Está en la página 1de 6

MATEMATIKA

FUNKCIJOS RIBA
Apibrimas. Funkcijos y=f(x) riba vadiname tok pastov skaii b, prie kurio be galo artja
funkcijos reikms, kai argumento reikms be galo artja prie kito kokio nors
pastovaus skaiiaus a.

lim f ( x ) = b
xa

Funkcija gali turti rib arba jos neturti. Jei riba egzistuoja, tai ji vienintel.

Rib savybs
1. lim ( f ( x ) g ( x )) = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x )
xa

xa

xa

2.

lim ( f ( x ) g ( x )) = lim f ( x ) lim g ( x )

3.

lim cf ( x ) = c lim f ( x )

4.

5.

xa

xa

xa

lim

xa

xa

xa

f(x)
=
g( x )

lim f ( x )
xa

lim g ( x )

, jei lim g ( x ) 0.
xa

xa

lim ( f ( x )) = lim f ( x )
xa

xa

RIB SKAIIAVIMAS
Galimos rib reikms

0
=0
a

a
=
0

=
a

a
=0

0
=0

a0 = 0

a =

a+0 =a

a+=

=
0

PAVYZDIAI:
2
2
lim (x x + 8 ) = 4 4 + 8 = 20.
x4

2 x x 3 4 2 ( 2 ) ( 2 ) 3 4 4 + 8 4
0
= 0.
=
=
=
lim
x2
22
4
4
x 2
VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF

MATEMATIKA

lim

8
x6

8
= 0.

Iekant ribas galime gauti neapibrtumus:

0
0

00

Esant neapibrtumui, atliekami pertvarkymai. Iskiriami ie skaiiavimo atvejai:


II.. Jei skaiiuojame funkcij(daugianari) santykio rib, kai x , tai skaitikl ir vardikl
daliname i x k , kur k didiausias x laipsnis.

PAVYZDIAI:
x2
2

lim

x 2x + 5
1 + 3x2

lim

x 8 x + 55
x + 9 9x4

2x

x2 x2 =
= = lim x
lim
1
3x2
x
x
+ 2
2
x
x

x
3

= =

lim

x4
x
x4

8x3
x4
9
x4

55

x4 =
9x4
x4

2
5
+ 2
10 +0 1
x x
=
= .
1
0+3
3
+3
2
x

lim

55

x 3 x 4 = 0 0 + 0 = 0.
9
0+09
+
9
3
4
x
x

x3
1

IIII.. Jei skaitiklyje ir vardiklyje yra daugianariai, sira x reikm, gauname neapibrtum ,
0
tai daugianarius iskaidome daugikliais ir bendruosius daugiklius suprastiname. Skaidymui
daniausiai naudojamos ios formuls:
 Greitosios daugybos formuls
( a + b )( a + b ) = ( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 ,
( a + b )( a b ) = a 2 b 2 ,
( a b )( a b ) = ( a b ) 2 = a 2 2ab + b 2 ,
( a b ) 3 = a 3 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 b 3 ,
( a b )( a 2 m ab + b 2 ) = a 3 b 3 .

VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF

MATEMATIKA

 Skaidymas dauginamaisiais
ab ac = a( b c ) ,
a 2 2ab + b 2 = ( a b ) 2 ,
a 2 b 2 = ( a + b )( a b )
2

ax 2 + bx + c = a( x x 1 )( x x 2 ) ; ia x1 ir x2 kvadratinio trinario ax + bx + c aknys

Kvadratin trinar ax2 + bx + c (a 0) galima iskaidyti dauginamaisiais, kai


D = b 2 4 ac 0 .

PAVYZDIAI:

lim

x 2 + 2 x 15
x2 9

x 3

lim
x 0

( x 3 )( x + 5 ) =
(x + 5 ) = 3 + 5 = 8 = 4 = 1 1 .
0
= = lim
lim
3
0 x 3 ( x 3 )( x + 3 ) x 3 ( x + 3 ) 3 + 3 6 3

x (3 x )
3 x
30 3
0
=
=
=
=
= .
lim
lim

2
5+0 5
5 x + x 3 0 x0 x 5 + x 2
x0 5 + x
3x x2

(x 3) x 2 + 3 x + 9 =
x 2 + 3 x + 9 3 2 + 3 3 + 9 27
1
0
=
=
=4 .
=
=
lim 2
lim
0 lim
( x 3 )( x + 3 )
x+3
3+ 3
6
2
x 3
x 3 x 9
x 3
x 3 27

IIIIII..Jei trupmenos skaitiklyje arba(ir) vardiklyje yra kvadratins ar kubins aknys ir


neapibrtumas

0
, tai naikiname iracionalum tame reikinyje, kuris lygus 0. Analogikai
0

sprendiame udavin, jei yra neapibrtumas

PAVYZDIAI:

lim
x 0

4 + x 4 x 0
= = lim
x
0 x 0

( 4 + x) ( 4 x)
= lim
x( 4 + x + 4 x )
2

x 0

( 4+ x +

4x

)=

= lim

)( 4 + x +
x( 4 + x + 4 x )

4+ x 4x

(4 + x ) (4 x )

x 0

= lim

4+ x + 4x
1
= .
2
4+0 + 40
x 0

x
2

VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF

= lim
x 0

4x

)=
2x

( 4+x +

4x

)=

MATEMATIKA

x1

0
= = lim
x 1 0 x 1

lim

x1

= lim

x1

lim

= lim

( x 1)(

) = lim ( x 1)( x + 1) = lim ( x 1)( x + 1) =


x1
( x 1)( x + 1)
( x) 1
x +1

x1

x1

x +1
= 1 + 1 = 2.
1

x + 2 x = [ ] = lim

x+2 x

) = lim (
x

)(

x+2 + x

x+2 +
2
2
= = 0.

x+2 + x
x

x+2 x
x+2 +

)=

FUNKCIJ RIB SKAIIAVIMAS, TAIKANT FORMUL


sin x

lim x = 1
x 0
Trigonometrini funkcij rib skaiiavimui naudojamos formuls:

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1
sin 2 = 2 sin cos
cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2
sin = sin 2
cos = cos 2

= 2 sin
= cos 2

cos

sin 2

PAVYZDIAI:
sin 5 x
lim sin 2 x = [daliname skaitikl ir vardikl i x] = lim
x 0
x 0

skaitikl ir vardikl atitinkamai i 5 ir 2]=

lim
x 0

sin 5 x
x =
sin 2 x [dauginame
x

5 sin 5 x
1
5
5x
= =2 .
2 sin 2 x 2
2
2x

VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF

MATEMATIKA

tgx

sin x

sin x

lim x = lim x cos x = lim x cos x = 1 cos 0 = 1 1 = 1.


x 0
x 0
x 0

1 cos 2 sin 2
1 cos 2 + sin 2
1 cos x
2
2

2
2 =
= lim
= lim
lim
2
2
2

sin 2

= lim

+ sin 2

2 sin 2

= lim

2 sin

sin

2 = 2 = 1.

22 2
2 2
2
2

= lim
0

sin 8 x + 4 x
sin 8 x
4x
8 sin 8 x
= lim
+ lim
= lim
+ lim 4 = 8 + 4 = 2.
x
x
8x
x0
x 0 x
x 0
x 0

lim
x0

1 + sin x 1 sin x
= lim
x
x0

lim
x0

= lim
x 0

1 + sin x 1 + sin x

= 2 lim
x 0

lim
=

( 1 + sin x +
sin x

( 1 + sin x +

cos x sin x
=
cos 2 x

1 sin x
1

lim
x

)( 1 + sin x +
x ( 1 + sin x + 1 sin x )

x0

1 sin x

1 sin x

2 sin x

= lim

( 1 + sin x +

cos x sin x
cos 2 x sin 2 x

1 sin x

= 2

lim (cos x + sin x ) =

x
4

( 1 + sin x

1+ 0 + 10

1 sin x

)=

2
= 0.
1+ 1

cos x sin x

lim (cos x sin x )(cos x + sin x ) =

x
4

cos + sin
4
4

1
2
2
+
2
2

VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF

1
2

2
.
2

)=

MATEMATIKA

FUNKCIJ RIB SKAIIAVIMAS, TAIKANT FORMUL


1
(x )
= e , e 2,71828...
lim (1 + ( x ))
xa
x

PAVYZDIAI:

lim (1 + 3 x )

1
x

x 0

x 0

3x 1

lim
1
x
x 0

1
x

lim 1 4
x 0

= lim (1 + 3 x )

1
4

3x
= lim (1 + 3 x )
x 0

3x 1

1 x =

e3 .

x
= lim 1 +
x 0
4

x 1

lim
4
x
x0

1 3x 1

3x 1 x

4 x 1

x 4 x

= lim 1 +
x0
4

x 1

4 x

x
x
x
2
x+1
x + 1 ( x 1)

= lim 1 +
1 = lim 1 +
= lim 1 +
=
x 1
x1
x1
x
x
x

x1 2

2x

lim
x
2 x1
x1
2
2
2

=e .
== e
= lim 1 +

1 +

lim
x 1
x 1 x

x + 1
lim x 1
x

VILMA JAKUBAUSKIEN
KVK, TF