Hundreds of thousands of young people have applied to take part in this successful ’Real Life’ TV show. Why do you think they wanted to take part? 2. Would you like to take part in a similar programme? What do you know about the selection criteria of the organizers? 3. The TV show has been watched by millions around world. What do you think is the secret of its popularity? THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE

- in regular verbs, it is formed by adding ed to the infinitive: He owned the firm last year. - in irregular verbs, it is formed by choosing the second form (see Annex 1) He wrote an interesting report. (to write – wrote – written) INTERROGATIVE: DID + Subject + VERB _infinitive? Did he own the firm? Did he write an interesting report?
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NEGATIVE: Subject + DID NOT (DIDN’T) + VERB _infinitive

He did not (didn’t) own the firm last year. He did not (didn’t) write an interesting report. - with adverbs: yesterday, last (week, month, year), …ago, once upon a time - for actions completed in the past at a definite time when the time is given: They employed this accountant last month. - or when the time is asked about: When did they employ this accountant? - or when the action clearly took place at a definite time even though this time is not mentioned: How did he get his present job? THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE - it is formed by the past tense of the verb to be + the present participle S1 (I, She, He, It) + was + verb _ing She was interviewing two people at this time yesterday. S2 (We, You, They) + were + verb _ing They were presenting the news at this hour last evening.
INTERROGATIVE: Was + S1 + verb _ing?

Was she interviewing two people at this time yesterday? Were + S2 + verb _ing? Were they presenting the news at this hour last evening?
NEGATIVE: S1 + was not (wasn’t) + verb _ing

She was not (wasn’t) interviewing two people at this time yesterday. S2 + were not (weren’t) + verb _ing They were not (weren’t) presenting the news at this hour last evening. The Continuous Past Tense is used: - to express a past action in progress: She was presenting the sports news. - two parallel actions in progress: She was interviewing people while he was recording. - a past action in progress interrupted by a short past action: She was presenting the sports news when someone entered the studio.
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I. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple or continuous past tense: 1. The aeroplane in which the football team …………………..(travel) …………………..(crashed) soon after taking off. 2. He said that he ……………………………………(be) the captain of a ship which ……………………….(sail) that night for Constanta. 3. It ………………………………. (be) a fine day and the roads ……………………(be) crowded because a lot of people ……………………………(rush) to the seaside. 4.There had been an accident and men ……………………….(carry) the injured people to an ambulance. 5. Two men ………………..(fight) at a street corner and a policeman………………… (try) to stop them. 6.The murderer………………………… (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he …………………………(see) someone coming. 7.The prisoner ………………….. (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he ……………….(work). He ………………(wear) blue overalls and black shoes. 8.The curtain just ……………….. (rise) when somebody at the back of the theatre ………………….(shout) “Fire”. The audience ……………(look) rounds nervously. 9.The actors……….. (walk) to the front of the stage, ………….(take) a bow and ………………….(wave) to the audience. 10. When the soldiers …………………. (advance) they didn’t realize that the enemy ………………………… (plan) a surprise attack. II. Translate into English: 1. Ruşii nu s-au supărat, când SUA au anunţat că se retrag din Tratatul Rachetelor Antirachetă. ……………………………...………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………. 2. Avioanele americane au bombardat toate taberele de antrenament ale Al-Qaeda. …………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………….
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3. Guvernul francez a hotărât să introducă măsuri noi care să monitorizeze şi să restricţioneze folosirea animalelor vii la experimente ştiinţifice. …………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………. 4. În timp ce americanii îl căutau la Tora Bora, Osama bin Laden se afla în Pakistan. ….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. 5. George W. Bush a leşinat, în timp ce se uita la un meci de fotbal. ……...…………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………. 6. Guvernul de la Islamabad a trimis trei unităţi de blindate la graniţa cu India. ……………………….………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………. 7. În timp ce portarul alerga să prindă o minge, o sticlă cu apă l-a lovit în cap. ….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. 8. Când se întorcea spre maşină un agent de circulaţie tocmai îi lipea o amendă pe parbrizul maşinii. A încercat să-l convingă să i-o anuleze, dar acesta a refuzat. ….……………………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………. 9. Turiştilor nu li s-a dat voie să înoate ieri pentru că bătea un vânt puternic. .………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. 10. În timp ce filma pentru un nou film, cascadorul s-a accidentat grav. …………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………….

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UNIT 4

SOCIETY I. Choose which of the missing paragraphs (a-i) fits each of the numbered gaps If you’re poor it’s your fault POOR? It’s your own fault. It may (1) … , says the Institute for Public Policy Research, a think-tank. In an essay on child poverty, Lisa Harker, a trustee of the Daycare Trust, a child care charity, says that (2) … because it has not caught the public’s imagination. Most people believe that poverty (3)…, and many regard hardship as a symptom of personal failure, she says. The slowing of the economy is another factor, (4) … for spending on anti poverty initiatives. “People often (5) … – such as laziness or an inability to parent effectively – rather than simply a lack of material resources”, she says in her report. The Government must (6) …, by showing how its reduction could benefit society as a whole, as well as making a moral argument for its elimination, the research says. What (7) … like Make Poverty History, the celebrity-led campaign against Third World poverty, Harker argues.”The extent and nature of child poverty in Britain will only (8)… with people’s own every-day experiences.” The Government has a communication problem, agrees Tom Sefton, a child poverty expert. “We need examples that people (9) …”, he says, and they should be written in “language people can relate to.” (Times, 13 June 2006) a) can relate to on the effects of poverty on life chances b) because it means that ministers must work harder to win support c) become clear when it is told in stories that have resonance d) the Government’s pledge to eradicate child poverty could fail
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e) thus make a “self interest” case for eliminating child poverty f) sound harsh, but that’s what everyone else thinks g) is less of a problem now than it was a decade ago h) attribute poverty to individual failings i) is needed in a high profile, popular campaign II. Complete the sentences using the words from the box: 1. companies 2. consumers 3. corporations 4. crops 5. cuts 6. debt 7. deprived 8. disease 9. earnings 10. individual 11. managers 12. prices 13. repayments 14. risks 15. supermarket … has been crippling the Third World over the last five years. Countries can be forced to sacrifice as half as their export … as … on debts to Western banks. And, before the West offers new loans, it insists on drastic … in welfare spending which hit the …hardest. The world is now a … for the rich world’s … - and the … of that supermarket are the multinational agribusiness … . These … control production …, often holding small farmers under contract for their export … this way they can buy harvests at controlled prices while leaving the … of bad weather and plant … on the shoulders of the … farmer. III. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it: 1. The population of the country has not expanded appreciably in the last five years. There has been no …………………………………………. 2. It seems as if there is a slight deterioration in the injured man’s physical condition. The injured man’s physical condition……………………….. 3. Alternative medicine is a complete mystery for many people. Many people are …………………………………………………… 4. A new vaccine has been on trial since the beginning of the month. They ………………………………………………………………... 5. The documentary showing the effects of the famine stirred emotions in the audience. Strong emotions ……………………………………………. 6. The government has closed down five coal mines and will close more next year.
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Five coal mines …………………..and more …………………... 7. During the press conference the aid agency issued a statement saying they would send emergency food suppliers to the disaster area. A statement ……………………that emergency food suppliers ………………… 8. Brazil have won the World Cup the most times, not Italy. It…………………………………………………………..………… 9. No one stands a chance of eradicating the drug problem in this Democratic mandate. It’s a foregone …….………………………………………………… …………………… IV. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The mysterious case of the missing M P has become the … of considerable interest of the press over the last days. a) focus b) middle c) pin-point d) target 2. It’s unbelievable how many small children … in this country. a) implore b) plead c) entreat d) beg 3. The man known as Prince Paul claims that he is the … heir of the royal family. a) authentic b) correct c) rightful d) due 4. The experts haven’t had time to complete their investigations, but they have concluded … that the explosion was caused by a bomb. a) terminally b) tentatively c) tenuously d) temporally 5. The American Indians have sued the government for the return of their … lands. a) ancestral b) antique c) hereditary d) inherited 6. Car fumes pollution … a serious threat to public health. a) pose b) put c) raise d) risk 7. Many people fed up with city life and decided to … the plunge and move to the country. a) do b) leave c) make d) take 8. The factory strike started in a united way, but then … out after only one day. a) break b) fizzle c) run d) wash
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9. After protests from environmentalist groups, the government has … plans to build a six-lane highway through the wood. a) adjourned b) hindered c) paused d) shelved TOMORROW’S WORLD I. Choose which of the missing paragraphs (a-i) fits each of the numbered gaps Although (1) … may not sound like much, it is the difference between now and the last Ice Age, when huge glaciers covered Europe and most of Britain. The temperature of the (2) …this century, and the oceans have risen by at least 10 cm and it may (3) … to swell. This means that the global warming we are (4) … we have dumped into the atmosphere up to the 1960s. Since then, (5)… increased rapidly. Scientists working for the United Nations and European governments have been warning that (6) … to do will be to build more extensive sea defenses. Many of the world’s great cities are at risk, (7) … level. Miami, almost entirely built on a sandbank, could be swept away. But the effects of rising (8) … the developing countries. With a metre rise in sea levels, 200 million could become homeless. There are other fears too, according to a recent United Nations report. The plight of the hungry (9) … in the Sahara and beyond is reduced by 20 per cent. a) what the Dutch and the people of East Anglia will need b) have taken the oceans thirty years c) in northern Africa could worsen, as rainfall d) because they are located at sea e) the rise in the global temperature by 4 per cent predicted by many scientists f) now experiencing is a result only of the carbon dioxide g) world has climbed more than half degree h) the use of fossil fuels has i) sea levels will be much worse for
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II. Join these split sentences containing words about world’s big issues: 1. This African people haven’t got a) three kinds of crop. anything to eat 2. The size of Indian population must b) and people were dying be controlled of starvation. 3. It didn’t rain for three years in this c) irrigation was introduced American state 4. There was a terrible famine d) is aid 5. Wheat, maize and rice are e) died of thirst. 6. If people get a loan from the bank f) through contraception 7. The field has become greener and g) and the harvest failed greener since 8. Many of the people trying to cross the h) they are in debt and dessert couldn’t manage to do it and they have to pay interest 9. In the newspaper language usage there i) because there was an is another word for “help”. awful drought THE NATURAL WORLD I. Read the text, put a line through each unnecessary word and then write the word in the space provided at the end of the line. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick against the line number. The natural world is under violent assault from man. The seas and rivers are have being poisoned by radioactive wastes, by …………... chemical discharges only and by the dumping of dangerous toxins and raw …………... sewage. The air we breath is polluted by smoke and the fumes from factories ………….. and motor vehicles; even the rain is poisoned. ………….. It’s little wonder forests and lakes are being destroyed and everywhere ………….. wildlife is disappearing. Yet the destruction continues. Governments and ………….. industries throughout over the world are intensifying their efforts to extract …………..
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earth’s all mineral riches and to plunder its resources. ………….. The great rain of forests and the frozen continents alike are seriously …………... threatened. And this despite the warnings of the scientific community and ………….. the deep entire concern of millions of ordinary people. ………….. But there is still a hope. The forces of destruction are being challenged …………. across the globe – and at the spearhead of this challenge is in Greenpeace. …………. Now you can be strengthen the thin green line; you can make your voice …………. about heard in defense of the living world by joining Greenpeace today. …………. II. Write a new sentence using the word given: 1. Many European people don’t agree with capital punishment. favour Many European people ………………………………. …. capital punishment. 2. The concert was cancelled due to a small number of ticket sales. called The organizers ……………………………………of the small number of ticket sales. 3. From the educational point of view, his first school years have been well coordinated. terms
In……………………………………….……………………………….…

4. There is a risk that gorilla will become extinct. Threatened The gorilla……………..……………………………………………. 5. The protection of the animals is useless unless people take steps to protect the planet. Worth It’s ……………………………………………………… to protect the planet as well.
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6. The blocks of flats that were very close to the blast were badly damaged. Immediate The blocks of flats ………………………………………………… 7. Statistically, fewer and fewer babies are being born. according ………………………………………………fewer and fewer babies are being born. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE

- it is formed with the present tense of have +the past participle: I have just arrived. The past participle in regular verbs has exactly the same form as the simple past (-ed) In irregular verbs, the past participles (the 3rd form) vary. INTERROGATIVE: HAVE + I, We, You, They +VERB (3rd form / -ed)? Have they met at the conference? HAS + She, He, It +VERB (3rd form/-ed)? Has she written an article?
NEGATIVE:

I, We, You, They) + HAVE NOT (HAVEN’T) +VERB (3rd form/-ed) They have not (haven’t) met the chairman. She, He, It +HAS NOT (HASN’T) + V (3rd form / -ed) She has not (hasn’t) written an article USE:- this tense has a strong connection with the present and is used in conversations, letters, newspapers, television or radio reports: The accident has just happened. - for recent actions when the time is not mentioned: Have you finished the English class? - as a result: recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present: I have written the book. (it is published) - actions taking place in an incomplete period of time: today, this morning/afternoon/evening/week/month/year/century, lately, recently, ever, never, always, often, yet already, several times They have called the witnesses this morning.
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- since –is used for a moment in time: 1993, one’s birthday, May, two o’clock, one’s schooldays, one’s wedding day: She has written three books since 1990. - for – is used for actions which express a period of time :a long time, many days/weeks/months/years, an hour: They have started writing for three days. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE:

-It is formed by the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle I/We/You/They+HAVE+BEEN+VERB-ing: I have been writing a report for two hours. He/She/It +HAS+BEEN+VERB-ing: She has been interviewing them for an hour.
INTERROGATIVE:

HAVE+I/we/you/they+BEEN+VERB-ing? How long have you been writing? HAS + he/she/it + BEEN + VERB-ing? How long has she been interviewing them?
NEGATIVE:

I/We/You/They +HAVE NOT+BEEN +VERB-ing I haven’t been reading an article. He/She/It+HAS NOT (HASN’T)+BEEN+VERB-ing: She hasn’t been taking photos. USE: - perfect continuous is used for an action which began in the past and is still continuing: He has been waiting for 15 minutes to be interviewed. - it is used for an action which has only just finished: He has been waiting 20 minutes. - it is used to express a repeated action started in past which lasts till present: I have been skating for ten years. - a past action whose results are seen in present: “Why are you so tired? “I have been writing all the morning.”
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- the difference: the present perfect simple vs. the present perfect continuous may depend on the contrast between completed and uncompleted action: Who’s been using my desk? The activity of using the desk can be already finished or it can continue. I. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense: 1. The journalist …………….(to report) quickly what they ……………...(to find out). 2. What …………………….. (to be) the role of the press in the election process? 3. The Prime Minister ……………….(to speak) to the audience for half an hour. 4. This month all the presidency candidates ………………….(to visit) all the towns. 5. She …………………………………….(to write) in the polling-booth for 10 minutes. 6. They ……………………………………… (to debate) a politic issue since 1 o’clock. 7. The politicians ………………………………………….(not to carry) these laws yet. 8. This party ……………………………………(to back) this candidate for many years. 9. MPs …………………………………(to be) under public pressure to discuss the Bill. 10. The people ……………………………..(to sign) the referendum against dictatorship. 11. These statesmen ………………...(to be) corrupt since the beginning of the campaign. II. Translate into English: 1. Te-a interesat vreodată pagina de anunţuri din acest ziar? ………………………………………………………………………
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2. Comentatorul sportiv intervievează un fotbalist de 5 minute. ………………………………………………………………………… 3. Directorul firmei la care lucrez mi-a cerut să mai angajez doi contabili. ………………………………………………………………………… 4. Încă nu au anunţat numele preşedintelui Camerei Deputaţilor. ………………………………………………………………………… 5. Cine a realizat acest reportaj despre accidentele rutiere? ………………………………………………………………………… 6. Unde ai pus revistele? Nu le găsesc nicăieri. ………………………………………………………………………… 7. Niciunul din candidaţii la preşedenţie nu a votat încă. ………………………………………………………………………… 8. La circumscripţia electorală nr.431 nu s-au prezentat la vot decât 7 persoane. ………………………………………………………………………… 9. Ei tocmai au terminat de făcut un sondaj de opinie. ………………………………………………………………………… 10.Conferinţa de presă se desfăşoară de 3 ore. ………………………………………………………………………...

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UNIT 5

THE LIVING PLANET I. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space Animal rights When we think about animals, we usually consider them in relation to human beings, rather than in their own (1) … For example, people who keep pets are likely to think of themselves as responsible for the (2) … of their animals. If we do not have animals at home, we can still see them in zoos and circuses or on farms, where human beings are very much in control of how they are (3) … and what happens to them. Only animals living in the (4) …, dependent on their own (5) …, and what nature (6) … for their survival, appear to be free from human interference. Do any of these animals have rights? If we look for a moment at today’s society, and at the ways in which animals live, it may seem that most people (7) … they do not. There are millions of animals in zoos to look at, in laboratories for experimental use, on farms for us to eat, in circuses for our (8) …, and in the wild for us to hunt. On the other hand, there are many stories in newspapers and on TV about people who have been convicted in the courts for (9) … on animals. There are also reports about zoos being closed down for (10) … their animals, councils (11) … circuses from visiting their areas, demonstrators protesting against hunting, animal (12) … “liberating” animals from laboratories, and a growing number of wildlife (13) … programs. More and more people are deciding that they do not have the right to use – and often abuse – animals, but that animals have rights themselves which must be (14) …, and when necessary, (15) … for in the same way that we fight for women’s rights, civil rights, and all human rights.
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II. Insert the animals from the chart in the list on the left containing expressions connected with animals. Match each one with an item from the list on the right albatross horse bee lion bull cat cow dog fish goose mutton pig rat sheep wolf

1. to buy a … in a poke

a. someone whose abilities are unknown 2. to smell a … b. a poor, wretched existence 3. to get the …’s share c. to get the biggest part 4. to let the … out of the bag d. to buy something without seeing it 5. a … in a china shop e. a burden someone can’t get rid of 6. a fine kettle of … f. to separate the good from the bad 7. to sort out the …from the goats g. is less frightening than he/she seems 8 it’s a …’s life h. to reveal a secret 9. like an … round the neck i. to destroy the source of his/her wealth 10. to have a … in the bonnet j. to be very clumsy 11. to kill the … that lays the k. to be suspicious about something golden eggs 12. that’s one of their sacred …s l. wears clothes that are too young for her 13. he is something of a dark … m. to be a bit obsessed with something 14. a … in sheep’s clothing n. a matter to be reckoned with 15. … dressed as lamb o. something that cannot be criticized without causing great offence

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III. These newspaper headlines all use expressions taken from activities involving animals. Can you identify the animal reference and explain the meaning?

IV. Use the following words to complete the descriptions: bat bee bull fish fox mouse mule owl peacock

1. as blind as a/an ……………… 2. as busy as a/an ……………… 3. as cunning as a/an ……………… 4. as proud as a/an ……………… 5. as quiet as a/an ……………… 6. as stubborn as a/an ……………… 7. as wise as a/an ……………………. 8. as cold as a/an ………………….. 9. as clumsy as a/an …………………. (in a china shop).
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V. Choose which of the missing paragraphs (a-e) fits each of the numbered gaps. It is sad but (1) … will actually cause people to think how they behave – and where their responsibilities lie. Merely selling ‘green’ (2) … clearly displayed will not do the work. The problem is bigger than that. Many animals are already threatened as (3) … and interesting species are in danger of becoming extinct. Naturalists are still battling to save endangered species, even though it is already too late for some, but they will be fighting a (4) …. It is difficult to know (5) … who most need to hear it. a) their traditional habitat disappears, and many valuable b) losing battle if they are not supported by the population as a whole c) how to put this message through to the people d) true fact that only an environmental catastrophe e) items in trendy recycled paper bags with environmental logos VI. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The candidate couldn’t speak very well because he had butterflies in his stomach and a … in his throat. a) fish b) fly c) frog d) snail 2. According to this map, the old castle is about three miles from here as the … flies. a) crow b) eagle c) ostrich d) sparrow 3. Even if he did all the … work, his boss got all the credit. a) camel b) donkey c) elephant d) mule 4. Many species of mammals are on the … of becoming extinct. a) verge b) tip c) side d) edge 5. The criminal didn’t leave clues at the crime-scene, so the police were completely … a) dogged b) ducked c) fished d) foxed 6. The children were … despair when their cat went missing from home. a) about b) in c) on d) with
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7. The governing party will always try to find a scape … if anything goes wrong. a) duck b) snake c) goat d) donkey 8. He turned out to be a real … in the grass when he betrayed his colleagues. a) mouse b) frog c) snail d) snake 9. The accusations he was charged with were like water off a duck’s … a) wings b) body c) feathers d) back 10. The Prime Minister opted out of the … race and went to live in another town. a) cat and mouse b) rat c) dog d) horse 11. Nobody have ever questioned their leadership. They just follow like ……… a) ducks b) sheep c) beavers d) crows 12. In order to carry out who is the mole of the company, he ……… his way into the chairman’s confidence. a) waspished b) dogged c) wormed d) hounded 13. The quality papers are a different … of fish from the tabloids. a) basket b) box c) kettle d) net THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE
FORM: it is formed with had and the past participle AFFIRMATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD + VERB (irregular –3rd form/

regular –ed) They had finished reading the book before starting to write an essay about it INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUBJECT + VERB (irregular –3rd form/ regular –ed)? Had they finished reading the book before starting to write an essay about it? NEGATIVE: S + HAD NOT ( HADN’T) + VERB (irregular –3rd form/ regular –ed) They hadn’t started writing the essay before reading that book.
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USE: - it expresses a past action ended before another past action After I had bought the house I started to decorate it. - a past action ended before a moment in time: He had finished writing the article by 5 o’clock. - a past action which had just finished before another past action hardly…………when/ scarcely……… when/barely………when/no sooner ………than I had hardly put the receiver down when the phone rang again. No sooner had he got home than all the guests arrived. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
FORM: it is formed with had been + present participle AFFIRMATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD BEEN + VERB ending –ing

They had been walking for hours before their arrival.
INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUBJECT + BEEN + VERB ending –ing?

How long had they been walking before coming here?
NEGATIVE: SUBJECT + HAD NOT (HADN’T) + BEEN + VERB

ending –ing They hadn’t been driving before coming here. USE: - when the action began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to that time, or stopped just before it: They were tired because they had been writing all day long. - a past action started before another past action and continued until it: They had been walking for five hours when they finally arrived. - a past action started before another past action and continued until it or more: They had been writing all the afternoon. (At 3 o’clock they had still been writing) - The Resultative Past Perfect Continuous: it expresses the result of a past action ended before another past action: They were tired because they had been working all day long. I. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense: 1. They………..(drive) for two hours before they finally …… (reach) the destination.
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2. The burglar ……….(get away) by the time the police ………(arrive). 3. By the time he…….. (be) eighteen he ………(become) a professional athlete. 4. How long…………..(they/dance) in competitions when they……….(retire)? 5. He………..(apologize) because he …………….(miss) the meeting. 6. The passengers …………(fasten) their seat belts before the plane …………(land). 7. No sooner ………(begin) the match and immediately the crowd……(begin) to cheer. 8. Hardly …………(finish) the play when the audience …………… (begin) clapping. 9. The lecturer …………….(not continue) until the audience ……….. (stop) talking. 10. They ………………(not vote) about this because one of the members …………(miss). II. Translate into English: 1. Rezultatele de la alegeri au fost mai bune decât se aşteptaseră. …………………………………………………………………………. 2. Au început explorarea unui teritoriu unde niciun european nu mai călcase. …….…………………………………………………………………… 3. Guvernul s-a văzut forţat să adopte o politică pe care o respinsese mai devreme. ………………………………………………………………………… 4. Regina Victoria a murit în 1901, după ce a domnit peste 60 de ani. …………………………………………………………………………. 5. După ce Parlamentul a votat această lege, sute de muncitori au ieşit pe străzi. …………………………………………………………………… 6. Progresul pe care l-au făcut era mai mare decât speraseră ei vreodată. ………………………………………………………………………….
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7. După ce Parlamentul a votat această lege, sute de muncitori au ieşit pe străzi. …………………………………………………………………………. 8. Domnul Johnson s-a pensionat la 70 de ani, după ce lucrase 40 de ani pentru aceeaşi companie. ……...………………………………………………………………….. 9. Abia se terminase meciul naţionalei de fotbal, când mii de oameni au pornit spre Piaţa Universităţii. ……….………………………………………………………………... 10. Comentatorul vorbea de cinci minute, când a fost anunţat că la televizor nu se auzea nimic. …………………………………………………………………………

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UNIT 6

MEANS OF TRANSPORT I. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space
THE CAR OF THE FUTURE

A French company has recently published (1) ……… for a revolutionary car of the future which will (2) ……… the nature of inner-city transport. The car of the future will (3) ……… the good points of private and public transport, giving users the advantages of a private car, (4) ……… the cost of purchase or maintenance. The car will be hired by users on a pay-as-you-go basis. Drivers will simply (5) ……… up the car at a special station, (6) ………. to a taxi-rank, and leave it at another station, (7) ……… for their destination. Here it will be cleaned ready for the next user. The electronically-powered car will be about half the length of (8) ……… mini cars and will improve traffic (9) ………. and (10) ……… pollution in crowded cities. At present, most cars in town (11) ……… only one person who spends most of his or her time looking for a parking (12) … A ‘magic key’ personal remote control opens the car and contains the (13) ……… information to enable the car user’s (14) ……… to be prepared. In the car the magic key also works to programme the mobile phone, radio and heating (15) ……… to the driver’s preference. II. Match the words in the box with their correspondent from the words written below. (Some of them are used for more than one means of transport) by a) car b) bus c) tram d) underground/subway e) train f) plane g) boat h) ship 1) to arrive…… 2) boarding card …… 3) bus stop …… 4) catch …… 5) customs …… 6) check-in desk …… 7) compartment …… 8) cruise …… 9) departure lounge …… 10) driver …… 11) engine ……
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12) fare …… 13) flight assistant …… 14) take off ……15) harbor …… 16) to land …… 17) to leave …… 18) parking area ……19) pilot …… 20) passenger .…… 21) passport control …… 22) platform …… 23) waiting room …… 24) railway station ……25) to sail …… 26) seat belt ……27) stand-by ……28) gate …… 29) terminal …… 30) ticket inspector …… 31) ticket office ……32) to row …… III. Put the words for the different means of transport into the correct columns. Sometimes, words can go into more than one column bonnet boot brake cab cabin dashboard exhaust flap funnel gearbox hull indicator jet engine mast oar paddle porthole propeller radiator rudder steering wheel tyre undercarriage windscreen
CAR TRAIN BOAT PLANE

bend bonnet brake clutch crash gear indicate junction lane overtake reverse roundabout services skid steering wheel swerve windscreen IV. Which words in the box are parts of a car………………… ……….………….……………..……………………………………… or words to do with the road ………………………………………… ………………………………………………..……………………..… V. Buying a plane ticket from the travel agency Customer: Fine, so what time is the direct flight to New York? ……… Travel Agency: Would you like to travel Business class or Economy class? ……… Customer: Is there a cancellation fee, or do I have to take out insurance? ……… TA: Direct it’s a long-haul flight about 12 hours. With a stopover at Paris, you’ll need to count another three hours. There’s also a time difference of 7 hours. You will have to be careful of the jetlag when you come back. ……… Customer: Do I need any vaccinations or special medical treatment to go to New York? ………
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TA: Certainly, what day are you flying on? ……… Customer: I’d prefer no stopover. Do I need to apply for a visa? ……… TA: There’s no need for insurance if you are travelling Business class. However, you should take out medical insurance. ……… Customer: Yes, I’d like to enquire about flights to New York. ……… TA: It leaves from Otopeni airport at 9.30 am. You’ll need to check in one hour before departure. You will need to confirm your reservation 24 hours before departure. Could you give me your credit card number, and address ? ……… Customer: Yes. You need also a passport and a return ticket. ……… TA: “Long Travel” Agency, can I help you? ……… Customer: It’s a long flight, I think. Business class, please. By the way, how long is the flight? ……… TA: Not at all, however I would suggest that you take traveller’s cheques, even the supermarkets accept them. ……… Customer: Out on Monday, back on Sunday. ……… VI. Make new dialogues between a customer and travel agent about: Buying a ticket at the station First or second class; a single/a return to …; how often the trains go; a direct train or a slow train (BE)/accommodation train (AE); Taking a ferry to … A 6-day return; to make a booking; How long is the crossing time?; How long is the car? Have you got a roof box?; ticket; Lane 2 after you have been through passport control and customs. VII. Complete with one appropriate word from the list each of the following sentences about the problems that may appear when you travel by plane: announce, airsick, cancelled, check-in, confirm, customs, delayed, flight, information, lost luggage, overbooked, stopover, suitcase, terminal, transfer passengers a) We regret to (1) … you that (2) …Tarom 340 has been (3) …and it even may be (4)…. b) Some passengers went to the (5) … because their (6) … haven’t arrived.
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c) I’m sorry there is no seat. You didn’t (7) … your reservation and the plane is (8) …. d) It’s too late now. You had to (9) … in 60 minutes before departure. e) Many people ask if they have to declare their cameras at the (10) … . f) The plane will have a (11) … in Paris and (12) … for Toronto should proceed to gate 2. g) They were afraid of a bumpy ride because they get (13) …. h) You are in the wrong (14) …, for further (15) … go to the Tarom desk in hall 7. VIII. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. At the accident place the policeman told the driver to move on his old tramp which … across the slippery country road. a) hopped b) skipped c) tore d) trudge 2. Motorway traffic was … after a lorry overturned and spilt its load over the first lane. a) deflected b) digressed c) diverged d) diverted 3. The bus skidded to a halt after … its headlights smashed in the crash. a) making b) doing c) having d) letting 4. The summer storm played … the cross-channel ferry crossings. a) along with b) together with c) havoc with d) down 5. For many teenagers, driving cars at high speed seems to … a rather fatal fascination. a) comprise b) contain c) hold d) weave 6. The driver of the car … out in front of the coach and caused a bad accident. a) crashed b) pulled c) rounded d) turned 7. In many countries, seat belts are a legal … for driving. a) commitment b) duty c) obligation d) requirement 8. They missed their flight … of delays on the motorway. a) by means b) owing c) in case d) as a result 9. The traffic warden can … you to the railway station. a) direct b) lead c) indicate d) show 10. Most people buy their cars with a loan which they then pay back … five years. a) in b) with c) throughout d) over
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11. They went to the airport to see … the Managing Director yesterday morning. a) about b) in c) off d) out 12. We’re sorry to be late. We were held … by the traffic. a) at b) on c) onto d) up 13. It’s a long-haul flight. They are bound to stop … a) in b) off c) over d) with WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE There are several ways to use verbs to talk about future in English. In many, but not all situations, two or more structures are possible with similar meaning. THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE: Subject + will + bare infinitive

They will ever know what has happened to the leader. (British people use I shall/I will and we shall/we will with no difference of meaning in most situations. However, shall is becoming very much less common than will. Shall is not normally used in American English. We shall call them for a meeting.) INTERROGATIVE: Will + Subject + Bare Infinitive? Will they find out about what has happened? NEGATIVE: Subject + will not (won’t) + bare infinitive She won’t tell anybody about the secret meeting. - it is used to express the speaker’s opinions, assumptions about the future: I think they will have a long discussion. - the future simple is used for future habitual actions which we assume will take place: Many foreign investors will leave this country because of inflation. - the future simple is used in conditional clause (1st type): If he comes at the conference he will give a lecture. - the future simple is used in newspapers and news broadcasts, for formal announcements of future plans and for weather forecasts. The Prime Minister will give an interview about the negotiations.
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THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE - This tense is made up of the future simple of to be + the present participle. Affirmative: Subject + shall/will + present participle (verb ending –ing) They will be working on their projects tomorrow. Interrogative: Shall/Will + subject + present participle (verb ending –ing)? Will they be working on their projects tomorrow? Negative: Subject + shall/will not + present participle (verb ending –ing) They won’t be working on their papers tomorrow. - it can be used to say that something will be in progress at a particular moment in the future. This time tomorrow we’ll be talking about the new headquarters. - it can be used (without a progressive meaning) to refer to future events which are fixed or decided, or which are expected to happen in the normal course of events. He will be giving another lecture at the same time next week. - polite inquiries: to make polite inquiries about people’s plans. “Will you be attending this meeting”?, asked the secretary. I. Which future?
Simple Timetable Intention Already Spontaneous Immediate Forecast, fact planned intention future estimation
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1. The Member of Parliament will be in Paris next week. 2. The Manager is flying out next Monday. 3. The Prime Minister will travel by motorcycle. 4. The plane takes off at 10.30. 5. The delegates will be stopping over in Paris. 6. The members of committee are going to confirm their reservation on Tuesday. 7. It will certainly be faster to take the train. 8. He’s going to catch the train now. 9. The shuttle leaves at 9.15 from Bucharest to Athens. 10. The president is going to a remote part of Moldavia on his vacation. 11. The group of tourists will probably take the coach to visit the archeological site.
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12. If the 5-day return is cheaper all the commuters will take that then. 13. The Bartons have just arrived at the station and they’ll take the next train. 14. They’re very late – they are going to miss their plane. II. Put the verbs in brackets in the right tense: 1. The train …………..(leave) as soon as the announcer …………… (announce) it. 2. The ticket inspector ……………(check) the tickets as soon as the train ……………… (leave) the station. 3. After your passport ……………….. (be) checked you ……………..(go) at the gate 5. 4. The flight assistant ………………….(ask) the passengers to put their seat belts when the plane ……………….(take off). 5. The people …………….(stay) in the waiting room until the bus ………………(be) announced. III. Put a preposition in each of the spaces: 1. Traveling …train is more expensive than going ……your car. 2. They have never been …… an inter-city train. 3. The cheapest way from Bucharest to Istanbul is …… coach. 4. We are going … a Mediterranean cruise. 5. They have to find the way ……the car park …… the terminal …… foot if they go to the airport …… car. 6. My neighbor goes to work …… bike. 7. You should travel … the main islands …… boat. 8. If we go to the station …… underground we arrive …… train platform fourteen. 9. They decided not to fly ……France but to take the car …… the ferry. 10. The best way to reach those islands is … helicopter.

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UNIT 7

CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES I. Answer the following questions using the words written in the box above: airport bank boulevard building bus stop car park church cinema cottage farm(er) field garden harvest hospital hotel library litter museum orchard park pavement peasant police pollution station post office pub railway station shopping center street theatre traffic lights village 1. Where do you live now? Is it a city? Is it a town? 2. Where were you born? In the city or in the country? 3. Which do you prefer: the city or the country? Why? II. Fill each of the following text with one suitable word: In many countries of Europe there has been a steady drift of people (1) … … from villages to large cities. These people, many of them have grown up in great poverty and deprivation, hope to improve their standard of (2) … …, and see the metropolis as the (3) … … of their problems. In many ways, they find what they are looking for. Large cities do offer a huge number of facilities, (4) … … which better education, better health care and improved housing are perhaps the most important. Large companies and factories, the vast majority of which pride (5) …… on looking after the interests of their employees, also open up any (6) …… of career opportunities for (7) …… willing to work hard. Traffic problems and pollution, both of which affect most large cities today, (8) …… the most unhappiness. For people (9) …… whom fresh air, unpolluted water and beautiful countryside are distant – but nonetheless painfully clear – memories of a previous, peaceful life in a village, the situation (10) …… at times be unbearable. The pressure of overpopulation has meant, in the last thirty or forty years, thousands (11) …… of new flats (12) …… been built, often with (13) …… regard to architectural beauty, and the surrounding countryside has all (14) …… disappeared in many cases. It is no (15) …… such an easy matter to escape the turmoil of the streets and find a field or a forest where the children can play safely.
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III. Read the text, put a line through each unnecessary word and then write the word in the space provided at the end of the line. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick against the line number Cities are the places of the extremes. The very wealthy and the very poor …………. often live as near as neighbours, with walls, visible or invisible, in between. ………… The gradual recovery of many cities with centers around the world has pushed …………. up property prices far beyond expectations, making them unaffordable to all …………. but a lucky few. Their density, night life, busy some streets and original …………. spaces make them highly attractive to some, but unsuitable or unattaible to …………. others. City centers often sit cheek by cheek jowl with some of the poorest …………. and increasingly abandoned inner-city neighbourhoods. People who cannot …………. afford, or do not want to, luxury city centers apartments, warehouses or …………. canalside flats often reject the inner neighbourhoods that ring about city …………. centers more and prefer to leapfrog to the quieter, safer, greener suburbs. …………. GOING SHOPPING I. Answer to the following questions: 1. Do you like going shopping? Why? Why not? 2. When do you like to shop? Why? 3. Do you go shopping in a supermarket or in specialty shops? 4. Do you buy fruits and vegetables from supermarket or market? 5. Are there any ways to save money at the supermarket? II. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space
BORN TO SHOP

Good shoppers may be made in heaven. A scientific study into astrology and lifestyles has shown a remarkable (1) … between our star signs and the way we spend the money. The research, (2) … on an
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analysis of 30,000 people’s backgrounds, lifestyles and shopping habits. It states that chocolate firms (3) … target those born under Aries, jewellers should find out Geminis and sport manufacturers should focus on Scorpios. All three signs have long been characterized by astrologers (4) … outgoing, sociable and competitive. By (5) …, those selling more mundance products such as DIY equipment should target Aquarians, while office (6) … makers could do no worse (7) … focus on Virgos, who have a (8) … to be work-obsessed. Taureans, Pisceans and Cancerians are the ideal (9) … for any company. Their insecurity makes them unusually cautious, meaning they exhibit high levels of brand (10) …. As for the other signs, well they could be just so mean they’re not worth targeting at all! III. Complete the shopping list adding new items to each shop: Baker’s Grocery’s Greengrocer’s Butcher’s Confectioner’s bread rice apples lamb coke

Dairy’s milk

Chemist’s Bookshop pills books

Newsagent’s Stationary newspapers pen

IV. Complete the text below using one of the words from the box aisle cashier cash register counter line money pay sales shoppers shopping shopping cart SUPERMARKET – Most of the people like going (1) … in a supermarket. It saves time and people find there everything they
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want. Most of the times there are some (2) … and everybody can get cheaper things. It is nice that people can carry all your things in a (3) … and walk along large (4) … . But when the supermarket is very crowded people have to wait in (5) … for a long time (6) … at the (7) … . Then the (8) … put the things on the (9) … and the (10) … checks it out and asks for (11) …. V. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space Trolley Tales Raymond Joseph of Strasbourg, is believed to have been the inventor of the modern 4-wheeled wire supermarket trolley, (1) … , at a shop in South London. There are now 1,300,000 active nationally, and although 15 million shoppers (2) … , maybe it shouldn’t come as a surprise to learn that accidents do happen. There are, in fact, 7000 trolley-related injuries per year and (3) …; one man after ramming incident that followed an attempt at trolley-queue jumping and another who punched a fellow shopper (4)… But the most revealing statistic (5) …. They mostly turn up (6) …, indeed 7000 were dragged out of the River Thames alone last year. But (7) …, finding use as parrot cages, plant stands, barbecue grills or tool containers. It’s not always absolutely clear why people take them. Police once visited an 82-year-old woman’s flat and (8) … she had brought home and stored in her lounge. a) concerning trolleys is that each year 140,000 of them go missing b) whose trolley had Achilles-heeled his wife. c) leaning against lampposts or rusting semi-submerged in rivers d) which first arrived in Britain in 1950 e) others are far from abandoned f) took away 41 shopping trolleys g) three people were actually imprisoned last year for trolley offences h) safely manoeuvre a trolley round their local supermarket each week
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VI. Complete the sentences below using one of the words from the box commission goods launch retail sales force spending power targeted warehouse sales technique wholesale

1. Buying goods ……….. is much cheaper than obtaining them from a(n) ………outlet. 2. If a company is going to ……… new product on the market, then a committed ………… will improve the chances of success. 3. The ………… are moved from the factory to a(n) ………… and then transported to the retailer. 4. The training course is designed for those salesmen who believe that an improvement in …………… will lead to better sales, and so to increased ……………. 5. In this country the ………… of pensioners has increased so considerably in recent decades that this group is now being …………… by advertisers. MEALS I. Answer the following questions using the words in box: bill/to foot the bill menu cafeteria canteen chef restaurant waiter/waitress course

1. Where do you have your lunch as a rule? 2. Do you have traditional meals with family during the weekends? 3. Where do you like most to eat: in a restaurant or in a fast food? II. Complete the chart below with the things you would like to eat: Breakfast omelet(te), boiled eggs yogurt toast Deserts Lunch sweets soup steak, grilled pudding ice-cream meat beef, pork, Drinks water, mineral water/soda soft drinks tea coffee
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roll olive salami cheese ham, sausages

chicken, fish lamb, mutton chop, turkey meat balls mashed potatoes chips, fried potatoes rice, salad

beer brandy wine champagne

III. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The menu … of various starters, main courses and deserts. a) contained b) consisted c) composed d) comprised 2. The buyers were asked to test the product and give it a mark on a … from one to ten. a) grade b) range c) rank d) scale 3. Eating a high-fat diet is likely to … people at risk of heart disease. a) indulge b) lay c) leave d) put 4. He hadn’t enough money with him to pay the bill at the restaurant so he asked his friends if they could make it … ten while he put 7$. a) in b) into c) out d) up 5. An allergic reaction may occur … a few hours of eating strawberries. a) at b) in c) to d) within 6. The doctor recommended him … on a strict diet. a) go b) going c) to go d) he should go 7. The little girl is the … of her grandmother’s eye. a) peach b) apple c) cherry d) apricot

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IV. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space
COCA-COLA

John Pemberton, a chemist from Georgia, was responsible (1)……… the invention of Coca-Cola in 1886. He decided to make a syrup that was (2)……… original and thirst-quenching. In his drugstore he produced a (3)………of cola-nut extract, sugar and caffeine. The exact (4) ……… is still a secret. A (5) ……… months later, one of Pemberton’s assistants mistakenly served Coca-Cola with added soda water, which turned (6) ……… to be very successful. To market his new drink Pemberton decided to form a partnership with Frank Robertson (7) ……… elegant handwriting was used for the Coca-Cola trademark. In 1985, the introduction of an improved recipe (8) ……… New Coke did not meet with the approval of Coke (9) ……… and the old (10) ……… was revived. V. Write a new sentence using the word given: 1. We would prefer to go to a fast food than to a fancy restaurant. rather We……………………………………………… ………a fast food. 2. We arrived the restaurant too late to get a good table. enough We were ………………………………………...to get a good table. 3. Unless you like jazz, don’t go to that restaurant. if Don’t go to that restaurant………………….…………………..jazz. 4. The anchor of the culinary show will give the viewers a new recipe for apple pie. be The viewers …………………………...a new recipe for apple pie. 5. The doctor advised him to eat fewer fatty foods. cut He ……………………………………………………... fatty foods.
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VI. Cross out the odd word: 1. beef – lamb – mutton – veal – horse – pork 2. grilled – baked – steamed – stewed – chopped – smoked – roasted 3. chicken – turkey – snail – pigeon – goose 4. oyster – lobster – mussels – shrimps – frog’s legs – prawns 5. (hard) boiled - scrambled – sliced – poached – fried 6. cod – kipper – crab – pike – salmon – trout – carp 7. chips – French fries – crisps – leek – jacket – new – mashed potatoes 8. rabbit – hare – wild boar – duck – pheasant – venison – stag 9. raw – rare – medium – medium rare – over-done – well-done VII. Put the following sentences in the correct order:
AT FAST FOOD

a) Assistant: Do you take sugar? ………… b) Client: Yes, I would like a chicken roll and some chips. ………… c) Assistant: Here you are. Is that it? ………… d) Client: Yes. How much is it? ………… e) Assistant: Here is your change. Thank you very much. Good bye. ………… f) Client: Two lumps of sugar, please. And an ice cream, please. ………… g) Assistant: Hello. Can I help you? ……….. h) Client: Yes, a can of coke. And a cup of coffee, please.………… i) Assistant: Something to drink? …………. j) Client: Thanks. Here you are. …………. k) Assistant: That comes to 5 pounds altogether, please. …………. VIII. Complete the following dialogue: Assistant: Good morning. Can I …help you …..? Client: Yes, …….. . I …………………….. an omelet with much ham and cheese. Assistant: ……………. many rolls do you want. Client: Two. And some apple….. Assistant: ……………………….to drink?
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Client: Assistant: Client: Assistant: Client:

I’d like ……….of coffee. Here………………… Is that it? Yes, …………………………… That ……….pounds, altogether. ……….your change. ……..very much. Thanks…………………………..

IX. Match the following complains to their contrary meaning: a) The wine is corked. 1) This is too weak. b) We’ve been overcharged. 2) It’s nice and fresh. c) The fish is almost raw. 3) There’s not enough sauce. d) The bread is stale. 4) Very tender. e) It’s swimming in sauce. 5) We’ve been undercharged. f) We ordered our meal an hour ago. 6) Too hot for a salad. g) The coffee is too strong. 7) It’s overcooked. h) The plates are cold. 8) This wine is too young. i) The meat is very tough. 9) Quite delicious. j) This is quite tasteless. 10) We would like to finish our starter before you remove the plates. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS → nouns are made plural by adding: s : book – books - es to nouns ending in –o, -s, -x, -ch, -sh: fox-foxes - ies to nouns ending in consonant +y: try-tries; s to nouns ending in vowel +y: boy-boys - ves to nouns ending in f/fe: leaf-leaves; wife-wives (but: chiefs, cliffs, proofs, roofs) → some nouns form their plural irregularly: man-men, womanwomen, child-children → some nouns remain unchanged in the plural: craft, sheep, fish, deer, salmon, trout → some nouns are only plural: arms (weapons), belongings, cattle, clothes, goods, congratulations, earnings, outskirts, people, police, premises, remains, stairs, statistics → collective nouns (audience, class, clergy, committee, crew, crowd, family, government, jury, team, union, youth can take either a singular or plural verb according to the meaning:
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The staff were not in agreement with the new salary. (individual members) The staff of the factory consists of 500 people. (the group as a unit) I. Correct the following sentences: 1) The police was trained to deal with crowd violence. 2) More than one pop group have found success too difficult to handle. 3) The singer’s family is not very good at posing for photos. 4) The underwater remains of a lost city is being explored by twelve divers. 5) The cattle was driven into the barn by the old farmer. 6) The manager found the informations in the minutes of the meeting. 7) The policeman reported that there were two suspects on the premise of the house. 8) An old saying illustrates that clothes does not make the man. 9) The Dacian people was very brave during the wars with Romans. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS → uncountable nouns take a singular verb and we are not used with a/an. The words any, some, no, (a) little, much, etc, can be used with uncountable nouns. → uncountable nouns are: nouns ending in –ics: politics, physics, gymnastics → nouns of substance or quantity: oil, water → abstract nouns: accommodation, baggage, behaviour, education, evidence, food, furniture, homework, information, knowledge, luck, money, music, news, soap, work II. Which of the words from the box are used with the uncountable nouns below? a) ball b) bar c) blade d) bottle e) can f) carton g) clap h) crowd i) flash j) glass k) item l) jar m) kilo n) loaf o ) lump p) packet r) pane s) piece t) sheet v) shower u) slice x) tin y) tube w) word
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1) abuse … 2) advice … 3) bread … 4) butter … 5) cake … 6) chocolate … 7) clothing … 8) coke … 9) glass … 10) grass … 11) jam … 12) lightning … 13) milk … 14) news …. 15) paper … 16) people … 17) rain … 18) sardines … 19) string …20) sugar … 21) thunder … 22) tomatoes … 23) tooth-paste … 24) water … III. Correct the following sentences: 1) A large number of equipments are needed to camp at the bottom of the mountain. 2) The Park Ranger gave the tourists several good advices about camping in the park. 3) Little of the soils can be used for the cultivation now the trees have been cut down. 4) A large number of rainforests is being cut down every year. 5) The amount of traffic is causing too many congestions in major cities. 6) Few luggages can be carried by that little trolley. 7) Politics are getting interesting for more and more people. 8) The United States were formed in 1792. 9) The majority of politicians believes they are doing the right thing. IV. Choose the correct form of the verb (countable/ uncountable nouns): 1. The clergy ……responsible for the spiritual welfare of the parish. a) is b) are c) is/are 2. The examination team ……… all wearing an identical badge. a) was b) were c) was/were 3. The audience ………appreciative of his dramatic skills. a) was b) were c) was/were 4. The crew ………. all experienced sailors. a) was b) were c) was/were 5. The jury ……… spending a long time over the verdict. a) is b) are c) is/are
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a) is

6. The police …… investigating the food theft from this orphanage. b) are c) is/are 7. The government ………responsible for this bill. a) is b) are c) is/are 8. Many …are given to the tourist office. a) informations b) pieces of c) item of information information 9. The news about foreign children adoption … unexpected. a) was b) were c) was/were Possession 1. When we are talking about people we use ‘s or s: the tourist’s tent; the visitors’ car. 2. ’s is used when we are talking about time or distance: a month’s holiday, a mile’s walk. 3. We usually use ‘of ’ when we are talking about objects or position: the pages of the book. Also for when a container has something in it: a glass of water. 4. Quite often we use a noun to describe another noun when it describes either the kind, use or place: a lemon tree; a coffee cup; a shop window. I. Correct the following sentences: 1. The teacher of the students announced them their next task. 1. Even if they don’t work too hard they always look forward for the day of pay. 2. Can I have a coffee cup and a piece of pie? 3. The company’s boss is having a big party to celebrate his last business success. 4. The magazines of cooking have a big impact in this country. 5. Many people could see the accident through the restaurant’s window.

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UNIT 8

IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY I. Look at these words. When they are used to talk about holidays or transport, are they usually nouns or verbs, or both? Put one of the words into the space in each of the sentences crossing cruise flight fly journey sightseeing travel trip 1. They are going to New York on a business …………. 2. When I was in London I went on a day ………………to see the British Museum. 3. The …………… from Bucharest to Milano takes three hours. 4. ……………. The Golden Gate Bridge was one of the nicest parts of their visit. 5. The quickest sea …………….. from England to France was by hovercraft. 6. He can either take the train or he can ……, which is quicker but more expensive. 7. Our ………. to the university each day takes us through some countryside. 8. For their holiday they are going on a ………around the Hawaii. 9. After having graduated the college, they wanted to……overland to China. 10. We will arrive in Athens in the morning so there are three hours free for …… II. The following list contains some laws that exist in Britain Which laws are true for your country as well? Which laws do you think are a good idea? Why? Can you think of any laws not listed here, which exist in your country? - People don’t have to carry ID cards. - You can drive a car when you are seventeen. - You can’t buy alcohol if you are under eighteen. - The minimum school-leaving age is sixteen.
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- You don’t have to vote in political elections. - You don’t have to do military service. III. Read the article Maoist manners , put a line through each unnecessary word and then write the word in the space provided at the end of the line. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick against the line number Spit happens It’s the latest Cultural Revolution: China has begun cracking down up ………... on the custom of spitting. The unhygienic – not to mention disgusting – habit ………... it is practiced regularly by two thirds of adults recently surveyed by a market ……….. research company. The streets just aren’t safe: cabbies and bicyclists they are ………... especially notorious for their drive-by spiting. But Beijing is been trying to ……….. stop the spiters in their tracks. The government is imposing the fines on anyone ………. caught in the act – $6 per gob, and they have to wipe up away their mess. ……….. Thankfully to, there’s also some positive reinforcement for the campaign against ………. uncouthness. A recently published book, “Etiquette for the Modern Chinese”, ………. exhorts from citizens to be “stylish, tasteful and cultivated”. And, of course, ……….. not to spit. (Newsweek, 2003) HOLIDAYS
HOLIDAYS AT THE SEASIDE IN THE MOUNTAINS

camping site cruise holiday hostel hotel motel resort sleeping bag sightseeing tent
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bar beach night club (to) lie in the sun sand seaside shell (to) swim

(to) climb forest (to) hike mountain path (to) skate skating-rink (to) ski sledge slope snow

I. Answer the following questions concerning the type of holiday you prefer, using the words written in the chart above. You may also add in the box as many words as you need for your description. 1. Do you prefer to visit a foreign country? 2. Do you prefer to be alone or with your family or friends? 3. Do you prefer noisy places or quiet ones? 4. What’s your favorite season for a holiday? 5. What is the place you like the most to visit it? II. Complete the sentences below with words associated with holiday and travel: brochure, package tour, safari, souvenirs, charter, resort, half board, self-catering, handicrafts 1. I sent off to the tour operators for a ……… giving details of their holiday in Egypt. 2. Most of the people say the ……… ……… has many advantages. Everything is organized for tourists: the flight, the hotels and all the entertainments. It is all included in price. 3. The first day of our holiday in Turkey was for …………… as souvenirs. 4. Bed and breakfast is 25$ a night. If the tourists want a …………, it costs an extra 7$ which covers either lunch or dinner. 5. There are a lot of foreign tourists who enjoy ………….. holidays where they rent a cottage and look after themselves. III. Fill each of the blank spaces with a suitable word or phrase: 1. They were nervous about going to England because they hadn’t been ……….…………………… 2. The tourism company fell …………………..……………………... to a common problem of success: not concentrating on customer service. 3. Many tourists find it takes some tome to get ………………….…… on the left in England. 4. They managed to get to the airport in time ………………………… the traffic had been heavy.
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5. Until recently the suggestion that music might be used to train athletes ……………..………………………………as an absurd idea. 6. Since …………………. this fabulous training, they had noticed an improvement in their physical condition. IV. Some words occur together so regularly that they have the status of fixed expressions. Can you fill in the missing word in these pairs? 1. The tourists didn’t invite their guide to the party because he seemed dull and ……… 2. The receptionist asked the travelers 30 $ for bed and ……… 3. Free board and ……… will be provided for the volunteers who will help to clear the mountain paths. 4. The shipwrecked tourists have been rescued and are now back home safe and ……… 5. At the restaurant the band played country and ……… music. V. Read the leaflet of the hotel and find the words for the definitions written below
THE AMBASSADOR HOTEL

We have an excellent range of rooms to offer the business market, which provide a variety of sizes for different applications. This leaflet contains the floor areas, power and telephone connections, capacities and travel details. However, if you have any special requirements, our Manager or reception will be pleased to help. Advanced booking is essential as the Hotel is used commercially all year round. The restaurant: this room is ideal for banquet, buffet or formal settings, as well as a large meeting room for conference or seminar activities. The Well room: this is a room with plenty of light for smaller business meetings which can be serviced easily for bar and catering requirements. The writing room: a small private room off the main lounge/reception area, ideal for small board, committee or sales meetings, interviews, etc.
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Seminar equipment includes: flip charts and pencils, television and video, beamer, fax machine, computer with Internet facilities. The bedrooms: all 100 bedrooms (single, twin and double) are confortably furnished and are en-suite with T.V., radio, direct dial telephone and courtesy tea and coffee. Laundry and dry-cleaning facilities are available. Other hotel facilities: indoor heated swimming pool, gymnasium and steam room, private enclosed car-park, express checkout and free airport shuttle. a) a place to hold a meeting ……………………………………… b) how to get to the hotel …………………………………………. c) something you want just for you ………………………………. d) book before you arrive at the hotel ……………………………. e) your needs for food and drink …………………………………… f) a bedroom with two single beds……………………………………. g) telephone where you don’t need the switchboard ………………… h) free tea and coffee offered by the hotel …………………………… i) to keep your car safe ……………………………………………… j) checkout faster than a traditional one ……………………………… k) bus to and from the airport …………………………………… VI. Match the beginning of each sentence to its end in the following dialogue a) Good morning, Ambassador 1) could you hold the room? Hotel b) I’d like to book 2) rates c) Certainly, what 3) board or half board? d) Would that be full 4) per night, please? e) Would you like a suite or 5) a room. f) How much does it cost 6) a double/single/twin? g) The price includes 7) how can I help you? h) I’m afraid 8) a deposit i) Could you send me 9) breakfast and all taxes? j) I won’t arrive before 10 pm 10) a cheque for the deposit k) For all reservation we require 11) we’re fully booked. l) Do you offer 12) date? m) Please find enclosed 13) a confirmation by fax?
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VII. Write a new sentence using the word given 1. They saw their children off the station and waved their scarves until they disappeared over the hill. sight They waved their scarves until their children ………………………. over the hill. 2. They have made the 15th century castle a tourist attraction. turned The castle ……………………… a tourist attraction. 3. He never thought of going to Liban for his holiday. occurred It ………………………………… to go to Lebanon for his holiday. 4. His holiday insurance scheme failed through lack of support. back His holiday insurance scheme failed ……………………….. 5. The last day of the vacation was disastrous. in The vacation ………………….. 6. The hotel is almost empty even if it is offering the tourists a good price on the room. take Why don’t the tourists………………………………………offer on their room price. 7. Thunders terrified the people lying on the beach. death The people …………………………………………………………. 8. A sudden downpour resulted in the postponement of the rugby match. put The rugby match…………………………………………………... 9. The group of tourists enjoyed the walk even though it rained heavily. spite The group of tourists enjoyed ……………………………………..
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VIII. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. Conversations people strike up with traveling acquaintances usually tend to be …. a) insufficient b) imperative c) indiscreet d) trivial 2. Open plains are … of the geography of south Romania. a) specific b) separate c) characteristic d) proper 3. The huge form of the ancient temple seems to … any other in the vicinity. a) diminish b) shrink c) belittle d) dwarf 4. There is a constant … of visitors to this archeological site. a) stream b) tide c) river d) current 5. The holiday was a big success, … only by the fact that our flight was delayed. a) marred b) scared c) destroyed d) excepted 6. Having walked for an hour across the moors in the pouring rain, the tourists were …. a) moist b) sodden c) watered d) damp 7. The insurance company will reimburse you for any expenses you … on your business trip to America. a) incur b) create c) lose d) make 8. The travel agency office advised tourists to … a Mediterranean cruise. a) book b) go c) take d) travel 9. The chalet was beautifully furnished and … close proximity to the woods. a) at b) in c) on d) to 10. Although they’d had their holiday booked before their plans fell … at the last minute. a) back b) in c) through d) out 11. The travel insurance that Mr John had taken out before leaving home meant that he was … against the loss or theft of his camera. a) covered b) handed c) protected d) turned 12. The confusion … when two men with the same name checked into the hotel within ten minutes of each other. a) arose b) aroused c) rose d) raised
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13. These days the Medieval castle is swamped with ……… of tourists a) cliques b) mobs c) assemblies d) hordes 14. A large group of tourists were waiting in front of the … ground to see the Queen. a) procession b) demonstration c) rally d) parade IX. Underline the odd word in the following list of complaints: 1. I’m afraid the heating – lightning – direct-line – telephone – car park – key card – lift doesn’t work. 2. I think there is a mistake in the bill – I’ll look into it – this isn’t what I ordered – I’ve broken the fax machine – the room hasn’t been cleaned. 3. I’ll send someone up right away – have been overcharged – send someone to repair it – be with you right away. 4. I’m afraid there isn’t a/aren’t any air conditioning – pens and paper – clean towels – in the mini bar – enough pillows. 5. I’m sorry but I can’t find my room key – my briefcase – hot water - the linguistic conference – the public telephones – my green card - my key card. X. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space
TOURISM

Insurance companies specializing in insurance policies for dangerous activities are reporting a dramatic (1)………in the number of British holiday makers (2) ……… thrills and danger for (3) ………. holiday fortnight. It seems that risky activities (4)……… white-water rafting, freefall parachuting and bobsleighing appeal in particular (5) ………high-earning young men. Two years ago, Andrew Blowers, a keen parachutist, set (6) ………his own travel insurance company. He (7) ……… this because he had had such difficulty (8)……… insurance cover for (9) ………. In the past year, he has seen a huge increase in demand. Most other insurance companies (10) ……… from his own exclude dangerous activities from their policies, whereas Mr. Blowers insists that there are very (11) ……… things that his company would not cover. Big
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game hunting, go karting, white-water rafting and scuba diving are all included in the standard rate of insurance (12) ……… offer. People (13) ……… read the small print of their insurance policies (14) ……… setting off on holiday, but they really should, especially (15) ……… adventure sports are concerned. Otherwise, the consequences could be extremely costly. XI. Look at the following newspaper headlines. What arguments do they present for and against tourism?

WEATHER I. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The delay to the flight was brought … by bad weather. a) down b) up c) about d) in 2. The second day of Christmas was completely … out by the torrential rain. a) breaken b) grown c) poured d) washed
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3. Many of the hikers were overcome … the blizzard and were forced to go back. a) at b) by c) to d) with 4. Hurricane winds … the costal resort for several hours, causing huge damages. a) lashed b) punched c) tickled d) thumped 5. People thoroughly enjoyed their holiday … the poor weather. a) despite b) although c) in spite d) even 6. Today’s match has been cancelled … account of the heavy rain. a) by b) for c) from d) on

7. As hurricane had closed the airport, they had to … the relief flights elsewhere.
a) divert b) deflect c) detract d) distract 8. “It never … but it pours”, says an old saying a) shines b) rains c) snows d) hails 9. It’ll take the gas workers a month of … days to fix that leaking pipe. a) snow b) blizzard c) rain d) sun 10. The ship was sailing in the … of a storm. a) ear b) eye c) hand d) head 11. Exaggerated reports about the number of …in the hurricane have caused panic. a) casualties b) wounds c) injuries d) hurts 12. Who do the foreign tourists make their cheques payable …? a) for b) on c) to d) with 13. The English tourist was traveling for six months and was …strict budget of 30$ a day. a) on b) out c) in d) for 14. The pollution problems in the town have been … by tourism campaigns in summer. a) developed b) exacerbated c) contributed d) augmented II. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it: 1. Changeable weather conditions resulted in the storm, which devastated the area.
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The storm, which devastated the remote area, was …………..……… 2. The restoration of historical monuments is of prime importance for the town council. The first ………………………………………………………………. 3. In the summer, there are thousands more foreign tourists than locals. In the summer, the locals are vastly ………………………………… 4. The weather was dreadful so the rugby match was cancelled. If it hadn’t …………………………………………………………….. 5. Climate change is leading to serious water shortages for people, animals and plants in this country. Serious water shortages for people, animals and plants in this country………….……………………………………………………… THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Form: Subject + shall/will + perfect infinitive - it is used to say that something will have been done, completed or achieved by a certain time in the future. - it is normally used with a time expression beginning with by: by then, by that time By the end of the month he will have taught here for five years. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS Form: Subject + shall/will + have been + present participle By the end of the month he will have been teaching here for five years. - it is used when the speaker wants to emphasize the continuity of a future achievement - like the future perfect, it is normally used with a time expression beginning with by: - it can be used instead of the future perfect when the action is continuous: By the end of the month he will have been studying here for three years.
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“BE GOING TO” FUTURE Form: the present continuous tense of the to go + the full infinitive: We are going to attend this meeting. - it is used to talk about plans, especially in an informal style. Going to often emphasizes the idea of intention, of a decision that has already been made. We are going to subscribe for another periodical. - it is used to predict the future on the basis of present evidence – to say that a future action or event is on the way, or starting to happen: Look at this survey. He is going to be elected president of his party. - it can also be used without a time expression: (see the examples above), but it can be used for the near future with a time expression as an alternative to the present continuous: They are not going to attend the classes this afternoon. -gonna (informal speech especially in American English): I am gonna write a letter. BE TO + INFINITIVE / BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE Form: subject + to be + verb (infinitive): They are to get a 10 per cent wage rise in May. - this structure is used in a formal style to talk about plans and arrangements, especially when they are official. This construction is much used in newspapers: The President is to visit France next week. - in headlines (the verb ‘be’ is often omitted to save space): The President To Visit France - this structure is used to give orders: You are to read these books for your next exam. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE: expresses immediate future: He is about to leave the party. FUTURE IN THE PAST - Form: subject + would + verb (short infinitive) - it is used in Indirect Speech as a past equivalent for Future Tense
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„They will visit the mine tomorrow”, said the spokesman. The spokesman said that they would visit the mine the next day. I. Translate into English: 1. Reporterul va transmite imediat ce va ajunge la locul accidentului. ………………………………………………………………………… 2. Până la sfârşitul anului ei vor fi făcut parte din organizaţie timp de cinci ani. ………………………………………………………………………… 3. Primul ministru urmează să discute cu sindicatul muncitorilor din fabrică. ………………………………………………………………………… 4. Are de gând să publice o fotografie compromiţătoare. ……………………………………………………………………….. 5. Mâine, la această oră, oficialităţile vor ţine o conferinţă de presă. ………………………………………………………………………… 6. Purtătorul de cuvânt al preşedenţiei i-a anunţat pe ziarişti că preşedintele va pleca în vacanţă. …………………………………………………………………….. 7. Mulţi turişti şi-au cumpărat căciuli şi haine groase, iar buletinul meteo spune că vremea va fi din ce în ce mai rece. ……………………………………………………………………….. 8. Muncitorii grevişti se vor întâlni mâine cu patronii lor. Aceştia le vor oferi o mărire salarială cu 10% şi o primă de productivitate. ………………………………………………………………………… 9. Se aşteaptă ca juriul să ajungă la un verdict până la sfârşitul zilei. ……………………………………………………………………… II. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense: 1. This time next month they …………… (travel) around Italy. They …………(travel) around Italy if they ……………… (save) enough money.
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2. What …………… (do) with your cat when you ……………. (go) away this weekend? She …………… (stay) at a cat kennel. 3. “Where ………….(you/go) for your holidays, now that winter is here?” “Nowhere.” We …………….(study) for our exams in January. 4. In two weeks’ time they ………..……… (finish) their preliminary training and ….…………(start). 5. Their committee ………….. (try) to raise money for an orphanage. By the end of the year they ……………. (send) out 3,000 letters asking for contributions. 6. The police ……………(test) the gun for fingerprints. If his fingerprints ………… (be) on it he ……………..(be) charged with murder. 7. The writer says he ………… (be) tired of writing books about horrible people who ………….. (get) more and more horrible on every page, and now …………... (write) about perfectly charming people who ………… (be) happily married. 8. The shop assistant says they ………………… (not deliver) any more orders because this branch …………………. (close) down. 9. According to the brochure this hotel …………… (pride) itself on its service, but the staff not even ………….. (show) a guest to his room unless he ……………… (insist).

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UNIT 9

POLITICS I. Read the following text about the influence of politics even in sport business and choose which of the missing paragraphs (a-f) fits each of the numbered gaps The impact of the European Union on sport regulations continues apace. This has come from a number of sources. The European Commission has considered (1) … (such as pyramid structure of sports organizations and open leagues with relegation and promotion) and indicated some concern (2) … and need to reconcile the commercialization of sport with the role that it has in promoting solidarity. The European Council, (3) … agreed on a declaration on the specific characteristics of sport and its function in Europe. There was recognition that (4) … have a primary responsibility in the conduct of sporting affairs, the EU has supervisory powers under a variety of Treaty provisions. This support for (5) … by an example in the sale of television rights. The European Council supports ‘mutualisation’, (6) …distributed to the lower levels of a particular sport on the grounds of solidarity. (Sport Business) a) with a part of the revenue from the sale of rights b) although sports governing bodies and the Member States c) about the encroaching Americanisation of European sport d) what are the essential characteristics of the “European Model of Sport” e) comprised of Prime Ministers of the Member States f) ‘supervised autonomy’ can be illustrated
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II. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. In all … there will be fraudulous elections in this country. a) probability b) possibilities c) odds d) certainty 2. The party’s leader rehearsed his speech again and again until he was sure that he was word …. a) exact b) perfect c) accurate d) precise 3. The electorate will not easily forgive the mayor for failing to fulfil his …. a) offers b) promises c) vows d) aspirations 4. The chain of events that led to the coup d’etat was set in … by the assassination of the military leader. a) train b) progress c) development d) momentum 5. The senator warned his colleagues that the party was in danger of being … over by extremists. a) taken b) attacked c) attracted d) passed 6. In this country, the President is usually elected for a five-year … in office. a) duration b) passage c) term d) length 7. People started to think the mayor of the village likes to lead them up the wrong … a) direction b) drive c) path d) way 8. The president was questioned under … about the love affair he had undertaken while power. a) oath b) pledge c) swear d) vow

III. Write a new sentence using the word given:
1. He welcomed people as the town council’s representative. behalf He welcomed people …………………………… the council. 2. Somebody needs to announce the president about this case of corruption. told The president …………………………………..about this case of corruption. 3. Most citizens regard him as being the best president for that African country. widely
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He is …………………………………………………………. 4. The fact that he will never run for presidency again is something he cannot accept. terms He cannot come ………………………………………………… 5. Most people took no notice of the speaker at the platform. attention Most people ………………………………………………………. 6. His reputation as a corrupted politician has been established. name He has made …………………………………………………… 7. Any personal involvement on the part of the president in this raw would be disastrous. caught If the president …………………………………………………. 8. The Prime Minister just pretended to agree with president’s suggestion. along The Prime Minister just pretended ………………………………. 9. The leader says his party has more important things to do at the moment. fish At the moment ………………………………………………… IV. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it: 1. The president is in disgrace for being so harshly behaved with his counselors. The president is under………………………………………….. 2. No one stands a better chance of winning the presidency race than him. He is the man most …………………………………………… 3. The government have been reviewing their economic policies recently. The government’s ……………………………………………… 4. People accused the politician of having taken bribe. The politician ………………………………………………...
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5. The State Secretary stormed out of the room after she had handed her resignation. Having ………………………………………………………….. 6. The experts say the government is bringing in a new tax on property. The government ………………………………………………… 7. People were very surprised to hear that a Republican candidate had won the race. It came …………………………………………………………. ELECTIONS I. Match the words on the left with their meanings: 1. campaign a) a very fast campaigning trip, with a candidate making a lot of speeches and appearances in a lot of places 2. (AE) run for b) people who shout out their disagreement election/(BE) stand when a politician makes a speech for election 3. running mate c) an ideal combination of candidates for presidency and vice presidency 4. heckler (to heckle) d) consultants who try to minimize the effects of gaffes and improve the way candidates are presented in the media 5. dream ticket e) to candidate 6. smear campaign f) series of ads, televisions appearances, meetings and speeches designed to get support for a candidate 7. whistle-stop tour g) a group of politicians and their supporters who have similar views on how the country should be run 8. party h) the candidate running for the vice presidency 9. spin doctors/ i) information about a politician’s life, or business or spin controllers secret political activities. When media or other candidates do this they are said to be digging for dirt or muckraking. Damaging information of this kind is sleaze.
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II. Complete the sentences using one of the words from the box: abstain/abstention ballot/ballot box by-election cast ballots/votes constituency election/election day electorate electoral fraud exit poll findings/results landslide victory opinion poll poll/opinion survey polling/polling booth pollsters turnout vote vote-rigging 1. On election day, people with the right to vote … . They …… to elect their favorite candidates. 2. After the voters had marked their … … in a … …, the pollster interrogated them and wrote their options in a/an … … chart. 3. There were a lot of people who … from voting because they claimed none of the candidates to be the right person. These people were counted as …. 4. The proportion of people actually voting is the … and the total number of … cast represents the total ... 5. Only seven people have …their … at the … station number seven belonging to the Constituency 134. 6. Current estimates were that more than half of the eligible persons wrote their … in the … during the morning of the … day. 7. … … occurs, for example, when … … are filled with fictitious papers or when … are not counted properly. 8. The counselors advised the president not to call an early election at a time of high unemployment but he was sure of a ……. with an overwhelming majority. 9. If the … … are anything to go by, the present government stands to win the … and the … will be published in our special edition of the newspaper. III. Underline the right word for the sentences below: 1. When a government is elected, there is often a honeymoon/ political wilderness period when people are not too critical of it. 2. Whoever wins faces the prospect of leading a collapse/lame duck administration. 3. Ministers may be given new posts, or lose their posts, in a cabinet reshuffle/stand down.
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4. A government’s caretaker/grassroots support during its term of office may become apparent during a by-election. 5. When two parties or candidates have about the same amount of support, they are said to be level meeting/pegging. 6. The politicians of the Conservative Party want a fresh /reelect mandate to raise value-added tax. 7. If, in a system usually dominated by two parties, neither party gets an overall majority, commentators talk about a breakaway/hung parliament. 8. The Military Forces may handover/seize power in a coup d’état, putsch or military takeover and impose martial law, or military control, on the country. 9. A riot with fighting, stone-throwing, damage to vehicles and buildings may be accompanied by looting/robbing: breaking into shops or houses during a riot to steal things. IV. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. When a government is elected, there is often a … period when people are not too critical of it. a) crisis b) honeymoon c) political d) stand up wilderness 2. Whoever wins faces the prospect of leading a … administration. a) collapse b) crisis c) incumbent d) lame duck 3. Ministers may be given new posts, or lose their posts, in a cabinet … a) quit b) reshuffle c) resign d) stand down 4. A government’s … support during its term of office may become apparent during a by-election. a) caretaker b) grassroots c) interim d) marginal 5. When two parties or candidates have about the same amount of support, they are said to be level … a) coming b) going c) meeting d) pegging 6. The politicians of the Conservative Party want a … mandate to raise value-added tax. a) fresh b) good c) re-elect d) swing
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7. If, in a system usually dominated by two parties, neither party gets an overall majority, commentators talk about a … parliament. a) breakaway b) fringe c) hung d) splinter 8. The Military Forces may … power in a coup d’état, putsch or military takeover and impose martial law, or military control, on the country. a) depose b) handover c) seize d) take 9. A riot with fighting, stone-throwing, damage to vehicles and buildings may be accompanied by …: breaking into shops or houses during a riot to steal things. a) burglarizing b) looting c) robbing d) stealing PASSIVE VOICE - the passive form of the verb phrase contains this pattern: to be + past participle - simple present: am/are/is + past participle: English is spoken here. - present progressive: am/are/is being+past participle: The song is being performed. - simple past: was/were + past participle: That article was written last week. - past progressive: was/were being+past participle: The interview was being taken. - present perfect: have/has been+past participle: The article has been published. - past perfect: had been+past participle: She knew why she had been nomineed. - simple future: will be + past participle: The interview will be taken tomorrow. - future perfect: will have been+past participle: The article will have been written. - going to future: am/are/is going to be+past participle: Who is going to be invited? - future progressive passives (will be being + past participle) and perfect progressive passives (has been being + past participle) are unusual.
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examples of passive infinitives: (to) be written perfect passive infinitives: (to) have been written - examples of passive –ing forms: being written perfect passive –ing forms: having been written. - examples of passive conditional : would be written perfect passive conditional: would have been written - modal perfect: The building might have been destroyed by a bomb. He could have been asked to talk at the press conference. She should/ought to have been told. These windows must be shut. This castle may have been visited by the Queen. Infinitive constructions after passive verbs: acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think, understand - sentence of the type: People consider/think/know/believe, etc. that he is…have two possible passive forms: He is considered/thought/known/believed etc. that he is… It is considered/thought/known/believed etc. that he is… Prepositional passives – the passive is not limited to cases where the object of an active becomes subject. There are some unusual passives, where the noun phrase following a preposition becomes the subject. The preposition must remain immediately after the verb. – be + past participle + preposition: this pattern can only be used if the verb and the preposition form a unit (a prepositional verb) e.g. be called for, be called upon, – be hoped for, be shouted at, be looked after, be talked about The president was called upon to make a speech. – be + past participle + adverb + preposition She admitted herself having been put up with the situation. I. Change the following sentences to the passive voice. Decide when by is necessary. 1. The police have caught the man who broke into the office last night. …………………………………………………………………………
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2. The thief had completely destroyed some very important files. …………………………………………………………………….. 3. They are holding him in the city jail until he can contact his lawyer. ………………………………………………………………………… 4.They are going to schedule his trial for the next month. ………………………………………………………………………... 5. The gear manufacturers hope the administration may do away with the tax on the car. ……………………………………………………………………... 6. The boss likes people to call him “sir”. ……………………………………………………………………… 7. The manager’s secretary will send notices of the next meeting to everyone. ………………………………………………………………………… 8. By the end of the next week, they will have revised all security procedures. ………………………………………………………………………… 9. The tourists can hope for some improvement in the weather at the end of the week. ………………………………………………………………………… 10. People believe that he is to be elected the new president. ……………………………………………………………………….. II. Translate into English: 1. A mărturisit ieri de ce a fost acuzat? ……………………………………………………………………… 2. Toate vitrinele au fost sparte în timpul luptelor de stradă. ………………………………………………………………………… 3. Clădirea urma să fie inaugurată de primar. ………………………………………………………………………… 4. Bărbatul a fost judecat, găsit vinovat şi trimis în închisoare. ………………………………………………………………………… 5. El a evadat în timp ce era mutat dintr-o închisoare în alta. ………………………………………………………………………… 6. Preşedintele va fi condus la aeroport de toţi miniştrii. …………………………………………………………………………
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7. Lumea crede că jurnalistul a fost ucis de terorişti. ………………………………………………………………………… 8. Vânzarea alcoolului la meciurile de fotbal ar fi trebuit interzisă. ……………………………………………………………………… 9. Răniţii au fost scoşi de sub moloz înainte ca salvarea să apară. ………………………………………………………………………… 10. Turiştii sunt conduşi spre muzeu. ……………………………………………………………………….. III. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space.
THE POPULATION PROBLEM

At the end of the 20th century, the world’s population figure stands at (1) ……to 6 billion and is (2) …… o double during the next hundred years. However, only 10% of this growth is expected to occur (3) …… rich, developed countries. This means that many poor, developing countries will find it impossible to provide everyone (4) …… the basics needed (5) …… survival housing, food and fuel. Fields are already (6) …… overgrazed by animals and overworked by farmers, and trees are being chopped down for fuel. All these things (7) …… led to drought and famine in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa. Indian governmental reports state that 37% of its people are (8) …… to buy enough food to sustain (9) …… . As a result, officials fear the establishment of a new sub-human race of people (10) …… are physically too week and hungry to deal with their problems. To (11) …… prevent this from happening, scientists want to (12) …… the world’s population growth in half over the next ten years. Family planning and educational campaigns will be the main focus of this (13) …… Another possible (14) ……combine family planning methods with some of wealth redistribution. For many countries, (15) …… , the problem lies in the fact that they have so (16) …… desperately poor citizens in the first (17) ……. As the countries of the west have illustrated, the wealthier your population is, the slower it will (18) ……

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UNIT 10

COMMUNICATION LANGUAGE Euphemisms and Political correctness Euphemism is the act or an example of substituting a mild, indirect or vague term for one considered harsh, blunt, or offensive. Pass away and depart this life are well-known euphemisms for die, loo is a modern euphemism for toilet and many of the milder oaths are euphemisms for swear words, or to avoid the profane use of the names of God and Christ. We are using a euphemism again, instead of saying Go to hell, we say Go to blazes (hell fire). Morris, in the Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage, quotes this delightful letter that illustrates the changing ways in which poverty has been publicly referred to: “I used to think I was poor. Then they told me I wasn’t poor. I was needy. Then they told me it was self-defeating to think of myself as needy. I was deprived. Then they told me deprived was a bad image, I was underprivileged. Then they told me underprivileged was overused, I was disadvantaged. I still don’t have a dime. But I sure have a great vocabulary.”(Jules Feifer) The use of a particular kind of euphemism is currently reffered to as political correctness or being PC. These are expressions, which relate to people and society, and political correctness is a concern not to use language that might be perceived as offensive by particular members of society. Thus the term people with learning difficulties was felt to be better than mentally handicapped and the phrase senior citizens was preferred to old age pensioners. I. Underline the euphemisms in the following sentences. Then rewrite the sentences in more direct language 1. This house is a handyman’s dream/ideal for the DIY enthusiast. ……………………… 2. Tom bought a pre-driven car for two hundred dollars. …………………………………
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3. After the laboratory experiments, the scientists sacrificed the mice. ………………….. 4. The sanitary engineers will form a union next year. …………………………………… 5. His supervisor said he had been terminated because of too many absences ………….. 6. The press secretary admitted that he had made an erroneous report.…………………… 7. There is a mirror in the little girl’s powder room. ……………………………………… 8.The steelworkers were considering a work stoppage in two days. ……………………… 9.The infantry executed a withdrawal after the surprise attack. ………………………….. 10. ”We’ll have to let you go, Tom”, said the managing director. ………………………... 11. ”The kindest thing to do would be to put Blackie to sleep”, said the vet. …………….. 12. There is no chance that a revenue enhancement measure will pass during this session of Congress. …………………….…………… 13. A man is helping police with their enquires ……………… …….…………………………… 14. New Prices! …………………………………………………. 15. The police seized a quantity of adult films. ………… 16. The consultant urged the company to make a downward revision in production costs. ……………………………………………………………………… II. Here are some difficult topics which English people often use euphemisms for. Match them to the sentences and decide what the sentences really mean in straightforward English alcohol, birth, crime, lying, obesity, prison, strikes, toilet, unemployment, warfare 1. Would you like to wash your hands? 2. At the end of the evening, the minister seemed to be tired and emotional. 3. John has been resting since his widely-acclaimed performance as Prince Hamlet.
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4. When the lawyer questioned him closely, his client was economical with the truth. 5. There were two hundred casualties in the battle for control of the pass. 6. The union of teachers is organizing a day of action tomorrow. 7. His uncle’s a guest of Her Majesty for two years. 8. Their cassette recorder fell off the back of a lorry. 9. When is the happy event going to be? 10. Jenny’s got a bit of a spare tyre these months, hasn’t she? III. Match the euphemism on the left with what it stands for on the right 1. an approved school a) to get drunk 2. cash flow problems b) to lock someone up (in prison or a mental hospital) 3. cuddly c) prostitution 4. to drown one’s sorrow d) in the habit of stealing 5. to have a liquid lunch e) underwear 6. intelligence agencies f) a penal institution for minors 7. light fingered g) financial trouble 8. the oldest profession h) fat 9. to put away i) spying organizations 10. smalls j) to drink a lot of alcohol in the middle of the day IV. Some expressions introduced for PC reasons have become a part of standard English now. Underline that one you think is the more PC expression in each case? Why? 1. African American – Black American 2. children with special needs – educationally subnormal children 3. a fireman – a firefighter 4. hearing-impaired – deaf 5. a housewife – homemaker 6. a refuse collector – dustman 7. slum – substandard housing 8. an unmarried mother – single parent 9. Third World countries – developing countries
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RACISM AND SEXISM - use ‘black’ (of a person’s skin color as opposed to ‘Black’ or ‘Asian’ or ‘negro’ or ‘colored’) - such words as ‘businessman’ (prefer ‘business executive’), ‘foreman’ (prefer ‘supervisor’) and ‘policeman’ (prefer ‘police officer’). - opposition to sexism is also one reason for the widespread adoption of the plural pronoun ‘they/them’ in the place of ‘he/him’. This is both easy to say and politically correct - but opposition to sexism is also responsible for the ‘Ms” complication. To avoid having to call people ‘Miss’ or ‘Mrs’ antisexists use the American ‘Ms’. - in English, a lot of words are marked as masculine or feminine by suffixes, but many other words have “female” or “male” associations and should be used carefully. - Suffixes marking gender - er (-or)/-ess: traditionally used to mark male and female (actor/actress) - These two words are still often used in both forms, but forms such as authoress, poetess, murderess, and manageress are considered oldfashioned. If you want to be neutral, you can use the er (-or) suffix for male or female. Schoolmistress/master sound old-fashioned, use teacher instead; for air hostess use flight attendant (neutral) or stewardess - man, -woman and –person - Traditional social roles often meant that –man was used even for roles performed by women. Now many people prefer a neutral form for both sexes, if there is one available. neutral traditional male traditional female barman barmaid bartender businesswoman businessperson businessman chairwoman chair(person) chairman stewardess/airhostess flight attendant steward firefighter fireman fisherman headmistress head (teacher) headmaster policewoman police officer policeman postwoman postman spokeswoman spokesperson spokesman
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„Social” marking of words Some words, particularly the names of jobs (barber, burglar, butcher, cheerleader, conductor, detective, dressmaker, farmer, general, hairdresser, secretary, station master, tailor, typist), are socially marked as belonging to one gender even though the words are neutral in form, e.g. in English, nurse was considered so female that if a man was a nurse, he was often referred to a male nurse. Bachelor and spinster can both have negative or undesirable associations. Use unmarried or single (man/woman) instead. You can use partner instead of fiancé(e), especially for someone you live with as a couple but are not married to. I. Avoiding gender specific language. In the following sentences change the words in italics to neutral “political correctness” words with the same meaning. Make any other grammatical changes that then become necessary 1. These young people need to have been physically trained if they apply to be policemen. 1. Dear Miss/ Mrs Johnson, I’m writing to you in order to help me with the Sale&Purchase contract. 2. The evolution of man was a contentious issue for the 19th century. 3. The air hostesses will shortly be moving through the cabin serving drinks and food. 4. In 1969 man first set foot on the moon. Neil Armstrong’s famous words were: “That is one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”. 5. Every salesman in the company is required to meet a monthly target. The best of him will be nominee for the best salesman of the year. 6. Nylon is a man-made fibre. 7. The members of the committee agreed to a man to elect a new chairman. 8. Who was the first man to fly in across the Pacific? 9. The firemen has been fighting with the blazes for two hours.

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II. Sometimes political correctness goes to such extremes to avoid hurting others’ feelings that it verges on the ridiculous, creating expressions that are excessively convoluted. Can you match the PC expressions on the left with their translations on the right? 1. charm-free 2. chronologically gifted 3. cosmetically different 4. hair disadvantaged 5. mentally challenged 6. nontraditionally ordered 7. vertically inconvenienced a) ugly b) tall c) disorganized d) boring e) old f) bald g) stupid

III. Now can you work out what the rather extreme PC speaker is saying about the different people below? 1. In his autobiographical book he tells of his experience as a gentleman of the road. 2. Mary achieved a deficiency on her driving needs assessment. 3. The manager complains that his secretary is temporally challenged. 4. Samantha is larger than the average citizen. 5. The teacher said that John is a child with an attention deficit disorder. 6. The employer warned Mr. Smith with sacking if he doesn’t stop being a person of differing sobriety. 7. The politician admitted that his mother was an unwaged domestic artist. The headline is the article reduced to a few words. To save space, newspapers abbreviate article titles (see the list of abbreviations on ANNEX 3) and use short terms (see ANNEX 8) which are understandable to native speakers, but which may be unfamiliar to non-native speakers. The headline of a feature should identify the subject and it must attract and inform Here is a list of headlines that illustrates the lexical particularities discussed above: 1. Nine Months Later, Balkan – Aid Project Is Being Funded …………………………… 2. Evidence backs rate cut ………………….…………………………
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3. To Thwart a Rival, Quebecor, Fund Make a Bid for Videotron …………………………………. 4. Japanese Survey On Businesses Helps Boost Yen…………….…... 5. Brazil’s Central Bank Curbs Surging Currency …………………... 6. Bush Pledges Aid For Jobless and More Tax Cuts ……………………………………… 7. European Parliament Moves Closer to Echelon Inquiry …………………………..………… 8. Government Pledges Loan for Swissair ………………………………………………… 9. Blair reaffirms vow to reform public services ………………………………………… Match the world underlined in the headline to the right explanation given below: 1. AID FOR FAMINE VICTIMS WAITED a) reduction b) increase c) assistance d) attempt 2. POLICE QUIZ TREASURER OF CHILDREN’S ORGANIZATION a) look for b) seek c) question d) follow 3. KIDNAP VICTIMS ORDEAL a) surprise b) prohibition c) bad experience d) clash 4. MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT CLASH ON GREEN POLICY a) disagree b) prohibition c) attempt d) assistance 5. PRIME MINISTER’S PLEDGE ON POLLUTION a) assistance b) bad experience c) commitment d) disagree 6. DEATH TOLL GOING UP a) number of b) reduction c) surprise d) increase people killed 7. PERIL ON REMOTE CHILDREN CAMP a) increase b) prohibition c) extreme danger d) explosion 8.POLITICIANS WOO PEOPLE a) persuade b) attract c) disagree d) look for 9. DRUG HAUL AT THE CUSTOMS OFFICE a) surprise b) something c) loophole d) prohibition seized 10. FREE SCHOOL MEALS AXED a) reduced b) assisted c) prohibited d) stopped
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11. TAKEOVER BID FOR BRITISH ENVIROMENT ORGANIZATIONS

a) bad experience b) question c) attempt 12. SOCIAL ASSISTANTS STRIKES LOOMS a) approaches in b) finishes c) prohibits a threatening way REPORTED SPEECH

d) assistance d) increases

- words that are spoken or thought in one place by one person may be reported in another place at a different time, and perhaps by other person. Because of this there are often grammatical differences between direct and indirect speech. - the change of speaker mean a change of pronoun: I – he or she / We – they - a change of place and time mean changing the following words: DIRECT SPEECH now next last (Monday) yesterday tomorrow today this these here the day after tomorrow ago INDIRECT SPEECH then the next the (Monday) before / (on) the previous (Monday) a day before the next day/ the following day (on) that day that those there two days later, after two days before

- the conjunction that is often dropped, especially after common reporting verbs (e.g. say, think) in informal speech: He said (that) he hadn’t been at office. - after present, future and present perfect reporting verbs, tenses are usually the same as in the original (because there is no important change of time). He says he likes writing such an article. - verbs in the direct speech have to be changed into a corresponding past tense: 106

Simple Present “I like watching movies”, said John. Present Continuous “I am watching a movie”, said John. Present Perfect “I have seen this movie”, said Tom. Present Perfect Continuous “I have been watching TV all day long”, said Tom. Simple Past “I saw this movie at the festival”, said Mary. Past Continuous “I was watching this show at this time yesterday”, said Mary. Future “I will go at the cinema tomorrow”, said Adrian.

Simple Past John said he liked watching movies. Past Continuous John said he was watching a movie. Past Perfect Tom said that he had seen that movie. Past Perfect Continuous Tom said he had been watching… Past Perfect Mary said she had seen that movie … Past Perfect Continuous Mary said she had been watching that show a day before. Future in the Past Adrian said he would go at the cinema the next day.

I. Put the following into indirect speech: 1. “The new underpass is being officially opened tomorrow”, said the BBC announcer. …………………………………………………………………………. 2. “I know exactly what they said”, the private detective explained to his client, “because I bugged their phone”. …………………………………………………………………………. 3. “ This is quite a good model, madam. I used one of these myself”, said the salesman. ……………………………………………………………………….. 4. “The advertisement said, “If you answer the questions correctly you may win $100”. ……………………………………………………………………….. 5. “It’s time we began training for our next match”, the coach said to them. ………………………………………………………………………..
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6. “If it rains this afternoon it will be too wet to play the match tomorrow”, the captain said. ……………………………………………………………………….. 7. The speaker on the radio said: ”The concert in the park will begin at 8:00”. ……………………………………………………………………….. 8. In his televised speech, the president said, “My administration will cut taxes in this country”. ……………………………………………………………………….. 9. The weathercast said, “It is going to snow in this region”. ……………………………………………………………………….. 10. The lawyer said, “I told the witnesses to tell the truth”. ……………………………………………………………………….. II. Translate into English and put the following into indirect speech: 1. “Tocmai am arestat doi traficanţi de droguri”, a spus Şeful Poliţiei Locale. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 2. “Aceşti oameni au fost dependenţi de droguri”, a spus doctorul Johnson. ………………………………………………………………………... ………………………………………………………………………… 3. “Vameşii au confiscat o valiză cu stupefiante”, a anunţat prezentatorul de ştiri. ………….……………………………………………………………... ……………………………………………………………………….. 4. “Anul viitor va fi un congres internaţional despre combaterea traficului cu arme”, a spus un înalt oficial. …..…………………………………………………………………….. …..…………………………………………………………………….. 5. “Poliţia a descoperit un laborator de preparare a drogurilor tari”, a spus purtătorul de cuvânt. ……………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………...
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UNIT 11

CRIME AND LAW I. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space Whatever may be said about the causes of crime, one can be certain of one thing. Crime levels, (1) ……… among the young, are far higher than they used to (2) ……… even a decade ago, and the tabloids are continually claiming that society seems to be falling (3) ………. The government’s current policies are not working well enough and clearly (4) ……… re-evaluating. The government should look at this (5) ……… from two points of view. If crime (6) ……… to fall they must deal with its social causes, as well as take steps to (7) ……… social conditions, even if this means (8) ……… more money. They must also develop new (9) ………of dealing with young offenders, which may entail the (10) ……… up of new institutions. II. You have the following categories:
CAR PEOPLE PROPERTY MONEY

Say which of the following crimes go in which categories. (There is more than one answer, depending on your point of view) arson, bank robbery, blackmail, burglary, con tricks, drug pushing, fraud, hijacking, joyriding, kidnapping, manslaughter, mugging, pickpocketing, rape, shoplifting, speeding, vandalism
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III. Underline the extra word in the lines of this text and write them in the space:
WHITE-COLLAR CRIME

White-collar crime is defined as illegal acts were committed by middle or ……… upper-class people while at the work. The term gained popularity in 1940 when ……… it was first used by the American criminologist Edwin H. Sutherland. He did ……… argued that there were important sociological difference between any conventional ……… crimes such as burglary and murder, and white-collar crimes such as some fraud ……… and income tax evaded. In general speaking, the latter are committed by persons ……… of relatively high social status and are treated more leniently than are more ……… conventional crimes done. White-collar crime has become an increasing problem. ……… The authorities are now dealing up with such crimes more severely because ……… of a growing feeling that the effort must be made to establish equality before ……… the law for all its citizens – regardless of money, power or social status. ……… IV. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The two hooligans got … very lightly. Their sentences were reduced to three months. a) away with b) down c) off d) over 2. Shoplifting … accounts for more than half of all recorded crime in this town. a) solely b) uniquely c) individually d) alone 3. The police believed what the man told them because it was … with other reports they heard. a) consistent b) tied c) tallied d) connected
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4. The masked man asked the passengers to … over all their money and jewellery to his accomplice. a) take b) pass c) get d) hand 5. When his accomplices didn’t come at the meeting point, it … on him that he had been tricked. a) broke b) became clear c) dawned d) awoke 6. The defendant was confident he could answer any question the policeman might care to … him. a) drop on b) roll to c) slide to d) throw at 7. The police arrived within five minutes at the … of the crime. a) area b) place c) scene d) spot 8. The police were tipped … by an anonymous phone-caller, who didn’t feel at all guilty … reporting something suspicious. a) off/of b) off/about c) off/with d) on/of 10. Unfortunately, many people … a blind eye if they see a crime being committed. a) close b) show c) turn d) wink 11. Many criminals feel no … about their bad actions. a) apology b) distress c) regret d) remorse 12. During the rioting, many cars were overturned and the shops were … a) embezzled b) looted c) pilfered d) stolen V. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it: 1. The authorities failed to provide protection for witnesses, which caused considerable concern. Considerable concern……………………………………………. 2. The allies thought the terrorists had been hiding from the police in an abandoned basement. The terrorists …………………………………………………… 3. The doorkeeper said that burglars were only deterred by an efficient alarm system. The only deterrent ……………………………………………... 4. The jury couldn’t reach a verdict because of the complexity of the case. The complexity of the case…………………………………….
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5. The teenagers who vandalised the college posed as students to gain entry. Those who …………………………………………………….. VI. Fill each of the blank spaces with a suitable word or phrase: 1. In the end the lawyer ……………………………………… give evidence in court as the suspects admitted they had started the fire. 2. The man was under suspicion because his account didn’t tie ………………………… the other witnesses’ report. 3. The policeman discovered the man was not at all angry when the bike was stolen; ……………………………, he seemed delighted to have got rid of it. 4. The robbers ……………………………get into the bank after they had been digging for a tunnel. 5. The police arrested the suspect after finding ……evidence at his home. 6. A young man, arrested on suspicion of murder …..……… in court yesterday. 7. The judge passed ………… ……………………after the jury had given their verdict. 8. The burglars had a fully worked out plane for the …………… ……………………… 9. When the police have enough ……………… they will arrest ………………………… 10. It is virtually impossible nowadays …………………………. completely when people have commited a crime – there is always something that will give people away. VII. Read the following newspaper article about graffiti on the London Underground and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space Is it art or vandalism? Just a few weeks ago, eight graffiti gang members were convicted (1) … There are more than seventy hardcore graffiti artists thought to be operating in London today. Graffiti artists operate in many towns. They often work at night, (2) … with brightly painted murals in spray paint or marker pen.
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Some people regard (3) … and a menace. London Underground says that rail users find it ugly and offensive. It spends £2 million a year (4) … trains with graffiti-resistant paint. “We don’t think it is artistic or creative. As far as we’re concerned, it’s vandalism”, says Serena Holley, a spokeswoman for London Underground. “It creates a sense of anarchy and chaos”, says Richard Mandel, the barrister who prosecuted the graffiti gang. Passengers feel (5) … out of control.” Graffiti art can also be a dangerous pastime. Some teenagers have died in accidents following nocturnal graffiti raids. However, others say that (6) … “Of course, graffiti is art. There’s no question about that”, says David Grob, director of the Grob Gallery in London. Even some of those who think it is wrong admit that some of the people who do graffiti are talented. “It’s just that (7) … ”, says Barry Kogan, the barrister who represented one of the gang members. a) dealing with graffiti and has even introduced b) as though the whole rail system is c) graffiti as a form of vandalism d) of causing £5,000 worth of damage on the London Underground e) covering walls, trains and railway stations f) their talent is channelled in the wrong direction g) at its best graffiti is an art form. VIII. Write a new sentence using the word given: 1. Some critics consider Agatha Christie was the best crime writer ever. than Some critics consider no one has ever ………………………….…. Agatha Christie. 2. The accused man claimed to be completely innocent. anything The accused man………………………………………………….… 3. They received a seven-year sentence for their part in the roberry. sentenced They …………………………………………………….…………
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4. Soon the whole country had heard the news about the biggest robbery. wildfire The news about the biggest robbery …………………..…………… 5. The police have discovered some interesting new information. light Some interesting new information …………………..……………. 6. The parents were shocked when they heard the news of their boy’s arrest. came It………………………………………………………..………… IX. Complete these expressions to do with law with the words from the box and then complete the sentences below: above by down into unto with a) lay ……… the law b) is ……… the law c) a law ……… himself d) in trouble ……… the law e) taking the law … your own hands f) ……… law

1. It’s up to the police to control crime. There’s no point ……… …………………… 2. His landlord really used to ……… He would order all the tenants to be home by 9 pm. 3. They act as if they ……… ……….and can get away with anything, but soon they’ll find themselves in big trouble. 4. The police officer comes often to his parents’house. He’s constantly …………………. 5. When it comes to driving, John’s …………... He’s always driving over the speed limit. 6. Selling alcohol to young people under 18 is prohibited ……… ………………………... X. Match the following idioms about control of emotions to their meanings: a. be cool as a cucumber 1. lose control of oneself b. be tough as nails 2. recover self-control
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c. be tough-skinned d. come apart at the seams e. fall apart f. flip out g. go to pieces h. pull oneself together

3. be very calm and brave 4. be able to endure a lot 5. lose emotional self-control 6. be able to endure a lot 7. lose control as having a nervous breakdown 8. go insane, become crazy

REPORTED SPEACH Imperative or direct orders become infinitive clauses Direct: Write the article. Indirect: She asked me to write the article Exclamations: are frequently paraphrases of direct exclamations or are object clauses Indirect: He greeted me. / Direct: Good morning! He wished me a good morning. Questions and Answers – in reported questions the subject normally comes before the verb in standard English, and auxiliary do is not used. The same structure is used for reporting the answers to questions. Direct: When are you leaving the town? Indirect: She wanted to know when I was leaving the town. Actions: promises, orders, requests, advice - speech relating to actions: promises, orders, requests, advice, offers, is often reported with object + infinitive: The examiner told us to talk louder. Indirect Speech: word order with what, who, and which - when there are reported questions constructed with who/what/which + be + complement, be can be put before or after the complement Direct: Who is the manager here? Indirect: She asked who was the manager./She asked who the manager was.
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Conditionals - after past reporting verbs, conditional sentences referring to “unreal” situations are often reported with past conditionals Direct: If I had any money I’d buy a new house. Indirect: She said if she had had enough money she would have bought … Negative Questions - do can be used in indirect negative questions, as a negative auxiliary. Direct: “Why don’t you read this interesting article ?” Indirect: He asked why he didn’t read that interesting article. Indirect Speech Without Reporting Verbs - in British newspaper, radio and TV reports, reports of parliamentary debates, records of conferences, minutes of meetings, the indirect speech constructions often used with very few reporting verbs. The use of tenses is enough to make it clear that a text is a report. The Managing Director talked about the results of the previous year. Profits on the whole had been high, though one or two areas hadn’t been very good. Modals: would, should, could, might, ought and must are usually unchanged after past reporting verbs in indirect speech Direct: We shall/should be delighted to join you. Indirect: They said they would be delighted to join us. - in indirect speech, can changes to could/ will changes to would/ may changes to might, must meaning necessity remains the same or changes to had to. I. Put the following into indirect speech: 1. “If the ground is dry on the day of the race, my horse might win”, said the owner. ………………………………………………………………………… 2. “The thieves couldn’t open the safe on the spot so they carried it away with them”, the night watchman reported. ……………………………………………………………………….
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3. “Who will be umpiring the match?” asked the coach. ………………………………………………………………………... 4. “Do puppies travel free?” asked a dog owner. “Can I bring my dog in compartment with me?”, she asked. ……………………………………………………………………….. 5. “Please fill up this form”, the secretary said. “Read it before you sign it”, she added. ……………………………………………………………………… 6. “Don’t put your hands near the bars”, the zookeeper warned children. “Stand clear of the cages”, he added. ……………………………………………………………………….. 7. “Why shall we wait till tomorrow”, said the advert, “Let’s post the coupon at once”. ………………………………………………………………………… 8. “If I lose my traveler’s cheques, will the bank repay me?” she asked. ………………………………………………………………………… 9. “If the noise gets worse, you’d better complain to the police,” he said. …………………………………………………………………………. 10. “What will happen if the strikes must continue?” asked the reporter. ……………………………………………………………………….. II. Translate into English 1. Martora a declarat că nu îi este frică să spună adevărul. ………………………………………………………………………… 2. Mi-a spus că a participat la multe conferinţe, dar niciodată nu a luat cuvântul. ………………………………………………………………………… 3. El a declarat poliţiştilor că vecinii lui se ocupau de spălatul banilor. ……………………………………………………………………….. 4. Cei cinci suspecţi au recunoscut că participaseră la un jaf armat. …………………………………………………………………………
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5. La controlul anti-doping atletul a negat că luase acele medicamente interzise. ……………………………………………………………………….. 6. Secretara a spus că directorul fabricii nu va negocia cu muncitorii grevişti. ……………………………………………………………………….. 7. Şoferul a declarat că autocarul părăsise şoseaua cu 100 de metri înainte să se ciocnească de pom. ……………………………………………………………………….. 8. Prezentatoarea buletinului meteo a spus că, mâine, vremea va fi schimbătoare. ……………………………………………………………………….. 9. Reporterul a spus că i-a fost interzisă intrarea deoarece legitimaţia lui era expirată. ………………………………………………………………………..

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UNIT 12

BUSINESS AND MONEY I. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space
WORD OF MOUTH IS NOW TALK OF THE TOWN IN ADVERTISING

(1) …… of the world’s leading advertising buyers is (2) …… its clients to change radically their approach to campaigns and focus on getting consumers to talk about producers, either in conversations or online. Word-of-mouth recommendations, made easier as e-mail and online connections increase the speed that information is passed on and shared, have long played a (3) ……… role in increasing sales. However, conversations have been hard to track and their impact difficult to quantify. New research used by Starcom Media-vest, an agency that advises companies such as Procter & Gamble on where and how to (4) ………, has measured the (5) ……… on conversations about brands and shows talk is even more important than previously thought. Procter & Gamble, the world’s biggest advertiser, has (6) ……… word-of-mouth strategies for numerous campaigns including for Swifter dusters and Old Spice aftershave. By (7) ……… customers incentives such as coupons or free music videos, marketers hope to push the consumer into passing on information (8) ……… than passively absorbing messages – the formula used with much television advertising. In an analysis of discussions, (9) ……… on data collected by Talk-track, Starcom has found that 76 per cent of people talk (10) ……… at least one brand once a day. Advertisers are already seeking more such feedback. (Financial Times, 2006) II. Fill each of the blank spaces with a suitable word or phrase: 1. As the manager ………………………………………..…………. backing, the company went into liquidation.
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2. The economic situation is disastrous, and it looks ………………… improve for at least a few more weeks. 3. The bank adviser told his client that she had little ……………..….. if she rushes into a new business at that moment. 4. If this branch of the company ………. ……………..…….………... even this month, the managers will be more than satisfied. 5. In spite of substantial investment, the company is still bleeding red …………………… and drastic action is likely before the term end. 6. They started this kind of business because nobody ever tried it so they just saw ……... 7. The new company still have some …………………….. troubles with product development. 8. No ………………………… hard the manager tries, he never seems to win the support of his staff 9. The current financial crisis means that public services will be cut and many shops will be……………………. with closure. 10. The manager’s involvement in that corruption scandal ……..……. his reputation. III. Match the words in the box to the definitions below: acquire acquisitions demand divident industry loss manufacturer profits share treble turnover a) companies taken over b) producer of goods in large numbers c) grow three times as large d) money earned in a business after paying costs e) one equal part of the ownership of a company which can be bought by members of the public f) amount of money handled by a company in a specific period of time g) desire for a particular product h) purchase i) amount of money paid regularly to share-holders (investors) in a company j) money lost in a business after paying costs k) one type of business
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IV. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. They declared they weren’t serious investors, but they liked to … in the stock market. a) splatter b) splash c) paddle d) dabble 2. When the stock market crashed, the traders were … to beggary. a) inclined b) collapsed c) ruined d) reduced 3. By … trading it is possible for many speculators to make a fortune on the stock exchange. a) judgement b) judgemental c) judicious d) judge like 4. The company has serious financial difficulties and the shareholders have been considering some ways of keeping it …. a) aboard b) afloat c) aloft d) abreast 5. Their eagerness of starting their own company has been … somewhat by the amount of red tape they have to deal with. a) dampened b) doused c) moistened d) sprinkled 6. The manager had let his business … down to the point where most of the employees had to be laid off. a) burn b) die c) run d) tear 7. The Managing Director seems not be involved in the day -…day running of business. a) after b) at c) in d) to 8. Many people try to predict which company is going to do well and buy shares … it. a) at b) in c) to d) within 9. The whole company is … with corruption and someone can’t get on without bribing the manager. a) brimmed b) instilled c) riddled d) trimmed 10. Following today’s announcement that two important petrol companies are raising their prices, it’s only a matter of time before the other companies … a) follow suit b) imitate them c) mimic them d) plagiarise them V. Write a new sentence using the word given: 1. They employ extra staff to work for their restaurant in the summer. on Extra staff ……… to work for their restaurant in the summer
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2. It seems that the company will go bankrupt. odds ………………..……….. that the company will go bankrupt. 3. The manager really knows how to get people involved. very The manager ……………….………………………………….other people involved. 4. Provided this is the case, the client’s money will be refunded. so If…………………………………………………will be given. 5. The company has proved successful, thanks to the manager’s hard work. made As a result of his hard work, the manager…………..…………… ……..…his company. 6. The president of the company always makes everything look so difficult! weather The president ….…………………………………………………… ………………….. 7. Interest rates have fallen sharply this week. decline There …………………………………………………this week. 8. The final date of the meeting is still undecided, according to the marketing committee. on The marketing committee……………………………………...…… ….…………………………… VI. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it. 1. The employees believe that the accountant stole the company’s pension fund money. The accountant …………………………………………… 2. The fund-raisers have not officially stated where to send the proceeds of the auction. No ………………………………………………………………
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3. The specialists say that the communication industry will be the money spinner of the future. The communication industry…………………………………… 4. The workers will only withdraw their threat of strike action when the management agree to drop their proposals. Only …………………………………………………………….. 5. For accountancy and marketing economic skills are needed. Subjects ………………………………………………………… 6. His grandfather first set up the company in 1935. It was ……………………………………………………………. 7. The Finance Minister’s involvement in that corruption scandal has tarnished his reputation. The Finance Minister is under a ………………………………... MONEY I. Read the text, put a line through each unnecessary word and then write the word in the space provided at the end of the line. Some lines are correct. Indicate these lines with a tick against the line number The symbol for the euro it is the capital E with two parallel horizontal ………. lines through it. It comes back from the Greek letter ‘epsilon’ as a reference both ……… to Greece as the cradle of the Europan civilization and to the first letter of the ……… word ‘Europe’. One side of euro coins is decorated by an individual countries, while the ……… other has a common European design. The 1,2 and 5 cent coins illustrate Europe’s ……... place in the world, the 10, 20 and 50 stress the unity of EU countries, while the 1 ……… and 2 euro coins will show Europe without frontiers. ……… Euro notes are at the same on both sides in all countries, with designs that ………
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symbolize Europe’s architectural heritage. One side has windows and gateways ……… as symbols of the openness and in co-operation among Europe’s nations, while the …….. other shows historic bridges, which representing communications among the …….… different peoples of Europe, and also with the rest of the world. ……… The name of ‘euro’ is the same in all participating Member States of the ……… EU. The pronunciation, however, may vary from one country to country. ……… II. Match the words in box to their meanings: 1. capital 2. counterfeit money 3. exclusive 4. fiscal 5. (in) instalments 6. an invoice 7. to be overdrawn 8. royalties 9. turnover 10. well-to-do 11. well-heeled 12. windfall a) the amount of money earned by a business during a particular period of time b) to be in debt to the bank because you have spent more money than you have in your account c) the amount of money you need to start a business d) (informal) rich and often belonging to a high social class e) small monthly payments f) related to government or public money especially taxes g) (informal) very rich h) false money, copied to look like real money i) a large amount of money you receive unexpectedly j) so expensive that very few people can afford to go to/use/buy k) the money a writer/musician receives annually from the sales of their book(s)/music l) a bill sent to you by a company or organization to tell you how much you owe for a service or for sth that you have bought

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III. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. The tourists cannot use their national bank notes to buy things in these shops because it is not legal …. a) currency b) money c) payment d) tender 2. They need to be more … if they are going to save money for a trip around the world. a) mean b) miserly c) thrifty d) tight 3. At the height of the real estate boom, even the outskirts houses … huge sums of money. a) came on b) got at c) made out d) went for 4. In the long … he will probably make quite a lot of money out of the business. a) future b) term c) time d) way 5. The two multi-millionaires had … huge sums of money in the new business and were devastated when it proved to be unsuccessful. a) dealt b) invested c) dabbled d) traded 6. As the prices of the apartments in this area ebbed and … many people grew rich. a) flowed b) floundered c) fluctuated d) fell 7. As the … owner of the land property, he would be able to sign the application for credit. a) solitary b) sole c) lonely d) lone 8. It was … when their check bounced that the bank accountant realized that they had no money at all. a) just b) simply c) only d) merely 9. The charity organization felt they had to help the three old men, who had no visible … of support. a) methods b) means c) ways d) resources 10. Claims for compensations could … run into billion of dollars. a) well b) much c) most d) far 11. The collapse of the leather market left the manufacturers financially …. a) dejected b) destitute c) desolate d) derelict
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IV. Match the expressions connected to money to their meanings: 1. to be rolling in it a) to cost a lot of money 2. to be tight-fisted b) to earn just enough money to survive 3. (to) eke out a living c) to manage financially 4. to go halves on smth. d) to owe money, aquire debts 5. to live in the lap of luxury e) to try to spend less than usual 6. to make ends meet f) (informal) to be very rich 7. to run up a bill g) (informal) to be mean, to dislike spending money 8.to tighten one’s belt h) to have lots of money and lead a very comfortable life 9. to cost a (small) fortune/ i) to share the cost of something a bomb/the earth “IF CLAUSE” - uncertain events and situation: things which may or may not happen which may or may not be true: If I talk to him I will let you know. (I may or I may not talk to him) - an “if” clause often refers to a condition – something which must happen first, so that something else can happen If they get there before half past eleven, we can catch the last bus. - there are sometimes sentences constructed with if…then to emphasize that one thing depends on another: If he goes to the press conference, then I’ll ask him to write about it. - if meaning “if it is true that” or “if it is the case that” If you were in town, why didn’t you attend the conference? - an if-clause can come at the beginning or end of a sentence. When an if-clause comes first, it is often separated by a comma: If the press conference starts at 2 o’clock, it will end about 3. - in a formal style, subject + be is sometimes left out after if: If in doubt, ask for help. - after if, there can be used so and not instead of repeating or negating a clause that comes before: Are you busy this evening? If so, we will stay indoors. She might go to the theatre tonight. If not, she’ll visit us.
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First Conditional Main Clause present future If the show begins at 8 o’clock, the guests will come about 7. Second Conditional Main Clause past present conditional (would + verb–infinitive) If the show began at 8 o’clock, the guests would come about 7. Third Conditional Main Clause past perfect past conditional (would+verb–past participle) If the show had begun at 8 o’clock, the guests would have come about 7. - if…will is used when we are talking about later results rather than conditions (when if means “if it is true that”: They will pay him if he will get a good article. - if it was/were not for = this structure is used to say that one particular event or situation changes everything: If it wasn’t his position for the former job, he’d never be …. - if is sometimes left out at the beginning of a sentence in a conversational style Were he my boss (= If he were my boss), I’d tell him about this thing. - unless = has a similar meaning to if not, in the sense of ‘except if’ I’ll take the job unless the pay is too low. (if/except the pay isn’t too low) - ‘if only’ = it is used when we would like things to be different. It means the same as I wish…, but is more emphatic. The clause with if only often stands alone, without a main clause. We use the same tenses after If only…! as after I wish - past to talk about the present: If only I knew more people! - Were is used instead was. This is considered more correct in a formal style. If only he were more attentive! I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses 1. The police …………………… (arrest) him if they catch him.
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2. More tourists ……………………….. (come) to this country if it had a better climate. 3. They ………………………(buy) shares in that company if they trusted the manager. 4. If you ……………………. (not belong) to a union you couldn’t get a job. 5. What you ………………………(do) if you found a burglar in your house? 6. If we had more rain our crops …………………………(grow) faster. 7. If they …………………… (ban) the sale of the alcohol at football matches there might be less violence. 8. They’ll have to move upstairs if the river …………………… (rise) any higher. 9. If they had known that the river was dangerous the tourists ………………... (not try) to swim across it. 10. He would have been arrested if he …………………….. (try) to leave the country. 11. No one bathes here. The water is heavily polluted. If they ……………………(bathe) in it they ……………………..(be) ill. II. Translate into English: 1. Ar fi terminat mai repede campania antidrog dacă ar fi ajutat-o şi ceilalţi. ……………………………………………………………………….. 2. Nu s-ar fi înrolat în armată dacă ar fi ştiut că este atât de greu. …………………………………………………………………………. 3. Teroristul ar fi ales altă ţintă dacă ar fi fost şeful bandei. ……………………………………………………………………….. 4. Procurorul ar fi acordat mandat de percheziţie dacă poliţia ar fi cerut asta. ………………………………………………………………………… 5. Acuzatul ar fi pledat “nevinovat” dacă avocatul l-ar fi sfătuit să o facă. ………………………………………………………………………… 6. Armata filipineză ar fi intervenit dacă ar fi ştiut că are acordul americanilor. ………………………………………………………………………….
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7. Partidul comunist uzbec ar creşte cotizaţiile dacă ar avea mai mulţi simpatizanţi. ………………………………………………………………………… 8. Bush ar fi atacat mai devreme Irakul dacă nu ar fi întâmpinat opoziţia Naţiunilor Unite. ……………………………………………………………………….. 9. Martorul ocular ar da o declaraţie dacă ar primi o recompensă. ……………………………………………………………………….. 10. Strategia Pentagonului s-ar schimba dacă Arabia Saudită ar fi de acord cu propunerile Casei Albe. ……………………………………………………………………….. 11. Tony Blair ar avea mai puţine probleme dacă nu i-ar sprijini necondiţionat pe americani. ………………………………………………………………………… 12. China ar încerca să intimideze din nou Taiwanul, dacă guvernul de la Taipei s-ar înarma cu ultimul tip de rachete. ………………………………………………………………………….

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UNIT 13

WORLD OF SPORTS I. Choose from the list A-I the best phrase to fill each of the spaces
BIRTH OF THE OLYMPICS

It all began in 776 BC, with a simple foot (1) … . Every four years from then, (2) … there for a festival in honour of the god Zeus. Apart from foot racing, the event (3) … wrestling, boxing and pentathlon. Winners became overnight heroes (4)… to mark a span of four years which they called the Olympiad. The games lasted for nearly 1200 years, until AD 393, when the Christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I (5) …. A millennium and a half later, (6) … of good-natured but serious competition. Baron Pierre de Coubertin’s (7) … an officer in the French Army. But de Coubertin believed that the cause of peace would be better served by a regular meeting (8) … to realizing his dream. During the 1890s he (9) … and at last persuaded them to revive the name and the spirit of the ancient Olympic Games. a) family wanted him to become b) a French baron began a campaign to recreate that spirit c) made speech after speech to international sports associations, d) race of about 200m held at Olympia in Greece. e) came to include f) athletes as well as poets and artists met g) banned all such ‘pagan’ celebrations h) and the festival merited a permanent place in the Greek calendar i) of amateur, world-class athletes and dedicated his energy II. SPORTS IDIOMS. A number of English idioms have their origin in sports. Here are some idioms originating in different sports: archery, boxing, chess, cricket, football, riding, sailing. Match the idiom on the left with its definition on the right.
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a) to be at the helm b) to be out of the count c) to rock the boat d) to be champing at the bit e) to have had a good innings f) to spur someone on to something g) to give someone free rein h) be on the ball i) to have more than one string to one’s bow j) to take the wind out of someone’s sails k) to reach stalemate l) to do something off one’s own bat

1) to encourage someone 2) to have a long successful life/term of office 3) to act on one’s own initiative 4) to get a stage in a dispute where no action can be taken by either side 5) to disturb someone’s self-confidence 6) to be quick and alert 7) to have an alternative open to one 8) to allow someone to do what they want 9) to be in charge 10) to disturb a pleasant situation 11) to be impatient to get started 12) to be exhausted, deeply asleep

III. Choose one of the idioms from Exercise II to complete the sentences below. You may need to make slight changes to make the idioms fit grammatically in some cases 1. The parents were very impressed by the way their little son has tidied up his room. He did it entirely ……………… 2. We suppose these athletes are exhausted from all the marathon. They are really…..… 3. She had been the chairperson for the charity committee for ten years when she called it a day last year. She had certainly …………………………………. …………. 4. This professor lets students approach the project in their own way. He thinks it’s better to ……………… 5. She has been attending the optional training course because she thinks she will….……. in her career. 6. With the new president …….………the company’s business reached a peak. 7. Everything was going smoothly at project presentation until the new manager ………
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8. They had to leave the party because their children were already …………………….. 9. The new engineer deserves to get the job. He’s really ………..unlike other applicants. 10. The politician was addressing the audience quite happily when a journalist …………by asking him a question that absolutely floored him. 11. Unfortunately the talks about reaching a verdict …………… 12. She made a career on the stage only because her family … ………….…… IV. Match the following idioms about fair play to their meanings: a. add insult to injury 1. be an unfair or cowardly act b. be a good sport 2. do something very bad without being punished c. be a hit below the belt 3. criticize sharply d. fair shake 4. be severely wronged e. get away with murder 5. be someone who has a good sense of fair play f. get burned 6. make bad trouble worse g. give someone the ax 7. surprise someone in an unpleasant way h. rake someone over the coals 8. honest treatment i. throw someone a curve 9. fire an employee without warning V. Choose one of the idioms from Exercise IV to complete the sentences below: 1. In the divorce settlement, Alice ………. Her ex-husband got everything and she got nothing. 2. The football coach ……… John ………. He assured John he would be picked up for the team, but in the end, he told him he was not well trained. 3. When Jim failed the test for the third time, his German teacher told him he would never learn to speak German. The teacher’s comment was ………. 4. When Tim smashed his car, the insurance company gave him a… …… They gave him enough money to repair his car.
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5. When the little boy broke his grandma’s vase, she ………him ………. He told him he was a clumsy and naughty boy. 6. The manager of the company ……… Peter ……… . One day Peter came to work, and with no warning, he was fired. 7. Mary wanted to go for a picnic but all her friends decided to see a movie. She ………and accepted the decision of the group. 8. Nancy didn’t send the letters her boss had given to her in the morning. He really got mad and ………, he told her that she would be fired. 9. He used to steal his parents’ money and …… …for many years because his parents didn’t say anything to him. VI. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space Watching television can be harmful for your health, (1) ……… when you factor in the weight of modern remote control gadgetry. (2) ……… was offered by Rio Ferdinand, English soccer’s new $27 million rated defender, who stained a tendon bending over to change channels. He (3) ……… a long list of sport stars who have come a cropper in unusual circumstance, (4) ……… former Chelsea goalkeeper Dave Beasant, who dropped a jar of mayonnaise and broke his foot (5) ……… to trap it, and English cricketer Derek Pingle who pulled a hamstring writing a letter. However the first prize must (6) ……… to the US soccer trainer for the 1930 World Cup match (7) ……… Argentina, who sprinted out onto the (8) ……… to treat an injured player, fell over in spectacular fashion and in the process broke a bottle of chloroform he was (9) ………. The chloroform rendered him totally unconscious and he had to be dragged off the field (10) ……… his feet. (Sport Business, 2001) VII. Answer the following questions: 1. What kind of music do you enjoy? Choose from the types of music listed here: rock, blues, reggae, classical, country and western, rock and roll, musical, soundtrack, jazz, heavy metal 2. What’s the difference between these pairs of words: a) composer/ conductor, b) song/tune c) orchestra/band, d) compilation/double album, e) single/album?
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VIII. Read the text below and cross out the unnecessary words: Ten minutes of Mozart can to improve your intelligence by almost 10 per cent, scientists have report today. Unfortunately the effect is temporary and it only lasts about 15 minutes long. Psychologists said that anyone can improve their IQ after been listening to a complex composition. They found that 10 minutes of Mozart’s Sonata for the two pianos in D major improved the IQ scores of 36 of volunteers by an average of nine points more. When the same volunteers were listened to simple sounds such as relaxation tapes, or experienced silence, there had been very little change, the researchers report in the science journal, Nature. Although the researchers could offer no explanation for their finding, but they said there had long been a belief that people who are interested in music are tend to perform better at intellectually demanding tasks. The theory is that a complex musical patterns stimulate the nerves in the brain. Listening to Mozart for long periods of time, however, he still only gives a temporary improvement. IX. That’s show business. Complete the extracts with the expressions from the box below. a) cast b) encore c) entertainer d) revival e) first night/opening night/premiere f) megastar g) performances h) preview i) sell-out j) played to full/packed house k) supporting actor/actress l) extra m) rapturous/thunderous applause n) reviews (bad reviews/mixed reviews/rave reviews) o) run p) shows r)starlet s) leading actor/actress t) blockbuster 1. When the producer David Johnson put on Arthur Miller’s “Death of a Salesman” last Thursday, it ……… while Tom Hanks was in the ……… and the ………had to be extended. 2. Madonna’s first London concert was cancelled off yesterday. The ……… of her ……… of three ……… on the stadium was postponed until tomorrow.
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3. Vanity Fair could, according to industry estimates, make 5 million $ for the 55 old …… next year. Last Friday, more than 250,000 people paid 50 $ each to watch Cheer on the stage in New York. She was off to ….………. in Boston and Philadelphia. 4. The audience showed their appreciation at the end of the performance by ……… and demanded an ……… 5. The first ……… of a play or opera or showings of a film are often ……… 6. It’s amazing how this young lady turned into a ……, a living legend, after having been a poor ……… for many years. 7. A play or opera, or an opera production, may be new, or it may be a ……… 8. If some critics like something and others don’t, it gets ………, even if this expression is often used when the ……… are mainly, or even only, bad. 9. This famous actor started his career as an ………, when the director saw him and cast him for the ……… and the movie was even a ……… X. Which words in the box: 1) banner headline 2) chat show/talk show 3) classified 4) game show 5) God slot 6) gossip column 7) home 8) masthead 9) obituary 10) phone-in 11) quiz show 12) scoop 13) sitcom 14 ) soap opera/soap are television programmes: ……………….…………………………. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… or words to name the parts of a newspaper: …………………………. ………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. XI. Now use some of the words in the box to complete the following sentences: 1. Her fiction was derived from “Young and Restless” and other glossy ……… which are consumed in United States. She is also going to write scripts for comedies. The first one will be a ……… about an “ordinary” rich family.
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2. While interviewing a priest in the ………, the host tripped over some wires and the programme was live and during prime-time. 3. Everybody enjoyed The Liberty’s front page headline – under its new red ……… 4. She was often accused of having taken an excessive interest in the private lives of celebrities. By the mid-nineties she had her ……… in that tabloid. 5. By combining the ……… with the ………, he was able to win the rating battle with his interactive show. 6. He is a good host of the show because he always knows his contestants very well. High audience figures for his ……… attracted more advertising/commercials. 7. “The National” ran an interesting article on the journalist who died in the blast. There is a touching ……… about his life and career in the 8th page. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE I. The can be used for many different reasons. Match each reason with an example sentence or phrase 1. There was a terrible winter. a. when only one exists The winter was very long. 2. The earth goes round the sun. b. when the object is known by everybody 3. They didn’t like the house c. with musical instruments they saw yesterday. 4. Where’s the car? (the car that d. when the person or the object used to be parked there) is mentioned for a second time 5. Almost all the students are e. when we make something in the yard. definite by adding extra information 6. The violinist plays the piano too. f. with adjectives to describe a class or a group 7. It was the most interesting site g. when location means only the tourists have visited one thing is being referred to 8. The poor and the unemployment h. with titles and place names were the main subjects of the that have the idea of conference. 9. The president of The United States i. with superlatives of America is visiting Romania.
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II. When do we not use the article? Match the examples with their description 1. beauty, love 2. Dogs are faithful. 3. butter, milk, petrol, wood 4. home, hospital, work 5. Bucharest, Brussels 6. Dinner is served. 7. Queen Mary 8. tennis, football, red, blue 9. Regent Street; Hyde Park; 20, Regent St. a. most names of towns, cities, countries b. names of meals c. titles with proper names d. names of sports, activities, colors e. streets, parks, addresses f. uncountable nouns g. countable objects in general h. abstract nouns i. some places/locations

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE I. A/An can be used only with singular countable nouns. A/An can be used for many different reasons. Match each reason with an example sentence or phrase 1. distance/fuel 2. distance/speed 3. fractions 4. frequency/time 5. illness 6. money 7. price/weight 8. weight/measures 9. whole numbers a) This cheese costs 90p a pound b) A quarter of twelve is a three. c) This board measures exactly a meter across. d) The child had a terrible toothache. e) This old car can go at 70 km an hour. f) The workers have two breaks a day. g) A thousand of poor people got free gifts for Christmas. h) He can ride his car for 30 miles a gallon. i) He received only one dollar for having carried a huge bag.

II. Complete the following sentences with either a, an, the or nothing 1. … pollution is destroying … environment. 2. … president is going to visit ….. France and ….. United Kingdom.
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3. …. price of … petrol is going down. … petrol they have sold this morning was … cheapest in … area. 4. … timber is more expensive than it used to be. In fact, … timber they used to make … furniture for … restaurant was 10$ … meter. 5. … life seems to be easier for … rich. 6. … zoo has many examples of … wildlife especially … fishes and … fox. 7. He is … interesting person. He was … leader of … Conservative Party. 8. … sulphur dioxide is produced by … power stations. 9. … Britain is one of … worst polluters. 10. … greenhouse effect will cause droughts in … entire world. 11. There is …little evidence to show these gases have … bad effect on … development of … babies. 12. … most people in … Italy choose to have … pet rather than have … children. 13. They used to have two holiday homes, one in … mountains and one at … seaside. 14. Many people believe that … government has … limited responsibility. 15. Almost all … men who live in this town work in … mine. III. Put ”a”, ”an” or ”the” where necessary: 1. ………English are known for ………amount of ……… tea they drink. a) a b) an c) the d) – 2. The problem of … …… abandoned children is ……… one that has puzzled ………government for years. a) a b) an c) the d) – 3. The English tradition of hunting ……… fox is being called into………question by ……… groups of protestors. a) a b) an c) the d) – 4. ………people say that ……… rich have a duty to help ………homeless and those who are out of ……… work. a) a b) an c) the d) –
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5. Prince Charles has become involved in ………many activities relating to ……architecture and ………arts in general. a) a b) an c) the d) – 6. …Atlantic Ocean lies between …………Great Britain and ……… United States. a) a b) an c) the d) – 7. This forest, which is ………home of ………rare species of plants and wildlife, is under threat by ………developers. a) a b) an c) the d) – 8. ………. expedition to …… Carpethians was held up due to ………several delays in ……… delivery of ……… supplies. a) a b) an c) the d) – 9. During ……… First War World, ……… Germans swept through ………Europe. a) a b) an c) the d) –

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UNIT 14

REVISION I. Choose the word which best completes the sentence (vocabulary): 1. It is very hard to find an antidot for this virus because there are so many different … of the disease. a) branches b) strains c) divisions d) species 2. The angry football supporters … their fists at the referee. a) clenched b) pressed c) clasped d) gripped 3. At the height of her fame, the actress returned to her native little town … a heroine. a) at b) in c) like d) as 4. The TV station, in … to massive popular demand, decided not to discontinue the sitcom. a) answer b) reply c) response d) reaction 5. When the hijacked flight landed, the airline staff simply abandoned the passangers and left them all … and dry at the wrong airport. a) high b) safe c) warm d) down 6. The audience did not seem very … about the sudden changes to the theatre program. a) enthusiastic b) respectful c) sympathetic d) sarcastic 7. A government’s … support during its term of office may become apparent during a by-election. a) caretaker b) grassroots c) interim d) marginal 8. His parents wished they’d never bought him a box – all he ever does it sit …to the box! a) glued b) stuck c) sealed d) fixed
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9. The reporters … over their ideas for several hours before putting them in writing. a) analyzed b) passed c) talked d) issued 10. The actress was very depressed towards the end of her life, because although she had been successful, she had never felt that she had really … it. a) arrived b) climbed c) made d) reached 11. When a government is elected, there is often a … period when people are not too critical of it. a) crisis b) honeymoon c) political d) stand up wilderness 12. On the news there was some dramatic … of the flood that had been captured by an amateur cameraman. a) landscape b) scenery c) footage d) shooting 13. No sooner had the refugees been evacuated from the resort … the bombing started. a) as b) than c) then d) when 14. Despite their initial objection about the concert, the organizer soon … them playing together. a) had b) made c) organized d) persuaded 15. The manager tried to … a straight face but he couldn’t help laughing at the candidate. a) hold b) keep c) maintain d) take 16. The Military Forces may … power in a coup d’état, putsch or military takeover and impose martial law, or military control, on the country. a) depose b) handover c) seize d) take 17. The actor had such a feeble voice that his audience just … into laugher every time he spoke. a) dissolved b) fell c) melted d) went 18. All the audience fell … laughing when the singer tripped over her microphone. a) about b) in c) out d) through
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19. If, in a system usually dominated by two parties, neither party gets an overall majority, commentators talk about a … parliament. a) breakaway b) fringe c) hung d) splinter 20. Measles is a catching disease characterized … high fever and skin eruption. a) at b) by c) of d) with 21. The book about the ambassador’s affair is finally … in paperback. a) down b) in c) out d) up 22. Is there any evidence that teenagers are turning … more often? a) down b) out c) to d) up 23. The situation is out of control, so they asked their colleague to come … a) between b) by c) in d) on 24. The firefighters … their hoses on the source of the blaze in an effort to contain the fire. a) drawn b) pulled c) rounded d) turned 25. The politicians of the Conservative Party want a … mandate to raise value-added tax. a) fresh b) good c) re-elect d) swing 26. Doctors are trying to discover why some old people are more susceptible … illness than others. a) about b) on c) to d) with 27. He advised her not to feel under any … to take on that job if she really disliked the idea. a) commitment b) duty c) obligation d) responsibility 28. Criminals can be broken … into two distinct types- the hardened criminal and the opportunist. a) down b) into c) out d) up 29. Ministers may be given new posts, or lose their posts, in a cabinet … a) quit b) reshuffle c) resign d) stand down
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30. The man was arrested … suspicion … murder. a) of/with b) on/of c) under/of d) with /of 31. When the son of the deceased heard the judge’s sentence he poured … his grievance to the press. a) down b) off c) out d) up 32. The suspects were … up for questioning by the police and forced to hand over their possessions. a) covered b) pulled c) rounded d) turned 33. When two parties or candidates have about the same amount of support, they are said to be level … a) coming b) going c) meeting d) pegging 34. Open plains are … of the geography of south Romania. a) specific b) separate c) characteristic d) proper 35. When the crowd started to get …, the police moved in and made a lot of arrests. a) deregulated b) ruled out c) unregulated d) unruly 36. The witness said that she would have no … about reporting the crime to the police. a) concerns b) feelings c) qualms d) worries 37. The death penalty was … many years ago in this country. a) aborted b) abolished c) absolved d) abstained 38. Thousands of pounds’ worth of … were stolen from the museum. a) gifts b) goods c) treasures d) valuables 39. Whoever wins faces the prospect of leading a … administration. d) lame duck a) collapse b) crisis c) incumbent 40. There is a(n) … training period before you start work. a) initial b) first c) primary d) beginning 41. There’s a … of coloured hats in the shop window. a) scene b) view c) sight d) display a) for 42. They wore thick gloves and scarves to protect them … the cold. b) by c) from d) at
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43. Many women want to … advantage of the sale at the shoe shop while it’s on. a) have b) make c) get d) take 44. A riot with fighting, stone-throwing, damage to vehicles and buildings may be accompanied by …: breaking into shops or houses during a riot to steal things. a) burglarizing b) looting c) robbing d) stealing 45. The bank clerk asked for some … of woman’s identity, such as passport or driver’s licence. a) card b) notice c) note d) proof 46. A large number of people in this institution have stopped smoking … recent years. a) in b) for c) from d) since 47. The American Indians have sued the government for the return of their … lands. a) ancestral b) antique c) hereditary d) inherited 48. They will need to apply for a visa at least two months … of their trip. a) ahead b) in front c) before d) earlier 49. The shop assistant can’t give you your money back unless you have a(n) … for the pullover. a) bill b) invoice c) ticket d) receipt 50. The children were … despair when their cat went missing from home. a) about b) in c) on d) with 51. In some African countries there have been widespread demands for the …of Safari hunting. a) extinction b) annihilation c) extermination d) abolition 52. The lady was able to pick … one of the men who mugged her in an identity parade. a) down b) into c) out d) up 53. Having heard their president latest speech people realized he got a real … with words. a) conduct b) demeanour c) manner d) way
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54. Confidential documents leaked to the press have … speculation that the president of the Conservative Party was going to resign. a) developed b) enhanced c) fuelled d) raised 55. The president … five key politicians before announcing who the new Minister of Economy was going to be. a) sounded out b) brought into c) interrogated d) enquired question 56. The Prime Minister accused the President of orchestrating a …campaign against him. a) jeer b) scorn c) smear d) sneer 57. After a career ..… forty years, the local councillor has just retired. a) lapsing b) pending c) ranging d) spanning 58. Many African people are so poor that they live from hand to… a) hand b) leg c) head d) mouth 59. Race relations in that part of the country are unlikely to improve until people overcome their … feelings towards Black population. a) internal b) inside c) interior d) innate 60. It’s dangerous to swim in this part of the river because of the strong … a) stream b) tide c) current d) flood 61. As you are non-resident in this country, you are … to vote. a) inequitable b) illegible c) ilegal d) ineligible 62. After the revolution, many people eventually found a safe … in America. a) sanctuary b) haven c) asylum d) refuge 63. On reflection, the gossip columnist realized that she had been …unfair in his harsh criticism of the musical. a) somewhat b) anywhere c) whatever d) moreover 64. Movies sometimes overdo their portrayal of reality, … example is this “war” film. a) take b) one such c) such as d) like
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65. The crowds of teenagers ………the streets trying to catch sight of the famous singer. a) thronged b) flocked c) huddled d) overpopulated 66. The in-depth cultural news bulletins are aimed … an educated audience. a) at b) for c) to d) in 67. A new … of programmes on English history will be broadcast on Channel 2 in the spring. a) series b) sequence c) serial d) episode 68. The Iraqi president denied they were ……… nuclear weapons. a) collecting b) reserving c) stockpiling d) hoarding 69. The angry football supporters … their fists at the referee. a) clenched b) pressed c) clasped d) gripped 70. The death penalty was … many years ago in this country. a) aborted b) abolished c) absolved d) abstained 71. In all … there will be fraudulous elections in this country. a) probability b) possibilities c) odds d) certainty 72. Motorway traffic was … after a lorry overturned and spilt its load over the first lane. a) deflected b) digressed c) diverged d) diverted 73. The bus skidded to a halt after … its headlights smashed in the crash. a) making b) doing c) having d) letting 74. They declared they weren’t serious investors, but they liked to … in the stock market. c) paddle d) dabble a) splatter b) splash 75. The mysterious case of the missing M P has become the … of considerable interest of the press over the last days. a) focus b) middle c) pin-point d) target 76. It’s unbelievable how many small children … in this country. a) implore b) plead c) entreat d) beg
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77. Conversations people strike up with traveling acquaintances usually tend to be …. a) insufficient b) imperative c) indiscreet d) trivial 78. The delay to the flight was brought … by bad weather. a) down b) up c) about d) in 79. The man known as Prince Paul claims that he is the … heir of the royal family. a) authentic b) correct c) rightful d) due 80. Managers of the companies have to consider the age of the population when they are … new staff. a) enrolling b) enlisting c) recruiting d) raising 81. The two men were … out of 200 applicants for the positions of counselors. a) short-handed b) short-listed c) short-sighted d) short-changed 82. The leader rehearsed his speech again and again until he was sure that he was word ... a) exact b) perfect c) accurate d) precise 83. The experts haven’t had time to complete their investigations, but they have concluded … that the explosion was caused by a bomb. a) terminally b) tentatively c) tenuously d) temporally 84. Most of the European countries have … compulsory military service. a) annulled b) aborted c) abolished d) abstracted 85. A serious … of foot-and-mouth disease caused hundreds of cattle to be destroyed. a) attack b) incident c) outbreak d) sickness 86. Most popular magazines and tabloids have a(n) … page where letters about difficulties with love, money and family are answered. a) advice b) agony c) personal d) problem 87. It is almost unbelievable that so many young people complete their education … learning to read properly. a) apart from b) except c) unless d) without
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88. They have just bought a house in the country and they are often cut … civilization. a) across b) down c) off d) out 89. In two month’s time their visa will have … out and they will have to go back home. a) been b) got c) run d) went 90. The environmental … for the future is mixed. a) outline b) outset c) outcome d) outlook 91. The statistics show that traditional nuclear family is something of a …. a) legend b) story c) myth d) fabrication 92. The private detective who had been hired to … down the missing children finally found them in Italy. a) catch b) chase c) follow d) track 93. Many people think that successfully bringing up three children on your own has been no … achievement. a) mean b) pale c) poor d) slim 94. Mary and Tom seemed to …second thoughts about marriage. a) have been b) being have c) be having d) being had had 95. Although they have four children of their own, this couple has …three others for the town authority. a) supported b) fostered c) sustained d) upheld 96. The sudden movement of the train threw many passengers … balance. a) in b) off c) out d) with 97. The over-use of fertilizers and pesticides is one of the greatest threats … wildlife today. d) to a) for b) at c) of 98. As soon as the President stepped out of the car, guards moved … action to hold back the crowds. a) in b) into c) to d) with
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99. The private school ran … financial trouble when 85% of the staff went on strike. a) into b) in c) on d) off 100. The price of shares in the company went up …over 50% when they signed the agreement with the biggest oil company in the world. a) at b) by c) to d) with
KEY:

(1. – b; 2. – a; 3. – d; 4. – c; 5. – a; 6. – b; .7 –b; 8.- b; 9. -c; 10 – c, 11. – b; 12. – c; 13. – b; 14. – a; 15. – b; 16. – c; 17. –a ; 18. – a; 19. – b; 20. – b; 21. – c; 22. – c; 23. – c; 24. – d; 25. - a; 26. – c; 27. – c; 28. – a; 29 – b; 30. – b; 31 – c; 32 – c; 33. – d; 34. – c; 35 – d; 36. - c; 37 – b; 38 – d; 39 – d; 40 – a; 41 – c; 42 – c; 43 – d; 44 – b; 45 – d; 46 – a; 47 – a; 48 – a; 49 – a; 50 – b; 51 – a; 52 – c; 53. – a; 54. – c; 55 – a; 56 – c; 57 – d; 58. – d; 59. – c; 60. – c; 61. – d; 62. – c; 63. – a; 64. – b; 65. – c; 66. –a; 67. – a; 68. – c; 69. – a; 70. – b; 71 – c; 72. – d; 73. – c; 74. – d; 75. – a; 76. – d; 77. – d, 78 – c; 79 – c; 80.- c; 81 – b; 82 – b; 83. – b; 84. -c; 85 - c; 86. – b; 87.- d; 88. – c; 89. c; 90. – b; 91. – c, 92.-d; 93. – c; 94. – c, 95. – b, 96. – b, 97. -d; 98. -b; 99. -a ; 100. – b.) II. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (grammar): 1. The airplane in which the foreign delegation (travel) (crash) soon after taking off. a) is traveling, b) was traveling, c) has been traveling, crashes crashed crashed 2. While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. a) makes, feels b) made, felt c) was making, felt 3. No sooner the president (start) his discourse than the crowd (begin) to cheer. a) started, began b) had started, began c) starts, begin 4. The spokeswoman (apologize) the minister because he (miss) the meeting. a) apologized/ missed b) apologized/ had c) apologizes/ had missed missed
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5. George W. Bush (faint) while he (watch) a football match. a) fainted/watched b) fainted/was c) faints/watched watching 6. It is believed that Civil Servants (be) given short shrift by the Government when they (submit) their latest pay claim. a) will be/ submit b) will be/ will c) will be/ will have submit submitted 7. The Member of Parliament (ask) what (be) the role of the press in the election process. b) was asking/was c) asked/had been a) asked /was 8. The members of the Democratic Party (state) they (not back) that candidate any more. a) stated/would not b) stated/will not c) were stating/will back back not back 9. The spokesman (tell) that the MPs (be) under public pressure to discuss the Bill. b) tells/had been c) told/were a) told/ had been 10. They (finish) an opinion survey two days before the general elections (take) place. b) finished/had taken c) had finished/took a) finished/took 11. The chairman said the non governmental organization (be) now in much better shape to face the future but they (not be) yet out of the wood. b) was/were not c) was/has not been a) is/ had not been 12. The secretary (tell) Ministry of Education the union’s representatives (ring) up all he morning complaining about getting low salaries. a) tells/ring b) was telling/were c) told/had been ringing ringing 13. The secretary (say) the Minister of Education (not negociate) with the teachers on strike. a) says/wouldn’t b) says/wouldn’t c) said/wouldn’t negociated have negociate negociate
150

14. The mayor (talk) again of building a new library for children, but any plan (seem) unlikely to get off the ground, at least for several years. a) is talking/seems b) talks/seems c) has been talking/seems 15. The Chairman of the Deputy Chamber (warn) politicians (not miss) the meetings any more. a) is warning/to not b) warned/to not miss c) warned/not to miss miss 16. The President (admit) he (not run) for presidency any more a) admitted/won’t run b) admitted/wouldn’t c) admitted/wouldn’t have ran run 17. The District Attorney (issue) a search warrant when the police (ask) for it. a) would issued/ask b) would have c) will issue/ask issued/has asked 18. Three men (fight) at a street corner and a policeman (try) to stop them. a) have been b) fought/tried c) were fighting/was fighting/tried trying 19. A teenager (arrest) in Wales for alledgly hacking into e-commerce Web sites (obtain) the credit cards of Bill Gates. a) was arrested/had b) is arrested/had c) was obtained obtained arrested/obtained 20. The examination just (begin) and the students (write) their names. b) had begun/ wrote c) began/were writing a) had begun/were writing 21. The audience (not hear) what the lecturer (say). b) don’t hear/says c) don’t hear/is a) aren’t hearing/is saying saying

151

22. The news presenter (announce) that a woman (come) in hospital with a hurt abandoned child. b) announced/comes c) announced/had a) announces/come come 23. They (not vote) about this because one of the members (miss). a) didn’t vote, missed b) hadn’t voted, c) didn’t vote, had missed missed 24. There (be) an accident and men (carry) the injured people to an ambulance. a) was/carried b) had been/were c) was/ were carrying carrying 25. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). a) was escaping, b) escaped, worked c) escaped, was worked working 26. There (be) reason to think that if the employers (be) to make the first move, the unions would be prepared to meet them half way. b) was/ are c) is/are a) is/were 27. The employer (ask) how long (work) two of his employees there. a) asks/had worked b) asked/had been c) asked/were working working 28. How long (they/dance) in international competitions when they (retire)? a) had been b) were c) have dancing/retired dancing/retired danced/retired 29. That (be) the most interesting theatre play this director (ever/write). a) is/has written b) is/wrote c) was/was writing 30. The orator (not continue) until the audience (stop) talking. a) hadn’t b) didn’t c) didn’t continued/stop continue/hadn’t continue/stopped stopped
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31.… had the curtain been raised than three actors made their appearance on the stage. b) Scarcely c) No sooner d) Barely a) Hardly 32. The manager (remind) her employees (not steal) any more because they are surveillanced with video cameras. a) reminds/to not b) reminded/to not c) reminds/not to steal steal steal 33. The spokesman (say) the team (not win) a single match so far. a) says/didn’t win b) said/hadn’t won c) said/didn’t won 34. The hungry tourists (wait) for a restaurant table for an hour before they finally (get) seated. a) have been b) had been c) were waiting/got waiting/got waiting/got 35. By the time the tourists (arrive) at the airport, their plane (already/take) off. b) had arrived/took c) arrived/had taken a) arrived/ took 36. Travelers (struggle) over the week-end to find the few trains in Italy that (run) during a 24-hour strike, the latest in a string of transport walkouts. a) struggle/ run b) struggled/ were c) were struggling/ running ran 37. After these children (be) in Britain for their summer holiday they (learn) to speak English well. a) have been/were b) had been/learnt c) were/were learning speaking 38. The passengers (fasten) their seat belts before the plane (land). a) had b) fastened/land c) were fastened/landed fastening/landed 39. The tourists (walk) through the countryside when the storm (hit). a) were walking/hit b) walked/hit c) were walking/was hitting
153

40. The flight attendant (announce) the passengers the flight (be) cancelled due to fog. a) announced/ b) announced/will be c) is announcing/ would be would be 41. They (estimate) it (be) a fortune to spend a month in a foreign country. a) estimated/will be b) estimated/would be c) estimated/have been 42. They (not apply) for a loan because they (eke) out a living for many years. a) didn’t apply/had b) hadn’t c)didn’t apply/eked been eking applied/were eking 43. They (intend) to set up a business but because they (not have) any capital, they had to shelve the idea. a) intended/hadn’t b) had c) had had intended/haven’t had intended/didn’t have 44. They (go) bankrupt if they (borrow ) money from the bank. a) will go/will not b) will be going/are c) will go/borrow borrow not borrowing 45. The foreign tourists (visit) some new places before it (get) dark. a) are visiting/is b) are going to c) visit/is getting getting visit/gets 46. The students (write) their multiple choice tests when the teacher (tell) them to stop. a) wrote/told b) were writing/was c) were writing/told telling 47. Some of the employees (say) they (work) any more if the manager hadn’t come to talk to them yesterday. a) said/didn’t work b) say/don’t work c) said/wouln’t have worked 48. The peasants (advise) to lower the price if they (want) to sell all their vegetables. a) have been advised/ b) were c) are advised/will wanted advised/wanted want
154

49. Many commuters (complain) the reporter that their bus (be) late every morning. a) are complaining/ b) complain/has been c) are was complaining/has been 50. If the company (launch) that new product they (lose) a lot of money. a) would launch/ lost b) launched/would c) launched/would lose have lost
KEY:

(1. – b; 2 – c; 3. – b; 4. – b; 5. – b; 6. – a; 7. - c; 8. – a; 9. – a; 10. – b; 11.- b; 12. – c; 13. – c; 14. – c, 15. – c; 16. – b; 17.- c; 18. – c; 19. – a, 20. – a; 21. – c; 22. – c; 23. – c, 24. – b; 25. – c; 26. – a; 27. – b; 28. – a; 29. – c; 30. – b; 31. – a, 32. – c; 33. – b; 34. – b; 35. – c; 36. – b; 37.- b; 38. – a; 39. – a; 40. – a; 41. – b; 42. – a; 43. – a; 44. – c; 45. – b; 46. - c; 47. - c; 48. - b; 49. – c; 50. –b.)

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ANNEX 1
IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive be become begin bite bleed blow break bring broadcast build burn burst buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget 156 Past Tense was/were became began bit bled blew broke brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelled/welt ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot Past Participle been become begun bitten bled blown broken brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelled/dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten Traducere a fi a deveni a începe a muşca a sângera a sufla, a bate a sparge a aduce a emite / transmite a construi a arde a izbucni a cumpăra a prinde a alege a veni a costa a se târî a tăia a face afaceri a săpa a face a desena a visa a bea a conduce a locui a mânca a cădea a hrăni a simţi a lupta a găsi a zbura a interzice a uita

forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep knell know lay lead learn leave let lend let lie light lose make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see seek sell

forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led learned/learnt left let lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold

forgiven frozen got /gotten given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led learned/learnt left let lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold

a ierta a îngheţa a obţine a da a merge a creşte a atârna a avea a auzi a (se) ascunde a lovi a ţine a răni a păstra a îngenunchia a şti a pune, a aşeza a conduce a învăţa a pleca, a părăsi a lăsa, a permite a da cu împrumut a lăsa, a permite a zăcea, a se situa a aprinde a pierde a face, a fabrica a însemna a (se) întâlni a plăti a pune a citi a călări a suna a se ridica/înălţa a alerga a spune a vedea a cerceta, a căuta a vinde 157

send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep smell speak spell spend stand steal stick sting strike strive swear swim take teach tell think throw understand undertake wake wear withdraw win write

sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept smelled/smelt spoke spelt spent stood stole stuck stung struck strove swore swam took taught told thought threw understood undertook woke wore withdrew won wrote

sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept smelled/smelt spoken spelt spent stood stolen stuck stung struck striven sworn swum taken taught told thought thrown understood undertaken woken worn withdrawn won written

a trimite a apune, a aranja a scutura a străluci a împuşca a arăta, a indica a închide a cânta a (se) scufunda a şedea a dormi a mirosi a vorbi a ortografia a petrece, a cheltui a sta în picioare a fura a lipi a înţepa a lovi a se strădui a jura/înjura a înota a lua a preda a spune, a povesti a gândi, a crede a arunca a înţelege a întreprinde a se trezi a purta a se retrage a câştiga a scrie

158

ANNEX 2
EURO ACRONYMS ACP = African, Caribbean and Pacific countries party to the Lomé Convention ASEAN= Association of South East Asian Nations BEUC = The European Bureau of Consumer’s Unions CADDIA = Cooperation in Automation of Data and Documentation for Imports/Exports and Agriculture CAN = Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament CCITT = Consultative Committee on Innovation and Technology Transfer CCT = Common Customs Tariff CENTO = Central Treaty Organization CERD = European Committee for Research and Development CMEA = Council for Mutual Economic Assistance CODEST = Committee for the European Development of Science and Technology COM/COMDOC = Commission Documents COREPER = Committee of Permanent Representatives CSCE = Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe DAC = Development Assistance Committee EAEC = European Atomic Energy Community EAGGF = European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund EBRD = European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EC = European Community ECSC = European coal and Steel Community ECU = European Currency Unit EDC = European Defence Community EEC = European Economic Community EEOC = Equal Employment Opportunities Commission EFTA = European Free Trade Association EMS = European Monetary System EMU = Economic and Monetary Union ENEA = European Nuclear Energy Agency EP = European Parliament ERASMUS = European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students ERDF = European Regional Development Fund ESA = European Space Agency ETUC = European Trade Union Confederation EU = European Union EVCA = European Venture Capital Association 159

FAO = Food and Agriculture Organization GATT = General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade IBRD = International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IDA = International Development Association IMF = International Monetary Fund IRDAC = Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee ISO = International Standards Organization MCA = Monetary Compensatory Amount MEP = Member of the European Parliament MN = Merchant Navy MORI = Market and Opinion Research Institute NAACP = National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization NGO = non-governmental organization OCTs = Overseas countries and territories OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OOPEC = Office for Official Publications of the European Communities OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries SEA = Single European Act SEATO = South East Asia Treaty Organization SHAPE = Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe STC = Scientific and Technical Committee SWAPO = South West Africa People’s Organization TU = Trade Union/ TUC = (BE) Trade Union Congress UN = United Nations UNCTAD = United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNESCO = United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNHCR = United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICE = Unions of Industries of the European Community (employers’ organization) UNICEF = United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund UNO = United Nations Organization WB = World Bank WCC = World Council of Churches WEU = Western European Union WHO = World Health Organization WWF = World Wildlife Fund WWW = World Wide Web YES = Youth exchange scheme for Europe 160

ANNEX 3
ABBREVIATIONS AAAA= American Association of Advertising Agencies ABC = 1. American Broadcasting Corporation; 2. Associated British Cinema a/c = account current A.C. = ante Christum (before Christ) A.D. = anno Domini AGM = annual general meeting a.k.a., AKA = also known as a.m. = ante meridian (before noon) AMEX = American Stock Exchange a/o = account of AOB = any other business AP = Associated Press APEX = advance purchase excursion ASA = 1. American Standard Association; 2. Advertising Standard Authority a.s.a.p. = as soon as possible ASPCA = American Society for the Prevention to Cruelty to Animals ATV = 1. (US) all terrain vehicle; 2. Associated Television AYLI = as you like it BA = Bachelor of Arts BAFTA = Associated Academy of Film and Television Arts B and B = (BE) bed and breakfast BBC = British Broadcasting Corporation BBQ = barbeque B.C. = Before Christ b./f, B/F = brought forward BP = blood pressure BR = British Railways Bros = brothers B.S.E. = bovine spongiform encephalopathy C/A, c/a = current account CBS = Columbia Broadcasting System C & C = cash and carry CC = 1. (c. of c.) Chamber of Commerce; 2. County Council CCTV = closed-circuit television CD = 1. compact disc; 2. Civil Defense CEO = (US) chief executive officer CIA = (US) Central Intelligence Agency CID = Criminal Investigation Department CNAA = Council for National Academic Awards 161

CNN = (US) Cable News Network C of E = Church of England CO = commanding officer; Co = company; c/o = care of CORE = (US) Congress of Racial Equality CPI = (US) Consumer Price Index CSE = (BE) Certificate of Secondary Education CUCme = see you, see me CWO = 1. cash with order; = 2. chief warrant officer DA = (US) District Attorney dec. = deceased Dem. = (US) Democrat DHSS = (BE) Department of Health and Social Services D.I. = 1. Donor insemination; 2. detective inspector DIY = do it yourself DJ = disk jockey DMZ = demilitarized zone DNS = domain name system DOA = dead on arrival d.o.b. = date of birth DOE = (US) Department of the Energy; (BE) Department of the Environment DP = data processing DST = (US) daylight saving time DT = data transmission EA = (US) Educational age ECG (BE)/ EKG (US) = electrocardiogram; EEG = electroencephalogram EDI/EDP = electronic data interchange/processing EFL = English as a Foreign Language e.g. = for example ENT = ear, nose, and throat EOC = Equal Opportunities Commission EOT = end of transmission EPA = (US) Environmental Protection Agency ESL = English as a Second Language est. = established ETA = estimated time of arrival FAQ = frequently asked questions FBI = (US) Federal Bureau of Investigation FCO = Foreign and Commonwealth Office FDA = (US) Food and Drug Administration FE = further education FIS = (BE) family income supplement FM = 1. frequently modulation; 2. Foreign Minister; 3. Field Marshall 162

FO = (BE) Foreign Office FPA = Family Planning Association FYI = for your information GC(S)E = (BE) General Certificate of (Secondary) Education GDI/GDP = gross domestic income/product GI = Government issue (soldier) GMT = Greenwich Mean Time GNP = gross national product GP = general practitioner HAND = have a nice day HE = His/Her Excellency; HMS = His/Her Majesty’s ship/service HH = His Holiness HIV = human immune-deficiency virus HND = higher national diploma HP = hire purchase HQ = headquarters HR = (US) House of Representatives HRH = His/Her Royal Highness Http = hyper text transfer protocol i/c = in charge of ICU = intensive care unit ID = identification IDD = international direct dealing Inc. = incorporated; Inc, incl = included/including/inclusive I/O = input/output IOU = I owe you IQ = intelligence quotient IRA = Irish Republic Army IRC = Internet relay chat IRS = (US) Internal Revenue Service ISBN = International Standard Book Number IT = information technology ITC = 1. International Trade Center; 2. (BE) Independent Television Commission IV = intravenous IVF = in vitro fertilization J.C. = Jesus Christ JITP = just in time production JP = Justice of Peace JSA = job seeker’s allowance Lab = Labor / lab = laboratory lb = libra (= pound) 163

L /C = letter of credit LP = long-playing (record) Ltd = limited (liability) MA = 1. Master of Arts; 2. (US) Military Academy MASH = mobile army surgical hospital MC = 1. Master of Ceremonies; 2 (US) Member of Congress; 3. military cross MD = 1. Managing Director; 2. Doctor of Medicine MFN = most-favoured nation mfrs = manufacturers mgr = manager MHR = Member of the House of Representatives MIA = missing in action MO = medical officer / MOH (BE) medical officer of health MP = 1. (BE) Member of Parliament; 2. Military Police NAAFI = (BE) Navy, Army and Air-Force Institute NAFTA = North American Free Trade Agreement NASA = (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCCL = (BE) National Council for Civil Liberties NHS = National Health Service NSB = National Savings Bank NSPCC = (BE) National Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children OAP = old-age pensioner OBE = Officer (of the order) of the British Empire OHMS = (BE) On His/Her Majesty’s Service OM = Order of Merit OT = Old Testament OXFAM = Oxford Committee for Famine Relief p.a. = per annum (yearly) p.c., pct = per cent; p/c = price current PA = Personal Assistant, P.A. = Press Association PAYE = pay-as-you-earn PBX = private branch exchange PC = 1. personal computer, 2. police constable; 3. politically correct PD = 1. police department, 2. postal district; pd = paid p & h = (US) postage and handling/ p & p = postage and packing P & L = profits and loss PG = 1. parental guidance; 2. post graduate PM = Prime Minister POS = point of sale POW = prisoner of war p.p. = 1. per procurationem; 2. post paid PR(O) = public relations (officer) PSV = public service vehicle 164

Pt = 1. pint; 2. point; 3. part PTA = (BE) Prevention of Terrorism Act; Parent-Teacher Association Pte = private PTO/p.t.o. = please turn over RC = 1. Roman Catholic; 2. Red Cross R & D = Research and Development Rep = 1. Republican, 2. Representative RPI = Retail Price Index/ RRP = recommended retail price s.a.e. = stamped addressed envelope SAYE = (BE) save-as-you-earn SEC = (US) Securities and Exchange Commission Sen. = senator Sgt = Sergeant Soc. = society SOP = standard operating procedure S.O.S. = save our souls Sr = 1. Senior; 2. sister St = 1. street; 2. saint STV = single transferable vote TA = (BE) Territorial Army; (US) teaching assistant TD = (US) Treasury Department TM = 1. trademark; 2. transcendental meditation VA = (US) Veterans Administrations VAT = value-added tax VC = vice-chancellor; VP = vice-president Vet = 1. veterinarian; 2. (US) veteran VIP = very important person VISTA = Volunteers in Service to America WASP = white Anglo-Saxon protestant wk = week w/o = without WO = warrant officer WORM = write only read many WP = 1. word processor, 2. weather permitting, 3. Warsaw Pact WPC = 1. World Peace Council, 2. (BE) Woman Police Constable wpm = words per minute WYSIWYG = what you see is what you get Xmas = Christmas yd. = yard yr = year 165

ANNEX 4
TELEVISION STYLE Euphemisms. Some jargon words or phrases employed by politicians and others to mask unpleasant or unpopular actions, or to avoid offence, have crept into the language: EUPHEMISM air strikes/air support collateral damage deprived areas/inner cities, substandard housing developing countries, majority countries, Third World downsize/streamline early/premature retirement efficiently squeeze, reconstraction friendly fire human resource interpersonal skills job losses legitimate targets lower income bracket made aware of their responsibilities measured response movement sheet neutralize re-ordering of priorities reporting guidelines senior citizen soft targets take out MEANING bombing civilian casualties slums poor countries give people the sack redundancy sackings killed by your own side people getting on with others redundancies police, soldiers poor threaten with the sack retaliation diary kill budget cuts censorship pensioner defenseless civilians kill

166

ANNEX 5
COUNTRY, CAPITAL, LANGUAGE, NATIONALITY AND CURRENCY
Country
AFGHANISTAN ALBANIA ALGERIA ANDORRA ANGOLA ARGENTINA ARMENIA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA AZERBAIJAN BAHAMAS BANGLADESH BELARUS BELGIUM BHUTAN BOLIVIA BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA BRAZIL BULGARIA CAMBODIA CAMEROON CANADA CHAD CHILE CHINA COLOMBIA CONGO COSTA RICA CROATIA CUBA CYPRUS CZECH REPUBLIC DENMARK ECUADOR EGYPT

Capital Kabul Tirana Alger Andorra la Vella Luanda Buenos Aires Erevan Canberra Vienna Baku Nassau Dhaka Minsk Bruxelles Thimphu Sucre Sarajevo Brasília Sofia Phnom Penh Yaoundé Ottawa Ndjamena Santiago de Chile Beijing Bogotá Brazzaville San José Zagreb Havana Nicosia Prague Copenhaga Quito Cairo

Nationality Afghani Albanian Algerian Andorran Angolan Argentinean/ Argentine Armenian Australian Austrian Azerbaijani Bahamian Bangladeshi Belarusian Belgian Bhutanese Bolivian Bosnian Brazilian Bulgarian Cambodian Cameroon Canadian Chadian Chilean Chinese Colombian Congolese Costa Rican Croatian Cuban Cypriot Czech Danish/Dane Ecuadorian Egyptian

Language Afghani Albanian Algerian Catalan Portuguese Spanish Armenian English German Azerbaijani English Bengali Belarusian Dutch, French Tibetan Spanish, Quechua Serbian Croatian Portuguese Bulgarian Khmer French, English English, French French Spanish Chinese Spanish French Spanish Croatian Spanish Greek, Turkish Czech Danish Spanish Arabic

Currency Afghani Lek Dinar Euro New Kwanza Peso Dram Australian Dollar Euro Manat Bahamian Dollar Taka Rouble Euro Ngultrum Bolivian Peso Marka Real Lev Riel Franc Canadian $ Franc Peso Renminbi Colombian Peso Franc Colón Kuna Peso Cypriot Lira Koruna Danish Krone US Dollar Egyptian Lira

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EL SALVADOR ENGLAND ESTONIA ETHIOPIA FAEROE ISLANDS FIJI FINLAND FRANCE GEORGIA GERMANY GHANA GREAT BRITAIN GREECE HONG KONG HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN IRAQ IRELAND ISRAEL ITALY JAMAICA JAPAN JORDAN KAZAKHSTAN KENYA (NORTH) KOREA (SOUTH) KOREA KUWAIT KYRGYZSTAN LATVIA LEBANON LIECHTENSTEIN LITHUANIA LUXEMBOURG LYBIA MACEDONIA MALAYSIA MALTA

San Salvador London Tallinn Addis Ababa Thórshavn Suva Helsinki Paris Tbilisi Berlin Accra London Athens Victoria Budapest Reykjavik New Delhi Jakarta Teheran Baghdad Dublin Tel Aviv Rome Kingstone Tokyo Amman Alma Ata Nairobi Phenian Seul Al Kuwait Bishkek Riga Beirut Vaduz Vilnius Luxembourg Tripoli Skopje Kuala Lumpur Valletta

El Salvadorian English Estonian Ethiopian Faeroese Fijian Finnish/Finn French Georgian German Ghanaian English Greek Hong Kong Hungarian Icelandic Indian Indonesian

Spanish English Estonian Amharic Faeroese Fijian, English Finnish, Swedish French Georgian German English English Greek Chinese, English Magyar Icelandic Hindi, English Bahasa Indonesian Iranian Persian Iraqi Arabic Irish Irish, English Israeli Hebrew, Arabic Italian Italian Jamaican English Japanese Japonese Jordanian Arabic Kazakh Kazakh Kenyan Swahili, English NorthKorean Korean South Korean Korean Kuwaiti Arabic, Kuwaiti Kyrkyz Kyrkyz, Russian Latvian Latvian Lebanese Arabic Liech German Lithuanian Lithuanian Luxembourg French Lybian Arabic, Italian, English Macedonian Macedonian Malaysian Malaysian Maltese English, Maltese

Colón £ Sterling Kroon Birr Krone Fijian Dollar Euro Euro Lari Euro Cedi £ Sterling Euro Hong Kong $ Forint Krona Rupee Rupiah Rial Dinar Euro New Sheqel Euro Jamaican Dollar Yen Dinar Tenge Kenya Schilling Won Won Kuwait Dollar Rouble Lats Lebanese Lira Swiss Franc Litas Euro Dinar Macedonian Dinar Ringgit Lira

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MEXICO MOLDAVIA MONACO MONGOLIA MOROCCO MOZAMBIQUE NAMIBIA NEPAL THE NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NORTH IRELAND NORWAY PAKISTAN PARAGUAY PERU PHILIPPINES POLAND PORTUGAL ROMANIA RUSSIA SAN MARINO SAUDI ARABIA SCOTLAND SENEGAL SERBIA and MONTE NEGRO SINGAPORE SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SOMALIA SOUTH AFRICA SPAIN SUDAN SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SYRIA TAIWAN TAJIKISTAN TANZANIA

Ciudad de Mexico Kishinev Monaco Ville Ulan Bator Rabat Maputo Windhoek Kathmandu Amsterdam Wellington Belfast Oslo Islamabad Asunción Lima Manila Warshaw Lisbon Bucharest Moscow San Marino Riyadh Edinburgh Dakar Belgrad Singapore Bratislava Ljubljana Mogadishu Pretoria Madrid Khartoum Stockholm Geneve Damascus Taipei Dushanbe Dodoma

Mexican Moldavian Monacan Mongolian Moroccan Mozambican Namibian Nepalese Dutch Zealand / Zealander Irish Norwegian Pakistani Paraguyan Peruvian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian San Marino Saudi Scottish Senegalese Serbian Singaporean Slovak Slovenian Somali South African Spanish Sudanese Swedish Swiss Syrian Taiwanese Tajik Tanzanian

Spanish Romanian French Mongolian Arabic Portuguese English Nepalese Dutch English/Maori Irish, English Norwegian Pakistani Spanish, Guarani Spanish, Quechua English, Spanish Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Italian Saudi Scottish, English French, Wolof Serbian Chinese, English Slovak Slovenian Somali English, Afrikaans Spanish Arabic Swedish French, German, Italian Arabic Chinese Tajik, Russian Swahili

Peso Moldavian Leu Euro Tugrik Dirham Metical Namibian Dollar Rupie Euro New Zealand $ £ Sterling Krone Rupee Guarani Nuevo Sol Philipine Peso Zloty Euro Leu Rouble Euro Riyal £ Sterling Franc Dinar Singaporean Dollar Koruna Tolar Schilling Rand Euro Sudanese Dinar Krona Swiss Franc Lira New Taiwan $ Somoni Tanzanian Schilling

169

THAILAND TUNISIA TURKEY TURKMENISTAN UGANDA UKRAINE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES OF AMERICA URUGUAY UZBEKISTAN VATICAN VENEZUELA VIETNAM WALES ZAIRE ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE

Bangkok Tunis Ankara Ashkhabad Kampala Kiev Abu Dhabi Washington Montevideo Tashkent Vatican Caracas Hanoi Cardiff Kinshasa Lusaka Harare

Thai Tunisian Turkish Turkmen Ugandan Ukrainian Arab American Uruguyan Uzbek Venezuelan Vietnamese Welsh Zairean Zambian Zimbabwean

Thai Arabic Turkish Turkmen English, Swahili Ukrainian Arabic English Spanish Uzbek Latin, Italian Spanish Vietnamese Welsh, England French English English

Baht Dinar Turkish Lira Rouble Uganda Schilling Hryvnia Dirham American $ Nuevo peso Rouble Euro Bolivar Dông £ Sterling Zair Kwacha Zimbabwe Dollar

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ANNEX 6
POLITICS The British Government The Prime Minister (PM) the Cabinet the Lord Chancellor the Chancellor of Exchequer the Treasury the Foreign Office the Home Secretary/the Home Office The British Parliament the House of Commons the House of Lords a Lord, a Peer The American Government the Cabinet the Attorney General the Secretary of the Treasury the Treasury Department the State Secretary/Secretary of State the State Department The American Parliament Congress a Congressman/Congresswoman the House of Representatives a Representative the Senate a Senator The Romanian Parliament the Chamber of Deputies a Deputy the Senate a Senator

The Romanian Government The Premier, The Prime Minister (PM) the Cabinet the Minister/Ministry of Justice the Minister/Ministry of Finance the Minister/Ministry of Foreign Affairs the Minister/Ministry of the Interior the Minister/Ministry of Culture the Minister/Ministry of Agriculture the Minister/Ministry of Defense the Minister/Ministry of Education the Minister/Ministry of Employment the Minister/Ministry of Health the Minister/Ministry of the European Integration the Minister/Ministry of Trade the Minister/Ministry of Research the Minister/Ministry of Environment

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ANNEX 7
AMERICAN ENGLISH/BRITISH ENGLISH airplane anyplace, anywhere apartment area code at present, presently attorney, lawyer auto (mobile) baggage bill (to) broil busy cab/taxi call call collect can candy cart check/bill check out chips coin-purse cookbook cookie, cracker corn crib crazy cuffs diaper do over doctor’s office drugstore dumb, stupid elevator eraser faculty fall, autumn faucet, tap fender first floor, second floor 172 aeroplane anywhere flat/apartment dialing code (phone) at present barrister, solicitor auto luggage bank note (to) grill engaged (phone) taxi ring, phone reverse the charges (phone) tin sweets trolley bill (in a restaurant) check crisps purse cookery book biscuit sweet corn, maize cot mad turn-ups (on trousers) nappy do again doctor’s surgery chemist stupid lift rubber, eraser teachers, professors autumn tap wing ground floor, first floor

flashlight flat (tire)/blowout freight freight train French fries garbage, trash garbage can, trashcan gas (oline) gear shift grade grade hi high school highway, freeway hood hospitalized intersection janitor jelly mad mail mailman mean meet with somebody men’s room Monday through Saturday morgue movie, film movie theater muffler noplace on (main street) one-way ticket overpass pantyhose pants, trousers pavement, sidewalk pavement parking lot pillar box pitcher pocketbook, purse, handbag

torch flat tyre, puncture cargo goods train chips rubbish dustbin, rubbish bin petrol gear lever (on a car) form mark hello secondary school main road, motorway bonnet (on a car) in hospital crossroads caretaker/nightwatchman jam angry post postman nasty meet somebody gents Monday to Saturday mortuary film cinema silencer nowhere in (main street) single (ticket) flyover tights trousers pavement, road surface tarmac car park mail box jug handbag 173

precinct principal protest something railroad raise rent rest room review rocks schedule, timetable sedan sellotape shorts (to be) sick sneakers soccer someplace stand in line station wagon stay at (home) stingy store, shop subway stroller student take a bath/shower talk with someone traffic circle trailer transportation truck trunk two weeks vacation windshield Yield zee zip code zipper

police station headmaster protest against something railway rise (in salary) hire public toilet revision stones timetable saloon Scotch tape (under) pants (to be) ill trainers (sports shoes) football somewhere queue estate car stay (home) mean (opposite of “generous”) shop underground pushchair pupil have a bath/shower talk to someone roundabout caravan transport van, lorry boot fortnight, two weeks holiday(s) windscreen (on a car) Give Way zed (the name of the letter “z”) postal code zip

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ANNEX 8
NEWSPAPER WORD aid axe back ban bar bid blast blaze blunder boost boss / head bug chief clash cop curb cut dash deadlock deal drama drive eye flee gems haul hit hold horror jail key kid lash link loom mob MEANING help, assistance cut, remove support prohibition exclude, forbid attempt explosion fire mistake incentive, encourage manager, director disease, infection, virus leader dispute policeman restrain, limit reduction hurried journey failure to reach agreement agreement tense situation campaign, effort to investigate to run away from smth. jewels gained, stolen, seized quantity of smth affect badly to detain in police custody horrifying accident to imprison essential, vital child to attack verbally connection to approach in a threatening way large gang, uncontrolled crowd 175

move net ordeal oust peril plea pledge plunge poll probe quit quiz raid rap riddle row seek smash snub soar storm strife talks threat toll vow wed woo

step towards a desire end to capture painful experience push out danger strong request to promise dramatic fall election/public opinion survey investigation leave, resign question to enter and search strong criticism mystery, puzzling incident disagreement, argument to request, look for, try to obtain to break up, destroy to turn down, to reject to increase dramatically violent disagreement conflict discussions danger number of people killed promise, threaten marry to try to win the favor of

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