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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

Unit: 1
1. According to Eric W. Vetter, manpower planning is a very vital process where the management determines how the organization should move from its present manpower position to a desired manpower position. 2. According to Steiner, manpower planning may be defined as a strategy for the procurement, development, allocation and utilization of an enterprise s human resources. 3. According to K. F. Turkman manpower planning can be defined as an attempt to match the supply of people with the jobs available in an organization. Statistical techniques have been used to match the supply of people with the jobs available. 4. Bruce Coleman has defined manpower planning has been defined as the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization . 5. Manpower planning may be defined as a strategy for the procurement, development, allocation and utilization of an enterprise s human resources. 6. Effective manpower planning is hiring the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right place and at the right time for doing the right things. 7. The 5 steps in the manpower planning process are: y Evaluate present manpower inventory y y y y Manpower forecasting Develop a manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan Manpower allocation Building requisite competencies

8. Manpower planning is done based on the manpower forecasts. The common manpower forecasting techniques are: a. Expert Forecasts: This includes formal expert surveys, informal decisions and the Delphi technique. b. Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be seen through the past practice of the firm or organization keeping the principle year as a basis and a central tendency of measure c. Work Load Evaluation: This depends on the nature of the work load in a branch, department, or a division in a firm or organization. d. Work Force Evaluation: As production and the time duration are to be kept in mind, allotments have to be made for getting the total manpower requirements. e. Other Methods: A few mathematical models with the help of computers are also used to forecast manpower needs. 9. Manpower allocation helps in managing the impact of deficits and excess in manpower supply through promotions, transfers and job-rotations. 10. Manpower retention would mean taking necessary steps to ensure that the organization provides a conducive-atmosphere to the employees to perform and keeps each employee engaged. 11. Manpower allocation is a step in the manpower planning process. 12. Expert forecasts and trend analysis are two types of forecasting techniques. 13. Shortages and surpluses can be identified and quick action can be taken in planning.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

14. Manpower planning reduces labor costs as excess staff can be identified thereby avoid overstaffing. 15. Manpower planning is done for: y Successful execution of plans y Efficient utilization of resources y Motivating employees y Better human relations y Higher productivity 16. The major obstacles in manpower planning are as follows: y y y Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower Absenteeism Lack of Employable Labor

17. Usually the productivity of any organization is calculated using the formula: Productivity = Output / Input. 18. Employee Productivity = Total Production / Total no. of employees 19. Successful manpower planning involves only two critical steps. y Estimating the demand forecast for manpower accurately Ensuring the supply forecast for manpower meets the demand forecast 20. The main purpose of manpower planning is to increase the productivity of the organization and the total value created by the organization in a given unit of time. 21. Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower is one of the obstacles in manpower planning. 22. Optimum use of human resources currently employed is one of the major advantages of manpower planning. 23. Department representatives generate the demand forecast based on the business need and the guidelines provided. 24. Attrite: employees leaving the organization 25. Retrenchment: A cutting down or cutting back of manpower in this context. Reduction of manpower in this context. y Unit: 2 1. According to Lewis Mumford, If we do not take the time to review the past we shall not have sufficient insight to understand the present or command the future: for the past never leaves us, and the future is already here. 2. Business dictionary defines Manpower Forecasting as: The prediction of future levels of demand for, and supply of, workers and skills at organizational, regional, or national level. 3. Forecasting is also important when it comes to developing New products, new product lines. 4. Manpower forecasting forms a part of manpower planning process. 5. Successful manpower planning involves only two critical steps. y Estimating the demand forecast for manpower accurately y Ensuring the supply forecast for manpower meets the demand forecast 6. Two key sources of supply of manpower exist. They are: Internal Supply and External Supply. 7. Demand and supply forecasting are very essential to firms and organizations as it then helps them to decide between the various forecasting methods to be chosen.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

8. Demand forecasting is a process of evaluating the quality and quantity (number) of employees a firm or organization requires to meet its future needs. 9. Expert forecasting measures the number of employees available within or outside the firm or organization. 10. The two key sources of supply of manpower are internal and external supply. 11. Based on the demand forecast the sourcing team of HR identifies the sources of supply of manpower. 12. Expert Forecasts : This is a group forecasting method in which experts present their independently developed forecasts to the group. 13. Trend Analysis: This technique requires studying the past data of an organization. Based on the past forecast, utilization and requirement actually experienced in the business, the future forecast is made. 14. Work Study Technique: It is a technique that can be used when it is possible to apply work measurements to know how long operations should take and the amount of labor required. It is calculated in two ways. y Work-Load Analysis : One more method of forecasting is by evaluating the work load in a department or job role. y Work-Force Analysis: In workforce analysis a sufficient margin for absenteeism, labor turnover and idle time on the basis of past experience is made. 15. Managerial judgment: This technique involves a top-down or bottom-up approach. y In top-down approach the managers prepare departmental forecasts. These are viewed by department heads and a decision is taken. y In bottom-up approach the managers submit their departmental proposals to top managers who arrive at forecast. 16. Markov Analysis: This is a mathematical technique. It forecasts the availability of internal job candidates. 17. Cost-Benefit Analysis : This is a term that refers both to: y helping to appraise, or assess, the case for a project or proposal, which itself is a process known as project appraisal; and y An informal approach to making economic decisions of any kind. 18. Statistical Judgment Technique : This technique concentrates on using the past to predict the future by identifying trends, patterns and business drives within the data to develop a forecast. 19. Expert forecasting is called as the Delphi technique. 20. Forecasting is an expensive way to help a company plan and prepare for the future years. 21. Forecasting is valuable for two reasons: y The end-result if accurate is very valuable. An accurate forecast may improve likely hood of achieving all organizational goals for the year. It can help identify risks, clarify what needs to be done and sets fair expectations. y The process of forecasting makes managers sensitive to change and helps them to curtail their flamboyant decision making on the manpower expenditure side is and helps focus on achieving the business goals. It also enables them to understand the impact of their actions on the organizations and their own future and helps build consensus. 22. Team or individual who can produce forecasts which are accurate are valued and the technique applied is understood and used appropriately in business organizations. Page | 3

Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

23. An accurate forecast may improve likely hood of achieving all organizational goals for the year. Unit: 3 1. The manpower planning function is a key part of the HR function. 2. The maturity level of the organization in terms of people capability between 1-5 wherein: y level 1 is Initial (inconsistent management) y level 2 is Managed (people management) y level 3 is Defined (competency management) y level 4 is Predictable (capability management) y level 5 is Optimizing (change management) 3. According to Edwin B. Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, "performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employees excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job. 4. A happy workplace makes the employees feel good about being there. 5. Successful organizations nurture ideas of employees because the employees are the closest to the business operations and customers. 6. Surprises dont have to be limited only to the best performers, but it can be given to other employees as an incentive too. 7. Job Design : Some organizations have categorized jobs into 3 categories: y Individual contributor y People developer y Business operator 8. Employee evaluation is a good practice that links individual employee performance to their goals and to the objectives of the organization. 9. Employee performance feedback is taken from peers, colleagues, seniors, subordinates and the management. 10. Employees need to be rewarded and appreciated for their work. 11. Career path determines the arrangement of jobs, roles and provides a list of qualified candidates. 12. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, adjustable, quick to change direction, and customer centric. 13. Encouraging effective methods of goal setting, communication and empowerment through responsibility, builds employee ownership of the organization. 14. In organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR Managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. Unit: 4 1. According to, The American Accounting Association s committee (1973), human resource accounting is the process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties. So apart from calculating the costs and investments in processes like recruitment, hiring, placement and training, HRA also quantifies the value of employees in an organization. 2. According to Flamholtz (1971) HRA is defined as the measurement and reporting of the cost and value of people in organizational resources.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

3. HRA is mainly used to calculate cost of Human Resource T 4. HRA identifies direct and indirect value attached to human resource T 5. The two most common methods of HRA are: y Cost Approach : based on the cost incurred by the organization on account of an employee. y Economic Value Approach : based on economic value of the employees and their contribution. This approach looks at the employees as assets and possible benefits due to these assets. 6. Prosperity of a business is directly proportional to the quality and management of Human Resource. 7. Human Resource Accounting is the process of identifying and measuring data about human resources and communicating this information to interested parties 8. HR is the only function which is involved in HRA T 9. HRA helps control future costs T 10. Human Resource Value Accounting (HRVA) 11. According to Flamholtz the value of an individual is the worth of services offered by the individual in his current role/profile and the role/profile he may hold in future on account of a transfer or a promotion. 12. Flamholtzs Stochastic Rewards Valuation Model: y A clear differentiating structure of roles/states/positions an employee would move/progress during this career with the organization y The value of these positions to the organization y An employees expected tenure with the organization y Probability of movement from one role to another at specified durations 13. The Lev and Schwartz Model:

14. Hekimian and Jones Competitive Bidding Model: In this method managers bid for existing human resources and determine the value of the employee. The highest bid is the value of that resource. This model is based on the managers valuation of the employees. 15. The Likert and Bowers Model : This model proposes use of casual, intervening and end-result variables to determine the value of a group to the organization. y Casual variables are the ones which can be managed and controlled by the organization (Independent Variable). Examples: Managerial behavior, organization structure. y Intervening variables reflect the competencies, capabilities of an organization and involve group processes (Independent Variable). Examples: Organizational culture, environment, processes, leadership, employee satisfaction. y End-result variables reflect the achievements of the organization, total productivity, the efficiency and productivity of the organization (Dependent Variable). Examples: Sales, cost

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

16. Brummet, Flamholtz, and Pyles Economic Value Model : This method is based on the principle that the current worth of the services an employee can provide in future is equal to the resource s value. 17. Hermansons Un-purchased Goodwill Model : Hermanson proposes that exceptional earnings indicate the value of human assets. Human assets are not shown in the balance sheet. 18. Flamholtz proposes 3 methods for valuation of expense centre groups here: y Capitalization of Compensation: This method involves capitalizing a person s compensation to determine his value to the organization. Similarly, the value of the group will depend on the members comprising the group. This method is not an ideal method as it ignores all non-monetary factors and determinants. For example: All the employees in the HR department may be earning 70 Lakhs annually. This becomes the value of the group to the organization. y Replacement Cost Valuation Replacement cost is defined as the cost that will have to be incurred on hiring, training, developing, etc. of a new group to replace an existing group to obtain services equivalent to those rendered by the existing group. This method is not ideal in the long run as it has subjective estimates. y Original Cost Valuation This method is similar to the replacement cost valuation except for it determines the value by considering the actual cost that was incurred for hiring, training, development, etc of the group. 19. Certain other ways to classify cost are Historical Cost, Opportunity Cost, and replacement Cost. 20. Opportunity cost method looks at what would have been the returns if the cost incurred on HR was invested somewhere else. 21. The economic value of Human Resource is the financial benefits they offer through their services at present and those expected in future. 22. According to Flamholtz the value of an individual is the worth of services offered by the individual in his current role/profile and the role/profile he may hold in future on account of a transfer or a promotion. 23. Non monetary methods rely on predicting the value of skills and capabilities of the employees in terms of rankings, ratings or indices. 24. Economic Value approach is based on economic value of the employees and their contribution. 25. Casual Variables include managerial behavior and organizational structure. 26. True Cost of Planning = Direct Cost of Planning + Indirect Cost of Planning 27. True Cost of Recruitment = Direct Cost of Recruitment + Indirect Cost of Recruitment 28. HR Operation Cost = Sum of Direct costs of HR + Sum of Indirect costs of HR 29.

30. HRA assists in forecasting costs of manpower and associated activities for future business plans. 31. Direct cost will be the actual amount spent on planning whereas indirect cost will be the cost of the time that supervisors, managers in HR spend on this activity. 32. Direct HR costs include salary, bonus, software/hardware purchase, training, licenses, stationeries etc.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

Unit: 5 1.

2. Businesses suffer huge financial losses and lose credibility with customers when the organization does not plan its manpower or staff itself correctly. 3. Manpower planning visualizes how it can use its manpower or employees in the best possible manner. 4. Manpower planning balances demand and supply of manpower. 5. Culture refers to the values, beliefs, adherence to rules and regulations, management style demonstrated consistently. 6. The belief in behavioral event interviewing is that every human being can have two personalities. F 7. According to behavioral event interviewing the individuals future behaviors, beliefs and values will be a reflection of his/her past behaviors, beliefs and values. T 8. A competency mapping (skill inventory) evaluates all aspects of the person with respect to the job role to be performed by the person. It evaluates knowledge, skills, attitude, reflection of attitude that is behavior and possibly values where as skill mapping is restricted to just that skill. 9. A competency mapping exercise results in a report which contains information on knowledge, skills, abilities, and experiences of current employees. 10. The four essential components of competency mapping system are: y Classification system y Measurement unit y Process of measurement y Accessible Data, Information and Knowledge 11. A skill inventory is used in employee evaluation. 12. Measurement unit is one of the components of the competency mapping system. 13. In standard interviews, the focus is on asking a list of related questions in a given area, before moving on to another area. 14. Many employers resist manpower planning as they think that it increases cost of manpower as trade unions demand employee based plans and procedures, more facilities and benefits which include training and development. T 15. Uncertainties are quite prominent in human resource practices due to absenteeism, seasonal employment, labor turnover, changing technologies, market conditions making manpower planning less reliable.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

unit: 6 1. Sourcing is a process of identifying labor pools which can be attracted to your organization by either push or pull recruitment techniques. 2. Sourcing the candidate from within the organization is known as internal source of recruitment and sourcing candidates from other sources is known as external source of recruitment. y Internal Sourcing y External Sourcing 3. Internal Sourcing y Promotions y Transfers y Temporary Staff y Retired Employee 4. External Sourcing y Advertisements in Media y Campus Selections in Institutions y Employee Referrals y Consultants y data bank 5. A general recruitment process is as follows: y Obtain manpower requirements y Prepare a detailed job description and source candidates y Advertise for requirements, inform employees about internal job opportunities, generate referrals, and or engage consultants y Short-list candidates and schedule interviews y Interviewing candidates and select candidates y make offer to candidates 6. sourcing is a process of identifying labor pools which can be attracted to your organization by either push or pull recruitment techniques. 7. Many organizations use a combination of both internal and external sourcing alternatives to deliver business support services. 8. The process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization is recruitment. 9. The present value of the recruitment process outsourcing industry (RPO) in India is estimated to be $2.5 billion and it is expected to grow at the annual rate of 30-40% for the next couple of years. 10. the reasons for outsourcing are: y Lack of internal resources y To be able to focus on core HR functions y Speed the process of recruiting y To meet the sudden and increasing demands for skilled candidate y reduce recruitment cost 11. 70% of the outsourcing jobs are administrative in nature. 12. outsourcing recruitment is using the services of external sources to take care of recruitment needs. 13. Outsourcing organizations involved in the process try hard to provide cost saving benefits to their clients. Page | 8

Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

14. Using your network without advertising could be seen to be indirectly discriminatory by excluding those groups of people who may not be part of your network. 15. Recruitment is outsourced to speed up the process of recruiting T 16. The buzzword and the latest trend in recruitment is the E-Recruitment or Online recruitment . Jobs is among the top reasons why new users will 17. According to a study by NASSCOM come on to the internet, besides e-mail. 18. Job Portals: Post an opening with job description and job specification on the job portal. Search for suitable resumes available on the portal and invite candidates for an interview. 19. jobs is among the top reasons why new users will come on to the internet, besides e-mail. 20. A person specification is written by the firm or organization and outlines the type of person required. 21. A person specification is written by the firm or organization and outlines the type of person required. It includes: y Educational Qualifications y General Intelligence y Previous Experience y Specialized Skills y Interests y Physical Requirements y personality 22. The seven point system is used for evaluation and selection of candidates. y Physical Profile Health, Appearance, Bearing and Speech y Attainments Education, Qualifications, Experience y General Intelligence Intellectual capacity y Special Aptitudes Mechanical, Manual Dexterity, Language Fluency, Ability with words, Mathematical Aptitude, IT ability y Interests Intellectual, Practical, Constructional, Physically Active, Social and Artistic y Disposition Acceptability Influence over others, Steadiness, Dependability and Self-Reliance y Circumstances Any special demands of the job, such as ability to work unsocial hours,travel aboardetc. 23. The five fold grading system is used for evaluation and selection of candidates. y impact on other physical make up apperance,speech and manner y Acquired Qualifications Education, vocational training, work experience y Innate abilities Quickness of comprehension and aptitude for learning y Motivation Individual goals, consistency and determination in following them up, success rate y Adjustment Emotional stability, ability to stand up to stress and ability to get on with people 24. The seven-point system is used for evaluation and selection of candidates. 25. Cost of posting jobs online are low vs. advertising in newspapers. T

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

Unit: 7 1. The important components of resourcing strategy are: y Research y Planning y Recruitment and Selection y Performance Management y Employee Retention y Action Planning 2. Methods of Recruitment y Direct Hiring y Apprenticeship y Earn while you Learn Program y Train to Hire 3. Business Scenario Planning y Scenario 1: The current growth rate may not be sustained in future Then the number of hires should be reduced y Scenario 2: The growth rate may increase in future Then the number of hires should be increased y Scenario 3: There will be a de-growth and current number of employees may also be excess even if there is a some employee turnover Then the company may look for some temporary employees 4. Research is done prior to planning manpower T 5. Planning is based on the findings of research. 6. Apprenticeship and Earn while you Lear program are similar but yet different T 7. In train to hire method of recruitment candidates are charged for training. 8. Train to Hire is the oldest method of recruitment F 9. Scenario Planning is based on assumptions and logical speculations T 10. Scenario Planning reduces risks as compared to others analytical methods of Planning T 11. There are 3 roles of HR in today s business context. y Administrative y Operational y Strategic 12. Forecasting involves predicting future manpower requirements. 13. Organizations can completely stop employee turnover F 14. Employee turnover sometimes has several benefits T 15. Action Planning is associated with goal setting but is not exactly the same T 16. Research is the primary component of resourcing. 17. Scenario planning is a method of planning where possible future situations are preempted to make current decisions. 18. Human Resource Development is a part of HR function which is associated with developing resource capabilities T

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

19. Strategy for Redundancy: y Strategy 1: Organizations only consider undertaking projects where the risks are minimal, the natural attrition can address the challenge of redundancies and no undue costs or strain on the business is experienced for laying-off the workforce. y Strategy 2: Hire very cautiously and work with vendors till the requirement is really seen to stay. y Strategy 3: To review performance very critically, so as to ensure only the high performing employees continue, the rest can find employment elsewhere. y Strategy 4: Pay the lowest and attract workforce to join, lay-off if required by providing few months pay in lieu of a notice. y Strategy 5: Ensure the contracts are drafted such that it gives them enough levers to recover the cost of any sudden fluctuations in manpower requirements. y Strategy 5: This is extremely difficult, but another strategy is to work with advance payments, to minimize the impact of such redundancy situations. For smaller entities, this seems to apply when specially working y Strategy 6: Moving business to a low cost destination where the laborarbitrage can make the business profitable, effective and efficient. y Strategy 7: Leveraging technology to reduce operational costs, manpower costs, automating or moving to more niche areas of business allows the business to remain profitable. y Strategy 8: Acquiring inorganically businesses to benefit from the scale of operations or ramping up the business such that the scale of operations benefits the organization exponentially. y Strategy 8: Entering into associated businesses. Sometimes diversifying into newer areas to deploy workforce productively or minimize the need for the same type of workforce. y Strategy 9: Or use a combination of the above as the situation demands or any other innovative strategies developed. Unit: 8 1. According to R. D. Gatewood and H.S. Field, employee selection is the "process of collecting and evaluating information about an individual in order to extend an offer of employment." 2. The selection process consists of the following steps: y Define the job y Review application/resume/CV/bio-data y Written examination y Preliminary interview y Business games y Selection tests y Final interview with line manager y Medical examination y Reference checks y Job offer

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

3. The selection methods are: y Reviewing Applications y Interviews y Business Games y Tests y Assessment Centers 4. Coleman defined an Assessment Center as "a variety of testing techniques designed to allow candidates to demonstrate, under standardized conditions, the skills and abilities that are most essential for success in a given job". 5. The technical term for psychological tests is psychometric test. 6. The main purpose of the selection process is to identify the best candidate. 7. A well-written job description provides the desired characteristics of an employee. T 8. The medical examinations reveal if the candidate has had any previous health conditions which may prevent or hinder the candidate from performing the job role properly. T 9. Business games bring out the true competencies and behaviors of the candidate. T 10. Few psychological selection test types are: y Aptitude Tests y Achievements Tests y Personality Tests 11. 12.


14. Aptitude tests measure the capacity or ability to acquire a skill to do a job. 15. Mental ability tests have a high validity score. 16. Aptitude tests measure if an employee has the capacity or ability to acquire a skill or do a particular kind of job. T 17. Type of Scores y Raw Scores y Standard Scores y Percentile Score Page | 12

Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

18. In order to interpret test scores effectively, you need not understand the scoring system used. F 19. Personality tests have no "right" or "wrong" answers. T 20. There are no defined good profiles or bad profiles; everything depends on the personality characteristics the job position requires. T 21. Interview is an interaction for the sole purpose of evaluating the job knowledge, skills, talent, motivation-level, attitude, competencies and experience of the candidate. 22. In comprehensive structured interviews the focus is also to evaluate the practical intelligence the person is able to demonstrate with respect to the job or the situation. 23. In chronological interviews all the time is accounted for from your childhood to date. 24. Protract : Make longer Unit: 9 1. An induction program is the process used within many businesses to welcome new employees into the firm or organization and prepare them for their new role. 2. The best new employee orientation programs: y Have targeted goals and objectives to meet them y Makes the first day a celebration and memorable y Involves family as well as colleagues y Makes new hires productive on the very first day y Are not boring, rushed or inefficient y Uses feedback for continuous improvement. 3. There are three things existing employees need to consider: y Do the work assigned y Reflect the culture of the organization y Reach out to new employees and to make them feel welcome 4. few steps to ensure new employees may feel welcome: y An Announcement y CEO Should Meet New Employees y Introductions y Educate New employee to Survive the First Day y Help New Employees Settle Into Work y Give Time to the New Employees y Be Sensitive to New Employee s Needs y Allow New Employees to Settle in y Be ready to Listen y Show New Employees around the Office and Introduce to Friends 5. An induction program must cover any legal and compliance requirements for working at the organization. 6. The orientation program for different groups of employees could be tailored differently to achieve their orientation program goals in specific. T 7. A good and efficient induction program increases productivity and reduces short term turnover. 8. Induction provides an opportunity for both employer and the employee to review their decision to continue the professional association.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

9. Induction is said to be completed when the probation period of the employee is completed. 10. If a gap in competence is noted off the job training can be conducted. Provide the new employees with positive feedback on their performance. 11. The socialization of a new employee is a critical part of induction. 12. The reference letter should cover the following: y Designation of the referee y Reporting relationship y Duration y Performance of the employee 13. Types of Induction y Formal Induction y Informal Induction 14. In informal induction the employee is put on the job directly. 15. In formal induction the management has a structured program which is executed when the new employee joins the firm. 16. Informal induction tends to be brief and may last for an hour. 17. Formal induction program consist of three stages general, specific and follow up. 18. The four techniques for on the job development are: y Coaching : is one of the training methods, which is enhances the performance of an employee. y Mentoring : This is an ongoing association that increases between a senior and junior employee. y Job Rotation Job : helps build a 360 degree view of the business. y Instruction Technique (JIT) 19. Job Instruction Technique: It uses a plan with clarity on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitude improvement. JIT consists of four steps: y Planning: This step includes a detailed written procedure of the work to be done. y Presenting: In this learners are provided with a summary of the job and the different features of the work. The learner demonstrates how to do the job and explain why the job is done in that manner. y Trial: The learner actually does the task and is provided feedback. y Follow-up: Learner s work is checked frequently to ensure no bad work habit setsin. 20. The term training refers to the acquiring of knowledge, skill and competence. 21. Which is a structured method of growing an employee to a leadership role? Job rotation

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

Unit: 10 1. The process involving the systematic identification, attraction, development, engagement and deployment of employees who are of significant value to an organization is defined as talent development. 2. Four dimensions. y Talent Requirements y Conversion from Potential to Polished Performers y HR Systems and Processes y Professional Development & Leadership Programs 3. Research reveals that the approaches can be jotted down as bellow: y Strategy y Involvement y Ongoing y Behavior y Talent Pipeline y Critical Objective y Implementation y Leadership Programs

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

4. Model for Achieving Excellence in Talent Development y Structure y Selective y Process 5. Organizations search for people who have great potential , experience, performance record, and who are seasoned, matured but still aggressively driving forward. 6. Talent development is necessary in any organization because this is the only way of improving employee s productivity. 7. Talent development is the most critical mission in a company among other company processes. 8. Managing talent is a task for which all the leaders of the company are responsible within the organization. 9. Induction & training includes: y Meeting new colleagues y Seeing the layout the premises y Learning about the duties of the job y Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business y Learning the values and aims of the business y Development of competencies 10. Training is important in any organization as it is the only way a new recruit can become productive as quickly as possible. 11. On the job training is a kind of training that occurs when workers pick up skills while working along with experienced workers in an organization. 12. Off the job training is the kind of training which occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained is called off-the-job training. 13. In off-the-job training, the training can be in form of lecture or self study and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations. 14. The prime function of training managers is to conduct and supervise training and development programs for employees. 15. Organizing orientation sessions and arranging on-the-job training is done by the trainer. 16. Factors that judge the methods and responsibilities taken by the trainer are size, goals and nature of the organization. 17. A company s ability to manage its people has a heavy impact on its finance. Unit: 11 1. Engagement at work was conceptualized by Kahn, (1990) as the harnessing of organizational members selves to their work roles. In talent engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. 2. Talent is a key asset of an organization. 3. Talent engagement is the concept which explains the degree to which a talent (employee) is emotionally bonded to his/her organization and passionate about his work. Talent engagement is the level of commitment and involvement a person has towards his organization and its values.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

4. Talent engagement is creating an atmosphere for employees to go beyond job responsibilities to delight customers and promote business. Talent engagement is a powerful retention strategy. The definition of a fully engaged talent might be any of the following: y One who is intellectually & emotionally bonded with an organization y One who gives hundred percent y One who feels passionately about achieving organizations goals y One who lives the values of the organization 5. The driving factors of talent engagement are: y Employer s ability to create the conditions that promote talent engagement y Employees own unique psychological makeup and experiences y Nature of interaction between talented employees at all levels 6. In talent engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.

7. Talent engagement is the concept which explains the degree to which a talent (employee) is emotionally bonded to his/her organization and passionate about his work. 8. Managers should cultivate engagement in the organization because failure to do that causes a lack of commitment and motivation amongst employees. 9. Employer s ability to create conditions that promote talent engaged is a driving factor. 10. 3 levels of engagement: y Engaged Talent y Not Engaged Talent y Actively Disengaged Employee 11. Not engaged is a kind of talent that tends to concentrate more on the tasks allotted to them rather than the goals and outcomes expected 12.

13. Only engaged talent feels inspired, energized and motivated to give his/her best.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

14. The second most essential component of the model is to generate a possessive feeling among the talents which is termed as - Psychological ownership 15.

16. An entrepreneur is someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it. 17. When entrepreneurship describes activities within a firm or a large organization it is referred to as intrapreneurship. Intrapreneurship may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-off organizations. 18. Intrapreneurship is the practice of entrepreneurship by employees within an organization. 19. Talent engagement is a very powerful tool and is closely linked to business results of a company. 20. Organizations have to formulate different strategies if they desire to enhance the percentage of their engaged talents in their organization. Unit: 12 1. Career management is defined as the Lifelong, self-monitored process of career planning that involves choosing and setting personal goals, and formulating strategies for achieving them (Source: business Career Management is a partnership of well organized planning and the active management option of an individual s own professional career. 2. The term Career covers all kinds of employment such as skilled, semi-skilled, semi professional and professional. 3. Career management is the process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals. 4. Career management is a lifelong, self-monitored process of career planning that involves choosing and setting personal goals, and formulation strategies for achieving them. 5. Career management is the systematic evaluation of the progress towards the achievements of goals and objectives. 6. A career management policy facilitates employees to achieve their career objectives. 7. Career planning for individuals has gained significance due to phenomenal growth of knowledge in new areas, better educational and training facilities and huge number of jobs that have got created due to a burgeoning world population and the onset of consumerism and globalization. 8. Career planning is a structured exercise undertaken to identify one's objectives, marketable skills, strengths, and weaknesses, etc., as a part of one's career management.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010


10. Tips for Successful Career Planning y Make it an Annual Activity y Develop a Career Path y Present your Transferable Skills y Analyze Hobbies and Pastimes y Consider Likes and Dislikes y Track & Communicate Achievements y Study Job Trends and Career Opportunities 11. Career planning applies the ideas of strategic planning and marketing to take charge of one's professional future. 12. The first and foremost step in career planning is to know and evaluate your-self. 13. Successful career planning requires presenting your transferable skills. 14. Talent management is defined by Soft cape as the integrated process of ensuring that an organization has a continuous supply of highly productive individuals in the right job, at the right time. 15. The major aspects of talent management practiced within an organization most consistently include: y performance management y leadership development y workforce planning/identifying talent gaps y recruiting 16. This term "talent management" is usually associated with competency-based human resource management practices. Talent management decisions are often driven by a set of organizational core competencies as well as position-specific competencies. 17. Talent management refers to the process of developing and integrating new and current workers, and attracting highly skilled workers. It is the process of attracting and retaining profitable employees. 18. A talent management point of view employee evaluations concern two main ways of measuring. They are: y Performance Appraisal y Potential Appraisal

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

19. There are four stages to developing an effective succession plan: y It is in identifying roles for succession; y It is in developing a clear understanding of the capabilities required to undertake those roles; y It is in identifying employees who could potentially fill and perform highly in such roles; and y It is in preparing employees to be ready for advancement into each identified role. 20. Without the implementation of a succession plan, there can be significant negative impacts on an organization including; y Loss of expertise and business knowledge y Loss of business continuity y Damaged client relationships y Time and effort to recruit and train replacement employees 21. Talent management audit provides an evaluation of the maturity features of an organization. 22. Performance appraisal is a part of HR processes focused on career management, rewards and recognition. 23. Succession planning is a process of identifying and developing internal personnel with the potential to fill important positions. 24. Talent management refers to the process of developing and integrating new and current workers, and attracting highly skilled workers. Unit: 13 1. Employees are redundant when they are in excess of the requirements of the employer. 2. Causes of redundancy could be: y Economic downturn y Company merger and restructuring y Technological change y Changes to production methods and y Re-location 3. Economic downturn is primarily the slowing down of the economy. 4. Mergers and acquisitions mean buying, selling and combining of companies or organizations for business gains. An acquisition is also known as a takeover, purchase or "merger". 5. When organizations are expanding or need competent employees in another place, employees are relocated. 6. Employee dissatisfaction may also be due to: y Non-payment of dues/salaries y Poor management y No growth and learning opportunities y Unethical, illegal practices and more 7. retirement benefits: y Pension y Gratuity y Provident Fund y Medical Benefits Page | 20

Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

8. Pension is an arrangement to provide people with an income when they are no longer earning a regular income from employment. 9. A tip (also called a gratuity) is a voluntary extra payment made to certain service sector workers in addition to the advertised price of the transaction. 10. Provident fund is made up of the contributions made by the employee and the employer during the time he/she has worked with an organization. Provident Fund commonly referred to as PF is calculated as 12% of the basic monthly salary. 11. the word exit does not indicate if an employee has retired, resigned or has been terminated. 12. Outplacement is a term used to describe the efforts made by a downsizing company to help its redundant employees through the redundancy transition and help them re-orientate to the job market 13. The code of conduct refers to the ethical compliance part of the job. T 14. However since there is no statutory requirement, many organizations do not calculate the cost of employee turnover. 15. Society for Human Resource Management estimated that it costs $3,500.00 to replace one $8.00 per hour employee. 16. Estimates of other sources indicate it costs up to 400% for specialized, high level employees to be replaced. 17. In many organizations, the senior management team of the organization is not permitted to board the same plane to travel from point A to point B for business or other reasons. T 18. Employee Exit Process (Managing Organizational Release) 19. The employee exit process is a four step process which is logical: y The organization can transfer employee knowledge y The organization can complete operational or administrative duties y The organization can document the employee s ideas or opinions of their employment experience y The organization can conduct a befitting Employee Exit Interview to comfortably close pending matters 20. Knowledge Transfer Questions is viewed as, setting a stage for transition or change. 21. Many organizations have a chain of standard Exit Checklists for use. 22. IT Checklist y Clean-up local hard drive y Clean-up network drives (personal & work) y Let them know what to do with network job files y Return manuals and disks y Delete organization software from personal laptops or other home computers 23. Administration Checklist y Return all Office Keys y Clear out the office desk, files; return all stationary /supplies/ equipment to production; take all personal belongings y Return Credit Cards (if any) y Have address changed on letters, bills/forwarded at post office/ courier y Hand in all copies of reports, files, manuals etc y File all work, or arrange with someone responsible for filing work file when job is complete (do not leave any work files in office)

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

24. HR Checklist y Leave forwarding address y Telephone Number y Facsimile (fax) Number y Mobile Number y Hand in all appropriate forms 25. Standardized Exit Survey: This is documenting, employee s general impressions, of the organization. 26. Face-to-Face Exit Interview : This is viewed as personal and professional closure. 27. Possible Exit Interview Questions: The line of asking questions is logical. 28. The first step of the employee exit process is knowledge transfer. 29. To ensure that basic employee exit information can be evaluated reliably with statistical analysis, it must be collected in a standardized procedure. 30. Knowledge Transfer question is not viewed as, setting a stage for transition or change. F Unit: 14 1. According to Nasscom, BPO industry revenues have risen to USD 14.7 billion in 2009, up from USD 1.6 billion in 2002, making it the fastest growing among all other Indian industries and giving it a 51 per cent share of the global outsourced industry. 2. By setting up an academy, an organization can get following benefits: y Reduced Hiring Costs y Reduced Training Cost y Reduced Training Period y Improved Bench Strength 3. Train to Hire is mostly a chargeable course for the candidates T 4. The centre where the training is conducted is called academy. 5. Non-availability of space is the only reason why the academy is set up outside the office premises F 6. The following needs to be developed. y Master Training Statement y Participant Guide y Trainer Guide y Slides for presentation y Training Videos y Props for training activities y Pre-Training assessment y Quiz during training classes y Post-Training assessment 15. Instructional Design Content developed using instructional design is very effective. It involves the below mentioned steps. y Analyze - analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc. y Design - develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach y Develop - create instructional or training materials y Implement - deliver or distribute the instructional materials y Evaluate - make sure the materials achieved the desired goals

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

16. The certification criteria of selection are normally based on: y Technical Knowledge Theoretical knowledge and the product know how is essential in some jobs. Example: The ability of a person to use computers, or their understanding of a certain technology like CNC (computer numeric control) machines. y Process Knowledge Understanding the organization s systems and processes. In a BPO with an insurance process of underwriting, it could mean the knowledge about the process of underwriting policies. y Soft skills Every job requires soft skills apart from technical knowledge or process knowledge. These skills enable the employee to get a job done faster, better and ensure customer delight. The required skills like supervisory skills, Selling Skills, Customer handling skills etc. 17. Train-to-Hire Methods :It is the process of imparting knowledge by an expert to the novice on the course content. y Technical Knowledge Theoretical knowledge and the product know how. y Process Knowledge Understanding the organization s systems and processes. y Soft skills The required skills like supervisory skills, selling skills, customer handling skills, etc. 18. There can be more than one method of training used for the course. Some of the training delivery methods are: y Directive Method This method is employed for theoretical topics where knowledge is transferred with minimum discussion y Participative Method This method is employed when the candidates are required to absorb more information out of what has been presented. For instance, this method increases inquisitiveness, thereby increasing number of questions arise, participants try to answer themselves and they take trainers assistance wherever required y Project Based Learning Participants are assigned small projects to increase their understanding in the field of work. For instance - visiting competitions sales outlets to find out their offerings. y E-Learning Apart from the visual aids used in training, online training or self learning through computer based content or modules can also be employed for topics like Billing Systems or Data maintenance. y Facilitating method This method is used to deliver topics which need deliberation. For instance, delivering supervisory skills using case studies or making an action report based on audit findings y On-job-training This method is used to give the candidates a real flavor of the job they need to perform. It is used only after the candidates have some prima information about the services or products of the organization 19. Induction involves a brief about the organization, course, and role of candidates T 20. Candidates get experiential learning through on the job training 21. The level of understanding and readiness of the candidates for the job is checked in the assessment phase 22. Selection criteria is the set of parameters used to certify a candidate T 23. Only students are considered for train to hire courses F

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

24. Some of the challenges of setting up an academy are as follows: y Attracting Students and Job Seekers in large numbers y Ensuring students do not drop out during the course y Ensuring students at the end of the program join the company which has the requirement. y Keeping the cost of training within budgets. y Huge initial investment for creating training infrastructure. y Customers (students) seek job guarantees. y Poor pay scales, working conditions and strenuous work hours in some jobs. Every industry is growing exponentially in India at this time. Customers have so many options to choose from. y Differentiation 25. Leaflets : Pamphlets or a brochure 26. Bench Strength : Pool of trained employees Unit: 15 1. The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. 2. Competency is the ability of a person to perform a particular job in the best possible manner. Competency is a combination of skills, knowledge, behavior, motivation and values. Competency is a product of and not a sum of the above factors, i.e. 3. Competency = Hard Skills x Soft Skills x Domain Knowledge x General Knowledge x Behavior x Motivation x Values. 4. Competency mapping requires a systematic process to be followed. 5.

6. Competency models should be developed using behavior interview methods so that the organization creates a model that reflects its own strategy, its own market, its own customers. 7. Once competency mapping is done, the next steps are competency assessment and competency management.

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Manpower Planning and Resourcing MU 0010

8. Knowledge Management (KM) Facts & Predictions y The KM context Fortune 500 companies will lose US$31.5bn by 2003 through KM inefficiency (IDC). y Employees spend 6 weeks p.a. searching for experts to complete work (Northrop Grumman). y 7-20% of time is spent duplicating the work of others (Delphi Group) y Information professionals spend 15 hours+ searching for information on the Internet. Their searches are only 44% effective (IRN Services). 9. For successful knowledge management focus on five tasks: y Generating knowledge y Accessing knowledge y Representing and embedding knowledge y Facilitating knowledge y Transferring knowledge 10. The key part of knowledge management is transferring knowledge. 11. Tactic is unarticulated knowledge, it is more personal, experiential, context specific, and hard to formalize; is difficult to communicate or share with others. 12. Indexing information, making a bibliography makes knowledge transfer easy. 13. E-learning is a cost effective way of developing manpower. 14. A learning management system (commonly abbreviated as LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of training programs, classroom and online events, e-learning programs, and training content (Ellis 2009). 15. The information typically is details about below mentioned particulars: y Employee Demographics Details like name, address, qualification, contact number, date of birth, sex, marital status etc. y Employee Tracking Details like date of joining, current and previous profiles, performance reports etc. y Skills Inventory Details of competencies and capabilities of the employee, trainings attended and accreditations etc. y Payroll Compensation details and structure, past payout, attendance, leaves etc. y Benefits The perks offered to employees such as car, company accommodation etc. 16. Some of the renowned ERP solutions are: y SAP s ERP Solution y IBM s E-Business on Demand 17. Moreover the information needs to be complete, accurate, relevant and timely (CART). 18. Details like name, address, qualification, contact number, date of birth, sex, marital status etc are part of payroll F 19. HRIS is a combination of software and hardware T


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