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-U^;^^<^

ADikmhSfi'^

C^il^iH,

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A L

Mui

iluftre

y noble Senor

Don

GUILLELMO STANHOPE^
de

Senor Baron

Harrington,
Pleni^

Embaxador que
fons
',

fue en la Corte de Efpana,

potenciario en los CongrelTos de Sevilla,

Soif-

y al prefente uno de los Principales Secretarios de Eftado de fu Mageftad Britanica, del Confejo de fu Mag^. ^c.

Exc^. Senor.

^^1^^ O

dexara en mi de fer animofidad te>3^ meraria, el poner efte libro a los pies ^^ de V. Ex. fi fu buen indole y afabilidad

no
El

le quitalTen el fer

Offadia*

Nombre de Stanhope

es tan
;
'

conocido en EA'

pana,

de tantos anos a efta parte

fu

mui

iluftre

y^ noble Profapia, tan altamente refpetada y aplaudidaj que nvinea eedera al olvido fu Memoria ya
:

por

DEDICjriON.
por las Miichas y continuadas Embaxadas conque han iluilrado aquella Corte ; ya por las heroicas hazaiias, que, en tiempo de Giu'rra, han merecido los 6 ya por la tranquiliaplaulbs de la Europa toda dad, que han fugerido en vnrios CongrefTos para En tiempo de Paz, les ha veneel bien publico. rado la Efpana como Nativos de aquel Pais, y en tiempo de Guerra les ha confiderado tan Galanes
,

como

Valerolbs.

En

reciproca benevolencia,

Hem-

pre aquella familia ha moftrado tal inclinacion y Cariiio a los de aquella nacion, que, parece, le affifte una propenfion innata a beneficiaries y protegerles.

loque esfuerza mi humildad a ofrecer a obfequio j pues V. E. ha heredado, como que en com.plexo, lo heroico y efpeha feguida ciales prerogativas de la familia toda los palTos, continuado los progreffos, y adelantado la gloria de fus AnteceiTores. Flai muchos, que confagran fus libros a Principes y Proceres, ajenos del
'Efto
es,
fli

Ex.

efle tenuiffimo

conocimiento

cie

que

tratan,

dando por motivo

la

neceflidad de fu proteccion contra los Malevolos (co-

mo

murmurar

fe compraife la libertad de cuerdos y menos Lifonjeros eran los Antiguos, que dedicaban los fuyos, 6 a fus Amigos, 6 algun Principe inteligente, a quien, por

fi^con

el

iibro
:

no

del;

Mas

razon del argumento,

fe le

debia

la obra.

revo-

cando yo al ufo moderno la pnielica de los Antiguos, Nadie podra negar mi acierto en la eleccion de V. E. pues elijo a Perf(Sna tan benemerita, que puede juzluego en vano foiicitara yo a V. E. giir y aprobar para la acceptacion, quando de jufticia fe le debe Se bien, que el tributarle elogios, efta dedicatoria. Porloque fuplico, folo, fera ofender fu Modeftia elque V. E. fe digne de recebir y patrocinar efta obrilla, como a demoftracion de mi Afedlo y VeEn cafo, que V. E. hallare algo de fu aneracion. grado
:

DEDICATION.
grado y mereciere fii aprobacion, me quedara el confuelo de decirle, loque Horacio a fa Mecenas

Magnum

hoc ego duco, quod placui

tihi.

la

obllgacion de rogar a Dios,


:

le G^*.

y profpere

por dilatados anos Aflegurandole, que en tanto me tendre por feliz, en quanto publicare que foi, con el debido rendimiento, de

r. Ex(f.

El mas humilde y Ohedmte

fervidor

g.

B.

S.

M.

Sebastian Puchol, D. D.

THE

PREFACE.
P
this
is

N
I

a careful Examination

of

Grammar^ (althd the befl extant^) I found the Rules


fo *very deficient

that
laid

down
that

and

incorredty

thought

could

?iot

do the

Tuhlick a greater Service^ than by prefenting them T^his induced me to unwith one more perfeB. dertake the CorreBion of it ; to lay down a new\ modern^ and approved Orthography and EtymoIcgy \ and to add fo many necefjdry Rules to ity that the Reader^ who is acquainted with the for7ncr Edition^ will hardly know that this is S t eI do not intend to unV E N s 's dervalue what others have done of this Nature : What I can fay without Prefumption is, that I have co72Julted all former Gram?nars, and infert-^ ed in this what I have found well grounded : I have reBifed Abundance of Miflakes, which other

Grammar.

Authors have paffed over, and corrected others a?id t laid down by them as efiablif:ed Rules leave the hearned to Judge of the many Im* provements made in this Edition,
^^

The

PREFACE.
Fronuntiation are as

I'he Rules for the true

clearly expreffed as can be done in Writing,

The

Articles a7id Parts of Speech are explained in

Manner

eafy

and

intelligible to

young Beginners,

The Co72Jugation of Verbs (one of the moji intricate Tarts of the Caftilian Language) is laid down in the mojl plain Manner^ to each of which is added
that of the PaJJive, Reciprocal, Imperfonal, and I have alfo inferted two Other irregular Verbs.
Tables, by

which the Learned

will,

at firjl view^

fee the Difference between the three Conjugations. The Curious will herein find all that is requifite

and

neceffary, to lead

them

iitto

the perfedi

Knowledge of
Spanifli

the Caftilian (cojnmonly called the

Tongue) which has

been preferred in

a greater Purity and PerfeBion, than in any other of the more dijlant ones
thofe Provinces, in

from
King^

the Court

This

was
the

the Reafon that induced

to order that all fublick Writings, &cq. foould be made in the.Czftilian Tongue, I have laid downfomefixt Rules

Don Alonzo

Wife

in the Rudiments, to avoid ambiguity in the Pro^ nuntiation of the Letters B, V, &c, errone ou
fly
tifed before,

even among the Spaniards.

The Vo-

cabulary, Familiar Phrafes, a?2d the Colloquies are carefully amended-, and all the Words are
acceiited to avoid Mijiakes in the Pronu?2ciation.

It

neceffity)

was high Time (nay there was an abfolute to make a new Edition of the Spanifli
all

Grammar : For
and Cujiom
ma72y
to
is
;

Languages

and
or

the Caftilian

alter by Time has received fo

Alterations,
it,

that
it

no-body

can

pretend
as
it

teach

learn

in Perfection,

fpoken at Courts

thors^

and without Jome new

ufed

modern AuInJlruBions, The 9,


by
{called

The
(called cedilla^

PREFACE.
its

which was fo much iji ufe before, and the Reafonsfor if the Reader h now left o^\ willfind in my Obfervations on that Letter^ and
The y, which a Confonant Some of the Spanifh Words are in Compofition. foftenedy and others altered^ as more conforjnable to the Latin ; as inftead of Cora9on we jay Corazon : forv^zt^, dezir, hazer; veces, decir, hathe z
is

fubjiituted in

Place,
is

commonly pajfed as a Vowel,

7iow

cer

injtead of eftoy, doy,

Reyno

eftoi, doi,

for dava, iva, devo, efcrivo ^ daba, iba, debo, efcribo : for Cavallo, Govierno ; Caballo, Gobierno : for abuelo or aguelo 5 avuelo

Reino:

hai for ay or hay

Ahi for

ai or hai,

&c.

have followed, in the CorreBion

of this

Grammar^
Aca-

the Didlionary lately puhlifed by the Royal

demy

Standard for who aim at Speaking and Writing corall thofe rcBly and elegantly the Spanifh Language.
0/^

Madrid, which

is

the only

NEW

THE

RUDIMENTS
O F T H E

Spanijh
S
there

Grammar.
are

ftudy the wichouc language, whac before-hand underftanding Grammar is, and that every body

many who

CASTILIAN

may have
guide,
to
I

certain
it

rules

for

his

think
it

may
parts.

not be ufelefs

make an epitomy of

and

its

GRAMMAR
properly.

is

the art of fpcaking and writing

And

is

Orthography, Etymology, or
words.

divided into four parts, viz. or the method of true writing. the knowledge of the original

Syntax, or
into fentences.

the

manner of forming

the

words

Prosody, or the kno\vledge of the accent or


quantity of the
fyllables,

as

to their being pro-

nounced long or

(hort.

PART

'Tf,

he

RUDIMENTS
P

of

A R T
r

I.

0/

OR

HO G R A

Y,

Which contaim fome

'very curious a?id necejfary obfervafions to learn the Caftilian tofigue in perfcution,

CHAP.
Of

the Letters in general,

It's own, tho' it is not difputable, but that before the conqueft of Spain by the Romans^ the Spaniards had charaders or letters to exprefs their language in, and that the Goths alfo introduced theirs. But there is no memorial of the former, and the Gothic ceafed in the year 1091 by decree of ihe national council at Leon,

TH E

Spanijh language has not a peculiar al-

phabet of

of Don Alonfo VI. in which it was appointed that no characters fhould be ufed befides that of the Roman : Ever fmce which time they have continued the Latin letters ; with the addition of a few borrowed from the Greeks in order to
in the reign

own

their

debt for fuch words as they took from that


k^ ph, th^

language,

and thefe are ch^ pondent to x, x, c, ^, and v.

y, corref-

ters,

Caftilian alphabet confifts of twenty-fix letincluding the h : the twenty-three following are common to other languages.

The

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, X, Y, Z.
a, b, c, d, e,
f,

g, h,

i,

k,

1,

m,

n, o, p, q, r,

f,

t, u, X, y, z.

And

the

Spanish Grammar.

And
ferent

the other three letters 9, j, n, for their difpronunciation are peculiar to the Cajlilian

language.
thefe five are vowels A, E, I, O, which the Y is added for the Greek words, fo called from their expreffing a found without the The reft are confonants, help of any other letter. fo called from their having no found alone, and are

Of the common,
to

U,

regularly divided into mutes a,nd femi-vowels

or, as

others fay, into

natural and corrfus^d: the mutes or

natural arc B, C,
the fein'uvowels or

D, G, K, P, Q, T, Z, and
confufed are F,

H, L, M, N,

R,

S,

X,

fo called for their


it.

being pronounced with


S, are
liquids

a vowel before and after v^ and

Of which L, M, N, R,
?7,
}',

f,

/,

are likewife confonants in the S_pamjb

language.

Of

the pronoiinciation of the letters,

Letter

is

nothing more fin the fenfe

we fpeak
and an

here) than a note of a peculiar found, individual part of a filial le.

rlfon to the languages

fome authors alErm) in compawhat notes are to Mufick. If from the notes may be formed various and innumerable tones, whofe fweet and pleafant harmony
Letters are (as
cherifh,

and with founding eloquence perfijades

fo

are the concerts of words infinite, which refult


the letters,

from

melody

whofe compofition with an eloquent and brings the invifible to life both as written, fpeak to the eyes, and as pronounced, to the hearing. And if nobody withQut the perfedc knowledge of notes can boaft of being a Mufician ; lefscan anyone prefume to know with delicacy a language without a full knowledge of the letters.
defcribes to us the thoughts,
:

For

of and as in the order of nature, the fitnple ts firft, and then the compound, it appears proper to begin by the vowels, whofe found is fo fimple as to be formed only by opening the mouth.

"fhe

RUDIMi:NrS
reafon,

For which

0/

the voivels.

IS

pronounced
hally
call,

as in Englijh^

aw^

as in the

words

all^

ball:
it is

without differing from the

manner

in

which

pronounced by other nations.

Is pronounced the fame as in the Latin, Italian^ and French tongues, nay even the fame as in the Englifh in the words to blefsy to fend, Tho' e be doubled it never lofes its pronunciation, fo that when there are two e e \n z. word, both are plainly and diftindlly pronounced, as creer^ to

believe

; leery

to read.

I.

Y.

Thefe letters are called i Latin, and y Greek : the former preferves it's natural pronunciation in compofition, and is pronounced by all nations, as in the latter has thefe words, viftble, vifion, terrible the fame pronunciation ; hut when in compofition is a confonant, and is pronounced as two i f, as ayuda,
:

help

ayuno, a

faft.

Of j

called ijdta.

See

letter

G.

the fame pronunciation as in Latin and Engli/by in thefe words tbrono^ throne i obediente^

Has

cbedient.

//6^

Spanish Grammar.
U.
V.

two u's as well as the u vowel called by the Spaniards an open or fquare u and v confonant called v clofe, or de Co-^ razonctllo^ which always goes before the vowels, and is never joined to a confonant, nor ends any
Spanijh language has

The

Latin

*,

word.

vowel is pronounced as double o o in and thefe words Cupido a. Cupid, Cur a a Curate or a Cure, are pronounced as if they were
Englijk^
\

written thus Cooptdo^ coora


tion of the

becaufe the pronuncia-

cook cozinero^ is exadlly the fame as that of the u vowel in Spani/h. ^confonant is pronounced by the Spaniards in the fame manner as the u vowel ; tho' there are fome
words book
lihro^

authors
is

who

a found between that

pretend to fay, that ii's pronunciation of h and , but I fee no


for this exception,

manner of ground

Ohfervations upon the vowels.

amard, he will love bard, he will do it ; and the feminine, as amdra^ when I might love, in the laft fyllable. There are four diphthongs formed of this vowel when it goes before other vowels, as we fhall fhew hereafter. when by itfelf, (lands for a prepofition which
*,

THIS
A

letter

has often the mafculine accent, as

denotes the dative cafe, as doi la preferencia a Pedroy 1 give the preference to Peter ; it governs alfo the accufative, as yo dmo d Dios, I love God ; denotes the part or place where one goes, as voi d Roma^ I go
to

Rome,

it

alfo precedes the accufative

when before
as

an

infinitive

governed by another verb,

vdmos d
I'endr^

6
char,
let

The
us

RUD IMENTS
to fupper
;

go

apajfedr^ to

of walk ; ajugdr,

to play.

When before the adverbs or adverbial moods it denotes the manner in which an adlion is cxecuced, as afabiendas, knowingly d trueco, by changing j rather
*,

purpofely, d brdzo partido, upon equal terms : ^denotes likevvife when a thing is to be done, as a las
doce del dia, at noon.
It is

often an interjedlion, as a fenor fiddno^


;

ho

there ilich a one


It is

a fenor Pedro, ho there Peter.

fcr.a capital,

taken for con^ with, as cafiiguefe el oficidl d let the cfHcer be punifhcd with a capital punifhment. For hdcia, towards, as vohio la caheza d tal parte^ he turned his head towards fuch a place. For pdra^ for, as conduce a eftefmy it is proper for

this end.

For tor, by, as a fticrza gano la cuidad, by force he gained the city. For fegim^ according, as d la moda de Francia^
according to the French fafhion. For Jiy if, as a faber efto^ if I knew this, upon knowing of this. For fino^ if not, unlefs, as a no venir d tiempo^ if
he fhould'not come in time, ^c. For erj^ in, as ^ vifta de tal proceder que quure que hdga ? upon fight of fuch proceeding what will you

have

are many authors who are of opid ftands for the third perfon fingular of nion, that the prefent tenfe indicative of the verb haver, to have, faying aquel a, I fay that then it is to be written with an h thus aquel hd, obferving the fame in all the tenfes and moods ; for haver is derived from the haiin verb habere, and regard being had to this there will happen no miftake or equivocation. There are other authors who affcrt, that d ftands
for hdi, there
is, which is abfolutely falfe ; for in the fcecches which denote time^ as d im ano que vine d Lcndres^

me to do ? And tho' there

//&^

Spanish Grammar.
a year fince I

LondreSy
figure

it is

came

to

London, a mult

be written with h thus hd abbreviated, or by the


third perfon it is the of the prefent tenfe indicative of the verb hacer^ to do, and is the fame as hdce un dno que vine a LoNdreSy according to the rule,
fiijgular

Apocope, becaufe then

Jpocope demit fineniy quern dat Paragoge.

But of thefe we
ther place.

Ihall

fpeak more at large

in

ano-

E.
either is mafculine, as in the laft fyllable of amariy I fhall love ; aprendere, I will learn enfene^ I have taught; oire^ I fhall hear, &c. or feminine, qudndo olviddre^ as qudndo amdre^ when I fhall love when I fhall forget ; and it is fo becaufe the accent is not acute in thefe laft examples. Of the hy when before other vowels, may be formed four diphthongs. E is fometimes ufed as a firft perfon of the verb haver^ but then it muft be written with ^, faying 'jo he comprddo un amllo de orOy I have bought a gold
,

a conjunction, and is ufed inftead ofy, following word begins with i vowel, as los Holandefes e InglefeSy the Dutch and the Englifh Efpdna e It alia y Spain and Italy. Poets often take the liberty to add the letter e 2Lt the end of fome words ufmg the figure Paragoge, faying atnore for amoKy love, and this they dofor thq fake of thcrhime. is fometimes an interjedion, but then h muft be added to it, as hsy que dices ? ha what do you
It is often

when

the

ha what you will have ? it ftands likewife for an adverb, as 4/, la muger^ fee !
fay
?

hey que quieres ?

the

woman,

84

i-

The

RUD IMENTS
I.

of

Y.

The Latin i ftands for a vowel in the Spamjh lanbut when a flrong guage, and the) for aconfonant
,

afpiration

is

required in the pronunciation, already


,

then j

lerves as a confonant, as yi,

jufio^ jufl-.

When
it

the accent

is

laid

on the

as lei^

vi^ then

has a

mafculine pronunciation, and when


are four diphthongs alfo

not, a

feminine one.

There
vowel.

formed from

this

When is by itfelf in a fpeech, it is generally a conjundion copulative, and fometimes fufpenfive, as


)*

Juan

Pedro^
fly,

huyen^

y corren^
:

y pelean^
it

John

muft be obferved, that when the following word begins with f, then by Euphonia e mufl be made ufe of inllead of y, as los Efpanoles e Italidnos^ Franc efes e IngUjh^ the Spaniards and the Italian, the French and the Englifh. /or y are fometimes put inftead ofabz^ there, but as this ufe is meerly voluntary it muft be never

and Peter,

lun, and fight

Bat

ufed.

O.
This letter is alfo pronounced fometimes with a mafculine accent, as amd, he loved ; refpondio^ he anfwered. Four diphthongs are formed cf this letter, when it precedes other vowels. When the o is by itfelf in a fpeech, it is often a conjundion disjunctive, as b fdbio^ b ignorante^ a
bravo f b covarde^ ha devenir^ con migo^ Jet him be wife, or ignorant, or brave, or a coward, he muft come with me. as b maldad ! It is likewife an interjection, pain but of this we ihall b dolor ! wickednefs fpeak more largely in another place. that I were As an adverb, ^sbfi yofuera nco^

rich,

Uh

>

the

Spanish Grammar.
U.

U
cent,

is

as tu^ fu^

fometimes pronounced with a mafculine acthou, his j of it are likcwife made


after a ^,

four diphthongs.

When
its

is

joined to

or

i,

then u lofcs

pronunciation ; and thefe words, Guedeja, a lock of hair ; gum a guide, are pronounced as in th. E gliih words ot giddy, Guinea, or as in the French

words guerre, war

guerir, to cure. Jguero^ an

omen

verguenza, iliame, &c. are excepted.

When
jundlion,

it is

by

itfelf in

a fpeech,
inftead
0^

or interjedion,

then of 0,

it is

a con-

when

the

word following begins with an


obfidculo,

as ifnpedimento

impediment or

obftacle.

Of

ibe pronunciation of the Confon ants

B.

b.

THIS
after
it,

letter

is

guages, clofing the


as in the Englijh
its

pronounced as in other lanlips, and as if it had an e

word Bay,
difference,

As

to the letter ^,

and fimilitude

of pronunciation with the letter v, we muft refer the reader to the 2d chapter as to it's proper place.

C,

?,

Z.

C when
than
/,

as cedro^

before the letters e i a cedar tree ;

before the vowels ^, 0^ u, is the face ; corner^ to eat ; cuerda^ a cord or rope. When h follows the letter f, it is pronounced as in the Englifh cheefe, quefo ; child, nina ; thus are

pronounced fofter when heaven pronounced as k, as cdra^


is

cielo,

mm

chdnza^3,jt{\.

;
:

chocolate^ chocolate

chko^

little,

fmall;

tnuchoy

much

thefe
^

choro^ a choir

words excepted chariddd, charity ; Archangel^ an Archangel, &c. which


are

lo
angelus^

The

RUDIMENTS

of

are derived from the Latin charitas^ chorus^ archfor c then is pronounced as k.

Upon
it,
1

the Cedilla formed with a fmall dafh under think it convenient to obferve ; firft, that as

by a refolution newly taken by the members of the Royal Academy at Madrid^ the 9 had been only invented to fupply the defed of combination of ce^
ci,

in the three

vowels ^,

0,

Uy

in order to pro-

nounce f^, fOy fUy inftead of ca, co, cu ; and this having taken place, and with the fame foftnefs as the z ; the c is reputed at prefent as fuperfluous ; and the reafon is, becaufe f, in the opinion of feveral authors, is not a different letter from the z, but the fame differently formed, this being the reafon why many authors have ufed both promifcuoufly, for their pronunciation are very much alike in thefe words, capater^ ozapaterOy a flioe-maker cd^a^ cdza^ hunting, &c. Befides, becaufe g is not found in the mother tongues, and the 2 is further the 2; is a general letter in the beginning, middle, and ending of any word, which cannot be faid of the letter f, for which reafon, it often cannot be ufed in the middle of a word, and in the end never ; no body having written as yet almiranld^go^ admiralty halldfgOy a reward for a thing loft ; merefco^ I defer ve ; padecco^ I do fuffer ; dejlify a flipping %, light ; paf, peace ; Wherefore I am of opinion that f is velo^y fwlfr. fuperfluous in the Spanijh language, and as fuch it's ufe mufl be avoided, placing the z in it's (lead in every word where f ufed to be. But as f is found in mofl of the Spanijh authors, I think it proper to acquaint the curious, that it's pronunciation is the fame as that of c when before the vowels e i ; becaufe, as has been faid, f was indented to fupply the combination in the vowels, a^ Oy u. And tho' a certain rule might be given to keep both the f and the z in the faid language, which is, to ufe the f when a confonant precedes,
\
,
-,

-,

as alaidfjfa^sLjpriiik

enfman^a^ inflrudion, te^iching.

the

S PAN

1 b

H
a

(:i

KA

M MA R

II

vowel goes before, and in ^c. and to ufe end of words, as altsza^ highnels rhc beginnitig and zclo, zeal ; Itiz^ light, &c. but as razon^ reafon opinion is better grounded, I think it ihe foregoing iiiore right to take away the ( and to ufe the z, as
,

z when

the

modern authors do,

whom

follow.

is

pro-

nounced

as the Engliffo pronounce the

double^

d.

D has the fame found in Spanifh^ as in the Latin snd other languages. And although there are fevef ai authors who are of opinion that d is not to be pronounced when at the end of a word, yet I am of a contrary opinion, and fay that it always is to be pronounced if it is written, with this difference only, that when it ends a word, its found is fofter, laying the accent on the preceding vov/el, as amijidd^ friendfhip
5

bonddd, goodnefs,

&c.
f

F
*,

Does not differ in its found from that of the Lat'm, or of other languages but it mud be obferved, that the Spaniards never ufe ff in their writings,
be faid afterwards, and if fome do double by way of a voluntary affedlation. certain author takes notice, that the Spaniards confound / with ph^ or, to fpeak more proper, they ufe/ inflead of ph \ I don't doubt but that in every nation there are ignorant people, but thofe who are ikilled
as will

them

it is

in

Orthography ought to conform to the manner which words are written in the original.

in

G.

g. J.

X.

G is only guttural before the vowels e, f, but 7 and X are always afpired, or guttural letters in the whole combination of the vowelsj becaufe in the
fame

of fame manner is pronounced ja, je^ ji^ jo, ju, as xa, xe, &c. X is not guttural in fome words derived from the LatWj as eximir^ to exempt ; exdmen, examination, &c. as it will be faid in the 2d chapter, and

12

"The

RUD IMENTS

when

it

excitdr^ to excite

goes before a confonant, as exceder, to exceed ; excluir^ to exclude ; excrementOy ;


0,

excrement, &c.

before the vowels ^,


is
*,

is

not afpired or

pronounced as in other languages, ah gdllo, a cock golpe^ a blow ; gufto^ tafte, plea lure. that I cannot agree with fome authors, who fay, when g comes before n it is funk in the pronunciation, becaufe the men of learning in Spain generally pronounce it, as in Igridcio, Ignatius tgnordr, to be ignolo^ u known magndnimOy magnaniignorant
guttural, and
,

*,

-,

mous

magmfico, magnificent, 6cc.

H.
Jordan^ Martmanus^ Tomhique^ in his Elench. in his Latin Littleton Elem. P. II. Art. III. H, and other authors are of Didionary lett. (called by St Jerom an extenfive opinion that

vowel)

is

a letter for the following reafons.


is nothing elfe than a note of a pecuand aftngk part of a f^lldble\ h is the
i?

Firft, a Letter
liar found,

fame

therefore the

is

a letter.

Secondly, The /^ comes originally from the Hebrew and Greek tongues it was a letter with them why then fhould it not be the fame in the living lan,

guages

^c.

The

Spanifh authors place the h

among

the femi-

vowels, becaufe before and after it has a vowel in its But See the abovefaid authors. pronunciation. as the public has received the h with Prifcianus as a note of afpiration and not as a letter, we muft conis form to it whether with reafon or without it.

generally pronounced fo gently, that in many words humilde^ 1: can fcarce be perceivedj as komhre^ a man >

humble

//j^

Spanish Grammar.
when
huijfo^ a

13
is

humble
nounced

-,

but

ue follows hy then

as the Efjglijhw, biUrta^ a


\

hod or gueft

garden ; bone: like werta^ wefped^

prohuefped, an
wejfo.

bu

pronounced as in Englijh^ churchy fnuch^ Although fome authors obferve, tniicho. iglefia^ that the Spaniards very rarely ufe the b after p and /, I fay, that the Spani/Jo tongue does not allow them the liberty to do it, and thus the learned muft conform themfelves to the etymology of words, faying Tbomdsy Thomas ; Tbeologia^ Theology or Divinity ;
c is

H after

Pbilofopbia^ Philofophy.

K.

The Spaniards make ufe of this letter only in conformity to the etymology of the words derived from other languages, as Kalenddrio^ a Kalendar ; Kalendas^ Kalends, the firft day of the month, K'^rie eleifon, &c. Greek ; and in proper names of cities, towns, Uc, at Kelmoy Kenardy Kunigunday &c. Saxon.
L.
1.

BeQdes the fingle /, there is a double // in Spanifb language as in the Latin, but differently pronounced : the fingle one is pronounced as in other languages^ but the double // as in the Italian gl in the words Figli, Mogliey &c. or as the double // in Frencb in the words coquilky fille, &c. which founds as if an i was after the firfl: /, as of Have, a key ; Hover, to rain ; calldr^ to be filent, read Have, liovery calidr, L is never doubled in the end of words. It muft be obferved, that all words that have a doule / in the Latin^ are written in Spanijh with a
fingle one.

M.

is
;

pronounced
camino, a
'tis

as in other languages,
;

as

mam,

a hand

manner

mddrey moc^ier, &c. in what to be doubled, or when it is to be kept


fingle

way

14

'Ibe

RU D IMENTS
we
(hall

of
ipeak
after-

fmgle in the compofition wards in chap, ^.

N.
There are two 'i in the Spanipj language, one which is common to all languages, and is pronounced alike with them ; another proper and peculiar to the SpaniJJj^ written thus ^, which is equivalent to two n ;/, and is called n con tzlde^ and is pronounced as gn in Italian and French^ or, as if it had an i after ;/, as in thefe words, dno^ a year 5 fimo^ a child ; montdna^ a mountain ; faying thus,
agno or anio^ nigno or

nmo^

&:c.

There is nothing to be obferved in the letter f^ but that its pronunciation is the fame as in LaUny zspdn^ bread ; Pedro^ Peter. Ph are ufed as /, and pronounced in the fame manner ; but that in writing / ought to be ufed for pb is an infupportable error becaufe with pb and not with / are to be written the following words, PhildfopbOy a Philofopher Phyfico^ a Phyfician ; Phjfiologza^ Philofophy, &c. The Latin p is often changed into h^ as of recipere^ recebir^ to receive , but of this we ihall fpeak here:
,

after.

V always follows this letter as


and
is

in other

languages^

pronounced

in the

as if there follows after ^, then it was a k inilead of qu^ faying quinto^ kinto^ fifths quince^ kince^ fifteen ; but when it follows ua or ue^

fame manner. is pronounced

When

ui

the u

queftion

pronounced, tho' not flrong, as quejliony a confequencia^ a confequence j qiidtro^ four, ^c. the following are excepted^ t^que^ let him touch or
is
;

ring

the
ring
;

Spanish Grammar.

15

repque, let him ring out ; U^uidoy liquid ; que^ that ; querh\ to be willing ; (luien^ who ; which are pronounced as if they were written with L

R
in it's found from the Latin and muft be obferved, that at the beginning of words it is pronounced ftronger than at the middle and end, becaufe the initial r is equal to two r r, which always are pronounced with vehemence.
differs
it

No

way
;

Englijh

but

S fimple, as well as compound, is pronounced as Latin: cmn amajfem fan^os^ como amdjfe los fanioSy when I could love the faints ; altzjffimo Dws, mod high God: from whence it may be inferred, that all the preterimperfed:s of the optative, and
in

O
in

the fuperlatives,

are written

and

accented

as

the Latin.

S in the Spanijh is doubled in words derived from the Latin^ of which wc: fhall give fufficient notice in its place, but never is doubled at the end of words ;

and when they begin


follows a confonant as
as

in
^,

the Latin with

/ to

w,

/), /,

then
\

is

which added an e^
;

from

fcholafticus fay efcholdjiico


j

fcribere^ efcrihir
;

fmaragdus^ efmerdlda

fpina^ efpma

fpiritus^ efpiritu.

This

letter is
all

pronounced

a?,

in Latin^

in the

com-

bination of

the vowels, as Tdcito^

Ta^o^ tenaz^

ftill or quiet, the fenfe of feeling, tenacious, in the middle of feveral words t is changed into r, and efpecially in words ending in tia and tlo^ as from

&c.

heneficentia

fay

beneficencia^

juftitia^ juftuia^

from ejjentia^ ejfencia ; &c, beneficence, efTence, jullice. There

of no double / in the Spanijh language. There is When the original words have th^ they are to be written in the fame manner in the Spanifi i as CdtbeCathdlicoy MatheOy neologta^ pronouncing dra^ the tb as a fmgle /.

i6

The

RUD IMENTS

This is a guttu"al letter. I do only obfetve here,


that

Vid. Let. G,
that all the Spanijh

words

that begin with x are Jrahick^ except the following

ftone like

come from the Greeks Xanthenia^ a precious amber in its colour Xdnto, a precious (tone
;

of a very yellow colour i Xemolo^ a fmall gift ; Xemdochio^ an hofpice, or an inn for fbrangers ; Xenon^ Xenoan habitation, a dwelling-place, a lodging ^pdrocboSy officers appointed to provide for the Ambafladors ; Xyrotheca, the cafe wherein the Barbers put their razors and fciffars Xyfioy a gallery, a a fummer-houfe, or an open place to take the air about a garden.
*,

Y.
Z.

Vid. Let.

/.

Vid. Let. C.

CHAP.
Of
the letters

II.

when

in

cotnpofuion,

TH E

only and fure rule to reduce the Caftilian language in perfedion, is to write it as it is it is by this only fpoke, and really pronounced that it is diftinguifhed, and exceeds all other languages, not excepting the Latin j I have faid the Latin^ becaufe that language joins the dipthongs, pronouncing only one letter, when they are wrote
-,

with two as Ci^Ium

is

pronounced Celum

but the
Cafiilian

the
Cajlellan

Spanish
its

Gramma r.
in

17

pronounces

dipthongs

fach a

man-

without lofing a letter it preferves the found of both vowels in one fy liable, as alcaide^ dire^ r/)', /(fy, buc^y Sec. this being agreeable to the lenle which the Antients gave of the word diphthong, deBiphtho)jgus eft duarujn in una jyiaha fining it thus
ner,
that
:

vocalium [onus perceptus^ a diphthong


-,

is

the diftind

for which reafound of two vowels in one fyllable fon I am of opinion, that the Antients pronounced Latin in the fame manner that the Spanijh is nowpronounced j and if it was not foreign to my prefent purpofe, I would prove clearly the time when and how the Latin pronunciation has been corrupted, and by what means the fyncrefis in the diphthongs

was introduced, but


I fhall

as this fuffices for the prefent,

proceed in my defign. In order to form the Orthography, it is neceflary to obferve the modifications by which time has fmoothed the roughnefs of words, and reduced them to the modern ftile and m.anner of difcourfe
:

But as there are many, who manage the Caftilian tongue in proportion to their genius, confounding and ufing letters together in their pronunciation, the confonants at their pleafure , to avoid fjch abufe it is proper to know.

from whence flow fuch variety Orthography are the following. Firft, the fmiilitude of the pronunciation of fome letters, whofe ufe is fo uncertain, that they are often mixed, and by the meer pronunciation it is difficult to dillinguifh their proper ufe fuch are the B and ^confonant, the C and the Z in the proper combinations, and in thofe of the C, in the two vowels e and i, the G, J, and X'm the two vowels ^, /, the C and the J and Xin their entire combinations the ^, and the G and //, in the combinations where the u interpofes. Secondly, the ufe of the double confonants, which are commonly found in

That

the fprings

and confufion

in the

compound words,

as

accejfihy

immortal, annotdr^
arregldr^

i8

The

RUD IMENTS

of

Thirdly, the ufe of many confonanrs which come together in various words, as aj/umpto, fan^iddd^ demofijlracion^ redempcioriy This being luppofed. dec. 1 iiiy, firfb, that the B ought not to be pronounced and written inftead of the /^, nor the F be confounded with the B ; fince every one knows that they are different letters, and therefore it is abfolutely neceflary that their found fhould be likewife different. To furmount this difficulty, regard muft be had to the original from whence proceed the words in which thefe letters are found, becaufe if they are derived from a word written with a B, as
arregldr^ {^ijfimuldr,8zc.
Bacillus^

Beatus,

Boieficiumy

hihere^

honus^

&c.

they muft be written with a B ; and if from a word written with a F, they muft be wrote fo ; as Vdcuo^ valer, vdno^ vapor ^ vender^ venzr^ vzda,

&c. which are derived from the Latin vacuus, vakre^ vapor^ vendere^ vemre, vita.
For which reafon
indicative
hldba,
all

mood muft
is

the preterimperfeds of the be wrote with B, and not


cantdba^

with F, as

ufual,

faying, a?ndba,

ha-

ordba^

becaufe they

come from

the

Latin

amaharn, cantaham^ loquehar, oraham. It muft be obferved likewife, that when in the original of a word there is a P, then the B muft be ufed and not the V^ becaufe from caput, conciperCy
lupus, fapiens,

&c.

comes

caheza, concehzr,

Idbo^ fdbio.

Before the letters L and R, the B muft always be put and not the V, faying amdhle, ddble, ddble, hdblar, abrzr, hrdvo, Hombre, Pobre,

Therefore that barbarous diftindtion ought to be avoided which ignorance has introduced, viz. that there muft not be two B B's or two V Vs in one word ; becaufe, if they are in the root they ought to be ufed, as in Bdrba, Beber, Barbara,
vivaciddd,
vivzr, vivisnte, volver,

&c.

And

the

Spanish Grammar.
the original of words
is

19
I

And when

doubtful,

am

and not the being more agreeable to our manner of Jpeaking than that ot the
of opinion that
to ufe the 5,
firil

we ought

V\ the pronunciation of the

fecond.
I

fay,

2d]y,

that

the

(^

caUeji

cedilla ^

is

now

fuperfluous in the Spamjh tongue, and therefore the

ought to be ufed

in its

Head,
i.

.in all

words what-

foever, as was faid in chap.

Lett. C.

But it ought to be taken notice of, that the words ending in Z which are derived from the Lali;/^ ought to change the Z into C in the plural, becaufe and thus fellz, luz^ it is fo found in the original, pdZy vez, vdz^ make m the plural felkes, luces
pdces^ vcces^ voces.

Hitherto has been written bazer^ de^tr^ but being derived from facere and dicere, now the Z is changed into C, conformable to the original, and now we fay hacer^ decir^ obferving
thefe verbs

the fame rule in


I

all

their derivatives.

fiy,
e

3dly, that

the

tives

and f, it ought to be ufed only and derivatives, fuch are afligzr^


proteger^
elige,

being guttural only before in the primicoger^ colegir^


ajllge^

eleiir^

regzr,

cC.

writing

coge^

colige,

protege,

rige,

without being extended


,v.

to the derivatives

of j and

When
into ^ or

the infinitives in ger or gzr change er or ir


as in the prefent,

then the

is

changed
infinitive

intoj, that the true pronunciation of the

may be preferved ; and thus from Ji^^gzr fay/%"^, pnja^ from Regir, Rijo^ Rzja, &c. All v/ords which in their original have g, /, or /, are written with j and not with x, as from longe iay from tegula, teja ja^anlia, Ujos from ^agus^ Tdjo
-,
-,

ja6idncia\ jafpis, jdfpe


cia
,

jurare.jiirdr
confiliumy

jiijlitia,
;

jujiiFilius^

juvenis, joven
;

from

confejo

all the combination of the vowels and when the infinitives end in jar, the j muft be kept in all the tenfes without exception. In C 2

Htjo

mdior, mejor, in
,

20

ne

RUDIMENTS
in their

of

In thefe

words Mageft dd^

common
of the j.
If

ufe has prevailed in

Muger^ 'Trdge^ &c. keeping the^ inftead


original, as

the

words have x

^exer^

excmplo^ execucwn^

ferplexo^ vexzga^

&c.

it

would

appear ridiculous td'write them with j, and not with X ; and it mud beiikewife obferved, that when the v/ords have the lett^er / in their original, as cdxa^ dexdr^ xabon^ xcme^- xtigo^ &c. derived from capfa, deferere^ fapo^ femipes^ fucciis^ are to be written and the reafon of it always with x and not with j /has the found fomewhat like the x^ is, becaufe the and as the Spaniards do take the guttural pronunciation from the Arabians^ and they pronounce the double ff as x^ it cannot be abfurd to change /
,

into X.

Nouns ending in x, as Box^ BaJdx^ Relax, &c. keep the x in the plural ; as well as all the verbs, which have x in the infinitive mood are to keep it in all the tenfes, as from haxdf\ dexdr, &c. fay hdxo^ haxdba, Baxe, &c. i^is frequently in vulgar writings changed into C, but the true rule is to be guided by the original Latin : otherwife the derivation is obfcured, and the pronunciation corrupted ; from C are formed qudl^ queand from ciidjo, cuenla, cuerda, &c.

Jlion,
It

qudlro, &:c.
is

an impropriety, that many fali -nto of ufing and v conlbnants but vowels inftead of this irregularity is cautioufly avoided by all corredl writers, and exploded by the Spanift) Academy ; having eftablifhed the letter to be always a confonant in the Sp^nifj words, and the accent is always laid on the annexed vowel, as a'^uda, help ; ajuno^ a fift ; arrojo, a rivulet, or a brook. It muft be likewife avoided to put the y immediately before or after a confcnant, or at the end of a verb or word, u and
i
31
:

)'

except the following L/y,

i^/)',

Buq^

Sec,

The

the

Spanish G r a m m a r.
y,
;y

The
valent,

Spaniards^ to retain the fofcnefs of the found

for want (A an exa6l equiconfonant, as in adjuvare^ jejunare^ jacere, which the Spaniards make a)uddr^ ayundr^ yacer : and in conformity to the Greek, in words borrowed from that language, they preferve 'aJu^.@->, UupTvo. it as a vowel, ^vuCokov, Mus-He^o!',

of the Lalin confonant

change

it

into

Symbolo,
arguye,

M\Jlerio,

in the third
I

dzymo. Martyr. So likewife conjugation of verbs, as arguyo, arguyes^

thus

arguia,
the
I

on the fame is
argut,

i^c. but in the imperfed Hiy &c. the accent being to be put vowels and never on confonants, the

difpute,

firft

perfon

of the
the
\

preterpe6l,

as

difputed,
doi^

^c.
I

Spaniards
eftoi,
I

likewife
,

fay

at

prefent,

give

am

holy

to day,

^c.

CHAP.
Of

III.

the ufe of letters doubled.


to

Eand O are often doubled in Spanifh,


dor^

come

the

nearer to the radical pronunciation, as Acree-

which both it is on the contrary, wrong in fome, who fuperfluoufly add e in words derived from the Latin, as in Fee, Veer,
Creer^

Leer,

Cooterdr,

Loor

in

the vowels are pronounced difl:in6lly.

And

inftead of Fe,

Ver.

As

to confonants,

the variety

is

great,

but to

avoid all affedlation, and fpeak properly it is to be obferved, that C is never to be doubled before the vowels A, 0, U, or before confonants, and we therefore write Acaecer, Acomoddr, Ocdfo, Ocafion, Acufdr, Acumuldr, Aclamdr, &c. But before the vowels E and /, C is doubled in fuch words as are derived from the Latin, and had them originally,
as

Accelerdr^

Accejfo,

Accento,

Occidente,

except the following words

Aceptdr and Suceder^ becaufc

22

"The

RUDIMENTS

of

becaufe alcho' in their original they have two c <:, they are not fpecified in the pronunciation by jhe
Spaniards.

Latin words terminating in cfio^ change the / into C, as Accion^ Coccion^ Diccion^ Leccion^ Produccion,

And if either of thefe two Cs were omitted, the derivation would be the lefs evident. not A^ is always to be made ufc of before B^ Af, P, as Ainhientc^ ifnmorldl^ imperio.

Mand

Words compounded of the Latin prepofitions In and Co^, follow tht Latin rule of turning In into /w, and Con into Co7n^ as Immaculddo^ htimedidtOy Immemorial^ Immortal^ Sec. Commenfurdr, Commover^ Commutdr^ Sec, In all which words the is doubled, tho' in feveral other common words one is loft, as Comer cio^ Comun., comunion^ dec. Some change Im into Em, as Emmafcarddoy emmagrecer^ Emmudecer^ &c. A^ is likewife doubled in feveral words compounded with An^ En, In, Con, as Annexion^ Annotdr, Connatural, Connexion, Ennegrecer.^ Ennohlecer, Inndto, Innocente, Innovdr, Sec except

j^ntildr^

Anuncidr,
letter

Antllo,

Sec.
in

The

is

doubled

the

words

that

have

a flrong pronunciation in the middle ; as Abdrro, Borra, Error, Guerra, Psrro, Sec. Thofe words
that have one r in the middle are
as dra, an altar
is
;

pronounced
h'a, wrath.

foftly,

arena, fand

There

no word

in

the Spanijh

ends with two r r, ftrong found, as ri^?^, rage

language that begins or but the initial R has always a


;

razdn, rt^fon
mufl:

-,

recfor^

be obferved, that when any confonant precedes the R, then R is never doubled, and it would look but barbarous to write thefe words with two r r, hdnra^ honour ; honrSfo^ honourable \ enriquecer, to grow rich, &. becaufe the preceding confonant makes the pronunciation ftrong, fo that the r is only to be doubled when betv/een two vowels, as tierray earth j errdr^ an error. S is

redor

renir, to quarrel, i^c.

it

'

the

Spanish Grammar.
,

23
,

words that have twojf in their original, as ajfdr, to road ; c^^Jfar, to ceafe necejjiddd^ necefTiry j the lame is effencia, elTence
S
is

to be doubled in the

to be obfcrved in the lecond preterimperfed of the

fubjundlive
Tidjjey
I

moo J,

as amaffe^
;

might teach

huvujfe^

might love enfiin I might have


,

all

the

fuperlatives, as

amanltjpmo^ mofl: loving


*,

do^ijjimo^ mod moft holy, mod happy learned ; and in adverbs fuperlatives, as doBiJJimafo are the words acccjfo^ accefs ; ??iente, wifely , progrejfo^ procxcejjo^ excefs corigrejffo, congrefs grefs i and all the compounds of fimple words that comes to jump, begin with /i as of faltdr^ ajfaltdr^ to afiault ; of fenlzr^ to be lenfible, or to comes a'entir^ to alTcnt, of fdjlo^ fright, feel,
heaiijjimo^
,
*,

comes

ajfuftdr^
/
/,

to frighten.

which in Spani/h have a peculiar pronunciation, are doubled before the vowels a^ e^ 0^ ?/, v^hen in Latin r, /, p, &c. precedes /, as lldno^
plain
;

The two

lldnto^
*,

crying, grief
full
j

Udve^
,

key

lldmay
;

flame

lleno^
;

ilordr,

to cry

llover\

to rain

lldvia, rain

as

it

will be faid at large in the treating

of the formation
Latin^

which

will

of the Spanifi words from the be put at the end of this

Grammar.

The

faid confonants only are to be

doubled

in

the

Spanijh tongue,

becaufe no body
'j^j.

now pronounces

two bb^ two d d^ two//, two gg^ two Latin //, two p /?, two / /, nor double This is the method newly taken of the Royal Academy of Madrid, and this is that which the modern authors
follow.

CHAP.

24

"I^be

RUDIMENTS
CHAP.
IV.

of

Of

the rules that are to he ohferved upon the concur-

rence of divers confonants,

FROM
are

two

to four are the confonants,

which

occur together between two vowels,

of which

there is fome diverfity in writing, which varies from the manner in which they are pronounced, and

B S T, B S T R C T, C ^R MFC, MPT^, NCT, NSC, NSCR, NSP, NS^, NSTR; SC', XC, XCL, XPL, XPR, Z^, XT, XT R to underftand which obfervc the follow-,

ing

rules.

Rule I. The letters 5 5 T* and are to be pronounced in all the words in which they occur,
according to their original,
abflinencta, abftinence
,

BSTR
-,

as ahftener^

to abftain

ohfldculo^ obftacle

fuhfliiutr,
;

to fubditute
flrdilo,

ahfiraher^
;

to

make

an abftrad
all

ah-

an abflrad

becaufe they are

diftindlly

pronounced in the Spaniflj, Rule II. CT, and C T R, are alfo to be pronounced and written as in the original, as doclo^
Jearned
rina,
;

do5f6r,
;

dodor

reElo,

right

doc-

dodlrine

-pleUro^

quill,

ufed

to

play upon the firings of a harp \ and this without any exception, otherwife it would appear an
affe6tation.

PC Rule III. In the words in which concur the letter P is loft, becaufe it is not really and pronounced in ajfumpcion^ aflumption j exempcion^ exemption \ redempcion^ rcdempior^ promptitude &c. fo that they are to be written thus ajfumcion, &c. I cannot pafs over an obfervation which occurs to nie here, and is that the gentleman of the Academy change into iV, being of opinion that the faid words are to pronounced thus ajfuncion, redencion : for which refolution I cannot fee nor find any other

MPT

MP

foundation.

the

Spanish Grammar.

25

foundation, than the mere afFe6tation of pronouncing (an abufe which I obferved when at Ma3,s

M N

drid) confounding in it not only the Spanijh but I fay, even the pronunciation of the Latin tongue that I obferved many to 'pronounce the words of hoc eft emm corpus meun^ Tranfubftantiation thus difl:in6lion and clearnefs, hoc inftead of faying with I can't but be much furprifed eft enim corpus meum. academic body, and fuch as that of the that an Royal Academy of Madrid compofed of perfons of fuch learning and eminency, had taken no notice the proof the like abufe, and to give to the nunciation as they ought in the combination of all the vowels, there being no reafon to make the
:
:

lead alteration

in

it.

Rule IV.
all

When n^
are
c
is

the letters

often

writing, but the


in

occur together in Latin^ preferved in Spanijh in hardly, if at all pronounced


fan5iidddy
difizn5fo^

fpeaking, as [dn5lo^

pun^o^

&c. write

NSC

fdntOy fantiddd^ &:c.

the
in

S C R are to be pronounced in and words where they are found, as tranfcendentdl^


infcripto,

confcripto^

this

word

confciencia

excepted,

which the /is not Kl S P and S

fpecified.

are retained in

the Spanijh^

as confpiracidn, tranfparente^ tranfpoficion^ tranfportdr^

tranfplantdr^
tucidn,

conftdr,

conftdncia^

Sec.

the ufe of the letters

NS TR

conftitucion^

infti^

muft be

kept

in the

words

conftrenir^

conftruir^
inftruir^

conftru^cion^
tnftruccion^

demonftrdhle^

demonftracion^

menftruo^ monftruo, &c.

which otherwife happens in moftrdr^ moftrador, moftrmco^ and their derivations in which n is omitted. iV. B. It is to be obferved by the by, that the n is loft in thefe words Traftedr^ Trajladdr^ Trajlddo^
'Trafluch\

'Trafnochdr^ 'Trafpalar^

^^^fpdjjo^ Traftro:

car,

but is prelerved in the following Tr^wj/^w, Transfiguracion^ 2 I'ranfgrejfm^

for

the reafon of being fo admitted

^6

"The

RUDIMENTS
Tranjlacion^

of

Trafgrejfioriy

Tranfmigracioriy Tranfmuldr^

*Transformdr^ ^ranfuhftanciacion^ franfuerfdl.

Rule V.
follows them,
efcoria^

The two

confonants
efcdma^
:

are

to

be

retained in thofe words, in


as efcdla^

which the vowels ^ or


efcota^

efcuela^

Pefcddo^
ciencia^

Pefcuezo
in

not pronounced
conciencia^

and although the / is the words apacentdr^ adolecer^


crecer^
florecer^

conocer^

pacer^
afcen-

yet

it

is

retained in afcender^
condefcender,

afcendencia^

dentCy

adolefcencia^

defcender^ defcemr^
difciplinay
difci-

aquiefcencia,

difceptacion^

difcermr^

puloy

mifceldnea.

Rule VI.
excelfoy

to be pronounced
cufdr^

between two vowels, are they are fo in the original, as excidioy excommunion^ excufa^ exexcelente^ &c. without exception. The like is to be
if

XCy when

obferved
as

in

exilamdry
after

the concurrence of excluh, excrementOy


/>/,

XC L
&c.
or
/

and

XC Ry
expri-

as likewife

when
cia^

x follow p alone,
explandr^
laflly,

//r,

as experien-

expoftciofjy

explicdry

explordr^

mir.

And
is

original

q to be attended to, as exquifttOy extender^


;

when

or

follow x their

extertoriddd, extinguir

extraher^ extremo, extrangcro^

extraordindrioy &c.

CHAP.
Of

V.

the Dipbthongs.

TH

concurrence of two vowels, which compofe but one fyllable, is fo frequent in the Spanijh tongue, that the like is hardly to be found For tho' the vowels are but five, yet in any other.
they admit twenty combinations
i

to

which Anthony
de

^/:?^

Spanish Grammar.
in his treatife of the Spanijh
,

27

de Nehrixa^

Orthography^

gives the
the

Voter a^ Sandoval^ on name of diphthongs Rudiments of the Grammar^ and feveral other

authors are of the fame opinion, tho* Renfigo in his poetical treati% attributes the joining of the two

one fyllable to the figure Synerefis. But in the 2d chapter, a diphthong is a perceptible found of the two vowels in one fyllable^ and as in the following examples, the combination of the vowels make only one fyllable in the Spanijh tongue, they are admitted as diphthongs, and both vowels pronounced with fome diftinftion, and a perceptible
in

vowels
as
it

is

faid

found, viz.
In ae^ as acaecimiento^ accident
*,

albalaes^

a fort

of

bills

of the court of juftice.


as
dire^

In
caftle.

ai^

air

alcalde^

governor of a

In ao^ as chaos^ a. confufion ; daos, do ye give, or give ye. In aUy as caufa, caufe ; cautela^ caution. In ea^ as beatitude bleflednefs, holinefs ; fea from
fer^

to be,
ei

pref optative.
<?)-,

In
//},

or

as peine ^
rey^

comb

reino^

kingdom

the law
eOy

king.
,

In

as

Geometrza^ Geometry

heodez, drun-

ken nefs.
In eu, as deuda^ a debt ; feu do, a fief. In ia, as liadiira^ a binding fufta or fuzia^ a
,

foul dirty thing.

In

f<f,

as Cielo,

Heaven
a city

miedo, fear.
foul
;

In In

io,

^sfufio^

adj. dirty,
;

dio,

he gave.

iu,

as ciuddd^

viudo, a widower.

In oa^ as loa^ praife ; lodble, praife-worthy. In oi, as doi^ I give i hoi, this day
I

foi^

am.

In oe, as heroe, an hero ; roedura, a gnawing. In ou, as Coutino, the firname of a family, or a fhed in a park , Moura, a town, or a firname of a

family.

In

28
cheefc.

"the

RUD I M^NrS
which
j

of

In ua^

as q^udl^

cudjoy

rennet to

make

In ue^ as hueno^ good ; fuego^ fire. cuxdddo^ care. /, as huitre^ a vulture In 2/^, as dguOy I water, or mix water to wine, ^c. mutuoy mutual.

In

But it muft be obferved, that not always the two vowels tho' joined together compofe one fyllable becaufe when the accent is put on or a diphthong the laft, then they form two vowels, cde^ hdiy rde, miituo are monofyllables, and the fame vowels in caer^ ot, raer^ muiuo make two fyllables. It muft be noted alfo, that in the concurrence of thofe vowels, the i is always the Latin one, and not and fo it would be a notorious error to make ufe 31 ; of the ^ in thefe words, writing i_yr^, huytre^ re^no^
:

toyforty

when they are to be written thus dire^ hntrey becaufe the i does not ftrike as the 31 on another vowel except from this rule all the nouns terminated in y which in plural is made confonant,
&c.
:

reyeSy leyes^ hueyes.

Of

'Triphthongs.

A
In
cUiSy

Triphthong
viz.

is the founding of three vowels put together in one fyllable, and are five in

Spanijhy

In iaiy as deczais^ ye did fay s heVzaiSy ye were drinking. In iaoy as aviaos^ make ye ready ; preciaos^ let

ye be valued.
ieiy

as enviczeis, that

you may corrupt

fenten-

that

you may give

fentence.
;

In uaiy as
guaiy alafs.

aguais^ ye put water into the liquor

In

ueiy

as jugueiSy that

ye

may

play

bueitr^ for

buitre^

a vulture.

There

/y&^

Spanish Grammar.
i

29

There
thong of

are
iue^

fome authors who add another diph-

but in this they mud be deceived, or in the nouns where iue is found, are confonants, as Arroyueloy a little brook \ vive^
becaufe the

live thou.

CHAP.
Of
the Accents^

VI.
&c.

ACCENTS two
there are

are tones in fpeaking, of which forts in Spanijhy the Grave and

which defcends obliquely from \ and is only ufed in the Sfanijh language on the four vowels ^, e^ 0, u^ when each is feparate, and makes a perfed fenfe by itfelf. Acute is that which defcends from the right to the lefc thus ", and ferves to prolong, make acute and ftrong the pronunciation, as arnes^ armour 5 amo^ he loved ; amard^ he will love ; and it is alfo ufed to denote the quantity of the
Acute,

Grave

is

that

the

left

to the right thus

fyllable.

But the moft common ufe of the acute is to fhew upon what fyllable the ftrength of the pronunciation lies, for fome words quite alter their fignification
according to the placing of the accent ; as cdntara^ a fort of meafure or pitcher ; cantdra, I would fmg ; cantard^ he will fing ; Ubro^ a book ; librd^ he delivered, difcharged, or gave a bill. When two or three confonants follow a vowel, there is no necefTicy to mark the accent upon it, their pronunciation being long by nature the words whofe con:

fonants are

mute or
\

liquid are excepted, as drhitroj

an arbitrator

cdthedra^ a chair in

which a profefTor
teaches

30

"The

RU D IMENTS
-,

of

teaches any fcience

mournful ; the fame is to be obferved in the words called efdruxulos^ dadtyles ; as dguila, an eagle ; mufica, mufick \ mdximo, greateft ; which have the accent in the antepenultima. From whence is inferred, how er* roneous is the opinion of thofe who make ufe of the Grave accent inflead of the Acute, without underfland^ ing the fenfe of thefe words hecaufe the accent Grave never makes a fy liable long, but deprejfes and moderates
luguhre,
-,

the pronunciation.

To clear thefe things, and that it may be known where the accent might be laid on the Spanijh words,
I infert here the following rules.

RULE
have
their accent

I.

All Spanifh words are derived from the Latin^

on the fame

fyllable as in

the

Latin words, when in the ablative cafe of the Anas I intend to fay hereafter, the Spanifh words are formed from the ablative fingular of the Latin words) except when they retain the

gular, (becaufe,

Latin nominative,
Latin.

2.%fenix,

regimen^ fdl, &:c. viz.

Spanifli.

Englifl?

Aquila,

Amicus,

the
iijfimo-ma,

Spanish Grammar.
mod
loved
*,

31
chafte

cafltj/imo-ma^

mod

heattjfmo-ma^ moft holy, fire, add to thefe znfimo^ loweft, meaneft, zntimo^ intimate ; mdximo, greatmznimOy the leaft ; optimo^ beft 5 proximo^ eft ;
neareft neighbour
;

ultimo^

utmoft,

laft,

Csff.

Rule

II.

Of

the

penuUima

fyllable.

which denote fome mind, place, or an aggregation of feveral things, have their accent on the penultima, as

AL L

words ending

in /^,

office,

quality, paffions of

Jlcaldzay the office of a

Hofpederza^

place

to
In,

magiftrate.

entertain ftrangers

Alegria^ mirth,
Clericta^

^r.
Panaderzay
fhop.
a
baker'sbet-

the clergy.

Efpecerza^ a grocer's fhop.

Enfermerza^

an

apart-

Mejona^
ter.

growing

ment

for the fick.

Lihrerza, a library.

Menorza^ minority.
Senorza^

Herrerza^ afmith's-fhop.

lord (hip.

Of

this

kind are the words that have any of thefe


^,
Cy

vowels

0^

u,

before another vowel

in the

penultima, as
Alhacea^ an executor of a
will.

Grangeijy gain, purchafe,

Aldea^

a village.
the flight

Livreay livery.

Bilbao^ Bilboa.

Loa^ of a

praife.

BoUoy
ball.

Pzca, a foldier's pike, or


a fifh fo called.
Regodeoy

Correa^ a leather ftrap. CorreOy a poft-mail.


Floreo^ a flourifh.

merry-making.

Except

32
Except

1'he

RUD IMENTS
,
-,

of

frdmea, a dart ; fordneo^ belonging to the court of judicature idoneo, apt ; morporeo, incorporeal ; monftruo, a monfter, ^c. which have the accent in antepenultima. To this rule belong, all the words which carry the diphthongs in the penultima, as Amdine^ let him ftrike fail ; hdiUy a ball, ndipes^ playing cards ; apldufo^ applaufe, l^c, without
exception.

area, an area

The

as afnico,

diminutives do likewife belong to this rule, afmllo, a little afs j honuoy honUoy fome-

what pretty, ^c.


Rule

III.

Of

the laft fyll.ihk.

AL L
thofe in
B.
dfpid,

nouns ending in d, f, have their accent on the


*,

/,

ft,

r, /,

x, z,

laft

fyllable,

as

Abdd, an Abbot
an afp
;

helddd,

beauty

except

huefped, an hoft, a landlord.

Alheli, I. a locacty clove -gilliflower-violet, luckram, &c. except cdft, almoft. L. animdl, caracol, a fnail general, except i^f/, nimble, aiflive ; angel, angel \ apdjlol, apoftle, cdnful,
-y

conful

fdcil,

eafy

defkil,

difficult,
;

^'c.

N. Afdn,

labour,
,

wearinefs

almidon,

ftarch

except crimen, crime exdmen, examination ; imdgeny or den ^ an image , jdven, youth ; mdrgen, margin order ; and other Latin words. R. Amor, love j muger, a woman ; except actbar, almzbar, fugar, aloes ; alcazar, a caftle, palace
, -,

boiled to a confiftence , dnfar, S. Ambargris, ambergreefe

a goofe,
;

^c,
annifeed
;

anzs,
;

except antes,

rather

dries,

fhrubs

agdtas,

on

all

four like a cat ; a fabiendas, knowingly, defignedly J de bruces, with the mouth downwards ; entofjcesj

then,

^c.

X. AlmdraduSj

the

Spanish Grammar.
the fweet

33
a

X.

Jlmoradiix^

marjoram

haldx^

precious ftone, i^c. without exception.

Z. Arcaduz^ aquedudl

Alborr,6z^ a fort of
i^c.

upper

garment ufed by the Moors, an enfiofn, &c.


Jaft fyllable,

except Aljirez^

All adverbs of place have their accent on the as adU hither ; acui/d, yonder 5 alldj
;

there ; do\ where j ado, to what from whence ; aquJ^ here, ^c. and albald^ a fort of writing ^ the following words Alcalde a name of a city in Spain^ &c. As the accent will be put upon the verb through all their tenfes and moods, according to
thither
allz^

place

dedd,

order in the coniuf^ations, fpeak of them here.

it

will

be

needlels to

G
Of
the

H A

P.

VII.

manner of Pointing,

want of dillindions in claufes makes writing very imperftd, and to put them ia an improper place, caufcs fuch equivocation in thd
is not underdood, or ac confounded. For v/hich reafon, and for the proper divifion of v/ords, and claufes of periods and fpeeches mult be known, that there are it eight figns, notes, or particles, ufed to this pur-

TH E
is

fenfe,

that this fenfe either

lead

pofe.
I.

Comma,

fuhdiftinofion,
,

encife,

or a flroke

and fo called to denote the half ( fufpenfion, or paufe, which denotes the expeclatioR of fomething elfe to follow it ferves likewife di)
,

formed thus

diftinctly

54

I'ke

RUDIMENTS
leparate

of

one claufe from another, as Feliciddd es de un Reino tmer un Prhicipe fdbio, que ahrdze lo hueno^ y evzte lo 7ndlo^ haciendo juftzcia a todos^ it is a happinefs to a kingdom to have a wife Prince, that embraces the good, and fhuns evil, doing juftice to every body. full ftop formed thus ( ) ferves to denote, 2. that the period is quite formed, and that the fpeech ?iS nddie fe alabe, hajlaque is pertedly concluded: acdbe. Let no body praife himfelf, till he gets what Alhrzcias mddre^ qiie pregonan a mi he is about. pddre^ give me fomething mother for my good news, for they are crying my father ^ faid of people that miftake good news for bad, or rejoice in
diftindly to

other's misfortunes.
3.

Comma and

a point thus (

formed

(called

by
is

the Greeks an imperfedt Colon, or SemicolonJ

ufed to denote the implication and contradidtion of things in the fpeech, or that they differ, as

Pddres fon dzgnos de reverencia ; Pero Dios de Fathers deferve a reverence or refped Pedro es fahio ; pero fu foberhia worfhip. but God but his pride Peter is a wife man le defake. diflionours him. 4. I'wo points (called by the Greeks a perfed Colon) marked thus ( ) ferve to denote that the fenfe is not perfectly exprefled in the fpeech, and that
los

adoracion^

-,

there

is

fomething wanting to perfect


es

it

as no hacer
es

7nal alguno
jtijlzcia,

innocencia
evil
'

no hacer mat a Stro

to

do no
:

is

innocence

wrong no body.
por advertencia

La

injuria fi es

but juftice to verddd^ tomala


credito,
:

ft es

raentzra^

por

the in-

if falfe, for jury if it is true, take it as a warning reputation and credit. 5. Note of Interrogation formed thus {} ) denotes that fomething is afl<ed or queftioned : as

a donde vds ? where you are going ? ^c, note of Admiration thus ( 6. ) exprefs the affedion of mind and furprife caufed by a fudden *

news

the

Spanish Grammar.
:

35
Cieloi
!

news or confideracion of fomcthing

as

Heaven
!

hondad divina
times
!
!

o tiempos
hres I

cuftoms

O divine goodnefs cojiumO vices depravddos figlos O corrupted


!

vicios

age!
7.

A Parenthefis thusf
:

ferves to feparate a claufe,

a perfeft fenfe, without which the Ipeech may be more plain, and to avoid to the end that it as el miniftro fdhio (que juntamente es dsfinconfufion
terezddo)
es

may have

digno

de tdda alabanza^ a wife minifter


is

(who
8.

is

altogether difinterefted)
"
:

worthy of every

body's praife.
Dierefis thus
C
j
is

by

the Printers

Crema, and

fignifies a

Greek word fcalled fevering or

and ferves to feparate two vowels which might be joined in one fyllable, and to note thac both are to be pronounced plainly and with diftinction. Anciently this m.ark was put upon the u^ and i vowels, when before another vowel becaufe there was no difference made in writing between the and u^ to fhew when they ought to be vowels and when confonants now this divifion is to be put on the u : as eloquent e^ eloquent j /rf quencia, frequency. And this only in the words where u is pronounced plainly and openly fo than there is no need of a Dierefis in thtk guerra, war ;
divifionj
; i ; ;

gU2a, guide
fifteen.

gutnda, a comaTion cherry

quince^

To

thefe

figured thus

add the note of Divifion or (Iroke ( - ) which is put at the end of a line,

divided or cut, that it maybe is not finifhed : as in thefe ("carefully dividing each fyllable as children in fpelling) d^nimo^ dni-mo^ courage, mind ; it cannot be divided thus : dn-imo^ nor thus anim-o : in the words whre two //, rr^ Sec. are found, then the ftrft confonant is pronounced with the preceding vowel, and the fecond ^ith the following, and fo accidente^ acciden: ; and

when the word known that it is

hnijfuno^

36

I'he

RUD I MENTS
bed,
the

of

boniJTnno^ the

mod

pretty or better are

to be divided thus ac-cidente or acciden-te^ honif-fimo, Apoflrophe is a ftroke put over fome letters to

denote that another


is left

letter,

out, and

loft

which ought to be there, by the figure S-jualephe of the

following vowel ; as d^el of him, del'dgua, of qu^era^ which was ; s'omlte^ it is omitted. water Which manner is much ufed in the Englijh^ and French languages ; and tho' in old Spanifh books it is often obferved, yet common ufe has left language, as an inlignificant it off in the SpaniJJj fo that by joining thing, which often confounds the letters are fingle words formed, faying del^ ejjoiro^ the other or writing efiotroy this other ,
-,
*,
,

the two ^^ or ^^ for better intelligence, thus de otro^ ejle clrOy que era, fe ofende, &c. e^ffe

el,

Of

the ufe of capital letters.

WITH
final

capital letters are to begin

any wri-

ting, paragraph,

point ; all provinces, kingdoms, diftridls, cities, towns, villages, mountains, rivers, fountains, i^c. as the firnames, renowns of authority or fame ; thofe of
fons,

period, or fpeech, after a the proper names, as well of per-

dignities,

titles,

honourable

employments,

and

other names of diftindion, as King, Prince, i^c and altho' capital letters fhould be ufed at the beginning of each verfe ; yet the Spaniards are not exad: in this point, for thev only begin the verfes of
their heroic

and grand Poems with capital being carelefs in other fpeciei of poetry.

letters,

PART

the

Spanish Grammar.

37

PART
0/
ly

II.

E TYMOLOGY.
is

GREAT
or
:

dead

the difference between the mothertongues, and the modern or

becaufe what the firfl of its firmnefs or {lability will not allow the liberty of inventing or changing a word, cafe, nor tenfe, without the the rifle of committing a barbarifm or fokcifm ;
living ones
latter,
is

nourifhed, either

being in the arbitrary power of the living, by adding fome words, per-

feding thofe in ufe, or forgetting thofe which in it's I'o this was likewife fluttering age were ufed. fubjed the LAtin tongue, till it was cultivated by Cicero^ Plautus^ Virgil^ &c. it fprang up in time of Janus and Saturms^ in whofe language the priefts of Mars wrote thofe verfes called by their
SaUi^ which are kept in reverence or refpcd: of the age, which fhews the unpolifhed infancy of that language increafed in time of Latius^ it from whence was derived the Latin, when the and was twelve law tables were written in Latin Romans : but as perfedl in the fiourifhing age of the foon as their empire finifhed, the language fell with it, degenerating in fuch a manner, that at prefent is looked on as half corrupted, there being fo many barbarifms in its Latinity. For which like reafon, many are the words which
:
-,

name

Ufe has introduced in the Spani/h language, whofe root has no other trench than the good pleafure of men ; and other words are fo much degenerated from their original, that almofl
the tyrant
their birth as defahucidr^ to defert (is called Phyfician's verb, and is only ufed to exprefs when
(^,itn:/
:

maa

38 a man
to

"The
is

RUDIMENTS

of

given over by the Phyficians) from the Latin fiducia, but has quite oppofite fenfe , lavdr,

from lodo, mud, mire, or dirt. have been the authors v^ho treated on Etymologies, but who treated with better order and method was Sc Ifidore^ a Spaniard, whofe

wafh

',

Many

rules has followed the


in their

Royal Academy

at

Madrid
;

new
I

didlionary of the Spanijh language


Cas a part of the

to

which

refer the curious.

Etymology

Grammar)

denotes

and fhews the way to find out the cafes of nouns, their regularity and irregularity, tenfcs of verbs, fome authors and the variety of parts in a fpeech ^he knowledge and difcre-^ define Etymology thus And to tion of the parts and particles of a fpeech. pro'-ced to particulars, we think it proper to be*,

gin with

CHAP.
Of the
eight parts

I.

offpeech^ and

efpecially

of Nouns,

Spanifh as well as in Latin, there are eight

parts of fpeech.

"1 '^ r Adverb, Pronoun, Ceclin'd. )j"J"f^'"'>undecUn',d ^Prepofition, C { Verb,

Noun,

Participle.

J
Of

Clnterjedlion^

!1)

a Noun.

as mdno^

Noun

which fignifies is a part of fpeech, a thing without any reference to time, iSc,
a hand
5

cdfa^ a houfe.

Nouns

/y6^

S p

AN

I s

Grammar.
fubllantives

39

Nouns
jedlives.

are

divided
is

into
that

and adic

A noun
felf,

fubftantive
horfe,

which can {land by


as

without an
2l

adjedlive,

homhre^

man

ftand by

^c. whereas the adjective cannot as being of no value without the hriSfo addition of the fubftantive, as hueno^ good
cahdllo^
it

felf,

metttlefome,^^. givenoperfe(fl notion of themfelves, but are explained by being conjoined to the fubftantives, as homhre lueno^ a good man \ cabdllo
hriofo^

a m.cttlefome horfe.
fubftantives are divided into proper

Nouns

names

proper names are fuch as fignify certain determinate things, as Judn^ John ; Roma, Ronie. Appellatives are thofe that fjgnify things undeterminate, as iglefia, a church ; cdfa^ a houfe. Some of the nouns are called frlmitives^ that is original ; others derivatives for their being derived of others, as leccion^ ozdo. Nouns are again divided into fmiple, ^sjufto^ juft ; and compound, as injiifto, unjuft. There are alfo diminutives and augmentativcs, in both which the Spanijh abounds more than any other language, there being no word but what admits of feveral diminutives, to reprefent the thing fpoken of, little , and augmentativcs, to reprefent

and appellatives.

The

it

greater.

2II0,

Diminutives are formed by adding to the word icOj zto, etc, uelOy or ejo, and fometimcs ote^

For Example,
Homhre, a

man

forms Homhredllo, Homhre czco,


Muchachzco^

Homhreciio.

Mucbdcho, a boy ; MuchachtllOy MucbacMto, Muchachueio.

Where
forts,

obferve the difference between thefe feveral


is

v/hich

that thofe ending in

zllo

and

ue!o,

as

Horn*

40

T'he

RUDIMENT'S

of

Homhreczlloy Muchachuelo^ and the like, denote fomething of contempt, as, a pititul little man or boy ; whereas thofe ending in ico^ or ito^ only denote fmailnefs, and fometimes kindnefs, as when we fay Juanzco or Juaniio^ which is Johnny or Jacky. Diminutives in ete and ino likewife denote nomozete, a thing but finallnels, as mSzo^ a youth
*,

young

lad

-paloma^

dove

palomino^ a

young

pigeon ; whereas thofe in ejo imply at the fame time fomething of contempt or diflike, as cuchillo^ hidalgo^ a a knife ; cuchillejo^ a pitiful little knife hidalgote^ an inconfiderable gentlegentleman ^
,

man The
grandete^

iam.e

is
;

alfo

ufcd in adjedives, as grdndcy

large or great
all

grandezzllo, grandezko, grandeziielo^

which figniiy Largi/hy as we may exprefs it, or {omewhat large. There are moreover diminutives formed upon

diminutives \ as chico^ fmall ; chiquUo, fmaller than the other, and chiquiilco^ very fmall. There are on the other hand augmentatives, as has been faid, which enlarge, or reprefent a thing bigger, without any degree of comparifon ; and
thefe are

formed by adding dzo^


a
;

on, or die,

to the

word,

as homhre,

2l ; bomhrote, a great rdzo, perron, or perrote, a great large dog.

man bomhrdzo, bomhrdn or dog ; -perperro, lufty man

^be nouns numeral, or of number^


are as follows
:

called

cardinals^

Uno,

one,

Nueve,

rdne.

Dos, two,
Tres, three, Quatro, four. Cinco, five. Seis, /v.
Siete, feven.

Diez, ten, 'Once, eleven. Voce, twelve. Trece, thirteen.


Catorce, fourteen.

Quince,

fifteen.

/Ocho,

eigdt.

Diez y

feis, fi>ite^n^

Diep

the

Spanish Grammar.'
dred.

41

Diez y fiete, feventeeiu Diez y ocho, eighteen. Diez y nueve, nineteen,


Veiate, twenty. Veinte y uno, twenty one, Veinte y dos, twenty two.

Quatrocientos, four hun-

Quinientos, five hundred. Seifcientos, fix hundred. Setecientos, feven hundred.

&c.
Treinta,
thirty.

Ochocientos,
dred.
forty.

eight

bun-

Quarenta,

Nuevecientosl
.,

.^^^^^^

Cincueiita, fifty. Sefenta, fixty.

Setenra, feventy.

Ochenta,

eighty.

^ f dred. Novecientos, } Mil, a thoufand. Mil y Quinientos, a thou-

"^

Noventa,

ninety.

Ciento, a hundred. Ciento y uno, a hundred

fandfive hundred. mil, two thoufand. Tres mil, three thoufand

Dos

and

one^

&c.

Sec.

Docientos, or Ducientos

Cien mil,
thoufand.

an

hundred

two hundred.
TrecientoSj three hundred.

Millon, a

million.

N. B.
and of the

That
iinos.,

all

common
tinas^

thefe cardinals are undeclined, gender, except tmo^ una^ uno^

plural

and

ciento^

docientos ^

docientas.
it
;

Uno

unfolCiento likewife lofes to when bea foldier. fore a noun, either mafculine, or feminine, as cim
dado,
foldddos,

mafculine (in the fingular onlyj when before a noun lofes 0^ as un libro, a book

comes

hundred

foldiers

cien mugeres,

men

but

when another number

follows

hundred woit with a

ciento y dos,

conjundion between, then it retains to, as ciento y uno^ &c. When ciento has un before, then it is made fubftantive, and governs a genitive, as un ciento de cahdllos^ or un centendr de cabdllos, an hundred of horfe. All the numbers from cignto to mil, are mafculine, and may be made feminine, changing
ps

in

as,

as ducientos,

ducientds,

mil

is

undeclined,
is

and of the

common

gender, but milUn, a million,

42
is

"The

RUDIM^NrS
and
declined,
as,

of
millon^

mafculine

un

dos

tnillones.

^he

ordinals which

declare the order of iime^


flace^

or

are
Trigefinio, or Treinteno,
thirtieth.

Primero, firfl, Segundo, fecond, Tercero, third. Quarto, fourth,


Quinto, fifth. Sexto, fixth,

Quadragedmo,

or

Qua-

renteno, fortieth,

Quinquagefimo, or Cincuenteno,
fiftieth.

Septimo, feventh,

Sexagefimo, or Sefenteno, fixtieth.


ninth,

Odavo, eighth, Nono, or Noveno,

Septuagefimo, or Setenteno, feventieth.

Decimo, orDeceno, tenth, Undecimo, or Onceno,


eleventh.

Oduagefimo,
Nonagefimo,

or

Ochen-

teno, eightieth.

Duodecimo,
twelfth,

or

Doceno,
or

or

Noven*

teno, ninetieth.

Decimotercio,

Tre-

ceno, thirteenth, Decimoquarto, or Catorceno, fourteenth.

Becimoquinto,
ceno,

i?r

Quin-

fifteenth.

Centefimo, Cienteno, or Centeno, hundredth. Docientefimo, or Docienteno, two hundredth, Trecentefimo, or Trethree huncenteno,
dredth,

Decimo fexto, fixteenth, Decimo feptimo. Seventeenih,

Quatrocentefimo, Quatrocienteno,
hundredth.

or

four

Decimo
teenth,

qdlavo,

eigh-

Quingentefimo, or Quinienteno,
dredth^ ice.
five

Decimo nono^ nineteenth, Vigefimo, or Veinteno,


twentieth.

hun-

Milefimo, thoufandth.

Note, that the Spaniards


entos

make

and cardinals promifcuoufly,


y dcho^
:

as en

ufe of the ordinals el mo de mil fefci-

for en el afio milefimo feifcenteftmo


5

y
y

o^dvo

el

imo quince ^ for decimo quinto

ciento

fct^Jita

the

Spanish Grammar.
the

45

fctenta y fiete^ for centefmo feptuagefmo feptimo^ this mud be underftood only in the computation of years^

chapters,

^c.

ordinals are malculine,

and

by-

changing
mera.

a are feminine,

as primerOy

pri-

^hd nouns numeral

called dijlributives^

or of order^

are

two and two. and three. De quacro en quatro, by four and four. De De cinco en cinco, by five and five^ &c. as los Frdiles van de dos en dos fuera del convento^ the Fryars when they go out of the convent they go by two and two.
dos en dos,
by
tres entres,

De De

uno en uno,

one by one.

by three

Cwo cardinals
:

is put between the d uno^ then d ftand inftead of contra^ againft ; as dos d dos^ two to or againft two the fame is in thefe, tdntos a tdntos, fo many againft fo many, as rlndmos qudtro a qudtro^ or tdntos a tdntos^ let us fight four to four, or fo many againft fo many, that is even or equal in number.

Note^ that

when

the letter a

as uno

OfADJECTIVES^

TH
dtilce^

the moft part in

termination of Spanifh adjedlives is for f, or 0, as grdnde, large ;


,

fweet

breve^

Ihort

bueno^

good

fdntOy

holy,
nation
frail
,

&c.
alfo,
debii,

But there are other adjedlives


is

whofe termi-

in

/,

as util,
fruitful
\

ufeful

weak

fragile

fcrtiU
,

and others
e,

in 2,

as capdz^

capable

rapdz^ ravenous.
that termir.are in

Thofe
gender
Iv/eet i
-,

never vary in any


great
;

fo in the aajedives, grdnde^

didce^

tsrribk^

terrible,

we

fay in the mafculine

gender^

44

"J^he

RUDIMENrS
;
;

of
in the

gender, bomhre grdndey a great man nine, mt^.ger grdnde^ a great woman
neuter,
lo

femithe

and

in

grdnde^ that

which

is

great.

Thofe

that terminate in o^ in the feminine gender,

change their termination into a^ as in lueno^ good, mafculine is, bomhre hueno^ a good man ; the the feminine, muger huena^ a good woman ; but the neuter is again in o^ as lo hueno^ that which is good. Such as terminate in /, or z, never change in any
gender.

The

adjcflives grdnde^ great

and

hueno^

good

placed before the lubllantives, and then ibmetimes they loofe ihe laft fy liable, as is ufual to bum cahdllo^ a good fay, gran hombre^ a great man
are often
,

horfe
to

but the feminine gender, hii^na^

is

not liable

abbreviation, becaufe the cutting off the a^ w6uld make it mafculine, and therefore it muft always be faid, buena muger ^ a good woman > buzna
tbiit
cdjl:-^

a good houfc.
vvh"n
it

a faint, has always the lad proper name, and we fay, San Andres^ St Andrew, ^c. Sa?t Pedro, St Peter except only out of this general rule, Sdmo Bomzgno^ Santo 'ThomdSy Santo 'Toribzo, and any faints names that begin with Do^ or To, becaufe the cutting off the jLil fyllaiple of Saji^to, before ^hem would fink In fpeaking of a female the found of the name. faint, no letter is cut off, but it is pronounced as length, as SdrJa Aplonia, Santa AfargarUa, &c,
Sdntc^
fignifies

fyllable cut off before the


-,

The

degrees of cotnparifotJ,

comparifon ^ and fimply denotes the thing,


the
difcrcto,

AL L

Adjeftives

have

their three

pofitive,

degrees of which plainly


learned
i

as doolo,

difcreet,

i^c.

The comparative
thing,

either enhances or
as
inas

debafes the

making a comparifon,

do^o^ mo;? learned

the
learned
;

Spanish G r a m m a
lefs

r.^

45
more

menos db^foy

learned
the

masjdnto^

holy

menos fdnto^
fuperlative

lefs

holy.

The

raifes
ic

thing to the highefl:

pitch, or debafes
czffimo, a

to the lowed, as cahdllo velo-

mod

fleet

horfe

car a hellzjfima, a

molt

beautiful face.

In Spanijh there

is

no comparative degree formed


article

from the
is

pofltive, as in the Latin^ but that defed:

fupplied,
lefs,

by adding the
to

mas^ more, or
clear
;

ffienos^

the pofitive

as cldro,
ohfcuro,

mas

cldro, clearer, or

more

clear

dark

mhos

ohfcuro^

lefs

dark.

fuperlative degree is formed when the pofiends in a vowel, by changing that laft vowel tive
into ijfimo^ as

The

from

cldro^

clear

make

the fuper-

Jative clarijjimo^

very
cldro

;
:

or by the adverb muiy ; or by mucho mas^ faying muiy or mucho mas but if the pofitive ends in a confonant, add

mod clear

iJ/i?no^

as

from

vil^ bafe

vilzjfimo^

mod

bafe

from

capdz^ capable,

capacifftmo^

mod

capable.

The

fix

following words are an exception from

the rules above, in relation to the comparative degree, for their fupfrladvis folio ;v the common rule,

where rote that in from the pofidve,


Bueno^ good
;

theie the

comparative quite varies

as follows.

mejor.^ better ;

homjjimo^ or Sptimo^

bed of

all.

Mdl'j^

bad

',

peor^ worfe

piffimo^

or malijfimo^

word

mayor^ greater ; grandiffiino^ or ; mdximo, greated of all. PequenOy little ; menor^ lefs ; peq^uemfftmOy or minzmo^ lead of all.

of ail. Grdndt\ gi-ep.t

Muchoy
of
all.

muca
;

7nas^

more
j

muchi[fimOy

mod

Poco^ litde

menos ^

lefs

toq^uzffimo^

lead of all,

Thefe two are without a


rative,

pofitive

and compaAdrrimo^

46

the

RUDIMENTS
Of

of

Jcerrhnoy extraordinary eager, tenacious, &c. Uberrimoy extraordinary fruitful.

GENDERS.
there
in Spanijh^

IT

is

no eafy matter to determine, whether

are as

many genders
five, viz,

as in the Laiin^

which has

the

mafculine,

the feminine, the

the neuter, the

of three. having no fubftantatives

common of two, and The queflion arifes from


of the

common
gender,
it,

the Spanijh^
as

neuter

whence

it

follows that

no adjedives can have

being only an accident of the other, and there cannot be that in the accident which is not in the fubjedt whence it will follow that there can be only three genders, the mafculine, the feminine, and the common of two. But this notion, though fupported by many, muft needs be erroneous , for it is plain that when adjectives, pronouns, and participles, are ufed as fubftantives, there is a neuter gender, as appears by the three feveral articles that exprefs them, for el is the mafculine, la the feminine, and lo the neuter ; for

example, el hornbre^ the man ; la muger^ the woman ; and lo hiieno^ that which is good. This is again demonftrable in the articles, efte cahdllo^ this horfe ; efta Burra^ this flie afs ; and ejlo^ this thing j which exadlly anfwer to the Latin, hie, hcBC, hoc ;

and

therefore

it is

infallible that thefe three

niuft have a being.

As

to the others,

genders take the

following rules. rf All adjedives, pronouns, and participles, are of the common gender of three, that is, they will

admit of three

articles, efte,

efta,

efto,
is

by which the

not only to be three genders are expreffed, which termination, as biieno, fuppofed when they alter their luena, hueno, but alfo when they always retain the

fame, as amdnte^ frudcnte^ &c.


2.

All

//ji?

Sp

AN

I s

Grammar.

47

2.

All nouns

that are under

termination exprefling both man male and female of any fort of living creature, are of the common gender of two, as ejfe gudrda^ this man keeper efla gudrda, this woman keeper.
,

one and the fame and woman, or the

under one termination denotes and female of all animals, and yec both the male
3.

The

epicene

has only the mafculine, or the feminine article, to exprefs both kinds, for which reafon the words mdcho, male ; or bemhra, female ; are added to
efia codorniz mdcho^ this %>rzdl hemhra^ this hen thrufh. cock 4. All names fignifying the males of any fort of animals, are of the mafculine gender, as Pedro^ cdnde^ an earl ; Ledn^ a hdmbre, a man Peter lion. And all that fignify the female of any fort, are of the feminine gender, as Maria, Mary ; muger, a woman ; marq^uefa, a marchionefs, f hofe words are of the doubtful gender, which have fometim;js the mafculine, and fometimes the femini'ie pr fixed by authors. But for as much as

make

the diftindtion, as,


-,

quail

ejle

*,

proceeded from ignorance, ic who underltand better, notwithflanding ilie privilege grounded on cuftom, to gi^ve every ^vord its proper gen'ile". Some words of this fort chat ^ccur, are arte, canal, color, ecUpfe,
this am'cigui'-y at Hril

will be proper for

^.liofe

mdrgen, origen^ tbema, Thefe a ufed w'.h either of the articles f/, or la, as, el arte, or la arte, the art ; and yet it ought certainly to be la, to denote the feminine, as
mar.^
ordeti,

emhUma,

we

frequently E

from wlience it is derived ; the fame m.ay be faid of all others which of right fhould ever follow their original.
in the Lath:^

P.uUs

4B

^he

RVDIMENTS

of

Rules to know the gender of nouns,

nouns ending in a are of the feminine gender, as pldza^ a fquare, or market ; rofa^ a rofe ; cdfa^ a houfe. The exceptions are planeta, a planet ; comet a^ a comet, or blazing ftar % dia^ a day 5 propheta^ a prophet ; evangeltfta^ an evangelift ; poeta^ a poet ; Calvintfta^ a Calvinift ; Jefuita^ a Jefuit ; alfo fuch as are derived from the Greeks as dogma^ a dogma, or a received opinion, frohlema^ a. problem 5 which are mafculine, butemblemay an emblem, is of doubtlefs gender. Nouns ending in e are generally of the mafculine gender, as diente, a tooth ; 7n6nte^ a mountain. Except, /^, faith ; fumte^ a fountain ; lldve^ a key 5 Jeche^ milk ; mente, the mind ; torre^ a tower ; iroxe^ a granary ; dnade^ 3. duck j ahaydlde^ cerufe ; dve^ a fowl ; cdlle^ a ftreet ; ^ir;/^, flefh ; cldve^ a key of an organ ; cdrte^ a prince's court 5 efpecie, a fpccorriente, a current 5 J<9/^, a dowry cies J frente^ the forehead ^//^, people 5 muerte^ ^^^i'^, a cloud , death 5 ^i^'i;^, fnow ; noche^ night
-y

AL L

-,

ndve^ a
ferpiente^
^dfr/^,

ftiip

puente^ a bridge
;

pdrte^ a

part
-,

a ferpent
it

all

which are feminine

bus

when
is

fignifies cutting, Ihaping, or contriv-

ing,

mafculine.
all

Again,
fdngre^

nouns ending
are feminine,

in re, that

letter before

itj

as cojiumhrcy

have a mute cuftom ;

blood, ^c. From which general rule are likewife excepted, cobre, coper ; cofre^ a trunk 5 and the enjambrSy a (warm 9 ndmbre^ a name names of months, Setiembre^ OSlubre^ Noviembre^
*,

Deciembre^ which are mafculine. Nouns ending in i are mafculine, if derived from
Iriffenfis

the Arahick, as alheU^ a violet, according to Neyet fome will have it to be a clove gilli;

flower
that

alboU^

or alhori^ a granary
to
fee

%ahori^ one
are

pretends

into

things

that

not

tranfparent,

the

Spanish GraMxmAr.
^c. But fuch words

49
taj

tranfparent, as ftone- walls,

ken from the Greek are feminine,


Sintcixi^

as extafi^ an cxcaiy

Syntax.
in
;

Nouns ending
iield
;

are mafculine, as cdmpo, a


for

tcmplo^ a church
i

a (hip

pro^

good
it

we

except mdno^ a hand ; vdo^ fay, buena pro os hdga^


the

much good may


Nouns ending
fpiric
;

do you.
ware mafculine, as Efpzritu^
y

in

hnpetu, violence.
in

are femininej as ley, lav/ 5 Rey, a King. Except a flock. This is all that can be faid of nouns ending in vowels ; next follow thofe that end in confonants. Nouns ending in d are generally of the feminine gender, as chariddd^ charity ; habiliddd^ ability ; except cefpedy a turf ; huefped^ an hoft, or gueft ardzd^ a ftratagem ; Adalid, a leader 5 Cenid, the Zenith J almud, a certain meafure 5 alaudy a coffin ;
grey,
,

Nouns ending

laud, a lute,

which are mafculine.


in / are mafculine,

Nouns ending
fparrow
are
cdJ.,
-,

as parddl^ a

arancely
\

a
hiel,

lift

or

roll.

The
a fign,

exceptions
or token
j

lime

Jal^
5

fait

fendl^
j

cdrcely

a prifon

gall

miel^

honey

piel^

the

Ikin.

n are mafculine^ as carbon, cole 5 fhepherds ; ahnazen, a florehoufe. Except /ten, the temple of the head ; farten, a frying-pan ; and all words derived from the Latin termination in go, as imdgen, an image,
in

Nouns ending

Rabaddn,

a chief

among

from mago

indrgen, a

margin

from margo, &Ci

Likewife thofe ending in ion, as region, a region ; cleccion, eledion and thofe ending in azon, di^razon, reafon ; from which again except, corazSn, the heart; tarazon, a piece which are mafculine. Nouns ending in r are mafculine, -as amor, love ; Alcazar, a palace ; except fegur, an axe, fior, a
*,

flower

labor, work 7?iuger, a woman. ^ Nouns ending in s are mafculine, as combes^ t\i^ deck of a (hip j Pah, acouncry, or.landfkip. 'Ex, *,

cept

so
cough ; Agnes.
cJock
i

Tie

RUD IMENTS
;

of
;

cept mies^

harveft

Res, a head of cattle

tos,

and proper names of women,


in

as JgneSy

Nouns ending

x are mafculine,
z, are for the
ninez,

as

relox^

carcdx, a quiver.
in

moft part femichildhood nariz, the nofe ; hoz, a fickle ; luz, light. Except agrdZy verjuice ; foldz, comfort ; antzfaz, a vail, or covering for the face ; almirez, a mortar j dohlez^ a fold, or falfhood ; jaez, furniture for a horfe ^ pez^ a fifh ; axedrez, a chequer, or draught-board var^ tizz, varnifh ; tapzz, a carpet; mattz, a fhadowing alhornoz, a moorifh coat ; arrdz, in painting altramuZy a lupine rice all which are mafcunine, as pdz, peace
;
-, *, , ', -,

Nouns ending

line.

Tothefe

rules

may be added,
,

that

all

nouns figni-,

fying the male, muft of courfe be mafculine, as Ddque, a Duke gdllo, a cock ; kdn, a lion and denoting a female, muft be feminine, as Conthofe gallina, a hen. defa, a Countefs is further to be obferved, that whatfoever the It termination happens to be, the proper names of rivers are always mafculine, as el Guadidnay and fo
-,

of any

others, &:c.

Of

the other accidents helofiging to a

Noun.

TH E
are
cles
;

accidents ufually
thefe particulars

belonging to a noun,

its

declination, cafes, numbers, and arti-

but

all

muft be explained

in

the following manner.

Of

Declenftons or Declinations,

Spamjh are not declined by altering or varying the termination, or laft fylkble, as is done in the Latins but by adding and varying
in

NOUNS

the

Spanish Grammar,
known by
:

51

varying the
cafe.

articles, as they are pecuhar to each

And

if

the declenfions are


,

the varia-

tion of the nouns

it

being certain that the Spaniards

it may be faid by only vary in the plural number five diftindl declenfions in dedu6lion that there are as in Latin : becaufe the plural numbers SpaniJJjy

end

in

yf;,

as regia,
d,s

reglas,

a rule.

Es^
Is,

padre, padres, a father.

as ruhz, ruhis,

and

rubies,

a ruby.

Os, as templo,

templos, a

temple or churcho

Us, as tribu, tribus, a tribe.


are three particles or notes to denote the Cafes of a Noun, viz. Be for the genitive and ablative, a or para for the dative, and b for the vocative, Thefe particles are called by other aurhors yf?7if/^j,

There

but without reafon, becaufe the

article is declinable,

and the above

particles

can never be declined.


the Cafes.

Of

E Spaniards have fix cafes, like other Ianlanguages, being Nominative, or that which names the thing, and generally goes before the verb, as Pedro per did fu cdpa, Peter loft his cloak. Genitive, or that which fhows to whom the thing belongs, or from whom it proceeds, as efle es el perro de Pedro, this is the dog of Peter \ Maria ei
bija de Jofeph,

TH

Mary

is

this

cafe

anfwers

to

fo that Jofeph*s daughter this queftion, whofe or


,

whereof ?
to

Dative, or that which fhows the place or perfon whom the thing is given, and anfw^reth to this queftion, to whom or to what ? as di mi efpada d mi

bermdno^

gave

my

fword to

my
'

brother.
Jccufative^

52

"The

RUD IMENfS

Jccufalive, or that

of which declares the fubjed of

the verb, and anfwers to this queftion whom or what ? and follows generally the verb, as efla mandna recebt ejie frefente^ this morning I received
this prefent.

Vocative^

is

called the cafe of calling, admiring,

or fainting, as

Pedro ven aquiy

Peter,

pray

come

here,

&c.
the thing

Ablative^ or that

fon from
joined

whom

which denotes the place or peris taken, and is generally

to a

prepofition, as procedo de la tiirra^ I

proceed from the earth.

Of

the

Numbers,

TH E
Singular^

Spaniards like the Latins^ have

two num-

bers, viz.

which fpeaketh of

"^

(*

one,
Plural^

Jcdfa

which fpeaketh of r many, j


Spanijhy if

yd/as

a houfe houfes

^
is

The fingular
plural by

end with a vowel


s

made

adding the

letter
;

after

it,

as hombre^
i

hombres
is

iemplo^ templos

if
s

end with an
es^

vowel

made

plural

by adding
es^

or

as rubz^ rubzs^ or

rubies^ a

ruby ; but generally in

borcegui^

borceguis^ or borceguieSy except maravedt^ which makes

maravedh^ or maravedifes^ &c. if the noun end with a confonant in fingular, then is made plural by adding es^ as dolor ^ dolores ; Apojlol, Apoftoles ; veZy voZy change z into c in plural, as fdz^ luz has been obferved before, faying paces, luces. Sec. oc is not changed into g in plural, as fbme authors wrongfully obferve, but is retained, and fo iiova relh fay in plural relaxes j carcdx^ carcdxes.
',

Of

the

Spanish Grammar.
Of
the Spanidi articles.

53

guage, as well as in the Latin^ and are borrowed of the pronoun, viz. el for the malculines, la for the feminines, and lo for the neuters. An article (which is an accident to the Noun, and aneceifary one to the modern languages) is a monc^
fyllable^
is

THERE

are three articles in the Spamjb lan-

or

diclion

compofed of
to

one fillahle^

it

declinahky

and ferves

diftinguifh

the genders.

The

Spaniards

make

ufe of the

articles

before all

the nouns, except the proper


///^tongue.

names

as in the Eng-^

Note^ that the Englijh have but one undeclined article, viz. the for the mafculine and feminine, and the particle // which often ferves for
:

the neuter

fo that the EngliffJ

make no

ditference in

genders by their article, when they fpeak of inanimates, except only the word Jbip^ which is feminine, and then they make ufe of the relative 7^^,
ella^

{3.y\ngJ/je

is

a 20 gunfJjipy ella es una nave de

20

caiiones.

EL
This
article
is

irregular

in

the

plural,

and

always placed before nouns mafculine, as el homhre^ the man it is alfo ufed before the feminine nouns beginning with a fand this only in fingular, becaufe in plural we fay
los^

make

and

tho'

; el dhna^ permitted euphonies gratia^ for the better found, to avoid two 's coming together, or the cutting one off, which is \\ii\^ ufed in Spanifh ; becaufe la dgua^ would found like I'dgua^ and therefore for the more diftindion they fay eldgua^ as in French they fay mon ame^ tho' ame be of the feminine gender, and not ma ame or m^ame. Yet is not this a general rule, for the moft received

las

dlmas^ las dguas) as


\

el

dgua^ the water


is

or dnima^ the foul

which

cuftoni

54
cuflom
four

"The
is

RUDIMENTS
la for

oj

to preferve as

the

words of three or
antiquity
j

fyllables,

la

anliguedad,

la

Jcademia, the academy. El is often put before the verb in the infinitive mood, when followed by another verb, as el comer en tiempo es bueno^ como tamhien el dormir quando fe neceJfUa^ to eat when 'its convenient does good, as it is alfo to fleep when it is wanted. When the particles de or a are joined to el^ often happens that the Spaniards mdko. one fyllable of both, as inftcad of de el or a el they fay del or al^ as it is faid before in the Orthography. Le in fingular, and ks in plural are often taken as articles by fome authors, but without any grounds for fo faying , becaufe they never are ufed before nouns, but only as relatives after verbs in dative or accufative, according to the cafe governed by the verb, they are like wife ufed before the verbs, as dtxele ejlo^ I told him this ; les ccoinpane^ I accompanied them.

La
be placed before nouns feminine, as la woman ; except thofe nouns that begin with a, as has been faid juft above it is likewife ufed before and after the verb, tho' not as article, but as relative, as la llame, I called her , llamadla^ the plural of la is las^ and often fupplies call her
Is

to

muger^ the

the noun fubft^ntive,


l^s

as

hefo las

de v,

m'^-

that

is

mmos.

As

has been faid,

is

the article of the neuter gen-

der^ and only ufed before adje<5lives, made fubftantives or taken in that fenfe, as lo grdnde^ that which
this article is great; lo hueno^ that which is good, has no plural number, fornetimes lo is taken abfo*

lutely.

/i^

Spanish Grammar.
lo

55

lutely, as todo
I will

que

me manddre
It
is

v. m^- hare con guftoy

do with pleafure every thing

fhall
after

command me.
do
is
it.

that you will or ufed likcwifc before and


lo

a verb as relative, as

dire^

will fay

it \

bdzlo^

What
think

has been

iliid

of the

articles

as articles,

fufficient for the prefent,

refer the reader to

and for the reft I the chapter of Pronouns, and to

the Syntax.

^he Mafculine
The Singular Number,

article

is

thus declin*d
The Plural Number.

Nominative,
Genitive,

el,

the
el^

Nominative,
of the or para
Genitive,
de

los,

the
-of the
los

dtly

or de or alj

los^

Dative,
el,

ael,

Dative,

a or para
los, losy

to the

to the
el,

Accufative,
the

the

Accufative,

Ablative, de

from

the.

Ablative, del, orde eljvom the

The Feminine thus


The Singular Number,
the Genitive, de la, of the Dative, a, or para la, to the Accufative, la, the
la,

The Plural Number.

Nominative,

Nominative,

las, the Genitive, de las, of th Dative, a las, to the

Accufative,

las,

the

Ablative,

de la,

from the

A.blative, de las,

from

the.

ne

Neuter

article thus

The Singular Number,

Nominative, h, the Genitive, de lo, of the Dative, a, or para lo, to the


.

It has

no Plural Number.

Accufative,
Ablative,
ds

lo,
lo,

the

from the

Nor
without bombre^

are thefe articles

capable of any vocative,


all,

we

fay,

O man,

general to them muger^ woman.


is

as,

Examples

'56

"The

RUDIMEN'TS
Nouns
in

of

xamj)ks of

the

tbeir feveral Terminations,

Words end
Sing.

in a.

Plur.

Hembra, a Female
Fiuta, Fruit

Hembras, Females
Frutas,
Fruits

Words ending
Sitig.

in

e.

Plur.

Hombre, a Man Li^bre, a Hare

Ilombres, Me)i Liebies, Hares

Words ending
Sing.

in

i.

Plur.

Rubi, a Ruby
javali,

Rubis, or Rubies, Rubies


Javalis, or Javaiies^ ^F}7^j?(?^ri

a Wild Boar

Words ending
Sing.

in o.

iur. Flu

Slilagro,

Caballo, a Horfe a Miracle

Caballos,

Horf^s

Milagros, Miracles

Words ending
Sing.

in u.

Plur.
Spirit

Efpiritu,
.

Efpiritus, Spirits

Tribu, a

"Tribe

Tribus, Irihes

Words ending
ring, f

in y.
-P^^-

Rcy, a King Ley, a La^jo

Reyes, Kings Leyes, La^wi

Words

the

Spanish Grammar.
Words ending
in d,
Plur.

57

Sittg.

Verdad, Truth Merced, a Favour

Verdades, Truths Mercedes, Fauours

Words
Animal, an Animal Gemil, a Pagan

ending

in

/.

Animales, AnbnaU
Gentiles, Gentiles

Words
Sing.

ending

in n.
Flur.

Pan, Bread Celemin, a Peck

Panes, Loanjes Celemines, Pecks

Words ending
Sing.

in r.

58

"the

RUDIMENTS
the

of

Exampks

ofdedinlrtg the three fever al Genders,

Example of
Sing.

Mafculine Gender.
Plur.

Norn. El Padre, the Father

Gen.

Dtl Padre, of
to

the

Father
el

Bat. Al Padre, or para


dre, Accuf.
the Father
or

Pa-

Los Padres, the Fathers Gen. Delos Padres, of the Fathers Dat. los Padres, or para los
Norn.

Padres,
Ace,
Voc.

/* the

Fathers
the Fathers

El Padre, the Father Padre, O Father Voc. Ahl. Del Padre, /roOT the Father

Al

Los Padres,

Padres,
los

Fathers

Ahl.

De

Padres,

from

the

(Fathers

Example of
Sing.

the Feminine Gender.


Plur.

}^om.

La Madre,

the

Mother
the

Norn. Las Madres,

the

Gen.

De

la

Madre, of Madre,
the
to

Ma(ther

Gen.

De las Madres,

Mothers of the Moto the

thers

Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

la

the

Mo(ther

Dat.

A O

las

Madres,

Mo-

thers

La Madre,

Madre,

Ahl.

De la

Mother Mother Madre,/roOT the Mo-

Ace. Las Madres,


Foe.

(ther

the Mothers Madres, O Mothers Ahl. De las Madres, from the (Mothers

Example of
Sing.

the

Neuter Gender.

Kom. Lo bueno, thai ivhieh


Gen.

Dat.
Ace.
Foe.

Ahl.

is good bueno, of that ^jjhich is good A lo bueno, to that ivhich is good Lo bueno, that mjhich is good bueno, O that ivhich is good De lo bueno, from that luhich is good,

De

lo

Thefe Adjedives ufed as Subftantives have, as has been faid before, no Plural Number.

Common

Adje6lives are declined as Subftantives,

according to their Genders, needs no Examples of them.

and

therefore

there

Some

jhe

Spanish Grammar.

59

Some obfervations concerning derived and com^ found Nouns.

THE Nouns
jedives
,

fome of them Subilantives,


the

of dignity given to Men, and others


of
Subftantives

are

Ad-

nature

requires,

that they be not given to

women, who

are pofltifled

of the like dignity, without deriving the Feminine from the Mafculine j and thus from Duque^ a Duke a Duchefs ; from Conde. an is deriv'd Duquefa, EarJ, Condefa^ 2l Countefs ; from Principe^ a Prince,
Priricefa^

a Princefs

-,

becaufe Przncipe in Spanijb

is

But when the Name of of the Mafculine Gender. Dignity is a Noun Adjedlive, as 'Tenientey a Lieutenant, or a
fidente^

Deputy
;

Jffiftentey
it

a Prefidenr, fhe
;

any Variation

for in

an Afliftant ; Pre-Sexes without fpeaking of a Prefident's


ferves both
la Prefidenta^

Lady,

is

not to be called

but

Id.

PrefuUnte

and

fo in the reft of that fort.

They are guilty of the like Error who fpeaking of a wild, or mountain She-Goat, call her Cdhra monteiza^ becaufe the Adjedlivc Month fhews both Genders, and therefore the Female is to be called Month, as well as the Male. However the Adje(5lives that denote Kingdoms, or Nations, ending in (?j, are only applied to the Mafculine Gender, and the Feminine has the addition of ^, as in fpeaking of
a Frenchman,
is

called Franch,

Nations

or an Engli/hman, he is or In^h, but a Woman of thofc Francefa^ or IngUfa,

CHAP.
Of
Pronouns.

IL

R ONOUNS

are certain words put into the

place, or fubftitutcd inftcad of

Nouns, ferving
to

6o

The

RUDIMENTS
naming
it

of

or thing before over again. There are feveral forts of Pronouns, fome of them are called Primitives, as yo^ I, tUy you, fi,
to fliew, uamed, without
himfelf, nos, or nofotros^

or exprefs the perfon,

we

vos^

or vofotros^ ye.

Others are Derivatives, or Pofleflives, becaufe derived from thofe above, and denoting poffefTion, as mioy mine, tup^ thine, fujo, his, nue/iro, ours, with their ferninine gender, mzay vueftro, yours It is to be obferv'd, iuydy fu^ja^ nueftra^ vuefira. that thefe pronouns, of the fmgular number when placed before fubftantives, always lofc their laft fy liable, and for mio^ tuyo, fuyo, muft be faid, mi, tUy fu^ as tni Padre, my Father \ tu Madre, your Mother fu Jvuelo, his Grandfather. But when a queftion is alked, then the anfwer muft be mio, luyo, or fuyo, as *cuyo es ejle gudnte ? whofe glove is that ? The anfwer is 7nzo, mine, or tuyo, yours, or When they are abfolute, or taken as fuyo, his. neuter, then they have the article lo before, as lo mio, that which is mine \ lo tuyo, that which is thine, ^c. The fame is pra6i:ifed in the feminine gender. To form the plural number of thefe pronouns mio, tuyo, fuyo, or mi, tu, fu, add the Letter s, as was before faid in the nouns, and you have fnm,
*, ,

tuyos, fuyos, mis,

tus,

andyi^i.
ejle,

There
efia,
ejio.

are alfo demonftrative pronouns, as

and el, ella, ello, he, (he, that, efte^ efta, ejfe, effa, and el are always placed before nouns, as ejle Vibro, this book, but efto, effo and ello, are effa carne, that fiefh without being joined to any fpoken abfolutely, noun ; ejlo^ fignifying this thing effo, that thing
This
-,

ejfe,

effa,

effo,

that

-,

and

elloy

the thing.

The

particles

making the

cafes in declining,

when

they come before thefe pronouns beginning with e, are not always contracted, and it may be faid d3
ejey or dejle^ de efto^ or dejio.

The

the

Spanish Grammar.
pronouns
are, qtial^

6t
quuriy

The

relative

which,

y^ho, qusy what. For declining of pronouns,

fee

the following

examples.

The pronoun of
^ing,

the

firft

perfon To
Plur.

is

thOs declin'd.

l^om.

Yo, /

Norn.

Nos,

or Nofdtros,
<7r

We

Gen.

Demi, Of me

Gen.

De

Dat.
Ace.

A
De

Me,

mi, To me or a mi.

Dat.

A
De

de nofdtros, Of us nos, or a nofdtros, To us


nos,
or nofdtros, IJs

Me

Ace.
Ahl.

Nos,

Ahl.

mi, Frorn me

nos, or de nofdtros.

From

us*

The
J^om.

fecond perfon T

is

thus declined

Tu, Ton

Nom. Vos,
Gen.

or vofdtros, 7'e or vofdtros.

Gen.

De

ti,

Dat.

Of you
To you
a.

De vos,

ti.

Dat.
Tou
Ace.

A
De

Of y$
To ye

vos,

or vofdtros,

Ace. Te, or

ti,

Vos,

or vofdtros,

2^

Ah J. De

tip

From you

Ahl.

vos, or vofdtros.

From ye

The

third perfon

5'/

thus

Gen. Dat.
Ablat.

Defi,

Of
Ti
fi,

himfelf
Z:///^;?^,

fi,

Z;-//^;/^,

^rr/: Se, or a

De

fi,

Fro;w /^///^^.

And has no plural number, der, unlefs mzfmo be added to


and then mifma muft be
it

nor feminine genit

for the mafculine,

for the feminine,

and then

has mzfmos and mifmai in the plural.

Thefe pronouns in the fingular number ferve both the mafculine and the feminine genders, as does noi and vol in the plural ; but nofdtros and vofotros are
mafculine,
laft

and the feminine


that
is,

is

made by turning

the

into j,

inftead of nofotros

hy

nofotras^

and

inftead of vofotros vofotras.

The

^^^ 62 The Spaniards

RUDIMENTS
frequently in fpeech
firft

of

ufe this pronoun nos with the

and writing perfon plural of*

the imperative mood, taking away the s from the verb, as vdmonos^ for vdmos nos, let us go ; dexe^ monoSy for dexemos noSy let us leave ; and io they do of voSy lofing the v, as zdos^ let ye go, inftead of idvosy or lofmg d in the fecond perfon plural, as amdoSy let ye love, inftead of arnddos^ or amddvos.
thefe

proper to obferve, that the genitive cafe of pronouns, fcems to be in a manner fuperfluous, as never in ufe ; for if we are to fpeak by way of pofTefllon, we muft not fay el lihro es de mi, which would be in Engli/hy the book is of me, but
Ic is
Izbro es mzo, the
iiy
is

inftead thereof, v/e muft ufe the word, mio^ viz. el book is mine. So el cavdllo es de

of you
is

not Spam/h, and would fignify, the horfe is but it muft be el cavdllo es tuyoy the horfe and laftly, el fdyo es de ft, is as falfe, your's
,

being the Coat

is

of him, but

it

muft be,

el fd'jo es

fuyOy or de v. m"^- the coat is his. And if the queftion be afked, a{ya ohra es efta ? whofe work is this ?

the anfwer muft be,

midy mine, or tuya, yours, or


#
after

fuyay his.

Thefe pronouns ferve

a verb, which

is

then

rather in the ablative, than the genitive cafe, as que^ que [era fe dird de mi ? what will be faid of me ?

de

ti

what

will

become of you ?

el

hdbla de fiy he

talks of himfelf.

The
and and

polTeflives mzo, tuyo, fuyo, mine, thine, his,

mi, tu, fu^

my, your,

his,

as alio,

nueftro,

vuefiroy need not be declined here, all of them following the fame rule, without any variation. The three pronouns, )(?, tu, el, are ufed in com-

pofuion with the word mifmOy fignifying 'yo mtfmo, I myfelf, tii mzfrno, youyourfelf, he himfelf ; where it is to be noted that
aifo fignifies the fame,

itfelf,

as

el

mzf?nOy

el

mzjmo,

but then

el is

the article the.

Thefe three are declined as before, only that the mijmo has a fingular and a plural number, and
2
therefore

/i>^

Spanish Grammar.
fay,
'jO

63

therefore

we muft

mifmo^
mifmoSy

in

mzfmo^ tu mifmo^ and el the fmgular, and nofotros mtfmoSy vofotros

and ellos mlfmoSy in the plural ; and fo mifmo and mtfmos for the mafculine gender, and mifma and mtjmai for the feminine. The pronouns poflefTive are Mh^ Hu^o^ Suyo^ Nuejlro^ Vuejiro^ and the feminine gender of them
but if placed before the fubftantive, then it muft be Tu^ Su^ and in the plural MiSy Tus^ Sus, It is proper alfo here to fpeak of the pronoun of interrogation,
-,

Mia^

"Tuya^ Suya,

Nuejira, Vuejlra

M,

the mafculine, and Cuya^ in the feminine CuyOy gender, and Cuyos and Cuyas^ in the plural number, which always denotes the genitive. To explain the proper ufe of thefe words, take thefe examples :

Afking
anfwer

the queftion,
efte cahdllo ?

Cuyo

es efte cahdllo
is

that
?

is

de quien es
is,

Whofe Horfe

this

The

Mio^ mine, Tuyo^ yours, Suyo^ his; and fo changing the into a^ cuydy rnta^ &c. and in the plural number addas ing 5, as cujos or cuyas^ &c. Notey That Cuyo is likewife relative, as el Rey^ en ciiya Mdno eftd el hacer hieny &c. the King in whofe Hand or Power is, to do good, &c. efte reoy cuyos delitvsfon grandeSy &c. This guilty perfon whofe crimes are great, iSc,
in the feminine gender, only

Uhe Demonjlratives Efle, Efle, Aquel, El.

<5T', This, JQj efte Cahdlloy

as

efte

Homhrey
aquel

this
is

Man,

that

Horfe;

ajfo tbaty

but yet with this difference, that efte fignifies that which is near to the perfon who is fpoken to, whereas rt^z/// denotes that which is neither near him

who

is

fpoken

to>

nor him

who

fpeaketh.

Thefe

64-

"The

RUD IMENTS
Fern.
efta

of
:

Thefc pronouns are thus declined


Sing.

Mafc.
efte

Neut.
efto

Nom.
Bat.

^is

Gen. defte, or de efle


2i

defta, or

de
3.

efla

dello, or de efto

Of this
To this This

efte

a efta
efta, or

a efto
efta
efto, or a efto

Ace. efte, or a efte


^.5/. defte, or

de

efte

defta,ordeefta

defto,ordeefto.

From

thii

Plur.

Mi^y?.

Fern, eftas

No

Neut,
Thefe

Nom.

eftos

G^. deftosjordeeftos deftas, or de eftas Dat. a eftos a eftas ^ Ace. eftos, or a eftos eftas, or a eftas ^^/.deftos, or de eftos deftas, or de eftas.

Ofthefe To theft

7/^^
Fromthefi

^EJfe^ ejfa^

ejfo^

is

declined

in

the

fame man-^
effas.

ner,

the

plural

number being
Jqueilos,
illo,

ejjos^

The
ellos^

like of Aquil^

Jquella^
ella^

Jquellas,

So
they,

is el^

he,

fhe,
ellas^

the or that thing,

no

mafculine, neuter plural.

they, feminine.
cafes

There

is

The

need not to be re-

peated, being the fame as thofe before. The word dtro^ is often joined to ejfe^ or effa^ as Effotro^ or EJfeotro^ the other Man or Thing ; Effotra^ or EJfaotra^ the other Woman.

There are two other pronouns, which have only a plural number, as fignifying two, which are dm^ boSy and entrdmboSy both. To the firft of them is often added a dos, that is, ^ Amhos a dos^ both together, and Entrdmhos, imports much the fame. Note, that of efte, and eJJ}y is made aquefte, aqueje, this or that very Man. And fo in the feminine aad oeuter gender.

The

the

Spanish Grammar.
relatives,

65

The
^idfi
i^tf,
es
ejlo
is

^liJn^ S>ue^

^laL

QUI EN,
lo

is

either interrogative, or relative, as

dice ?

Who
?

fays

it ?
it.

No

hdi qu:en

lo

fufra^ no
?
I

Man
that

can endure

alfo interrogative,
is

What
fpeak

and relative, as El homhre que 'jO digOy


as

^e
The

Man
them

of.

S^udh
?

fignifies

Which,

^dl dellos
el,
lo

To

this

is

fometimes added

for the

which of maf-

culine, la for the feminine,


el qudl,

and

for the neuter, as

la qudl,

lo

qudl.

The
tion

of the
plural

declining of thefe confiding only in the addi* needlefs to run the fame is articles, it

over again

no

only it mull be obferved, that ^e has ; number, as fignifying What, which is incapable of it and yet ^den and ^dl, though they fignify PFho, and Which, have a plural, which is ^tdles, as Sluihes fon aquellos? Quienes, and Who are thofe ? and ^dles fon los que dices ? What fort of people are thofe you fpeak of, or what are they ? El, is frequently joined to i^^/, which we can;

not fo properly exprefs in Englijh, as fignifying JVho ; but lo qua!, is exprefTed, the which, thefe two conjoined are declined as follov/s ?
Sing,

Mafc.

Fem.
la qual

Neut.
lo qua!

Norn. El qual

Gen. del qual Dat. al qual


Ace. el

de la qual a la qual
or al
la

de lo qual a lo qual
at-

qual,

qual,

la

lo

qual,

cr

lo

(qual Ahl,
del qual

(qual

(quaj

de

la

qual

de lo qual

Plur,

66
Plur.
'

the
Ma/c.

RUDIMENTS
Tern.
las

of
Neuter

No

Norn, los quales

qudles
las quales,

Gen. de los quales Dat. a los quales


Ace.
los quales,
(a los

de
a
or

las quriles

las quales,

or a las

quales

(quales

AbL de

los quales

de

las quales

is added to ^len^ or meaning, fo ^ienquiera fignifies any perfon, or man whatfoever ; and ^alquiera^ is any one, whether man, or woman, or other thing. When que is added to tal thus, que taly then Hands for qudl in Spanijh.

When

the

word ^dera^
alters the

^.aU

it

quite

Of the

Reciprocals, or RelativeSj

me,

te,

fe.

THESE
before,

three are only of the dative and ac-

cufative Cafes,

and have always a verb


eres ?
I

either
I'ell

me who

or after them, as D/me quien you are ? Doite el Parabim ?

give you

Fuefe de aqta. He went away from hence. Joy. Tiiey are alfo placed before verbs, as, Pedro me Juan te dard, John will give dixo, Peter told me. He praifes himfelf. Many El fe aldha. you. other examples might be brought wherein thefe pronouns are varioufly ufed ; but thofe things are better learnt by pra6lice, than fet down as rules. Mi, ti, fi^ before fpoken of as genitive Cafes, the firft two of }7?, and tu, and the third without a proper nominative, are often join'd to the word con^

with, migo,

and the
with

fyllable go,
;

me

Contigo, with

added to you ;

it,

thus Cori"

Confzgo, with

variation for the genders, but ferve both the mafculine, and the feminine. Note, That proprio ftands often for vufmo^ as ^^o propYio^ ov'^omifmo^ (uproprw, &c,
himfelf.

They have no

The

the

Spanish Grammar.
-,

67

her's, their,

y^^, and in plural fm^ (lands for his, ^c. as el Rq conju Hijo el Principe^ the King with his Son the Prince la Retina con fu hija the Queen with her Daughter the la Princefa^

The

poflfenive

Princefs.

Los fuhditos dehen ohedecer^ y pagdr trihuto d fu Rey^ the Subjedls ought to obey, and pay tribute to their King.

El General

comio con fus of dales fuhalternos^

the

General dinned with his fubakern Officers. Sh (lands alfo for f/, or /^, as el homhre tiene fufer (el fer) de Dios^ Man has the being from God. Sufir7na del capitdn^ fu for la \ but to fpeak properly, read always el fer^ the being j la firma^ the
fign,

or one's name.

Add
The
Nouns
dlguien,

to diefe

imperfedl
relatives:

Pronouns,

or

Cierto^ certain;

properly thefe uno^ one; alguno^

fomebody,

or dlgo in neuter,
;

cadauno^ each, every body


folo^

7mdie,

fomething ; no body Cthefe


otro^
'o

two lad mentioned have no


alone
,

plural)
;

other

-,

todo^

all

tal^

fuch
the

tanto^

much

quantOy

how much.
by

And

two punkue words


Nole, I'hat thefe

fuldno and zutdno,


are called

fuch a one.

Salv. Naves, pronouns indefinites.

There

are three perfons in the Pronouns^ viz.


P/ur.
nos,
or nofotros,

Sing,
1

2.
3.

Yo, / Tu, T/;oH


EI, cr aquel,

ive

vos, or vofotros, je

hs

ellos,

or aquellosj t^ey

Ft

CHAP,

68

fhe

RUD IMENTS
CHAP.
0/
III.

of

VERBS.

dmo, I love ; foi amddo, I am loved Is ; conjugated through Moods and Tenfes ; by Moods the Verb is changed according to the circumftances, as yo hdblo, I fpeak, is the indicative ; bdbla tu, fpeak thou, the imperative, &c. Tenfes are the
:

Man

Verb

is

to do,

a part of fpeech, that fignifies to be, or to fuffer, as fer hombre, to be a

diftindion and variety of times,

as venia^ I

was

coming

-,

vine^ I ca.me, i^c.


into perfonals, (fo called becaufe

Verbs are divided

they have perfons) as yo dmo^ I love ; tu dmas, thou loveft", &:c. and imperfonals, (becaufe without perfonsj as conviene^ it behoveth, confta it is
plain.

The

perfonals are fubdivided into


A(5live
I

PafTive

Neuter ReciprocaL
to teach
;

Adive
to read
liary
*,

fignifies to do, as enfendr^

leer^

and

may

be

made

paffive

by the auxi-

and the participle pafTive of the Verb, 2isfer enfenddo^ foi enfenddo^ &c. But PafTive fignifies to fuTer, as fox amddo. perfon Angular, and the note. That in the third third of the plural are conjugated not only with the the auxiliar y^r, but even with the particle y^, as Dids es amddo^ or Bids fe dma^ God is beloved. Bueno es que la virtud fea hallada^ or fe hdlle en un Pnncipe, it is good that Virtue be found in a Prince.

Verb

fet\

^e

los

Bums

fiun amddoS:,

cr fe dmeni

that the

virtuous

the
virtuous

Spanish
loved.

Gram ma
is

r."

69
fee,

may be

By which you may


To
foi a?nddo,

that the participle Pafilve


tion of this

varied in the conjuganofoiros

Verb, faying,
is

fomos ainddos. Neuter properly


adlion nor paifion,
to

that

which

fignifics
j

neither
color ear ^

as color dr,

to colour
;

recover a colour, or to give colour

correr^

to

This Verb makes a pertedl fenfe by itlelf, in which it differs from the adlive, as ducrmo^ I fleep, meva^ it fnows. The verb Aclive fays the fame thing in the active and pafiive voices, as )0 dim a dio^, or dios es amddo de mi^ which can't be fiid by the Neuter in a proper manner. The Neuter is either fubflantive, as fer^ to be ; or abfolute (fo called for its making a fenfe by itfeJfj by adlion, as blafpbemdr^ to blafpheme, lluevCy it rains ; or by pafTion, as coloredr, ennegrecer. The verb reciprocal is that which return the fenfe backward, and is conjugated thus, apercihirfe^ to be prepared or provided for, 7ne aperczbo^ I prepare myfelf, te aperclbes^ thou preparefl thyfeif; and always has the particle fe in the infinitive.
run, ajjenlir^ to aflent.

Note^

That

in

the Spanijh language,


pajjive^
it

may
by

be made

aEl'ive^

neuter^

one Verb and reciprocal


ir,

the different fenfes that


to put

may
bed,

be applied to
is

as acoftdr^

one

in it's

adtive,

made

paffive

by the Verb
ejiot

auxiluir ejldr^
I

and is and the


in

participle paffive, as

acojlddo^
it

am

put

my

bed, or

lay

down.

When

fignifies

to follow

or opinion, or to declare himfelf is Neuter^ as Pedro^ dexddo el fervzcio de Frdncia^ for ^romejfas de adelantamiento acoflo a la parte de Efpdna. Peter having left the French fervice, by the promifes he had
partial for a Prince,

one's party,

on

his

being
fervice.

promoted,
as

eniifled
it

himfelf in the
to
to come come near
te

Spanijh

And when
acoftarfe
is

fignifies

near to a place,
to this place,

aqui^

then

reciprocal,

as^/

acuejlas

7o
aqui^
te

The

RUD IMENTS
if

oj I

matare^

you come near

to this place,

will kill you.

Some of the Verbs are regular, (fo called for their being confined to rules) and others irregular (fo called, becaufe they have no rule) \ but as their irregularity is various fome time in the prefent tenle of the indicative,
tive,
in the preterperfedl,

future,

in the

impera-

prerer imperfedl and future of the optative,


in

and otherwife to mention it

their participles,

I fhall

take care

in the Conjugations.

OJ

Conjugat'mis.

T
So

HERE
Tongue,

are three Conjugations in the Spanijb


viz,

Amdr^ to love ponder^ to anfvver Ref Venlr^ to come.


that the

Spanip Verbs are

to

be looked for la

the Didtionaries by their infinitives.

Of Moods.

or that which fhows, or declares j the Imperative^ or that v/hich commands ; Optative^ or that which wifhes, or defires ; Suhjun^ive, which
Indicative^

TH E
all

Moods

are fix,

as in Latin^

viz.

The

fuppofes fomething ; FotentiaU or that by which Jbmething is expedled ; and the Infinitive^ which
leaver

undetermined.

Of

fenfes.

TH E
fent,

Tenfes, which are the times of adion, or palTion, are three properly, being the pre-

the paft,

and the time to come

And

with
thofo

^i;^

S p

AN

Grammar.

71

thofe made by circumlocution are ten


cative

in the indi-

Mood,

viz. the prelent, preter imperfect, three

preterperfeds, the plus perfed, and tour futures And in the optative Mood there are nine, viz. the prefcnt, three preterimperfeds, preterperfed,

two

preter plus perfects,

and two

futures.

Of

the

Indicative

Mood,

Tenfe of all Conjugations of is formed by changing ^r, er^ or ir of the infinitive into 0^ as from amdr fay dmo^ from lecr^ leo^ from cumplzr, cumplo \ this tenfe extends itfelf to a future time, as mandna es dia de fiejla^ to-morrow is a holy day.
Prefent
regular verbs,

THE
The

Preterimperfed of the

firft

Conjugation

is

formed by changing dr into dba^ as amdba^ I did love, or properly I was loving and of the fecond and third Conjugation, is formed by changing ir and zr into la^ as perdia^ pedia, Note^ That this Tenfe has two ways of explaining the fecond perfon plural through all Conjuga,

tions, as amdhadeis or amdbais

perdiddeis or perdzMS

pediadeis or pedzais.

Preterperfed of the firft Conjugation into 4 ^s amdr^ ame but of the fecond and third Conjugations by changing er and
firft

The

by changing dr
f,

-,

/r into
is

as perder, perdi^ pedir^ pedi.

This tenfe

called Befirnte^

becaufe

it is

a time perfedly paft

and exprefTed
with him
laft

as el 7nes pajddo haUe con el^ I fpoke ; month. The fecond Perfed of all the Conjugations is formed of the auxiliar verb haver ^ and the participle pafTive of the verb treated of, as he hablddoy I have fpoken, he per dido y I have loft j he pedido^ I have

afked.

The

third

as huve hablddo^

Perfed is formed &c. but not

in the

fame manner,

fo frequently ufed ia

S^anijh as the other two.

Noie^

; ;

72
Note^
le

'the

RUDIMENTS
thefe

of

That
I

two

latter are called Preterper-.


is

fe6ts indefinites,

for their time


hav^e

be hablddo^

fpoken to him,

not determined, as but we don't

fay when.

So that the diiFerence between the firfl: preterperfed and the others, is that the former Ihould exprefs time, and the latter not ; befides, that the iirft extends itfelf firther than the others (which are referred to time but lately paft) you may fay, le table dos dnos ha, 1 fpoke to him two years ago but you can't fay le he bablddo dos dnos ha, I have fpoken to-him two years ago becaufe he hablddo does only extend to a time fo lately paft, that it appears Thefe are Valera's to have fomething of the prefent. Obfervations, which I advife the Reader to obferve, in order to avoid the frequent Equivocations that often happens in fpeaking and writing. hablddo havia The Preterplufperfed thus havhi perdido^ havia pedido, I had fpoken, loft, ^r. The firft Future is formed of the infinitive, adding e after r, as of habldr, adding e fay bablare ; ferder^ ferdere ; fedir^ pedire, having always the accent on the laft letter. The fecond Future with the auxiliary be, iefjgOy or debo, and the infinitive Mood with de before it,
,

as he or tengo de ddr, I am to give, debo de dar^ or debo ddr, I am oblig'd, I muft give. The third thus Havre de habldr^ I ftiall he ob:

liged to fpeak, &c.

The
J

plufperfe6l)

fourth fwhich properly is the fecond PreterHavia de babldr^ I had, or thus


:

was

to fpeakj

i^c.

Of

the Imperative^

THE

Imperative is made of the third perfon of the prefent of the indicative Mood, and of the prefent of the optative, as dma tu, love thou

z^/j^

Spanish
-,

Gram ma
tu^

r.^

73
thou
is

perde ame aquiU let him love el^ let him loofe, ^c. pierda So that the third perfon of the

loofe

indicative

the

fecond of the imperative, and the third of the imThe fecond perative is the firft of the optative.
plural

formed from the infinitive by changing r amdr fay arndd^ let ye love ; perder^ per^ ded ; ped^^r^ pedid ; and often the d is loft, faying ainaos for amdd vos^ or amdd os^ and fometimes is
is

into d^ of

tranfpofed after
amddles
;

/,

as amdlos,
it is

amdles

for amddlos^ or

and

fo

often faid decilde for decidle.

Of the

Optative^ Potential^ and Suhjun^five Moods,

or that wiflies, or defires, has always annexed an adverb, as oxalay fi^ pluwould to God, I pray God, or God guiejfe a Bids, grant aunque^ no objlante que ^ fen embargo que^ altho%
-,

OPTATIVE,

notwithftanding.
Potential properly has no figns in Spanijh,
EngliJJj

but

int

has thefe, can^ may^ mighty could,

JJoould,

or

ought,

which
it.

are equal to thefe Spanijh


es

exprefTions,
will

puede fer que^

menefter que^

as

fome authors

have

Suhjun^ive has always fome conjundion annexed, que, quando : if, as, that, when, as como yo dme, as may love but the tenfes are all
asy?, cdmo,

-,

alike in thefe three

Moods.
is

The

prefent of the Optative

formed by the preinto e in the firft

fent of the Indicative

changing

conjugation, and into a in the fecond and third conjugations, as^ from dmo fay dme pier do ^ pierda 3
-,

pzdo, pzda.

and fecond Preterimperfedls arc formed perfon of the firft preterperfed: of the Indicative, as from ame in the firft conjugation changing e into dra or dp is made amdra, amdffe ; ^n the fecond and third conjugations add to the prefirft

The

From the

firft

terperfed'

: ;

74
diejTt\

'I'he

RUDIM-EN^S
((fey

of
perdic'ra, per-

terperfea: era or

as

^rom per di hy

from pedt lay


third

pidiera^ pidieffe.

The

infinitive,

here. That thefe tenfes have two ways to explain the fecond perfon plural, as amarddeis or amdraiSy amdjjedeis^ or amdjfeis^ amariddeis^ or amartahy and fo in the other two conjugations.

trom leer^ Obferve

Preterimperfea is formed from the adding i^, as from amdr fay amaria^ leer id ^ irom pedir^ pidirid,

Obferve likewife, That thefe three tenfes vary one from another, fpeaking in a right method
tho' there
Spaniards,
is

fuch a confufion in explaining them,


there
is

that hardly

Some Authors

any difference made by the adapt them to the three

amdra to the Optative, amdje^ to and amaria to the Potential ; as ^ala 'jo amdra la virtu d^ God grant that I might love virtue ; coino yo amdjfe a Dids, el me amaria^ as I could love God, he would love me. Other Authors, as Tominque^ Ceffer in Gram. Rud. and Villalbay are of opinion, that amdra denotes the difpofition of a thing, or the readinefs for an adlion ; amdjfe the beginning of it, and
VIZ.

Moods,

the Subjundive,

amaria the
fays the
firft

pofTibility

to obtain

it

or as ^erehio^

imperfed is a tenfe of motion, exquo from whence, and related to the medium, as de los veinte pefos le diera diez para comprarfe un veftidOy of the twenty pieces of eight I would give hinl ten, that he might buy himfelf a fuit of cloaths
,

tlie

fecond a

tenfe

medium, or
le

inquo^

as como

le

hallajfe haciendo loque

dzxe^

as I Ihould find

him

in

doing what
tional
tenfe,

I told

him.

And

the third a

condi-

lo barza^ como el fuera huenoy I he would be good. One thing is certain amidft all thefe, that aunquey como^ oxala, &c. follow the two firft preterimperfeds, and the third imperfed tenfe is ufed by way of interrogation, or fufpenfion, faying barza

as Ji

v/ould

do

it,

if

the

Spanish Grammar.^
Would you do
do
it is

75

hand
lo

V. m^- efto ?

this
!

harm

yo

that I could

well

que hien or withy;.

formed from the auxiliar The haver^ and the participle palTive thus ; bdya verb atnddoy baya perdzdo, hdya pedido^ when I have
Preterperfe6l

loved, i^c.

The
when
1. I

firft

Plufperfedt thus:

Hdviera

amddo^

had loved.
fecond, huvVeJJe amddo^ is made of the
into re^
as

The

when
firfl

Future

I had loved. Preterimperfed-,

by changing ra
perdiere
all
;

pediera, pidiere^

amdra^ amdre ; perdiera^ with the fame accent on

the fyllables.
2.

Future of the

firft

Plufperfedl

ra into re,

and

participle paffive,

amddoy

fay in the future

by changing from huviera buviere amddo. So that


as

there are nine tenfes in the Optative


as in the Subjundlive

Mood,

as well

and Potential.

Of
to be
;

the Infinitive

Mood.
to

INFINITIVE fignifieth
nor
perdery to loofe
;

do, to

fuffer,

or

and hath neither number, nor perfon, nominative Cafe before as amdr^ to love
pedzr^ to afk, to beg.

When two Verbs come together without any nominative Cafe between them,
in the infinitive

then the latter (hall be


I defire

Mood,
often

as defeo aprender^

to learn

And

the nominative cafe,


al Proximo^ [on
to love bour, are the
los

times the infinitive fupplies as amdr d Dios^ y hacer bien

dos a5ios Principdles de

un

Cbrijii^

dnoy

God, and do good to the Neightwo principal Adlions of a Chridian.

lay loy leSy las, loSy are added to the then r is often changed into /, as amdlle for amdrky perdclk for perderky decille for dechky to love him, to loofe him, to tell him. And when
/(?,

When

Infinitive,

mey

tSy fcy

<?j,

oSy

^cc

follow the infinitive

imme-

diately, then they are

^% dearie^ deczr/elo,

pronounced &c.

as monofyllables,

of jl general Scheme of the Termination of Verbs of the


three Conjugations in their fimple lenfes.
SingiiL

76

"The

RUDIMENrs
tUy

Plural
el
nofotros,

Perfons
J,

wofotros

ellos,

thou,
dofl

he
a e

we
do

ye
do
ais
eis
is

they
do.

do

doth

as es

'\

amos 2. emos
3.

an
en en
did aban
lan
ha've

imos
did

!l

did didjl did aba abas aba

did

abamos
iamos
ha've

{abadeis
abais
( iadeis

t
o o

las

la

m
5
f
I.

ha^e
e

hafl hath
afte
ille

ha've
afteis

amos
imos

iHeis

aron eron

Jhallor ivill Jhal.


re ras

have
ra

2.

>

remos

reis

ran

do the

/f/

him eel

do,

let us,

let ye,

let

them
elks

a
Perfons
JO, I /,
^/

emos nofotros, ad nofotros en amos ed an amos id an


he
nofotros^
*v6fotros,

ye

elhi

thou,

we
may
may
cis
ais

they
might

r
or

May mayji may


<:^i:

e a
//^/^/

es

emos amos
might

en

as

an

mightji might

or

fo/i/

might
aradeis-arais
affedeis-afTeis

ara

aramos
aflemos ariamos

might aran
affen

n.J
*"

"^
I
:,

i-'^
2-

^^^ ^^^5 affe ^


aria

ariades-ariais

arian

7 f

era
cfTe

eras e
rias r

era
ria

eramos
eflemos riamos
Jhall

erades-erais
efledeis-efleis

eran
eiTen

S I

efles efle e

^'Ls-J
or

ria

riadeis-riais

rian

Jhall Jhall Jhall


'v:illha<ve
I
.

Jhall
aredeis-areis
eredeis-ereis

fi>all

are

a ares
eres

are
ere

aremos cremos

aren eren

Infnitivs

the

Spanish Grammar.'
Infinitive

//

Mood,

Pref.

Ten Ten.li.
2.

and ,nd > Pret .imp. 3

arl er V
ir

O
to have

3.

ando ^ 2 endo ^ ? iendo


cr?

"^
r^

ado
ido
ido

ha4

"w

'The termination of Verbs of the three Conjugations in

their

compound

Tenfes.

Singular,
yo
I,

Plural,
tu
el
'VOS.

elks

thou, he

we.

they.

1 ha'vey &c.

7 he, has,\^

'

hemos or haveis, han havemos

Iha<ve^ &c.

r ado < 2 ^ 3 ido 3 hiivo Ihad, &c &c. ado 1 havia, T ad > havias, < 2

J > huvifle,

hijtve,

huvimos, huvifleis huvieron

haviamos , C havi adeis,


viais \ havi

ador

3 havia

^ 3 do ^.
i

havian

/ am r

to

' ar / he or tengo \ ^ er
has,

ha de

hemos,

haveis,

han de

ir

I miijly

or Jl^all
' T ar < er
(_ ir

he obliged to

^ f
P C
"^

1 havre,
3 havra de
"^

c'-J 2. >havras,
3

havremos, havreis, havran de

ar

er

7 hady or I nvc

I;

ir

f 5^<

havia,
havias,

ai ei
ir

haviamos,

C haviadeis,

2.
3

>

<

haviais,

L F t

J ^avia de t

havian de

Perfcns

78
Perfons

The

RUDIMENTS
yo
I,

of
elloi

tu

el

nofotrosy

fvofoiroSy

thou, he

we,

ye,

the/

might or could
hanje. Sec.

^fi.Jhaya,

1 ado
J.

hayamos,

C hayadeis

ado
ido
3

S.J

^2. Vhayas,

BC3-3haya

ido

( hayais

hayan
huvleramos, C adeis,

Iljad, &c.

- f 1, 1 huviera, i,lhaviera,l do 2. >huvieras rS2. S-huvieras ^ 2.,

ado
^ido

ido

\
eran

ais

3 huviera
1

I bad, &c. 1 huvielTe 1 ado

huvieiTemos, C edeis,
I
eis

ado
^ido
3

2. >efres

3.3effe

33 ido
S-

eflen

^f
&^
.

^// or It'/// i.^huviere,! ado 1 huviere, 1


.

huvieremos,

C edeis,
{
eis

ado

2.

Veres,

.^

C3-3ere

'ido

eren.

^ido

Infinitive*

Pret. perf.

ado

havito have, &c.

and
Plufperf.

t haver <

2j,
3'

Qcndo
\^

orha

Is'
ar
crq

Future

1 ertohavehereafter > haver de < <


.

3 Supine

V b

ar

ien vien f Cu do <

er

de

^ir

to

have

Ohfervations on the Verbs.

regular and irregular Verbs, generally fpeaking, agree in this, that the firft Futures of the Indicative Mood, and that of the Optative are always the fame through out all the Conjugations,

THE

cent on the
fenultima.

with this difference, that the firft has the aclaft fyllable, and the fecond in the ante

When

/Z?^

Spanish Grammar.

79

Preterperfed of the indicative is firft and fecond Preterimperfecls, irregular, the and the firft Future of the Optative are irregular,
tlte firft

When

as
dar,
di,

to give

tener,

to have, or hold,

dec'ir,

to fay.

Fret. Perf.

Pret.

imperf. opt.
diere,

Future,

I gi've

diera,

or dieiFe,

^hen IJhallgive.
ijuhn
I Jhall
ha've.

I might give.
tuve, /
djxe,

had

t\i

viera, or tu vieiTe,

tu

viere,

that

I might

ha-ve.

I /aid

dixe'ra, or dixeiTe

dixere,

^hen I Jhall fay.

that I might fay.

The third Preterimperfedl of the Optative is always the fame, and ends in r/^, as daria^ tendnay
diria for deciria,

Note^ Like wife,


is

that generally the third

perfoa

fingular of the prefent tenfe of the Indicative

Mood,

of the Imperative, and the is the firft of the Optative, as aquel d?na^ he loveth ; dma tu^ love thou ; dine ciquel^ let him love ; que yo dme^ that I may love. There are few exceptions in the Imperative, as
the fecond perfon
third of the Imperative

from poner^
but this
is

tener,

hacer,

deczr^

Sec,

fay pofi tu in-

ftead o^ pone tu^


in ufe,

ten tu

for

time tu,

hdz

for hace^

dt tu^

or dice tu^ &c.

Of

the Participle.

from the verb, and participates its force, that is, has the fame fignification, and governs the
caufe of the verb
cafe,
,

A
^

Participle

is

a part of

a fpeech,

it

comes

it

taketh of a
s

Noun

the gender,

and declenfion

and of both, number and

figure.

In SpamJJj there are four Participles, as in Latin,

viz. of the
Latin

cpamjh,

iamante,
oyer.tC;

lonjing,

<vjho

h tarings

'vJjo

dics hear.

B.

So

The

RUD IMENTS
this Participle
is

of

N. B, That

likewife fuppli^d

in the Spanijh language

by the

third perfon of the

prefent tenfe of the indicative


el

Mood,

the relative

dma^ he v^ho does love ; it governs generally in Spanijh a genitive, as amante de Dios ; and is of the gender of common of three, as

and

que^ as elque

amdnte^ la amante^
Latin

lo

amante,
Spanijh

Of the
or

pret.

C
in

tus
fus as

amatus
vifus

do
in to
as

<

Paflive

t ^^^
Latin

connexus

xo, &:c.

f amado, loved^ < viflo, feetiy ^ connexo, &c. joind or added. ? C


^^^^^
''

Spanifi?

Of

the.
^"

future

S ^"^
)

f^turus
^'

1.
^"

^^^

venturus

T' ^' 1 ^'"'^':^

S^""'^'?

'

iVi?/<f,

That

by

the auxiliar verb haver^

particle de,

is fupplied in Spanijh or by tener^ with the and the infinitive of the verb, as ama-

this Participle

turns Juer am ^

havm
I

de

amdr,

or he de amdr^

am

to love,

had &c.
I

to love; iengOy

Of Fut. in < in<


:.

dus as Jmandus

But

this in

Spanijh

is

fupplied

by

the auxiliar Verbs haver and Jer, the particle de^ and the participle of the preter of the Verb, as Amandus eji^ hd de Jer amddoy he is to be loved, &c.

Gerunds,

ThcGerund.aretermiatedin5^..>in{-/;as-4t?wS
govern the cafe of the Verb, as amando a The Gerund of genitive is loving God : formed of the particle de, and the infinitive of the Verb thus, de amar, of loving ; and that of accu-

And

Dios,

fative thus,

a afnar,

tQ love.
Supines^

the

Spanish Grammar.

8i

SUPINES.

THERE

are

two Supines
one

in Spanijh^

by way of

amdr^ to love; the other paiTive, ^% a fer amado ^ to be loved. This, it is hoped, will be fufficient to bring the Reader into the knowledge of every thing required for the conjugation of verbs ; as for the reft, we refer him to the third part of this Grammar, where under their proper heads he will find every thing necefTary for the conftrudion.
circumlocution,
acftive,

as a

PERSONS.

THERE
yo I
Sing,
tu,
el,

are alfo in

Verbs three PerfoRS

in

both numbers, viz.


C yo ^T^o, I lo've as< tu amas, thou io^jeji or aquel he he loueth. (^ aquel a ma,
thou^

nos, or nofotros,,
Plur.
ellos,

^e

vos, or vofotros, jr
or aquellos, they

f nofo'tros amamos, <v:e lo^e as< vordtros amais, ye lo've aquellos aman, they /ove. (^

By

the

firfl

perfon,

we

note, he
,

who

fpeaks

by

the fecond, to

Spaniards very feldom make of the fecond Perfon fmgLilar or plural, but when through a great familiarity among friends ; when they fpeak to God, wife and hufbanci to themfelves, inftead thereof, to children, or fervants when they fpeak to others, they make ufe of UJIed in fmgular, or Uftedes in plural, or of Vuejlra Merced^ and Vueftrai Mercedes^ ycu^ your Worihip, your Merits, or Defervings ; which are figns of the third perfon, of which they make ufe of in fpeaking In writing they do always make ufe of '
ufe
-,

the perfon of B. That the

whom we fpeak whom we fpeak.

and by

the third,

Fu^Jlra

82
plural.

"The

RUD IMENTS

of
m^'- in

Vueftra Merced, thus v, m^- in fingular, or v,

Obferve here, that when an adjedive comes after it does not agree in the gender with V. w^* , but with the perfon to whom we fpeak, when to a Man, thus Vueftra or fpoke of ; when Merced fea hien venido, you are welcome to a Woman, thus, Vueftra Merced fea hien venida^ you are welcome, and fo in the plural. It can't be amifs, if at prefent I take notice of
Vueftra Merced,
:

^iThe

manner ufed hy the Spaniards

in falut'ing or

complimenling one another,

perfons below thofe of the Nobility and Gentry, as coma eftd v, m^- ? or como le va a v. m^- ? or comofe hdlla v. m^' ? or as newly introduced by ftrangers, como fe porta
general for perfons, or
V, m^' ?

THEY make

ufe of Ufted, or Vueftra

Merced

in

among

how do you

do,

&c.

Anfwer, Mui

hien

pdrafervirle, (oxpdrafervtr a v. m^- ) or Bueno fthat is enfalud) par aque me mdnde, &c. Cahaliero huenos dias
fthat

row.

dtros mas) tenga v. m'^- , Good morBuenas noches tenga v, m'^- , Good Night to you, Sir-, it is ufed in Spanijh huen dia tenga V. m^' , but not Buena ndche in fingular. Befo las Mdnos de v. m^- , I kifs your Hands ;
is,

efte y

Sir

anfwer,

Mdnos) de v. m^agame) la Merced, ox favor For they fay generally i;. m'^- me la (viz. Merced) de efto, dga de efto, do me the Favour of this, or grant me the favour, ^c. We ufe to fay Buen dia, or huenos dias de Dios a V, w^' , God give you a good Day, for good morrow, Sir, &c. as for the other ranks of perfons, we fay, to the King, Vueftra Mageftdd, Your Majefty ; to the Pope, Santiddd, Beautitud, San5ltffuno Pddre^
\o las
(

fup.

V. m^'

me dga

(or

Beat^iffuno

Padre,
I

Holinefs,

Moft Holy
i

Father

iXttki which Jhould

given only to God)

to a Prince

V. Alteza,

the
V, Altezay
nencia^

Spanish Grammar.

your Highnefs ; to a Cardinal, V, your Eminency ; to the Grandees, Dukes,, your Generals, and Ambafladors V. Excelencia,
,

83 Emi-

Excellency

to a Bifhop,

Vuejlra Senoria
;

ilujlrtffi?na^

your
Vuejfd
Vuejfa

illuilrious

Lordfhip
Note^
,

to

Earls,

Marquefles,

Vuefira Senorza.
a

That fome
but
I

ufe Vuejlra^

and

promifcuoudy
is

am

of opinion that

word out of ufe, i^c. 1 obferved, that fome of the Nobility in Spain, when they fpeak to any Gentleman inferior in rank, never did make ufe of Befo las Mams de v. m'^- , but
ventdo^

and fo they fay v. m"^- fea Men or hien venido feci el Senor Fuldno ; buenos And when an indzas de Dios al Sr. Fuldno, &c& ferior fpoke to them he would be better off, if he faid Befo las Mdnos de V. Senor la, than faying SerServidor de v. m^*,

vidor de V, Senor la

but at prefent this difference

is

almoft

left off,

&c.

The

preceding Spanifh
:

Words

are

abbreviated
SS,
il ;

thus in writing

V,

Mgd
s

V. Santd, or Beatd^

or BB, Padre

F. Alt

V.Em-,

V.

Exc,

V. S.

S,

K M^.
Of
the Auxiliar Verbs.

AU X

LI AR

Verbs take

their

etymology of

the Latin Auxilium,

Auxzlio, help, fo called,

becaufe they are wanted, and help to the conjugation of other Verbs. There are auxiliar or helping

Verbs in all the living languages, and in the Spanifh there are more than in any other, as foder, tener, foler, ir, &c. without which we can't
righdy explain the meaning of fome tenfes ; but there are three Principal, viz. baver (inftead of

whom we
ejldr

do likewife ufe the Verb tener) to have, to be; the two firfl: ferve for the adtive, neuter, and reciprocal Verbs ; haver fcrves alfo for the paI5ve Verbs io their compound
and
fer,

tenfes.

84
tenfes,

"The

RUDIMENTS

as in the Preterperfeft,

Pluperfect,

of ^c, and

Verb y^> ferves for the paflive Verbs. And as the other Verbs can*c be conjugated without thefe,. we think it proper to begin by
the

fhe Conjugation of the Ju^iliary Verl Haver, To have.

The
Sing.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe,
Plur.

Yo

he,
has,

1 have
l^hou haji

")

Nolotros f Nofotros
\
or

hemos, J 7 havemos, J

We have
Te have

Tu

>< s

V ofotros haveis. haveis,

El or aquel ha

tie

hath

(_

han,

j.

Preterimperfedi:,
Shg,
Havia, Havias Havia,
Plur,

/ had

1 f Haviamos
j ^ Havian

TFe

had

Thou had > < Haviadeis, Qr haviais Ye had ft

He had

Ihej

had

Firft Preterperfe6t
Sing.

Huve
Kuvifle

Huvo

Phr. 1 have had 1 f Huvimos, Thou haft had V \ Huvifles, He hath had j ^ Huvieron,

We

have had Ye have had Ihey have had

Second Preterperfed,
f Yd he
S\ng.\
"1

C
^^^^^^^

1 have had

Tuhas

\
I TT^'^^

El ha f Nofotros hemos

Theu haft had \ I He hath had

fl

Phr, \ Vofotros haveis t EUos han

f
I

\ We have had
I

^^ ^^'^^ had

^^9

^^'^^

^^^

The
%

third Pretcrperfeft thus

Yo huYc havi<k

h in n9 vfe in Spanifli*
-

Preterm

the

Spanish

G:r a M

ma r,

85

Preterpluperfcdb.
f Havia \ Havias ^ Havia f Haviamos I had had
Thou hadji had

Zing.

Havido,

He had had

We had had
Ye had had
They

Tkr. < Haviadeis


t Havian

!
Firft Future.

had had

r Havre,
^ing.

I /hall

or ivill

have

< Havras, ( Havra, f Havremos

Tou /hall or

<wtll ha^os

He /hall

or nvill ha<vt

We

/Ipall or ivill ha^vt


<vjill

Tlur.X Havrcis

Ye /hall or

ha've
ha-ve.

t Havra n

They /hall or

nfjill

The
Second,

other Futures are

Yo he

de haver

Thirds
Fourth,

Havre de haver Havia de haver

/ mu/l ha've. I /hall he obliged to


I ivas
to

ha've

have

Imperative
^'

Mood.
Have thou Have he, or let him have Have <uv, or let us have Have ye, or let ye have Have they, or let them have.

\ Haya aquel,

or el

f Hayamos nofotros,
Plur.

< Haved vofotros, ^ Hayan aqucUos or

ellos

The
Mood,

Spaniards ufe,
the

in (lead

of
I

this

Word

Ten.,

of

Tengn.,

Imperative have or hold


*,

which T'engo is often ufed for this Verb He. This Imperative Mood Ten^ of Tenqo.,

fo

com:

monly ufed
. C ^"'^-

for i)\^j,

a-^d.,

is

thus declined
thou

Ten

tu,

Have, or hold
el

\ Tenga

Let him have or hold


Let us have or hold

Flur.

C Tengamos nofotros < Tened vofotros ^ Tengan ellos.

Do ye have

or hold

Let them have or hold.

See this

Verb among

the Irregulars.

G3

Note^

86
I^oley

"The

RUDIMENTS

of

Optative Mood is us'd with thefe figns, Oxald, or Oft^ or Plugieffe a Dios, I have faid, as Would to God, I pray God, or God grant. The Potential like the LaiWy with thefe figns, may^ can^ tnigbt^ could^ floould^ or ought \ both declined like

The

the Subjundive following.

Subjundive Mood.
^'ing. ng.

Prefent Tenfe,

Si ,

r Haya, or< Hayas

1 >
3

1/^

or nKihen 1

may have.

Sec.

como ^ Haya mo

Hayamos
Hayais

1 >

Jf,

or 'when

We may

ha^ve, 5:c.

Hayan

Three Preterimperfedls,
Si, or

f Huviera, huvielTe, havria

")
-if

Huvicras, huviefies, havrias > Sw^. ^Hnviera, huvieffe, havria 5


Plur. r Huvieramos,
Si, o;'<

como<

-^^

h
,,
'

'

ht

'r

fi'M

u? * ha-vi.

huviefTemos, havriamos
huviefledeis, havriadeis

Huvieradeis,

como

{_

Huvieran, huvieiien, havrian.

Preterperfed,
^tng. \ing.

CHaya, r Haya,
Hayas

T C
I \
I J

;i,.;-] Si, ..j

omofHaya ^TtHaya
Flur. C

1 j. or ^^hen I had, ? 'J\ or ^, \ ^ \^hen I have had.


^^^^^,^^ ^.^^^^^^

3
J-

Hayamos

Si, or \ Ha)'ais como ( Hayan

I
(.

^, or v:hen We had, &c,

Two
^.ng.

Preterpluperfeds.

(
1 ^, ^^ f Huviera, or huvieiTe ^^^^ ^ I huviefies S,, .. ^ Huvieras, .r ^ ;^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 1 como (^ Huviera, or huvielie p-^^^f^^ J 1 />/; f Huvieramos, or huvieffemos \
bi, or

^
(.

Havieradeis, or huyieffedeis I

^^^^^^
^^^

como

Huvieran, or huvieuen

^ ^^^ J

Firft

the

Spanish Grammar,
Firft Future.

87

f Huviere or\ Huvieres como ^ Huviere Flur. f Huvieremos Si, orX Huvieredeis como {^ Huvieren
^'uig.

Si,

If,

or

<^rJhen

1 Jhall have

hereafter. Sec.

Second Future.
Huviere Huvieres Huviere Huvieremos
Huviereis

Havido

J/',

or ivhen lJJ:all have had.


Sec.

Huvieren
or other-ivi/e havre havido,

Infinitive
Haver Haver havido Haver de haver
Gerund. Haviendo,

Mood.
To have.

To have had.
To have hereafter;

Having.

Participles.
Pre/.

El que ha

The per/on voho ha/i

Pa/.

Havido

Had
To havBy in having, Sec.

Supine a haver

Note, That the Spani/h Academy hath changed haver into haher ; but as this innovation is againft the pradlice both of ancient and modern Authors, I thought proper to conjugate and retain haver,

The other Auxiliary Verbs Eftar, a?id Ser, To


Indicative

be.

Mood.

88

T'he

RUDIMENT'S
Preterimperfedl,

of

Sing.

Yo Tu

eft aba
eft abas

Yoera

ivas
nxjAfi

Tu

eras

Thou

Flu

El eftaba Nofotros eftabamos Vofotros eftabais or


eftabadeis
EIlos eildban

EI era Nofotros eramos Vofotros erais, or


cradeis

He

<vjas

We woere
Ye 'were
They 'were

Ellos eran

Firfl Preterperfed.
Eftuve

Flu

the

Spanish Grammar.'
Firft Future.

89

Sing.

-Plur.

r Eftare < Eftaras ( Eftara f Eftaremos < Eftareis

Sere
Seras

Sera

Seremos
Sereis

JJhally or fwili he,

&c.

^ Ellaran

Seran

I
He
de

Second Future.
rHe, or Tengo de He, < Has de eftar
eftar
fer fer

Sing,

Has de

^Hadec ellar
Hemos de
eftar

Ha de

fer

/
be,

mufi

PIur^< Haveis de eflar t Han de eftar

de fer Haveis de fer Han de fer

Hemos

&c.

Third Future.
Havre de
eftar, or

Uv

I Jhall

ohliged to

he"^'

Fourth Future.
Haviaxle
eftar, 9r fer

1 had to

he,

or

/ nvas

to he.
f-

.Imperative
.^.

Mood.
Be Be
nofotros
thou

CEftata

Setu
Sea el

^^'^'^'tEfteel
P/ur,

he

f Eft6mos nofotros < Eftad vofotros

Seamos

Let us he

.{Efteaellos

Sed vofdtros Sean ellos

Be ye

Let them

he>

Subjunaive

9#

"The

RVDIM^NTtS
Subjundive Mood.
Prefent Tenfc.

of

Sing,
Si,

f Efte or\ Eftcs


If, or lAihen

como
Plur. f Eftemos
Si,

I am,

8cc.

or< Efteis
{^

como

Ellea

Three Preterimperfedls.
.Eftuviera eftuvielTe,
eftaria
o;*

Fuera,

fueffe, feriia

ij

Sing.
Si, or^

Eftuvieras eftuvieffes,
eftarias

(?r

Fueras, fuefles, ferias

como'

Eflaviera eftuvieffe,
eftaria

or

Fuera,

fuefTe, feria

Eftuvieramos eftuviefle-

Fueramos, fueffemos,
feriamos

!mos,

^t ivas,
&C.

'when

or eftariamos

Eftuvieradeis,
eftuviefledeis,

Fueradeis,

fueflfedeis,

feriadeis

or eftariadeis

Eftuvieran eftuvieflen,
or eftaiian

Fueran,

fueffen,

fe

rian

Preterperfedt.
f Haya eflado < Hayas eftado como ( Haya eftado
Sing,
Si, or

Haya
Hayas

sido
sido
If,

or

P/ur. f
Si,

Hayamos

eftado

Haya sido Hayamos sido


Hayais
sido

<when
hanje

ori Hayais eftado


eftado

heen.kz

eomo C Hay an

Hayan

sido

Firft
Sing,
Si,

and Second Preterpluperfed.


">

f Huviera, or huviefle or< Huvieras, or huvieftes


or huviefte

I
I

If
eftado
sido

or

como ^ Huviera,

wohen I

Plur. f Huvieramos, or huvieflemos f Si, or< Huvieradeis, or huviefledeis I

had been, &c.


Firft

como

(^

Huvieran, or huvicften

the

Spanish G r a m m a r^
Firft Future.

91

Sing,
Si, or

f Efluviere } Eftuvieres
Elluviere

como ^

Fuere Fueres Fuere

"^
I
f

If 1 /hall, or
Jhould be^
If,

or

Plur. C Eftuvieremos Si, or -J Eftuvieredeis

Fueremos
Fueredeis

f
\

or ^vhen

had 6een,

Sic.

como t

Eftiivieren

Fueren

Second Future.
Sing,
Si,

f Huvlere or^ Huvieres

T
"J

"^
I

como^Huviere
P/r. r
Si,

Huvieremos

I Eflado i Sido i
I

J"^^^'* ka^ve beeUf

^7, / ^f'

''

^z.

or< Huvieredes como ^ Huvieren


or

(_

J
or side.

quando havre eflado,


Infinitive

Mood.
C
^

Pref.

Eftar,

Ser

role.
To hanje been. To be hereafter.
Bei?jg.

Pret. perf.

Future

Haver eilado. Haver de eftar.


Eflando, fiendo

Haver fido, Haver de fer,

i
{^

Gerund.

Participles.
Pre/.

Elque
a

efla,
^

or es,

The Per/on ^vho


Been. To be in being.

is,

Paf.
Sup.

Eftado,
eftar,

Sido,

a fer

The Optative

is

the

fame

as the SubjunBive.

BOTH

thefe

the Englijh having

tween them,

Verbs Eftdr and Ser fignify To he^ no word to diftinguifh beand yet they cannot be indifferently

ufed, there being a confiderable difference between them, which is, that Ser fignifies the proper and

infeparable EfTence of a Thing, denoting the Quality, or Quantity, as Ser hueno^ to be good ; Ser mdlo^ to be wicked ; Ser grdnde., to be big ; Ser pqueno^
CO be litde,

^c.

But Eftdr denotes Place, or fome


adjunct

^2

"The

RUDIMENTS

of

adjunft Quality, as Eftdr en cdfa^ to be at home 5 Efidr bueno^ to be well ; Eftdr mdlo^ or enfermo, to be For in enquiring after a Man's Health, the fick. Spaniards make ufe of the word Eftdr ^ as comoeftdis?

How
I

do you

am

well or

ill.

The Anfwer is, Eftoi huenoy or mdlo. Though fometimes the Anfwer

faying only, bueno^ or mdlo^ is without the Verb, well or fick ; or placing the Verb after the AdjeWhere it is to be 6bive, as bueno eftoi^ I am well. obferved that bueno and mdlo, do not fignify good

and bad,
or
as
ill.

as they

do upon other
is

occafions, but well

In ihort, eftdr ^

us'd to exprefs any thing

that concerns the afFedlions, or paflions of the Soul,


I am melancholy, eftoi alegre^ I am eftoi trzfte^ So that as has been faid fer muft be ufed to merry. denote the infeparable EiTence, or Being, whereas as Elveftido es bueno, perd eftdr implies Accidents, mal hecho, the Cloaths are good, but they are ^eftd where we fee the eflential Being of the ill made Thing itfclf under the word fer^ or es^ and the accidental fault of its being ill made under the word eftdr. Ser like wife is ufcd to exprefs the con,

dition, or

temper of a
;

Man

in

its

nature,
is

as

efte

hombre
as
efte
is

es colerico

de condicion, this

rick difpofition

bombre

eftd

of a coleand ^7?^r exprefs the fit or adion, colericOy this Man is adlually angry,
fit.

Man

or

in a colerick

"Example of the frjl Conjugation of Verbs regular


in ar, as Revelar, to reveal^ or dijtover.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent Tcnfe.

Sitfg.

f Yo revc'lo \ Tu revelas I Elrevela


C Nofdtros revelaraos Vos revelais \

reveal.

^^ or

yo^ reveal.

He

re'veah.

Tlur.X

7^^ re'veal. ^^ reveal.

EUos revelan

"^h

reveal,

Prcter-

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterimpcrfeft.

93.

$ing,

Yo Tu

revelaba
revelabas

I did reveal^

or

/ at'4j

revealing.

\ El

revelaba

Tou did re^vea/. H^ did reveal.

{Nofotros revelabamos
Vofdtros revelabadeis, cr
revelabais
Ellos revelaban

We

did reveal.

Ye didrcveaU
They didreveaL

Firft Preterperfeft.

f Revele
Sing.

J re'veakd.
Tou
re<veaied.

<

Revelalle

^ Revelo
f Revel amos
Plur.

He

re'vealed.

We
Ye

re'vealed.
re<vealed.

<

Revelafteis

^ Revelaron

They re'vealed.

Second and Third Preterperfedt.


C He,
Has,
or

huve^

or huville

^ Ha, or huvo f Havemos, or huvimos


Tlur. < Haveis, or huviiteis

Revelado,

/ have revealed Thou haji revealed He hath revealed

We have revealed Te have revealed


,

t Han,

or huvieron

They have revealed.

Preterpluperfe<n:.

^ing.

f HavTa \ Havias
^Havia f Haviamos < Haviadeis
Revelado,

/ had revealed
Thou hadjl revealed

He had

revealed

We had revealed
Ye had revealed
They

flur.

{ Haviap

had reveled.

Firft

94

1'he

RUDIMENTS
Firft Future.
IJhall or
nx>ill

of

f Revelare,
Shg. < Revelaras, / Revelara,

rifueal

I'ou Jhall or nvill

reveal

He Jhall or

njoill
njoill

reveal

f Revelaremos,
Vlur.

Revelareis,

Te Jhall or

I Re velar an,

reveal reveal ^ey Jhall or ^nll reveaL


nvtll

We Jhall or

Second Future.
f He, or tengo de < Has de revelar,
revelar,
.

^ing.

-J
j
I

f Ha de revelar, or havemos de fHemos,


Havels de'revelar, Han de revelar,

re-

> 1

am

to

or muji

nvidt

Sc^l

J "^

Third Future^
r Havre
^hg. ^ Havras [ Havra
?lur.

1
V
de Revelar

1
I
I

J
/
J^all be obliged
io

} fHavremosl > < Havreis


(^

revettl,

&c.
de Revelar
(
I

Havran

J
Fourth Future.

fHavia
Sing,

7
de Revelar
J-

i Havias i Havia r Haviamos P/r. < Haviadeis t Havian

W
I

^^^>
"veal,

^^

^.vas

to

r^

1 > de Revelar
3

( I

&C.

J
Imperative

Mood.
Do you
^^^
reveal, or

JRevela

tu,

niicdihou

Revele el/

'^''^

re^saL

FluK

/y&^

Sp

ANIsH
nofotros,

Grammar,
Let us
re^veal,
let ye

qg
nveaL

f Revelemos
Tlur,

< Revelad vofotros. ^ Revelen ellos.

Do ye

rcvealy or Let them reveal.

^he Optative and SubjiinBhe Moods, with Signs Si, Como, Oxala, Aunque.
I[^

their

When, would Gody God Grants


Prefent Tenfe.

Yo
Sing.

revele
reveles
i
\

\ Tu ^

El revele r Nofotros revelemos Plur. < Vofotros reveleis

Whertf

or God grant, &cI reveal, &c.

Ellos revelen,

Preterimperfed:.
f Revelara, < ReveJaras, t Revelara,
Plur.
revelafle, revelaria
revelafTes,
"^ I rrn
I f

Sing.

revelarias

/,

revelafTe,

revelaria

f Revelaramos, revelaffemos, revekriamos f

C
^

T
fi,

^W
^

< Revelaradeis,

revelaffedeis, revelariadeis

^ ^^'^^^ i

Revelaran, revelaflen, revelarian.

Three Preterperfed.
C Haya, < Hayas, L H^ya, C Hayamos Plur. < Hayais

Sing.

p .^^1 ' y^ ^ When, or nvouldto God, ^^vela^o, J j ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^

Sccl

i Hayan

Firft

96

ne
Firft

RUDIMENTS
or huvieffe
"J

of

and Second Prcterpluperfedls.

f Huvlera,
Sing.

C
I

< Huvieras, or huviefles I Huviera, or huvielTe


^

When
'^
"^

I f

f Huvieramos, Piur. ^ Huvieradeis,

or huviefTemos

R^ygj^^jQ

J
I

or nvou/d G^^ &c.

^^'^ reveal-

or huvieffedeis

ed,

&c,

Huvicran, or huvieffen

Firft Future.

5/V/g;.

f ^ (

Revelare,
Revelares,

"1

J
I

Revelare,

f Revelaremos
J^/ur:

When or would to God, &C / Jha// or ivi/J reveal, &c,

< Revelaredeis
^Revelaren,

J
Second Future.

CHuviere
Sing.

"1

C
I

< Huvieres
(Huviere fHuvieremos

When
^^

or would

to

\j>..r.UAr.) >Kevelado,i'
I
I

^< ^

^^.^^

^fi"""^^

^^^^

^^,

?/r.

<

Huvieredeis
or otherwife

a;^M &c.

^Huvieren

J
Infinitive

havre revelado.

Mood.

"^

Prefent.
Rcvelar,

To reveaL

Preterperfedt.

Haver revelado

^^

/^^'f^

revealed.

Future.
Haver,

w efpera? de revdar

To reveal hereafter

Gerund#

//^(f

Spanish Grammar.
Gerund,

97

Revelando,

Re'vealivr.

Supine of the Active Signification,

wvelar,

To be about

to

renjeaL

Supine of the Paflive Signification,

fer revel ado,

To he repealed.

Participle of the Prefent Tenfe and


Revelante, or
el

Adive Voice^

que revela,

Re'vealing.

Participle of the Preter


Revelado,

Tenfe and Palnve Voice,


Revealed.

All regular Verbs that have their Infinitive in ar^ The Irregular are conjugated in all Points like this. fhall be treated of, after the following Lift of regular

Verbs

in ar,

above fpoken

of.

Reo;uIar Verbs in ii

ar.

LAir.ar,

to call.

Ayunar,

tofajl.

Aprovechar, to profi. Cenar, to fup.


Hallaj,
to find.
to

Cuinprar, to buy. Pvecompenfar, to requite. Apartar, to fet afide.


Separar,
to

Topar,-

find.

Ganar,

to gai?i.

feparate%
^

Apelar,
Pelear,

to appeal.

Conte^ar, Defpojar,
Arraftrar,

to contejf^
to firip. to

Acomodar,

to adjufi.
^ *

drag.

to fight.

Fiar,

fo trufi.

Camar,
Llo^kr,

to fing.
to

Pagar, td pay.
Sacjuear, to plunder.

'iveep.

Anaenazar^

98
Afientar,

'The

RUDIMENTS
Mandar,
to

of

Amenazar,

to threaten.

command.

Injuriar, to re-vile.
to affront.
to ^jenture.

Diffimulc4r,

to diffemble.

Aventurar,
Ivlacai-j

Enganar, to deceive Dclenganar, to undeceive,


Bailar, to dance.
health.

to kill.

Curar,
Sanar*

to cure^

or heal.

to heal, or reco-ver }o

Danzar,

to dance. to

Amcdrantar,
Efpan*tar,
to

put

into fear.

Domar,

tame.
to fatter.

Lifongear,

frighten.

Manchar,

to Jf-Qt, or fain,

Alzar, to take up. Levantar, to raife, Suuar, to fqjoeat.

Martyrizar, to torment. Encantar, to enchant, Defnudar, to rip. Reposar, to repofe.

Remediar,
Cortar,

Can.^ar

to tire.

to

remedy,

Animar,
Rezar,
to

io

encourage.

to cut.

A tar,

to tye.

Jurar, tofwear.
pray.
to

Azotar, to ivhip. Eftimar, to e fee in.


Borrai;, to blot out.

Ellernudar,
Callar, to be
Pafiear,

fneeze,
lent.

Lavar^
Nadar,,

to nx:alk.
to fet

to <vjafy. to

Alejar,

f^-im.
to

at adifance.

Hurtar, Robar,
Besar,

to fieal. to rob,

fcat,

to kifs.

Condenar, to condemn. Dexar, to leave OWidikx^to forget.


Porfiar,
to contejtd.

Cabar, Cazar,

to dig.

to hunt.

Gaftar,

to fpend.

HechaF

vino,

o agua,
to

to

pour

out 'ixine, or nvater.

Acusar, to accufe. Aparejar, to make ready.


Defpreciar,
to defpife. to

Hechar de bever> Hechar de cafa,


doors.
-

II out

drink.

Alenofpreciar,
turn out of
to gi've

undervalue,

io

-^

MaltratV,
Acabar,. to

to mifufe.

Hechar una ayuda,


clyfier.

Empenar,

to engage.

fnip.

f)efpavilar la vela, to fmff the


candle.

Amparar, to proteSl. Defamparar, to forfake,


Mirar,
to look.
te declare.

Defpavilar una cofa,


thing (vanif.

to Tnake

Declarar,
to

Defpavilar los djos,

an^'ake

Procurar., to procure.

from feep. Alumbrar, to

Entrar,
light.

to

come

in.

Criar,

to breed.

Tomar,

to take.

Quitar, to remonjey Alabar, to praife. Alquilar, io hire,


Pcrdcr.ar, to pardon.

or

to

take

Embiar, to fend. Apear, to alight.


Retirar,
to retire.

{a<^>jay.

Abordar,

Caminar,
Recular,

to tran)el. to dranjo

hack.

to come tofhore. Arrebatar, to fnatch. Arrancar, to tear up. Defarraigar, to root up.

Adelantar, toforrivard,

Amansar,

to

tame.

Rdiufar,

to

refuf.

Preientar, to prefent.

Reprefentar,

/yj^

PAN SH Grammar.
I

99

Reprefentar,

to

reprefmt,

Conformar,
Vifitar,

to

conform,

Defafiar, to challejige.

to 'viftt.

Ayudar,

to help.

Confrontar,

to confront.
to

Disfamar, to defame. Honrar, to honour. Tapar, to cover.


Sitiar, to befiege.

Comparar,

compare.

Adorar, to adore. Tartamudcar, to jlammer.


Galantear,
Difparar,
to court.

Enojar,

to

anger.

Efcaramuzar,
to

to ikirmljh,

Usar, Cajar,

to life. to

dfcharge.
to <^viden.
to

marry.

Amar,
It

to lo've.

JEnfanchar, ^ambalear,

totter.

would be endlefs
fort,
;

to

the Verbs of this


fuffice

pretend to mention all and therefore thefe may


to the irregular

but

we may now proceed

Verbs of this Conjugation, which are many, and muft be particularly taken notice of. Here follow the irregular Verbs, which beinounder no certain Rule, muft all be particularly conjugated.

The firjl

Cojijiigation

of Verbs irregular

i?i

ar.

Dar,

To give.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
C

T. < Sing. ^

Yo ddi das Tu das (Elda

I give Tou gi've

He gi-ues

r Nofotros damos Flur. < Vofotros dais ( Ellos dan

We give
7e give
They give.

Prctcr-;

loo

"The

RUDIMENTS

of

the

Spanish Grammar.
Second Future.

ioi

^ing.

"^

r He, or Tengo de ddr Has de dar


'

/ am
Sec,

tOf

or mnjl givft

Havcmos de dar
Plur.

i Haveis de dar

Third Future.
f Havre < Havras
I

Sing.

I Havra r Havremos Plur. < Havreis

^^^ ^^^
'

1 j

/ J^all
gi've,

he

obliged

to

jc.

^ Havran

Fourth Future,
f Havia i Havias

alias

Tenfe of Circumlocution,

Sing,

fHaviamos
Plur.

'

fwasfogivf,

Sec.

i Haviadeis ^ Havian

Imperative
. '^5-

Mood.
Gi've thou

5
"^

Da De

tu,
el,

Let him gi've


Let us gi've

Plur.

Demos nofotros. ^ Dad vofotros, Den ellos,

Give ye
L^/ them gi've.

Siibjun^live

102

The

RUDIMENTS

of

Suhjundihe and Optative Moods ^ with the Signs,

(Qomo, Aunque, Oxala, \Wheny God grant, WoM to God,


Prefent Tenfe.
r Yo
Shg. <
de,
des,
Jilyen or

Tu

I El de. i Demos, Flur. < Deis,

God gra7it I do give &c.


^

(Den,

Three Preterimperfed:s.
f Diera, < Dieras,
dieile,

dan
nas da,"*^
I

Sing.

dieiTes,

When, or God grant

( Diera, dieire, dar; f D.eramos. d.effemos


)

danamos
^
or dielieis
I

i J^h,,
'
"=

could,

ox

danais, dieiiedeis,

(^Dieran, diefTen, daiian

"^

Preterperfecl.

c Haya,
Szng.
-l

H^jas,

I
I

^Haya, rHayamos

j^,^^

^^^^^ ^^ cvcouldto God, &c. ^ had gi'ven, or a'>^f?i ^ 1 haJgi^en, &c.


I

1 Hayan
Firft

and Second Preterpluperfed.


"J
/
I

Zing.

C r Huviera, or huvleiTe \ \ Huvieras, .r Imvicffes I (Huviera, .r huviefle j^^^ fHuvieramos,.rhuvie^emo5^


or huyiefTedeis
I

^^^^^
^^

^j.

^^^^
^^,

-^

q^^ j ^^^

Tkr. \ Huvieradeis,

/ Huvieran, or huvielTen "^

t.

Firft

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firft Future.

loj;

r. Sinv.

'lere* f DIei ^ Diei \ Dieres


:re
I

Whcn^ or God grant IJhall


^'i'^>

P/;/;*.

r Dieremos < Dieredeis

&c.

t Dieren

Second Future.
f Huviete, or havre \ Huvieres ^Huviere rHuvieremos
"^

r*
I

5'/^.

i D'd o> J ^

When.QX God grant IJhall


qx
^ojill gi^je^

<
I

.^c.

Flur, < Huvieredes

J I

( Huvieren

J
Infinitive

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.

Dar
Preterperfedl

To gi*ve

Tenfe.
^o ha<ve gi<vtn

Haver dado

Future.
Haver de ddr

^ give
Gerund.

hereafter

Dando
Participle Paffivc.

Giving

Dado

Given

Participle

104

1'he

RUDIMENTS
el

of

Participle of the Prefent Tenfe, A6live Voice,


Dante, or

que da

Giving

Participle of the Future Tenfe.


El que ha, or efpera de dar

T'c

gi^

hereafter

Firft Supine.

3.

Dar

^0 he about

to ^i've.

Second Supine.

fer

Dado

To he gi'ven

The next Irregular Verb of


Almorzar,

this Conjugation

is^

To ireakfaf.

Indicative

Mood,

Prefent.

^ing.

Almoerzo < Almuei/as 1 Aimuerza Almorzamos


Almorzais
-J

1 hreahfaR
Tou hreakfafi

He

breakfafts

We
I'e

breakfajl

Plur,
(^

hreakfafi

Almuerian
Pretcrperfcdl,

f/jej

breakfa^

C AImor2Laba
Sing,

1 did

< Almorzabas ^ Almorzaba

hreakfafi, or l*wai hreahfafihg Tou did hreakfafi He did hreakfafi

the

Spanish Grammar,
did hreakfafl Ye did breakfajl
They did hreakfa/i

05

iAlmorzabamos
Almorzabais, or Almorzabadeis

We

Almorzaban

Preterimperfed.
f Almorze
Sing.

/ have
He has

Ireahfajled breakfajied

^ Almorzafte ^ Almorzo r Almorzamos


^ Almorzaron

You ha've breakfajied

We

have breakfajied

Plur. < Almorzaileis

Ye ha've breakfajied They ha've breakfajied

Second and Third Preterperfed.


f He, or huve almorzado < Has, or huville almorzado ( Ha, or huvo almorzado r Hemos, havemos, or huvimos
\

ha've breakfajied

You ha've breakfajied He has breakfajied

We

ha've breakfajied

Flu
J

almorzado
Haveis, or huvifl-eis almorzado or huvieron almorzado

LHan,

Ye have hreakfafied They have hreakfafed

Preterpliipcrfeft.

f Havia almorzado
Sing.
i.

I had

breakfajied

(
f
PIur.<

Havias almorzado Havia almorzado Haviamos almorzado Haviadeis almorzado Havian almorzado

You had breakfafed He had breakfafed

We had breakfajied
Ye had breakfafed
They

had breakfafed

Firft Future.

f Almorzare
Sing.
"<

Almorzaras

Flur.

^ Almorzara f Almorzaremos < Almorzareis / Almorzaraa

I 'willf or Jhall

hreakfofi^

Second

io6

"The

RUDIMENT'S
Second Future.

of

f He, or tengo de almorzar. mg. < Has de almorzar

^ Ha de almorzar
or

iHemo?, almorzar

havemos de

^I am

ia,

or muJI hreakfajl^ 8cc.

Haveis de almorzar Han de almorzar

Havre de almorzar Havia de almorzar

IJhall he obliged

to

breakfafi

nvas

to breakfafi.

Imperative
Almuerza Almuerze r Almorzemos Tlur. i Almorzad
. "^'

Mood.
Do you
breakfafi

Let /;im breakfafi Let us breakfafi

Do ye

breakfafi

xAlmiaerzen

Let them breakfafi

^he Optative and SubjunBive Moods, with Signs Si, Como, Oxala, Aunque.
jf,

the

IVbeff,

would God^ God grant.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Yo aimuerze
2i

S:Kg.

^Tua Tu almuerzes
-^

{El al i El almuerze r Almorzemos


flur. < Almorzeis

If When^ ivould to God 1 breakfafi^ Sec.

^ Almuerzen

Three

the

Spanish Grammar.
Three Preterlmperfeds.

107

Sing.

f Almorzara, almorzafTe, almorzaria < Almorzaras, almorzafTes, almorzarias

"^

I
I

jr y

I,

^?,

^"*

t
f
P/ur. <

Almorzara, almorzalTe, almorzaria Almorzaramos, almorza'lemos,almorzariamos Almorzaradeis, almorzafTedeis, aimorzariadeis Almorzaran, almorzalien, almorzarian

J
I

'^"jij-^, /^ , ^
'^^^,^^
^'
*

Preterperfedt,

fHaya
Sing.

T
I
I

C
I

< Hayas

C ^^y^
I
/'//zr. -J

Hayamos
Hayais

I Almorzado, \
J

^\

^'^'l^ /b^i'^ breakfajtcd,

f ^if^'f &c.

^^ ^

/
(.

^Hayan
Firfl

and Second Preterpluperfeds.


"^

f Huvlera, or huvlefie
Sing.

T
I

//*

\ Huvieras,

or huviefles

^' '^f ^'

Tlur.

f Huvieramos, or huviefTemos \ Huvieradeis, or huviefledeis l Huvieran, or huvieilen

^l^^or^^^o^

^
(_

God{had
hreak-

M'^>^^^

Firft Future.

f Almorzare
Sing. <

Almorzares
I
|

( Almorzare f Almorzaremos
Plur.

If,

^tvhen,

'vjould to

God 1

JJmli

breakfaj}^

&c.

< Almorzaredeis (^ Almorzaren

Second Future.
f Huviere, or havre < Huvieres (Huviere f Huvieremos
"^

Sing.

Jfy

"-^^^^i

God

I Almorzado, J Alr^nr.^^n

grantljhallor
^,///^^^,, i^^^i^

f
I

^
J

< Huvieredeis Plur. -{ Huvierede

fajled,

&c.

( Huvieren
Infinitive

toS

l^c

RUDIMENT'S /
Infinitive

Mood,

Prefent.
Almorzar
To hreakfafi

Preterperfeft.

Haver almorzado
Future.
Haver,
ar efperar de almorzar,

To have hnakfafied.

7e he

to

breakfaji hereafter

Gerund.
Almorzando
Firft Supine.
hreakfajiing

a Almorzar

To be about breakfajling

Second Supine.
a
fer

almorzado

Having

hreakfajled

Participle of the Prefent Tenfe and A6live Voice.


El que almuerza
Breakfafting

Participle of the Preter

Tcnfe and PafTive Voice,


Breakfafed, &c.

Almorzado

lie

the
"The

Spanish Grammar.

109

following Irregular Verbs of the frjl Con^ jugation^ terminating in ar, are all cmjugated
after

changing the Penultima o


Perfo7is
,

as Almorzar, ue in the three Singular^ and the third of th Plural


the fa?ne
vianjier
i?ito

in all the Prefent Tenfes.


Infimtive.

Prefent.

Preterperfe^.

Contar,
Defollar,

to

count

Cuento

to fie

Refollar, to breath

Acordar, Mollrar,
Aflblar,

to

remember

tojhonju

to defiroy

Volar,

to fiy

Apoftar, to ijcager Hollar, to trample on


Sol tar,
to let loofe to force

Porzar,

Provar, to try, or proiJi Sonar, to found

Atronar, Degollar,
Conlblar,

to

thunder

to
to

behead
comfort

Encontrar,

to

meet

But ju^ir

to play,
in

All the Verbs ending


fon of the preterperfeft
Jaft

gar have the firil perof the indicative* in ^z^^ ;


the
firft

as likewife the third of the fingular,

and

of the plural of the imperative, and in all the' perfons of the prefenc tenfe of the optative, as
Infimt, Pref.Indic. Pret.pe.

Imperative^

Pref, Optat,

Tocar,

the

Spanish Grammar,
Imperative,

tii

o-

Tienta tu.

Fed thou

?lur. ^

f Tentemos nofotroa Tentad vofotros


aquellos

4 Tienten Prefent Optative.


Cc^tYotiiXiX'Z, thatlmay
Sing.
*.

< Tientes

{feel
|

Plnr.

f Tentemos < Tenteis

^ Tientc

f Tienten
ctbernvife they are conjugated 02

Revelar.

The Verb Anddr^


the
generally

to go,
tenfe

or to go about, has
irregular
j

preterperfe6t of the indicative

and
firft

when fuch

is

irregular,

the

and the fecond Precerimperfedls, and the of the Optative are irregular, as
c^Anduve
p|*Anduville

firft

Future

5/,

Anduviera Anduviefle

^f. anduviere,

^~^ I^Anduvieres Anduvo ^ Anduviere I Anduviera, Anduviefle ^Anduvimos ^^ Anduvieramos, AnduvielTemos ti^anduvieremos'^ ^Anduvilleis, Anduvieradeis, Anduvieiladeisc^anduvieredeis 3 Anduvieron Anduvieran, AnduviefTen anduvieren &^

^j^Anduvieras, Anduviefles

in other Tenfes is corjugated as Revelar.

Of
Of
the

the Verbs Pajftve

the

Fir/i

Conjugation.'

VERBS Adiive,
^/r, as

PafTive are formed in Spanlflo from by che auxiliary Verb, and the
fol-

Participle PafTive of the Preterperfed Tenfe,

lowing always the


Sir amddo^

Moods and
to

Tenfes of the Verb


be beloved.
Prefent

112

The

RUD IMENTS
Indicative,

of

Prefent Tenfe.
5''
Sing.

/ am belo'ved > S < eres \ amado -^ Tkou are belo'ved ^ Ces 3 ^ i/f iV belo'ved
f fomos 1 C J r
I

Flur. < fois

>amados
3

<
C.

?F^ are behaved Te are beloved

^ fon

^CV

^^^ belo'ved

Imperfed Tenfe.

feral
Sing.

CI <was

belo'ved

> < eras ^ amado -^ 7" < T'/^oa njoas belo'ved \ (era J He ivas beloved

(^

T ^^ ^ujere beloved f eramos 1 f /F^ w^rf ^fW^, P/r. < eradeis > amadcs < Te 'were behaved

t eran

They ivere beloved ^^C^ '"'^''^ ^^/<?i'<

Preterperfed.
f < (
fui, or
(

he side
or has side

1
\

Sifi. -l fuilte, big.

r I have been beloved > amado < Thou has been beloved
/ H^ hath been beloved

fue, or

ha Side

f fulmos, or

hemos OS
han

sido

1
3 j

flur. ^

fuifleis, or

haveis :do Samados < ;is >


sido Sido

f /^^ ^^o;^ ^<?^ beloved 2"^ have been beloved


-^CV ^<*'^^ ^^^-^ beloved

fucron, or

Preterpluperfed.
f Havia
Sing.
-^

sido
sido

Havias sido

( Havia
Vlur. ^

f / had been beloved > amado < Thou hadfi been beloved 3 L ^^ had been beloved

C ^^ had been beloved f Haviamos s:do 1 < \ Haviadeis sido > amados < Ye had been beloved ( Havian sido C T^^y i'^^ ^^^ beloved J

Future.
Sere amado, &c.

/ Jhall

be beloved

And

fo

throughout other

Moods and

Tenfes.

0/

the

Spanish Crammar.
the

ii^

Of

Reciprocal Verbs,
all

Mood, as Acojidrfe to lie down, or to grow near, or to come near hevaniarfe^ to rife up Lihrdrfey to difcharge one's felf, to make
in the inftnitive
j
;

THE

reciprocal Verbs are

terminated in fe

one's Iclf free,

if^c,

and are conjugated thus

Adelantdrfe^ to

go

before, to rife

up

to a

Dig-

nity or to Preferment.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent I'enfe.

Me
5 Te

adelanto
adelantas

Se adelanta

Nos adelantamos
Plur^

^_

I go

before, S.C.

\ Vos,

or OS adelantais

Se adelantaa

Imperfed.

Me
Sing,

adelanta ba

^ Te adelanrabas
Se adelantaba

fNosadelantabamos
Plur. < Vos, or OS adclantabadeis f Se adelantaban

\ t } I

j- j l r <l.d g,le/.ri,

&,

Firfl Preterperfed

Me
Sing.
-^

adelante adelanta fie

Te

Se adelanto

Nos addantdmos
Flur, \

^'^'^^h^^^^^

Vos, or OS adelantalleis Se adelantaron

Second

114

I'he

RU D IMENrS
Second Preterperfed.
he

of

f
Sing.

Me

1
I

< Te has

i S^ ^^ y Adelantado \ ( f Nos hemos < Vos,oroshaveis \

V^^'

^^' ^'-

Se han

J
Moods, but
in

And

fo in

all

the Tenfes and

the

Imperative thus
^.

Adelantate tu

^'"^\ Adelantefeel Adelantemofnos nofdtros


Plur.

Go

thou before, &C.

\ Adelantados

vofdtros

Adelantenfe aquellos.

I
is

The Verb

Pefdrfe^

to

he forr'j^

conjugated

thus
Indicative.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Pefame, or a mi mepefa, or a ti te pefa,
Pefale,
or a el le pefa.

am
is

forry
forry

%lng.

< Pefate,
(^

Thou art forry

He

f Pefanos, or a nofdtros nos pefa. Tlur.X Pefaos, or k vofdtros os pefa,

We

are forry

Te are forry
Vjey are forry.

Pefales,

or a ellos les pefa,

And

fo

throughout all other Tenfes ; Imperative Mood thus :


5 Pefete,

but

in the

Be

thou forty

^'"^'

\ Pt-fele, C Pefenos,

Let him be forry

Vhr. X Pefeos, ( Pcfeles,

Let us be forty Be ye forry


let them be forry

Of

the

Spanish Grammar.
Imperjonah
belonging
to

115

Of

Verbs

the Jirjl

Conjugation,

THE
Of

Spanijh
the
firft

Imperfonals,

like the

Latln^

want

declined only

in

and fecond Perfons, and are the third Perfon, throughout all

Moods and

Tenfcs.

the 1interfonah

fome are Jofive^ and fome TaJJive. The Aulive are conjugated thus To [now*
Indicative.

Nevar

Prefcnt Tenfe.
Nieva>
It fno^s.

Imperfeft.
Nevaba,
Firft PreterperfefV.
//

diifno^,

Nevo,

It fnonjoed.

Second and Third Freterperfedt.


Hti, cr

huvo nevado,
Plufperfea:.

//

hath fm^wtd,

Havia nevado,

// hadfnov:(d.

future

ii6

"The

RUDIMENTS
Future.

of

Nevara,

Que

nieve.
nieve*,

Sera bueno que


Si nevara,

7/ nviJI

ncvalTe, or nevaria.

Quando haya nevado,


Si huviera, or huvie.ie nevado,

/now. /now. he good i/ that it /now. If it nvould /lonu. When it hath /no^ed< 1/ it had /nowed.
It nvi/I

Let

if

Quando

nevarc.

When
Vjc Fields are cover

it Jhall /no^vo

Nevando,. Los Campos eilan nevados, Nieve y 2l Noun,

Snonving.

d with /now.
T^he

/now.

In this manner are corrugated the following

Verbs

Atroriar, or tronar, to thunder

Granizar, or apedrear, Hclar, to freeze

to hail

Ahumar,
Conftar,

Relampagcar, to lighten to fmoak


to he plains

or clear
to be convenient

Jijiportar, to import,

The

pafiive Imperfonals

are conjugated with the

Particle fe before or after the Verb, as


Se cuenta, It is /aid, it is Se contaba, // was /aid.
to/d,
it is

related,

it is reported,

li hath been /aid. e^f"^"^ V' Se ha, or huvo contado 5 Se havia contado, // had been /aid. Se contara, It will be /aid.
-^

.a\

And
iV.

fo

throughout

all

other Tenfes and

Moods.
irregular^

E,

That

all

the

Verbs regular, or

perfonals, or imperfonals, except the regular pafiive, may be other wife conjugated by the auxiliary Verb

/?ir, and the

Gerund of the Verb, through

all

the

Tenfes and Moods, as


Prefent,

the

Spanish
Prefent.

Gram m a r.
Indicative.

17

7 love^ or / r amo or eftoi amando, < amas, or eltas amando ^ ama, or efta amando f amamos, or efl.anios amando Plur. < amais, or elUis amando / aman. or eftan amando
Slug.

am

lo-uing^

kc.

Imperfeft.

Amaba,

or eflaba

amando.

7 Tt'^J

lo^o'htg

Perfcd.

Ame,
Hablo,

or eftuve

amando,
hablando,

I did

lo'v^t

Sec.

LI amo, or'edoi llamando


or elloi

I call, I /peaky
or

or

am

calling

am Jpcaklngy

Lc.

The fame
tions.

is

to be obferved in

all

the Conjuga-

It

muft be obferved here,


called Verbals, for their
,

that there are

Nouns
in
bilis^

fome being derived from


in
ble^

the Verbs

in

Latin thofe are terminated generally

in tor^

and

ix^

and

in Spanijh

dor^

and

iz: as

^panijh,
hie
.

1
/

C Amable
as

dor

Iz 3

< Amado'r t Amatriz, or amadofa.

But f70ie. That there are fome Spani/h Verbs which are defectives in this particular, as well as fome Latin Verbs.

ii8

"The

RUDIMENTS
gatior^/,

of

Of

Verhs Regular of the fecond Conjutn er.

Refponder,

To aiifwer.

Indicative

Mood,

Prefent Tenfe.
f Refpondo,
%ing.

1 anfivef

Reipondes, ^ Rerponde, r RefpondemOSj ?lur.\ Refpondeis ^ Refppnden,


}

He anfwers

We

a7tfvoir

Ye anjnxer
^hey anfwer

Preterimperfefb.
f Refpondia,
Sing.

/ did anpivet-f

< Refpondias, ^ Refpondia, r Refpcndlamos,

Plur.i Refpondiadeis, Refpondian,

or I luas Gnfv:ering. Tcu did anp-iver He did anf-joer We did anj<vcer Ye did anfwer They did anfvjer

Firfl:

Preterperfedl.
1 anpiuered You anjkvered

Refpondi,
Refpondille,

Refpondio, Refpondimo!,
flur
Refpondiileis,

He

anfivered
a7ifu!ered

We

Ye anjhxered
They anjhxered

Refpondi pron^

Second

r/;<f

Spanish Grammar.

119

Second and Third Preterperf&l.


f He, T huve \ Has, or huvlfte [ Ha, or huvo Hemos, havemos, SHemos, huvimos

^
j

r-

1 ha've anf^end
Tou ha^ue answered

Sing,

\
\

He

or } Refpondido, >
I i \ -^

<(

has an/^vered IVe have an/ix;ered

^i

Haveis. Haveis, or huvifleis Han, or huvieron

Te have anfivered
They ha'VB anjkverfd

Preterpluperfcd
f <

Sing.

Ha via Ha via ^ Ha via

r Haviamos Plur. < Haviadeis ^ Havian

Refpondido,

>

/ had anfv:ertd,

Sec.

Firft Future.

Sing.

C Refpondere, < Refponderas,

t Refpondera,
C Refpondercmos,
IPlur.

\ ^^j^ ^^ ^^.j^ ^^j^ ^ ( jJ ^

^^^
>

< Refpondereis, ^ Refponderan,

Second Future.
f He, or Tengo de refponder, \ Has de refponder / f Hemos,
Plur,
or
aniy to or

Sin9.

havemos de refponder f

mufi anfvjery Sec.

< Haveis de refponder, ( Han de refponder.

Third Future.
?i^.

Havre de refponder,

1 Jhall be ohlt^d

to anfvctr.

Fourth.

I20

fhe

RUD IMENTS
Fourth Future.
J teas

of

S:ng.

Havia de refpond^r,

to aftfiver.

Imperative
5 Rerppnde tu. \ Refponda el, C ilerponuamos n^ flur.^ Refponded v'' (^ Refpdndan ellos
-.
^

Mood.
anfujer, or

Do you

anfwer thou

'^'

Let him anfnxer


Let us anfvoer.

Do ye

anfivery or

let

you anfaoer

Let them anfwer

Suhju?i5li'Ve

and Optative Moodsy with


Oxala,
to

the Signs,

^Como, Aunque,
/

When^ God gra?it^ Would


Prefent Tenfe.

God^

f Refponda, Shg. < Refpdndas,


(^

"1

I
I

Pvcfponda,

JVhen, or

Go J grant I

dc^

C Refpondamos, flur. \ Refpondais ^ Refpdndan,

i
I

anfwer^ &c.

J
Preterimperfecfls.

Three

Refpondiera, refpondiefTe, or
refponderia,
.

Refpondiera?, refpondlefTes, or
refponderias,

^^^i*

"^

Refpondiera, refpondiefie, or
refponderia

fRefpondieramos,

refpondiefTedeis,

'xWheK, or God grant i did an fixer, &c, \

or refponderiamos

p ^^^^*'
,
^

)
\

Refpondierais, orrefpondielTemos, or refponderiadeis


Rgfporidierari, refpondiefTen, or
j-efponderiai).

Pretcr-^

the

Spanish Grammar.
Precerpcrfedl.

121

CHaya
Sing

< Hayas

(Haya
Plur.
-{

Ilayamos Hayais

Refpondiio,

When, or ^votddto God, BcC, I ha've anfvjeredy &c.

1 Hayaa
Firft

and Second Preterpluperfed.

Sing.

r Huviera, or huvieiTe < Huvieras, or huvie.Tes


Refpondido.

When^ or
njuould to

^Huviera, or huviefTe f Huvieramos, or huvieflemos Plur, < Huvieradeia, or huviefTedeis

God 1 h^d
anfweridf

^ Huvieran,

or huriefftn

&C.

Firft Future.

Sing.

f Refpondiere, < Refpondieres,

^ Refpondiere,
f Refpondieremos, Tlur. < Refpondieredeis,

When, or God grant Ijhall, or nill anpwery &c.

( Refpondieren

Second Future.
f Huviere,
Sing. or

havre
"J I

< Huvieres,
( Huviere

When^ or God grant

f Huvieremos
flur.X Huvieredeis (^ Huvieren

^ Refpondido,

Jhall or rwill
anfvjfTtffi,

ha'vt

i
Infinitive

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
Hefpondcr,
To anfner

Preter-

S2a

"the

RUDIMENTS
Preterperfeft Tenfe.

of

Haver

rcfpondido;

% have au/wereJ.

Future Tenfe.
Haver de
refponder,

To be

to

anfwer.

Gerund.
Refpondiendo,
Anfajerhg,

Participle Adlive.
Refpondiente, or
el

qu refponde,

AnfwertJ^,

Participle Pafllve.
Rcfpondido,
Anfwered, &c.

tion in

Al! Other regular Verbs of the fecond Conjuga<?r, are conjugated after the fame manner ; take the following Lift of which

Verbs conjugated as
COrrefponder,
Comer,
to correfpond.

Refponder,

to eat,

Meter, to put in. Prometer, to promife.


Ofende'r,
to offend.

Beber, to drink. Reprehcnder, to reprove.


Barrer, topweep.

Efconder,

to hide.

Aprender,

to learn.

Vender,

to fell.
to

Temer,

to fear.

Conceder,

grant.

Acomcter,
Correr,

to attack.

to run,

Emprender, to undertah, Deber, to oiue. Cometcr, to commit*

Of

the

Spanish Grammar.

123

Of

Verbs Irregular of the fecond Conjugation in


er,

asy

Traher,
Saber,

to

bring.

Poner,

to

put,

to

knouc.

Tener,

to ha've.

Poder, to be able. Querer, to 'will or

Hacer, Caber, Ver, to


lo've.

to do. to

be contained,

fee.

Traher,

T'o

fetch or bring.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Yo trahigo
Sing.
-3

Ifetch

or bring
or brings

Tu

trahes

Tou fetch or bring

I El trahe r Nofotros trahctnos Plur. < Vofotros traheis

He fetches

We fetch

or bring
or bring.

Ye fetch or bring
T^hey fetch

^ EUos

trahen

Preter:mperfedl.

Zing.

TTrahia < Trahias ( Trahia

1 didfetch or

bring

Tou did fetch or bring

He

f Trahiamos Flur. < Trahiais t Trahian

We

did fetch or bring didfetch or bring Ye did fetch or bring

7'hej

did fetch or bring.

Firft Preterperfea:.

Si7ig.

r Traxe, or truxe < Traxifte, or truxifte ^ Traxo, or truxo C Traximos, or truximos Plur. < Traxifteis, or truxifteis

ha<ve fctcht or brought

Tou ha-ve fetcht or brought He hath fetcht or brought

We

ha've fetcht or brought

7e ha've fetcht or brought


They haue fetcht or brought

t Traxeron,

ar truxeron

Second

124

7^^

RUDIMENTS
or

of

Second and third Preterperfefts.


f He, < Has
huvc
f

SitJg.

C Ha f Hemos, flur. < Haveis

rp

or

havemos {

1 ' 1 / ha'Vifetcht or ^^^^^^o, J

^^^^^^^^ 5^^.

tHan
Preterpluperfed.
f Havia
$ing.

< Havias

(Havia fHaviamos P/r. < Haviadeis ( Havian

i TraliHr. ) I ^^^MhtQX brought, Irahido, ^^^ ^

Firft Future,

f Trahere
Srng.

< Traheras

^ Trahera
Plur.

f Traheremos < Trahereis


(^

IJhall or &c.

tv///

fetch or ^r//?x>

Trahcran

Second Future.
r He, or tengo de traher < Has de traher ^ Ha de traher f Hemos, or havemos de traher P/ur. < Haveis de traher
Sing,

I am

to

or tnuji fetch

or"

bringy Sec.

^ Han

de traher

The third and fourth as in the other Verbs.

Imperative
^
.

Mood.
Bring or fetch thou
Let him bring or fetch

^^i'

C Trahe tu. I Trahiga el.

P!u

the

Spanish Grammar.

125

f Trahigamos nofotros. Flur. < Trahed vofotros, ^ Trahigan ellos

Let us bring or fetch Doje bring oi fetch Let them bring or fetch

Optative and Subjunctive

Mood.

Como, Aunque, Oxala.


When^ God grants would
to

God,

Prefent Tenfe,
f Trahiga
Sing.

< Trahigas

"J
I
I

^ Trahiga r Trahigamos Plur. < Trahigais t Iraaigan

When or ^ouJd to God I


or fetch , &c.

do hrlHg

f
I

Preterimperfed Tenfe.
f Truxera, < Truxeras,
truxefTe,

traheria
traherias

'\

Sing.

truxeffes,

(Truxera, truxeflp, traheria I C Traxeramos, tr ^xefilrios, traheriamos f Plur. < Truxeradeis, truxeiTcdeis, traheriadcis I (Truxeran, truxeffen, traherian J

When, or nvoutd to God I did


bring
fetch,

or &c-

Thefrji and fecond may he conjugated by Traxera, and TraxelTe,

Preterperfedt.

Sing.

f Haya < Hayas

"I
I

(Haya
C Hayamos
Plur. < Hayais

)^^'^*^^'^ouldtoGodIha'-je > Trahido '


]

brought Qifetcht, &c,

(Hyan

J
firft

126

"The

RUDIMENTS
'\

of

Firft

and Second Preterpluperfedls.

Sing*

r Huvlera, or huviefl*e < Huvieras, or huviefTes ^ Huviera, or huvielTe


f Huvieramos,
or huviefTemos

C
I

Whetty or

I
I
J

nvould

to

Trahido ' J
j I

^^^
<?r

^^'^

brought
/^/c/^/,

Vlur.

< Huvieradeis,

<?r

huvielTedeis

J Huvieran,

<?r

huvieffen

&c.

Firft Future.

5/^.

f Traxere, < Traxeres,

or truxere

or truxeres
or truxere
^

"J I
I

f Traxere,

/Fi'^/f,

f Traxeremos, P/r. < Traxeredeis,

or truxeremos r
or truxeredeis i

or God grant IJhall 7^^^^ or brings &c.

tTraxeren, ortruxeren.

Second Future.
f Huviere, \ Huvieres I Huviere
or havre

^ing.

f
I

Tlur,

f Huvieremos < Huvieredeis

rr-alii^n ^""''^^'

1 When, or God grant or Jha/I have S brought or /etcht,

) ^^^y*
|
c.

^ Huviercn

1
Infinitive

Mood,

Prefent.
Traher,
To bring, or fetch,

Preterperfed.
Haver
trahido,

To

ham

brought, or fetched.

Future.
Haver,
cr efperar dc traher

Tb bring, or fetch Ureafier,

Gerund*

the

Spanish Grammar,
Gerund.

itj

Trahiendo,

Bringing^ or fetching.

Participle of the Prefer


Trahido

Tenfe and Paflive Voice.


Br9Ught, orftuh'dy &c.

of Conjugation is to be obferved Verbs compounded ofTraber^ as Retraher^ to draw back, ^c.


in all

The fame manner

The Irregular Verb Saber,


Indicative.

To know.

J28

The

RUDIMENTS
Firft Preterperfedb.

of

Siipe,

Sing.

Supifte,

Tou knein

1 Supo,
Supimos,
Tlu
Supifteis

He

knenv

We

knenv

Ye knenu
They kneiM

Supieron,

Second and third Preterperfedls.


He,
$tng
or

huve fabido

1 have known
You hwve known

Has

fabido.

C Tlur. < Haveis

Ha fabido, \Hemes fabido,


fabido,

He

has knoivn
ha<ve knonun

We

^Han

fabido.

Ye ha<ve known Thi^ havg known

Preterpluperfed.

r Havia
Sing,

< Havias ( Havia r Haviamos


< Haviadeis ^ Havian

I had kno<wn You had knonun


Sabido,

He had known

Flur.

We had kno'wn Ye had know7i They had known-

Firft Future.

f Sabre, ^hg, < Sabras, ^ Sabra,


f Sabremos,
Plur,

I/hall, or wi// krtozo


Youjhally or
njoill

knoi

He Jjpally

or nvill kuo<tv

<

Sabreis,

t Sabran,

Wejhallf or will knoitj YsJJjall, or will know Theyjhall, or will krj$iu

Second Future,
He, orTengo de Has de faber.
faber.

J am

to

You are

know to know
kno'w

\ Ha

de faber.

He

is to

Ph

//?(?

Spanish Grammar.
IFe are
to

129

de faber Plur. < Haveis de faber (^ Han de faber

fHemos

kno-o

Te are

to knoix>
to

^hey are

kuouj

Third Fature.
havre de
faber

1 Jhall he ohligd

ts

knovi

Fourth Future.
Havia de faber
1
nxias
to

kno-w

Imperative
-,.

Mood*
Know you
Let him knoim

Sabe

ttt

\ Sepa el f Sepamos

nofo'tros

Ltt us knonv

Plur. < Sabcd vofotros

Knoivye
Let them

^ Sepan

ellos

hozv

Subjun5live

and Optative
Oxala,

Mood,

^Como, Aunque,
^

\when, Though, Would to God.


Prefent Tenfe.

rSepa
Sing.

< Sepas ^ Sepa f Sepamos

God grant
knoi,v,

flat

I maj

Plur. < Sepals

4 Sepan

Pfiter-

ijo

T%e

RUDIMENTS
Preterimperfed.
*^

of

CSupiera, fupIciTe, fabria


Sin^,

<

Supieras, fupielTes, fabrias

^Supiera, fupi^lTe, fabria ^,}rhn, or Gad grant I did knoiv, &c. Supieramos, fupicfTemos, fabriamos t
Plur,
'^

Supieradeis, fupieflgdeis, fabriadeis

Supieran, fupieiren, fabrian

Preterperfedl.

f < ( f P/ar. <


Sing.

Haya

fabido

"1

Hayas fabido

I
f

Haya fabido Hayamos fabido


Hayais fabido
fabido

0^en, or Godgrant Ihava knoivn^ &c.

^ Hayan
Firft

and Second Preterpluperfe^.


"J

C
Sing.

Huviera, r huviefTc < Huvieras, r huviefles (^ Huviera, or huviefTe r Huvieramos, or huvieflemos


or huvlefiedeis

C
I

When,

or

\ 9 h'H
f
*

J
|

moould to

God 1 had
knonvn, &c.

Plur.

< Huvieradeis,
(^

Huvicran, or huvieffen

I.

Firft Future.
Supiei f Supiere
Sing.

< Supiei -^ Supieres iere ^ Supiei ieremos r Supien


< -^

iirhen^ or God grant IJhallkmw, &c.

'. P/r.

Supieredeis Supiert

ren t SupRT<

Second Future.
f HuvJere,
5/^.

er havre
i

< Huvieres,
( Huvicre
f^'i-^ff,

Mr.

f Huvieremos < Huvieredeis

Sabido \ '^^"^"'^
f*

or

God grant IJhall


&c.

^ ^

^^-vf knQvjn^

t Huvicrcn
Infinitive

the

Spanish Grammar.
Infinitive

131

Mood.
Tenfe.

Prefent
Saber

% knovn
Preterperfed Tenfe.

Haver

fabido

'To

ha've knonun

Future Tenfe.
Hav^r,
or efperar de faber

To knoiv hereafter

Gerund.
Sabiendo
Kno-vuing

Participle of the Prefent


El que sabe

Tenfe and Adtive Voice,


Knovjtng

Participle of the Preter


Sabido

Tenfe and Pafiive Voice,


Knoivn

The Irregular Verb Tener,


Indicative

7i have^ or

bold.

Mood,

Prefent.
f Tengo < Tienes ( Tiene

/ have,

or

hoU

?/V^.

7ou have, or hold

Hi

has^

or kaldi

Fkfl

1J2
Plur

"The

RU DIME NTS
JVe ha've,

of

Tenemos
Tienen

or hold Ye hwve, or hold They hai-e^ or hold

Preterimperfedi:.
f Tenia < Teiiias (_ Tenia C Teniamos P/r. < Teniadeis ^ Tenian
Firft Preterperfedl.

Slfig.

/ did have, or holdy &c.

Tuve
Sif

/ had^ or held
7 ou had,

Tmiile

or held

Tuvo
Tuvimos Tu\ ifteis
I'u vie roll

He

had, or held

We
Te.

had, or held

had, or held

They had, or held

Second and Third Preterperfedl.

the

Spanish Grammar.

133

r Tendremos ternemos, or tenremos We JJ^alU or icitl ha'vt Te jhall^ or ivill hn^-ve Plur,< Tendreis terneis, or tenreis ternarij or tenrdn Thiy jhally o^ wjill ba-vt {^ Tendran

Second Future.
f
Sing. <

He
Ha

de terer
tet

am

to ba--ve,

Has de

er

7'ou

are

to ha^ve^

or ho/a or huld

^
r

Hemos

de tencr de tener
<

Be

is to hanjey

We

are

to ha'vCy
to

Plur. \ Havcis de tcner <

Te are

or hold or lipoid haue^ or btld

I Han

de tener

They arc

to ba^uS:,

or hold

Third Future.
Havre de tener
Ijhall he ohligd
to

ha've or Icid

Fourth Future.
Havia de tener

1 ivas

ta

ha^ve

Imperative
e
-

Mood.
ha~uCy or hold th&n.

"

5 f

'^^^^

^^
el

-^'^ *^''

\ Tenga

Flur. <

Tengamcs nofdtros Tened vofocros ^ Tengan clbs

Let him hanje^ ar hold Let us ha've, or hold Do ye ha-oBy or hold^ or htyg Let them ha-ve^ or he/d

hU

Optative and Subjunciive

Mood.

Ccmo, Oxala, Aunque.


Wben^ God grants Though.
Prefent len^e.
f Tcnga < Ten gas

5'/;?^.

Tenga Tengamcs
Plur.

U^en., cr

God grant I
&c.

do have, or bild,

Tengais

Tengan

Pretcr-

134

^/^^

RUDIMENTS
Preterlmperfedl.
tuviefTe,

of

rTuviera,
I
c..

ternia, or

tendria

Tuvieras, tuviefies, ternias, or


tendrias

^'^^-

S
I

Tuviera, tuviefTe, ternia, or


tendria
ternia-

[^

rTuvieramos, tuviefTemos,
1

xJVhen^ or 'would to Qod I did hav$ or hold, &c. \

mos,

or tendriamos

PL

Tuvieradeis, tuvieiTedeis, ternia-

mos,

or tendriadcis
or

Tuvieran, tuvieilen, ternian,

tendrian

Preterperfefl.
f Hay a tenido Sw^ ^ Hayas tenido
(

Haya

tenido

irben^ or

r Hayamos tenido
riur,< Hayais tenido

God grant I hwve hady or heldy &c.

^ Hayan
Firft

tenido

and Second Preterpluperfedts.

k
Whfiy or
moould
tt

Stng,

f H^viera, or huvieHe < Huvieras, or huviefles


huvielTe (^ Huviera, or f Huvieramos, or huvieflemos

Tenido,

God 1 had
hady or held

"Fi'ur.

< Huvieradeis,

or huvielTedeis

/ Huvieran, er huvieffen
Firft Future.

^ing.

f Tuviere < Tu vie res f Tuviere


Tuvieremo^
-^

Whin J or God grant IJhall have


or holdi &c.

flur.

Tuvieredeis

TuvicreA

Second

the

Spanish Grammar.
Second Future.

135

f Huvlere,
Sing.

or havre

} Huvieres

"J I

C
I
jyj^,^

^r Godgranf

Flur,

fHuviere CHuvieremos < Huvieredeis


tHuvierenr

Temdo, {
1 I

IJImll haui

had

I
I

^^ held,

&c.

J
Infinitive

L
Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
Xener
^
^^'^'^

o^

'* ^^^^^

Preterperfed
Haver tenldo

Tenfe.
'^o

have had or hdd

Future Tenfe.
Haver de
tener
'to

le to

have or hoid

Gerund.
Teniendo
Holding

Participle of the Prefent


El que tiene

Tenfe and Adive Voice.


Holding

Participle of the Preter Tenido

Tenfe and PaiTive Voice.


H^^^

Like
Mantencr,
D^tener,

this

Verb fimple
all

are

its

Compounds

in all

points declined, thro'


to

Moods

and Tenfes, as
maintained^

maintain',

Yo
\

mantengo, 1 maintain, mantuvc, /


Detcngo,

/%

detain qt Ji ay

L detak;

d^tuve,

de-

tained,

Retentr,

136
Retener,

fhe
to retain

RUD IMENTS
or
^cL-itb-hoId;

of
;

Retengo,

1 retain

retuve,
fofiuve,

/ 7

retained

Softener, to fujlain

or uphold

Soflengo, Ifuftain-,

fujlained

I'he

Irregular Verb Poder,

To be

able.

the

Spanish Grammar.

137

Second and third Preterperfeds.


He,
or

huve

5 Has

^
I
I

^I could,
I

Toil could,

Ha
iHcmos,
Haveis
or

\He
\Te
|

S^odX^oA We
I
1

or ha've been able or ha^e been able could, or has been able could, QX ha've been able or hanje been able

havemos

could,

Han

"^

^hey could, or ha^ve been

abk

Preterpluperfed.
f Havia < Havias

Si7tg.

Vlur.

< Haviadeis (^Hayian

Fird Future.
f Pod re < Podras

Sing.

t Podra
C

IJhall, or caV/
Slq.

i^^

^/^,

Podremos

Plur. < Podreis


(^

Podran

Second Future,
f He, or tengo de poder < Has de poder
"^
I
I

Sing.

(Hade poder

'

fmtj}^

or nvill be

r Hemos, or havemos de poder Plur. < Haveis de poder t Han de poder

\
I

able,

&c,

Third Future.
Havre de poder
IJhall be tbliged
to

he able

Fourth Future.
Hav ja de pode?
/ r^as
to be able

Thouojh

to have and fourth Futures of the Indicative Mood, or any Imperative Mood, and mofl Grammarians will allow it neither, yet they are As to the fecond frequently and properly ufed. Future, it is very ufual, and when one fays, he cannot do fuch a thing, to anfwer. Has de poder^ You ftxall be able ; by way of compelling flothful perfons, or fuch as may improve by often trying to do that which they cannot do at prefent. The fame is to be faid of the Imperative, which is in the nature of the fecond future, being compulfive j as, if one fay. No podmos hacer efto^ We cannot do this ; and another anfwers, Fuh poddmos^ Then let us be able ; that is, let us ufe our Endeavours, that we may perform that which we think we canfor this

l^he 238 Though it feems improper


third,

RUDIMENTS

of

Word

a fecond,

not do.

Therefore

we

will

proceed to the

Imperative
-,.

Mood.
Do you
he able

^'"^'

Pltir.

5 Puede tu I Pueda el f Podamos nofdtros < Poded vofdtros

Let him be able

Let us be able

Do ye

be able

(Puedan

ellos

Let them be ahli

Subjun5iive and Optative Mood^ with the Signs^

(Como, Aunque,

Oxala,
to

IWhen, Though, Would

God.

Prefent Tenfe.
r Pueda
Sifi^.

\ Puedas
( Pueda f Podamos

\ Wheriy or God grant lean, or


|

bi able, kc,

Thtr.

<

Podais

1
Pretcr-

the

Spanish Gram ma
Pretcrimperfc(fl Tenfe.

i?:.

139

S'///'.

f < ^ f

Pudiera, pudiefTe, podria


Padieras, pudiefles, podrias Pudiera, pudielTe, podria

"1

IWheitf or nvouid
I

to

God 1

could

Pudieramos, pudieflemos, podriamos


Pudieradeis, pudieflTedeis, podriadeis

i
I

Plur.

<

or might be abhy &c.

(Pudieran, pudieffen, podrian

Preterperfedt,

f Haya
Sing.

< Hayas / Haya

j' j

Hayamos
Plur.

When, or ivould to God, &c / hanje been abit, &c.

\ Hayais

^Hyan
Firft

and Second Preterpluperfedis.


"J I
F

'ing.

f Huviera, or huviefTe < Huvieras, or huviefTcs ^ Huviera, or huviefTe C Huvieramos, or huvieiTemos


<^

C
I

When, or
ivouldto

,,
^

\
'

God

Plur.

Huvieradeis, or huvieiTedeis
or huviefTen

{ 1

/ had

been

I able. Sec.

t Huvieran,

Firfl:

Future.

Sing.

f < ( f

Pudiere
Pudieres

Pudiere

WJben, or

God grant

Ifiall, or

may

Pudieremos
Pudieredeis

Plur.

<

bi able, &c.

^ Pudieren

Second Future.
f Huviere, or Havre < Huvieres t Huviere ? Huvieremos flur. < Huvicredeis
Sing.
"J I
I

f When, I
^^^'^^>

K^tGadgranf

p^

i-

1^

j
\
I

(
I

J may, or /^// have been able,


&c.
Ininitivc

t Huvieron

140

Tbe

RUD IMENTS
Infinitive
Prefent

of

Mood.

1 enfe.
To he

Poder

ahh

Preterperfedl Tenfe.

Haver podido

To have been

ahh

Gerund.
Pudiendo,
Being able.
Sec.

^he Irregular Verb Querer,


Indicative

^o

will,

or love.

Mood.

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firil Preterperfed.

'141

f Qulfe

142

"at

RUDIMENTS
Third Future.
IpallU

af

Havre de querer

ohliged to Ibia

Fourth Future.
Havia de quercr

I had, or I n/jas

to

lovi

Imperative
^.
'

Mood.
Do you tuH/, or /o've Let him nvill, or lonji Let us ixj'tlly or lo've Do ye txjill, or io've
Let them
loiil,

C Quicre tu

\ Qyicra el f Queramos

nofotros

P/ri< Quered vofotros ellos (^ Quieran

or love

Optative and Subjundtive

Mood.

Como,

Aunque,

Oxala,
God^

When^ Though y

ijoould to

Prefcnt Tenfe.
f Quiei ^lera
ing, Sing,

< Quier ^ Quieras Quiera ^ Quiei Qaeramos

When, or God grant I will


or love, &c.

JP/r.

^ Querais ^ Quieran

Three Preterimperfedl Tenfcs.


f <
Qulficra, quifiefle, querrla
Quifieras, quifiefles, querrias
"J

5/^.

iWhen,OTGod

^Quifiera, quificlTe, querria ^ f Quifieramos, ouifiefTemos, querriamos


/'/i^r.

\grant InMould

<

f^ifieradeis, quifiefledeis, querriadeis

for did love, l&c.


.

^Quifieran, quifiefien, querrlan

J
Pretcr-

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterperfed Tenfe.

143

Sing,

^ Hayas
I

Hayamos

'

njutlPdy

or

loif d,

&c,

P/r.

^ Hayais

(Hayan
Firft

and Second Preterplupcrfcd.


"J

Sing.

r Huviera, or huvieflt < Huvicras, or huviefTes f Huviera, or huvieiTc C Huvieramos, or huvieflcmos


< Huvieradeis,
or huviefTedeis

CWheny or
I

ivo/</
'^^

i 'c3 r Oae ^^ J <


I
I

^'^
f,^^

Plur.

^ Huvieran,

or huviefTen

nvUPdy or (^ /oo/V, &c.

Firft Future.

f
Sing.

Quifiere

When, ox God grant 1 Jhall

'wili^

C Quifieremos
P7r.

or

/at;^,

&c.

< Quifieredeis
^Quifieren

Second Future.
f Huviere, or havre < Huviercs (Huviere f Huvieremos
"^

C
1

Sing,

?/r.

< Huvieredeis ^Huviercn

i ^<.^^^"" ) J^en.orGodgrant Ijhall OuerJdo \ ^^ willing, or itar/, &c. f


I
i

J
Infinitive

^
Mood.
Tenfe.
r* w/V; or
io'vt

Prefent
.Qh"^

Pretcr-

144

1'loe

RUD IMENTS
Preterperfedb.
To have
n/jilPd,

of

--

Haver querido

or lo'v'd

Gerund.
Queriendo
Loving

Participlei
Querido
IVi/r^, or /^i/V,

&c.

This Verb may be declined through all Moods and Tenfes with the word Mas added to it, which with it fometimes fignifies rather^ and fometimes more^ as Mas quiero calldr que hahldr mal^ I had rather be filent than fpeak ill ; or Alas quiero a Pedro que a Judn^ I love Peter more, or better than
John,

T^he Irregular

Verb Pon6r,
Indicative

Ti

piity

or flace.

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Yo pongo < Tu pones

5/;?^.

Pkr. < Poneis (^ Pdnen


Preterinnperfeft,
r Ponia i Poni'a ^ Pen as
1

1 did puf
Ton did pit

^ing.

"'oiua-

He

did pit

?lu

^/3^

Spanish Grammar,
m 03
We
7^e

14

P o n ia

Plur. V Poniadeis

did put did put

^ Ponian

They did put

Firft Preterperfecl,
r Pu^e
Sir.g.

PusJile

\
Z'^/-.
?

Pusilleis

/ Pufieron

\
Second Preterperfc6t.

^ing.

He,

huve

Puerto,

1 have put , Sec

Preterpluperfect.
Sing.

Havia

Pueflo,

I had put,

Sec.

Firft Future.
Pondre, or

Sif2g,

pome

Jjha/Iy or will put, &c.

Second Future.
S;>27.

He,

or

Tengo de poner

am

to,

or maji put, &c,

Third Future.
Havre de poner
//'^/V
z^^-

obliged to put
to

Ha via

de poner

/ had, or / w^j

put

Imperative
^" ^" \ Ponga cl r Pongamos nofdtros Plur. < Poned vofotros t Pongaa ellos
Sinr

Mood.
or// thou

Z>5,yi? ^/,

Let him put Let us put Do ye put ^ or


Let them put

let ye

put

Suh

146

The

RUD IMENTS

of

Subjunaive a^J Optative Mood.

J Como, Aunque, Oxala,


I M^'ben^ "tkougb.

Would to God.

Prefent Tenfe.

Slsig.

f Ponga. < Pongas Pdnga


f Poiigamos
Pongais

Whenj or God gram Ida


put^ &c.

Phr,\

Pdngaa
Preterimperfedt,
"

Puficra, pufieile, or pornia, pon-

dria
^.
.

Ptzfieras,

pufieffes, or

pormas,

^^'

pondrias
Puliera, pufieffe, or pornia, pon-

dria
Fuiie r Pufieramo?,
liam-os,

pufiefiemos, or por- f

-LWheHy ornxouldhGod I did putyhot

pondnamos
por-

eradeis, pufiefedeis, or

niadeis, pondriadeis

Pufieran, pufieilen, cr pornian,

pondrian

Preterperfe(5l.

C Haya

r
"J

f Hayamos Fhr.i Hiyzis (Hayan

(
I

^<^'

L
Firil

the

Spanish Grammar.'
and Second Preterplnperfedls.
"J

Hi

Firft

Sing.

f Huviera, or huvIe.Te < Huvieras, or luiviefTes t Huviera, or huviefle ^ f Huvieramos, or huviefTemos

r
I

/
(k

Whin^ df
'^'^o^^^^oGod

^P ueito, ) <
I

j ^^^
&c.

^^^^

Piur. < Huvleradeis, or huvielTedeis

^ Huvieran,

or huvieflTen

(^

Firft Future*

^//jg-.

r Pufiere < Pufieres

^ I
(

( Pufiere r Pufieremos P/ar. < Pufieredeis

When, or G^^
&c.

|:r/

fiall puti

(
I

Pufieren

J
Second Future,

r Huviera,
^'''^*

e^-

havre

"J

T
P^^^'
l

/ Huvi^re'

^^'^' ^^ G.^^rrf/
{ ^^^^ ^^'
^^'^'P'''>

C Huvieremos
i'/ar.-jHuvieredeis

f
I

<
I

tHuvieren

J
Infinitive

\^

Moodi

Prefent Tenfe*
t'oner,

To put

Preterperfedl Tenfe.

Haver pueHo j

To hamt pul

Gerund*
Poniendoj
Putting

T48

ne
Pucilo

RUDIMENTS
Participle Paffive.
Puf,

of

Sec.

After this manner are declined in

all
I

rcfpefts,

Compomr^
ccmpife^ I
diffongo^
I

to

compofe, '^o have compofcd ;


I

compofigo^

compofe,
difpofe,
;

Dtfponer^

to

difpofe, dijpufe^

have difpoied

AnteI

pQner^ to

fet

before, antepongo^ I fet before, antepufe^


;

Proponer^ to propofe, propongo^ I and, if there be any nropofe, propufe^ I propofed other Verbs derived by Compofition from Fonir,

have kt before

*,

T!}oe

Irregular Verb Hacer,


Indicative

7i? do^

or make.

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Vo Hago < Tu haces
(_

"^
/

/^<? or

make

Sing.

El hace

^ou do or tnake He does or mmkes

C
Plu}\

Hac^mos

< Haceis t Hacen

(W^e door make. I T do or make

J They

do or /7^/f/

Preterimperfed.
f Haoia Swg, < Hacias ^ Hacia
f Haciamcs Pkr, < Haciadeis, ^Hacian
or haciais

/ did

or made, &c.

Firft Prcterperfcd.

^;>X.

f Hice < Hiciflt


I

J >

^tf-rr ?r:i(dey

&c.

Fkr,

//i?

Spanish Grammar.
1 >
lJ"i

149
^

licimos r Hicimos

P/r.<

Hicifteis licifteis

have made

&.Q..

t Hicieron

Second Preterperfc^b.
f He, or huvc < Has
"J
I
*
r*

Sing.

Ha

T-T

'

K
*

^^'^^ J ^
j

'''^'^'*

r Hcmos, (prhavemos Flur. < Havcis

or pi^de^ Scc^

(Han

J
Preterpluperfe<fl,

5;>^.

r <

Ha via Ha V lis ( Havk


r

Haviamos

Hecho, < /

/('^^ </o^f

or maJe^ 5:c.

P/wr. < Haviideis

( Havian
Firft Future.
f Hare < Haras

Sivg.

( Hara
i

Xljhall^ or
(

^j:i}l do,

or

rit^r,

hlaremi Haremos

&c.

P/r. I Hareis

( Haran

Second Future.
f He, or tengo de hacer < Has de haccx'de liaccr ( Hemos de h^cer < Havevs de hacer ( Han de hacer
(_

^
I

Sing.

Ha

^ / <
(
l

/*,

or

j^.'^i^,

or muji h^ &c.

/*/r.

Third Future.
Havre de
hacer,

1 Jhall

he

olUgd to do

Lj

Foaith

jp

The

RUDIMENTS
Fourth Future.
J had, qr /

of

Jiavia de hacer

n^jas to da

Imperative
p.

Mood.
Do
or tnah thou, or do thou

C
"^

Haz,

or hace tu

^^^g-

Haga el r Hagamos
Hagaii

nofo'tros

Let him do or Tiiake Let us do or tnake

Plur.

< Hnced vciotros


(^

Do]e

or make ye,

let

ye de

eilos

Let them do or make

5ubjun6tive and Optative

Mood.

Como, Aunque, Oxala.


fVben^ Though^ PVoidd
Prefent Tenfe.
to

God.

S^Kg.

< Hagas

I
I

^ Kaga
r Hagamos
P/i^;-.

JVhcK,
</c

or

God grant /
&c.

f
I

or

;/7Xr,

<

HegaU IHagan

J
Preterimperfeft.

jj

f Hiclera,
^biy.
-<

hiciciTe, haria

Hicicras, hicieiTes, hariis

XlVhen^OYivouIdtoGcd Hiciera, hiciefle, haria hicieffemos, hariamos ( J did do or make, &c. C Hicieramos, hicieffe Tedeis, hariadeis i Hicieradeis, hicieire
^Hicieran^
hicicflen. harian

Frcter-

//5^

Spanish Grammar,
Preterperfed.

351

f Haya hecho < Hayas hecho ( Hay a hecho r Hayamos hecho Plur. < Hayais hecho J Hay an hecho
Sing.

"J

/
\

U%e?t, or

God grant I hwve


&c.

inade^ or done^
J

Firft

and Second Preterpluperfeds.


'I

r Huviera, or havieiTe ^ [^uvicras, o/- huviefies ^ Huviera, <jr huvieiTe tiuv eramos, er huvieikmos P/r. < Huvieradcis, or huvielledeis
Sing.

Trn
<ii'cu/d

to

'^

//

or

madeySiQ.

/ Huviera.n, or huvielTen

Firft Future.

THicle re
^/'V^.

< Hicie leres


iciere ^ Hicie
I
I

Wheny or God grant 1 Jhall ot

rHicicremo mas
^Iur.< Hicieredei

ill

do or make^ &:q.

^ Hicieren

Second Future.
f Huviere, ^ Huviercs
or

havre
,
,

Sing.

P/ar.

/Huviere C Huvie eremos < Huvie < Huviercdcis [uvierea ^ Huvie

rrr, U Ijen,

or

^ Godgrant
,

^ Hecho, <

IJhall han)e dont

or madey

&c>

Infinitive

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
Hacer,
fo da or r/?^.

Preter-

152

r/je

RU D IMENTS
Preterpcrrc6l

of

Tenle.
To kaue done or tnads

Haver hecho

Future Tenfe.
Haver, or efperar de hacer

% make

or do hereafttr

Gerund.
Haciendo
Doing or making

Participle A(5live of the Preter Tenfe.

Hecho

Made

or done^ SiC,

In the fame manner are declined all the Verbs proceeding by compofition from Hacer ^ as Dc/bacer^ to undo, Rebaccr^ to make again, Contrabacer^ to
counterfeit.

^he Irregular Verb^ Caber,


Indicative

T^o

be contained

Mood.

Prefert Tenfe.
f Yo quepo < T\i cabes ^ El cabe r Cabemos flur. < Cabeis
j^

am
is

contained

Sing,

Ton are contained

He
Pf^^

contained

are contained

Te are contained
fhej are contained

Gaben

Preter-

tke

Spanish

Gramma

r<

53

Preterimperfcd.
CabIa

Sm
Plur

154

"^e

RUDIMENTS
Second Future.
"^

of

C He, cr tengo de caber Shg. < Has de caber ^ Ha de caber f Hemos de caber Tlur. < Haveis de caber {^ Han de caber

/
I

I am

fo,

or

mzfj^

be

f
I

cofttained,

8cc.

J
as in the other Verbs.

The Third and Fourth

Imperative
^.

Mood.
Be
you contained

^'^-

C Cabe ta \ Quupa el

Let him he contained


nofotros

C Tlur, <

Qj-pamos
'

Let us be contained

.abed vofdtros
^ilo^

Be ye

contained

t Qh^P^J^

^^^ ^^^^ ^^ contained

Subjundive

^;;^

Optative Mood.

CComo,

Oxala,

Aunque.

\ WhcHy God grant y Though,


Prelent Tenfe.
f Quepa < Quepas ^ Quepa f Quepamos
< Quepais

Sing.

When, or God grant 1 hk


contained^

&c.

?lur.

L Quepan

Preter^

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterimperfed:.

S5

Sinv.

f Cupiera, cupiefle, cabria ^ Cupieras, cupieiTes, cabrias f Cupiera, cupiclTe, cabria Cupieramos, cupiefTemos, cabriamos
-{

Iflen, or ivould
to

God 1

^vas
See.

contained,

Flur.

Cupieradeis, cupiefledeis, cabriadeis Cupieran, cupieffen, cabrian

Preterperfedt.

ing.

f Haya cabido Ha Hayas cabido < Ha

(Ha a cabido ay (Ha Hayamos cabido


^r. \

Pf^efiy

or

God grant I

haue been containedjSiC

Hd ayais

ay (Ha an

cabido cabido

Firft

and Second Preterpluperfeds.


huvieue
IVhen,
<u!ould

^ing.

or huvieiTes

or
to

huviefle

r Huvieramos, or huvieflemos
Plur, < Huvieradeis, or huvieiTedeis

Cabido,

God I had
been
coti-

( Huvieran,

or huvielTen

tained^

&.

Firft Future,
f Cupiei ere ieres < Cupiei
I

^ing.

sere ( Cupiei Cupicremos f Cupiei iredeis flur. < Cupiei

When,or God grant I pall, or nvill be contained^ &c.

ipieren ( Cupiei

\
Second Future.

^ing.

Huviere, or havre Huvieres, Huviere

PFhen, or

Huvieremos

Cabido I

God grant I may or Jhall be contained hereafter^

rk>

Huvieredeis

&c.

Huvieren
I

Infinitive

156

"The

RUDIMENTS
Infinitive

of

Mood.

Prefent.
Caber
To be untainei.

Preterperfedl.

Haver cabldo

To have been contained.

Gerund.
Cabiendo
Participle.
^e'i% contained.

Cabido

Contained.

72v Irregular Verb^ Ver,


Indicative

"to fee.

Mood<

Prefent Tenfe,
C
ting,

vc Yo veo
EI ve
'

ve \ 1 u ves

I/ee Tou fee

emos r Ve
is

He fees Wefet
Te
fee

Ven CVei
Preterimperfedl.
Via, r Vis or vcia
IS

Theyfei

1 did fee Tou did fee

He

rvi Viamos
adeis

We

did fee did fee

Ye did f^e
Ihey didfet

(Vilan

Pira

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firft

57

Preterpcrfe^l.

CVi,
Sing.

or vide

fa-TV

iftc \ \\{ Vio I Vic

y'ou

faiM

fVi imos
PJur.
illeis i Vi

He fa-TM Wefax^
Ye jfu'^w

tviicron
Second and Third Preterperfcdls.
Sin?.

C He, < Has


(

or

huve

vifto

vifto vifto

/ have fee ft Tou ha'vefeen

"

Ha

He

has feen

Plur.

f Hemos vifto < Haveis vifto ^ Han vifto

We hanje feen
Ye hwve feen Ihey ha<ve feen

Preterpluperfed:.
Havia
^i7lg.

/ had feen
You had feen
Vifto,

Havias

Havia C Haviamos Tlur. < Haviadeis ^ Havian

He had feen

We had feen
Ye had Jeen
They

bad feen

Firft Future.

\
Plur.

Ytxi
^'eras

IJhall or nMill fee

You Jhall or

ivill fee

Vera Veremos
Vereig

HefhalloT luiil fee Wefiall or wclll fee


YeJJpall or n.mllfee Tfhtyfhall or 'will fee

eran

Second Future.
tengo de ver f He, orKix < Has de ve er ^ Ha de ver f Hcmos de ver P/w. < Haveis de ver

I am
Yoijt

to

or
to

muf fee

Svig.

C Han de ver

QV mufl fee He is to or mufl fee We are to ox mufl fee Ye are to or mujffee Thty are to or muft fs

are

The Third and Fourth

as in the other

Verbs. Imperative

158

lie

RUDIMENTS
Imperative

of

Mood.
-P" thou fee, or fee thinl

<:;,

^"^IVeael
Veamos nofotros Tlur\ Ved vofotros Vean ellos

S ^^^>

" v^

'"

Let him fie Let us fee Do ye feey or


let ye fee

Let them fee

The

Moods,

Subjun6bive, the Optative, and the Infinitive altogether as in the other Verbs before, as

the Prefent Tenfe of the two firft Moods Vea^ the Preterimperfcdl, Viera^ veria^ viejfe the Preter,

perfedl,

Haja

vzjlo,
\

the Preterpluperfedl,

Huviera^
Infinitive,

or huviejfe vtfto

the Future, Viere,

The

Ver^ Participle, Vifio,

The Irregular Verb Caer,


Indicative
Prefent
C Caigo

To falL

Mood.
Tenfe.
Ifall
Thoufalleft

\ Caes
t Cae f Caem Caemos
-. ?lur,

< Caeis
-J

(Caen

Hefal/s We fall Te fall rheyfali

Preterimperfe6l.
Caia, caias, &c.

Firfl:

Preterperfed*.

Cai, caiHe, &c.

Second

the

Spanish Grammar.
Second Preterperfed.

159

He

ca'ido.

Has

caido, &c.

And

fo

of the other Tenfes, like the regular Verbs.

Imperative
C Cae \ Calga f Caigdmos

Mood.
Do you fall,
Let him fall

ox fall thou

^'''^'

Let us fall

Plur. \

Ca^

Do ye fall,

or

let

ye fall

I Caigan
Infinitive

Let them fall

Mood.
Tenfe.
Tofall

Prefent
Caer

Gerund.
Cayendo
Falli/2g

The Verb
fent

Entender^ to underfland, in

the Pre-

Tenfe of the Indicative


Ente7tdz,

Mood makes

Entiendo

Preterperfecl.

Of

the

Verbs in Cer,

following Verbs ending In cer^ are genefpek without an /, though it were Jtc\oxQ proper to write them with it before the r, which would render them all regular, and more anfwerable to the Latin^ from which many of them are derived ; but fmce we generally find them otherrally

THE
wife,
it is

proper to note them

down

here.

Infinitive.

i6o

The

RU D I AGENTS
Indicative,

of

Infinitive.

Adolecer, to gronv ftck Agradecer, to thank Amortecer, to dye aiA^ay


Desfallecer,
to faint

Apetecer, Crecer, to
Encarecer,
tftablecer,

to dtjire

gro-uj
to
to

Encallecer,

<zvax

hard as aCorn

magnify

to ejlablip?

Feriecer, to finrjh

Pacer,

to feed to periJJ)

Perecer,

Compadecer, to ha've CompaJJion Conocer, to hionv


Padecer,
Ofrecer,
Parecer.
to

fuffer
to

to offer

Guarnecer,
to
to

garnijh

appear
to
to

Nacer,

he born

Enfiaquecer, Enriquecer,

gro^M lean
enrich

Empobrecer,
Endurecer,

to gro-zv

poor

to gro-iv

hard

Fallecer, to fail or dye

Engrandecer,

to

magnify

Entriftecer, to gro^w melancholy

Ennoblecer, to ennoble Florece r, to Jlourijh


Fortalecer,
to

Jirengthen

Favorecer, tofaioiir Obedecer, to obey Defvanecer, to make ^ain Enfoberbecer, to gronv proud Emmudecer, to groiv dumb
Ellablecer,
to eftablijh

Merecer,

to merit.

the

Spanish Grammar.

i6

and fo of others ; but cullom has prevailed to write them as above, and there is no contending againft but Veneer^ cannot admit of the }\ being deit rived from the Latin vincere^ and therefore keeps on without an / in all Moods and Tenres>
,

Of

the

Verbs

in ger.

THE

nitive in ger^

following Verbs which have their Infimake the Prefent Tenfe of the

the fame ; and third Plural of the Imperative Mood, and through all perfons, and both numbers of the Prefent Tenfe of the Optative, and the Subjunflive Moods That is

Indicative

Mood, by changing
Singular, and the

g into j

in the third

firft

when

in the ultima^

or

laft fyllable

there

is

an a or

o.

Indicative.
Infinitive.

Prefent Tenfe,
Encdjo, Rscojo,

Fr tierperfeEf,
Encogi. Recogi. Acogi.
Efcogi. ^ogi-

Encoger, to Jhrink^ Hecoger, to gather, Acoger, to entertain y Efcoger, to choofe, Coger, to catchy

Acoj j,
Eicojo,

Cojo,

In other

Moods and

except the

Tenfes, like the Regulars, Tenfes before mentioned.

Of

the Verbs in er.

THE
in

following Verbs in er make the Prefent Tenfe of the Indicative Mood by adding i the laft fyllable but one of the Inftnitive, and

the

i62

The

RUDIMENT'S
Moods.

of

the fame in the fecond and third Perfons Singular, and the third Plural of the Imperative Mood, and throughout the Prefent Tenfe of the Optative and the Subjunflive

the

Spanish Grammar.'

163

Of

Verbs Pafive of the Second Conjugation^


are formed and conjugated in the
as thofe

THEY manner
ver^ to fee
is

fame
j

of the

firlt
:

Conjugation

as

made

paffive,

thus

Prefent. Indicative.

Imperfedt.
"^

Perfe6l
'^ Fui, or

Soi villo T ^ Cc-ravino f S6i viilo vide < eres viflo / I -s ^^as vilio era villo ^ es viilo eramos viilos r Somos viftos f ^5 r eradeis viftos Plur. < So'is viilos \ 9?^ ^ Son viftos J ^ C ^^^" viilos
ng. SiK7.

he fidd
il^c.

|
v^^

villo,

f
I

|
"

And

fo the reft

of die Tenles.

Jo

Of Verbs
Thefe Verbs, and
all

Reciprocal
erfe,

terminated in
firft

are like-,

wife conjugated as thofe of the


Perderfe>

Conjugation
to

as

Ti

lofe

onisfelf,

be hji.

Indicative.

Prefent.

Impe^-fedl.

Perfecfl.

5z.

r Me pierdo < Te pierdes


5

1
I

% I Tc penlias
Se perdia

t: C

Me perdia

1 J' ^
(
-l^

^'e ill Te

C f

Me
^'^

perdi
perdiile

!^

P/.

I J ^ Se pierde ^ Nos perdemos r,^ C f -^ r \ ^ Os perdeis \r^\ ^ Se pierden )ierden J o ^ p C

Nos perdiamos perdiamc O^ perdiadeis ^^


Se perdian

\h
1 .3

C ^e { N'os perdimos^ j Os perdiHeis "^ ^ ^e perdi^rron f>

and

fo

of the other Tenfes

The
.

Imperative thus

C Pierdete
^ I Pierdefe fPerdamofnos < Perdedos
(_

^'"^-

1
/
J>-

Lofe ^''^*'Ai^'

Plur.

Pierdanfe

^^/.^

i64

7?^^

RUD TMENTS

of

Note, That the Perfons are often doubled in the Conjugation of thofe Verbs ; as, 2I9 me phrdo, tu te perdes, el fe fierde, &c. or thus, Pierdome, Pierby putting im Pronoun after defie, Perdieje^ &c.
the Verb.

Of Verbs
The
Haver,

Imperfonah.

Imperfonals of this Conjugation are.


To he, as in ^juhat concerns

Place^ &c.

Indicative.

Prefcnt Tenfe.
Hai,
or

no hay

There

is,

or there

is

noL

ImperfccH:.
flavia.

There fwas.

Fir ft Preterperfedl.
Kuvo,
There ivas, or there has been.

Second Perfect.

Ha

havido.

There has been,

Plufperfed.
Havia
havido.'

There

had

hten.

Future.
Havra,"

^^^* '^'itl, or /hall he.

Second

//5<?

Spanish Grammar.
Second Future.
72vr^ muji hs.

165

Ha

de haver,

and

fo

of the other Futures.


Imperative.

Hay a,
Optative.
Oxala que Lava,

Let there he.

Prefent.

God grant
Imperfe(5l.

that there he.

Que

huviera, &C.

^at
Perfea.

there might he.

Que hay a

havido,

Tl^at there

hath hcen^

Plufperfecl:.

Que huviera

havido,

V.^at there

had

heen.

Future.

Que

huviere.

That there fiall

he,

&c.

The Spanijh is perfed Latin in the ExprefHons of the imperlbnal Verbs, which manner cannot be found in the EngUJk^ French^ and other Languages ; the Engli/b being obliged to add there^ or i/, and the French ii^ &c. and this in all the Imperfonals throughout all the Conjugations.
Examples.
Hai un hombre que me
is

efpera abaxo para

ir

Man

that Jiays fdr

me

bflonjn t9

-M 3

a la Comedia, 77:^erg go to the Plaj-}x>u/e. Havia.

i66
Havia
cien

The

RUDIMENTS

of
one

foldados enla Embofcada, T/jere

^ere

hundred

Soldiers in the

Amhujh
is

No

mas que treinta y aos^There nvere no more than Que haya o no haya poco imporia, that there be, or
havia

thirty-tnf:o.

noty

but

of little Importance, &c.

Ser, ^0 hc^ as in

what

concerns the EJfence^ or

^ia^

lilies

of a Things &c.
Indicative,

Pre/. Es,

no

es

//

is,

it is

nor.

J/nperf. era,

// ivas.
It

Perf. Eue,

hath been,

and

fo in the other Tenfes.

Examples.
Es noche, or Es verdsd. Era afs!.
es

de ndche,

It

is

Kighi.

It is true.

It 'was fo.
Tea,

Que

fea 6

no

que

fe

me

da,

fhat

it be,

or not

be,

nvhai
it to

is

me.

In the fame manner is conjugated the Verb Ser MencfJr, to be neceilury, or requifue, as
Es Menefter, que yo vaya a ver la Ciadad the Londres, pucs un Mundo pequeno, enque florecen tddas las Artes y Ciencias que eUaa divididas per las quatro partes de el Mundo, // is necrjfary that 1 go to fee theCity of Londion, becaufe it is a little World, in '-Lvhich all the Arts and Sciences that are dinjidcd in the j. four Parts of the World do flour if Sera Menefler, que Pedro y Juan fe avcngan, // ^ill he neceffary or requifte, that Peter and John agree together.
es

Si fuera Menefler,

yo

vinicra, 1 nvould comt if

it

fould

he

r^

qui e or fit

r.e ceffary,

^c.

the

Spanish Grammar.

167

l^je

Verb Jmperfonal Placer, Ti plcafe.


Indicative

Mood.
It pkafes.

Pref. Place,

Imperf. Placid,
Firfi Perf.

It d':dpleafe. It pie a fed.


//

Plugo,

Second Per/.

Ha

Placido,

has pleafed,

and

fo in the other Tenfcs.

Imperative,
Plega, Let
it

pkafey &c.

Llover^
Llueve,
Llovia,

To

Rain.
Jt rains.
It

did rain,

Src,

Heder,
Hiede, Hedia,

To Stink.
It flinks,
// didjiink,

&c.

0/e>,

To

fmell.

This Verbs changes


Tenfes, as
Huele, Huela,

into hue in

the Prefent

It fmelU. Let it fmell.

Que

hucla,

'That

it

may fmell, &c.

Acontecer^ acaeccr^
Acontece,

To

happen.
// happe?ts,

&c.

Perteneccr^
Pertenece,

To
4

belong.
// belongs, Sec.

Enough

i68

"The

RU D IMENTS

of
us

put an

Enough of the Imperfonal Adlivcs, let Example of the Imperfonal PafTive,


Leerfe^

now

To

be read.
//
is

Se L-p, Se Leia, Sc Leyd,

reading.

It ivas reading.
// /jas kern read, 5rc.

And fo are conjugated ejlahkcerfe^ to be ed or ordered by Parliament, ^c.


Se efiablece. 6e eftablecia. Se eiiablecid
It is ejiahlijhed.

cftablifli-

It ixas eftahlijking.
,

It

has been ejiablijhed, kc.


it

Im^eraiiie, Eflablefcafc,

Let

be ejlablipedy &c.

Saherfcy

To

be known.
It
is

Se

fabe, or fabefe.

knoivn.

Se labia, or fabiaie. Se fupo, cr fupofe.


Jmperati've, Sepafe,

It ^was
It

km'wn.

has been knoivn, kz.


it

Let

be knoivn, &c.

N. B. That all the Verbs regular or irregular of the Second Conjugation, may be conjugated in the fame manner as thofe of the firfl Conjugation by the yerb:
auxiliar
as,

Verb

efldr,

and the Gerund of the

Prefent Tenfe.

Indicative.
"^
i

Leo, wg, < Lees,

or eiloi or eft as

Leyendo Leyendo

f LeemoSjoreftamosLeyendo (^ I f/ur^i Leeis, or eftais Leyendo 4 Leen, or ellan Leyendo J

'

'

&

'
'

and

fo

ill

the reft of the

Mopds and

Tenfes.

Of

/;&^

Spanish Grammar.
of the third
in
ir,

169

Of

Verbs Regular

Conjugation

as

Subir, *To go up or afcend.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
f Subo < Subes

Sing.

(SuW
f Subimos Plur. I Subis ^ Suben

Igo up or

afctncl,

&C.

Preterimperfed:,

C Subia
Sing.

< Subias

t Subia
r Subiamos Plur. < Subiadeis,
or fubiais

/ njoas

going up, &C.

^ Subian

]
Firft Prctcrperfcd.

Si??g.

f Subi < Subiile

I Subio f Subimos P/ur. i Subifteis

]
T
Subido,

tufni up or fifcended.
Sec.

( Subicron

Second and Third Preterperfeds


He,
"i
or

huve

C
Ihave gone
i

\ Has

Ha

up or

f Hemos flur. < Haveis

afcended. Sec,

(Han
Fretcr-

lyo

"The

RUDIMEN'TS
Preterpluperfedt,

of

$ifig.

r Havia < Havias

"J

r
I

V Haviamos f
Tlur.

5^"^!^

i Subido, *

\ ^ ^^/^''
\
e^, &:c,
I

""P

^^ ^/^^^-

< Haviadeis

t Havian

Firft Future.

r Subire
Shg. < Subiras
(_

Subira

/y^// or fwill go
cenuy

lip

or af-

f Subiremos Flur. < Subireis

&c.

^ Subiran

Second Future,
f He, or tengo de < Has de fubir
fubir

5ij".

^ Ha de fubir r Hemes de fubir


P/-.

I am

io

or muft go up or /*

cend,

&c.

< Haveis de fubir ^ Han de fubir

The Third and Fourth

Future as in the other Verbs.

Imperative

Mood.
Go you up or afcend
Let him go up or afcend Let us go up or afcend Do ye go up or afcend Let them go up or afcend

^'"^isubael f Subamos
Tlur.

nofdtrbs

< Subid vofdtros t Suban ellos

Subjundllve

the

Spanish Grammar.
Mood.

171

Subjundtivc a?id Optative

Aunque, Oxala, J Como, iWheHy God grants Would to


Prefent Tenfe.

God.

Sing.

C Suba ^ I < Subas ( IVhen or God grant I do go ^ Suba r Subamos f up ox afund, &c. I Plur. < Subals ^ Suban J
'

Three Preterimperfe6ts.
f Subiera, fubiefle, or fubiria < Subieras, lubieiles, or fubirias
I a \-'
(^

*J
I ,,,,
I
!

5'/;/^,

Subiera, lubielle, or iubiria

u'.r

r u-

'

t^hen.m 'would n j j jj
/"

. ,

to

C Subieramos, fubiefTemos, or fubiriamos f


Plur. < Subieradeis, fubieffedeis, or fubiriadeis
(^

l?
>

Subieran, fubiefTen, or fubirian

Preterperfed.
f Haya < Hayas
JVhen, ox

Sing.

God grant I ha've gont

r Hay Los Plur. < Hayais

^^^^^^'

up or afcendedy &c.

^ Hayan
Firft
f Huviera,
Sing.

and Second Preterpluperfeds.


or havielTe

"^

f
I

\ Huvicras, or huviefies t Huviera, or huvieffe CHuvieramos, or huvieflemos Plur. < Huvieradeis, or huvieiTedeis ( Huvieran, r huvielTen

I
f

'^oMtoGod
''J^'^nded^

^'^^

^"^'^^'

\
I

< ^^^^gone^P
j ^J

\J^^'

Firft

172

th^

RUDIMENTS
Firfl Future.
"J I
I

of

Si.

r < Subieies t Subiere


Subiere

PT^en, or

rSubieremos Plur, < Subieredeis

f
I

God grant IJhall or ^ill go up ov afcend, kc.

^ Subieren

J
Second Future.

f Huviere,
^hg, < Huvieres Huviere (^

or havre

'J I

C
I
<;

When, or God grant

fHuvieremos Plur. < Huvieredeis

i
{ I

b'H
*

)
] I

^P^^^ ^^'^^ S^^


a/

or

afce7ided,

kc,

^ Huvieren

J
Infinitive

I.

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
Subir,

To go up or afiend.

Preterperfed.
Haver
fubido,

T9 ha'vegone up or afccnded.

Future
Haver
er efpcrar de fubir.

Tenfe.
To ^^
/<?

go up or

^^//

hereafler.

Gerund.
Subicndo,
Gc/V^
a/>

or afcending.

Participle of the Prefent Tenfe and


EI que fube.

Adive

Voice.

Going up or afcending.

Participle Pafiive,
SttbiJo,

Cone up or afcended.

In

the

Spanish Grammar.^
all

173

In the fame manner


the third

other Regular Verbs of Conjugation in ir^ are conjugated ; as


fufFer,

Sufnr^ to

Hinchir^ or Hencbir^ to

fill,

^c.

Abrir^ to open, Cuhnr^ to uncover, and Encuhrzr^ to conceal, are Regular, except only in the fecond Preterperfedt Tenfe which, inftead of Abndo^ as other Verbs of this Sort, is Abierto^ Cubierto, BefcubiertOy and Encubierto, Next follow
cover,
Defcuhrzr,
to
,

Thefe four Verbs,

ne

Irregular Verbs of the third Conjugation^ in if, as

Venir,

^0 come.

Indicative

Mood.

Prefenc Tenfe.
f Vengo < Vienes I Viene
f Venimos
Plur.

/ come
Tou comi

Sing.

He

comes

We

<

\'enis

come Te come

t Vienen

They come

Preterimperfed.
r Venia < Venias
fVeniamos
P/r.

Sing,

^I did come,
or veniais

Sec.

< Veniadeis, t Venian

Firil

174

'I'h^

RUDIMENTS
Firft Preterperfedt.
Sing,

of

f Vine < Vcnifle (^ Vino f Venimos Plur. < Venifteis


(^

/ came Tou came He came

We

came

Venieron

Te came T^ey came

Second and Third Preterperfedls.


^ing.

f He, \ Has

or

huve

"^
I

Vlur.

\ Haveis

tHan

i
Preterpluperfe6l.

Sing,

f Havia < Havias

Tlur.

Haviadeis

^ Havian
Firft Future.
verne Sing. < Vendras, or vernas I Vendra, or verna
or

f Vendre,

I |

f Vendremos, o/* vernemos P/r. < Vendrcis, or vcrneis ^Vendran, <7rvernan

^^^^^ ^, ^.^j

^^_

Second Future.
f He, or tengo de < Has de venir ^ Ha de venir
f
venir
I X^I

Sing.

am lam

to. to,

or

//f come,

de venir Plur. < Haveis de venir Han de venir l^

Hemos

The Third and Fourth

as in the other Verbs.


^

Imperative

'

the

Spanish Grammar,
Imperative

175

Mood.

. ^
^

Ven

tu
cl

Do you

\ Venga

f Vengdmos nofotros Plur. < Venid vofotros


(^

come, or come thou Let htm come Let us come Do ye come, or let ye come

Vengan

ellos

Let them come

Subjundive and Optative Mood.


(

Como,

Oxala,

Aunque.
Though.

( Wherty

God

graiit^

Prefent Tenfe.
f Venga < Vengas

Sing.

Plur.

C Venga r Venga engamos < Venga < Vengais / Venga 'engan

When, or God grant 1 do


come, &c.

Three Preterimperfeds.
Viniera, vinielTe, vernia, or vendria

Vinieras,
Sing.

vlniefles,

vernias,

or

vendrias Viniera, viniefle, vernia, or ven-

^
I

^^^ria
_

C Vinieramos,
mos,
or

^^

viniefTemos, vernia- [

IWhen^or rwould to God I did come, &:c,

vendriamos

Vinieradeis, viniefTedeis, v( ,'erniaPlur. J deis, or vendriadeis


J

Vinieran, viniefTen, vernian, or vendrian

Pretcr-

176

rhe

RUDIMENTS
Preterperfedt,

of

ing.

Haya Hayas < Ha]

_Haya fHa: r Hayamos


Plur.

have come^ &c.

\ Hayais / Hayan
Firft

and Second Preterpluperfc6ts.

Bing.

Tlur.

f Huviera, 9r huvIefTe \ Huvieras, or huviefles nuvicnc ^ nuviera, or huviclTe |_ Huviera, f Huvieramos, or huvieflemos \ Huvieradeis, or huviefTedeis
/ Huvieran, or huviefTen

When,

r
*<' to

Vv '^ J ^^^^^^>
f

nvould ^^"***^
comey

\ God 1 had

&c

Firft Future.

f Viniere
tling.

<

Vinieres

^ Viniere r Vinieremos fhr. < Vinieredeis ( Vinieren

When^QX God grant I JhallyOVwill come, &c.

Second Future,
f Huvlere, or havre < Huvieres,
{ Huviere f Huvieremos
P/r.
I

Sing.

VenidoJ
1

^^^^^'
o*^

'"

^^^ ^^^^ IJhall


^c.

^^'^^ ^^^^>

< Huvieredeis

4 Huviercn
Infinitive

Mood.

Prefent.
Venij-,

Tq

m
Future,

the

Spanish Grammar,
Future.

i^y

Haver de

venir,

To be

to

comei

Gerund.
Vinlendo,
Coming.

Participle of the Prefent Tenfe


El que viene.

and Adive
He
that comes.

Voice,'

Participle of the Preter


Venido,

Tenfe and PalTive Voice,


Come

The Compounds

of this Verb
all
;

Venzr.,

are declined

every refped

in

Moods and Tenfes


as Revenlr^

out as
vengo.,

their original

to return.

throughRe-

Revhw^ &c.

Convenir^

to agree, Convengo^

become, Devengo.^ DeSobrevefur, to come upon fuddenly, So' vhie^ &c. hrevengOy Sohrevzne., &c.
Convlne, &:c.
DeveJiir, to

^be Irregular Verb, Decir^


Indicative

TCo

fay.

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
C DjgO < Dices C Dice f Decimos
'I fay

Chig.

Tgu fay
,

He fays

We fay
Tefay
^hiyfa^

/>//.

^Decis C^iccn

Prit^r^

178

"The

RUDIMENTS
Preterimperfed.
/ did fa^
Toil

of

f Decia < Decias ^ Decia C Deciamos Plur. < Deciadeis, (_ Decian


5i^^.

or deciais

did fay did fay We did fay Ye did fay T^hey did fay

He

Firft Pr^terperfed.

f Dixe
Sing.

\ Dixifte f Dixo f Diximos


\
Dixifteis

Ifaid You faid


aid He f

We faid
Ye faid Iheyfaid

Flur.

/ Dixeron

Second and third Preterperfecls.

fHe He,
Zing,
[as

or

huve dicho

dicho dicho r Hemes dicho Plur. < Haveis dicho ^ Han dicho

/ ha've faid Tou have faid He has faid

We hanje faid
Ye ha<ve faid
Jhey ha'vejaid

Preterpluperfecl.
C Havia < Havifs ^ Havia f f laviamos Tlur, < Haviadeis (^ Havian
Sing.

Dicho,

7 had faid Tou had faid He had faid We had faid Te had Jaid They had faid

Firft Future.
Dire
Sing

Diras

1 Dira
f Diremos

PhrA

Direis

Iflmll or fwill fay Tou fhall or <u:iil fay Hefhail or ^1IIfay Wejhall or ^illjay Te fhall or nxiU fay
They fhall or nvill fay

(Diran
I

Second

the

Spanish Grammar^
Second Future.
tengo de decir
\

179

r < ( r Plur. < ^


'hig,

He,

or

7 am
Toil

to

Has de

decir

are
is to

to

or tnuji fay or muji fay or or

de d decir de decir Haveis de decir Han de decir

Ha

He

Hemos

IVe are

to

muf fay muf fay

Te are

to

They are

to

or muJi fay or mufi fay

the reft as in other Verbs,

Imperative
C
^^^^^'*

Mood.
Do thou fay Let him fay
Let us fay Do ye fay Let them fay

Di

tu,

or dice tu

\ Diga el ( igamos nofo'tros C Digai ^lur. I Decic IPlur. -^ Decid vofotros


^an cilos

Subjundive and Optative Mood,

Como, Aunque, Oxala.


When^ Though^ Would
Prefent I'enfe,
ga
i^ing

to

God.

gas

ga C Digam

V/herij

or

Qod grant 1

do fayy &c.

Plur .^Digdls

Preterimperfed.
f DIxera, dixeiTe, dlria < Dixeras, dixelTes, dirias
(_

iiing,

Dixera, dixelle, diria C Dixeramos, dixeiTemos, diriamos


dixeiTen, dirian

IVhen, orn^jouldtoGod

I did fay, &c,

Vlur. X Dixeradeis, dixeiTsdcis, diriadeis

{ Dixtran,

Pretr-

'l8o

Tie

RUD IMENTS
Preterperfed.

of

Shi^.

f Haya dicho < Hayas dicho ( Haya dicho

iM^'^beXf or
(

God grant I havi

f Hayamos dicho Thr. < Hayais dicho

faidy &c.

f Hayan dicho
Firft

and Second
or huvieilb
or huvieffes

Preterpluperfccfts,

f Huviera,
^itig.

< Huvieras,

^
/

C
I

When^ or
i^ouldto

^ Huviera,

or huviefTe

f Huvieramos, or huvieflemos Plur. < Huvieradeis, or huvielTedeis ^ Huvieran, or huvieffen

f
i

S D' h
^

J
\

God

^ ^^^
&c.

f^^^*

Firft Future.

f Dixere
Sing.

Plur.

< Dixeres ^ Dixere r Dixeremos < Dixeredeis

When^

or

Gi?^

grant I Jhall or

^vjillfay. Sec.

Dixeren

Second Future.
f Huviere, j Huvieres
or

havre
"J I

T
\ ^^^^^^^

5/^.

^^ ^^^^^^^^

P/r.

f Huvieremos < Huvieredeis

&c

t Huvieren
Infinitive

Mood.
Tenfe.

Frefent
Decir,

^7^
Preter-

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterperfeifl

i8i

Tenfe.
^& have /aid.

Haver

dicho,

Future Tenfe,
Aver de
decir,

Tc hi io fay hereafter.

Gerund,
Diciendo,
^^'?'^*

Participle

Adive of

the Prefent Tenfe.


Out fayti^*

EI que dice.

Participle of the Preter

Tenfe and Paflive Voice.


Said.

Die ho.
Participle

of the Future Tenfe.


He
that
is ts

El que ha, cr efpera de decir.

fay hereafter.

through Simple,

The Compounds of this Verb Dear, in all all Moods and Tenfes, are declined
as,

Points,
like the

Bendecir, Maldecir,
Defdecir,

to l/ejs,

to curfe,
ta

Bendigo, Maldigo,
Defdigo,

unfay,

Bendixe. Maldixe. Defdixe.

lie

l82

"J^he

RUD IMENTS
Irregular Verb^
Ir,

of

T'he

T^o go.

Indicative

Mood.

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterpluperfefl:.

183

^Ing.

f Havia < Havias

(Havia fHaviamos
Plur.

,jj

J
^

nadgone,kc:' o
-

< Haviadeis ( Havian


Firft Future,

Sing.

<

Iras

Plur. < Ireis

( Iran

Second Future.
r He, {?r tengo de < Has de ir
ir

5'/>|',

(Hadeir
i'/Mr,

C Hemos de < Haveis de

i
ir

'

/;;?/?
''

or

/^ ^^. *

&C.

ir

( Han de

ir

the Reft of the Futures as in the other Verbs.

Imperative

Mood.

Vaya

el

f Vamos nofotros
Plur.i Id vofdtros

Let him g& Let us gs Do ye go

i Vayan

elloi

Let

tkm

g9

Subjunftive

i84

"J^he

RUDIMENTS

of

Subjundlive and Optative

Mood,

Como,
Wkoi,

Aunqiie, Oxala,
"Though,

Would

to

God.

Prefent Tenfe.
{ Vaya
'. -i S.ing, -l

Vayas
Whett, or
(

tVaya
r Vayamcs Tkr, < Vayais Vayan

God grant I

dogs^

&c.

Preterimperfed Tenfe.
f Fuera,
5'/V.
fueile, iria
fueiTes, iiias

< Fueras,

"J I ,,
I

,,
,.'
.

/Fuera, fuelTe, iria Crueramos, fueiiemos, iriamos


Tlur.

...

f
I

'

X Fueradeis, fueiTedeis, iriadeis ^ Fueran, fueilen, irian


Preterperfedl,

C Haya
^inz.
-J

Hay as
I

^Haya Hayamos CHaya

.,

U^en. ox God grant 1 ha've gQr.r,


Sec.

'"^'

f /r. ^ Haya
(Haya

Two
Sif2g.

Preterpluperfcfts

f Huvlera, or IiuviefTe < Huvieras, cr huviefles


(_

When^ or
<voouldtoGod

Huviera, or huviefle f Huvieramos, or huviefTemos


er huvielTen

'

1
\

-^

^^^^ ^^"^>

Tlur, < Huvieradeis, or huvielTedeis

&c.

(Huvieran,

Firft

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firft Future.

185

Sing.

f < ^ f Plur. <

Fuerc
Fueres

Fuere

Wljen^ or
fwill gOj

God grant IJhall r


SiC.

Fueremos
Fneredeis

f Fueren

Second Future.
Sing.

C Huviere, < Huvieres

cr havre

When, or God grant


ido.

I Huviere C Huvieremos P/ur. < Huvieredeis ^ Huvieren

I Jhall or

luill

haije goney &c

i
Mood.

Infinitive

Pfefent Tenfe.
Ir,

Togo.

Preterperfedb.

Haver

ido.

To have gone.

Future
Haver de
ir.

Tenfe.
To he
to

go hereafter.

Gerund.
Yendo,
Participle of the Prefent
El que va,
Going.

Tenfe and Adive Voice.


He
that
is

going.

Participle of the Preter


)d0,

Tenfe and Paffive Voice.


QOJJ0,

^e

i86

The

RUDIMENTS

of

^e

Irregular Verb, Oir, To bear.

Indicative

Mood.

Prcfent Tenfe.
igo f'Ols
Sing,

/ hear
Tou hear

iOy ^ Oyes
Oye iOy,
f

He

hears

Oimos

We

Tlur, \ Cib
l^

Oyen

hear Ye hear Thej hear

Preterimperfe(5l.

SinZ'

f Ois )ia ^ Oias


Oia

Flur,

f Oiamos < Oiais


(^

Oian

/ did hear Tou did hear He did hear We did hear Te did hear ^ej did hear

Firft Preterperfed.
/ heard Tou heard He heard We heard Te heard fhey heard

Sing,

^ \

Oifte

'6 tOyo

t Oimos Plur, < Oiftei*

JOyeron

Second and Third Pretcrperfeds.


CHe,
Sing.

or hiJve

<Has

CHa
fKemos
P/i/r. ?

^,j

I haveheardy
&c.

^^^''

Haveis

XHan
Preter-

the

S?ANisn Grammar.
Preterpluperfefl.

187

Sing.

f Havia < Havias

"^

r
I

(Stmos
P/ur.

[o!doJ/WW,&c.
I

< Haviadeia ( Havian

Firft Future,

Sing,

f OIre < Oiras


f

-J

OirLos

^^^^^' '

-^''^^ ^^^''

^<^-

?/r. < Oireis

f
I

( Oiran

J
Second Future,

?/-,

f He, or tengo de < Has de oir ^ Ha de oir

oi oir

/ mufl, or am

to

hear,

f Hemes de oir flur. < Haveis de oir ^ Han de oir

&c,

the

Third and Fourth


Imperative

as in other Verbs.

Mood.

'Oye ttt Oiga aquel f Oigamos nofdtros nof b'tros fkr^ < Oid vofdtros aque] { Oigan aquellos
J
I

Do you hear Let him hear Let us hear

Do ye hear Let them heat-

Subjunflive

i88

"The

RUDIMENTS
Moods
Oxala.
to

of

Subjundtive a7id Optative

nsoith

the St'gm

Como,

Aunque,

2 iVheny Though y

Would

God.

Prefent Tenfe.

roij 'Oiga
Stng. \tng.
-l -^

Oigas Oil

Oiga

When^ or God grant Ida


hear, &c.

Vhr.

Three Preterimperfedls.
f Oyera, oyeiTe, or < Oyeras, oyefies,
oiria
"J

^ing.

or oirias
oiria

I
f

^ Oyera,

oyelTe,

o/-

f Oyeramos,oyefiemos,o;' oiriamos J Flur. < Oyeradeis, oyefTedeis, i>r oriadeis I ( Oyeran, oyellen, or oirian J

When, or ivould to Gdd / <///^ ^^r, &c.

Preterperfedl Tenfe.

Sing.

r Haya < Hayas


\ r\'A
f
*

/ Haya r Hayamos { Hayam '. Plur, < Kay a is

J
1

^^^^^^^
^^^^'^

^^ ^^^ S*'^^^ ^^^rd, &c,

^ Hayan

Two
Sing,

Preterpluperfedls.

r Huviera, or huviefte \ Havicras, er huvieiTes

"J I
I

T J^'hcn^
'?

r
to
^tfi'

t Huviera,
(f

or huviefie
^

or huvielTcmos Tlur. \ Huvieradeis, or huviededeis

Huvieramos,

(
I

qj^^ '

J <z^oaA/
j I

Go^:/

heard, 6cQ.

t Huvierin,

cr huvieffea

L
Firft

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firft Future.

189

Sing.

f Oyere < Oyeres ^ Oyere f Oyeremos Pkr. < Oyeredeis ^ Oyeren

When.or God grant

1 Jhall^ or
heary &c.

at'///

Second Future.
f Huvlere,
5/^.

or Havre "1
I
f
j

P/;<r.

< Huvieres, ( Huviere r Huvieremos < Huvleredeis t Huvieren

q.

1
'

^f,

or

God grant IJhall


^^Ji/^ ^f^rrf',

or w///

&c*

J
Infinitive

Mood.

Prefent.
Oir,

% hear,
Preterperfedt.

Haver

oido,

% hanje heard.
Future.

Haver de

oir,

To he

to

hear hereafter.

Gerund.
Oyendo,
Participle of the Prefent
Oyente,
or el

Hearing,

Tenfe and Adlive Voice.


He
that
is

que oyty

hearing.

Participle of the Preter


Oido,
I

Tenfe and Paflive Voice.


Heard.

Ths

190

The

RUDIMENTS

ef

T^he

Irregular Verb^ Herir, 7i hurt or wound.

Indicative

Mood.

the

Spanish Grammar.
Imperative Mood,

lyi

. 5'^.

iiere CHier

ta

[iera I Hiei el f Hiramos nofo'tros Flur. < Herid vofotros ^ Hieran ello

Do you Jlrike or 'nound Let him Jlrike or ^vound Let us Jirike or ivound
Da ye jirike
Lejt

or ^juound them Jirike or ivoiind

Subjundive and Optative Mood<

Como,
Whe?i,

Oxala,

Aunque.
'T'hough.

God grant,
Prefent Tenfe,

Sing.

Hiera f Hle'i ieras \ Hiei

Plur.

(Hier IT3. C Hiramos i Hirais ^ Hieran

Wheftf or

God grant I

ds

nvound, Scz,

Three Preterimperfedls.
or herjria
or heririas
JVhefiy
to

or heriria

or ivould

C Hirieramos, hiriellemos, Plur. < Hirieradeis, hirie/Tedeis,

or heririamos
or heririadeis

God 1 did

ixound^ ScQ.

( Hirieran,

hiriefTen, or heririan

Future.
f Hiriere
Sing.
}.

Hirieres

^ Hiriere
f Hirieremos
Plur.

When, or

njoouJd

t9

God

I /hall or -will

^ Hirieredeis

t Hirieren

The
finitive

other Tenfes as in Regular Verbs. Mood the fame. The Gerund

The

In-

Uirmdo^
Tee

Wounding.

J92

"the

RUDIMENTS
Dormir,
to dye.

of

T'he Irregular Verbsy

to Jlcep^

and

Morir,

Dormir,
Indicative

To

jleep.

Mood,

Prefent Tenfe.

Sing,

r Duermo < Duermes I Duerme r Dormimos


Dormis

ijl^^p

Toujleep

Hejleeps

Plur. <

Wejleep Ye Jleep

t Duermen

^ey Jleep
Preterimperfe(5t.

Sing.

f Dormia < Dormias (^ Dormia f Dormiamos


< Dormiadeis
l_

>

Plur.

Dormian

7 didJleep Tou didJleep He didJleep We didJleep Te didJleep they did (leep

Firft Preterperfed.
f Dormi Dormifte

IJlept

Sing.

.?

Toujlept

f'Durmio
r Dormimos
Plur,

He Jlept

We Jlept
Te Jlept
1'hey Jlept

< Dormilteis t Durmieron

Second and Third Preterperfeds.


f He, or huve dormido < Has dormido ( Ha dormido
(

ha^ve Jlept

Sing.

Tou han;e Jlept

He

has Jlept

Hemos dormido

We hwue Jlept
Te have Jlept
they have Jlept

Plur.

< Haveis dormido

i Han dormido

freter-

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterplupcrfedt.

19

f Havia

"^

(HrvLos
Flur.

>Dorm:do.
I

/WA/,&e.
I

< Haviadeis ^ Havian

Firft Future.

r Dormire ^ Dormiras ( Dormira r Dormiremos Plur. < Dormireis ^ Dormiran


^ing.

^^^^^ ^^
'

c^y////,,/,
'

'

&c;

Second Future.
f He,<?r tengo de dormir < Has de dormir

^ing.

/*/-. -c

^ Han

Haveis de dormir de dormir

The

other Futures as in the other Verbs.

Imperative
*.
^'"<^-

Mo6da
Doyoujteep
Let him jleep Let us Jleep

5 I^uerme tu \ Duerma f Durmarhos

//r.

-jDormid

Do ye Jleep
Let them Jleep

^ Duermsn

Sub'

194

l^he

RUDIMENrS
Como, Aunque,
Oxala.
to

of

Subjunctive and Optative

Mood,

ffhen, though.

Would

God.

Prefent Tenfe.
C Duel lerma < Duel -^ Duermas
rma tDuei f Durmamos
I

Sing. ing.

When, or God grant I


dojleep. Sec*

P/ur.< Durmais

t Duerman

Three Preterimperfefls.
f Durmiera, durmiefle, or dormiria < Durmieras, durmieffes, or dormirias

Sing.

I
\

Whn,
'would

or
to

^ Durmiera,>
Tlur.

durmieiTe, or dormiria
or

f Durmieramos, durmiclTemos,

1 dormiriamos
f

God I did

X Durmieradeis,
{^

durmiefTedeis, or dormiriadeis \ Jleep, &c.


or dormirian

Durmieran, durmiefien,

Preterperfed:.

f Haya dormido < Hayas dormido ^ Maya dormido f Hayamos dormido Plur. < Hayais dormido (^ Hayan dormido
Zing.

"^
I
I

f
I

When, or God grant 1 ha^e Jlepty Sec.

Two
r
Shg.

Preterpluperfedls*
"^

Huviera, or huviefle

C
\

X Huvieras, r huviefles t huviera, ..huvieffe


CHuvieramos, or huvielTemos < Huvieradeis, or huviefledeis

I Dormido
J
I

J
\
\

^y
to
II tt J P f

.^
Scz
'

God 1 had

Plur.

i Huvieran, cr huvieffen
I

L
Fiift

the

Spanish GramMAi^.
Firfl Future.
"1 I
I

195

f Durmiere ^ing. \ Durmieres I Durmiere f Durraieremos Dm '.i Dui Plur. "{ Durmieredeis (Dui Durmieren

r .,, or ^.,j / J^a// ^^ iviU

^^

^^^

Jlcsp, &:c.

Second Future.
r Huviere,
Shg, j Huvjeres
or

havre

"J I

C
\

^.^^^^

^Huviere
C Huvieremos
?/r.-jHuvieredeis

^^ or

^^^ ^^^^^ j

^DormidoJ
( >
I

///
/T/..

W//

^a'vg

'

^'^^''

c^ ^'-

( Huvieren
Infinitive

Mood.

Prefcnt Tenfe.
Dormir,
To fieep,

Preterperfedt.

Haver dormido^

To havejlepu

Future Tenfe.
Haver de dormir>
To be tofaep.

Gerund.
Durmiendo)
Sleeping.

Participle of the Prefent


Dormiente,
or el

Tenfe and A6live Voice.


He
that
is

que Duerme,

Jleeping.

Participle of the Preter

Tenfe and
Slept.

PaflTive

Voice.

Dormido,

Participle of the Future Tenfe.


El que ha, or efpera de dormir.

About tojleep hereafter,

Morir,

196

fhe

RUDIMENTS
To
Indicative

of

Mon'r,

dye.

Mood.

Prefent Tenfe.
f
Sing.

Muero

/ dye
Tou dye

< Mueres

Plur.

t Muere f Morimos < Moris (^ Mueren

He

dyes

We

dye

Te dye
T^ey dye

Preterimperfc6t Tenfe.
f Moria < Morias f Moria f Moriamos < Moriais

Sing.

Plur,

^Morian

/ did dye Tou did dye He did dye M^e did dye Te did dye T^h^ did dye

Firft Preterperfed.

fMori
< ^ C Plur. \
Sing.

Idy'd
Tou dfd

Morifle

Murio Morimos
Morifteis

He dfd

We dyd
Te dfd
They

t Murieron

dfd

Second and Third Preterperfeds.


f He, or huve muerto < Haa muerto / ha^ue
dy'd

Sing.

Tou ha^ve dy'd

Ha muerto
C

Hemos muerto

Plur.

< Haveis muerto Han muerto

dyd dfd Te ha've dyd fhey have dfd


has

He

We

ha^ve

Pretcr

the

Spanish Grammar.
Preterpluperfed.

197

f
%ing.

Ha via

< Havias

Plur. X Haviadeis

\ Havian
Firft Future.

Morire ^ \ Moriras Morira f Moriremos Plur. < Morireis t Moriran


Sing. '^i^

Xljhall, &c.

ox

ix'ill

dyh

Second Future,
r He or tengo de morir < Has de morir
/ > f

$ing.

de morir ' de morir flur. < Haveis de morir {^ Han de morir

Ha
rr
/

Hemos

?J {^ am

^ /j j . , tOsQT mutt aje, &c. J J ^


*

Imperative

Mood.
Let him dye

Muera

t Muramos Plur. < Morid

Let us dye

Do ye

dye

I Mueran

let them djf

Sub

'

198

T^he

RUDIMENTS
Oxala.

of

Subjunftive a^id Optative

Mood,

Como, Aunque,
JVhe?2^
T'hoiigh,

Would to God,

Prefent Tenfe.
r Muera < Mueras { Muera r Muramos

Sing.

Wherif or

God

grant

Flur.

< Aiurais
(.

do djCy Sec.

Mueran

Three Preterimperfefts.

r Muriera,
I
-,.
I

murieffe,

or

mori-

ria

Murieras, muriefies, or mori-

Muriera, muriefTe,
ria

or

morior

[^

rMurieramos, murielTemos,

U LtWhen, or ivould God 1 did dye y <S:c. \


,

^' \
.

moririamos I j Murieradeis, murieffedeis,


moririadcis
I

or

Murieran, murielTen, or mori-

Preterperfedt.

Haya CHa] muerto


ing.

Hayas muerto \ Ha;


Wloen^ or

_ Haya muerto r Hayamos muerto flur. \ Hayais muerto ^ Hayan muerto

God grant I

ha<ve djd. Sec.

Two
5HuvIera,

Preterpluperfeds.
When,
(

or huvielTe Of
to

Huvieras, or huviefTes i Huviera, or huviefle ^ C Huvicramos, or huvieiTemos


^/t*r.

^^^^^^^ '

nvou/d

< Huvieradeis, or huvieffedeis I Huyie^n, sr huviiiTcn J if

Godlhad
dyd, &c.
Firft

the

Spanish Grammar.
Firfl Future.

199

Sing.

f Muriere I Murieres

"J / j^rj

^, c.od grant

y^Y''^,'^ r Alurieremos Plur. \ Murieredeis ^ Murieren

\ f
I

lJhalKox\mll
,/
.

^^*

J
Second Future.

f Huviere,
Sing.

or

havrc

^
/

C
\

Huvieres

j^y^^^^^

^^

^^^ ^^^^^ j

^ Huvieren

J
Infinitive

l_

Mood.

following Irregular Verbs of the third Conjugation, change e of the Penultima or laft Syllable
facond,

^o The

"The

RUD I M'EN'TS

of

but one of the infinitive Mood into f, jn the firft, and third Perfons fmgular, and the third Perfon plural of the Prefent Tenfe of the Indicative

Mo(ft
the

the fecond and third Perfons fingular, and and third plural of the Imperative Mood and throughout the Prefent Tenfe of the Optative and Subjundtive Moods ^ thus,
j

firft

-,

Servir^ to ferve,

Strvo^

ferve,

Sirves,

Strve^

S^rvhncs^ Servh^ Szrven. Imparative, Shve^ Sirvdj Sirvan. Optative and SubSirvdmcSy Servid,
junctive, Sjrva^ Sirvas^ Sec.

All other Tenfes in The others that each Mood as the regular Verbs. are conjugated after this manner ; are,
Reir, To lav.gh^
Concebir,'7(? concei've,

pao, / latighy Qonzibo, I conceive ,

Ries, Rie,

^c.

Genur,

Tofigh,

Gimo,

IJigh^

Concibes,Concibe,^V Gimes, Gime, ^c.


fai:i)e

next that follow. add i before e in the Moods, Tenfes, and Perfons, as above , as
AdiVeniTfTo take ndics, Advie'rto, 1 take mticey Arrepiento, / r^/f/, Arrepentir, To r*?/^;;/", Confiento, 1 confenty Confentir, To confent, Miento, / ^v, Mentir, To lye^
Adviertes,

The

^r.

Arrepientes, 6?f. Confientes, isc.

Mientes, ^'c.

The Verbs
rule,

Ekgir,
eg

To
ij
*,

chufe,

change
Rijo,

into

in the

and Regzr, To fame Moods, Tenfes,


Elijo
-,

and
gti\

Perfons, as above

thus Elegir^

Re-

Fiugir^ To feign, and Ungir^ To anoint, in the fame manner make Fhjo^ and Unjo^ and fo in the other Moods, Tenfes, and Perfons above

mention'd.
Seguir^

To

follov/,

and

fo in the other

makes Stgo^ Sigues^ ^2gue^ Mood?, Tenfes, and Perfons,

as above.

Thefe that follow in the fame Moods, Tenfes, and Perfons abpve mentioned, are conjugated a?
\)fXQ noted,

Qonducfr^

the

Spanish
To

Gramma

al,

20 i

condudl, Condiizgo^ Conduces^ Con^ Conductr^ Condiuimoi^ Conducis^ Conducon, iiice^ Preterper-

fed, Conduxe^ Conduxifte, &c.


JLindlive,

Optative and Sub-

Precerimperfed:, Conduxera^ or Conduxeffe. Future, Conduxere. In the fame manner, Introducir, Induczr^ Traduciry

Prefent,

Condilzga.

and Producir.
Salzr,
Sales,

To

go

out.

Prefent, Indicative.
Salts,

Sdlgo^

Sale,

Salhnos,

Sdlen,

Imperative
Sdlga^
Sal-

Mood,
gas^

Sal, or Sale,

Saiga, Salgdmos, Saltd, Sdlgan,

Optative

and

Subjundiive
reft

Prefent,

&c.

The

Regular.

Of Verbs

PaJJive, Ser oido,

To be heard.

Indicative.
Prefent.

ImperfeL
Era oido

f Soi
Sing.

oidc oido

< Eres oi oido

f Es oido C S6mo oidos


Pluf.

/ am

heard.

\ Era Eramos

Eras oido oido oidos


Erais oidos

Invas heard.

Sois oidcs

4 Son

oidos

Eran oidos

Perfeft.
ido
Sing.

oido oido

f Fuimos, or hemos sido oidos Plur. < Fuiileis, or havcis siJo oiJos

/ ha-ve

been heard,

&c

( Fueron,

or

han sido oidos, &c.

The

Reciprocal thus

Reirfc^

To

Laugh.
Prefent

202

The

RUDIMENTS
C

of

Prefent Tenfe.

Preterimperfedl.

Me
Sing.

rio
ries

Me reia
reias

'^

Te

i Te
/ laugh.
f Se

Se rie

reian

Nos reimos
PIu

Os

reis

Nos reiamos Os reiadeis


Se reian.
Sec.

(
l

luas laughing.

Se rien

Introduczrfey

To

be introduced,
Imperfe5i.

Prefent.

Me
Birtg.

introduzgo
introduces

Me
Te

introducia
introducias

) Te

Se introduce

\ Se
Os
f^

introducia
intreduciais

. i

;,

ntroducimos f Nos int


ntroducis Pkr. < Os intrc
(^

Nos introduciamos
Se introducian

5
si.

intrc Se introducen

Preterperfed.

Me
Sing.

introduxe, or

heme

introducido

Te introduxifte,

or hafte introducido

Se introduxo, or hafe introducido Nos introduximos, or hemofnos introducido, or nos hemos introducido

/
;>

ha<ve

heen

in-

troducidy

or

Os
Plur.

introduced my-^

introduxiileis, or os haveis

intro-

ducido
Se introduxeron, or fe han introduci-

do

Imperative.
ilntroducete tu
Sing.
int I Introduzgafe el itroduzgamonos nofdtros f Inl

Be

introduced thott

Let him be introduced Let us he introduced

PL

itroduced os vofotros .\ rm
itroduzganfe aquellos (Ini

Be ye

introduced

Let them be introduced

And

fo in the reft of the Reciprocals,


Infinitive,

which are

terminated in fe in the
peribnal PafTive.

except the Im-

Imperfonal

the

Spanish Grammar.
Imperfonal A^ives.

203

Convenir, To be convenient.
Indicative.
Pre/,

Jit,

or proper.

Conviene

// is con<ventent

Imperf. Convenia

It ivas cofi'venient

Firft Per/.

Convino

Second Perf.

Ha

convenido

^'
It

has heen convenient

Plufperf.

Havia convenido
Convendra

had been

con'venient

Firft Future,

It nuill he convenient

Second Future,
Imperative^

Ha

de convenir

// muji he convenient

Convenga

Let

it

he convenient, 8cc.

CumpUr^
Prefent.

To

behove.

Cumpic

It hehoves.

Imperfea. Cumplia

It

did hehove.

Firft PerfeSl.

Cumplio

It hehoveth.

Second

Perfect,

Ha

cumplido

//

has behoved.

e^. Havia cumplido Plufperf

It

had behoved,

future. Cumplira,

//

W// behove.

and

fo

through the third Perfon of the other

Moods.
fljr^
is

be obferved, that this Verb Cumgiven here as Imperfonal, only in this Signification of Behoving, or hdni meet j for Cumptzr^
It is to

204
when
it

"fhe.

RUD IMENTS
to

of
is

fignifies
ail

compleat, or

fulfill,

a regular

Verb, and has

its

Perlbns accordingly.

Of the

Impeifonal Pajjives,
l^o

Decirfe,

be

faid.
/aid,

Indicative.
Pre/en/. Se dice, or dicefe
It
is

Imferfift. Se decia

li nvas /aid.

Firft PcrfeB. Se dixo

//

was, or has been /aid.


has been /aid.

Second

PerfeSi. Se

ha dicho

//

TlufperfeB. Se havia dicho

It

had

been /aid.

future. Se dira

It Jhally

wo'ill

he faid, U^*

Afcer the fame

Manner

are conjugated,

Efcribirfe^
Se efcribe,

To

be written.
// is nvrttten,

Trefent.

Referlrfe,
Se Refiere,

To

be related or referred.
I^
?V

Pre/e^it.

related, or referred, Sec.

of this Conjugation are likewifc declined by the Verb EJlar and the Gerund, as

The Verbs

'Oigo, or elloi oyendo,


Efcribo, er eftdi efcribiendo,

Pido, or efioi pidiendo,

^c

J hear, or lam hearing. J nvriie, or J am nvriting. / beg, or / am begging.

There

the

Spanish Grammar.

205

likewifeTome few Defedtive Verbs ia the Spanijh Tongue, which are perfedl Latin^ viz. Sdlve^ hail, God fave you, which is a falucing Verb, much ufed in their Prayers to the Virgin Mary^ and in Poetry, and has no other Tcnfe in

There

are

Spanijh than the Imperative.

fjve. All
faluting

hail,

God

fave you,
in

ufed in Spaniflj^
Prayers, i^c.
Vcile^

and found

feveral

&c. is like wife Books in a


at

manner, but never ufed odierwife than


farewell, adieu,

God

be with you,
,

Is

much

ufed by

the ^panmrds^ efpecially in writing,


Ohediejit

inftead

of Tour moft

Humble Servant
Imperative
as to

and has but


viz,

two Perfons
and Valete. This may

in the

Mood,

Vdle^

fuffice

Verbs, the Necefllty of

pving
fonals

Account of the Irregulars, and Imperhaving taken up much time.


an

CHAP.

IV.

Of Participles:

in the third Chapter before

A LTHO'
_

there has been

faid

enough of
the

the

_
I

Participles, as to

what concerns

Grammar,
\

yet

think
this

it

the Conjugauon of Verbs proper to oblerve,


Participle,

That

Name
is

comes from
its

Participium, and

^o called for
it

the Latin partaking of the

Verb and Noun,

as

has been faid before."^

Some

are Simple, and ethers

Compound,
Bo^o,
Indo^o.

as

Andante^
Comandd:ite,

K\\

2o6

The

RUD I MENTS

of

All the Spanijh Verbs have not the Participles Prefent,and of the Future ; and they are fupplied by elque^ and the third Perfon Singular of the Prefenc Tenfe of the Indicative Mood, ^c, as it is obferved before. Note^ That the Participles of the Prefent Tenfe
are often
liente^

made Nouns

in

Spanijhy as O'jintey Efcri-

Antecedente^

&c.

CHAP.
Of Adverbs.

V.

HAving
verb,

treated at large of the four declinable

Parts of Speech,
that are undeclinable
;

we now come
firft

to the four
is

the

of which
it

the

Ad-

joined to Verbs, to declare the manner, or the Circumftances of the Adioh, or Paffion as el Ddnza^ or Bdila

Cand

fo

called

becaufe

is

-,

lien^

he dances well
:

-,

el

pudecio cruelmente^ he fuf-

fer'd cruelly

it

often explains

likewife the

Nouns,
j

as

homhre muj fdbio^ a very learned Man mente impudentey intirely impudent, ^c.
iin

^otal-

Of Adverbs
Primitives,
are Derivatives,

there are feveral Sorts,

fome being
Others

as Si^

Yes

No^

No, &c.

as particularly thofe

which pro-

from

ceed from the Feminine Gender of Adjedives, as dlta^ high, aliamente, highly ; from graciofa, pretty, graciofa7nente^ prettily ; or from thofe in ente^ z, ^/, ?/, &:c. as prudentemente^ prudently ; Moralmhtey morally ; FacilFelizmente^ happily
,

mente, eafiiy,

&c. There are Adverbs of Quality, of Quantity, of Time, &c. as may be feen here following.

Adverh

the

Spanish Grammar.
Adverbs of ^ality.

207

Fielmente, faithfully

Buenamente,

or bien, well or

Santamente, Fieramente,

holil-j

fiercely^

&c.

Malamente,

mal,

ill

And

fo the like

may be form'd of

all

Adjedives.

Adverbs of ^antity.

Mucho, much
Poco,
little

Pordemas, to no purpofe Demafiado, too initcb

Mas, more

Adverbs of
Hoi, to day Ahier, yejlerday Maiiana, to morrow
Antehier,
yejlerday

I'ime.

Nunca, or jamas, never Quando, when


Siempre, always Entonces, then Mientras, whiiji Subito, or repentemente,
fuddenly

the

day before

Mucho
Poco

ha, long ftnce

ha, lately

Ahora, nozv
'Antes, before Ahun, yet^ even

Tarde,

late

Temprano,
a la tarde,

early
in the evening

Amenudo,

often

delhora, unfeafonably^
Sec.

Luego, forthwith

Adverbs of Place.
Aqui, here AHi, there Adonde, where De donde, from whence Aca, hither
Aculla, yonder
Delante. before

Atras, behind

Aparte, apart^ or Arriba, above

aflds

Abaxo, below
Cerca, near Cabe, clofe by

Ahi, inthatj)lace

De

^o8

rhe

RUD IMENTS

df

De De

aqui,
aJli,

from hence from thence,

Junto, adjoining

Dentro, within Fuera, without

Lexos, far off Encima, upon Debaxo, underneath

Adverbs of Affirmation,
Si,
-jes

Cierto,

trul'j

Tambien,

Verdaderamente, truly as weU^ alfi


^

Ciertameiiie, certainly

Antes^* rather

En

verdad,

in truth

Of
No,
no^

Denying,
Ni,
neither neithef

or not

N^a,

nothing

Tampoco,

Of Number,
^Una vez,
once
times

Muchas

veces, often
feldotn

Dos

veces, twice

Pocas veces,

Tres veces, three

Amenudoy
Shewing.
Behsld here

often

Of
He
aqui,

Of Eytcouraging,
Ea, ea pues

Go

to

then

Of
Mas,

Jncreafmg,

More

Adverbs of Biminijhing.
Menos,
Poco,
lefs

Paflb, foft

and fair

littU

OJ

the

Spanish Grammar.
OfWijlAng.

^09

Oxala, would

to

God

Ci^

O if it

would be

Of
Porque, whfj

4/king:

De

Que, what Donde, where Adonde, wJfither

donde, from whenci Quando, when Como, how

Of
Quiza, perhaps

Doiibtmg.
Porventura, peradventure

Of
Primeramente, firfil^ Defpues, after Allende, beyond Alfin, at the end Alcabo, at the end

Order.

Aquende, cm
Finalmente, ' lo ultimo

this fide

in fine
7
7

>i;

'A

la Poftre J

^""^^^^^

^ ^^'

Of
Como,
as

Likenefu
Afsi, fo Tan, tanto, fo much^

Cafi, almofi

&c.

Of

Chance.

cafo, accidentally,

Por dicha, perchance


Comparifon.

Of
Mas, more Menos, lej$

Mejor,

letter

Peor, worfs

0/

tio

fhe

RUDIMENTS
Of gathering
together.

of

Junto, or Juntamente

together

^A montones

In heaps

Of
Aparte

Severing.

Jfunder

The Adverb HdrtOy Enough, varies as to the Gender before Subftantives ; for the Spaniards fay, Hdrto Party Bread enough, where it is Mafculine \ and Hart a Agua^ Water enough, where it is Feminine But before Adjedives it always retains the Mafculine Termination ; as Hdrto bueno^ and Hdrto luena^ though hueno and huena are Mafculine and Feminine. There are fome other Adverbs of the fame Sort j but it would be too tedious to mention
:

all

Things.
Note^

That

Adverbs,
firft

mination ; ponga
-y

the Adjedives are often taken as and then they retain the Mafculine Teras Hdgafe efto primerOy let this be done
efto

derscho^ put this right, or to rights^

CHAP.

VI.

Of Conjunctions.
COnjundlions Words and
are a Part of Speech that joins Some puts Sentences together.

Conjun6lions are Copulative, as uniting Words, and connecting the Senfe ; others are Disjundive, dividing the Senfe, and only joining the Expreffions

the
fions
*,

Spanish Grammar.
\

211

others are conditional, fhewing the Caufes of


,

Things
call

others Rarion;il or Conclufive,

which fome

and others Adverfatives, by which is demonftrated that which we fay canBefides thefe, the Latin hath not hurt or obftrudl. others which they call Ordinatives, as alfo Expletives but thefe lad only ferve for Ornament, for they no way add to, or take from the Difcourfe. and e^ fignifying Conjunctions Copulative are before all Words, excepting thofe that and \ viz. begin with i Vowel, inflead of which is put ^, as we have faid in the Obfervation on the Vowels ; Como^ as s T^amhun^ alfo. Conjundlions Disjundlive are, M', i^ither ; O, or or, either \ yd^ either, as yd ejlo, yd aquello^ either //,
Colledtive or Illative
*,

}!

31

this

or that.
6"/,

Caufative, as Porque^

Conditional,
other wife.

why, wherefore. dado que ^ granting that. Exceptive, as Sino^ if not ; inas^ but 5 otramente^
if-,

There
leaft
i

are others of other Sorts, as Alommos^ at

Aunque^

although

toda via^

notwithitand-

ing, neverthelefs.

H A

P.

VII.

0/ Prepositions.
PRepofitions
fet
o^yiie

are a Part

ofSpeech moll commonly

before other parts, either in


;

AppoOtion
unjufl.

ias

la
j

jujlma^ before a Jullice


as difvoner^ to difpofe,

or elfe in
^,
dl^

CompoAraey!%
'

fition
.^

injiijh^

Thofe

us'd in
co,

Compofition are
con,
de,
des\

ad, dl^
diSy

bick,

am,

com,

eri;^

t^,,^b, prey pro, re, fe, fi, fu,

&c. '

-In

212

"The

RUDIMENTS

of

In J, as Acanaldr^ to cut in Gutters or Channels i abatandr^ to full or mill Cloth. ad^ as Advenedizoy a ftranger , advert tr^ to advertife.
;

aU AlcdzaKy a Royal Caftle or Palace


am^ Ampdroy Protection
co^
;

Alquitdra^

a Limbeck.

amparddo^ proteded,

coberedero, coheir

cg- ordinar, to co- ordain,

or ordain together. compardr, cofUy

to

compare
;

*,

comprometer^

to

compromife.
con.t

convenir^
*

to

agree

condefcender,

to conto

deicend.
de^

degenercfh^

to degenerate

deponer,

de-

pofe,
deSy
diy

dejhacer, to
diferzr,

undo
defer
;

desfigurddo, disfigured.

to

difundir,

to diffufe,

to

fpread abroad.
dis,
eriy

difculpdr,

to excufe
to

dtfponer^

to difpofe.
,

entorpecer^

grow

dull or ftupid

enver-

gonzdr, to
ex^

make afhamed.
to

exporter,

expound, interpret
;

expander, to
to infer.
to pre-

fpread. in, Indignacion, Indignation


oh,

inferir,

ohtener, to obtain

ohtenido, obtained.
j

pre,
vent.

preponer,

to fet before to propofe

prevenir,
profeguzr,

pro,
fecute.

proponer,

to pro-

reedificdr, to rebuild ; reponer, to put again. fepardr, to feparate feparddo, feparated. fe, to follicite. fo, 'focorrer, to fuccour ; folicitdr, Su, fuponer, to fuppofe ; fuportdr, to fupporc,

re,

-,

&c. Thefe Prepofitions following


tive Cafe.

ferve to the Geni-

Antes, as Antes del dia, before Day-break. DeldntSy before, as Dehmte del Juez^ before the

the

Spanish Grammar.
as la

213

D^, of;
is,

Muger
Peter.
,

de Pedro ^ Peter's Wife, that

the

Wife of

DentrOy within

as Dentro de mi cdfa, within as detrds del Cocke,

my

Houfe.
Detrds, behind
,

behind the

Coach.
DefpueSy after
;

as defpues de efto^

after this.

Bdxo^

-k

under

as llevdha un Coleto bdxo de fu cdpa^

DebdxoS

he had on a Buff- Coat, under his Debdxo de mi Manto, al Cloak. Rey mdto, under my Cloak Pll kill the King. Ahdxo^ down, below, is an Adverb. as encima del Agua^ upon the Water. Bncima^ upon Derreddr, round about, as al derreddr de Caftilloy round about the Caille. Circa, near , as Pedro eftd cerca de Juan, Peter is near to John. Accrca, Though formerly ufed as a Propofition inftead of Circa, it is now ufed only as an Adverb, and fignifies concerning, near^ and governs a Genitive as acirca de efto que dice ? what fay you concerning this ? los dias acerca del Nacimiento de Chrifto [on mid frios^ the Days about or near Chriftmas are very
,

cold.

Fuira, out

as Vdya fuira de mi Cdfa^ go out of Houfe. Fuira, afuira, without, are Adverbs. Entorno \ about as entorno de mi, about me, round about me. Cent or no J
;

my

-,

Enfrinte, over-againft ; as Enfrente de fan Pdhlo^ over-againft St Pauls, &c.

The
a
pdra
}

following ferve for the Dative Cafe.


as,

to, f

\ for

to

God

^ Dies folofeha de dar la Adoraciou^ alone we muft pay W^orlhip di


:

eflo

JI4
And

"The
ejio
es

RUD IMENrS
a PedrOy
I

of
Peter
j

gave

this to

efto

para miy this is for me. though there are fome Authors,
Prepofitions hdcia,

who

place

towards, and bajia^ here even to ; I am of Opinion that they belong to the Accufative, becaufe they are equivalent to the Latin
the
ergay verfuSy verfuvi
\

ufquCy

ad. Sec.

and

fee

no

Reafon

to the contrary.

Prepofitions governing the Accufative.


^,
as

dmo a

DioSy

love

God

voy d Romay

go

to

Rome.

Mire

a tal parley look on fuch fide,

toward fuch a place, and (lands por bdciay towards ; a modo dc Converjdcicny by way of Converfation, inltead of pory by.
Ante^ before
*,

as hoi

el

doce de

Junio parccid ante

mi^ this

Day

or came
^Entre^

the twelfeth of June appeared before me.


j

among, between
Londres y

as habldndo entre nofdtroSy

le dire la diferenciay

que hdi entre las Cortes de


y

Madrid
I
is

fpeaking between
tell

us,

(among

us)

will

you the Difference

that there

between the Courts of London

and Madrid.
Sezun^ according ; as fegiin loque fe me dixoy creOy que todo es un emhufte y?iCcovd\v]g\.o what is told me, that every thing is a fly Lie, I believe,
SobrCj

upon,
ejie
it

Deceit, Falfehood, or Impofuion. as todo lo que tengOy lo puedo llevar fohre


Caballo, every thing
this
I

have,

can carry

upon

Horfe.

fldjla^ until,

even to ; as Pajfeare hafla las ocho de la Nochey I will walk until nine a Clock in the

Night;
to
'llacjay

hafta

hafta Roina^ I will

Mandnay go as
el

till

to

morrow,

ire

far as

Rome, even
I

Rome.
;

towards
the

voyme bdcia

Rio^

go towards

Riven

/i>^

Spanish Grammar.
by,

215

por^

for,

through

Dtos^
diez

Comfort

me

Confueleme for amor de for God's fake ; Las

ftruck

tocaron quando pajfaba por efta calk, it ten a Clock when I went through

this Street.

Le

ajfeguro ejlo por


I afiure

mi paldhra^

for mi vida, por mi Fe\

you

this

by

my Word,
is

by my Life, by my Faith. Por fometimes taken for para^ but of this wc


as

will take notice afterwards.

Cdbe,

near,

Le

old

Wordj

En,

in

as efpero y

Ciuddd (Cdbe, an found him near the City. creo en DioSy I hope, and believe
halle cdhe la
I
lo

in

God.
as

Contra, again ft,

que bahlas

es

cofitra

los
is

Atri-

what you do fpeak the Attributes of God, &c.


hutos de Bzos,

againft

Prepofitions governing the Ablative.


d, as
cteo que
Oficio,
le

Cajiigardn d pen a de Privacion de

believe that they will punifh him,

with the Privation, or depriving him of his


hizo a color de with an Intention to deceive under the Colour, &c. d is taken here as con. Con, with ; ven con migo, come with me, De, as Bios formo a Eva de la Coftilla, que es hvzjjb
engandrnos, he has done
it

Office or

Employment.

Lo

tuerto,

God formed Eve from


is

the

Rib,

which
Sin,

a crooked Bone.
I

Vine de Roma, I

without.
in

came from Rome. Lo bice fin ayuda,


out help.
;

have done
I

it

with-

En,

no tengo dinero en
in the Purfe.
ti, I

el

BolfUlo,

have no

Money
Por, for,

Lo h ice por

have done

it

for you,

&c.

P 4

CHAR

ti6

"The

RUD IMENTS
CHAP.
VIII.

ef

Of Interjections.
INterje6lions are Parriclcs thrown into Difcourfe, which denote, or fhow the PafTions of the Mind. Of Mirth, or Rejoycing. la gdla^ a la gala.

Which
is

is

fine,

rare,

5?c.

God help me, which and upon other Occafions, Grieving, Guay^ Alas! or Jy de mi! Alas for me. Wifhing, Oxald^ Would to God, &c. Hay ah he^ as be que dices, he what you fay
Wondering, Falgame
Dids^
alfo ufual in a Fright,
! !

'0, as
grief

Bios

Dolor

God

pain, or

^,

as a Fuldnoy ho, there fuch a one,

&c.

Remarks

upon fome Spanifli Words

and

Phrafes.

ALL
in

Languages have fome peculiar Expref-^ which are not the fame other Tongues, and the Spanijh is not without
fions to themfelves,
that Sort.
that,
all,

Having therefore already run belongs to the ufual Parts of Difcourfe, and their Nature ; it will not be improper to add fomething concerning thefe Words and Phrafes in the S^aniJh Tongue, which are not to be found in
through
Others.

fome of

In the
fable

firft place, the Prepofition Bes is infepafrom fome other Woi-d, and never to be lifed

; :

the

Spanish Grammar.

217

but in Compofition, as fignifying nothing by itfdf but being join'd to another Word, denotes a Privation of what the other imports, as the Syllable Dis does in fome Englijh Words ; thus Honra^ is Honour, Befljonra^ Difhonour, or Difgrace : DfThe cha^ good Fortune, Defduba, Misfortune. withVerbs , as Hacer^ fameEffed it has when join'd
to

make,

Dejhacer^
in,

to

undo

Armdr^
in the

to

arm,
en

Defarmdr^ to difarm.

En

is

commonly

as en cdfa^
i^c,

Houfe;

but in fome Cafes it has a peculiar Signification, not to be exprefs'd in any other Language, that I know of ; as for inftance, Efidr en cuerpo, literally in Englijb is, to be in Body, which is nonfenfe ; but the true Meaning of it, is, to be without a Coat or Cloak for a Man, or for a Wola cdlle^
in the Street,

without a Scarf or a Veil, fo that the Body is to View, without an upper Garment. EJId en pernas^ literally he is in Legs, which has no Meaning, but it fignifies, he is bare legg'd, that is, his Legs are expos'd without Stockings. EJioi

man

more expofed

en

cdrnes,
is,

literally
I

am

in

Flefh,
I

but the true

Meaning

have nothing to En cueros^ fignifies the fame as cover my Flefh. En cdrnes^ that is ftark naked, the Difference being that en cdrneSy is in naked Flefh, and en cueros^ is in naked Skin ; rrmch like the Engli/h ExprefHon, that a Man is in BufF, when he is ftark naked. En fhews, or it notes the laft end of a Thing When it's found as creo en Dios^ I believe in God.
before
the Infinitive,

am

ftark naked,

then

it

turns

the Infinitive

Gerund, as confifte en habldr bien^ it When before confifts or depends in fpeaking well. a Gerund, it is the fame as after and at in Englijh ; as en cendndo^ after Supper, or when at Supper ; en confejfando la Verddd^ after your confefTing the Truth, or when you confefs the Truth ; ir fignifies ai foon^ ^s en acahdndo lo dir(, as foon as I have done I will tell
into an Englijh
ic

2i8
it

Tie

RUD IMENTS
defpertdndo^

of

to you.

En

me

levantare^ as foon as
it

wake,

I will

get

up

and then

(lands for luego^


\

or tan prefto que^ como^


tando, viz.

or quando

as en
I

des perfhall,

or Ihould wake. Hideputa in its Genuine and ufual Acceptation, is the Contraction of Hijo de piita^ Son of a Whore, a mod fcandalous Word in all Languages, and as fuch, fcarce ever us'd by Spaniards of any Politenefs, in its vulgar and true Meaning Yet as bad
:

^ando

difpertdre^

when

as

it

is

in itfelf,

it is

become

a Sort of

Exclamation,

moftly 'us'd by vulgar People, and that in Contempt, and by way of Scorn, as hideputa y que gran per/on age que es ! O the Son of a Whore, or the Scoundrel, what a great Perfon he is to denote a mean Perfon, a vile Wretch, carrying himfelf loftily. Yet fome, through Ignorance, not refieding on the Bafenefs of the Exprefiion, will let it fly without thinking even to commend any thing that furprifes them, as O hideputa y que bien que lo ha hecho I where that fcandalous word drops without thinking, and the whole imports no more, than, how bravely he has done it even as among us,
!

too often hear a Rake fay to his Friend, Damn glad to fee you you ^om^ thus curfmg him out of meer Affedion. Hidalgo^ is a Gentleman, a Man of good Birth,

we

Pm

being a Contradion of Hijo dalgo, or rather Hijo de dlgOy the Son of fomething, that is, of a Perfon of note, or one remarkable for fomething ; not for much Money, which in Spain^ does not make a Gentleman, but for fomething that is honourable ; as Virtue, Learning, Wifdom, or Valour.
Vuejlra merced, fas
it

is

faid beforej

is

generally

contraded into UJled in fpeaking, and in writing exThis is a courprefs'd by thefe two Letters V, M, no other Language, teous exprefTion to be found in being always us'd where there is any Civility, the Spaniards never faying you to one another, which

would

the

Spanish Grammar.
,

219

for T, you. Is only would be very unmannerly us'd from a Mailer to a Servant, or from a Superior Where the Jeaft reto fome very mean Ferfon.

fpedl

is

fhown,

and
;

different Perfons
is

himfelf, be

not allow'd of, much fuperior to the other. The common word therefore in Difcourfe between People of

this prad:ifed even to very inthey fay VoSy ye ; and even this unlefs the Perfon fo exprefling

any Fafhion, or good Manners is ufted^ for Vueftra merced^ which has nothing to anfwer it in Englijh, buc is in the Nature of your Worfhip for in fpeaki-ng to a Nobleman, they ufe Vuejtra Senorza, fometimes contracted into Usm^ your Lordfhip Vueftra ExcclUncid^ your Excellency, ^c. but they have not the Title of your Grace, as in Englijh, There is another refpedlful Way of fpeaking, which is calling a Man by his Name, though fpeaking to him. Sea fervido de fentdrfe el Senor Don Juan^ May it pleafe Bon John to fit down, ic. Where we may
,

alfo obferve,

that the

word Bon

is

alfo peculiar to

the Spanijh^

formerly a Title more fparingly us'd, and given only to Knights, and Perfons of Diftindion but now grown common to all that can claim any thing of Gentility, but yet not to Tradefmen,
,

and inferior Perfons. Sendr, is like the Latin Bominus^ either Sir, or Lord, and therefore equivocal for they fay, 6'/ Senor^ yii% Sir, to the King and
;

Gentleman ; juft as we do. Sir, to the King, and to any other. Yet is Senor, a Lord, as has been faid ; the which Difference is found by the manner of fpeaking for though in fpeaking they fay, Senor Bon Juan, Se-,

Si Senor,

yes Sir,

to the lead

Don Pedro, yet a Letter muft not be fuperfcrib'd, Senor Bon Pedro, unlefs he be a Lord becaufe ; then it implies Dignity, and in common fpeaking
nor

Al

does not. So in fpeaking to fay, es un Senor, or un gran Senor, implies that he is a Lord, or a great Lord. However within a Letter, as we begin Sir, fo they begin, Mui Senor mto, without thereby meaning to gif e the tide of Lord, but as
it

es

if

220 if we

"The

RUDIMENTS
my

fhould fay,

of good Mafter, or good

Sir.

be faid to this purpofe, but this will not allow of it ; thefe few Inftru6lions are Place convenient for Learners, that they may not only fpeak true Spant/k^ but with good manners, and
polirely.

Much more may

Fulanico^
citamlloy

FuldnOy zutdno or citdno^ with their Diminutives or Fulanillo^ zutajiko or cilanko, and
are
as

namclefs,

Words us'd to fignify a third Perfon we fay, fuch a one, and all of them
:

import the fame


-,

the

two
not

firll

being us'd to exprefs

two diftind Perfons,

the firft and fuch a one only one Perfon be fpoke of, and the fecond never They but when there is occafion to mention two. are often us'd in the Feminine Gender, as Fuldna^
ciidna.

named, as fuch a one; of them always us'd if

own Senfe fignifies below, and )<?but as apply'd, the iirfl may have ahdxo the fame meaning with the latter ; as De yo lo hzze hombre^ under God I made him a Man. Del Rey abdxo no ay mayor Perfonaje, next the King there is no greater Perfon. though it feems to come from vuelvOj vueitas^
Ahdxo^
in
ii's

Idxo^ under

Dm

I turn, or return, fignifies


otras cofas
le

did

una cadma
,

among among

-,

as /^ vueltas

de

other things he

gave him
Cdho^

a chain.

but it extends properly fignifies the end to other meanings, as Eftdi al cdbo, in one fenfe is, lam reduced to extremity, either with Sicknefs, or Poverty ; and the fame Words import, I fully underftand, or I am entirely apprized of the thing. Again, Muger bermdfa por el cdbo^ is a Wom.an
-,

perfectly beautiful

and ^omdr

la cofa

muz

-por

el

cdbo^ is to take a thing in the hardeft fenfe. Recdudo^ or Recddo, for it is written both ways, though moft commonly pronounced the latter, is a

word of

various SignifiGations.

El

dinero

eftd
it is

a
in

tuen recddo.

The Money

is

fafely plac'd,

good

'

the

Spanish Grammar.
or
fafe.

221

good Hands,

necefTaries for writing.

Recado para efcrivhy the Dile un recado^ I deliver'd


trdbigo,
I

him a MefTage.
provided.

Buen recado
is

come

well

Recado^

alfo us'd for a

Subpena, and

feveral other ways.

Jldahdda^ is properly, a Knock at a Door ; but dar aldabddas^ is fometimes meant of muclvbabling, or talking to no purpofe. pies juntillas^ is a very odd Expreflion, without any real Signification of it felf, and yet there Creo a pies juntillas^ I is a way of ufmg it thus,
:

pofitively believe, I am ftedfaft in the Belief, with,: out afking any further Queftions. 'Tomdr las de villa Diego^ is to run away. Hahldr de chacota^ to banter, or talk idly, a word feldom us'd, but by way of Contempt of the Per_ ;
.

applied to. xabdn a la Ropa^ to foap Linnen for wafliing ; but Dar un xahm a iina perfona^ is what wc call to rattle one, to give a fevere Reprimand.
it

fon

is

Dar

A
Mas Mas Mas Mas Mas

Few Comparifons.
whiter than Snow.
.

JVf^i hldnco que la Nieve,

negro que la Pez^ blacker than PjtchV,

amdrgo que la Hiel^ more bitter than Gaul. duke que la Miel^ fweeter than Honey. brdvo que un Lean:, fiercer than a .Lyon. mdnfo que una oveja^ tamer than a Sheep*
to

Comparifons

exprefs

doing Things, im-

pradlicable.

ftriking at

Es comq dar con el puno en el Cielo. Heaven. Es CO mo bee bar Idnzas en la Mar,

That
That

is

like

i$.;jike
-^^

darting at the Sea. Es cdmolpredkdr en Defurto,


in a Defert.

r/.f :.',-

It is like

preaching

Es

222
Water
ing to

The

RUD IMENTS
dgua en
Cejio.
It is

Es como

coger

of like drawing

in a Bafket.

holar fin alas. It is like attemptwithout Wings. Es como el perro del Horteldno^ que ni come las herzas, ni las dexa comer a los otros. He is like the Gardiner's Dog, that neither cat's Cabbage, nor lets
fly

Es como querer

others eat

it.

We

fay, like a

that will neither eat

Hay, nor

Obferve, That
eon^

mod

are turned likewife in

a Manger, Horfe eat it. of the Adverbs Adjedives Spanijh by the Prepoficion
in
let

Dog

the

dently,

and the Subftantive, is the very fame


boldly,

as

prudentemente^
con

as

prudencia^

pruwith
with

prudence. Atrevidamentey
boldnefs.

con

atrevimientOy

Elegant etnenley elegantly.

Con
Con
rality,

elegdncia^

with elegance.

Dichofamente^ happily.
-dzcha^

with happinefs.
liberally, con liberalidddy

Liheralmente^

with libe-

^c. There are Degrees of Comparlfon among the Adverbs, as Do^amente^ mas do5famentey do5i'iffimamentey wifely.
d^y
hdi, ahz.

There
tween
fpelt
alafs,
a'j
;

are feveral

who make no
d'j

the Interjection,

the Verb,
in

Difference beand ay the


their being

Adverb
is

but there

is

a vaft one,
right.

and pronounced
rightly fpelt,
'tis

The

Interjection dy^

the dy and

to be

written thus hdi^

and the Accent is to be on pronounced long ; the Verb is there is but one Syllable, and to be
:

pronounced as fuch the Adverb thus ahz there ; and a ftrong Accent is to be put on the f, as dy de mi
que hdi mticho^ Atheos or
Atheiftas ahz en Londres^ y

temo

el zr^

alafs for

me

that there are

many

Atheifts
there

the
there Cor in

Spanish Grammar.
that place London)
in

223
I

London^ and

am

afraid to go.

a(iuiy

acdy

&c.
;

A(iuz here,

in the

Place where one (lands


^

ard^

hither
little

poraqui, por acd^ here-abouts


,

ahi^
;

there,

farther

alld^

thither,

to that place

acidldy

yonder, there, in that place j for ah t porallz, thereabouts ; por aht poralld^ on that fide, that way ; and they arejoin'd to the Prepofitions ^^, from, por^ by ; as de aqut^ de acd^ from, hence \ de alld^ d& acidla^ from, thence ; por aqut^ by here, by this
place ; por aca, by thefe Parts, in thefe Parts por alld^ by thofe Parts 5 por aculla^ by thofe other remote Parts or Places.
ante,
antes,

Ante^
hahldr

before,

is

Prepofition,

as
it

no conviene
is

not fit or convenient to fpeak (o, or thus, before the King's ante is an Adverb, and is ufed as dnteSy Prefence as in the Lav/ of la Pattzda 2, Tit. 4. L. i. but at prefent never ufed fo It fignifies fometimes that which is firft in time, or of a greater importance,
:

afiz ante la pre/encia del

Rey,

las cdfas, before all things ante fignilikewife a Bufibloe's Hide, and the Fruit Plates that are ferved up at Dinner or Supper before the
:

as ante tddas
fies

Meat:

antes h2.s likewife this lad Signification.

an Adverb, fignifies thepreceeding Time or Place ; as lo dixe dntes^ I faid it before confervd ios Criddos en los cargos de antes ^ he kept the Servants in the fame Places they had before i it is likewife ^z Prepofition Adverfative, and (^gnifies rather, as antts quiero morzr que pecdr^ 1 rather love to die, then to fin k requires like wife. a. Geniylntesy as
,

tive,

as antes de la Musr'te del

Rey aparscioUn Comet a y a Coincc

224

7X^

RUD IMENTS

of

a Comet did appear before the Death of the King, or the King's Death. y^Htes is taken as antecedente^ preceeding, or before, as el exercito del dne antes nos talo los Campos^ the Army of the preceeding Year fpoiled, ravaged, or wafted the Fields. j^ntes con antes y adverbial, imfnedialely^ and more than immediately, if poflible ; a fudden diligence, ex improvifoy fuddenly, unexpected ; as it will be feen in the feveral Phrafes that often happen in Writings. Antes del dia^ before Day break ; antefque, a Prepofition conjundlive, as antefque vdyas a (rahajar^ vete ; a Rezdr^ before you go to JVork^ go to or do your Prayers, Ante and antes are likewife Prepofions, and help but never in the Compofition of fome Words, change e or es into i as an Author obferves wrongfully, becaufe we don't fay, Anticdmara^ but Ante* cdmara^ Anti-chamber, Antefdla^ a Room before
the Saloon^ or the State

Room.

Delante^ adelante,
Delante^ before, in prefence, fronting, is a Prepofition governing the Genitive, as vzvo delante dela

Change ejle Crimen fe comitid this Crime was committed ^itefe de delante de mi^ go before the Governor away, or from thy prefence. It is likewife an Adverb, as el General va delante^ the General goes at the Head, or before, &c. Adelanie, an Adverb, fignifies fronting, forwards, before, as vd?nos adelante^ let us go on, or forwards. It fignifies Time, when it has before it en^ pdra^ deaqui^ de allzy &c. 2ls en adelante, afterwards, in time to come para en adelante^ for the time to come ; de
Lonja,
I

live fronting the

delante del Gohernaddr^


:

aqui adclante,

from hence forward

mas

adelante^
farther

theSpAmsH Grammar.^
farther yef
;

12:25

Js hot en adeldnte^

from

this

time for-

ward, &c.
fJina^
dinas,

fJinay Adverb, foon, fooner, as mds dina h hare tu aprenI will do it fooner than you '^0 que tu^ la leccion en una hora^ pero yo la aprendere maS difte
,

dina,

you did learn your LtlTon


will

but

learn
it.

it

fooner.

So

that

in an Hour, dim always has

mas before
fjinas,

Adverb,
he almoft

almoft,
kill'd

near atend

as

dims
de la

me matOy

me

eftdi

dinas

Muerte^ I am near my Death. but feldom ufed in Spantjh.

Thefe words are

Balde, de Balde^ en halde.

Balde

is

Word

ufed generally in Andalufia^

and

Bucket to draw Water from a Well, &c^ but in Spani/h has no Signification, but when in Compofition, and then is an Adverb ; as debdlde^
fignifies a

gratis,
le

free coft, for nothing,


I

he fervzdo debdlde,
,

without occafion ; as have ferved him for noj

thing

de balde,

comhnos de halde, we eat free coft punifhed him without occafion,

le caftigo

Enhalde

(not embalde, as fome do write it carelefly) in vain, without ^ffedt ; as, defpues de tSdo^ nueftro trabdjo [era cnhdid^, after all, our Labour will be in vain ; Pvedique enhalde, I preached without effed, in
vain.
ISIote,

This frequent ExprefTion of fome Shop-,

keepers to the Buyers


will
fell
it

fe

lo

vendere de halde,
that
is,

to
fo

you

for nothing,

almoft for

nothing,

cheap that the like will be found no

where

for Cheapnefs.

Atruiqut

226

"The

RUDIMENTS
Atrueq^ue.

of

Is an Adverb, vamos atrueque^ let us change but when it fignifies infleady or in the room of^ then it is a Prepofition, and requires the Genitive ; as, atrueque de fu anilloy or fortija^ le dare la midy I will give you my Ring inftead, or in the room of

yours.

Of Para and

Por.

Thefe Prepofitions are often confounded by the Gentlemen that learn the Spanijby nay even by fome Spanijh Authors, fo that I think it neceffary
to obferve that,

Pdruy for ; fervcs to denote the Utility, or Detriment to a Perfon as ejtos cien reales [on fdra Pedroy que es pobre^ thefe hundred Reals are for Peter^ who is poor, or becaufe he is poor. Los di 'para vmd. I gave them for you vine aqui para
-,
*,

bahldr con vmd,

came here

to fpeak with you.

When the Englijh puts to before the Infinitive, the Spaniards make ufe of de^ d^ para^ or por 5
but with this Diftindtion, that de
Infinitive,
is

put before the


tener^
;

and when the Verbs venir^ haver ^

&c.

or a

Noun
j

is

before the Infinitive


;

as Vengo
I

de cenar^ I

come from Supper


tengo de ir^
I
I

he de de amdr,

muft love

de fer confolddoy

muft go ; tengo neceffiddd want to be comforted, &c.

of Motion preceeds the Infinitive, as la Ley de Dzos me compile a hacer Men, Divine Law compels me to do good ; voi a leer efte lihro, I go to read this Book. Para, when the Verb tends
to an Habit,
fenor
!

when a Verb

Ufe, Cuftom, or its Quality, as b dadme vuejlra Grdcia, y hacedme hdhil para dmaroSy conftdnte para fufrzr^ y firme para perfe*
2
verdr^

the
verdr^

Spanish Grammar.
Lord
to
!

give

me
or

thy

Grace,

227 and make


Por^

me

able to love you,

conftanc to fuffer,
perlevere.

or ftable
j)dra,

continue
the

and firm and

when they denote

the

End

that

moves

Caufe and the Means to obtain I as ftrvo a Dios por gozdr de el premio^ it ferve God to enjoy the Reward, or that I may, or El eJi^iritu mdlo noi in order to enjoy the Rev/ard. malos penfamientos para dejviarnos del fone amenudo camzno de la virftld^ the evil Spirit puts on us often bad Thoughts to fet us out of the way of
or inclines,
*,

Vi

tue.

Para
&c.

is

ufed in queftioningand anfwering, and fig-

nifies, for

what

why

for

whom
No

as Paraqiiefe dlxo
is

efto

? to
?

? to what purpofe, what purpofe ? to what

end, for what

this faid

bdi paraque^ there is


:

no Reafon,
ejla carta ?

no Occafion, no Caufe
is

Para

quien es

me.
dnie^

para mt^ for whom Paraque fignifies likewife


I

this Letter ? for that^ and is a Sign


*,

that denotes the fubjundlive


that

Mood

as,

paraque
to

)(?

may
as

love

It exprefTes alfo,

what

End, good

Office,
for
;

or Place, a Thing, or a Perfon is efte Cahallero es bueno para Minijiro^

aquel para Secret drio^ y el otro para Mayor ddmo^ this Gentleman is good for a Minifler, viz. to be a miller, that for a Secretary, and the other for a

Steward.

EJle
this

aquellas cortinas

good
Bed.
It
es

for

epejo es hueno para efte quarto^ y para mi cdma^ this Looking-Giafs is Room, and thofe Curtains for my

denotes prefent and future

Time;

as, efte veftido

hueno para hoi^ Vara

this Suit

of Cloth
I

is

Mandna^ y para cada dia^ good tor this Dav, for To-

morrow, and
an dno^

for everv

Day

he comprddo trigo para


for a
let

hi^.ve

bought Corn
Exceptions,

Year
el

Ahoi'a y

p)arafiempre^ alahemos a Dzos^

us praife

God now
pajfddo fe
vifioriS

and

tor

ever.

Para

dm

com^rdron

eftas provifidncs^

y duran haun^ thele Pro-

228
vifions

"The

RUDIMENTS
and
laft

of
is,

were bought

for laft Year, that


as yet
:

for the

fervice of laft Year,

Para

ayer (el

dza de ayer) fe hicieron made for Yefterday,

eftos Verfos^

thefe Verfes

were
that

that

is,

to

celebrate

Day.

Para poco^ good for little, of fmall capacity. Par aeon ^ between us, or in my, or our Opinion
as,

para conmigo es c'lerto^ in my opinion it is true. Por fometimes denotes that the Thing is not yet done ; as, eft a obra eft a poracahdr^ this Work is not yet finifhed por hacerfe^ to be done. It fignifieslikewife the End of, or Means to do a Thing ; as, fe rineron pormz, they quarrelled on my account, &c. Por^ by, for, through ; as Por eftos medios h aU canzo^ he obtain'd it by thefe Means ; fuz al Banco for ducientas Izbras, I went to the Bank for 200 /. pajjemos por efta cdlle^ let us go through this
:

Street.

Por^ though, although, &c. por pequma que fea tho' fo fmall I will take it, altho' it be fmall I will take it, and then it denotes a Tenfe in the Optative, as por do5fo que ftm^ though he be a learned Man, &c. In Compofition, as por tdl, fo that ; por un idly for fuch a one ; porloque, porloqual^ for which 5 pcrende, therefore ; por Pordonde, which way ; ejfo^ for that Reafon ; por que ^ why ; por ventura^ peradventure, perhaps. But pro for provecho^ as pro^ huen pro le hdga^ much good may it do you the reafon of a Thing, as el pro de las el proy pro y contra^ pro and MugereSy Women's Reafon por acdfto^ by chance, by con^ for and againft ; por dinero hdila el Perro, the Dog dances accident for Money j or as we fay in EngUJh^ Money makes
la tomare^
:
*, -,

the

Mare

to go.

PrimerOy

the

Spanish Grammar,
Primero^ Primo^ Sec,

229

becaufe

Are Adjedlive Ordinals, but with Diftindllon ; we ufe Primo, and 'not Pr'wicro in the great Numbers, as an Author wrongfully faith we don't fay vigejmo primero^ but vigcfimo Primo^
2ifl
;

trigefimo primo^

31ft.

Primer

itands fome-

times for primer amente ^ and it, it is taken as Subftantive ;

when
it is

it

has

lo

before

often us'd before

and
0^
it

after the Subftantives,

when

before
;

as

primer lugdr^ lugar prijnero


ire

them loofes when an Adverb


rather; as
I

fignifiesfirft, before,

in the firft place,

primero

la

Guerra^
firft,
:

que a la Efcuela,
to

rather

chufe to ferve in the

War, then
the beft,

go

to School,

&c.

Prmo,

the

chiefeft,
is

a deli-

cate curious

Thing
its

Primo rarely
it

join'd to

any

Subftantive,

becaufe

ftands as a Subftantive

itfelf,

and varies
Coufin,

Prima

Termination, and then fignifies a Primo Hermdno^ a Coufin German ; ohra Eermdna^ a fhe Coufin German
as
:

Prima^ curious very beft, &c.

Work,

the beft

lo

Primo^ the

NO.
is

Akho* m^ Note of

be a Negative,
Interrogation
?
-,

in

queftioning
eftare

it

fhall I not wait here

aquzno? No me hard eft e favor ? Will


as
?

me

you not do me
whether or
no,

this

favour

and then

it

ftands for

'Tanto^

^anto^

tan^

^an>
;

The Adverbs Tanto^ fo much, as much 9uanio^ how much, are often put before Subftantivos,
Verbs, &c. to fignify the Quantity, Manner, or Circumftances of the Adion, &c. as, por tanto comer 0^3

230
comer

"The
eftds

RUD IMENTS
you

of

efjfermo^

are fick for having eat fo

^ianto hebo me hace mal^ for over eating ; every thing I drink, fall that 1 drinkj does me ^dnto fide por ejios gudntes ? tantOy no good. how much do you alk for thefe Gloves ? fo much. ^anto quanto, every thing, fo much as tanlo mas^ Tanto fignifies likewife a Counter fo much more. ^idnto^ all, every thing, as quanta dice es to play or every thing he faith is falfe j faljo^ all, \7hat, quantos ? quanta mas ? how much more ? how

much,

many
ejle^

quanta quiera^
fo,

how much
Pdno

foever.
es

^dn,

as

as aquel
is

tan huena como

that

Cloth

as

amigos^ he hath as h quan mdlo eres^ y


Nobles^

good as this ; iiene tan buenos good Friends qudn^ how ; as


:

quan

bueno

te

bdces entre

los

how bad y6u are, and how good do you make yourfelf among the Nobility.
Tanbien, fo well, as well
cido^ I
-,

eftoi

am

fo well recovered

efto ejld

tan Men convaletan bien hecho

omofepueda hacer^

this is as well

done

',

fo that Tanbien

done as it could be muft not be confounded with


figni*

Tambien^
fies alfoy

as an Author does, becaufe tambien and not a^ '^'^H

^demds^

The Adverb Adsmds^ fignifies, befides, moreover, over and above, in vain ;as Ademds^ conviene faber que^ befides, moreover, it is to be known that penfativo ademds quedo Bon ^ixote, efperando^ (ffc, over and above thoughtful remained Don fixate, waiting, &C, Vol. II. Chap. III. Ademds fe canfa^ takes Pordemds^ that is, in vain, to no pains in vain. purpofe \ it governs likewife Genitive, as ademas de ^0, befides this, &c, Segmi, when before a Verb is an Adverb, and fignifies ciccprding, as j as Se^thi dice Don Judn^ as Sir Johs
*,

the

Spanish Grammar.
; it is

231

John

faith

likewife a Prepofition governing the

Accufativc j as, fegun mi fareccr^ according to my Opinion. Ayufo^ an old Adverb, is the fame as aldxoy beas lo echdron ayufo^ they throw'd it low, under down, below, under ; it fignifies likewife after and under ^ as ahdxo ; as de Dzos en Ayi(foy or de Dios abdxo yo le cure, under God, or after God, I am the Perfon who cured him, or made him well. Hajla^ till, even, up to, as far as ; as, hajla quando ? till when ? hajla que venga^ untill I come ; baft a quanto ? how much ? haft a tanto^ fo much ; hafta el borde^ up to the brink ; hafta Palacio^ as far as the Palace ; hafta las doce^ till Noon. This may ferve by way of Specimen, and Pra<5tice will teach v/hat can't be fo well committed to
-,

writing,

without far

exceeding the Bounds of a

Grammar,

Q_4

THE

THE

SECOND PART
O
F

T H

SPANISH
Called

GRAMMAR

Syntax.
HE SpaniJIo has fo great an Affinity
with the Laiin^ that whofoever underftands the latter,
difficulty in the

will find little

Conftrudion of the

other.

Having hitherto treated of the eight Parts of Speech, as they belong to Etymology, it remains now to treat of them as belonging to the Syntax Ccalled Conftruftion, or the order of Conftruftion. j

HA

Jifi

New Spanish Grammar.

333

CHAP.
Of the

Concords and Articles.

THERE
1.

are three Concords in the


^

Spanifi)

Speech, viz,
as,
'^0

2.

Between the nominative Cafe, and the Verb; dmoy 1 love ; Pedro fcrihey Feier writes. Between the Subftantive and the Adjedlive
curiofoy
3.

homhre a virtuous
as,

curious

Man

Muger

virtuofa,

Woman.

Between the Antecedent and the Relative, as fj, quien vive contentOy happy is he who lives contented, or with content.
3.

Feltz

Of

the firft Concord.

A
Cafe
deSy

Verb
in
el

perfonal agreeth with his

Number and

Perfon
I

as yo Leo^ tu

Nominative Apren^
the

Maefiro enfena^

read,

thou learns,

Mailer teaches, &c. Note^ That many Nominative Cafes, with a Conjunction Copulative between them, will have a Verb Plural as, Pedro y Juan vinieron a verme Ayer^ Peter and John came to fee
-,

me

Ycfterday.

Sometimes a whole Claufe, and the infinitive Mood of a Verb, may be the Nominative to the Verb following ; as, iodo loque fe dixo ayr^ me movio a totndr ijla refoluciouy all that was faid Yeflerd^y moved

me

to take this Refolution

el

comer fatisfdce at

hamhriento^
levantarfe

to ear, eating, fatisfies the

Hungry

el

temprdno
is

es

faludabky

to rife betime

in

the Morning,

wholfome.

Exceptions,

^34

-^ ^^'^

Spanish
Exceptions.

Grammar.

When
tive

a Queftion
after the

is

alked,
;

then the
ejld
?

Nomina-

goes
is

Verb

as,

Sr. Fuldno en

cd[a ?
efto

Mr

how
is

is

fuch a one at home this underilood ,


?

como fe entiende
que tiene vmd.
fo in the
.?

"What
is it

the Matter v/ith you

And

Ne-

gatives, as no

es efto ? no es verddd ? Is it not this ? not true ? Thefe Relatives are excepted ; que hora es? What is it a Clock ? puien es ? who is ?

quien idea ?

who knocks

quten

Udma

who

calls,

&c.

Some of
them
;

the Reciprocal Verbs, and the Impera-

tives of all the


as,

Verbs have their Nominative after pefame mucho^ I am very forry 5 dma tu^

love thou.

When a Verb comes between two Nominatives of diverfe Numbers, the Verb may indifferently accord with either of them as, tantas palabras juntas
,

or fan confufion^ fo many Words togelas fuperfluidddes Jon Excejfo ther are a Confufion Superfluities are an Excefs.
es confufton,
:

Of

the Second Concord,

whether it be a Noun, Pronoun, or Participle, agreeth with his Subftantive in Cafe, el hombre fdbio^ y la as, Gender, and Number

The Adjedive,

Muger

virtuofa fon

dignos

de

alabdnza,
are

a learned

worthy ofpraife; Man, and a virtuous how they agree, and that the by which you fee Mafculine Gender is more worthy than the Feminine; and fo it is faid dignos and not dignas: It is likewife plain by the above Example, that, many Subftantives with a Conjundion copulative between them will have an Adjedive Plural,

Woman

When

A
When
el

New Spanish Grammar.

23 5

a Claufe ferves as a Subftantive, then the Adjedive is to be put in the Neuter Gender ; as,

Rogdr a

Dm
j

en
es

todo tiempo es
neceffdriOy
it is

hueno

fero en

tiempo calamitofo

pray to
fary.

God

always good to but in calamitous time it is necef-

Exceptions,

Before the Nouns Subftantives beginning with a^ Eubonicd gratia^ for the fake of the good Sound, the
Spaniards ufe the Mafculine Article, as has been faid before, as el dgua^ the Water \ al alma^ the which proceeds from the Spaniards not ufing Soul
,

the Apoftrophe, as

fome other Nations do, &c. After Vueftra Merced the Adjedlive does not agree in Gender with vm^' but with the Perfon to whom one fpeaks, as we obferv'd before ; fo that when we fpeak to a Man, we fay, bien venzdo fea
V. md' Sir

venidos fean v.m^^^^

welcome ; and in the Plural, hien Gentlemen you are welcome ; when to a Woman, vmd. ss mui huena^ Madam you are very good, &c.
you
art

Note,

rhat Buino^

malo^ unOy primero, tercero^

^c, when before a Subftantive, they lofe the Letand ciento lofes to : and tho' fome Authors ter ; are of Opinion, that tanto and quanto lofe to before the Subftantives, I fay, that it is falfe, and wrong i becaufe tanto and quanto always remain whole, and are derived of the L^/z Adverbs T'^^^/i?, quanto-, as, quanto Ma) or eres^ tanto mas te humillards^ how much the greater you are, fo much the more you fhould be humbled. But tan and qudn are derived from the Latin tarn and quam,
Grande^ lofes de before the Subftantives that begin with a Confonant as, gran Muger^ a great
*,

Woman

Gran Cdfa^ a great Houfe


with
~a

but

if

the
in-

Subftantive begins

then

it

is

often

differently

236

New Spanish Grammar.


ufed,

differently

and when begins

with another

Vowel always

retains de,

Obferve likewife, that the Spaniards do generally ufethe Adjectives after the Subltantives, as it has been faid : but the Epithets are ufed by the bell Spanijlo Authors before the Subftantives as, el Serdphico San Francifco^ the Seraphick St Francis ; el Melifluo St Bernardo, the Mellifluous St Bernard ; el intrepido General, the intrepid General ; el Philofopho Arifto^
-,

teles,

the Philofopher Ariftocle


the

San5ftffmo Pddre^
-,

Beatiffimo Padre,

Holy Faiher

Excelentiffimo

moft excellent Sir ; ilufirijjimo Senor, moft illuftrious Sir, &c. and fo we fay es huen homhre, he is a good Man ; ejie es tin mal homhre, this is a bad Man.
Senor,

Of

the third Concord.

The

Antecedent

is

Word,
is

or Claufe that goes

before the Relative,


Relative.

and

rehearfed again

by che

Relative agreeth with his Antecedent in Number and Perfon ; as, es fahio, quien hdhla poco y bien, that Man is wife, that fpeaketh but little and to the purpofe.

The

Gender,

When
Rey

a Relative

is

diverfe Genders, then


fe ird luego

it

between two Antecedents of agreeth with either ; as, el

Windfor, the

a una cafa de campo, la que eft a en will foon go to a Country Houfe, he recehido tres cartas, cuyo which is at Wind for contenido me gufta mucho, I have received three Letters, whofe Contents pleafe me much ; atacdron al Enemtgo, cuya infanteria tomo luego la derrota, they attack'd the Enemy, whofe Foot foon gave

King

-,

way and

fled.

Sometimes the Relative hath for his Antecedent the whole Sentence that goeth before it, and then it mud be put in the Neuter Gender, and in the Singular

A
revoked

New Spanish Grammar.


,

237

lar Number

as, alzdronfe losfoldddos en elfuerte contra


lo

fu Gobernador^

que

le obligo

a entregarle^ the Soldiers

in the

Fore or Fortrefs againft their

Go-

vernor, which obhg'd him to deliver it up. Many Antecedents Singular having a Conjundion

Copulative between them, will have a Relative Plural, which fhall agree with the Antecedent of
the

mod
que
I

worthy Gender

as,

recebz el Cabdlio y la

Mula
which
lative

me

embid^

lofque prefente al Sr,

Fuldno^ I
fent

receiv'd the

Horfe and the Mule

that

you

me,

prefented to

Mr

fach a one.

there is no Nominative between the Reand the Verb, then the Relative (lands for the Nominative ; as, quien dice efto ? who faith this ? but v/aen there is a Nominative between the Relative and the Verb, tiien the Relative fhall be put or any other in the Cafe governed by the Verb, Word ; as, la grdcia que le pzdo^ the Favour which el Rey a quien obedefco^ the King to I beg of you ; whom I obey \ el Embaxaddr, de cuya proteliidn gozo^ me efcnbe ejla carta^ the Embaffador whofe Protedlion I enjoy, wrote this Letter to me. Note^ that the Relatives you may make ufe of,

When

are
tal^

le^

les^

la,
;

lo^

las^

lo:

(to thefe four laft


lafque,

you

may add
qudU

que

as, laque^

loque,

lofque) quien^

ciiyo^
\

que
as,

to

which you may likewife add

a Prepofition

d loque Dzgo^ to which I fay ; deloque recebz gufto^ of which I received Pleafure ; de quien es ? to whom it belongs ^ pdra quien ? para el \
cuyo
es ejie

for whom ? for him , you may anfwer, mio^


Idno^

fombrero ?

then

tuyo, or fuyo^ ov del Sr,

de aquel Caballero^ mine, thine, or yours,

Fuor
are

of

Mr

fuch a one, of that Gentleman.


likewife,
Articles,
is

Obferve

that

called ellyptic
for
la carta^

thefe Relatives becaufe they exprefs


;

Subftantive which
la
I

not there

as, recebz la de
;

the v.m^,
de

received yours

lez

los

Izbros

^.evcdo, pero
2

los

del

Padre

Feijoo no^ I read

^evedo'i

238

New Spanish Grammar,

do'^ Books, but not thofe of Father Feijoo ; and then they govern the Cafe of the Subflantive ; as recibi la de Pedro^ pro no la de Judn^ I receiv'd that of

Peter^Sy but not that of Jo/^^,

&c.

Of
There
nines,

the Articles.

are three Articles


el

in Spamjh,

as

is

faid

before, viz.

for the Mafculines,


;

la for the
it

Femi-

and
if I

lo

for the Neuters

and

can't be taken

amifs,

fhow here

the manner,

how

they are

to be ufed.
Firft, All proper Names of Men, Women, Gods, GoddefTes, Angels good or bad of Months, Cities, Towns, and Villages, &c, have no Article before them ; as, Phelipe V. Rej de Efpana Luh XV. Re'j de Frdncia ; Jorge II. Rey de Ingalaterra^ &c. Philip V. King of Spain, &c. Carolina Reina de Ingalaterra^ Calorine Queen of England Ju,

pter^ St Miciiael Juno, Lucrecia, St Miguel^ Enero, January ; Febrero, February, &c. Secondly, If we put an Adjedlive between proper Names, or exprefs their Epithets, or fpecify fome Adlion, PafTion, or Motion, and take notice of their Qualities, &c. then we put the Article before them as, el Omnipotente DioSy el Dios de Mife',

ricordia

the

Almighty God,
:

the

God
el

of

Mercy

el invencible e

intrepido General^ the


el

invincible,

and

intrepid General
Prince/a,
ejie

Rey^

la

Reina,

Principe, la

y el

Duque

de Cufnberland irdn a la comedia

the King, the Queen, the Prince, the and the Duke of Cumberland will go to the Play-houfc this Night 5 and fo before other
noche,

Princefs,

common Words.
Thirdly, Before the Numerals is never made ufe of the Article, but when they are taken relatively ;
as, lo5 doi vinieron,
los doce mefes del the two came Months of the Year 5 los fie te dtas
;

ano^

the twelve

de la

A
las

New Spanish Grammar.

239

de lafemdna^ the feven Days of the Week ; las d ce ^rzbus^ los doce jipojloksy los doce pares de Frdncia^

tkc and fo are uno^ quaU the Participles, and fome of the Infinitives ; as, el uno^ the one, &c. lo dicbo^ the above con Moderadon^ el corner^ el heher y el dormir^ faid, to eat, to drink, and to deep h'acen hen al cuerpo^ with Moderation, does good to the Body. The Particle an fo much us'd in Englijh is omitted in Spanijh ; for tho' we fay, another Man, anootro^

qudiro partes del Mundo^

ther

Giro dia^

they only fay as the Latin, Stro homhre^ not un otro bomhre^ or un otro dia, Efpdna has but fcldom an Article, and Serdena,

Day,

Portugdly Sedliay and cdndia never.

CHAP.
Of

II.

the ConflriiBion of

thuns,

WHEN
tions,

two Subftantives of diverfe Significa-^ do fo come together, that the Latter

in fome kind or other feem to be poflefTed, or depend of the former, then the latter is put in the Genitive Cafe j as, el amor de Dios es mas perfeEio^ the Love of God is the mod perfed amor del Pddre^ the Love of a Father ; la Terneza de la Mddre, the Tendernefs of a Mother ; la Eloquencia de Cice^ ron^ the Eloquenc^e of Cicero^ &c. And often this Genitive is turned into an Adjective ; as, el amor 'Divhio^ the Divine Love ; el Amor Paterno^ the fatherly Love ; la 'Terneza Maternay the Motherly Tendernefs, ^c. An Adjedlive in the Neuter Gender put alone
:

without a Subftantive,

ftandcth for a Subftantive,

and

240

-^ ^^'^

Spanish

Grammar.
after
it ;

and may have a Genitive Cafe

deme u^

foco de lo miichoj y algo de lo pco^ give me a little of the much, and fomething of the little you have 5 lo prudente de Don Pedro nos admira^ the prudent

Don Peter furprifes us, Cs?r. The Nouns of Praife, and Difpraife, of "Want, oF Arts, Sciences, all proper Names of Cities, Towns, &c. of God, all proper Names of Men, Women, Spirits good and bad, of irrational
Part of

of inanimates, of Months, Nouns of Meafure, 8e:c. coming after a Noun Subftantive, or a Verb Subftantive may be put with the Prepoiition de ; as Muchdcho de hum ingenio^ a Boy of a good Wit ; h ombre de mal Credzto^ a. Man of bad Credit or Reputation ; Maeftro de Mufica^ a Matter of Mufic ; Profe[f6r de Theologza, a ProfefTor of
Creatures,
la Divinity ; la Cdfa de Pedro, Peter's Houfe ciuddd de Ldndres, the City of London ; la voluntdd de Diosj the Will of God, &c. Sometimes the Genitive Cafe is put alone, the former Subftantive being underftood by Eclypfis ; as recehz dos Cartas^ la de Pedro lez^ pero no la de
*,

ml

Correfpondiente,

received

two Letters,

that of Peter's,
dcnt.

but not that of

my

I read Correfpon-

Of the
membrance,

Conftru5lion of Adjeofives,

Adjedlives that fignify Defire, Knowledge, ReIgnorance, or Forgeting, and fuch like require a Genitive ; as codtcwfo de dinero^ other covetous of Money ; ignorante de todo, ignorant of
all

things,

^c.
Partitives,

Nouns

and

certain

Interrogatives,
;

with certain

Nouns of Numbers,
folo^
ilno,

require Genitive
dos,

as alguno^ ninguno^

qualquier^

tres^

Primer0, fegundoy &c. algimo de vofotros, fomebody of you, elprimero de vofotros^ the firft of you. Romulo

A New Spanish

Gra7?2mar.

Romulo fue el Primer de los Reys de mulus was the firft of the Kings of Rome ^ de que (rata en Londres ? de Guerra, what are you about f in London ? or whattalke you inLondon ? of War; de quien fe hdbia ? de los Turcos, of whom fpeak they ? of the Turks. Adjedives fignifying Fulnefs, Emptinefs, Plenty,

241 Roma, Ro-

Want, require de ; of Water fallo de juicio^


or
-,

as,

llcno

de dgaa^
his

full

without

Senfes.

And fometime they require the Prepofition en ; as abundant e de todo, or en todo, plentiful, or well Ruode bienes, or en bienes ftored with every Thing tempordles, y Pobre de los, or en los efpiritudles, rich
,

in

temporal Goods, and poor in the fpiritual, &c. Dzgno^^nd indzgno^vcqu'ire. aGenitive ; as, fdi dzgno^ or indigno de bdnra, I am worthy or unworthy of Honour. But adornddo, contento, defcontento, alegre, &c. will have de or con, as, efte quarto ejid adornddo

de precidfas aldjas, or con preciofas aldjas, this

Room
de

is

adorned with
tento^

fine Furniture

Contento and Defconejldi

require likewife en, as,

contento

eftoy

contented with this, &c. efto, efio, Adjedlives, whereby is fignified Prolk, Difprofit, Likenefs, Unlikenefs, fubm.iting or belonging to fomething, govern a Dative Cafe ; as, tilil, provecon

or en

am

chdfo,

cof/iodo,
-,

Bueno,

convcniente,

guftofo,

mdlo,
con-

rendido

igudl,

defigudl,

femejdnte,

parecido,

forme, &c. 2.%, [era util a Pedro el trabajdr, working will be profitable to Peter and fo are diofe of Affinity, which likewife are conftrued with a Genitive ; as, fdi Pariente de Fuldno or d Fuldno, I am a
,

Relation of, or to fuch a one. Add to thefe fome of the Verbals


hie,

in hie,

as

amd-

dable

Sec.

N, B. That the Nouns of Meafure of Length, Breadth,or Thicknefs of any Thing, is put in the Accurative,and theAdjedive in theGcr.itivc-, 2i%Jfta torre tune cien pies de alto^ this Tower is one hundred Feet

high

242
high

New Spanish Grammar.

; efte Pdno time dos vdras de dncho^ this Cloth has two Yards in Breadth, Some Adjedives govern the Ablative Cafe; as, con^ or enla colera efioi amarillo^ y con la ira coU^

rko, y con fus amendzas temerofo^ I am pale for being angry, angry with Wrath, and with his Threatning timorous. There are Ablatives Abfolutes, (To called for their having no dependance in the Speech) as acahdda la cena^ the Supper being finifhed, or having fupt ; quitdda la Cdu/a, cefa el efe^Io^ the Caufe being remov'd, the effedl ceafed. The Ablative of the Inftrument is made in Spanijh with the Prepofition con^ with as lo hue con el MaYtillo^ I have done it with the Hammer. The Words ei^perto^ experimentado^ Perzto^ ver^ fddoy curfddo, &c. require an Ablative with en ; as verfddo en iibros^ verfed in Books.
,

Of

the Numerals,

The Numerals may

be divided into Cardinals

as*

uno, doSy tres^ 6cc,

Ordinals ; as, Pri?nero^ fegundoy tercero, &c. Diflributives, as, de una en jmo^ de dos en dos^ de tres
en tres^ Sec,
Partitives, as cada uno^
y otro^ alguno, &c. quincena, veintena^ treindocena^
in Englijh^
el

mo

Collectives, as una
tena^

&c. a dozen and no more


in its (lead
;

they

faying
the

fifth

la

twenty, thirty, &c. diezma^ a tenth, &c.


,

quznto^

Of

Augmentation hk, &c.


5

as

lo doble^

lo triple^

lo

quadru-

Univerfal, as todo, ninguno^ ndda.


Particular
as, algtino^

alguien,

&c.
Cafe
;

All which govern the


Prirniro de todos^ the
firft

Genitive

as,

el

of

all.

Of

New Spanish
Of

Granwiar,

243

the Comparatives,

The Comparatives
vern que^ than,
fon lies
\

mas^ more

-,

i7unos,

lefs,

go-

in

which the force of the Compari-

el todo es

Mayor

que la parte, the

Whole,

or the Compound is greater or bigger than the Part fu Malicia es peor que la de el diablo, it's Malice

and fo in mejor^ worfe than that of the Devil's Now for the Regular Comparatives ; as, es mas fcibio que Salomon, is wifer than Solomon ; es mas Herfnoja que Rachel, is more beautiful than Rachel ; es menos prudente que fu Hermdno^ is lefs prudent than his Brother. They govern likewife deloque, than what ; as, es mas Do^o deloque fe pihfa, is more learned than what it is thought ; es 7nas afortunddo deloque merece^ is more lucky than what he deferves. When the Articles el, la, lo are put before mas, thea it governs the Genitive , as, es el mas difcreto de los homhres, he is the difcreeteft of Men ; la mas afdble de to das las Mugeres, the mod affable of all Women ; lo mas fele^fo de todo, the moft felect of all, of every
is
*,

menor.

Thing.

They govern alfo the PrepoGtIon entre ; as, es la mas Hermofa entre todas las Mugeres, is the moft beaues el mas Docfo entre todos tiful among all Women los del Colegio, is the moft learned among all thofe of the College. Some SpaniJI: Writers put de before entre as, ^j el mas fen aid do de entre Jus condifdpulos^ is the moft fignilized from among his School-, -,

Fellows.
feveral
bear.

By which the curious may obferve the Conftrudions that the Comparatives will
Examples
Vr'ith

The

the

Article

before

mas^

are called Relative Superlatives, and the following abfolute or independing which end in ijjitno
-,

iffima

errmo-ma^

&cc,

as
2

prudcntiJfi?7io,

moft
;

difcreet

244
difcreet

-^ ^^'^
*,

Spanish
;

Grammar.
the

proximo^ neareft
;

minimo^ the leaft,

imalleft

acerrimo^

moft vehement,

mod

obftinate.

When
tive,

the Adverb mui^ very, is before the Pofithen the Pofitive is made Superlative as Dodlifllmo, \ Mui Dofto, ver'j learned.
-,

Prudentiflimo,

M.xxWvMdiint^^ver'^ prudent^ &:c.

CHAP.

III.

OfV R O N O U N

S.

NO
We,
that

5, and fos^ though in reality they fignify the fame as Nofotros, and Vofotros^ that is.
-,

the

and Ye two

yet they differ in the


latter

have

der,
not,

Nofdiras and Fofotrai,


in
all

ufe, and in Feminine Genwhich the other have

the

being always the fame in

all

Genders.
;

tros is

common

ufe,

as

IVe with us

Nofdbut

No5^ is generally ufed by a fingle Perfon, as a Sovereign, or the like, where We is alfo imployed
in
it

Englijh.

But fometimes Nos

fignifies

Ui,

when

follows a Verb, as dddnos de corner^ give us to eat ; guiddnos a la cdfa^ lead us to the Houfe ; and

do not abufe us. apply 'd to a fingle Perfon, that is infpeaking to inferiors, or between familiar Friends, which is too grofs to avoid the word tUy thou before, and to fave in Spanijhy as has been faid thus the refped of V, M. alfo above fpoken of vos os engandis^ you are miftaken : and they fay,
after no^ as no nos rnaltrdtep^

Vos^

is

alfo

-,

fo before Verbs

vos perdeis,

you
i

lofe

Plural, as vos amdis, you love ; but in the other Cafes the ;
I will

is

cut off

as yo os dare^

give you

el os

llevard.

A
llevard^

New Spanish Grammar.


;

245
it

he will carry you

and the fame when

follows the

Verb

as quitdos de ahz,

get you from

thence ; and fo in many other Cafes. Note^ That Los^ Las, are conftrued with the firft and fecond Perfons of the Plural ; as, lofque fomos that are ChriChriJlidmSy vivdmos como idles.

We

los Apoftoles, que d los Maridos, The Apoftles fay, that we married fhould obey the Lofque fueredes Cbrijlidnos, ohfervdd y Hufbands cuinplid los Preceptos de Dzos, you that are Chrikeep and accomplifh the Commandments ftian,

ftians,

let

us live as fuch.

Dken

lafque fdmos cafddas ohedefcdmos

of God, &c, El^ and Ella have a Dative Cafe of a different Termination, which is contrary to the general Spanijh Rule ; for they fometimes make le and les, and thefe two are only ufed, when they imply fomething of Acquifition, and denote the Perfon receiving ; as, Vi a Pedro y dzle^ or le di [us cartas^ Vide mil I faw Peter and gave him his Letters. amigoSy y communiqueles mis ctiidddos^ I faw my Friends, and imparted my Affairs to them ; where it appears in both places, there is an im.parting, or In thefe Cafes there is no ufing of lo^ giving. or los for le, or les, becaufe it would breed Confuas will appear in this Inftance, Los que perfion, dieron fus haziendas, pzden a los juezes, que los ahor^ quen los ladrdnes^ They that have been robb'd of their Goods, require of the Judges that they hang Now were it faid, Pzden a losjuezes the Thieves. que los ahorken los ladrones, th^rt would be no deciding whether they required that the Thieves fhould be hang'd, or that the Thieves fhould hang them. Mi, ti, /, are ufed after Prepofitions ; as a mi^ to me ; para ti, for you ; por fi, by himfelf 5 but after con, with, they muft all have the Syllable go added to them ; as con mzgo, with me i con tzgOy with you \ con szgo^ with himfelf,

Me,

te, fe, are join'd to Verbs, and ftand for as, dixome^ he told the Dative, and Accufative Cafes me ; fervirte^ to ferve you ; amdrfe^ to love himfelf.
,

246 Me,

New Spanish Grammar.

They may alfo be placed before the Verb, provided a Nominative Cafe is before them as }'(? me tu te irds, you will be gone i ire^ I will be gone he will be gone ; fometimes the Nomiel fe ird, native Cafe is not expreffed, but always underwhere el is unllood ; as me dma, he loves me der flood, as el, he ; or Juar/, John, or Pedro, Peter. Obferve here, that me, te, fe, fometimes are us'd in the Dative by the Figure Pleonafm ; as, fenor I y Lord where are they going a dondeos me llevan ?
*,

O
?

to carry you from

me

Qu'ien te

feme cuhr'io

de dolor

he that came here to cover or fill you up with Grief r inftead of qiden te cubrio de dolor ? 5^ before the third Perfon of a Verb, generally as, fe fignifies what we exprefs by // fi, or the^ ; or reported, or they fay, or red'ize, it is faid, port I for if it be ufed to fignify himfelf, as has been obferved above, it is ufual to add a ft, or a ft mifmo, which denotes himfelf; as, fe dma a fi mifmo, he loves himfelf La, U, lo, las, les, los, me, te, fe, nos, andi;^;, as, oirela, I will are frequently joined to Verbs
is
-,

Who

hear her

direle,
I
;

will tell

it; llevdrilos,

will carry

him them ;
1

harelo,

I will

do
\

efcriviriles,

I will

write to them
ireme,
let
I will be

defpedirelos,

will

difmifs
-,

them

gone
;

vcte,

be you gone

vdyafe^

joining vos to the Verb, the

walk ; but in always cutoff; as, amdros, to love you, not amdrvos ; and if the Verb be the third Perfon Plural of the Imperative Mood, the laft Letter of it which is always d, muft be alfo cut off; as, calcntdos^ warm yourfelves, and fo in others. When le, lo, las, los, are joined to the Infinitive Mood, the laft r of it is fometimes changed 'mto /, for the fofter Sound, as for dezirle^ fay dezUle ; buf bi$ is HQ general Rule, ^

him be gone

paffeemonos, \tt us

is

NoU,

A
Note^

New Spanish Grammar.


That when a Relative
is

247
to

referred

Mafculine, then we make ufe of le^ wiien to a Feminine of la, when to a whole Sentence or Claufe of lo in the Neuter. Mto^ tuyOy fiyo, nueflro, vuejlro^ and mijmo^

Noun

have the Article added to them, when they are as, lo fpoken abfolutely, and without a Subftantive Unlels mio, what is mine ; lo tmo, what is thine. they are fpoken in Anfwer to a Queflion , as if it be afked, Cuyo es efie cavallo ? whofe Horfe is this? the Anfwer is, mzo^ tnyo, or fuyo^ mine, yours, or his. ^LS.cuyo es ejlo ? Ci{yo is naturally an Interrogation Whofe is this ? But it is often us'd to fignify the Perfon a Thing belongs to ; as El hombre ciiyo es efte
, *,

cavallo,
this

the Man whofe Horfe this is, or to whom Horfe belongs. Mi, tu, fu, Plur. rnisy tus, [us, are us'd for 7niOy
;

tuyo, fuyo
cafa,

but always before a Subftantive


;

my Houfe

tu Izhro,

his Face ; mis gudntes, your Spurs ; fus papeles,


^EJle,
ejie
effe,

my
all

as, mi ; your Book ; fu ccira^ Gloves tus efpuelas^


,

his Papers,

aquel,

are

Demonftratives
is

;
;

but
ej/e^

denotes a
that

Thing
is

near the Perfon fpeaking

Thing

rather near

him
ejfe

that

fpoken to
-,

and
aquel

aquel,

which

at a
;

Diftance from both


Plato,
is

as, efte
;

cuchillo,

this

Knife

that Difh

perro, that

Dog.

The fame
thefc

to be underftood of
^

the Feminine
aquella,

Gender of

Words,
ejfo,

Efta, ejfa,

and ; of them, ^Eftos, effos, Aquel pronounced aquello s, ejjas, aquellas. eft as, (lands for the firft Perfon Singular, with energy, and aquellos for the firft Plural ; as, yo aquel que en Ids pafddos tiempos cante, &c. I he who in former
and of the Neuter,
^Efto,
aquello

fo of the Plural

Number

Times

fung, ^c.
Relatives,

The
times
is

or Interrogatives.
as

^dl, fome-

them

which of and fometimes Comparative, as ^dl es el verdno^ tal si invicrno. Such as the Summer is, fuch
interrogatory,
dellos?
?

^dl

is

248
is

-^

New Spanish Grammar.


,

the

Winter

and fometimes
qudllapidta.

it

is

diftributive, as

Qudl

coge el oro^

One gathers

the Gold,

another the Silver.


taly differs herein from ^/i/, that the latter afks the particular Perfon, or Thing, and is IVhicb cf them f whereas the other quedions the Quality

^e

of the Perfon, or Thing, as ^/^ td es efte cavdllo? What fort of Horfe is that ? ^le is alfo an Interrogation, as S^e dizes? What do you fay ? It is alfo Demonltrative, as El Homhre que hdbla^ The Man that fpeaks. It
alfo figniiies than
;

as,

Mas

vdle hahldr pdco, que ha-

hldr mal^ It
It
is

is

better to fay little than to talk amifs.


in
I

fometimes
I

the Nature of an Exclamation,

as

^e

Defgrdcla

What
I

a Misfortune

^ue

linda

mugcr

What
;

a fine

Woman! ^e^
may go
;

the fame as

ihat^ as que ^0 vdja^ that

^e for pcrque,
do
it

why, becaufe
thou,
becaufe

as,
I

bazio tu^ que yo no puedo,

Obferve that dque is not one SpamJJj Word, becaufe ^ is a Prepofition, and denotes /<?, and then is not an Adverb, for a que^ is as a the fame as to what End, to what Purpofe
can^t.
*,

we underftand, a que fin, to ! que vino ejle what end came this Man? a que juego perd'w fu dincro ? At what, or at which Game did you loofe
ho?nbre

your

Money

And

always

is

a Relative, the fame

as qudl, or cuyo, dec.

CHAP.
Of
PRoperly
the

IV.

Verbs.

fpeaking, the Spanijh Verbs have only

thefe following fimple Tenfes, viz. the Prefent^

Preterimperftct, the Preterpcrfed, and the Future, of the Indicative Mood , the Imperative Mood ; and the Prefent, Preterimperfedl, and Futurcj of the Optative or Subjundlive j as
Indicative,

Seiv S

250

New Spanish Grammar.

has the fame Cafes, when Verbs of wifhing and the like come near them ; as, Pedro defea fer fanto^ Peter wifheth to be Holy : lo antes quifterafer RUo^ que parecerlo^ I had rather be rich, than to be accounted fo, 6fr. 2. Of the Auxiliary Verbs. Haver governs the Accufative ; as, Pedro ha el Izhro^ Peter hath the Book. Efidr^ when it fignifies to be in a Place, requires the Ablative with en ; but when to be with fomebody, an Ablative with con ; as, eftarev, m^ en fu cdfa ! will you be at home ? To eftare en la Lonja^ I fhall be on the Change j ejloi con v. md, I am with you ; here con is ufed for fhortnefs, becaufe the meaning is. To ejloi en companid de v. m^y I am in

your Company. Obferve this Phrafe, eftdr en ejfoy en ello^ &:c. ejld v. md- en ejfo ? do you remember of that ? have you obferved, or taken notice
of that
it
?

are

you

in the

fame Mind, &c.

Ser

when

or pertaining to a Thing, will have the Genitive ; (except when the Pronouns mto^ tuyo, fuyo^ nueftro^ vueftro are to be us'd, as, efte becaufe then they are in the Nominative lihro es mh, &c,) as, efte Peine es de mi Muger^ this Comb belongs to my Wife. But when it denotes
fignifies PoffefTion,
,

the Property of a Thing,


it ; it

it is

has
for

a Dative after

^i ^ Pedro^ ; Noie^ That wf, // jf, belongs to Peter, i^c. feldom can be put in the Genitive by themfelves, or without a Subftantive ; tho' they may in the Dative ; as, es de mi Hermdno^ it belongs to my Brother ; you

as,

efto

es

para mi^

this

me

for you, for

ti^ para fi^ is for me, Muger digo efto, except de it him como hdhlas tan mal of you O my Wife I fay this de mi P why do you fpeak fo bad of me, (^c.

may

fay, es

para mi, para


:

-,

Of
brance.
tive
5

the Genitive.

Verbs fignifying Grief,


as,

Want, Forgetting, ^c.


Pejame de
la

Compaflion, Remeniwill have a GeniMuer^e de fu Padre^ I am


forry

A
forry for
de dineros^

New Spanish Grammar. 251 Me compadefco the Death of your Father


:

de fus Mjas^
I

pity his

Daughters

Carefco^ necefiito

want Money. And thus de is put before the Thing fpoke in the Speech, es menefter a^ cordarfe de lo que me dzxo^ it is neceflary to remember of what you faid to me Me olvide de eflo^ I
:

forgot that. The Reciprocals of geering, boafting, and diftrufting, govern the Genitive, as vanagloriarfey pi
carfe^
defconfiarfe,

&c.

Of
A(5live

the Dative,

Verbs

have
fii

either
I

Dative

or Accufa-

tive; as,
conofco a

conofco efta

Letra,

Don

Antonio

know this Writing; Amigo^ I know Don An-

thony your Friend.

The

Prepofitions of the Dative are a or fdra.

To

this

Rule of
;

the Dative belong the Verbs,


as,

Jugdr^ to play Cards.


the King.

Juego a

los

ndipes,

play at

Obedecer^ defobedecer^

&c. Ohedefio

al

Rey^ I obey

Manddr^ when it fignifies to command an Army, &c. requires theAccufative ^ when other Things, the Dative ; as, el Duque de Montemdr Mando el Exercito the Duke of Montemar comEfpanol en Italia^ manded the Spanijh Army in Italy el Rey mandd al Emhaxador de Venecia de falir de Londres en tres dlas^ the King ordered the Venetian Ambaflador to go out of London in three Days. ir, to go ; as, v6i d Roma^ I go to Rome.
-,

Ajjiftir^

to help or a (Till

as,

ajfiftire

d Pedro^

will help or affift Peter.

Saluddr^ to falute ; as, faludo a Fuldno^ he faluted fuch a one. Habldr^ to fpeak ; llamdr^ to call
fatisfacer^ to fatisfy
;

fervir^ to ferve, favorecer^ to


;

favour ;

defafidr^ to

chalenge
;

abfolver^ to abfolve

i
:

Amenazd'\ to threaten The Verbs of pleafing, difpleafing, granting, denyaconfejdr^ to give

Advice

ing.

252

New Spanish Grammar.


and
is,

ing, pardoning,

acquifitively, that

fo all manner of Verbs put with thefe Tokens to^ or for^ after them, will have a Dative Cafeof thePerfon5and often the Accufative of the Thing. The Imperfonals acontecer^ avenir^ convenir^ importdr, pertenecer, placer^ and the like to thefe, will have often two Datives of Perfon ; as, a fni me acontecioy it happened to me ; a tz te conviene^ it is convenient for you j no le imporla a ely it does not concern him, &c.

^he Accufative.

The Latin Verbs, which govern the Accufative of the Thing, and the Dative of the Perfon, govern generally the fame in Spanifh \ as, reftituid
pertenke al Cefar^ render ye to belonging to Cefar ; dz el Izbro al Impreffor^ I gave the Book to the Printer, ^c Verbs of afking, teaching, arraying \ alfo moft f the Verbs Tranfitives, viz. all fuch as have after them an Accufative Cafe of the Doer, or Sufferer, whether they be Adtive, or Commune, and fometimes the Verbs Neuters, will have an Accufative of the Thing*, as, Gozo faWd, 1 enjoy Health ^ pzdo tocdr ejia Grdcia, ruego ejle favor ^ I afl< this Favour OrgdnOy to play on the Organ. d Generally all the Adive Verbs require an Accufative or Dative ; as, amdr d Dzos^ bacer Men, to do good ; Guardar los Mandamientos de Dzos, to defcuhrzr la verddd, keep God's Commandments
al

Cefar

lo

qiie

Cefar what

is

-,

-,

to difcover the Truth


Suit of

gandr- el pleitOy

to get the

Law,
be
;
5

Ssr^x.0

fometimes governs an Accufacive,in the


as,
es

Infinitive

hueno fer hojnbre bonrddo^

it

is

good

to be an honeft

Man,

Of

^NewS?ANisu
Of

Grammar.

253

the Ablativs.

All PaiTive Verbs, and generally mofl of the Reciprocals, will have the Ablative with de
,

as, foi

amado

Father ; me levanto except acoftdrfey de la Cdma, I get up from the Bed recoftdrfe^ fentarfe, which have the Ablative with en. The Price of a Thing is put after Verbs in the Accufative with por^ zs^lo comprepor unpefo, I bought lo vendi por ires reales, it for a piece of Eight or a tres redles la ydrda, I fell it at three Reals per
de mi Padre,
I
;
*,

am

loved of

my

Yard. Verbs of Plenty, Filling, Emptying, Loading, or Unloading, will have an Ablative 5 as, ahundo de riquezas, I abound of Riches te llenare de oprohrios, I will load you with Injuries, ^c. Verbs that betoken Receiving, or Difbance, or taking away, will have an Ablative as, recibz mil pefos de Pedro, I received one thoufand Pieces of Eight of Peter Kenftngton difta tres m^llas de Londres, Kenfington is three Miles from London,
-, -,

Verbs of arguing,

quarrelling, fighting, i^c.


\

re-

quire the Ablative with con

as, argtiir, rentr, peledr.

The Verbs
if cu7n,

that

govern
-,

in

Latin thefe Frepofitions


defpues

a, ex, ah, will have in Spanijh an Ablative with de,


con
-,

pro, por

poft,

-,

vjque,

hdfta,

&c.
Obferve
at the
laft,

that the following Rules are

retained by the Spanijh Authors, for the Verbs, viz,


I. If the Word governed by the Verb fignifies a thing animate, generally it is put in the Dative Cafe ; as, voi a ver a mi Padre, I go to fee my Father, dmo d mi Mddre, I love my Mother. The Verbs of Motion to a Place, always govern the Dative ; as, voi d Madrid, I go to Madrid the
:

Verbs of Motion, from a Place, govern the Ablative -w'lihde; as, vengo de Efpdna, I come from Spain i if the Action, Motion, or PafTion is through
I

a Thinti

254

-^ '^^'^

Spanish

Grammar,

a Thing or Place, then theVerbs govern the Accufative with por ; as, vendre for Paris ^ I (hall come by way of Paris ; fufri por v. m^> I fuffered for you, &c.
3.

To
j

exprefs a

Thing

indifinitly,
;

the Spaniards

always ufe the Accufative Cafe


vino
4.

as trdhigo

as in Latin, affero

panem
fee
;

& vinum,
mirdr^
to

pan y
look
ver
;

The Verbs

ver^

to

differ; becaufe ver requires Accufative; as,

Palacio^ to fee the Palace ; and mirdr^ Dative and Accufative, as Mzro el juego ; mtro a los que juegan^ but when they fignify to look for one, then they govern the Accufative with por ; as Eftoi mirdnda por V. mdy I am looking for you.

Of
5.

the Particles requiftte to

fome

'tenfes,

The

and the

firft

Mood,

Prefent Tenfe of the Subjunftive, &c. and fecond Preterimperfeds of the faid are conftrued with que^ paraque^ porque^
oxala^ fupueftoque^ puejlo
qiie^

aunque^ hienque^

da
go.

ioque, a fin que, conque^ puefque^ &c. as, Es hueno que yo vdya^ it is good, that

Paraque el 'venga. To the end that he may come. Porque tu aprendie[fes a ordr^ for that you might
learn

how

to pray.
el

Aunque
that he

venga^ &c. altho he come,

&c.
to

jifin que

the end &c. The imperlbnal Verbs generally govern the Sub-

Aprendiera^
learn,

aprendiej/e^

might

jundlive with^//^, but with this Diftindtion ; that when the imperfonal is in the Prefent Tenfe, or Future

of the Indicative Mood, then they always govern the prefent of the Subjunctive Mood ; but_ when the Imperfonal (or any other Verb taken imperfonaliy) is in any of the Preterits of the Indicative, then it governs the Imperfeia, the Perfe(5l, the PlusI

perfc<^5

A
perfed,

New Spanish Grammar.


-,

25

or the Future of the Subjundive, accord-

as, ing to the meaning of the Speech ConvUne or Convendrd, que el Rey en Perfona Comdnde el ExercitOy it is convenient, or it will be

convenient,

that

the

King

in

Perfon

do com-

mand

the

Army.

Convino que el Principe fueffe con ely it was convenient that the Prince fhould go with him. The Prefent Subjundive is likewife conftrued

with the Particles por futile por Do^o^ por fdbio, por pequenoy por Grande, &c. but por (lands there for aunque, although , as, ^alqutera cofa cofa por pequcna que fea hdce fa papel en el mundo, any thing, although it be little or fmall, does fome fervice in the World, that is, ferves for fome Thing or Purpofe in the World. An Imperative often requires the Prefent, the firft and fecond Preterimperfedt, and the Future of the Subjundlive Mood, zs^fea loque fea, let it be as it will, altho' it be fo fea lo que fu era ox fueffe , let the Thing be, or happen as it would; fea loque fuere, happen what it fhall happen, at all Events. All the Tenfes of the Subjundlive may be conftrued with luegoque^ quando, fi^ como, aunque ; but plega a BioSy 3,nd fea Dios fervido, require only the Prefent Subjun6tive ; znd plugiera or plugulejfe, fuera or fueffe Bios fervido may be conftrued with all the Tenfes of the Subjundive, except the Prefent Tenfe. The third Imperfed of the Subjundlivc Mood re:

quires yJ,
gtifto,

qudndo,

aunque,

y como,

de gujlo,

con

de mui huena b mala gana, b quan de gdna, por

Ventura, acdfo, &c. Pues, puefque, aunque, oomo, quando, luego,

may

be conftrued with

all

the Tenfes of the Indicative


del
I

Mood
I
fell

as,

quando vine

campo,

cai

del cabdllo^

pues perdi

el ejlribo,

v/hen

came from
I loft

the
th.^-

Country
Stirrup',

from the Horfe,

becaufe

&c.

The

third Imperfea: of the Subjundive Mood fometimes conftrued by Circumlocution, viz. with the Infinitive and the Words, Ma^ Mas, hia^ Sec. as baUarte hia (for hablaria), efcribirle hta por
IS

^^6 The

New Spanish Grammar.

el correo

(for efcribiriale),
;

ahrazdrla hza (for abra-

and the Reader will find, that if the Pronoun and the Letter h are taken away, it remains that Tenfe ; as, if from hahlarte hia, te and h is And although taken, there it will remain haUarza, fome Authors are of Opinion that hablarte hia^ flands for hablarte tba^ I was going to fpeak to
zariala)

yet Father VaUra obferves that that manner fpeaking is a Circumlocution proper to the third Preterimperfed, and often ufed in the SpaniJIj Poetry, adding h to la by the Figure Epenthefis, to denote that the Accent fhould lie on the f, as hacerte hia Men, ft fuejfes hueno, (hacerte hid for haria) he would do good for you, if you was good. The fecond Future of the Indicative Moodj which is made by the Auxiliary Verb haver, is conftrued with Elegancy with the Particles me, te, fe^ te, la, lo, les, las, los, at the End of the Infinitive ;

you
of

Gidarme has for me guiards, or rather for has de guidrme, you muft guide me ; darte he mi hzja en
as,

cafamiento for he de darte, or te dare mi hzja en


miento,
I

cafa-'

will or
;

mud

give you

my

Daughter

in

Marriage
dare,
7.
I

darte la he^
Englijh
;

for he de ddrtela^ or te la

will give her to you.

The

Tongue
and
in

has one Sign to the InSpanijh there


is

finitive, viz. to

none for
to
,

the

Infinitive,
;

as
ozr,

Infinitive, as

Leer, to read

to hear

love Altho' there are fe-

Amdr,

veral Particles ufed in Spaniflj before the Infinitive, they are governed by other preceeding Verbs or Nouns Subftantives, and thefe are a, pdra, de, con,
en, por,

hafta, defpuefde, and el when the Infinitive ferves as a Nominative to another Verb.

CHAP.

New Spanish Grammar.

z^f

CHAP.
Of

V.

Prepofitions,

Cafes to be given to fome Parts of Speech^ being one principal Part of Syntax, and there being properly no Cafes in Spanijh^ as there are
Latiriy

TH E
When

we

will therefore treat

which anfwer the End


the

of the Prepofitions, of the Latin Cafes.

Noun

in

pofTeffing, or fignifies

Speech denotes the Perfon whofe a Thing is, we always


-,

ufe of the Prepofition de as, lEJio Izbro es de Juan^ This is John's Book ; unlefs we ufe the pofitive Degree of that fame Perfon, making it an Adje6live to the Thing poflefTed ; as, Efta ley es de Dios cr divina^ This is God's Law, or divine Law. This Ufe of the Pofuive is fo neceflary, when the PoUefTion belongs to any of the Pronouns, yo^ tii^ fe^ that we mud always fay, ^Efta Cdfa es mza, iuya^ fuya^ This Houfe is mine, yours, his not de ?m, tf, or ft. But they may be ufed when they do noc
'
-,

make

denote PofTeflion
duelete

as, acuerdate de wi, remember

me

have Compaffion on your felf; did huena cuenta de fiy he gave a good ilccount of himde
ti^

felf

The

Prepofition de

is
;

alfo applied
as,

from whence we come from Court.

to the Place Vengo de PaldciOy I come

When

the Prepofition denotes Acquifition, or the

Perfon for
, or 'para
this Letter

whom
*,

as, dale

Thing is, we ufe the Prepofitions a Juan efta cdrta^ give John

for John.
fe^

^Efta carta es para Judn^ this Letter is Except here the Terminations, me^ te^ of the Pronouns yOy tu^ el^ which though they S denote
,

2 J

New Spanish Grammar.

denote Acquificion, do not admit of thefe Prepofitions ; as, dioine el dinero^ he gave me the Money. They are alfo applied to the Place we are going tOjWhether proper or appellative ; as, Voi a Madrid^
de dSnde partire pdra

Roma^

am

going to Madrid^
,

from whence

I will fet

out for Rome.

Noun Pafiive as, Tedro Peter loves John ; but when the Noun is an Appellative, it is fometimes ufed, and fometimes omitted; as,/ 7naeftro enfena los DifdpuloSy or a los DifcipuloSj the Mailer teaches the Scholars. The Prepofition Con^ before mi, ti, ft, requires,
is

alfo applied to the

dma a Judn^

that the Syllable go fhould be added to

them

*,

as,'z;^

conmzgo,
felf.

come with me
es

ire contzgo,

I will

go with

you, Pedro

When
is

Verb

com jgo, Peter is harfh to himbefore an Infinitive, then the turned into a Gerund in Engltjh\ zs,con amdr^
dfpero
is

Con

with loving. Prepofitions in Compofition are frequent in Spavijh, that is, joined to other Words and made one
with them. as, Diner 0,
are commonly a, and en, em, &c. Money, thence homhre adinerddo, a money'd Man ; and we fee the like in the Englijhy

Thefe

is

where adding ed
Spanijh a
:

to

Money makes

the

fame

as the

does not hold in moll other Words: from Noche, Night, anochecery to grow Night, which the Englijh does not exprefs without Vide^ the fecpnd Part, and fuch Circumlocutions.

But

this

the

Remarks.

CHAP,

t^ew

Spanish

Grammar.

259

CHAP.
Of Adverbs^
Conjun^ioiis^

VI.

and

Interje6lions.

little need be faid of thefe three Parts of Speech more than has been obferved before. As for thofe Adverbs, that are formed by adding minte to Adjedtives, as is done in Engli/h^ by the Addition of the Syllable ly ; when two of this Sort follow one another, the two additional Syllables^ mente^ of the firft of them, are always cut offs

VERY

thus,
ly,

A
is,

Camindr fegura^ y alegremenie^ To travel fafeand merrily. Negative Adverb joined to any other Negative
-,

Part of Speech, does not make an Affirmative, as in Latin ^ and other Languages for,A^<? veo a nddie^
I

fee

No-body

JSo te

hdlla ningunOy

No-body

can find you ; nor can the fame Words be takea negatively without both the Negatives ; for, it can not properly be faid in Spanijh^ ^eo a nddie^ for, I fee No-body but if we would avoid the two Negatives, we mud fay, No veo' a persona algma^ I fee not any Perfon ; JSIddie te balla. No-body can find you.
*,

Thus, No

quiero
is

mda^

is,

I will

have Nothing
;

but, un no ndda^

next to Nothing

as,

Fdltale

un no ndda del pefo^ It v/ants as much as Nothing of the Weight. Notwithflanding which, the learned in Spain are of a contrary Opinion and do rightly
,

fay, that in the Spani/h^ as

well as

in Lativ^

two

Negative Parts of Speech make an Affirmative as. No ndda^ algo, fomething, ^c, Noy is alfo fometimes ufed by way of Interrogation ; as. No vsndrcis pr acd ? Will not you come
this

Way ^
S 2

The

26o The
neither,

A New Spanish
Conjundlion Tambten^
are

Grammar.
alfo,

and TampdcOy
ire

ufed thus
I will

He

goes, and

El va^ y yo go alfo ; El no
;

tamhien^

quiere, ni yo

ta7np6co^

He

will not, nor I neither.


is

Of

Interjedlions, there

no more

to

add to what

has been faid already.

Of Figurative

ConJtruBion,

THERE

are two Sorts of Conftrudion, the Proper, or Simple-, and the Improper, or The firft of them is that which in all Figurative. Points is agreeable to the Rules of Grammar, which has been fufficiently fpoken of before. The Figurative is a Way of fpeaking that departs in fome refpedl from the eftablifhed Rules, and yet is admitted and received, becaufe in common Ufe, not only among the Illiterate, but alfo among the Learned. What little there is of this Sort in the Spanijh Tongue moft necefiary to be known, (hall be com-

prehended in a few Lines. The Paragoge, a Figure which adds fome Letter, or Syllable at the End of a Word, is now quite out of Ufe in Spanijh^ but may be found in fome old Poems, efpecially common Songs and Ballads, where they fometimes, to make up a Verfe, fay, Amore for Amor^ Love ; Cantare^ for Cantdr^ But thefe fuperfluous Additions ,a Song, or to fing are now, as has been faid, quite laid afide, and only found in the Verb, Soi^ and V6i^ from the Verbs Ser^ to be, and /r, to go; and therefore according to the general Rule of Spanijh Verbs, ought to be So^ and Vo^ as they were ufed in former Ages, but of latter Times the i has been added for the better Sound,
:

The

A
ufed

New Spanish
,

Gramjnar.

26 1

is the cutting off fome Letter, in Middle of a Word as, yo via, I faw, tu vias^ the you faw ; for veia, veias. The fame is frequently

The Syncope

in the fecond Perfon Plural of the Preterimperfedt Tenfe of the Optative, and Subjundlive
>

Moods, of Verbs
duvieradeis,

as Anduviejfeis, for Jnduvieffedeis


;

Jndariais, for Andariadeis

Anduvi'irais^

for

An-

&c.
is

The Apocope,
of a
It
is

cutting off a Letter at the

End

val prevemr, quefer prevemdo^ where better to prevent, than to be prevented


,

Word

as,

Mas

-,

we have mas
feen in other

val, for

mas

vale.

The fame may be


little

Words, but now


is
,

ufed.

Inverting the natural Order of the Letters in a Word as, fome are apt to fay, haceldo^ do it ; decUdo^ fay it quitdldo, take it away inftead of hacedlo, deczdlo^ quitddlo, which are the
Metathefis,
*,

propereft and

mod

polite

Way

of fpeaking,

and

therefore the other

not to be imitated. There is another Figurative Conftrudlion, called Eclipfis, when feveral Words are left out of a Sentence, and to be underflood j as, Buenos dias, GoodcKorrow, where is to be underflood, os de DioSy

Way

God

give you
os

hum

Vtage,

a.

good Voyage ;
*,

vjtelligitur,

de Dids,

God

give you

and

fo

fubia

many other Cafes, which are common in all Languages, and therefore do not need to have much faid of them. The fame may be faid of many other Figures,
which
tire,
if

ail

were to be mentbned,
,

would

rather

than inform the Reader and it would be likewife fuperfluous to mention here, and to burden the Memory with the Rules of the Profody, which are the fame as thofe of the Latin, and no ways necefTary to learn the Spanifh

Language,

befides

what

has been faid in the Orthography.

S3

Some

262

Neio

Spanish

Grammar,

Some General

Obfervations for forming

the Spamjh from the Latin.

Latin Stibjiantives which have their Ablative in tate become Spanifh by changing tate into dad, layijig the Accent as in the Latin^ aSy
Charitate
Fidelitate
Lcitin

Caridad

New Spanish Grammar.


f,

263

Latin Words beginfiing "with change it into H, thus


'

in Spanifh often

Face re

'

Hacer

Faba
J
.

Haba
p^
./7

Falco Farina

Halcon Harina
Hierro

^ Formofus Ferrum
Fervor Furnus

Hervor

Horno

Latin Subjiantives ending in one in the Ablative^ become Spani{h by taki?jg off the laji Vowel^ as
Educatione
Spanijh

Educacion
(Religion

iCongregatione
.Generatione

iCongregacion Generacion
into r, as above.

Where

note, that they change

iSermone
Cicerone Platone

{Sermon
Ciceron Platon

Latin Subjiantives ending in o in the Ablative^ are true Spanifh, as

rOrnamento
I

rOrnamento
I

Experimento

Experimento

Latin i
I

Exemplo Argumcnto

Spanijh }
I

Exemplo Argumento

L Ancidoto

l^Antidoto

S4

Latin

264

A
is,

New Spanish Grammar.


lis,

Latin AdjeBives ending in

in Spanifli caji

away

thus

Materialis
^^^^'^

r Material
.,

jFinalis

Vacilis
.Debilis

^^^^^-^

-ru

jFinal

SFacil

CDebil

Latin AdjeBives ending in us, are made Spanifh by their Ablative in o, as

Malus
-^"^^'^

rMalo
^^""'-^

^Siccus

isico

Humidus

cHumido

Latin Ferbs become Spanifli by only cutting off


the lajl e, thus

rCaftigare
I

rCafligar
i

A mare
Perdere

A mar
Tener
Perder

Latin} Tenere
I

Spanijh )
1

LSentire
It

LSentir

endlefs to pretend to (hew all the between the Spanijh and the Latin^ the main Affinity Body of the former being derived from the latter, with only fuch fmall Difference as may eafily be conceived from what has been faid above,

would be

A VO-

265

VOCABULARY.
CONTAINING
Such Words

mon

as mofl: frequently occur In comUfe, and are therefore moft neceflary


firft

to be

known by

Learners;

as,

The

Body, Houfehold-Furniture Names of Beafts, Birds, and Fiflies ; the Service at Table ; Fruit, Trees, Cloathing, and many other Sorts, all under their refpedive Heads.
'/J

Parts of the

U U *J J U U U U
>
tji^

t;^^;s i^;J^ &s -/jJ^ '/;.;

^^4 5

J J ^^1 y ^^^ v^ iJ
^

The Parts of Human Body.


Partes del Cuerpo

Humano.

LA
La
La

cabeza, the bead. Las fienes, the temples. Act\ihro^the brain. Laoreja, the ear. El cogote, the part La ternilla de la oreja, /^^
behind^

where the

griftle

of the ear.
la oreja, the

head and neck join. El hueco de


coroniila, the crown of the head.

hollow of the ear, La tela del oido, the

drum

mollera, the mould of

the head.

La

of the ear, ceja, the eyebrow.


the eyelid.

Lafrente, the forehead.

El parpado,

Las

266

New Spanish Grammar,


^he Parts of Human Body,
Partes del

Cuerpo Humano.

Laspe{lanas,^^^^3'^-/^7^^;.

La La La

nuca, the nape of the


garganta, the throat.

El lagrimal, or
eye.

la

cuenca

neck.

del ojo, the corner of the


'E\i>\^^C'0 dt\

op ythe

El gaznace, the gullet. white El feno, the hofom,


teta,

of the

eye.

a pap.
la teta, the

La

nifia del ojo,

the eyeeye.

El pezon de

bally

or fight of the

nipple of the hreafl.

Tela

del ojo, the film of

the eye.

Niervo
nerve.

optico, the optic

El pecho, the hreaft, El eftomago, the flomach. Las coftillas, the ribs.

La
la nariz,

barriga, the

belly.

La
La
La

nariz, 'the nofe.

El ombligo,

the navel.

Las ventanas de
the noftrils.
ternilla

La

ingle, the groyn.

de

la nariz, the
nofe.

grijlle

of the

punta de

la nariz,

the

El brazo, the arm. El codo, the elbow. El fobaco, the armpit. La mano, the hand.

tip

La

of the nofe. mexilla, or el carrillo.


the mouth.
the

La La

mufieca, the wrijl.


pal ma de la
the

the cheek.

mano, palm of the hand.


the fingers.

La boca, La enzia,
Los Las

Los dedos,
los

gum.

Las junturas,
the fingers.

or juntas de
joints

dientes, the fore teeth.

dedos, the

of
the

muelas, the grinders.


teeth.

^L.osco\mi\\o%the eye

La yema
El pulgar,

del dedo,
the thumb.

La
La

lengua, the tongue.


the palate. the jaw.

brawn of the finger.

El paladar, Laquixada,

El dedo
finger.

indice,

the fore-

barba, the chin, or the

heard:, but in the latter


fenfe commonly ufed in the
plural.,

El dedo

del corazon, the

middle finger.

Barbas.

El dedo annular, ^^^/(?^r/l?

El

cuello, the neck.

La

cerviz, the hinder part

B dedo menique,
ricular^ the
little

fiw^-

or aufinger

of the neck.

La

A
La

New Spanish Grammar.

267

ne
una, the nail

Parts of

Partes del

Human Body. Cuerpo Humano.


El
pie, the foot.

Las

efpaldas, the hack.

La La

planta del pie, the fok

Ijoshombros^the Jboulders. Los lomos, the loins.

of the foot.

garganta del pie, the

Los Las

lados, the fides.

joint of the foot.

El empeine, the inflep. Las partes vergonzofas, El calcanal, the heel. El dedo del pie, a toe. the privities. El dedo gordo, the great El muflo, the thigh.
nalgas, the buttocks.
rodilla,

La
La La

the knee.

toe,

Eljarrete, the ham.


pierna, the
leg,

La

piel, orelpellejo, the

Jkin.

pantorriUa, the calf of El cabello, the hair. the leg. Un pelo, a fingle hair.
'

'Lztipimlhythefhine-hone.

La

cara, the face.

El

tovillo,

the ankle.

El visage,

the vifage.

The

inferior

Parts

Partes interiores del Cuerpo

ofHmnan Body. Humano.


efpaldilla, thefhoulder*
hone.

MOreciIlo,^
GrafiTa,

mufcle.

La La

crgordu-

ra, fat.

canilla del brazo, the

Membrana, a membrane.

arm

bone.

Nervio,or n'lirvo, a nerve. Hueflb facro, 7 the rump Vena, a vein. hone. orRabadilla, J
Arteria, an artery, Ternflla, a grifile.

Hueflb, a hone, Meollo, or 1 _^^^,^ > marrow, T- '


1 uetano,

Efqueleto, ajkeleton, El corazon, the heart. Los bofes, or \ the lungs

La

J
the
chine

calavera, thejkull.

Choquezuelas,
bones.

Lospulm6nes,or ^ or the -^ t i\ J lights. Los livianos, El higado, the liver. El bazo, the fpleen,
;
?

Los riiiones, the kidneys^ El efpinazo, the back bone. Los iefos, the brains. Las coftillas, the ribs. El celebro, the brains. El

268

New Spanish Grammar.


interior

^he

Parts of

Human

Body,

Partes interiores del

Cuerpo Humano.

El eftomago,

the ftomach.
the

La
El

La
Las

boca del eftomago,


tripas, the guts,

flema, flegm. quile, the chile,


leche, the milk.

pit of the ftomach.

La

Orina, or urina, urine,


Eftiercol, dung.
^

Los

inteft:inos, the bowels,

La madrr',or 7 the matrix Sudor, fweat. La marriz, J or womb, Moco, fnot. Cafpa, fcurf. La vexiga, the bladder, La fangre, the blood. Saliva, fpittle. Lagrima, a tear, La colera, the choler.
T'he Jive
SenfeSy

Los cinco

Sentldos.

La
El El

vifta, the fight.

oido, the hearing.


olfato, thefmell.

El gufto, El tado,

the tafte.

the feeling.

Good ^/alkies in Human Bodies^ Buenas Calidades del Cuerpo Humano.


Salud, health.
Brio, fprightlinefs,

Hermofura,

beauty.

Buen

talk, a goodfhape,

Defedts in

Human

Bodies^

Defectos del Cuerpo


Fealdad, deformity,

Humano.

Arrugas, wrinkles, Pecas, freckles, Laganas, blear-eyes, Verruga, a wart. Lunar, a mole. Nube en el ojo, a pearl
in the eye.

Flaqueza, weaknefs, Ser tuerto, to have but one


eye,

Coxez,

lamenefs.

SemrumudOyto ftammer.
Corcova,
crookednefs,

Stv colvo Jo be bald-headed. Str x omo yt o have a flat nofe.

Catarata, a cataraEl.

Eftareftropeado,/o^^^r/ppled.

Cegucdad,
blindnefs,

or

ceguera,

Tullido, lame of the limbs.


kannefs.

Magrura,

Eunucho, an eunuch. Zurdo,

A
Zurdo,
efd.

New Spanish Grammar,


Defers
in

269

Human

Bodies^

Defedlos del Cuerpo


left'handed,

Humane.
0/ a hand*

Manco, lame

Vifco, or

vilojo, /quint-

Mudo,
Sordo,

dumb,
deaf.

Of all that De lo
Pano,
cloth,

appertains to Cloathiiig.

que toca

al veftir.

Fieltro, felt.

Pano fino, fine cloth, Pano baito, coarfe cloth, Pano tundido, milVd cloth. Grana, or\ ^

Angeo,

canvas.

Bay eta, hays. Lana, wooll,


Eftambre, worjled, Seda, filk, Bocaci, buckram. Joya, a jewel. Hevilla, a buckle. Alamares, loops on coats. Ojal, a button-hole. Bordadura, embroidery. Boton, a button,
Frania,

^c V Elcarlata,
Raxa,

Scarlet.

cloth rafh,

Sayal, fackcloth,
Frifa, frtze,

Eftamena,

ferge.

Eftofa, fluff, Tafetan, taffet^,

Rafo, fatin, Terciopelo, velvet,

orl

Damafco, damajk,

Brocado, Irocade, lace, Gorgoran, grogram, Lifton, a broad ribbon. Chamelote, tahy. Tela de ore, cloth of gold, PalTamano, gold or filver

Flueque, j" f'''"^'Puntas, or encaxe, Cinta, a ribbon.

Algodon,
Lino,
flax,

cotton,

lace.

Fuftan, fuftian.

R ibete,
Copa

an

edging.

Sombrero, a
camhrick,

hat.

Cambray,

del fombrero,

thi

Holanda, holland. crown of the hat. Ruan, fine French linnen. Falda del fombrero, Tela de cafiamo, hempen brim of the hat.
cloth.

the

Trencillo, the hat-band.


ticken,
calico,

Terliz,
Calicu,

Plumage, a feather.
Bonetillo de viejo, ajkullcap,

Gaza,

mu7>lin.

Bonete,

270

A
Of

New Spanish Grammar.


all that appertains to Cloathing,

De

lo

que toca

al veftir.

a Polainas, fpatterdafhes. Efpuelas, fpurs, night-cap, Bonete de clerigo,^ clerg'^-- Punos, or ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ' '^ -^ Bueltas, y man^s fquare cap. Gorra, an old fajhion cap, Tahalf, ajhoulder-helt, Caperuza, another fort of Tiros, a wafte-helt. Efpada, a fword, cap. Camifa, afhirt, E)%a, a dagger. Capa, a cloak, Almilla, a waftecoat, Cafaca, a coat, Chupa, a waftecoat, Ungarina, a coat. Calzoncillos, drawers^ Guante, a glove. Jubon, a doublet, Cenidor, a girdle. Manga, afleeve, Manga perdida, a loofe Cabellera, a wig, Panuelo, or "^ a pocket hanging fteeve, handFaldillas de jubon, the Paiiizuelo, or Lienzo de fal-^ ker^ fkirts of a doublet, triquera, Calzones, breeches, J chief. Ropa, or^ Balona, a band, ^ Ropon, j Cuello, a collar, Ropa de levantar, worColeto, a buff coat, ing gown. Agujeta, a point. Pelico, orl a Jhepherd*s Fal triquera, <?/>:'^/^<?/. jerkin, Bolfillo, a coat or wafte- Zamarra, J ^oaupcket

Bonete, a cap, Bonece para dormir,

Botas, hoots,

Medias, ftochns,

PkaMugeres,
^^^
/=" JVome?2,

Medias de

feda, ftlhftock^

ings, Tocado, a head-drefs. ^ Medias deeftambre,^^;^^/?- Toca, a quoif ed ftockings, Manto, a veil,

Ligas, garters, Zapatos, fhoes, Efcarpines, focks. Pantuflo, a flipper. Borcegui, a bufkin,

Saya, a

petticoat,

YaCquin^L^an upper petticoat

Guardapies, a

petticoat.

En^igmSy
to

the petticoat ?jext


"

them.

^vantal.

A
De

New Spanish Grammar.


appertains to Cloathivg for
al veftir

27

Of all that
lo

Women.

que toca

para Mugeres.

Avantal, or delantal, an Avanico, a fan, apron, GuardarQL?r7

7,

Bdims,ftap.
Ropa, a gown,
Mantilla, a 7nantle.
Capillo, a hood,

Quitafol,

^'^n umbrella.
,

Relox, or 1 Mueltra, /^

'^^^^'^^

Tablillas, tables,
looking-glafs.
little

Chapin, properly a Spanifh Efpejo, a high clog^ made of corky Buxeca, a

box,

hut applied tofignify any Eftufilla, a muff, other, Calcetas, under ftockings of Lienzo del cuello, a neckthread or cotton,
handkerchief,

Zarcillos, ear-rings,

Peinador, a combing cloth, Cofas de ninos, things for


children.

Arracadas, pendants,
Gargantilla, a necklace,
Collar, a collar. Manillas, or 1
J^j^acelets

Panales, clouts.

Mantillas, fnantles,
*

Braceletes,

j Joyas, jewels,

^^^^' ^ bowler or fwaith Juguetes, play-things,

Cuna, a

cradle,

Sortijas, rings,

A ma,
Dixes,

a nurfe,
toys,

Pedrerias, precious ftone5 Anillo, a ring.

Of what concerns Eating and Drinking, De lo tocante al Comer y Beber.

LA

dia, dinner,

comida del medio Haftio, a loathing of meat for want offiomach,


'Afco,

Cena, fupper,

loathing at

the

Almuerzo,
Merienda,

breakfafi,

fight of nafiinefs,

bever^ or after- Borracho, a drunkard,

Buen bebedor, a good Colacion, collation, drinker, Ba.nqu6iQyan entertainment, Buenapetito, agoodappeCombidado, a guefi, iite. Hambre, hunger, Gloton, a glutton, Sed, thirji. Pan, bread,
noon*s luncheon,

fsLn

272

New Spanish Grammar.


concerns Eating

Of what

and Drinking,

De lo tocante al Comer
Pan bianco, white Pan candial, the
bread,
bread,
whiteft

y Beber.
gihleti.

Pepitoria,

C2Lrbon2ida.y meat broil' don

the coals.

Pan bazo, brown bread, PicadiUo, a hajh. Pan ixioWht ^French bread, Cecina, hung meat. Pan reciente, new bread. Pernil, or la gammon Pan de todo el trigo, Jamon, ham, j
Carnero, mutton. Vaca, beef. 'Pandectvida.^bar ley bread, Cordero, lamb. Pan de avena, oaten bread. Ternera, veal. Pan de mijo, millet bread. Puerco, fork. Pan de levadura, leavened Cabra, goat'*s flefh,
wheaten bread.
centeno,

or

Pan de

r'^e

bread,

bread.

Cabrico,
bifket,

kid.

Bifcocho,

Tocino,
flice

bacon,
leg

Rebanada de pan, a
of bread. Cantero de pan, a
bread,

Pierna de carnero, a
of mutton.

crufi of

Efpalda

de

carnero,

fhoulder of mutton.

corteza, the cruft, MaflTa, dough.

La

Torta, a
Rofquilla,
cake.,

cake,

a loin. Pecho, a breajf, Manos de C2,rntrOy Jheep*s


trotters.

Lomo,

made

a fine fort of like a roll,

Rueda de
of veal.

ternera,

a fillet

Bunuelo, a fritter. Tarta, a tart.


Quefadilla, acheefecake,

Empanada, a pye.
Carne,
flefh.

Afladura, the pluck, Salchicha, a faucidge, Longaniza, a great fancidge.

Carne cozida, bciVd meat, Salchichon, Carne aflada, roaft meat. cidge.

the biggeft fan-

Carneeftofada,y?^^'Jw^^/. Morcilla, a bloodpudding. Paftel, a pafty, Carne frita, frfd meat. Civntgn\\^d^^broil*dmeat, Caldo, broth.

Carne momia,
out bones.
"

flejb with-

Sopa, foop. Potage, pottage,


Papas,

A New
Of what
Papas, or 1
any

Spanish
concerns Eating

Gram?nar.
and Drinking,
y Beber.
torrefnos,
eggs.

273

De lo tocante al Comer
fort

of

Huevos y
Iops

coU

pap, JPuches, J Pifto, ;W/)i broth,

and

Huevos
eggs,

rebaeltos,^//^r'^

Leche, milk, Nata, cream,


Suero, whey.

Huevos
Pg^^^
pocket,

de
to

faltriquera,

yolks of eggs in ajhell of

Requefon, curds, Manteca, butter, Quelb, cheefe,


Cuajo, rennet,

carry

in

the

Yhi^^wos xt^lts^-yfweet eggs


or

Cabellos>^K

out

de angeles, j like hairs, Cui]d.da.^7mlk hardned with rennety before it breaks Sazon, feafoning. Salmuera, brine, into curds and whey, Efpecias, [pice. Huevo, an egg. Ye ma de huevo, the yolk Pimienta, pepper, Gengibre, ginger, of an egg. Clara del huevo, the white Clavo de efpecias, cloves,

Huevo Huevo Huevo Huevo

Canela, cinnamon, of the egg. bjando, a foft egg. Nuez mufcada, or duro, a hard egg. efpecia, nutmeg.
frefco, a

de

new egg. Flor de efpecia, mace, en cafcara, an egg Moftaza, muftard,


Agraz,
Verjuice.

in the fhell.

HuGvo cozido, a boil' d egg. Hut V 3.is2ido^ an egg roaji'


ed in the embers.

Vinagre, vinegar. Azeite, oyl,


Sal, fait,

Huevo
egg,

ellrellado,

afrfd Azuq^v,

fugar,

HutvohuSro^an

addle egg.

Efcabeches, pickles, Dulces, fweatmeats,

empollado, an egg Almivar, fugar boil'd up with a chicken in it, for conferves. Huevos de pefcado, the Confervas, confervis. Confites, comfits> fpawnoffi/h, Huevos mexidos, yolks of Mermelada, marmelade. ^gV f^^^^^d with white Ftrid^, pears preferv'd like wine 0nd fugar, marmelade>

Huevo

PaflilJas

274

-^ ^^'^

Spanish

Grammar.

Of what

concerns Eating and Drinking,

De
Paftillas
lozenges.

lo tocante al

comer y Beber.
old wine,

de boca, fweet Vino anejo,

Mofto, new

wine,

'S^Tdin]2Ldd.^candy^doranges,

Vino

ligero, light wine,

Turron, a rich fweetmeat Vinazo, a ftrong wine, made of abnondsy honey y Vino mofcatel, mujkadine wine. &c. Malvasia, malmfey, orl fweetBarquillos, wafers, 'Agua pie, liquor made of Suplicaciones,
J

Bebida, drink,

"water put
after

to the

grapes
been

Vino, wine,

they

have

prefd. Vino puro, pure wine, Vino aguado, wine and Hez del vino, wine

lees,

Vino

water, vuelto, pricked wine. Aguardiente, brandy, Cerveza, ale ov beer. Vinotinto, red wine, Alqja, meath or metheglin, white wine, Vino bianco,

Hypocras, hypocras.

Vinohaloque,/)^/^

wf/?^.

\ mo
Vino Vino

Q\2ixiiQy claret wine.

Cidra, cyder, Chocolate, chocolate.

Tea, or The tea. dulce, fweet wine. fharp wine. Limonada, limonade, picante,
'Aves, Feces,
Friitas,

Los Animales,

Hierbas>

Raices, &c\ comeflibles, fe hallaran debaxo de fus proprios Titulos. T'he Beajis, Fowls, Fijhes, Fruits, Herbs, Roots,
thofe

&c. that are Heads.


Beftias.

eatable,

ivill

be

found under

Beafts.

Vaca, a cow, Beftia, Beftia domeftica, or Buey, an ox.


a
beafl.

Carnero, afheep, M?in{?L,a tame beafi, Beftia feroz, a fierce beafl, Oveja, an eive.

Ganado,

cattle.

G^n7idom2iy6r, great cattle.

Cordero, a lamb. Bezerro, a calf,


Javaii, a wild boar.

Toro, a

bull.

Puerco,

New Spanish Grammar.

275

Alazan toft ado, a dark Puerco, an hog, Bufalo, a buffalo, JorreL Caballo, an horfe. Flovero, that has a white Cabalio caftrado, a gelding, fpot on the off hind foot, "Rubic-kn, flea-bitten, Garanon, a ftal'don. Cabaiio enccro, a Jlone- Caoalio aguado, />^-^^W,
horfe.

Yegja,

a mare.

Caballo corredor, a race- Cabron, a he-goat. Cabra, afhe-goat, horfe. Caballo dealquiler,tf^(?r/^ Cabriro, a kid, to he let. Perro, a dog, Caballo de mano, a led Perro de caza, a hound. SabuelTo, a blood-hound, horfe. Caballo de pofta, a poft^ Podenco.-^r \ r. j i' I' Perdiguero J -^ horfe. Caballo rebeldc, a reftive FGrro cjiilido^a hound that
-

horfe.

does not o^en well,

Caballo defbocado, a hard Parro baxo, a terrier, mouthed horfe. Lebrel, a gre'j^hound, Caballo medrolb, a Jlart- Perro ventor, a finder, ing horfe. Perro del agua, a water* Caballo tropezador, a dog. Maftin, a maflif, Jlumhling horfe. Caballo que facude, a jolt- Perro de pallor, a Jhep^
ing horfe.

herd's dog.

Caballo afmatico, a broken Perro velador, a houfe dog. winded horfe. Perrillo de falda,^ lap-dog. Caballo indomito, a horfe i\lano, a bull- dog,
that has not been broke,

or will not he broke.

Caballo bavo, ^

ba^^ horfe.

Galgo, a hare hound, Lechon, a fucking-pig, Cochino, a y^>ung hog,


Cor^eio,

B':iYOc.2i{i2Lno,achefnutbay.

a rabbit.

B^yo efcuro, a brown Bayo dorado, a bryght


Picazo,^' py\i
horfe.

bay.

bay.

Hacanea, a pad^ Muleto, a young mule* Mulo, an he mule,

'B^uziorod^diO^ dapple grey.

Mula, a fhe

mule.

De

Potro, a colt. ^ctmuSzZya cream colour, Pollino, an affes^s Alazan^ aforreU Ciervo, a flag.
or

eolor ue

gamuza,

colt,

Cierva,

276

New Spanish Grammar

Cierva, a hind,

Raton, a moufe, Cachorro de ciervo, a Rata, a rat, Zorra, orl fawn. ^ Rapofa, J^/^^* /AiTas de ciervo, a fta^s
horns.

Topo, a

mole.

Raftro,opifadasde ciervo, the track of a flag. Comadreja, a weafel, Texon, a badger, Gamuza, a wild goat. Cabra montes, a roe-buck.

Hiena, an hiena. Leopardo, a leopard. Leon, a lyon. Leona, a lyonefs.


L.tonciWo^ a lyon*s wheljp* Lobo. a wolf.

Gato de

algal ia,^ civet-cat.

Lobo

cerval, an ounce.

Gamo, Dama, a

a fallow-deer.
doe.

^OfTo, a bear.
Ofsillo, a beards cub,

Hardilla, a fquirrei Elephante, an elephant. ^ ana, or 1 ^ mar tin y a ^,^^.- % y.K'

Pantera, a panther.

Abada,

or

la

rhinoceros.

Marta,

Mono,

a monkey. Gimio, an ape. Arminio, an ermin. Erizo, an hedge-hog. Liebre, an hare. Liebrilla, a levret. Contp^ a rabbit. Liron, adormoufe.

Rhinoceronte, J ' rr-, ^. T^S^^' ^ ^^^^^: Puerco montes,


boar,

a wild

Navajas, or colmillos de javali, the tujks ofa wild


boar,

Lavajal de javali, the of a wild boar.

foil

Creatures that drag on the Earth. Animales que fe arraftran per Tierra.
Cocodrillo, a crocodile. Serpiente alada, a flying Lagartija, a lizard. Lagarto, an alligator. ferpent. Bivora, or vibora, a viper. Dragon, a dragon, Bivorefno, or viborefno, 'Afpid, anafp. a young viper. Culebra, afnake.
Serpiente, aferpent.
^

Amphibioui

New Spanish Grammar.


Amphibious Creatures.

2yy

Animales Amphibios.
Bivaro, or'X^a bever,
Caftor,
or Tortuga, or 1
^^^^^..
'
-'

J
<?r

cajion

Galapago,

Nutria,

Lodra,

"'"""'
Infers.

I
Chinche, a bug. Langofta, alocuft. Efcorpion, a fcorpion. Tarantula, a tarantula, Polilla, a moth,

Savandijas.

Arana, afpider, Aranuela, a little Jpider Carcoma, a worm in wood, Oruga, a caterpillar. Arador dc la mano, an hand-worm, Sapo, a toad. Efcarabajo, a beetle. Caracol, a [nail.
,

Mofca, afl^, Mofcarda, a wafp. Abeja, a bee.

Hormiga^a pifmire^or
Rana, a frog.
Grillo, a cricket.

ant.

Morcon, a great fl^. Zangano, a drone.


Cigarra, a grafehopper.

Rebolton,
Piojo, a

an

infe5i

Abifpa, or avifpa, a wafp. that Tdhon^a gad bee ^ or hornet,


Lucerneja, afire-fl'j, Maripofa, a butter-fly. Vaquilla de dios, a ladj*
bird.

fpoils vines,
loufe.

Liendrc, a mV. Pulga, a flea.


'Aves.
"

Birds.

'Aguila, an eagle. Aguilucho, an eaglet. Buicre, a vulture. Efmerejon, a merlin. Ga.vi\iny a fparrow-hawk. Mochuelo, a tajfel-hawk. Halcon, a falcon. Torzuelo, a male faeon. Giritalte, a gerfalcon^ Alcotan, a lanner. Sacre, a facre.

Garza, an heron. Garzota, afmallheron. Milano, a kite. Cuervo, a crow^ or raven. Corneja, a rook. Calandria, a lark. Nevecilla, a wagtail. Canario, a canary bird. Gilguero, a goldfinch. Mirla, a blackbird. Pinzon, a chaflnch.

Ruifenor,

278

New Spanish Grammar.


Pavo, a
turkey,

Ruifciior, a nightingale,
"VvTCjcron, a gi revhird,

P.-ipagayo, a parrot. Ur-aca, afnagpye. Grajo, a daw, Lechuza, an qwL Morcielago, a hat. Mochuelo, a chough, Cumaya, a night raven.

Ellornino, a jterliiig^ Francolin, a oodwit.


Faiian, afhcojant,

Zorzal, a thrujh. Hortolano, an ortolan, Gorrion, a fparrow. Perdiz, a partridge,

Paloma, a

dove.

Q\iQi2iC^bx?iS^agoat-fucker. Pichon, a pigeon.

Palomino, a young pigeon, Tortola, a turtle-dove. Alcion, a king^s-fjher. Chirlito, a curlieu, Cuervo marine, a cormo- Golondrina, afwaliow. rant. Aveftruz, an oftrich.
'Anade, a
duck.
Qtxctidi^ a teal,

Gdnfo, agoofe.
Pato, agoofe.
^Aiilar, ^^XfT^
r
'

Cigucfia, a ftork, Cucliilo, acuckow.

Anferon, J Qtrmcz\o..awindwhiffer. FuJga, a moorhen. Abion, a martin.


*

Cifne, a fwan. Ymvoxo^arohin-redhreajl. Grulla, a crane. Pezpitalo,^r 7 ; , > ^ waotaiL r>L^ Chirivia,

Gaviora, a
Cerceta,

gull.

Abuillo, a lapwing.
diver. i a di'

Oropendola, awitwaL Vencejo, a martlet. Cuervo marine, a cormo- Abejaruco, a titmoufe. Abutarda, a huflard. rant. Chocha, or 1 a wood- Tordo loco, an owfel. Pelicano, a pelican. cock. Gallinaciega J TordOj a flare,, or ft ar ling, Feniz, or phemx ^apbenix. CliirJo, a wood-pecker. Codorniz, a quail. Picoverde, a green heak> Capon, a capon. Reyezuelo, a plover, Galjo, a cock. Aguzanieve, a wren, Gallina, a hen, TalaviUa, a hinting. Poilo, a chicken;Mergo, a pujjin. Pdlla, a jpulleto

Somorguj6n,or

Parts

New Spanish Grammar.


Parts of a Bird. Partes de 'Ave.

279.

Unas, talons, j RabadiUa, the rump. 'AJa, the wing. Fchohs, or y quills y or pen- Pechuga, the wing of a Penulas, feathers. fowl drefi'd. 3 Pie, the foot, Entrepechuga, /^^ ^r^w;/.
Cola, the
tail.

El pico, the beak, Pluma, a feather, PJumazo, the down,

Biiche, ihe craw.

Garras, or 1 the

daws ^

or

Pezes.

Fijloes.

Aburno, a

hlech.
like

Lamprea, a

lamprey.

Sabalo, a rich fifh mon.

faU Langoftilla, a prawn.

Anchova, an

anchove.

Anguila, an eel, Ballena. a whale. Barbo, a barbie.

Lobo, a bafs, Sarda, a mackarel. Marfopa, a porpoife. Abadexo, poor jack.


Merluza, ftock-fi/h, Almeja, a mufcle, Ortiga pez, the flingingPerca, a pearch.

Mero,

the holy but

Lufo, a pike, Carpa, a carp.


CalamarejOj a calamary,

Talpaire,/^<? ?niller's thumb, Pulpo, a polipus.

Caballo msLrino^afea horfe, Congrio, a conger, Delphin, a dolphin, Doradillo, the gilt back. Lenguado, a foal, Langofta, a lobfter, Ellurion, a fturgeon. Gobio, a gudgeon. Harenque, a herring. ^Oltra, an oyfler.

Raya, a thornhack. Liza, fkate, Sardina, a pilchard. Salmon, falmon, Xibia, a cuttle fifh. Tenca, a tench. Atun, a tunny fifh. Trcmielga, a cramp fifh. Trucha, a trout. Rodovallo, a iurbot.

Parti

.280

Ne%iD

Spanish
Parts of a

Grammar.

Fifh,

Partes del Fez.

Hocico,

the fnout,
gils,

Hutvos dtptz, the /pawn

Agallas, the

properly the hard row^ which is in [mall grains, 'Alasconquenada,^^^/;^. Leche del pez, is the foft Efcamas, thefcales. row, Efpinas, the hones.

Concha, the Jhell of fuch as have one,


'Arboles.
l^rees,

Alvaricoque,
tree,

an

apricot

Manzano, an apple tree, 'Alamo negro, an alder

tree^ or black poplar, Almendro5<3 almond tree. Alamo bianco, the common Durazno, a peach tree. poplar. Guindo, a cherry tree, QtxizQ^an hart cherry tree, Cedro, a cedar tree, Sahuco, an elder tree, CaftafiO) a chefnut tree. tree. Enzina, orl Cidro, a citron an ca Roble, a quince tree. Membrillo, J Cornizo, the cornll tree, Serval, a fervice tree, Cypres, the cyprefs tree, date tree. Palma, a 'Ebano, the ebony tree, a fig tree. Higiiera, Arze, the ?naple. a jujuh tree, Azufeifo,
. ,

Gr3.Vi^do,apomgranatetree,

Haya,

the beach,
ajh.

Limon, a lemon tree, Moral, a mulberry tree, Nifpelo, a medlar tree.

Frefno, ths
oak,

Azebo, theholmy

or holy

Texo, the ewe tree, Avellano, a nut tree, Laurel, the laurel, Nogai, a walnut tree. OliVo, or Azeituno, an AIcorn6que,/i?^ corck
olive tree.

tree.

or fir ^z^hxioht^a wild olive tree, tree. Naranjo, an orange tree. Alverchigo, a peach tree. PJantano, a plane tree, Sauze, a willoxi; tree, Ciruelo, a plumb tree. Tejo, the linden tree, V^rhlp a pear tree,

Olmo, the elm. Pmo, a pine tree^

ArboHllos,

A
Aiifo, ibe

New Spanish Grammar.


Shrubs.

281

ArboliUoS, orMatas.
lote tree,

Agnocafto,^^^ agnus cajlus, Brufco, butcher*s broom,

Alhocigo, the pijlacho


tree.

tree,

am Balfamo, the half


Box,
the box tree.

Regaliz, or regalicia, the


liquorice tree.

Madrefelva,
fuck! e- tree,

the

honey Romero, rofemary. Rofal, a rofe tree.

Zarzamoro,^^^ blackberry- Savina, favin. Tamariz, a tamarind tree. hufh, Alena, privet. Hiniefta, broom, Uva efpinoj a goofcberry Vina, a vine, Labrufca, a wild vine. bujh, Parra, a wall vine. Adelpha, ivy,
Fruta,
Fruit.

Albaricoque, an apricot, Naranja, an orange. Almendra, an almond. Alverchigo, a peach. Madrono, a fruit like a Ciruela, a plumb. flraW'berry, Ciruela paffa, a prune. Pera, a pear. Durazno, a peach, Guinda, a cherry, Pera bergamota, a herCereza, an heart-cherry. gamot'pear, Caftaiia, a chefnui, Manzana, an apple. Cidra, a citron, Camuefa, a pippin. Membrillo, a quince. Manzana de S. Juan, a Serva, fervice, John- apple. Datil, a date, 'Uva efpin, a goofeberry, Higo, a jig. Melocoton, a melocotoon* Breva, the firfi jig, Melon, a melon. Azufaifa, a jujub, Bellota, an acorn. Granada, a pomegranate. Algarroba, a carob, Limon, a lemon. Alcaparra, a caper. Mora, a mulberry, Zarza mora, a blackberry^ Nifpero, a medlar, Tamariz, a tamarind. Avellana, a hazel nut. Pinon, the kernel of a pine* Nuez, a walnut. apple. Azeituna, an olive* /Uva, a grape.

^ings

iSz

New Spanish Grammar.

Things belonging to Fruit and Tt^es^ Cofas tocantes a Fnitas y 'Arboles.


Cafcara de granada, nuez, Raiz, a root, &c. the Jhell of a fome- Hebras de raiz, the fibres granate^ nut, or the like. of a root, granada, o otra Arraigar, to take root, Telita de
femejante fruta, the thin Tvonco, the trunk of a tree, film in the pomegranate, Qoxttz^6t\hho\^thehark. or fucb fruit,

Zumo
or

del arbci, the fap. the mofs,

Pimpollo,

the fucker

a hraiicb, fprout of a vine, Sarminto,a twig of a vine, Hqja, a leaf,

Moho, Ramo,

Yema de
a
vine,
tendrels

viiia,

the

hud of Cuefco dc
offruit.

fruta, theflone

the Mondaduras de fruta, the paring of fruit. a vine, of Pampano, a vine branch, Pezon, thejlalk, Renuevo de vid, a ^oung Engerir, or ingerir, to engraft. fhoot of a vine. Racimo de uvas, a bunch Almaciga, a nurfer^ of

Zarcillos de la vid,

of grapes,

trees,

Pepica de
ftone.

la

uva, a grape- Arboleda, a grove. Arbol filveftre,^ wild tree.

Plantar, to plant. Podar, to prune. Efcavar, to lay open the Marhojar, to bark trees. Engerir de pua,/o engraft. roots. Rodrlgar, to prop a vine. Engerir de cafiuto, to in-

Defojar, to nip the fuper-

oculaie.

fluous leaves of the vine. Engerto, a graft. C? var, to dig about a vine. Pepita, the feed or fmall

Rozar,

to

weed.

kernel offruit.

Corn,

Trigos,
Trigo, wheat.

and y
beft

its

Parts,

fus Partes.

Trigo rubion, red wheat.


the

Trigo

candial,

Efcandia, bearded wheat.

wheat.

Herren, mafling
2

corn.

Efpeita,

A
Centeno,

New Spanish Grammar.


rye,

283

Efpelta, fyelt.

Tallo de la ei'pigz^tbeftem. Nudo de la efpiga, the


knot under the ear.

Cevada,

barley.
oats.

Avena,

Arroz, rice. Mijo, millet.

Mijo grande, Maiz,

or

*}

del tallo, the joynt of the ft em. Granza, the hujk or chaff. iniian Ralpa de la efpiga, the wheat. heard.

Nudo

Legiimbres,
Alverjon, a great vetch.

Pulfes.

Lanteja, a lentil Qd^ivTcciZ^^^ajort of[^anifo Altramuz, a lupin, peas. Judia, a french bean. Zicerchas, tares. Arvejas, or \ Cafcara, the cod. Guifantes, j-^
*

Haba, a

bean.

HoUejo,

the hujk.

RootSy Plants^ and Herbs. Rayces, Plantas, y Yervas.

Ajenjo, wormwood. 'Apio, fmallage. 'Ajo, garlick.

Coles, coleworts. Berza, cabbage. Repollo, afprout.


Colyflor, coliflower.

Eneldo,

dil.

An IS,

anifeed.

Calabaza,
gourd.

a pumpion or

Armuelles, orach^or golden


flowers.

Aicachofa, an artichoke. Efparago, afparragus.

Pepino, a cucumber, Perexil de la mar, famphire.

Abrotano, fouthernwood. Acelga, while beet, Bledo, a blite.


Borraja, borage,

Maftuerzo, garden

creffes.

Efcalona, afcallion, Efcarola, endive. Efpinaca, fpinage.

Cardo, a thiftle. Zanahorias, carrots,

Hinojo,

fennel,

Voieza,

chervil.

Hongo, a mufhrome.
Chirivia, ajkirret.
dive.

Hoblon, hops. Lechuga, a lettice, Lechuga cerra- 7 cabbage


lettice.

da,(9rMurciana, j Achicoriaj fuccory or en^ Lechuga crefpa,


ktticc,

curl'd

Nabo,

284

-^ J^^'^
turnep.

Span

I s

H Grammar,
ger-

Nabo, a

Genciana, gentian.

Cebolla, an onion, Acetofa, french forrel

Camedreos de agua,
mander,

Romaza,
Perexil,

long forrel

Hierba puntera,

houfeleeh

Azedera, common forrel.


parfle'j.

Vdeno,

henbane.

Puerro, a leek, Verdolaga, purflain, Ruiponces, tampions,

Marrubio, horebound. Matricaria, feverfew, Malvas, mallows.

Xaramago,
Ruqueta,

^''l

^,,^,/,

Corona de rey, melilot. Torongil, balm.


Mercunal, mercury,
l^^il

Ruda,

rue.

Centoenrama, J Salvia, fage, Criadilla de tierra, a trujle Corazoncillo, St. John^s wort, or pignut.
/^

hojas,
.

or 1

.;^

.,

>

milfoil, -'

Marjerdna, fweet marje- Nardoj fpikenard, Oregano, origanum, torn. Tabaco, tobacco, Culantro, coriander. Parietaria, pellitory, Agarico, agarick. Ct^zc2iV2\\o, ground thiflle. Gafete, or \ ^ "^ Dormidera, poppey, itorio, Epatorio, J Perficaria, arfefmart, Acibar, aloes. Pervinca, perwinkle. angelica, Angelica, Rofa montes, piony, celandine, Celidonia,
Betonica, betony,

Llanten, plantain,

Biftorta, hifiort or fnake- Polipodio, polypody.

weed.

Neguilla, Manzanilla, camomile, Culantrillo de pozo, mai- Hierba cidrera, briony. Poleo, penniroyal, den-hair. Eleboro, helebore. Center ia, cent ory, Coloquintida, coloquintida, Ruybarbo, rbeubarb, VerbafcOjOr? wolflade or Sanguinaria, bloodwort. Gardolobo, (greatlungwort. Sanicula, felfheal. Sarazinefca, heart-wort. Hamapola, a poppe-j.

Axenuz.orl ..n , ^^^'M'swort.

Ditamo, ditony. Artadegua, fieahane,


Eleboro, belehore. Tartago, fpurge.

Satyr ion, ragwort,


Saxifragia, faxifrage,

Efcabiofa, fcahious.

Efcamonea, fcammony,
Cebolla

New

Sp

AN

I s

H Grammar.

285

Cebolla albarrana, a wild LinQ, fax. Ceguca, hemlock, onion, halecho, fern. Alforvas, Jenugreek, Palomilla, fuinitory. Hierba cana, ground-fell YizgOydanewort^or dwarf Valeriana, valerian.

Verbena, vervein. Branca urfina, he an foot, Aconito, wolfsbane.


pike. Efpliego, lavender f

elder,

Junco, a
Cerraja,

rufh.
thiflle.

fow

Mand

agora, fnandrake..

Amor

del hortelano, bur-

dock.

Perexil

de agua,
fil^eftre,

Morella, night fhade. Correhuela, knot grafs. ivater Orriga, a nettle.

parfley.

Tamariz
rijk

Vale fa, pepper wort. tama- Azafran, faffron.

fhrub.

Xabonera, foap-wort.
Alfalfa, darnel

Afarabaca, afarabacca, Calaminto, catmint, Cana, a reed. Doradilla, mules fern. Canamo, hemp.

Albahaca, fweet hafiL Hierbabuena, mint.


Serpol, wild thyme.

Tomillo, thyme.
Flowers.
Vellorita, a cowflip.

Flores,
Jacinto, the hyacinth.

Jafmin, jafmin.
Junqaillo, the junquil.

Ranunculo,
lus.

the ranunca*

Azucena, a

lilly.

Rofa, a

rofe.

Maya, a

daify.

Mara VI 11a, a

marigold.

Tulipan, a tulip. Amaranto,/i?^ velvet flow- Violeta, a violet. er. Aleli, a white violet. Capullo, a rofe- bud. Peonia, a peony.

NarcifTo, the daffodil. CJavel, a pink.

Girafol, the fun-fiower.

Colores,

Colours.

Morado,
colour.

purple.

Color de
colour.

ladriilo,

brick

Color de aurora, aurora


Blanco, white.

Azul, blue. Colombino,

dove-colour.

Limonado,

286

New Spanish Grammar


colour,

Limonado, lemon Amufco, filamot.


lour.

Grana,

fcarlet.

Color de llama, flame


Color de fuego,
lour.

Co

Lconado, tawny. Negro, black.

fire co

Anaranjado, orange colour. Azeitunado, olive colour.

Roxo,

or

Carmefi, crimfon, Pardo, gre'j.


Ceniciento, ajh
colour.

Colorado,

^^'^

Amarillo,

'jellow.

Encarnado,
Virtiides

carnation.

Bermejo, reddijh. Color de rofa, rofe colour, Verde, green. Color de mar, feagreen.

Virtues

y malas Calidades de los Hombres. and Vices^ good and bad ^alities
of Men.
Reboltofo, mutinous. Bien criado, well-bred, Cortes, courteous.

Vicios, buenas

Ecatado, cautious.

Dieftro, dextrous.

Docil, docil. Galan, gallant.

Grave,

fiber.

Simple, harmlefs,

Julto, juft.

Agudo,
Vivo,

Jharp.

fprigbtly.

Sutil, fubtil.

Prude nte, difcreet. Defvergonzado, impudent, Fogofo, fiery.


to buf-

Chocarrero, given
foonry,

Impertinente, impertinent

Importuno, t^oublefome,
crafty.

Necio,
Aftuto,

foolijh.

Loco, mad.
Maliciofo, malicious

Ligero, light, Defcuidado, carelefs, Temerario, rajh. Afable, affable,

Temerofo,
frighted,

fearful.

Amigable,
to

friendly.

Efpantadizo,

apt

he Bizarro, brave

Charitativo, charitable.

Valerofo, brave,

Cafto,

chafte.

Tonto,

ftupid.

Conftante, conftant,

Fantaftico, fantaftical

Devoto, devout.
Dlligente,
diligent,

Embuftero,

deceitful.

Defatinado, dtjlra^ed,
Groffero, clownijh.

Fiel, faithful.

Generofo, generous.

Humilde,

New

Sp

AN

I s

H Grammar,

287

Humilde, bumble.
Mifericordiofo, merciful,
Pacience, patient,

Rabiofo, outragious* Alegre, merry,

Ufano, gay,
Indecifo, irrefolute,

Religiofo,

religious.

Ambiciofo,

ambitious.

Soberbio, proud, Avariento, covetous, Hypocrita, an hypocrite, Cobarde, a coward.

Zclofo, jealous, Adultero, an adulterer, Rufian, a ruffian. Matador, a murderer,

Blafphemaoor, a blafpbc"
mer,
Salteador,^: highzvay-man.

Hjlgazan,

idle,

Altivo, haughty. Chifmoib, a tale-hearer, Aduladcr, a fuitterer, Golofo, a gluiton. DeQeal, faitblefs. Delkgradeciao, ungratefuL Inhum^no, inhumane
Infolente, infolent.

Jurador, a fnearer,

Calamniador, ajlanderer. Murmurador, a cenjurer^ Hechiccro, aforcerer. Trampofo, a cheat, Homicida, a wvrderer,
Inceftuofo, inceftuous,

Luxuriofo, kwd, Porfiado, pofitive. Perezofo, Jlothful Prodigo, prodigal.

Ladron, a thief, Mentirofo, a lyar.


Perjuro, perjured,

Perfido, perfidious,

Vano, vain. Mugeriego, given


men.

Profano, profane,
to

wo- Rebelde, a
Sacrilege,
perfon,

rebel.

facrilegwus

Atrevido,

bold,

Colerico, pajjionate.

Traidor, a traytor.

Partes de

un Relno, Parts of a Kingdom.


Aldea, a
Diftrito,
village.

Provincia, a province. Ciudad, a city, Villa, a fnarket town.

diJiriH,

Partes de

una Ciudad,
City.
,

Parts of a
Cafa, a houfe.

Iglefia,

Tienda, a /hop.

orl Templo, S^

'^"^
.

Palacio,

288

A New Spanish

Grammar,

Palacio, a palace.

Hofpital, an hofpital.

Mercado, a market. Carniceria, the Jhamhles.


crofs
,

Cafa de la villa, or del Encrucijada, a ayuntamiento,/i^/ow- Lonia, orl


houfe.

way.

B61fa,

'^'^

^''^^^W-

Tribunal, acourtofjujlice. Carcel, a prifon. Muros,or K^^ Arfenal, an arfenal ^^^^^ Murallas, | Academia, an academy. Fortificaciones, fortifica* Colegio, a college.
Calle, a ftreet. Callejon, an ally.
iions.

Plazuela, a
lane.

little

market

^^"fj^.rl Callejucia,
j

^i""""'-

Of the
De
Nino, a
los
child.

Moradores de

Inhabitants of Cities^ las Ciudades.

El poblacho, or
the mob.

la

plebe,

Muchacho, a hoy. Muchacha, a girl.

Canalla, the rabble.

Ciudadano, a citizen. Oficial, a tradefman. Mecanico, a mechanick, Muger, a woman. Labrador, a peafant. Viejo, an old man. Aldeano, a countryman^ Vieja, an old woman. Decrepito, one that is de- Picaro, a rogue. Efclavo, a Jlave. crepit. Platero, a goldfmith. Coxo, lame of the legs.

Mozo, a youth, Hombre, a man.

Manco, lame

of the hands. Librero, a

hookfeller.

Barbero, a barber. Ciego, blind. ^ Sordo, lame. Mercader de feda, a mercer. Magiftrado, a magtflrate, Noble, noble. Mercader de pane, a woollen -draper. Hidalgo, a gentleman. Caballero, a knight. Mercader de lienzo, ct

Tendero, ajhop-keeper, linnen- draper. Mercader, orN Saftre, a taylor. Hombre de >a merchant. Cofturera, a femjlrefs.
negQcio,
J^

Sombrerero, a hatter. Calcetero, a hofier.


Zapatero,

Ne^)

Spanish

Grammar.

289

Zapatero, a /hoe- maker, Herrero, a fmith.


Albeitar, a farrier, Cei rajero, a lock-fmith,

Juez, a fudge,
CaiceJero, a goalor,

Verdugo,
r^
/

the executioner^

Cerero^ a wax-chandler,
Cjanapcin, or

Lavandera, a

laundrefs.

^ a porter to
\

efpordllero,

| ^n]
botcher^

""
or

Medico, a f byfeci an.

Remendon, a

Cirujano, a furgeon cobler. Charlatan, a mountebank, Tataravuclo, a grandfa^ SacamueJas,(^ tooth drawer. ther's grandfather. Sillero, a fadler, Biflavuelo, a great grand' Carpintero, a carpenter, father,

Peon^ a

labourer,

Avuelo, a grandfather.
Padre, a father,

Albanil, a bricklayer. Pintor, a fainter,

Madre, a mother.

Panadero, a baker,

Hijo, a fon. Carnicero, a butcher, Hija, a daughter, Frutera, a fruiterer, Nietc), a grandfon, Verdulera,tf herb woman, Bifnieco, a great grandfon, Paftelero, a pajlry-cook. Hermano, a brother,

Taberncro, a vintner, Cervezero, a brewer. Mefonero, an inn-keeper, Ventero, the fame, Reloxero, a watchmaker, Pregonero, a cryer^ or hawker, Joyero, a jeweller. Boticarioi an apothecary, Buhonero, a pedlar,
Vidriero, a glazier.

Cunado, a brother in
Padraftro, a

law..

ft ep-father.

Madraftra, a ftepmother, Suegro, the hufhand'i^ or


the wife's father.

Nuera, y^rno,

the wife of the fon.

the hufband of the

daughter,

Primo hermano,

Carbonero, a

collier,

Jardinero, a gardiner,

a coufin german. Tio, an uncle. Sobrino, a nephew. Primo fegundo, a fecond


coufin.

Letrado, a learned man,


or a lawyer.

Marido, an hufhand.

Procurador, afollicitor, Muger, a wife. Abogado, an advocate^ or Novio, a bridegroom. counfellor at law. Defpofado, one betrothed. Ahijado,

_
290

New Spanish Grammar.


Viudo, a widower,
Hermanodeleche,tf/^7?^*
brother,

Ahijado, a godfon, Padrino, a godfather. Madrina, a godmother. Compadre, an he-gofip.

Niiiodela piedra,^/oiling,

Comadre,

agoffip.

Compaiiero, or la com- Wmo^n^ut^o^ a falfechild^ Camarada, J panion. Baftardo, a haftard. Donzella, a maiden. Mellizo, a twin. Cofrade, a hr other of the Mugcr cafada, a married
famefociety.

woman.

Cofr2idh^ a guild or fociety. Muger parida, a lying-in woman. Communidad, a company, ^Amz^QMcht^awetnurfe, Huerfano, an orphan, Manceba, a lewd miftrefh Soltero, a hatchelor, Ramera, oril ^ , Heredero, an heir, ''^^'''' '| Puta, Tntor, a tutor.

Curador, a guardian.

AHoufe^ and
Cafa, ahoufe.

all that belongs to

it,

Cafa, y todo lo perteneciente a

ella.

El

folar,

the ground the

houfe ftands upon.

An^zon^ an arch' d deling. Boveda, a vault. f Ako deca^a^ a Jiory of a


houfe.

Cimiento, the foundation, Pared, a wall.


Patio, a court,

Efcalera, a flair-cafe.

Fachada,

the front.
alto,

Un

andar or

a floor,

Tejado, a tit'd roof. Puerta, a door. PafTadizo, a pajfage or entry,

Portal, a porch.

Corral, a court-yard. Ventana, a window. Entrefuelo, a low room &r Trafcorral, a hack-yard. floor between the upper Camara, a bed-chamber, and lower that are more Apofento,(?r > ^ chamber Pieza, lofty, J Zaquizami, or cicio, the Quarto, an apartment. deling ; alfo thefpace be^ Anticamara, an anticham* her, iween the deling and the roof of ahoujey anH a Requadra, aback room. Sala, a hall. cock-loft^
Corrcd($r,

New Spanish Grammar,


Umbral,
ths threjhold,

291
pucrta,

Corredor, a gallery, Retrere, a clofet, Eitudio, a ftitdy,


.

Baftidores de Ja

the frame of the door,

Armario, orl Poll mo, a zvicket. ^^. ^' > a cupboard, ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ., ^ Alazena, J Quicios, or 1 ^ ^^^g^^' Efcaparace, a prefs for Goznes, J
,
.

cloaths^

or the

like.

Cerradura, a

lock,

Guarda roba, a wardrobe, Cerradura de

golpe,

fpriiig-lock, Alcova, an alcove, Candado, a padlock, Defvan, a garret, ^^^'^^^^^ ^^^ ^olt of a Balcon, orl ribalcojn ^* Cerrojo, a bolt. Mirador, j Azutea, the flat roof of an U^lvq^ a key.

lock,

houfe,

Ytnt2ini\l2L,a
cockloft,

little

wwdow

Camaranchon, a
Torre, a tower, Bodega, orl ^ Cueva, J
Repofteria,
r 00771,
the

^^//^^
*

Picaportc, a latch. Tranca de puerta, the bar of a door,

butler*

Guardas de la llTwe, wards of a lock,

the

Defpenfa,^ buttery or pantry.

Cafiuto de Have, the pipe of a key,

Vidriera, the glafs of the

Co z in a,

kit chin,

Caballeriza, the ft able.


Perreria, a dog-kennel,

Palomar, a dove-houfe,
Gallinero, ahen^rooft, Jardin, a garden.

window, Rejas de ventana, the bars of a window. Efcalera de caracol, ^


winding
ft

air -cafe,

Llanos de

efcalera,

the

Parque, a park, Privada, or 1


NecelTaria, J

half pace cf ftairs, Coronilla del edificio, the Grada, orl n ^' -^ top of the ftru^ure. Efcalon, j Teja, a tile. Efcalera fecretaj^i^r^/^/r/.' Pizarra, a fate. "^ig^i ^ beam,

w*

landing places cf ftairs. Defcanfo de efcalera, the

Ripia, a Jhingle, VJgon, the girder^ or main 'Ala de tejado, the eves of beam, the houfe, Tabla, a board. Canal, the gutter^ Cruzero, a rafter. -

U2

Ladrillo;

292
Pared

-^

1^^'^^
brick.

Spanish
main
the
bed,

Grammar.
hafes

Ladrillo, a
wall,

Rodapies, the
the

of the

maeiti'a,

Tapere, a

carpet.

Savanas, Jheets. Frazadas, blankets. party -wall. Pared de cal y canto, a Covertor, the counterpane, Almohadas, pillows. wall of lime andftone. Tabique,^ lath andplaifter Tapiceria, iapejlry. Pintura, or quadro, a partition,

Pared de en medio,

Cal, lime or

plalfter,

pi5iure.

Efpejo, a looking-glafs. ArgamafTa, mortar, Encoftradura de pared, Candelero, a candleftick.


the plaijier of

a wall,

y eflb, very fine white lime.


Jaloegue, white-wafJj.

Defpaviladeras, fnuffers, Arana, a branch to hold

many
Yefca,

candles.
tinder.

Mefla, a Banco, a
Silla,

table.

Pajuela, a match. bench. Pedernal, a flint. a chair. Silla de brazos, j arm^ Eflabon, the fteel
chair.
fire.

to Jlriks

Taburete, a chair with a Orinal, a chamber-pot. Coichon, a quilt to lye on, hack. Sitidl.aftoolwithoutaback. Colcha, a quilt to lay o?i
Banquillo, afiool.
the bed,

Caxa, a box. Cama de campo, a field^Arca, or arcon, a chefl. bed. Caxon, a cafe of drawers, Teftera de cama,/^^ bed^sdrawer. Tirador, a head. Efcritorio, a cabinet. Colunas de cama, the bedbed. Cama, a pofts. Lecho, the part of the bed

Catie, a couch.

Xergon, afiraw-bed. maderage Eftera, a mat. Calentador de cama, de cama, a bed/lead. warming pan. Cielo de la cama , the bed's Chimenea, a kitchen. tefter.
that
is

laid on.

Armadura,

or

Cortinas de cama,t^rf-r//r. Refpiradero, or canon de chimenea, the funnel of tins,


the chimney,

Morillos,

'

A
Tenazas,

New Span
tongues.

I s

H Grammar,
hdtcket

293
or pail*

Morillos, andirons,
Fuelles, bellows,

Herrada, a

Cubo, a

tub,
?
,

Lcxia, or

Pala, or badil, a Jhcvel,

Guarda fuego, a fkreen. Urgador, atifador, a p- Levadura,


ker,

Colada,| Xabon, foap,

^^'^'

leaven.

Kodilladecozina, a
kit chin cloth,

coarfs

'011a, a pttage.pot,

Tapadera,
'

the pot-lid.

Salvados, bran. Elcaifador, achafing-dijh. Artefla, a tray, Trevedes, a trevet, Mantelcs, table-cloth, Hornillo, ajlove. Servilleta, a napkin, Homo, an oven, Aguamanil, an ewer, Sarten, a frying-pan, Almofia, a bafon, Cazo, afauce-pan. Toalla, a towel, Cazuela, a little pan, Platillos, plates, Efcumedera, ajkimmer, Cuchillo, a knife.
Parrillas, a gridiron,

Afa, the ear of the pt. Puchero, a pipkin, Cucharon, a ladle, Caldera, a kettle,

Eftropajo, a dijh- clout, Pala del horno, the peel

for the oven,

Harina,

vieal.

Tenedor, a fork,
fait,
dijh,

Coladero, a cullander, or Salero,


Jlreiner,

Plato, a

Cedazo, afieve, Rallo, a grater, Aguja de mechar, a


ing- pin,

Efcudilla, a porringer,

Cuchara, a fpoon,
lard- Tajador, a chopping-block,

Jarro, a mug.

AfTador, a fpit, Azeitera, or 7 ^,_

Taza, a cup or
7

dijh,

^.

Sal villa, afalver,

Flafco, a fiafk^ or bottle. Vinagera, a cruet, Vidrio, a glafs, Almirez, a metal mortar, Mondadientes, a tooths Mortero, ajlone mortar, picker, Mano de mortero, a peftle, Mayordomo, ajleward, Brafcrillo, a chafing- di/h, Trinchante, a carver,

Redoma,

a vial,

Secretario, afecretary,

Sumiderp, a fink,
Cantaro, a ptcber.

Carnarero, a chamberlain^
or valet de cha^^bre.

U3

Defpenfero,

294

New Span isH Grammar.


fala,

Defpenfero, a caterer^ or Maeftre


clerk of the kitchen,

a fewer^

Capellan, a chaplain,

Limofnero, an almoner. Page, a page, Lacayo, a footman, Cochero, a coachman,

Bodeguero, a butler, Repoftero, a butler, Halconero, a falconer* Cozinero, a cook, Galopin, a fculUon, Portero, a porter.
Cafcro, or huefped, du-^ the landlord. eno,or amoi

Muzo de C2ih2\\os^agroo?n.
Caballerizo, a gentleman
of the horfe,

Copero, a cupbearer.

de

la cafa.

Of Country Affairs, De las cofas del Campo.


Alqueria,

a country

or Raftrillo, the harrov;.

farm

houfe.

Sembrador, a fower,

Efcardador, a weeder, Rozador, a weeding-hook, ^ Segador, a reaper, Vaquero, J Guadana, a fey the, or la fwineporquero, Trillo, a flail, herd. porquerizo, _f Horca, a fork. Paftor, afhepherd, Vieldo, a winnowing fan. ^urron, a fcrip, Ca^y Mo, afhepherd- s crook. Pefcador, affher.man Red barred era, a drag-net. Honda, a fling. Vara, or caaa para pefcar^^ or > j. Ortelano, \ a oar diner. T J- > a fifhing rod. Jardinero, ) ^ Sedal de la cana, a fifhinga ditcher, Cavador,
Quintero, a farmer

Vinadiro, a

"vine dreffer,

line,

^^radorj

or

la
1

plough-

Labrador, J Arado, a plough.


Efteva-, or

man.

Anzuelo, a fifhing-hooK Cazador, a huntfman. Cebo, ci bait, Liga, birdlime,


Jaula, a cage.

Manzera, j Kejadel arado,


fhars.

1 a day la-; hourer, Jornaiero, J illherp, a keeper of affes, c^ plough-^

a plough Qbrero, or
handle,

"

Hombrc

A
Hombre

New Spanish Grammar.


del

295
ar^-

campo,

a Bobeda de parras, an
hour.

country-man.

Campo

que defcanfa,

a Laberynto, a

lahyrinlb.

Gruca, a grotte. Tierra cntre los fulcos, a Cafcada, a cafcade, ridge, Fucnte, a fountain. Sulco, a furrow, Chorro de dgua, awater* Trigo en hierba, green fpout. corn, Pilon de fuente, the vafs Tierra inculca, land not of a fountain,
fallow-field,
tilled, Encaniido,(?r7 Monte, or 1 a bill, or aqueducto.r""^"''^"''^* Montana, J :} mountain, Hortaliza, all forts of
,

Cuefta,

(^r

.-.w

r-.

berhag\e.

Collado, J Cerro, a rifing ground, Valle, a valley. Abifmo, a bottomlefs pit. Zanja, a ditch.

*^^c ^^'^'.

pi^nta, ^ //^/. Camino real, thehigb-way^

Senda, orl Vereda, |


Pifada,
f7r

^
^

P^^^^'
.

1
^^''

Languna, a

lake, or marfb.

Raftro, j

Llanura, a plain,

Cavalgadura, a

heafi

for

Roca, J Penafco, a great rock. Defpenadero, a precipice. Bofque, aforejl, Efplanada, a curious plain, Mata, a thicket, Zarza, a bramble, Efpina, a thorn. Prado, a meadow. VtvgSl, a gardenia bower, Hucrta, an orchard.

Carreca, a waggon. Carro, a cart, Rueda, a wheel. Ray o de rueda, the f poke of a wheel, Llantas, or 7 the felloes of

Cambas,

Cubo de

J the wheel. m^ddi^tbe nave of


the axle-

the wheel 'Exe de rueda,


tree.

Jardin, a garden, Eftaca, or 1 the pin of a ^Era de jardin, a bed in a Clavo, J wheel, garden, CaleiTa, a calocbe or cbaife^ Glorieta de jardin, a bed Litera, a borfe litter.
of flowers,
/

Andas,

thefhafts.

Almaciega J a feed-plot^

C6che,c?r carroza, a coach.

U4

Railra,

296

^^^^
a
-^

Spanish
"^

Grammar-,

Raft ^^/>.^^l Narria, J


Cefta, Z'^^/.

Bolfa, a purfe,
fledge.

Saco,

^M-

Canada, a flajket.
Efpiierta, a dirt-bajket,

Maleca, a portmanteau, Talego, ^ bag,


Valija, a cloak- hag.

Cherrion, a dung- cart. Banafta, a great hamper.


Alfqja, a wallet.

Zurron, a budget or f crip.


Religion.

^be Churchy and Tubings pertahiing ta Iglefia, y cofas Religiofas.

Nave

de iglefia, the a church.


the dome.

ifleof

Miflal, a mafs-hook.

Soiana, a

cajfock.

Cimborio,

Pinaculo, a pmiacle.

Ghoro,
Capill'ii

the choir.
o.

chapel.

Atr il, a

dijl.

Sobrepdiiz, afurplice. Roquete, a Jhort furplice. Bone re, a cap. Mitra, a miter. BacuiO, a crofter.
Patriarcha, a patriarch.

Sacriftia, the vcftr^.

Gam pan a,

Arzobifpo, an (irchbifljopo Obifpo, a bijhop. Badajo, the clapper of the Obifpado, a bifhoprick. Diocefis, a diocefe. bell. Pila de bautizar, the font. Coadjutor, a coadjutor. Sufraganeo, a fuffragan, Ifopo, afprinkler.

Campanario,
a

the belfry

bell.

ConkKiomiio^a confej/wn- Sacerdote, a


feat.

pHeft.

Sacerdocio, pripflhood. Tribuna, a tribune^ or gal- Diacono, a deacon. Subdiacono, a fubdeacon, lery.

CimenteriQ,
yard.

the

church-

Ac6\ytOy0ne ihatferves th$


prieft at the altar.

Leftor, a reader. Clerigo, a clergyman, Altar, an altar. Prelado, a prelate. JF rental, an antipendlum. the ta- Abad, an abbot. Tabernaculo,(;r \ \hernacle, AbadefTa, an abbefs, Sagrario, Abad fa, an abbey. P^ljOs a canopy. ^antcl del dXtkr^the altar- Canonigo, a canon. Deiin, a dean, "(loiL Prevdftes
Ofiiario, the charnel

New Spanish
an

Grammcuc.
leJfon

297

Prevofte, a provoft,

Leccion, a

Archidiacono,

arch- Verfecc, a verfe,

Sermon, a fermort. deacon. Meditacion, ?nedilatwn. Precentor, a precentor, Mae (Ire de choro, the ma- Oracion voc.^l, vocal prayi'
fter of the choir,
er.

Cantor, a fining- man, Sac rift a n, /^^ veftr'^ keeper,

Oracion
prayer.

jnental,

mental

Vvthtn^-ado^ a prebendary, Predicar, to preach, C\ir2i.,the parfon of a parijh, Hacer el catechifmo, to catechize, Parochia, a parijh, Enterrar, or^ Vicario, a vicar, ,
Oficial,

an

official,

fepultar,

'^'

Promotor, a proElor, Excommunion, excommu^ mcation. Encomienda,^ thing given in commendam, Sufpenfion, fufpenjion, Entredicho, an interdi5f^ Bautifmo, haptifm,
Confirmacion,
(ion.

confirma- Irregularidad, irregularity.

Defcomulgar,
municate.

to

excom^

Matrimonio, matrimony, Comulgar, to receive the


holy facrametit,

Iglefia cathedral,

a catbe*

dral church.

Ceremonia, a ceremony, Rubrica, the rulrick,


Ritual, a ritual,

^Ordtntsi^iCroSyholy orders Conventual, the church of a monaftery,

Vz-xxocWul^a parijh church.

Adviento,
vent.

the time of ad-

Oficio divino, divine fervice,

Pfalterio, the pfalter,

Quarefma, the lent, Temporas, ember-week:.


Vigilia, an eve,

Pfalmo, a pfalm, Antiphona, an antiphon,

Ayuno,

afafi,

things relating to War, Cofas tocantes a la Guerra.


Artilleria,
artillery^

or Canon, a cannon,

Boca de cafion, the mouth Pieza de artilleria,^ canon, of the gun, 'Tvtndt^mWtxidi^ths train Fogon, the touch-hole,
great guns.

of artillery,

Culka

298

New Span

I s

H Grammar.

Culata del cznon^ihe hreech Lanza, a lance. Alabarda, an halbard. of the gun, Carreton de canon, a car- Partelana, a partefan. Pica, a pike, riage of a great gun.

Cargar, to load, Apuntar, to level


Difparar,
Jhot.
to fire.

Alfange, a cy miter. Efpada, a fword, Purio de la efpada,


canon--

the

Tiro de canon, a

handle of the fword. Porno de la efpada, the

Defmontar un canon,
difinount

a gun,
to

Enclavar un caiion, up a gun,

pommel of the fword, Guarnicion de efpada, the nail hilt of the fword.
to

La

hoja, the blade.

a poniard, Bayoneta, a bayonet. Daga, a dagger, Pedrero, a patterero, Caiion entero, a whole Yelmo, a whole helmet. Celada, the fame, cannon. Medio canon, a half can- Morrion, a morrion,
Gulebrina, a cuherin, Falconete, a falconet,
Puiial,

non,

Vifera,
helmet,

the vizor of

an

Petardo, a petard, Bomba, a homh. Mortero, a ^nortar-plece, Granada, a granade, Molquete, a mujkei, Carabina, a carbine,

Gorjal, the gorget.

Peto, a breafl 'plate. Coraza, a cuirafs, Efpaldar, the back-plate. CofTelete, a corflet.
Bracelete, armour for the

Efcopeta, a fire-lock,
Fiftola, apiftol,

arms,

Eala, ahullet, Polvora, powder,

Efcarcclon,

armour from
for
the

the wafle to the thighs,

Mecha,

match,

Grevas, greaves
thighs,

Pedernali a flint, Fiecha, an arrow, Dardo, a dart, J.ivalina, a boar-fpear, Honda, a fling, 'Arco, a bow, Maza de armas, a battle-

Inojeras, armour for the


knees*

Broquel, a luckier.

Efcudo, afJfield, Adarga, a target. Cota de malka a coat of maih


General,

New Spanish Grammar.


Centinela, afentinel
lieu-

299
van-*

General, a general Teniente general, a


tenant-general,

Avanguardia,
guard,

the

Sargento mayor de batalla, a major 'general Maeflre de campo, or coronel, a colonel. Sargento mayor, a major, Capitan, a captain, Teniente, a lieutenant. Corn eta, a cornet, Alferez, an enfign, Sargento, aferjeant, Cabo de efqiiadra, a corporal.

Cuerpo de

batalla,

th^

main body of the army.


Retaguardia. the rear.

Cuerpo de

referva,

the

corps de referve,

Cuerpo de guardia,
corps de guard.

the

'Ala, the wing of an army.


Batallon, a batallion,

RegimientOjCr? \^^'^''^'^^^* Tercio,

Tropa de caballos, a
a brigadier,
of horfe,

troop

Quad rill ero,

Soldado, afoldier, Caudillo, a leader ^ or commander, Tambor, a drum, Pifano, a fife, Trompeta, a trumpet, Atabal, a kettle-drum, Soldado de acaballo, a

de infanteria,^ company of foot. Hilera, a rank. Fila, a file, Efquadron, a fquadron^ Mochillero, afoldier^s boy. Bagage, the baggage, Vivandero, afutler.

Compama

trooper, Partida, a party, Soldado de apie, a foot' Conedovts^theforlornhope


foldier.

Batidores, difcoverers,
dragoon,

Dragon, a

Murallas,

or >

Piquero, a pikeman. Muros, \ Mofquetero, a mufketeer. Almena, a battlement. Efcopetero, afufiiier. Parapeto, the parapet. Infante, a foot foldier. Caftillo, a caftle. Infanteria, the infantry, Fuerte, a fort. Caballeria, the cavalry. Fortaleza, a fortrefs,
Artillero, a gunner,
Fortificacion,
tion,

'^^^^'-

fortified

Bombardero,^

bombardier,

Ingeniero, an ingeneer.

Minero, a

miner,

Torre, a tower. Ciudadela, a citadeL


Baftion, a baflion. Cortina^

paftadorj a pioneer^

300
Media

New Spanish Grammar.


Contramarcha, a countermarch,

Cortina, a curtin.
luna, an half-moon,

Tronera, a loop'hole, Efcaramuza, ajkirmijb. Terrapleno, a rampart. Batalla, a battle. Cabailero, a cavalier^ or Sitio, a ftege,
mount, Rebelin, a ravelin,
Contraefcarpa,^^^ counter[carp,

Quartel, quarter,

Encamifada, a camifade^
orfurprize,

Barrera, a harrier,

Salida, a fall^. Batir, to hatter,

Falfabraga, afaujfe-hra'j, Brecha, a breach. Foflb, the ditch, Efc^^lada, an efcalade, Repecho, a breaji-tvork, A^T^ko, an ajfault or attack. Llamada, the chamade, Gurica, a fentinel^s boD^, CafeTaca,^ cafemate, Capitulacion, a capitulaGaleria,
or
i
.,

tion,

/ ^ Corredor, 5 Eftrada cubierta, the covered way, Cefton, a gabion. Eftaca, a palifade, Reduto, a redoubt. Atalaya, a place for difcovery^ortheperfonthat
is

Guarnicion, a garrifon,

Tocar

la caxa,

to heat the

drum,

Levantar gente,
men,

to raife

Pagar

el

fueldo, to pay the

men,
Batir la eftrada, to fcour
the country,

to difcover,

Manta, a mantlet^ or cover Lev :.icar el skio, to raife the feige, for men from the fhot, Fagina, fafcines, Marchar a vanderas de{pleg^dsiS^ to march witb Mina, a fnine,
Contr3.n]in?i^a countermine.
flying colours.

Trinchera, a trench. El real, the camp.


Vituallas, provijions,

Reforzar

el exercito,/^ re-^

inforce the

army.
to

Tocar a recoger, Municiones, ammunition. a retreat,

found

Vifono, afrefh water foU Entregar una plazaj/^yr* diir, render a place. Picorero, a marauder.

A New Spanish
El 'Ano y
'Ano, a year.

Grammar,

301

The Tear, and Us Parts.


fus Partes,

Manana,

the morning.

Mes, a month.
Semana, a week, Dia, a day, Noche, a night.
T'he

Tarde, the evening. Hora, an hour, Minuto, a minute.

Momento, a moment.
Months.

Los Mefes.
Enero, January.
Febrero, fehruary, Marzo, march. Abril, april. Mayo, may.
Junio, June,
Julio, July.

Agofto,

auguft,

Setiembre,

feptemher.

06lubre, oBober^

Noviembre, novemher; Deciembrc, decemier.

^he Days of the Week. Dias de la Semana.

Domingo,

funday.

Lunes, monday,
Martes, tuefday, Miercoles, wednefday.

Jueves, thuffday. VierneSj friday,

Sabado, faturday.

Navegacion.
Navio,
nao,
or 1

Navtgatwu
Frag'.ta, a frigate.

nave, or

>a Jhip,
J
guerra, a

Saica, a faick,

Caraca, a carrack.

Navio de
Navio

man

Fufta, afoift,

Pinaza, a pinnace, of war, mercantil, a mer- Barca de paffage, aferr^^


boat,

chant-Jhip,

Navio

ligero, a light vej-

Canoa, a

canoe.

fel for failing,

Galera, a galley, Galeaza, a galeafs. Galeon, a galleon.

Piragua, a piragua. Gondola, a fort of boat fo


called,

Efquife, ajktff,

Gakota, a

galliot.

Barqucta,

^02

A New
ori
J

Spanish
fail.

Grammar.

Barqueta,

^iQr,f"

Vela del trinquete5//6^/(?rd'Vela cevadera,


/^<?

Barquilla,
Balfa, afloat.

f^rit"

Capitana real,/^<? admiral. fail. Almiranta, the vice-admi- Vela latina, a fhoulder of mutton faiL ral, Armada> a navy of men of Remo, an oar. Pah de remo, the blade of war. the oar, Flota, a fleet of merchants. Troneras, the port- holes. Efquadra, a fquadron.

Abordo, aboard, Popa, the poopyorflern.


Proa, the prowy or head. Tartdna, a tartan. Bergantin, a hrigantin. Navio de fuego, afirejhip, Patache, a patach. Feluca, a felucca, Barca, a hark. Barco, or\ ,
^
Batel,
5

Empavefadas, the nettings^ Gallardete, a pendant. Vanderola, a flag. Vandera, the colours.
Bruxula, the compafs. Punta de la proa^Jhe fler;js Puente, the deck. Cubierta, the fame.
Tilla, the hatches.

Bancos

de

galera,

the

Sentina, the well.


l.aftre,
ballafl.
^f,

thaughts of a galley. Timon, the helm.

Quilla, the
"""fi'

keel.

Maftil, or} .,^ '^' 'Arbol, I


mafl.

fAncorsi^ an anchor.

Am^rra,

or >
3

^Arbol mayor, the

fnain-

Maroma,

^^j^^_

Lj'. gabia, the round top. Tiinquete, the forc'maft. Gu^Lvdnnytheboat-fwain, Quilla del arbo], the flep Marinero, afailor. Forzados, or 1 of the mafl. u p^.^. Galeotes, S^ ^ Entena, a yard. Efpalder, the hindermofl Vela, a fail. rower in a gaily. Vthma.yorythe main-lheet. Vela de gabia, the top-fail. Vogavante, the fore-man
-^

Sonda, the founding lead. Piloto, a pilots or mafter.

Perroquete, the top-gallant

in rowing. in

Comitre, the boQt-fwain fail. a gaily. Vela mefana, the mizzen


fail.

Coffino;

A
Coffario,
Pirata,

New Spanish
^^\ ^
5

Gra??mar.

303

^^

i)-rate
'

^^^"^^ a calm.

Viento en popa, tbe wind


full aftcrn,

Camara

grande, ihe great


tempejl,

cahhin,

Coger

cl

viento, to ply to
to^

Tormenta, a

windward.
^Ir a la bolina,

Borrafca, aJior?n. Bonanza, fair weather,

ply

and

tack upon a wind.

Algunas Sentencias, y Refnines Efpanoles,


So^ne Spanijld Sentences^

and

Proverbs.

vino, y ami- ^^\lL^wine^and a friend^ go, antiguo. ihe older the better. ^ Aunque Teas prudente vie- nough you be a difcreet old jo, no defdenes el conman, do 'not difdain to be

AZeite,

\^

fejo.

advifed,

Aunque compuefta la men- Al^e


tira^fiempre es vencida.

difguifed.is

though never fa well always worfied.


you cloatb a monkey
isfull

Aunque

viftais a la

mona Though
that

de feda,

mona fe

queda.

infilk^it
is^

there is no

a monkey ; making

a filk purfe ofafow's ear.

'Afno de muchos, iobos de comen,

An afs that has many mafler%


is

devoured by the wolves


is,
is

that
nefs

every bodies bufi^ 7W bodies bufinefs.

rio

rebueko, ganancia

//

is

befl

fifmng in troubled

de pefcadores. waters. Aquella es bien cafada. She iswell marrfd^whohas que ni tiene fuegra, ni neither mother^ nor fifler
cuiiada.
in law.

Aquien

dices tu puridad.

When

a efte das tu libertad.

you entruft one with your fecret, you give up

your

liberty.

Aquellos fon ricos, que They are tienen amigos, frimdi.

rich

who have

A quien

304

J^^'^

Spanish GrammaK

A quien no le fobra
A A

el pan. He that has not bread tS ne crie can. fpare^piuft not keep a dog. Beggars muft not be choofersi quien dan, no efcoge.

padre guardador, hijo


galiador.
fu pareja.

nigardly father

has a

prodigal fon.

Cada oveja,con

Alljhould match with their


equals,

/Ande yo

caliente,

riafe So 1 keep m-jfelf

la gente.

warm^ no matter ifpeople laugh at


vie,

/Antes que
lo

te cafes,

que haces.

mira Mind what you do you marry ; that


before you leap,

before
isy

look

Amigo
Amigo

del buen tiempo,


el

Afair weather friendJurns

with the wind, quebrado, aunque Friendfhip thdt has been broken.may be patched up, foldado, nuncaesfano.
viento.
hit will never be found,

mudafe con

Amigo

de uno, enemigo Be a friend but to one^ and an enemy to none, de ninguno, lo que puedes fdlo, lid When you can do a thing
,

efperes a otro.

yourfelfy

do not wait for

another.

Al defdichado,p6co le vale
fer esforzado.

If a

man is unfortunate^it ahim


little to

vails

be brave,

Allegatc a los buenos, y Keep good company ^ and yoH will be one of them, feras uno dellos. hombre ofado, la for- Fortune favours the bold, Al tuna le da la mano. good man reckons all Al buen varon, tierras countries his own, ajenas patria le fon. Al agradecido, mas de lo Give a grateful man more pedido. than he ajks, Al villano dadle el pie. Give a clown an inch, and he will take an ell, tomarafe la mano. Al que da el capon, dale Ifonegivesyouacapon^give himtheleg^ and the wing. la pierna, y el alon.

Al que
iBofa,

tiene

muger
caftillo

her-

He that has a beautiful wife^


or a caftle on thefrontiers, or

en

frontcra,

A
rera,

New Spanish Grammar.


le

305

frontera, 6 vina en car-

or a vineyard upon the


road^
is

nunca

falta

never without

guerra.

quarrels.

caballo dado, no le Dq ?wtJcok a gift horfe in miren el diente. they?iouth. Burlaos con el afno, dares Play with an afs^ and heHl ha en la barba con el flap you on the face with

rabo.

his tail

No jeftingwitb
is

fools.

Buen

prlncipio, la

me tad
ni lo

j^ good beginning

half the

es hecha.

work

done,

Bocado de mal pan,


comas,
can.
ni lo des

Do

not eat

a tu

breads nor give


dog.

a morfel of had it to your

Bocado comido, no gana What is eat en gains no friend, Paft favours forgotten. amigo. Bien a ma, quien nunca ^hat^s a true lover ^ that
olvida.

never forgets.
el

Bien fabe
fabe,

fabio que no

A wife man

is

fenfihle of his

el

necio

pienfa

ignorance^

a fool thinks

que fabe. himfelf wife. Beftia que anda llano, para / would have a beaft that carries eafy for myfelf^not mi me la quiero no para mi hermano, for 7ny brother every one loves the be for bimflf ft Cria Cuervo, y facarte ha Breed up a crow^ and he* II
-,

el ojo.

pull out your eyes.

Con

rocin, y florin Latin ^ a nag.^ and money andaras el mundo. will carry you through
latin,

the world.

Cobra

fama, y Get a good name^ and you echate en la cama. may lye abed. Cortesia dc boca mucho Goodwcrds are worth much, vale, y poco cuefta. and coft little. CantariUo que muchas ve- ^he pitcher that goes often ces va a la fuente, 6 to the well, comes home

buen a

dexa

la afa,

la frente.

broke at

laft.

Cada

gallo

canta en fu Every cock can crow on his

muladar,

own dunghih

X*

Canta

3o6
Canta

New Spanish Grammar.


y no
tiene ^hefrogfmgs^ and
neither hair, nor
'jet

la rana,

has

pelo, ni lana.

wooU ^he poorefi people are


merry,
built,

Cafa labrada, y vina plantada,

^ boufe ready
When
is

and a

vineyard ready planted^ I. e. they are heft to buy.


the wine
is

Do

entra el beber, fale el


fueres,

in^the wit

faber.

out.

Per donde

haz When you are


Ltduftry avails
cut fortune.

at

como

vieres.

as they do at

Rome, Rome.

do

Do Do

falta

dicha, por

dcmas

little

with*

es diligencia.

fuerza viene, derecho Might overcomes right.

fe pierde.

Dicen que eres bueno, ^ey fay you are a good man, but put your hand mete la mano en tu
feno.
into

confult
ence.

your hofom ; that isy your own confci'

Dolor de efpofo, dolor de codo, duele mucho, y


dura poco.

A hujband^s
a pain

forrow

is

like

in the

elbow,very

De amigo
diablo.

Jharp, but foon over, reconciliado, Never truft a reconciled

guardate del

como

del

friend any more than you

would the
deliver

devil.

Del agua manfa me guarde God


dios, que de la brava

me from a ftill

yo me

fabre guardar.

water, for 1 will deliver myfelffrcm that which is rough 5 alluding to the

De

tempers of people, luengas vias, luengas Long travels produce great


lies,

mentiras.

un hombre necio, a fool fometimes gives good advice. veces buen confejo. Defpues de defcalobrado, ^o break a man's head, and then give him a plaifter. untar el cafco. Del loco, porrada, 6 mala From a madman you may ex*
paldbrao
pe5i a blow^or
ill

De

language.

Mas

A .New
Mas
vale

Spanish
cada
^6.:,^-

Grammar,

3 07
is

un toma, que yl

^'' :/

band,

worth

dos e dare.

two

in the bujjj,
/)^fii/j/^

Deipues de beber,

have drunk^

uno dice fu p^rcccr. Defpues de comer, dormir ; defpues de cenar,


paflbs mil.

they are open hearted.


/1ft

n- d'lmer /Jeep a while

after fuj}per

walk a

mile,

Debaxo de buen fayo, el hombre malo.


el fuelo,

efta

A good
Do
not
looks

coat often covers a

wicked fellow,
trufl

t>t quien pone los qjos en

a
:

man
that

that

no

les

tu di-

on the ground with


is,

nero.

your money
hypocrite,

an

Guardate, de hombre que Take heed of a man that does not talk^ and of a no habla, y de can que

no ladra. Echar el mango


ftral.

dog that does not hark,


tras el

de- To throw

the helve after

the hatchet,

'Echate a enfermar, y fa- Take your led, as if yott were fick^ and you will bras quien tequierebien, know who does, and who quien mal. y
does not love you.

El

dar limofna,

nunca Giving alms never


flock.

lejfens t hi

mengua

la bolfa.
fi

El perezofo

empre

es

Afloathful
needy.

man

is

always

menefterofo.

El avariento rico,notiene pariente ni amigo. El bobo


^\

covetous rich
neither
friends.

man has
nor
pajfes

relations,

es callado,

por

A fool that fays

little

for a wife man. El que tiene tejados de vi- He whofe houfe f covered drio, no tire piedras al with glafs^muft not throw de fu vezino. flones at his neighbours. El huefped, y el pece, a guefl andfifh flinks when
fefufo es reputado.
f

tres dias, hiede.

kept three days.

El

harto del ayuno,


iiv'ne

no He

that

is

full,

duelo alguno,

'paffton

on

hasnocom^ him thai is

falling,

El

3o8
El dar

A
es

New Spanish Grammar.


el

honor, y
es el

pela

//

dir dolor.

is an honour to give^ and a trouble to ajk. is

El hombre
miiger
el

fucgo,

Man

fire ^

and woman

is

la eftopa,

viene

diablo y fopla.

tow^ the devil comes and Hows,

El viejo en fu tierra, y el mozo en la ajena, mienten de una manera. El lobo harto fe mete
fraile.

An old man in his own ^and


y oung

man in another coun^

try, are both lyars alike.

was fick^the monk would be\ when the devil was welly the devil a monk was he. En tal figno naci, que / was born under fuch a planet, that I have more quiero mas para mi que
the devil
devil a

When

para

ti.

kindnefsfor

my
is

[elf

than
the

for you.

En

cafa llena

prefto

fe

When

the houfe

full,

guifa la cena. Fortuna, y azeituna,

fupper is foon drefs^d, a Fortune, and olives fometimes come in a glut, and veces, mucha, a vcces fotnetimes none at all, ninguna. Gato efcaldado, del agua The burnt child dreads the

frh ha miedo.

fire,

Humo,

*y muy gatera, ger parlera, echan el

A fmoaky
coming
doors,

houfe,
in,

the rain

hombre de
era.

fu cafa fu-

and a fcolding wife, turn a man out of

Hijo malo, mas


liente

vale do-

A wicked fon
a

is

better fick

que lano.Juras del que ama muger, no fe han de creer.

than in health,
l!he oaths of one that loves

woman

are net to be

regarded.

Los

ninos de pequenos. Children muft be chaflifed when they are little, for que no hai caftigo deit is afterwards too late. para ellos. fpues

Lo

que los ojos no ven. What the eye does not fee^ the heart does not rue. corazon no deffea. yerros del medico, The earth hides the mijlakes Los
la tierra los cubre.
X

ofphyftcians,

Lo

A
Lo
cielo.

New Spanish Grammar,

309

que no quieres para ti, Bo as jou would be doneh^. no lo quieras para mi. La oracion breve fube al yl fiort pra)er reaches
heaven.
aplace,

La

traicion
el

mas We

love the treafonjjut not

que la hace. La muger compuella a fu marido quita de puerta


ajena.

no

the traitor.

^ wife

well drejfed keeps

her hujhand from running to other women.

La

llora,

viuda rica, con un ojo y con elocro rey


el

rich

widow weeps with


and laughs with

one ey^

pica.

the other.

La muger,

vino, fa-

can al hombre de tino. Mula, que hace hin,y muger que park latin,

Women and wine^ make a man mad.

A mule

that kicks^

and a

woman

th at peaks latin

never come to a good end, nuncahicieron buen fin. Muger, viento, y ventura Women, wind^ and fortune^
prefto fe

muda.

are given to change.

Mucho
Muger

sabe la rapofa, pe- The fox is very cunnings but he is more cunning that ro mas el que la toma.
catches her,

placera, de todos

A gojfiping woman talks


all people^

of

and all of her, Mucho fabia el cornudo, The cuckold was very fuhtle, pero mas el que fe los hut he was more crafty
dice,

y todos

della.

pufo.

that cuckolded hiin.

Mete

el

ruin en tu pajar, Let a fcoundrel into your

y quererte ha heredar.

barn,

and he

will con-

trive to he your heir.

Mas
Mas

vale favor,

que ju- Favour


juflice

goes farther

than
hegy

flkia, ni raz6n.

and

reafon.

vale pedir, y

men-

//

is

better to ajk
to

and

digar, que en la horca

than
lows.

fwing on the galill

pernear.

Mai me

quieren mis commadres, porque digo

My gojfips bear me
becaufe

will^

I fpeak

the truth,

las verdadcs.

Mas

310 Mas

New Spanish Grammar.


//
is

vale guardar, que demandar. Mas vale mala avenencia, que buena fentencia.

better

to he

/parings
better

than

to beg.
is

^ bad compofttion
jnent,

than a favourable judg-

Mas

fabe

el

loco en fu

^ mad man knows


buftnefs

his

own
a
has

cafa,

que

el

cuerdo en

better

than

la ajena.

wife

man

does another* s.

Mas

vale a quien diqs ayuda, que el que mucho

He

thrives better

who

madruga.

God's bleffmg^ than be that rifes earl'j,

Nunca
tu

efperes,
lo

amigo

quo

que haga Never expe^ sour friend to do that which you can do tu puyourfelf.

dieres.

No es nada,
tan a

fino que

ma- The matter


hufband.

is

not

much

but

mi marido.

that they are killing

my

No hai mejor maeftra,que


neceflidad

No hai mal
como no
el

y pobreza.

There is no better miflrefs than neceffity and want.

tan Jaflimero,
tener dinero.

No
No

calamity fo grievous^ as.

to be
bit

without money.
fo fweet
isjlollen.

No hai mejor
hurtado.

bocado, que

as that

which

No

hai peor fordo, que el None fo deaf as he that will not bear, que no quiere oir. girl^ a vineyard^ agarNina, viiia, peral, y haden of peas ^ and a field bar, malos fon de guardar. of beansy are bard to be

kept,

Ni

por cafa, ni por viHa, no tpmes muger ximia.

Bo

an a vineyard take a monkey wife \ that


not for the fake of
houfe^ or of

No

%$y deformed. hai fabado fin fol, ni There is no faturday without fome funfhine, nor viejo fm dolor, ni mo-

cfca iin arrebol.

an

old

man
nor

without an
young a a charm.

ailing^

tvencb without

A
Ni
Ni

New Spanish Grammar.

311

de eftopa, buena ca- ^bere is no having a good Jhirt of tow^ .o- a good mifa ; ni de puta, bucna amiga. friend of a whj^e,
cavalgues en potro, ni muger alabcs a otro.
firmes carta
veas.

Do

not ride upon a colt^ nor

tu

prajfe 'sour wife to ano-

Ni

ther man. que no Neverfign any writingwith^


out reading^vor drink wa*
ter without looking into
it,

Leas,ni bebasaguaque

no

Ni

a rico debas, ni a p6-

bre promecas.

Never owe f?ioney to a rich man^nor promife any thing

to a poor one, Necios, y porfiados hacen Tooh^ and ohjlinate people

ricos los letrados.

enrich lawyers,

Oveja que

bocado Thefheep that bleats loofes pierde. a mouthful. Oir, ver, y callar, recias It is very hard to bear^ fee^ cofas fon de obrar. and fay nothing. tempero, Whatfoever the weather is^ For ningun dexes el camino real do not leave the highway per el fendero. to follow the path.
bala,

For hacer placer


ni fayajni

al fuefio,

camifa tengo.

trough indulging of fleepy / have neither petticoat


nor fmock.
Riftng early makes
it

Per mucho madrugar, no amanece mas aina. Poco, y en paz, mucho


fe

not

me
;

haz.
facaras el o-

day the fooner, little in peace is much to me,


will find the clue by the thready and what is to

Por
lo

el hilo,

Tou

villo

y por lo pafiado,
baila el per-

no venido.

come by what

is

pafi,

Por dinero,
ro.

The dog dances for money ; money makes the mare to


gois

Por

fer

Rey,

fe

quiebra All jufiice


crown,

broke to gain a

toda ley.
Pleito,
y orinal, llevan cl
al hofpital.

Lawyers and phyficians fend


a man
to the hofpitaL

hombre

Pienia

312

New Spanish Grammar.

Pienfael ladr6n,que todos The thief thinks all men Sk& him. fon dtr fu condicion. Pefcador de vara, mas c6- ^n angler eats more than he gets. me que gana.
PeleaiiJosladroneSjdefcu- }0oen thieves fall out ^honejl brenfc los hurtos. men come by their goods, harking dog never bites, Perro ladrador, niinca

buen mordedor. Para amor, ni muerte, no


hai cafa fuerte.

No

houfe isftrong enough to

keep out love and death.

Paiios

en palacio, Pine cloaths are regarded at que no courts and not gentility, Palabras de fanto, y unas <To talk like a faint ^and claw like a cat, de gato, \o que debes, fabras p.ay your dehts^ and you'll Psga know what you are worth. lo que tienes. Panadera eras antes, y Formerly you was a haker^ aora trahes guantes. and now you wear gloves. Quien a todos cree, yer- He who believes all men is ra j quien a ninguno, in the wrong,and he who
lucen
hijos dalgo.

no

acierta.

believes
right.

none

is

not in the

Quien no alza un alfiler, ^e that will not take up a no eftima a fu muger. pnjoes not value his wife. Quien fia, o promete, en //^ that is hound for amdeuda fe mete. ther^ or raakes apromifcy
contra^s a debt.

Quien da

lo fuyo antes

de

He who

gives

away what

he has before he dies ^mufi fufrir. prepare to endure much. Quien ha criados, ha ene- He who has fervants, has

morir, aparejafea bien

migOG no efcufados. unavoidable enemies. Quien no tuviere que ha- He who wants fomething to cer, afme navio, o tome do^ may fit out afiip^ or muger. marry a wife. Quien poco tienc, y eflb He who has little and gives
y

da,preftofearrepentir2.

it

away^willfoon repent.
rife betimes.

Qu'im

a Ja rapdfa

h'4

ds

He

(hat will deceive thefooc

^ngaiiar, ^umplele n>a"'

mufl

grugar,

Q^j^fl

jl

New Spanish

Grammar.

313

Quicn tiene quatro,y gafta He who gets four^ and cinco, no ha menefter ff ends Jive ^ has no need
bolsico.

of a purfe,
es

Quien ruin

en

fu tierra,

He

that

is

hafe in

his

own

ruin es en la ajena.

country^ isfo in another^


loves that

Quien lo mofo le

feo

ama, her- He who


fome.

parece,

deformed ^fancies

which is it handhis

Quien

a fu perro quiere
le

He

that will

kill
is

dog

matar, rabia
levantar.

ha de

muft fay he

mad,

Quien come la vaca del He who eats pays for Rey, a cien afios paga
los

the king*s cow^

the hones an hundred years after. hue fibs. Quien te hace la fiefta. He that gives you a treaty and did not ufe to do ity que no te fuele hacer, 6 either defigns to deceive^ te quiere engaiiar, 6 te

ha menefter.

Quien de
repiente,

prefto

deterfe ar-

He

or ftands in need of you, that refolves in hajle^

mina, de efpacio

repents at leifure,

Quien lengua
va.

ha, a

Roma He who

has languages ma*i

travel to

Rome.
love

Quien bien quiere


can.

a Bel- hove me^ and

my

doge

tran, bien quiere a fu

Quien

al cielo

efcupe, en

He

that fpitsat heaven^ has


fall in his face,

la cara le cae.

it

Quien lexos fe va a cafar. He who ried, 6 va engaiiado, 6 va a


engaiiar.

goes far to he
either
is

mar^

deceived^

or goes to deceive,
in

Quien fiembra en el ca- He that fows mino, canfa los bueyes ways, tires
y pierde
Quieres que dale pan.
el trigo.
lofes his

the high-

his oxen^

and

corn,

te

siga el can. If you would have the dog follow you, give him hread,

Quien

fe cafa por amores. They that marry for love, malos dias, y buenas have had days^ and good

poches.

nights,

Quien

New Spanish Grammar. 3 14 Quien pobreza tien, de He that is poor is defpifedby


yel
deudos es delden ; rico fin ferlo, de todos es deudo.
fus
el

his kindred^and be that is


is a kin to every body though he he not.

rich

Quando

coflario

pro.

When the pyrate makes vows


to

a bad plight, Quando el hierro efta en- Tou muft ftrike cendido, entonces ha de iron is hot.
fer batido.

mete miffas, y cera, con mal aoda la galera.

heaven^

his vejjel

is

in

whilft the

Quanio
el

el villano efta

mulo, no conoce a

en Set a beggar a horfe-back^ and he will ride to the


devil.
bepijfes

dios, ni al

mun do,

Quando
para

el

las botas, las


el

uombre mea When a man no es bueno boots, he is


diablo reza,

his

not fit for

mozas.

young women.

Quando

the fox preaches^take enganarte quiere. heed of the geefe, Qual el dueno,tal el perro. Like mafler, like man.

When

Riiien las commadres, def-

When
'The

gojftps

quarrel,

the

cubrenfe

las verdades.

truth comes out.


cat foon

Raton que no fa be mas de un horado, prefto le


coge el gato. Sufre por faber, y trabaja

catches

the

moufe that knows but one


hole.

patience to learn, and por tener. take /nns to be rich. Si teneis la cabeza de vi- If you havt a glafs head^ drio, no os tomeis a do not pretend to throw pedradas conmigo. flones at me. Sientate en tu lugar, no Sit in your own place^ and you will not be forced to te haran levantar.
rife.

Hav?

Si el necio
ria lo

no mercado, no
malo.

Iffools did not go to market, that which is nought would fe vendefuefte


al

not he fold.

Si quieres aprender a orar,

If you would learn to pray ^ go tofea. Si te da el pobre, es por- If a poor man gives, it is in hopes to receive more. que mas tome. Si
cntra en la mar.

^N^w Spanish
Se

Grammar.

315

Si quieres vivir fanojhazte If 'jou would be healthy ^ be old betimes, viejo temprano.

bien mandado, Be a diligentfervant, and you will eat with your majier, tu amo. Salio del lodo, y entro en He leaped out of the frying* el arroyo. pan into the fire.

mozo

y comeras con

Topanfe
no
los

Todos

los hombres, y Men meet^ but mountains do not. montes. los duelosjcon pan Fat for rows are better than
lean,

fon menos.

'Una golondrina no hace One fw allow makes no fumverano.


mer,

Viejo amador, invierno An amorous old man is like con flor. flowers in winter. Vender miel al colmene- ^o fell honey to him that
ro.
keeps hives
-^

that

is^

to

carry coals to Newcaftle,

Vanfe los amores,, y que- Love goes off^ but the fling dan los dolores. of it remains. Vanfe los gatos, y eftien- When the cat's away^ the
denfe los ratos.
mice play,
*Thefroft does not hinder the

Yerba mala, no laempece


la helada.

growth of weeds
ill

that if^

Yantar tarde, y cenar cedo, facan la merienda f^pper^ fave an after noon's luncheon, de en medio. Zorrilla que mucho tarda, ^efox that ftays out longy waits for a prey. caza aguarda. Zorrilla tagarnillera, ha- ^he fubtle fox counterfeits being deady to lay hold of cefe muerta por asir
prefa.
the prey,

weeds grow apace. late dinner^ and an early

Por do
ta la

falta la

cabra, faU

Where

the goat leaps^ the


,

que

la

mama.

kid follows
after kind.

that

is,

cat

Nombrei

3 16

A New

Spanish

Grammar.

Nombres

proprios de

Hombres y Mugercs.

Proper Names of

Men and Women.


Fernando, Ferdinand. Juan, John. Lorenzo, Lawrence.
Luis, Lewis.

AMbrofio,

Amhrofe.

Andres, Andrew, Auguftin, Auguftin,


'EdLViholomQ ^Bartholomew,

Beniro, Benedi5f, Bernardo, Bernard.


Catarina, Catherine.
Cecilia,
Cecil-j.

Sulana, Sujan.
Chriftoval, Chriftoj^her.

Lucas, Luk^. Lucia, Lucy, Marcos, Mark. Martin, Martin. Mathias, Matthias,

Chrifoftomo, Chryfojlom, Nicolas, Nicholas. Pablo, Paul.


Carlos, Charles, Dominick,
Philipe, Philip.

Domingo,

Margarira, Margaret.
Sebaltian, Sehaftian.

Eftevan, Stephen.
Francifco, Francis.

Simon, Simon.

Guillermo, William. Jeronimo, Jerome, Jorge, George. Diego, James. Henrique, Henry.

Thomas, Thomas.
Ifabel,

Elizabeth

Maria, Mary. 'Ana, Anne.


Jofeph, Jofeph.

Verbos tocantes a
Verbs relating
to

las

Perfonas de Hombres, y

Mugeres.
the Perfons of

Men and Wo

men.

Andar,
Correr, Sakar,

to go.
to tuny to leap,

Comer,
Beber,
Hartarfe,

to eat.

to drink.
to gorge.
to fafi.

Danzar,
:;},' bailar
lance.

Ayunar, Chupar,

to fuck,

MafcJrj,

A
Mafcar, Tragar,

New Spanish Grammar,


to to

3 17

chew,

/wallow.

Jugar, to play, Trabajar, to work.


Efcribir, to write,

Rafcar, to/cratch. Efpulgar, to pick fleas.


Acoftarfe,
to go to bed.

Dormir,

to fleep.
to rife,

Levantarfe,
cloaths,

Veftirfe, to put on on*s

Holgar, to he idle. Leer, to read, Defpertar, to awake. Huir, to run away<i Bravear, to ho aft. Alabar, to praife,
Defpreciar,
Soltar, to
let go,

Tocarfe, a
her head,

woman

to drefs

to defpife.

Hacerfe

la

barba,

to trim,

Abrazar,
Atacar,

to

embrace.

Boftezar, to yaun, Velar, to watch,

to lace.

Calzarfe los zapatos, put onjhoes,

to

Abotonar, to button, Llamar, to call, Rezar, to pray.


Predicar,
to

Calzarfe las medias, put onftockings,

to

preach.]

Obedecer,

to obey,

Enfermar,
Curar, Hcrir,

to

grow

ftck,

Mandar,

to

command,
to govern*

to cure.

Gobernar,

to wound, Parir, to bring forth. Matar, to kill, Bezar, to kifs, Emborrachar, Ito make Hacer teftamento, /o a will, embeodar, j drunk.

w^/^tf

^y*

".'^

^4

if^'i

^'"'4

^'^ ji^4 ^y* ^'^i ^'^ ^"i ^i ^'i ^'^t ^^5 >'^i ^'"'5 ^'^^ i>*i i^<2 i^4 -^'^ y^ ^^

Phrafes Familiares.

Familiar Phrafes.

TEngo mucho I
fleep,

fueno, Defpertad, Awake,

amvery fleepy.

Dormis demafiado,
fleep too

Toti

Dexadme dormir. Let me


Dormis

much.
prefto,
Rife

Levantaos
?

Are you
la

afleep ?

quickly.

Eftais aun en

cama

Are you

in bed flill ?

Porqueno osdaispriefTaf fVhy do you not make hafte >


Eftais

3i8

New Spanish Grammar.


yfrtf3;(?

Eftaislevantado?

up? Cuidado no OS
cold,

Quercis falfa? havefauce?

Will you

resfrieis.

^ake care you do not get


Veil los, Put on your cloatbs.

Con fal me contento, / am fatisfied with fait, Porque no come is ? IVhy


do you not eat ?

Lavad

las

manos,

IVaJh

your hands, Peinad la cabeza.


your head.

efta la pechuga de una polJa, Here is the Comb wing of a pullet, No comeis pan ? Don^t

Aqui

Atacadme, Lace me,

you eat bread ?

Quereis beber ? Pedidio, Ayudame, Help me, Will you drink? QdXzTiAmt^Put onmy Jhoes Call
andflockings.

for
fo.
?

it,

Haveis rezado ? Have you


faid your prayers?

Dadme un bocado de que*


Give me a
bit

of

Adonde

eftan

mis horas
?

cheefe.

Where is 7ny prayer-book? Nohaifruta?


Quereis almorzar
you breakfajl ?
IVtll

Is there

no

fruit ?

Quitad

los manteles, I'ake

Decidme

lo

^ell me what 'Unos huevos, Some

off the table- cloth, you will have, Juguemos a los naipes,
eggs.

que quereis,

Let us play at cards,

Una

xicara de chocolate,

Mas

vale irnos al jardin,


the

A difh of chocolate.
Es hora de comer,// is din^^
ner time,

We had better go into


garden,

Hace mucho
la

frio,

y nos

Sentaos a

mefa.

Sit

podremos
is

acatarrar. It

down

to table,

very cold^ and

we may

No

tengo

fervilleta,

ni

get a cold,

cuchillo,

ni

tencdor,

Hace

/ have
knife^

no napkin^
nor fork.
is

nor

'Efta 611a efta bien guifada, Thii foup

calor y no es fano el andar a medio dia, 'The weather is hot^ and it is not wholfome to walk at
noon,

very

well made,

Quedemonos pues

aqui.

No como
eat
710

carne gorda,

Then
us take

let

us flay here,
la
fiefta.

fat meat,

Durmamos
an

Let
nap,

afternoon^s

Aqui

New Spanish Grammar.


fulano.

319

Aqui viene

Here

comes fucb a one.

Rogadle que entre, Defin him to come in. Que nuevas trahe v. md.

poco gana, 6 pierde en ello. For one man to die and another to be married is what happens every day^ and the publica
lick neither

What news do

you bring.

gains nor lofes

No

hai

cofa de nuevo,

much

by

it,

^here is nothing new, Muchos fon de parecer Cierto que hai muchas noque havra guerra,/l/^y vedades. Indeed there is are of opinion that there much news, will be a war, Contadnos alguna cofa, 'Otrosporfian que ha de fell us fomething, haver paz. Others affirm Dicen que el conde de N, there will be peace,
fe

earl of N. Que fc cafe,


cafar,

ha csiizdo ^They fay the is married.

Los

6 fe dexe de que nos importa ?

coflarios de j^rgel hacen mucho dano. The Algier rovers do much


mifchief,

Vinoeiher he marries or

marries not^
it

what

does

concern us ?

Pues Ids de Tunes y Tripoli no eftan ociofos, Thofe of Tunis and Tripoli
idle,

Hai avifo que el duque de are not N. fe ha muerto, ^here Conoceis


is

advice that the duke

aquella dama? Bo you know that lady f

of

N.

is

dead^
fe

Mas quiero que

mueran feisduques, quemorirme yo, I had rather fix


dukes fhould die than die

Bien la conofco, es mui hermofa, / know her


very welly fhe
beauty,
is

a great

Mui

modefla, y mui difVery modeft^ and


difcreet,

myfelf ^ Si no haceis cafo de mis

creta.

very

nuevas,que quereis que Tiene gran dote. She hai


great portion, OS diga ? If you do not regard my news^ what Su madee fiempre la acomwould you have me fay pana. Her mother is alto you ? ways with her.
(?.

Morirfe

efte,

cafarfe el

La

hija es

mui obediente.
is

otro, cofa es que cad a

The daughter
dient.

very obe-

dia fucsde, y

la

repub-

320

New Spanish Grammar,


lo

la

madre bien
it,

me- Que nos importa,


is

IVbcii^

rece,

/ind the mother

that to us,
a la plaza, Let us thefquare,

deferves

Vamos
go
to

Pues

fu hijo es bizarro ca-

ballero, ^hen her fon is Que haremos alia ? What Jhall we do there f a fine gentleman, Ha fervido con reputacion Ver y fer viftos,^^^ andhe feen, en la guerra. He has ferved in the war with Que hora es ? What a dock
reputation,
is

it

Ademas,
letras,

es

hombre de
he
is

Son\z.^(\\Ji2XrOyFour acloch

No putdQ kr^It cannot be, For mi relox afsi es, // is Mui cortes. Very court e- fo by my watch, For el fol no falta un quarous. tOj // does not want a Nada fanfarron. Nothing
Befides

man

of learning.

given to boafting,

quarter by the fun.

temprano para fade cafa, // is too ear ly to go abroad yet, his valour^ Es Coronel de un tercio, Mas vale andar de dia^ que de noche, // is betHe is colonel of a regiter to walk by day than went,

For

fu valor

ha medrado,

Aun

es

He has been preferred for

lir

Veis aquel que paffa ? Do you fee him that goes by ?

by night,

De noche

todos los gatos

Quien

es

Who is
is

he ?
the re-

fon pardos.

At
fe

night all

Es todo
otro,

lo contrario del

cats are gray,

He

jufi

Muchos robos
de noche,

cometen
rob-

verfe of the other,

Many

Es un

Comoafsi? Howfo? miferable, He


wretched fellow,

beries are committed in


is

the night,

Cobarde en eftremo,
great coward,

Siendo tantos, quien fe ha de atrever ? Being fo many^ who will dare to


attempt us ?

Sumamente ignorante, Sufinely ignorant.

La noche
night
is

es

mui

fria,

The

Dtivi^rgonz^ido, Impudent,

very

cold,

Echador de
ways

bravatas,

bullying.

Al" Hagamos buena lumbre, Let us make a good fire,

Trahed

A New
Cerrad
that door,

Spanish Grammar
Shut

321

Trahed carbon, 5m^rW/. Laftima es que fe impri..Q.\\2id\^n2i^ Lay on wood. man tales difparates. It
elfa puerta,
is pity that fuch fopperies fkould be printed.

Lcamos un

rdto,

Let us
eflos
?

La emprenta
bien,

read a while.

hace mucho mucho mal. y

Printing does much good, and much harm, Adonde hai buen gobierniiento, 'The'j are all of no no debiera hacer mal. diverfion. Where the government is No gufto de novelas, I do good it Jhoulddo no harm. not like novels. Adonde le halla elTe buen Ahi hai Comedias, There gobierno ? Where is that
libros

Que

Ton

IVhat hooks are thefe ? T6J0S fon de entrecenl-

are plays.
Si fon
leer,

good government
fe

to

be

buenas

pueden
are good

found

If they
los

En

todas partes hai fu

Ic-

they 7nay be read

gua de

mal

camino,

Son de

ney
heft

are

mejores poetas, writ by the


Hiftory

'There is fomething amifs every where.

poets.

No
parece

hai cofa perfedla en

Mejor
is

es hiftoria,

efle

mundo, Nothingis
in this

better,

perfeU

world,

Pues que os
viages?

What

de Dexemonos de cuentos, y do you no jufguemos. Let us


leave off ftories^

think of voyages ?

and not
eat

judge. Nos dan a conocer todo el mundo, fm falir de Merendemos,

Let'^s

They our afternoon^ s luncheon. make us acquainted with 'Effo es de ninos. That is
nueftra
all

patria.

the worldy

without

like

children.

going out of our native country.

Mozos

Aveces nos llenan la cabeza de m.entiras. Sometimes they fill our heads

fomos, comamos mientras podemos, We are youngs let*s eat

whilft

we

can.

Palieemonos un race, Let with lies. us walk a little. Lomifmo hacenlashifto- Ei aire es templado, The
xi^^^HiflQriesdQ the fame,
air
is

temperate.

YolySmos

322

New Span
a
la

I s

H Grammar,
fobre todo la fefiora,

Volvamos
Linda
is

ciudad.
This

Let us return
calle es

to the city,

And

the lady above

all,

efta,

a fine ftreet.
tiendas fon hermofas,
la

Mui obligada les eftoi, / am much obliged to you,


Adonde
there
is

Las

hai

merito,

'The /hops are beautiful,

hai obligacion,

no Where
is

Mirad

pompa

de aquel
is,

merits there

no

tendero, See hozvftately


that J/jop'keeper

obligation.

Alabad mi hacienda y no

Bien foberbios fon muchos,

mi perfona,
goods and not

Praife

Many

are very
fe

my my per/on.

proud.

^Eflb fuerainjufticia, That


en-

En

tenicndo dinero fVhen la nchan, have got money

would

be unjufl,

they

Comprad

lo

que fevende.
is

they

Buy what

to be fold.

grow haughty,
Aquella tendera parece una condefa, That female Jhopkeeper^ looks
like

Mas quifiera
toda
than

la

fenora que

la tienda,

1 would
7ntflref$

rather have the


all the Jhop,

countefs,
cafa-,

Mi
Ni

marido no

Compremos alguna

My
me,
el

me vende. hujhand will not fell

het us buy fomething.

Que guftan
cedes
?

vueftras merwill you

What
have F

tal alaja, ni

pleafe to

querra defhacerfe de hai precio que la com pre, Neither

Una

tabaquera

curiofa,

/will he

part with fuch a


it.

y^ curious fnuff box. de Francia, Tixeras

jewels nor will any mo*


ne^ purchafe

Aqui viene mi marida. French fcizars, Here comes my hufband. Hevillas de las mejores,
Some of the
befl buckles,

Dichofo

es

el.

He

is

happy man, Haveis moftrado a eftos no want of any thing. fenores lo que les agraVueftras mercedes vean lo da ? Have you fhown que les agrada, Gentlefalta,
is

Aqui nada

Here

Todo

men^fee whatpleafes you, nos parece bi^n,


like

thefe gentlemen

what

the'j

lih?

all

TodQ

A
Todo
^RQo
is

New Spanish Grammar.


De

323

aqui nos contenta,


eslo quedeseo, That
wijh,

All here pleafei us,

what I

Mui

venturofo fois, Tou are very fortunate. No me puedo quexar de mi fuerte, 1 cannot com-

mirar un demonio. defpues de haver vifto un Angel, 'To look upon a devil after having fern an angel.
fea

Tan
is,

como
fi.

es,

prefu-

me de

As

ugly as ftoe

fhe has a conceit of

plain of my lot. herfelf. Dios OS guarde, God keep PalTemos,


you.

que no puedo

tohviirh. Let us pa fs by ^

El mifmo vaya con vueflras

for

cannot endure her.

mercedes, God go El
lo

Rey

viene,

Dios Iq

with you.

guarde, The kingiscom-^


JVe
i^, God hlefs him, Paremonos aqui, Let

Aca voh^remos por


que
fe

ofreciere,

us

fhall return

hither for

what we want. Seran fervidos con toda


eftimacion, Tou Jh all he ferved with all refpeEl.

fiand here, Quien viene en

el

coche
?

con
is

fu

mageftad

Who

in the

coach with his

majefty ?

Haveis
fee

vifto
?

criatura

mas bella La Reyna nueftra feiiora Uid you ever over ei^ foberana, Our f
charming
lady the queen,

more

otros dos perfonages, ha enamoThe other two great per^ Parece que OS rado, Tou feem to he in fons, love with her. El caballerizo mayor,"
creature ?

Los

Mi amor
love
is

es cafto.

My

chafte.

The mafler of the horfe, el gran teforero, And

Su prefencialo merece, the high treafurer. Her prefence deferves it. En el primer coche quien

Aqui

teneis otro eftremo,


the con-

hai

Who

is

in the firfl

Here you have


trary extreme,

coach ?

Los
God
?

gentiles-

hombres,
ufhers,

Dios nos
ver
us.

libra,

deli-

The gefitlemen

Las
afuftais

libreas fon
liveries

mui ricas,
are

De

que os

What

The
rich,,

very

are you frighted atf

Las

324

New Spanish Gfammar,


viftofas.
ver-j

Las guardas fon


fine fight.

No

fenalan los tributes

The guards are a

Bo not they fet Tambien effo


That

the Taxes ?
les

toca,

Adonde va
Whither
going f

fu
is

mageftnd
his

alfo belongs to

them.
?

viajefi'j

No lo rehufan a veces Do
not they refufe
it

fome-

Alacomedia, fo
Pues
lo

the flay,

times.

fabeisjdecidmealgo de la corte, Since you

Los Efpanoles
leales,

fon

mui

The Spaniards are

know

ity

tell

me

foine-

very

loyal.

thing of the court.

No

refpondeis a mi pre-

Las

cortes todas fe pare-

gunta, Tou do not an-

cen, Jll courts refemhle


one another,

fwer my queflion. Pareceme que fi, 1 think I

Pero

do. el gobierno de Efpana como es ? But how is Como afsi ? How fo ? the government of Sp^Lin ? Porque fiendo tan leales, le dan a fu Rey lo que El Rey es abfoluto, The

king

is

ahfolute.
?

pide,

Becaufe being
ajks.

fo

Que

fon las Cortes

What

loyaly

they give the king

are the Cortes ?

what he

Los procuradoresdel Reino. The reprefentatives of the kingdom.

Y el
lo

Rey no
que
the

ha

pide mas de menefter.


aJks

And

king

no

Tienen

poder
?

fobre

el

Rey

Have

they any

fower above the king ? El Rey de Efpafia no conoce fuperior, The king of Spain owns no fuperior,

more than he wants, Dichofo Rey, y dichofa gente, an happy kingy and an happy people. Contadme las grandezas Tell me de Efpana,

what
sirven las Cortes
?

relates to the

gran-

De que

dour of Spain. What is the ufe of the Hai en Efpana doce ReiCortes ? nos, 6 provincias grandes, There are in Spain De repreientar las necefor kingdoms^ twelve fidades del Reino, T'o
reprefent

the

wants of

large provinces.

the kingdom.

Quales

A New Span iSH


Quales fon
they ?
Caftilla,
(Caftile^)
?

Grammar.
9000.

325

IVhich are

naft cries

are reckoned to
religiofas fe-

be above

Leon, Las perionas


tenta mil,
ferfons

Aragon,
lonia)

Navarra,(iY<fZ-

The

religious

varre) Catalufia {Cata-

70000.

Gal icia, Valencia, Las haziendas de los Duques que fon Grandes de Efpana fe eftiman en un millon nuevecientos y noventa mil Eftas contienen diez y feis dijcados. The eftates of mil, y fetecientas villas,

Murcia, Bifcaya, (Bifcay) Granada, Andaluzia, Eftremadura.

nefe
towns.

contcin

16700
1

the dukes that are


dees

Gran-

1990000

ducats.

'Once Arzobifpados,
arMiJho-pricks,

Las

de los Marquefes Grandes trecienros y

Quarenta y ocho Opifpados, 48 bi/ho pricks,


Qiiince Univerfidades, 15
univerfities.

cinquenta mil, Thofe of the marquejfes Grandees


at 350000. Las de los Condes Gran-

Les rentas
cad OS,

treinta millones

venue

des trecientos y cinquenta mil, Thofe of the earls^ Grandees ^soooo. The kin^s reamounts to ^o Las de los Duques, Marrealcs

montan
de du-

millions of ducats.

La

de los fufodichos arzobifpados y opifpados, dos millones deducados,57?^ revenues


renta

quefes, y Condes, que no fon Grandes, tres

millones ciento y cinquenta mil, Thofe of the


dukes^
earls

marqueffeSy

and

of

the

aforefaid arch-

who

are not Gran^


millions

hifhopricks andhifhopricks

dees

three

are two millions ofducats. Las prebendas, parochias,

150000.

Todo efto en Efpaiia, All this in Spain, y otros beneficios otro tanto. The prebends^ pa- Los dominios de las Indias fon immenfos. The rifhes^ and other benedominions
in

fices as much more, Conventos fecuentan mas de nueve mil^ The mQ-

the Indies

are immenfe.

Y3

Sa

326
Su

A
el

New Spanish Grammar,


go home
to

theforo enriquece a to-

talk of thefe

do

mundo,
enrich

Its

trea-

affairs^ for

I am much
llega la nous

fures

all

the

delighted with them,

world,

Vamos que
tratar

fe

Recojamonos para
defias colas,

che,
night

Let

go^

for

mucho

que gufto dellas. Let us

draws

on.

Coloquio Primcro en una Hofteleria. Firji difcourfe in an Inn,

^.yXlos fea en efl:a ca- A./^ jL/ ^^' OYdi^ quien Vj"
hai alia dentro
?
is

B
^oufe,

he

in

this

Ho-jy

who

there within ?

B.

En
V.

hora buena venga B.

Sir,

you are very

weU

m.
B.

come,

A, Sois vos el huefped ? B, Soi el mozo, y criado de cafa, para fervir a los huefpedes honrados como V. m. 'A, Sere yo bien hofpedado aqui efta noche ? B. Si fenor, v. m. fera
bien tratado, y no le faltara cofa que apetefca.

A. Are you

the landlord?

I am

the

man and fer^

vant of the houfe, to ferve fuch worthy guefts


as you ^ Sir.

A.

Shall

be

well enter-

tained here to night ?

mui

B. Tes^ Sir, you will be very well treated, and


Jhall

want for nothing


defire,
is

you can

A.

Como fe llama el
fped
?

hue- A.
el

What
name
?

my
is

landlord's

B. Llamafe Guillermo
Bueno.

B. His name

A. Quicra Dios que tal le halle. Qual es la enfena de lu cafa


?

William Good. A. God grant I may find


hijn fuch.

What fi^

has

he

to his houfe ?

B. Mejor

A
La
cia.

New Spanish Grammar.


7'ou will not find

3 27

B. Mejor no le hallara B. V. m. en ninguna parte.


enfeiia es la jufti-

a heU ter any where, The fign


is

Jujiice.

^. Buen huefped en

cafa,

A.

good landlord
there
is

in the

y
ta,

la jufticia a la

puerno hai mas que deffino es

houfe^

and jujiice at the


nothing

door^

fear,

que

ieais

elfetobedefir'd,butthai

vos conforme a Jo demas.

you
rejl,

be

fuitable

to

the

B. V. m. diga de mi lo B. Sir, Tou may /peak of me as you Jhall find by que la experiencia le enfefiare experience \ for it is not que no es de hombres honrados athe part of honejl men t9
-,

labarfe a

fi

proprios. ilevad

commend

themfelves,

A. Ea
T.2i^

pues,

mi A. Well then Jead my


to the ftable^ litter

horfe

caballo a lo cabal leri-

him

dadle harta paja, y no Je quiteis luego la


SI 11a,

well^

and take

not off his

faddle prefently, becaufe

he is hot, que viene iudado. B. Manda v. m. que le B. Do you pleafe I Jhall lleve al rio a beber, o lead him to the river to drink, or that I give que le de agua en la caballeriza ? him water in the Jiable, A. Dexadle primero re- A. Let him cool firft, and then give him his water, frefcar, y defpues dadle el agua, no le de torohave the lefi: he Jhould zon el beber eftando gripes by drinking when
tan caliente.

he

is

hot,
it

B, V. m. es fervido que B. Does


quite las boras, y le trahiga linos pantuflos?
le

pleafe you. Sir,

that
boots,

I draw

off your

and bring you a


flippers,

pair of

A, Bien dices, trahedlos ; A. Tou are in the right 5 bring them, for I have porquc he perdido mis zapatos en el camino.. loft my Jhoes by the way, Bring me alfo a brujhto Trahedme tambien uclean my cloaths, and na efcobilla para limwater to cool my hands, piar el veftido, y agua

para

2 28

New

Spanish

Grammar,

and mouthy and get rid nos y la boca, y quitar of all this duft^ todo efte polvo. B, Aqui tiene v. m. todo B. Here n all ^ou afk for^ 5/>, reft your felf^ and lo que pide j defcanle, confider whether you y mire fi quiere cenar will fup alone^ or with lolo, o con 16s otros
pararefrefcarmelasmahuefpedes.
the other guefts,

^, Mas vale cenar adon- A. // is better to fup with converfacion company^ than aione^ de hai and when Ihavefupped, que folo, y en cenando I will go to bed for I meacoftare, quevengo
^

canfado, y quicro defcanfar.

am weary and will


^

reft

me.

B,

bien hara v. m. B. Ton will do very welly Sfr, hut with the help of pero con ayuda de un aliitlewine^ajnanfteeps traguito de vino, fe

Mui

better. duerme mejor. mdlo el confe- A. Tour advice is not amifs.^ A. No es it fits me \ let us go then., jo, yo me acomodo

con
B,

el

Vamos

pues,

fi

if

it

is

time,

es hora.
efta aparejado, B. Jll is ready ^ and they only wait for you^ Sir. foloefperan a v. m. y Pues yo voi, que no A. / go then., for it is not A, reafonable to incommode es razon hacer defco-

Todo

mod id ad

a los
la

demas

y para decir

verdad,

the reft ; and to fay the truth, I find 7ny f elf well
difpofed to eat, for hun^

me hallo
para
car.

bien dilpueRo

comer ; que la hambre empieza a pi-

ger begins
ilemen,

to pinch.

Gen-

I am very glad
pleafed
to

Mucho me

alegro,

iofindfuch good compatiy,

Senores, de hallar tan

be

fit

buenacompania,
fe sirvan

v^m^
m.
fu

down^

de fentarfe.
v.

C.

En tomando
afliento, nos

C,

Sir,
ed,

when you are featwill all place our

iremos to-

we

dos acomodando.

felves,

A.

Mucho

A
J.

New Spanish

Gram?nar.

329
ver'j

Mucho me

honran v^ A. Ton honour me muchy


Gentlemen^
well here
;

m'. yo aqui eftoi mui bien ; no gaftemos el tiempo en cumplimientos, que la cena fria

I am
let

us

not

wajie
merits^

time

in

compli-

for

the fupper

cold^ is not good. no cs buena. D. Pues efte Caballero lo D. Since this gentleman commands ity let us obey, manda, obedelcamos. Here is no need of carAqui no fon menefter mejor es trinchantes, vers^ it is better for every one to lay hold of what que cada uno eche mahe likes^ and let us eat no a lo que le agradare, noWy for we Jhall have y comamos ahora ; que time to talk as much as defpues havra tiempo

para difcurrir lo necefiario.


yf.

is

requi/ite afterwards.

'Efto es lo que a mi A. That fuits me very well^ conviene, por habecaufe I have made a ver hecho Jornada larlong journey^ and eaten ga, y CO mi do poco. little,

me

E. Mozo, dame de beber, E. Waiter ^ give me drink to Jharpen my appetite. para aguzar el apetito. B. V. m. me diga lo que B. Sir^ you will kll me E.

what you pleafe to drink, de beber. un buen trago E. Give me a good glafs of de vino de Francia, que French wine^ which is es el mejor a mi giifto. the befl in my opinion, A. A mi, un buen vafo A. Give me a good cup of de cerveza, que tengo beer^ for I am thirflf^ fed, y es buena para and that is good to quench
giifta

Dame

matarla.

it.

D.

buena cidra, D. If you have good cyder^ por principio de cena I like it better than any me agrdda mas que 6other liquor to begin with
Si teneis
tra bebida.

at fupper.
el

C, Pues para mi,


del

vino C. For me^ Rhenijh wine


is

Rhin
fi

es

el

mayor

mofl delicious^ if

it

be

regalo,

es verdadero,

right.

E. Diccn^

33^

A
hai

New Spanish Grammar.


el

E. Dicen, que

Canarias cs para mugerts y per 6 a mi gulto,

vino de E. They fay Canary is for women^ hut for my palaie none
it,

is to

compare

to

no
le

ninguno que

fe

iguale.

\A.

El vino en general es A. JVine in general is letmejor que quantas cofas ter than all other things^ ban inv^ntado Ids horn7nen have invented to bres para paladearfe, o pleafe their palates^ or
antes para deftruirfe.

rather to dejtroy themfelves,

C.

Los que exceden dela C. ^ofe who exceed ternperance^ wajie it to detemplanza, para deftruirfe lo galtan
*,

pe-

Jlroy

tbemfelves

hut

with moderaiiun, all liTO con moderacion toquors 7nay he ufed, dos los liquores le pueden tomar. D. Si la gente fe gober- D. If people would govern themfches as they ought nara como debe, todas God created all things for las cofas crio Dios para the fervice of humane fervicio del genero hu-

mano, y vemos
ceflb

el

ex-

race^ yet

we
is

fee the ex-

que hai en todas.


las

cef there

in all,

E. Han dado en
farfe

abraf- E. ^hey

are fallen into a

entranas con

way

aguaardiente de mil generos, y las mugeres en hartarfe de tea hafta

of hurning out their howels with a thoufand of flrong waters^

forts

que no
F.
'

les

cabe.

of filling themfelves with tea^ till

and the women

they cannot hold

it.

En

efta cafa

no falta F. There is nothing wanting


in this houfe^ that can he

nada, que fe pueda apetecer para comer, o beber regaladamente. A. Bien fe echa de ver por lo que aqui tene-

defired to eat
daintily,

and drink

A. That is we have
and
that
it

vifihle in

what

here he/ore us^

mos prefente, y fera bien no cometamos las

will he convenient

we

do not commit

culpas

New Spanish Grammar.

331

the faults we hlame in others. en otros. C. Que hora es, para que C. fVhat a clock is /V, that we Jhould gotohedfo hanos acoftcmos tan prefto, teniendo ocafion Jlily, when we can divert our/elves ? divertirnos. ? de B. // has ft ruck twelve. B, Han dado las doce. C, El tiempo no fe fiente C. ^ime flips azvay in good Company, en buena converfacion.

culpas que condenamos

D. Bueno

fera retirarnos,

D.

// will be well for us to

que tambien la gente de cafa ha de defcanfar.


E.

withdraw^ for the peopie of the houfe muft reji


too.

buenas noches les E. God give you a very good nighty Gentlemen. de Dios a vueftras mer-

Mui

cedes.
yf,

Venid vos conmigo, A. Do you come along with

mozo
B.
a fu

mey waiter ?
eftoi para fervir B.

Aqui

/ am
vice^

here at your ferSir.

me reed. A. Ayudadme
dar.

defnu- A. Help

to undrefs

me.

Aqui efta la fervilleta B. Here is the napkin for a cap, para el bonete. A, Efta bien enjuta, y las A. Is it very dry^ and are the fheets fo ? ^ake favanas lo eftan ? mirad heed you do not kill me no me mateis con ropa with damp linnen. humeda.
B. B.

Mi ama es mui
dofa en
es
cia,

cuida- B. Mymiftrefsisverycare-

efle particular,

fulinthatparticular^fhe

muger de concien-

y no quiere que padefcan los huefpedes,

a confcientious woman^ will not have her er through her guefts fluff
is

and

por fu defcuido. A. Pocas hai tan culdadofas de fus huefpedes, o de fus almas ; las mas -como cobren el dinero,
2

negle5i.

A. Few
ofl

take fluch care


gueftsy

their

or

of

their

own floulsy

them^ fo

moft of they get the

60

332
no
J5.

A
fe

New Spanish Grammar,


ptone'j^
elfe,

acuerdan de otra

think of nothing
pleafe 'jou^ Sir^

cofa,

V.

M.

gufta que
?

le

B, Does

it

sirva en otra cofa

I Jhould ferve you any


farther ?

A, Por ahora no me fal- A. At prefent I only want ta mas que dormir, y to fleep^ and I find it
el

fueno

fe

va acercan-

coming upon me,

do.

B. Dios

fe le

de a v. m. B. God grant
good
rejl^

you

very

defcanfado.

Sir,

Coloqulos Efpanoles e Inglefes.


Spantjh a7td Englijh Colloquies.
Coloqulo fegundo,

Collo

q^u

II.

JEntre do5 Caminantes^ lia- Between two Travellers, mddos Don Juan, y Don called Mr John^ and Ricardo; interviniendo a Mr Richard \ their two tykes fus dos Criddos^ y Servants, and an Holt, nn Huefped, fomecimes putting in a word.

D. J.QAlido hemos

al

j^
a

tin

de

Sevllla,

^^IWJ^
out

^^^
^^^gih

^^
got

VV o/Sevil.
R.

D. R, Harto me pefa mi de la falida, pero es


la necefli-

Mr
it is

This

parting
hut

troubles 7ne fufficiently^

fuerza hacer de

requiftteto make virtue dad virtud ; que quien of necejjity ; for when a mas no puede^ morir fe man can do no more^ he

dexa.

mujl fuhmit

to dye.

D. J, Que haveis dexado atras que tanto os aflige fu aufencia ?

Mr
left

J.

PJ^hat

have you
ahfence ?

behind^ that you are fo


its

tnuch grieved at

V.R.

A
D.
2^.
*,

New Spanish Grammar. No he dexado Mr R. / have


lefs

333
left

no

menos, que el corazon, y que ha dias, que el alma eftan en poder de cicrta da ma. J, Dexadla, pues ella fe queda quieta enfu cafa, y rogara a Dios por nofotros, que nos vamos canfando por efte cam 1 no. R, Podreyodeciroslo que dixo un amigo, a quien fe le avia muerto un nino, que coni^oV^ndoh

than

m^

hearty

and foul

which have been for fome


time pajl at the difpofal of

a certain
J. ftnce /be
houfe^

lady.

Do
is

not

mind her,
ta

at eafe in her
will pray

and
us^

God for
ourfelves

who

are tiring

upon our journey, to you ^ as a friend did^ whofe young child was newly dead^ when

R. I may fay

fo?ne comforted him, faying,

algiKios condecir, tendria he would have one to pray

quien rogafie por el en el for him in heaven, and he cielo, reipondio ; no fe fi anfwered-, 1 know not whe^
ther be is capable of it, tendra tanta habilidad. podreis decir J, Tou had better fay as J. Mejor dixo el otro llevan- another did, who when bis lo que

do a fu muger a enterrar ; wife was buried, being ajkque preguntandole como ed^hy he did not go with no iba con ella en el en- the burial, anfwered, let tierro, refpondio, Vaya- her go fo for this time, I fe eft a vez afli, que a otra know what I have to do in yo fe lo que tengo de ha- the next,
cer.

R. Let us leave jefting, R. Dexemos gracias, que no puedo tan prefto for I cannot fo foon forget a
olvidar a quien tuve tanta perfon

I fo

entirely loved.

voluntad.
fe, fi me aven7. ture a decir, que en efta

No

dama

tuvifteis

J. 1 know not whether / may venture to fay, that mal gufto. you had no goodfancy in the
lad).

R. Porque 7. Porque
t3a,

es

mui gor-

R. IVhy ? J. Buaufs fie


fat.

is

very

R. Contra

234

-^ ^^'^

Spanish

Grammar,

R. There is no arguing no Quanto y againft taftes. Befides, a fat mas, que la muger gorda woman is cool in fummer^ es frelca en el verano, y and keeps a man warm in
R. Contra gufto,
hai difputa.

en el invierno tiene con que abrigarfe un hombre, y no huelTos que le hagan mal. 7. No nos metamos en femejante difputa ; dexemos a cada loco con fu tema, y volvamos a hablar de Sevilla, que defde

winter^ and

is

not all hones

to hruife h'lm,

J.

Let us not enter upon

fuch a controverfy ; let us leave every mad-man to his

own humour ^ and

let

us a-

gain talk ^/Sevil, for from

efta cuefta fe divifa algii- this hill, there is a view na parte de fu grandeza, of fome part of its granque no es tan poca que no dour^ which is not fo inconfe pueda decir mucho en ftderaUe^ hut that much

fu alabanza.

may hefaid
es
la

in praife of

it,

R, La torre
fe

que

R.

//

is

the fteeple that

parece.

appears,

7. Notable es fu altura,

y mas que pueden

^-

J. The height of it isvery remarkable^ and it is fo

bir hafta lo alto della dos

perfonas juntas a caballo.

much more that two perfons together may ride up a


horfe-hack to the top of it, R. And what can the

R,
fe

Y
fi

la

Giralda, * que

le fajta

con cada viento * Giralda


J.
it,

want,

if

fhe

muck.
J, 'Efto yo lo jurara.

turns with every wind.

I would freely fwear

tiene

R. Dire is, que porque R. Tou mean, hecaufe nombre de hembra. fhe hears a womar^s name.

* Note, That this Giralda is the name cf a "jaji Figure of a Woman, that jiands ofi the top of the aforefaid great Steeple of Sevil, and fer'vesfor a Weather-cock^ turning 'with the Windy and is called G'lralda for Gil-adla ; and this from Girar, to turn about ^^.vith the Wind.

7,

A
7.

New Spanish Grammar.


no baRa
?

335

effo

Pe-

J.

Jnd

is

ro

volvamos a

nueftro

ficient ?

But

let

not that fufus return to

tema.

our fubje^,

R. 'Efta torre con las R, This tower ^ with dos herriianas a los lados, the two fifters on the fides fon armas de fu fanta i- of ity are the arms of its
glefia.

holy church,
las

J,

Quien fon

dos

J.
fters ?

IVho are the two ft*


Julia,

hermanas ? R. Santa Ju/la, y SanRufina^ Patronas defta gran ciudad. J, Siento en el alma el no haber vifto en ella el monumento que hacen el jueves fanto. R, Es cofa peregrina cflb, y las limofnas que fc dan efla femana.
ta

R.
great
J.
in
it

5"/

a^dSt Ruof
this

fina, the patronejfes


city,

// grieves

heart that

me to the I have iwt feen


make

the fepulcre they

on

Maundy Uurfday,
R. That
is

very extra^

ordinary^ as are the alms

which are given that week,


J. The church is certainly very fumptuous.

J. Por

cierto,

que

la

Iglefia es fumtuofa.

R. Haveis notado las R. Have you obferved muchas Capillas que tie- how many Chapels^ Doors^ ne, puertas, y Altares ? and Altars it has ? J. A^^. J. No. R. Then^ there are aR, Pues paflfan de feella

tenta los Altares que hai hove feventy Altars in it*, tiene tambien it has alfo nine doors^ and ;

nueve puertas, y ochenta eighty windows. The granvidrieras. La grandeza de dour oftheftepsis extraordiaquellas gradas es cofa peregrina; y fin efto, el Arzobifpo, Dignidades, Canonigos, Racioneros, Veinteneros, CapelJanes, Muficos, SacriftaneSjMozos de choro, Pertigueros,

nary ^without mentioningthe


Archbifhop^Dignitaries^Ca*
nons,

Demy-Canons^
Chorals^

Vi^

cars

Chaplains^

ing-boy 5, Vergers,

Muficiam^ Sacrifans^ Singand mabut

nymore\
bove

what h a^
revenue only

otros

muchcs

all the

fobre

336

New Spanish Grammar,

fobre todo, palTa la renta for repairs^ is above fifty de fola fu fabrica de cin- thoufand Ducats, quenta mil Ducados. 7. La cuftodia, diccn, J. The tabernacle, they que es cofa SLdmirkhh fay ^ is a wonderful thing to
vella.

befeen,

R. Es tan grande que la lie van en un carro. J. Pucs que tendra de pefo ? i?. Mas de mil y trecientos marcos de plata, que hacen veinte y feis arrobas; de altiira tres
varas y

R. It is fo big that carried in a cart.


J. PVhat then,

it is

may

it

weigh

R. Above a
three

thoufand

hundred marks of plate, which amount to fix hundred weight and a halfy

media

y efto, the height three yards and

cruz que lleva por a half without including remate, que es de una the crofs on the top, which quanta ; y el ancho de co- is a quarter of a yard long ; luna tiene cerca de dos and the breadth of it bevaras. tween the columns, is near two yards. y. Sofpecho que es uJ. I fancy Sevil is one of na de las ciudades mas the antienteji cities in Spain. antiguas Sevilla, de quantas hai en Efpana. R. Mil fetecientos y R. The ancient foundaveinte y fiete anos, antes tion of it was laid a thou^ que Chrifto feencarnafle, fand feven hundred and tuvo principio fu antigua twenty -fev en years before Pero dexan- the incarnation of Chrijl, fundacion. do efto, es fin niimero la Befides, the wealth it conriqucza que en fi cncier- tains is iinmenfe, as is the ra, y la remota gente que number of remote nations en ella fe halla. that refort to it,
la

fm

7.

Muchas

cofas

hai

are J. "There

many

things

que aflombran

en efta to be admired in this city, as ciudad, como la Alcai- the exchange of fhops, the zeria, el Real Alcazar, royal palace, the cuftomla Aduana, cafa (4e la Mo- houfe^ the mint, the merneda^

New Spanish Grammar,


los

337

mercadcres, la Carcel, la Alhondiga, fa juridici(5n con horca y cuchillo, ^c. R. Sin clto, proved Sd'villa de azeite a todo el Reino, y las Undias. J. Yo he oido decfr, que miichos dias fe regiliran en la aduana mas de diez mil arrobas.
^. Hablar de fus baftimentos de pan, vino, carne,

neJa, Lonja de

chants exchange^ the goaly


the granaries^ jis jnrifdiction

with power of
Befides^

life

and

death ^ &c.

R.
nifjjes

StvW far-

the whole kingdom^and

the

J.

Weft- Indies with oil. 1 have heard it faid^


ar?'ohas

that fever al days ^ above ten


thottfand

{that

is

125 tun) are entered in the


cifto?n houfe.

R.
talk

//

would beendlefto
provifions^

of

ils

of

do,

fruras, caza, y pelca- bread, wine, flcjh, fruits^ feria nunca acabar. fowl^ and ffJo,

J. The two jillars in it, una pucfta la wiih the figure of Hercufigura de Hercules, primer Ics^ the firft founder of this fundador defta gran ciu- great city on one of them-, dad y en la ocra Julio and on the other, that of Cefar, que la iluftro.con Julius Cjcfar, who adornJos muros, y cercas que la ed it with the walls, and

y. Las dos col Unas que

tiene, en Ja

R. If zve rightly confix que mayor grandeza que der it \ what more graneftos Caiios de Carmona, dour than this A^ueduU of que fabricaron los Moros. Carmona, which was built by the Moors. Since you have namJ. Pues haveis nomJ. brado a Carmona, decid ed Carmona, give fome algo della, porque yo no account of it, for I have la he vffto mas que de feen no more than in paffmg pafTo, y fe que dilta feis through, and know it is fi-^ leguas de Sevilla, leagues from Sevil.
-,

rodcan, y quince puertas en eilos que la engrandezen ; Ton, porcierto, memorables. R. Si miramos en ello

works that encompafs 1.% and fifteen gates in it that


contribute to
its

grandour,

are very remarkable.

R. La

338
R,

New Spanish Grammar. La ciudad de CarR. ne city of Carmo-

is feattd on an eminence^ eminente, con fuertes mil- and has ftrong walls, with towers on them, a ros, 118 torres, y vifto- 118 fo alcazar; regando fus heautifulpalace^anditsfpadilatadas vegas Cd?>i?o;;d'jy cious medows are watered Guaddna. Produce fu ter- hy the rivers Carbones and Its territory mino mucho pan, vino, Guadana.

inona eftd puefta en sitio na

azeice, aves, frutas, horca- produces


lizas,

much

corn, wine,

ganados, y todo lo oil, fowl, fruit, herbs, catque es neccfsario para la tie, and all that is necejjary Tiene la for human life. The city vida humana. ciudad tres mil vezinos, contains three thoufand fadivididos en fiete Parro- viilies, divided intofevenpa^ chias, con cinco conven- rijhcs, with five monajieries los de Frailes, otros tan- of men, and as many of tos de Monjas, y buenos nuns, and good Hofpitals.
Hofpitales.

haveis oido haJ. Have not you heard una famofa hechi- talk of a famous witch faid zera que dicen huvo un to have lived fometime in tiempo en Sevzlla, y def- Sevil, and to have removed pues fe paflo a Car?ndna ? thence to Carmona ? R. / have not only heard R. No folo he oido hatalk of her, hut I knew her, blar della, pero la conoci, y vi todos fus inftrumen- and faw all her tools, which tos, que no eran fino Unas were mere trumpery, and baratijas, por lo qual no therefore I believe nothing of

J,

No

blar de

creo en hechizos.

witchcraft.
J. For my part I verily believe there is but whe-,

J. Yo que los hai ; haya, o no los haya, decidme lo que fabeis de aquella vieja embuftera. R. 'Ella feaprovechaba de mil cofas, como fon habas, verbena, piedra del aguila, pie de texon, foga de ahorcado, granos z
a la

verdad creo pero que los

ther there

is,

or

is

not, tell

me what you know of that cheating eld woman. R. She made ufe of a
thoufand things,
ger^s foot,

as heans^

verbein, eaglets fione, a bad-

a halter one had

been hanged in^ the feed of

de

New Spanish Grammar.


the fern^

339

de helecho, efpina de crizo, flor de yedra, hueiTos de corazon de ciervo, 6jos de loba, unguencos de gato negro, pedazos de

the prickle of an hedge-hog^ the flower of ivy ^


the bones of a ftag^s

hearty

the eyes of a Jhe-wolf^ ointmerit of a black cat^ pieces

agujas clavadas en cora- of fieedies fluck in hearts of zones de cabritos, fangre kids^ blood and beard of a y barbas de cabron berme- reddijh he-goat^ brains of
jo,
leilos de alho, y una an afs^ and a little vial of redomilJa de azeite fer- oil of ferpeyits^ beftdes other pentino, fin ocras inven- inventions which 1 cannot clones de que no me acu- call to mind,

erdo.

en que pararon J. J. And 'what came cf all fe [pells ? todos eftos hechizos ? the R, En que la encoroR. That Jbe was carted, zaron, y a ella, y a otros andjhe, and ten more^ had diez, Ics dieron trecientos three hundred lafJoes a-pece^ azotes, tras lo qual me after which, fjje fent me

embio

a avifar

que
fi

fe

iba

word fhe was

going to

An-

a Antequera^ que

que- tequera,

if I pleafed I ?night

ria la fucfle a ver, y fino go fee

que

me

llevaria

her, or if not fhe en bo- would carry me through the


air.

landas.

go fee her, or J. Fuela a ver, o fapo J. Bid you did you hear what end jhe que fin tuvo ?

had.

R. No la VI, que no me importabael bufcarla, ni pudo ella con todo fu hacerme bolar ; faber, pero fupe que fue a Antequera, donde la cogieron haciendo hilar un cedazo, y echando unas ha-

did not concern

R. I faw her not, for it me to look

for her, nor could fJoe with all her a-rt make me fly i
hut

I heard ffoe went

to

An-

where fJje was taken making a fievefpin, and cafting beans, and they has, y le dieron otros do- gave her two hundred lofocs cientos azotes, partio de inore-, fhe fet out from thence alli a Malaga, 2id6ndQdi6 /^Malaga, where fhe endtequera,

fin a fu

miferable vida.

td her wretched

hfe.

Criddo

240
fe

New

Spanish
no
Serv.

Gramtnar.
i.

Criddo I. olviden v^ m^ con la converdicion, que fe va llegando la noche, y fi nos queddmos a la fcna de la eftrella, la cama fera dura,

Senores,

kt make you forget that the night draws on^ andif wejhould take up
Gerjtlejnen,

not your difcotirfe

la

cena

ligera.

oftheftar {that under the canopy of heaven) our bed will be hard, and our fupper light,
is

at the fign

]. It is likely you are y. La hambre debe de haver llegado, que la no- hungry^ for night is not fa che no efta tan cercana, near at hand, but the adpero el avifo no es para we is not amifs,

defpreciar.

ftfiores

Serv. 2. In truth , my Criddo 2. En verdad, mios, que mi ca- maflers,?ny comrade is in the marada tiene razon, que right, for it is beft to get in\o mejor es llegar con dia to the inn by daylight, tofup a la posada, cenar defpa- at leifure, and go to bed be-

cio, y acollarnos tcmpra- ti?7ies, for thefe horfes will no, pueseftos caballosnos tire us fuificiently, and gst traheran harco molidos, us good flomachs, or digefl y los eftomagos bien ga- what we have eaten.

flados.

ella,

R. Pues teneis parte en no fabriais aprove-

R.
it,

Since you partake in

charosde la converlacion, y no poner todo vueftro cuidado en comer y dormir, que Ton las cofas en comiin entre los brutos y los hombres, ficndo la razon la que nos differencia
dcllos.

improve upon the difcourfe, and not fet all your thoughts upon eating and fleeping, which are things in coinmon he tween and 7?ien, beafts whereas it is reafon that diftinguiJJjes us

could not you

from them,
Sir,

Scnor mas vale una lonja de tozino para quien tiene hambre, y una cama mullida para quien viene canfado, que toda la razon del mundo 5
Criddo
I.

Serv.
of bacon
that
is

a rajber a man hungry, and a foft


i.
is

better for

bed for hi?n that

is

tired,

than

all the
j

reafon in the
itfelf

world

and reafon

la

A J.SCW
y

Spanish

<^i u<u,n,.,

j^

mifma razon nos en-

teaches us to feek for that

fena

que bulquemos Jo which necejftty requires^ and que requiere la ncceflidad, to maintain our bodies,
el lultentar

nueftros cuJ. JVell^ let us put on tho" it he 07ilj to pleafe our

erpos.

7. Ea,caminemospues, aunque no fea por mas que complacer a eftos mozos que parece que van con hambre y lo peor, que temo havemos errado el camino, y aqui no hai a
-,

men^'-ui^hofeem to he hungry

-^

and what

is

Jlill

worfe^

am afraid ive have lofi our way^ and here is no body to


enquire
of,

quien preguntar. R. As for the way^ I R. En quanto al camino,creo que vamos bien fe- helieve we are fafe enough ; giiros pero con todo, howeverfttwill nothe amifs bueno fera preguntar, pu- to afk^for^ if I mijlake not^ es, fi no me engano, alii I fee afhepherd yonder,
,

veo un

paftor.

J. Let us go thither to J, Lleguemonos alia a ajk. preguntar. R. 'Tell us friend, is this R. Amigo, decidnos, a Car- the way to Carmona ? es efte el camino

7nona ?

Shep. Tou are right,, van v-. m'. camino es derecho, no Gentlemen^ the way is firaight^ you cannot m'lfs it, le pueden errar. Qu'into camino ncs J. How far have we yet J, queda aun hafla la ciu- to the city ? dad ? Shep. 7wo leagues and Paftor, Dos Icguas y
Paftor, Bien
el

media, todo llano, fin fu- an half without any afcent bidanibaxada, tierrarafa, or defcenty plain ground, and fair, y limpia. R. God he with you^ R. Dios quede con vos,

ami go.
Paftor,

friend,

vaya con v^

Shep.

And go

alongwitb

ms.

you^ Gentlemen,

7. Bien

342

Nemo

Spanish

Grammar,

IFe vtay very well J. J. Bien podemos caminar de efpacio, pues te- ride leifurely, fence we have nemos baftante dia, y con- day enough^ and it is good to

viene aliviar los caballos, eafe the horfes^

who

are

to

que han de caminar mana- travel


na.

to

morrow,

Serv. i. In truths Sir^ your charity is very great dad para con los caballos, towards the horfes, withfin acordarfe de que tarn- out confidering that we are

Criddo i.Porcierto, ftn-

or,

que

es

mucha

la cari-

bien nofocros no nos he- not mos de qucdar en la cama.


Criddo 2.

like to lie a-bed,

fi

nos co-

Stxv.2.

Andifwe JJoould

gen los falceadores, que al fall into the hands of the anochecer fakn de fus ef- bigh-waymen^ who in the condrijos, quedarcmos pe- evening come out of their or librddos, y podra fer lurking holes we fJoall he in a worfe plight^ and perque fin cama, ni camfla. haps have fieither bed nor
^

Jhirt.

R, Pues quien te dixo R. ^Fhy, who told you^ a ti, que aqui havia fal- that here zvere any highteadores ? eftos quando los waymen ? when there are
hai es alia en Sierra

Mo* any
fe

it

is

yonder on the moun-

rena

que en

tierra defcu-

tain Sierra

Morena

for

bierta

como

efta

no

a-

treven a moftrar

la cara.

they dare not fhozv their faces in fuch an open country


as this
is.

J. Quanto y

ma-s

que

J. Befides that,

we

being

y four of us, and all carrying todos con buenas armas de /rc'-^?';;2j, it mufl he no fuego, no han de fer pocos fmall number that can rob los que nos han de poder us ; for hefedes that of our robar porque ademas dt\ money y it would be a great
fiendo nofotros quatro,
,

mucha per- lofs of reputation to fuffer dida de reputacion dexar- ourfelves to be firippedwhen nos defvalijar, vmicndo we are fo well p>rovided. tan prevenidos.
dinero, fuera

Criado

A
Criddo
lo

New Spanish Grammar.


i.

Yoledoimi

Serv.

i.

I give

'jou

343 my

palabra a v. m. que antes word. Sir, they Jballfooner me maten que me quiten kill vie than take what I

que Uevo, que no me inclmo a palTar Ja noche en un cam no muriendo de hambre; pero, con todo, mas vale guardar lo que tenemos en paz, que no aventurar las vidas en
1

have from ine, for I have normndto lie allmghl^Jlarving with hunger^ upon the high^way, and yet it is better to fave what we have in peace, than to hazard
our
lives

in

defence of

it^

defenfa dello,

fm

necefii-

without any need.

dad.

R. Bien has dicho, y

R.
believe

I'ou fay well,

and I

yo creo que Dios nos ha

God

has delivered us

librado de femej antes a- from any fuch adventures^ Venturas, pues hemos lie- for we are now at the ci-

gado

a las puertas

de

la

ty gates,

ciudad.
J. Apeemonos en efte J. Let us alight at thk albergue, que es uno de inn, which is one of the los mejores. befl,

R, Dios
fa.

fea en efta ca-

R. God

be in this houfe,

Huefped. Vs.
ores.

m^

fean

Ho^.
my

T^ou are very

weU

mui bien venidos mis


J.

fen- come,

maflers,

TendremosaquitoJ. Shall we be furnifhed necelfario, Huef- with all that is necejjary^ ped ? mire, que fomos landlord? take notice, that perfonas que nos tratamos we are men who make much

do

lo

bien.

of our felves.

Huefped.
fieren vs.

Quanto

quia
af-

ms

hallaran,

ry

Hoil. Tou will find eve^ thing you would have


Gentlemen,
beds,

pedir de boca,

camas

here.

feadas y sabanas limpias.

have neat
fheets.

ajk and and clean

Criado

i.

SI,

pero pa-

Serv.

Ay

but the fup^

ra cenar, que la cama fm per, for abed withoutfupper^ cena no hace buen fueno. willnot make one fleep found, R. Mirad Z 4

344

^^'^

Spanish
mu-

R. Mirad vos por los


cabal los, que tengan

Grammar, R. Bo yo look

to

the

have plencha y buena paja, buen /}', and good Jiraw, good heno, y bucna cevada, o hay^ and good barley^ or avena, y dexad el cuida- oats^ and take no care of do de la cena, que en the /upper ^ for that is in good hands. buenas manos queda. Ahora, huefped, J. J. Now ^ landlord ^zvh at

horfes^ that they

que

hai

que comer
perdices,

is

there to eat ?

Huefped. {2i\\\^hrQ^ CO'


nejos,
pollas, polios,

Holl.

'There

is

hare^

rabbits^ partridges^ chickens^

anades,

vaca,

capones, ganfos, pullets^ capon: ^geefe., ducks pavos, carnero, turkeys.^ mutton., beef^ pork^ puerco, cabrico ; kid\ do you choofe., Gentleimn.

efcojan mis Senores.

K. Con un par de peruna buena polia, dices, havra paranofotros ; pero

R.
t ridges.,

couple

cf par^
pullet^
;

&

and a good

will be enough for us

but

para los mozos fera me- cur men muft have feme* thing more fubftantial, nefler cofa de mas peib. Hofl". Leave it to me^ Huefped. Dexenlo v^ ms. a mi cuenta que yo Gentlemen., and I will enprocurare agradar aamos, deavour to pUafe both ma^

criados.

fters andfervants.
afsi,

haya baJ. Let it be fo., provide enough for all \ and now let flante para todcs ; y dadnos ahora a probar de us tafie ycur wine., whilfi
J. Sea

vueftro vino, mientras


guifa la cena.

fe

the

fupper

is

drejfwg,

Ho^. Js for wine^ there Huefped. En quanto al vino, no le hai mejor en is no better in Spain ; for toda Efpana que aunque tho* I am no drunkard., nor no foi bcrracho, ni bebe- yet a drinker., what I drink dor, lo cue yo gado qui- 7?iuft be very good, and ero que sea bueno, y tal fuch I give to my worthy ]e doi a mis huefpedes guejh, honrados.
-,

R,

No

quifiera deci'r

R. I would
lijhlyy

not talk foo^

difparates, peio los bue-

but

great

drinkers

nos

A
lleva los

New Spanish Grammar.


hombres

345

nos bebedores tienen por have a faying, that good refran, que el buen vino wine carries men to heaven.
al cielo.

J,
effo

No

entiendo

como

J.

do not underftand

how that can be, pueda fer. R. 'They fay good wine R, Diceii ellos, que el buen vino cria buena san- breeds good blood, good blood gre, la buena sangre en- begets good conditions, good gendra buena condicion, conditions bring forth good la buena condicion pare works, good works carr'j buenas obras, las buenas men to heaven, obras llevan los hombres
a) cielo.

J. Dexemos eftos diJ. Let us lay afide thefe chos profanos, y vamonos frofane fayings, and go to
a la iglefia mas cercana, a dar gracias a Dios que nos ha trahido aqui con bien, y rogar nos guarde en adelante.
the next church, to

return

thanks to

God for having

brought us hither in fafety, and pray he will prote^


us for the future,

Platicas entre cena.

Difcourfe at fupper.

R,

No

hai

mayor

re-

R. There

is

no greater

galo que una perdiz.

dainty than a -partridge,

mayor,
poJIa.

], There is 710 greater for J, Para mi no le hai que una buena me, than a good pullet,

R. Contra gufto no hai


difputa.

R. There

is

no difputing

Por

efto fe gafta againft tafies.

That

is

the
off",

todo.

reafon that all things go

Experience fhows^ J. La experiencia nos J. mueftra, que lo mas ef- that whatfoever is mofi cafo es fiempre lo mas e- fcarce, is ever 7nofl valued ; ftimado que lo que an- for that which is over plen,

da fobrado, en poco
tenido.

es tiful,

is

made
is

little

account

of

R. 'Eflaesverdadmui

R. That

a truth well
argue ugainfi
ella

conocida, y arguir contra known ^ and

to

346

New Spanish Grammar.

el la fuera negarfe a Jo que /V, would be oppofing that eflamos viendo con los o- which we daily fee with our jos ; pcro hai perfonas tan eyes but there are fome
-,

amigas de porfiar, que men fo fond of contending^ aun io que efta patente a that they will not believe Jos ojos no quieren conce- what is evident to their eyes.
der.

y. Por efTo hai tantas mundo, por el mal natural de tales perfonas, que noquieren dexarfe lie var de la razon, fino de fu vanidad, la qual los hace necios por no padil'putas en el

J.

That

is

the reafon^

there are fo many putes in the worlds through

why
the

df

ill

difpofition of fuchper-

fons^

who will not fuffer themfelves to be led by reabut by


their

fon^

vanity^

recerlo.

which makes them fools for


fear of being thought fo,

R, ElTa vanidad es la R. That vanity has the que mas parte tieneen to- greateft fhare in mofi things do lo que hacemos, y de- we do^ and fay \ for there Gimos ; porque pocas 6- arefewwords or anions free bras, o palabras hai que from fome touch of that no tengan fu punta defte vice,
vicio.

Huefped.
licencia de

Con
v^

fu

buena

Hoft.
leave^

With your good

I come cena a to know whether you like gufto ; fi faltaalgunaco- your fupper \ or whether fa en que les podamos fer- any thing be wanting that
Gentlemen^

m^ vengo

a faber

fi

efta la

Vir en efta cafa, y tenta el vii^o.

fi

con-

this houfe affords^

andwheyour
It-

ther the wine


king.

is

to

], If we fhould complain^ y. Si nos quexaramos, culpa fuera nueftra ; it would be our own fault que en verdad las avesno for in truth the fowls cannot pueden fer mejores, ni be better, nor better dreffed, mejor guifadas, y el vino and the wine is fuch^ that es tal, que fi tuvieramos if we were wont fo to do,
la
-y

coftumbre nos hiciera it would intice us to drink bebermasdeloneceflarioj more than is nee effary, but
tal

pero

A
pero
fin

New Spanish Grammar,

347

cometer txci^o we will make much of our nos hemos de regalar con felves without exceeding^ for el, porque alegra el cora- it chean the heart.
z6n.

R. Our Hofl is a very R, Es mui honrado nueftro huefped, y fu era- honejl man^ and behaves to es conforme, y tal lera himfelf accordifigly^ and on de nueftra parte la paga. our part the pay Jh all befuitable.

Huefped.Yiv'^nmis kno' Hoft. God preferve you res muchos anos, por la majty yean^ my majlers^

mucha merced que me for the great favour you do hacen, y el contento que me, and the fatisfa5fion I me dan en fervir perfonas receive in ferving perfons of
que tanto merecen ; por- fo much worth ^ for fomeque a veces defpues de time i after all pojjihle pains
haver trabajado lopofsible has been taken to pleafe^ por agradar, hai algunos there are fome that cannot que no pueden dar buena give a good word.
palabra.
7, Eflb

6 precede de

J.

^at

either proceeds

tener
cion,

mui perverfa condi- from a perverfe temper, or 6 de fu natural mi- from their covetous nature^

ferable ; por parecerles, believing that defpifing all que defpreciando quanto that is fet before them, they Ics ponen delante, quedan are the lefs obliged to pay

menos obligados

a J a buena paga, rinendo fiempre fobre la cuenta. R. Eflb manana Ic veremos y tengo en tan buena opinion a nuellro que no creo huefped, havra porque renir \ quan-,

generoufly, always

making a broil about the reckoning,

R.

We Jhall fee

that to

morrow, and 1 have fo good an opinion of my hofl, that*


/ do
yiot

believe there will


-,

be any caufe to differ

be-

to y mas que no me hallo fides that, I am no way in^ inclinado a eflas penden- dined to thofe quarreU, and
cias,

vez

y fi me la me guardo

hacen una if I am once put upon, I de la fe- take care of being fo a fecond gunda.

348

^A

New Spanish Grammar.


to as

gunda, y avifo a todos los time^ and give notice que puedoquefe guarden. many as I can, that

they

may fecure

themfelves.

Hod. I pro?nife you, Huefped. Yo]csprom6a v^ m'. que no tendran Gentlemen, you Jhall have to de que guardarfe, fi lacu- 7io occafion to Jhun me, if
enta no
les

contentare, pa- the reckoning does not pleafe


*,

que guftaren you,you Jhall pay what you que yo fe que no han de pleafe, for I know you querer que les sirvan de would not hefervedfor novalde, 6 que pierda quien thing, or have me lofe by
garan lo
les

sirve.

ferving you,
J.

J.

Amigo, vueftrobutiene

Friend, your

civility

ob has obliged us, and we will nofotros no not fail to do accordingly ; ligados, y dexaremos de correfpon- let us now go to bed, and
en proceder nos
der ; acoftemonos ahora, a good y quedad a buenas noches.
night to you,

Huefped, Nlui buenas fe


las

de Dios a v^

m^

Hod. God give you a very good nighty Gentlemen,

Coloquios

New Spanish Grammar.

349

M5tel >*.' SJfiJj^^ ^/JXA yJi /-c5 ^^5 j*^ ;>^< J^^ ;^< ;^^ /^5 J.*^ ^>^^ l^ ^/J. ^/^"/Ji y^ ?j^

Coloquios Efpanoles e Inglefes.


Spanijh a7td EngliJ}j Colloquies.
Coloquio
tercero.

Col

l o qjj

III.

Entre un ' A?no llamddo Between a Mafter called Don Alonfo^ and his Don Alonfo, 7 fu CriServant, a Taylor, and ddo^ un Sdjire, y una Lavandera, y Don Pea Laundrefs, and Don
dro.
jiccrca de
Jiirfe^
lo

Pedro,
que idea al vey

About what belongs


drefilng, civility,

to

cortesia^

me-

and

vas,

news.

^;i?./^Yes, m6zo,que Mafter.

\^
'

T^O

you
is it

hear^

hora

es

i^
time of the day
jiine,

^^^>

what
?

Criddo, Son las nueve dad as. A. Porque me dexafte dormir, fabiendo que tenia que hacer } C. Por no enojar a v.

Servant. It has ftruck

A. Why
fleep^

did you let me knowing that I had

bujinefs to do ?

S.

For fear of making


^

m. pues quien duerme {\' you angry Sir ^ for they that empre fiente que le inqui- fleep^ are always vexed to he
ecen.
diflurhed.

puede reM. There is no remed'f mediar. Enciende ahora jww. Light the fire^ and la lumbre, y calientame war7n me a fhirt^ and a una camifa, y unas cal- pair of under -flockings^ and cetas, y lacame otros cal- take me out another pair of zones, que me quiero le- hreeches^ for I will rife, vamar, Qua!
A.
fe

Ya no

350
C.

New Spanish Grammar.


?

Qual veftido gufta

V. m. de ponerle

S. What fuit of cloaths will you pleafe to put on^ Sir ?

A.
C.

Dame el negro. Lo peor es, que

M.
no
S.

Give me the black. The worft of it is,


is

hai camifa limpia.

that there

no clean Jhirt,

fo, when I do tantas ? Eres defcuida- have fo many ? Ton are exdo en extremo, y me ga- cejfive carelefs, and tire my
ftas la paciencia.

A. Pues como, tenien-

M. How

paiience,
S. Sir, he not impatient
;

impaciente V. m. pues bien fabe que todas vinieron trahidas del camino, y que no ha havido tiempo de lavar,
C.
fe

No

for you know they were all worn, upon our journey,

and

there

has

not

been

wafh and dry them, enjugarlas, aunque yo though I gave the Laujiy
time to

mucho

fe lo

encomende
\

a drefs a great
it
,

charge about

la lavandera

pero

ella fe

but fhe

is

come, without

ha venido, fin Ijamarla. fending for. M. It has hapned well, A. Bien ha fucedido, ella merece fer mui bi- and fhe deferves to be very y en pagada por fu cuidado, well paid for her care, and

y diligencia.
Lavandera. Dios
le

expedition.

pa-

Laundrefs. God reward

gue

a V.

m.

efla

buena you.

confideracion,

Sir, for that good conch3.n- fideration, and charity ; for

que muchos cabal- there are many Gentlemen, que quieren que who would have the poor to Ids pobres les sirvan de ferve them for nothing.

dad

leros hai,

valde.

M. That is not my ternA. No fe eatiende eflb conmigo ; dec id lo que per fay what the Linn en monca la ropa, y fe os comes to, and you fhall be
-,

pagara. L. El criado, Senor,


conrara, y

paid.
la

me

dara lo

L. The que may count


S.

Servant,
it,

Sir,

and give me
to

daba a
C.

otras.

as he gave another.

mi

cuenta,

monta

According
it

my

rec-

diez

reales,

koning,

comes to ten royals.

A. Effe

A
yf.

New Span
huelpeda
,

h Grammar,

351
reckoning
;

'Effe es hacer la cufin la

M.

That

is

cnta

de- without jour Hojlefs

do

zid vos, Senora, Joqueos joufaj, mijlrefs^ what will content 'jou ? contentara ? L. That^ Sir^ is a known L. 'Efle, Senor, es precio fabido, no hai que re- price^ there
plicar
is

nothing to fay

m. fuere fervido de darme alguna c6,

fi

V.

to to

it ;

if

it

fhall pleafe you

give

me fomething for
to

fa

por haver trafnocha- having fat up


le
efti-

ferve yoUy

do para fervirle, mare la merced.

will he thankful for the

favour,

A, Bien lo haveis me-

M. Ton

have well de-

recido, ahi teneys los di- fervedit^ there are the ten

que monta la ro- royals the linnen amounts tOy pa, y eftos dos de ventaja. and two royals over. L. May my mafler live L. Mil anos viva mi fuplico a thoufand years^ and I bea Senor, quien mande fiempre a efta fu feech you always to employ this your poor ferv ant. pobre criada. M. God go with yoUy Id con Dios, y bolA. ved el fabado. Mozo, and come again on Satur* mandaftes venirei Saftre? day. Lad., did you order

ez

reales

the Taylor to come ?

C.

Dos horas ha que

le

S. 1 called
ago.,
is

him two hours


it is

llame, y creo que el es que fube la efcalera.

and believe

he that

coming up the flairs,

A.
gais,
falir
;

buen tiempo HeM. Tou are juft come in que ya eftaba para time y for I was ready to go como haveis tarda- abroad what made you flay
\

do

tan to
Saflre.
;

fo long ?

Taylor. I could not help^ No pude mas, que quien sirve a it, Sir-, for he that is to ferve muchos, no es dueiio de tnajiy., is not mafler of his own time. fu tiempo. A. Bien efta, yo os he M. // is well., I have embiado a llamar para que fent for you to jnakeme two me hagais un par de ve- fuits of deaths,
Sefior
llidos,
S,

Ordenc

3 52
S.

A
Ordene

New Spanish Grammar.


m. como T. Give '^our orders^ para quan- Sir^how^ou will have them y made, and againft what ti?ne.
v.

los quiere,

do.

M. Tou muft make me A. Hareifme un veftido entero de efcarlata, a whole fuit of fcarlet^with
guarnicionesdeo- gold trimming of the hefi. El The other of a whitifh colas mejores. otro fera blanquecino 11a- lour plain, without any la^ no> fin guarnicion alguna. cing. S, Aqui trahigo buena T. I have brought a con* cantidad de mueftras de fideraUe quantity of pattodos generos, v. m. mire terns of all forts y fee. Sir, whether you like them, fi le agradan. M. There is no need of A. No es menefter mirallo mas ; eftas dos mue- looking any farther \ Ichoofe Itras efcqjo, y los vcfti- thefe two patterns, and let dos fe hagancon toda bre- the cloaths be made as foon vedad. as pojfible, S. Si V. m. no manda T. If you have no other otra cofa, me voi a dif- commands. Sir, I will go to poner lo que me ha or- provide what you have ordenado. dered. A. Bien fabeis la conM. Tou know how much fianza que hago de vos, / confide in you, buy me compradme un par de onepairoffilkftockins, and mcdias de feda, y otro de another ofworfted, I mean edambre, digode medias flockins for each fiiit : and para cada veltido y me- half a dozen of white gloves ; dia docena de guantes all as foon as may be, betodo que fea caufe being come off a jourblancos ; prefto, porque comoven- ney, I have not necejfarics go de camino no tcngo lo to appear at court, necefsario para parecer en

con

fus

ro,

de

la corte.
S.

Manana
alii

a la

noche

T. To-morrow
two days
there Jloall
it.

night, the

eflara aqui el veftido lla- plain fuit fhall be here, and^

no, y de

a dos dias el
efto

after,

the laced^

guamecido, en
avra faka.

no

no failure in

A, Si

New Spanish Grammar,


M.
S.
here.

53
1
is

A. Si afsi lo cumplis, no pido mas.


C. Senor, aqui elta Pedro.

If
Sir,

'jou

perform

it^

defire no more.

Don

Don Pedro

A. Entre fu merced, pues me la hace tan grande en adelantarfe en venirme a ver, fiendo mi obligacion haver ido a befarle la

M.
with
gone

Let him come

in^

fo great a favour as to he before-hand


fince he does
7ne in

me

coming

to fee

me

when it was my
to kifs his

duty to have
hands.

mano.

D. P. Dexemos cumplimientos,

B. P. Let

us

lay

aftds

que parecen compliments^ which do not mal entre amigos verda- look well among realfriends. deros. V. m^. fea mui Ton are very welcome., Sir^
bien venido, y me alegro a?jd I am glad to fee you in good health. de verle bucno. A. M. Andfo am I to find yo lo mifmo de you here and well. hallarle aqui y bueno. D. P. Ya que ha lieD. P. Since the happy gado la feliz hora de vol- hour is come., that we are vernos a juntar, decidme met again, tell me fomething alguna cofa de lo que ha- of what you have feen in veis VI do en Frdncia^ France, which I have fo que tanto la he defleado 7nuch coveted to fee my

ver.

felf.

A. Los que han cami-

A.

travellers are often


to

nado a veces fon chofos, tomandofe

fofpe- liable
la
li-

he fufpe^fed^

as

taking the liberty to invent

bertad de inventar lo que whatfoever their imaginales dida fu imaginacion ; tion dilates to them , fom& unos exagerando las cofas extolling things far beyond mui alia de la verdad, y truth., and others defpifing otros defpreciando quanto all that is out of their own France is fuch hai fuera de fus propias countries. tierras. Frdncia es tal que a one., that it needs no hy-

no

necefsita

de

hyper- perboles
te-

to

commend

it,

as

boles

para alabarla,
tanto

niendo

having fo much truly to he verdadero admired^ that the eyes are que a

354

-^ ^^"^

Spanish
fe
,

Grammar.
it
is

que admirar,

que no

mt fatiated
and

hartan los ojos de mirar

with heholdtngy a Jhame there

y es verguenza, que haya jhould he fuch foul tongues lenguas maldicientes que as do /peak ill of it, fe atrevan a hablar mal
della.

D. P. For faber con quanto defenfado algunas perfonas cuentan lo que apenas han foiiado, yo doi poco credito a lo que oigo en las converfaciones que acaib fe ofrecen, conociendo, que no taltan hombres, que fe precian de mentir ; fiendo un vicio de que todo hombre bien nacido fe debe afrentar.

D, P. Js I very well know with what an air fo?ne perfons tell what they
fcarce dreamed^
tie

give

lit-

credit to

what I hear in
that accident al-

c onverfation
ly

occurs^ being fatisfied there

are

men

that value them;

felves upon lying


it is

whereas

a vice thai
of,

all

men who
to be

are well horn ought

ajhamed

J, In fa me cofa
tratar verdad.

es

no

A.

//

is

an infam$iis
mifchiefs

thing not to fpeak truth.

D. P.

Infinites fon los

D, P.
curfed

Infinite

danos que acarrean malditas hablillas.

eflas are the confequence of that


tittle tattle,

M. All the preachers in Quantos predicadores hai no fon baftan- the world are not able to tes para poner freno a las curb tongues^ it is not likely lenguas, mal lo haremos that we Jhould do it.
A,
nofotros.

D. P.

A
con

que propofito
fi

D.
it

P. To whatpurpofe

is

es el predica r,

la

vida

to

preach.ifthe preacher^s
not fuitahle to the fer-

del predicador no corref-

life is

ponde

el

fern^on. mon.

One bad example

is

fuerza tiene un mal more prevalent than ten hoexemplo que diez plaricas ly difcourfes. And what is
lantas.

Mas

come

io que peer es, flill worfe, the fermons hefermones fe ha- ing made for worldly ends, cen por fines mundanos, it is not to be wondered
los
I

no

A
ales.

New Spanish Grammar,


tual fruit.

355

no hai que efpantar que no hagan frucos efpirituA.


los

that they produce no fpiri^

La mala

vida de
es
la

M. ne

ill

lives

of the

ecclefiafticos

churchmen are the ruin of

perdicion de Jos feglares. the laity. But let us not Pero no nos vamos em- launch out too far in other barcando en vidas ajenas ; mens lives ; let every 7nan cada uno mire pof (i, y look to himfelf^ and thg

andara el mundo mejor. world will go better, D. P. Afsi es volvaD. P. That is right let mos pues a vueftro viage, us therefore return to your y contadme alguna cofa travels^ and tell me fome*
:,
-,

del.

thing of them.

A.
tar
?

Que

OS he de con-

A. What
Thofe
quire

fhall

I
,

tell

Efias relaciones pi- you ?

relations
if

re-

den
eflbs

mucho

efpacio

fi

much

leifure

you

defleais

borradores,
hallareis

informaros, leed defire to be informed^ read en los thef notes ^ in which you

quales

muchas

will find

many

particulars^

particularidades, que iba that

I fill wrote down^

aflentando mientras las te- whilfi they were frefh in nia frefcas en la memoria. 7ny inemory.

D. P. Para mi no havra mayor placer. Pero decidme que os parece de la nacion Francefa. A. Acerca de la Nacion Francefa no tengo que decir otra cofa, sino que todos, en comun, fon mui civiles, pero es menefter una grande arte para tratar con ellos, pues fon mui fagaces y enganofos.

D.
tell

P. Nothing can
to

be

more pleafing

me.

But

me your opinion of the French nation, A. As to the French nation^ I have nothing elfe to

fay^ than that all in general are very civil \ but to


treat with them^
is

requifite

great confederation^ becaufe they are very cunning and


deceitful,

D. P. Eflb ya me lo D. P. That 1 knew le^ yo antes, pues uno fcre^ fence one of them de ellos me engano condos cheated me of 200 pieces of
fabia

a 2

mil

2^6

New Spanish Grammar.


,

eight that I lent him ; and mil pefos que le prefte lo peor es, que jamas what is the worft^ is^ that y oi palabra de el hafta la I never heard a word from femana pafada, que rece- him till lajl week^ that I received a letter from him. bi una carta fuya. M. I will lay a wager A, Apoftare, que es la mifma perfona que yo vi that is the fame perfon I en Orleans^ pues me ha- faw at Orleans, hecaufe he

bio de V.

efte fe 11a- fpoke to


"^^as

me of you,

his

name

maba
D. P. El mifmo, pero
la carta
la

D. P. The very fame^ que ten go, lleva but the letter I have from him^ hears its date from fecha de Paris.
Paris.

fer, M. That may well he^ A. Bien puede porque fegun me dixo, hecaufe as he told me, he tenia intencion de partirfe had a mind to fet out for

para Paris
cnte.

el

cia

figui- Paris the next day.

ra cobrar

D. P. What Jhall I do D. P. Que hare yo pato get my money ? mi dinero ? M. What ? Come to A. Que ? Venirfe conmigo a Parh, y obligarle Paris with me, and ohlige alii que le pague ; yo in- him there to pay you ; I in-

tento volver alia dentio tend to return thither within de dos mefes, y el me two months, and he told me dixo que queria eftable- that he would fettle himfelf

cerce alia en la calle dc /^^r^f^^/Anthony'j/r^^-/, San Antonio, en dorde vi- where his parents live. And con with this opportunity you ven fus Padres.

efto V. m^. tendra

el

gufto will have thepleafure of feeing the cent

de ver
niflcas

las

muchas y mag-

many and

magnifi-

fabricas que hai en

buildings

that

are

Frdncia, y efpecialmente in France, and efpecially el Palacio y jardines de the palace and gardens of Verfailles, que fon los me- Verfailles, which are the
lores del

mundo. befl in the world. D. P. So 1 will, and 1 D. P. Am lo hare, y ahora a hablar fo- go now to fpsak to my favoime
I

bre

A
bre ello a

New Spanish
mi Padre que
ho7ne.

Gram?nar.
//,

257
is

thcr about

who

at

efta en cafa.

A. Dios pues, pero dixt^c ver manana, y ha-

M.
let

Farewel then^ hut

blaremos mas Ibbre

eflo.

me fee you to-morrow and we will [peak more up^


on
this fuhjeh.

D. P. Efta
OS.

bien

Di-

D, P.
well.

//

is

well

fare-

5^' 1^1

".\

J^'i ^'\ ^'"i

TA ^y* --i T/i

t^*/^

^"^ TA >?'^4. "^ "^y*

"'4

""^

'^'^t

^"^ >""4 ^"'^

^'"'{ ^'"'1 J-^'-i

Coloquios Efpanoles e Inglcfes.


SpaniJJd

and Englip

Colloquies.

Colo'quio quarto.
^ohre vdrias Materias, entre qudtro Camarddas^

Col
Upon

l o qjj
feveral

IV.

Subjects,

Diego, Fernando, Thomas, y Eduardo.

between four Companions,James^ Ferdinand^ 'Thomas^ and Edward.

que hemos comido, vamonos a pafTear al jardin, que dlcen es bueno para la digeftion, y efcufaremos de dormir la fiefta. F. Dezis bien, que efta coftumbre de dormir es mui perezofa, y fi no es en tiempo de grandiftima calor, mejor es divertir-

D.TT'A

J.

X^

"XT OIV
dined^
in the

we
let

have
us go

walk

garden, which

they fay isgoodfor digeftiony

and we fhall avoid fleeping


the afternoon nap.

P. I'ou are in the rights

for this cuftom of fleeping very hurtful, ami unlefs


he

is

it

when

the heat

is

excej/ivey

it is

better to take

fome

di'

nos.
T*.

verfion.

No

empo

gaftemos el tien ceremonias, que

T. Let

us not fpend time

in ceremonies^

for

it

is

very
es

Aa

358
es

A
A

New Spanish Grammar.

mui mal gaftado, y no ill fpent^ and I do not love them, gufto dellas. mi no me agraE, E. / like them not, but dan, mas lacortesia fiem- civility is always good, pre es buena. D. Reparen bien en lo J. Take good notice of que vieren, y veran mu- what you fee^ and you will cha curiofidad en elte jar- yc''<? much curiofity in this din, que es uno de los me- garden, which is one of the jores que fe hallanen eftas bejl that are in thefe parts.
partes.

mui

F. Thefe walks are very F. 'Eflos andamios Ton agradables per la agreeable for the Jhade of fombra de los arboles, y the trees, and the fweet

loodorifero delasmurtas. fcent of the mirtle. T. They have another T, 'Ocra buena calidad tienen, que es, fer largos good quality, which is, that

para evirar

las

muchas

they are long to fave the of-

vueltas a que obligan los ten turning there mufi be in

cortos ; y lo ancho que pueden andarfeisperfonas a la par con defcanfo. E. Las eras tan limpias que fe puede dormir en ellaS', y fegun la yerba e~ fla verde parecen mullidas, y

fhort

ones

and

their

breadth,

that fix perfom

can walk abreaft in them, E. The beds are fo neat


that they are fit to fleep on
thejn ; andthegrafsfo green that they look foft, and iiilie

comvidan
^Efla

a echarle vite to
es

down upon them,


is

en

ellas.

D.

enramada

D. That arbour

de-

fummer, expofed puefta a todos los vientos to all winds to refrefh, and para refrefcar, y libre de free from the fun-beams,
los ray OS del fol.

deleitofa en el verano, ef- lightful in

F. ^Efta gruta con todo, F. However this grotto^ en mi opinion, le haze mu- in ?ny opinion, is much herha ventaja en lo frefco, y yo^sd it for coolnefs, and a^n lo apacible, femejafe greeablenefs, it looks very mucho eon lo natural, y natural, and has the or nagpza los adornos del arte, tnents of art,
T. Aquel}^

A
t.
bclla,

New Spanish Grammar.


es

3 59

AqueJIa fuente

1^ ,nat fountain is hcau-

y aquella cafcada t'lfuU and that cafcade hace un ruido que parece makes a noife that feems to alegra, y al milmo tiem- exhilarate^ and at the fame

po adormece
con
do.

los fentidos

tirr^e

lulls

the fenfes ajleep

lo incefsable del Ibni- with the incejfant found,

E. Adelantemonos un poco a ver los frutales, y


gozar de fu fruta. D. Pdra mi no la hai mas deliciofa que los hifeccion.

E. Let
tie to

us

advance a

lit-

fee the fruit trees ^

and

enjo'^

the fruit,

J.
to

None is more delicious me than fgs^ and here

gos, y aqui los hai en per- the) are in perfection,

F, Yo me contento con F. / am fatisfied with duraznos, quando {on peaches ^wh en the^ are large grandes y maduros, como and ripe^ as thefe on this
los defte arbol.
tree.

T.

'Eftos melocotones
a

me

lie van

mi

y tienen
foberano.

ellos

T. ^efe melocotones charm m^ e-^es^ and the^ un gufto have a fovereign tafie,
los

ojos,

E. Por no querer lo E. Bee aufe I will not he que otro quiere, pues to- for the fame as another is, dos fe han diferenciado, fnce you have all varied, I yo efcojo para mi eftas make choice of thofe bergaPeras berga moras, y rega- mot pears, and let us treat lemonos cadaqual confor- ourfelves every one to his

me

a fu apetito.

own
dexemos
J.
nifios,

appetite.

D,
llevar,

No

nos

Let us not he delud-

como

les

ed like children, by the fruit,

de la fruta, que Dios crio which God made for fuftepara el fuftento, y no pa- nance, and not to indulge ra engolofinarnos, Efcu- our appetite. Let us a while chemos un rato el dulce liflen to the fweet finging of canto de los pajariUos, the little birds, who withque fm ayuda de maeftros out the help offnaflers make bacea una mufica, quan- fuch muftck^ as is the more

Aa

to

^6o
to

New Spanish Grammar.


mas marawonderful^ the more natU" ral it is.

mas

natural,

villofa.

F, Ellos los unos dc los F. They learn of one ^and thofe which ptros aprenden, y los que nother^ mas habilidad tienen salen have the heft capacity prove

mas
los

dieftros,

como
;

que cada difcipulo sale conforme a) talenco que Dios le dio, y no conforme al maeftro. T, El Ruifenor es milagro de la naturaleza, y hace ventaja a todos los demas. No lo he vifto, pero afirman que es tanta a veces la fuerza que p6nen en cantar, que fe caen
muertos.

hombres

entre moft Jkilfid^ as it men ; for every

is

among
learner

proves according
lent

to the ta-

God has given him, and

not according to the mafter.

T. The nightingale is a wonder in nature, and furI have pajfes all others,
not feen
it,

hut

it is

affirm-

ed, that they fornetimesftrain

themfelves fo

much

with

ftnging, that they drop

down

dead.

E, La calandria no le E. The lark comes not queda a deber mucho al far hehind the nightingale^ ruifeiipr, y no fe fi a ve- and perhapsfometimes equals ces no le iguala , ni es him ; nor is the goldfinch

menos de eftimar al gil- lefs valuable, hut the canaguero, pero fobre todos ry hird is beyond them all.
s el canario.

Veis

of the fingers, and cipales y merecen fer efti- they deferve to be valued ; mados ; peroquehayapa- hut that there fhouldhe birds
chiefeft

D, De los cantores hanombrado los prjn-

J.

Tou have named

the

xaros que aprendan a for-

thctt learn toform

an human
diftin^l

mar voz humana, y

ha- voice,

and fpeak

blar palabras diftindtas, es words., is moft tobeadmiredy lo mas de maravillar, y and I fny felf have heard a

he oido yo mifmoun papagayo que cantava de tal manera, que quantos le plan iin vcrle, juzgavan que era perfona humana.

parrot thatfung after fuch a manner^ that all who heard and did not fee him^
concluded
it

was fome hU'

man perfon,
F, Tarn-

New

Sp

A N I SH Grammar.
-,

361

E. Magpies^ ani blackF, Tambien hablan las but never maricas, y los tordos-, pero birds^ alfo talk jamas con la perfecion que [0 perfehl^ as parrots ; and
Jos

Papagayos y no de reparar que


-,

es dig-

it is

worth ohferving^ that


having beaks^ and

tenien-

thofe birds

aves picos y no not tnouths like us, they can bocas como nofotros, pu- form wordsy which they do
eftas

do

edan formar palabras, lo within qual por efto ellas hacen


alia en el gaznate.
'T,

their throats.

hai que conF. Much reflexion may en el hablar y can- he made upon the talking fiderar tar de las aves ; pero tam- and finging of birds \ but I

Mucho

bien
rece

me

parece que me- am of opinion that the pro* nueftra atencion a- digious variety of colour Sy

prodigiofa varie- that is found among them^ dad de colores, que fe hal- deferves our ohfervation^for la entre ellas, porque a- art has fcarce been able to penas el arte ha llegado a match them,
quella
igualarlas.

E, Mui hermofas las E. Euvopt produces veproduce nueftra Europa^ ry beautiful birds, but they pero no llegan con mucho do not come near thofe that a las que fe hallan en la are found in Ada, and America. j^fia^ y la America, D. Difcourfing concernD. Converfando acerc^delas aves nos hallamos ing the birds we are come entre eftos eftanques, que among thefe ponds, which
fe hallan

mui bien prove- are very

wellftored with all

idos de todos los generos the forts of fifh that live in de peces que viven en fe- fuch waters, there are femejantes aguas, y hai dif- ver al forts of them,
ferences generos dellos.

F, Lo principal en eftos F. The chiefeft in thefe eftanques fon picas, o lu- ponds are pikes, or jacks,
rio fe

pero en efte cogen infinitas truchas, y a fu tiempo falniones que fuben de la


fos,

y carpas

-,

and carps \ hut in this river an infinite number oftrouts are taken, and in the feafon^ falmon^ that come up
niar

362
mar

New Spanish Grammar.


from
the fea to /pawn ^ and afterwards at their time the

y defpues fazon los falmonzilen fu los que baxan a criarfe en J a mar. y. 'Efta es otra de las maravillas de la naturaleza, o hablando con mas propriedad, de la divina
a defovar,

fmall falmon that go down


to thrive in the fea.

T. nis

is

another of the

wonders of nature, or to fpeak more properl'j, of the divine wifdom^ the immen-

fabiduria, la immenfidad fty of the forts of fifhes, de generos de peces, fus their different fhapes, that
diferentes formas, aquel- hideous magnitude of fome,

grandeza de and the ftrange fmallnefs of los unos, y la rara peque- others. nez de otros. E, Mucha es la diftinE. There is a great diclon en los tanianos, como verfity in fizes^ as alfo in tambien en la figura, o the figure, or make, but as hechura, pero en io que for beauty, I know not of toca a hermofura, no le any that is among them all, que fe halje en alguno del- on the contrary mojl of them los, antes los mas fon dif- are mijhapen, and no way formes, y poco agradables pleafing to the fight ^ having
la efpantofa

a la vifta, fin tener cofa nothingagreeaUe

to the eyes,

que

contente a los ojos^ a- befides their being


fer

dumb, and

demas de
faltarles

mudos, y having no

voice,

voz.

D.

Si

no pueden entre;

tener los 6jos,ni los oidos

J. Though they cannot entertain the eyes, nor the

aiomenos no les falta con ears ; however, they do not want fomethingtopleafethe que fatisfacer el gufto pues no hai mayor regalo tafte ; for there are no que el que nos dan la mar, greater dainties than thofe y los rios, en tan varios the fea, and rivers afford
*,

platos

como
no

can,

fi

faltan

dellos fe ia- us, in fuch variety of difljes buenos as are taken from them,
los

cocineros que
guifar.

lepan

if there be no

that

want of cooks know hoz^ to drefs

them,

P.

No

A
F.

New Spanish Grammar.


qulero dcfpre-

363

F. / will 7iot undervalue eiar lo que tanta parte del that which fo great part of mundo eftima pero pa- the world values ; but for ra mi mas vale una pier- my part I had rather have na de carnero, o un lomo a leg of mutton^ or a fur^ de vaca que quanto las a- loin of beef^ than all that guas producen y fiva- the waters -produce ; and if mos a las aves, eftas en we go on to the fowls ^ they fobrepujan in delicacy exceed all the delicadeza quanto hai en el univerfo world affords for the fujlenance of men. para el fuftento humane. T. I fay you are in the J". Digo que teneis buen gufto, y me atengo rights and I am for flefh yo a la carne que cria car- which breeds flefh ^ and fa^
,

No

ne, y fatisface, dexando el

tisfies^

leaving the ftomacb


the time

eftomago bien proveido well fur nifhed for

para en adelante ; fiendo to come \ whereas fifh is of el pefcado de la naturale- the nature of the element it za del elemento en que fe is bred in, fo that though a cria, que por mas que fe 7nan eat never fo much to harte una perfona, luego fatiety, he is prefently hun fe halla con hambre, por- gry again, becaufe no fub-

que no queda fubftancia. E. No puedo ir contra efle parecer, pero con todo vemos que hai genres en el mundo que mas viven de pefcado que de carne, y noobftante fon

flance remains,
opinion,

robuftas, y en las des mefas tienen en mu- lue falmon, lob ers, oyfters, ft cho el falmon, las lango- and many other forts \ and
ftas,

E. I cannot oppofe that however we fee there are people in the world who live more upon fifh than upon flefh, and neverthelefs they are ftrong, and at gran- great tables they highly va-

las oftras,

y otros
los

fiflo

that

is

falted,

or pick^

j y pcfcados falados, y en efcabeche dan mas nutri- ed poor jack, flurgeon^ and mento, entre los quales fe tunny fifh, pueden contar el abadejo,

muchos generos

more nutriment^ among which may be reckon^


led affords

^1 efturion,

el atun.

JD.Con

364

^^'^

Spanish

Grammar.

D. JVhatfoever it is that D. Con qualquier cofa que nos criemos es cierto we are hred with, it is cerque hemos de crecer, y tain that we Jhall thrive^ hallarnos bien ; afli ve- and do well\ thus we fee mos que no hai hombres there are no men Jlronger^ mas fuertes y bien difpu- and luftier than thofe of eftos que los de algunas fome of the ver'j northern partes mui feptentriona- parts^ where from their inles, donde defde la niiiez, fancy ^ their main fujlenance
breads without alguna leche, raices, fin being ever acquainted with faber que cofa es vino, y wine, and very little with
is

fu principal fuftento,

es

barley^ or

oaten

pan de cebada, y avena, fome

milk^

roots,

mui poco de

carne, o pef- fiefh, or fiflo,

cado. F. Los que fe crian con regalo no pueden con eftos mantenimientos.

ly

F. Thofe who are daintihred cannot bear that fort

La offood. Nature is fatisfed naturaleza con poco fe with little, hut the body contenta, pero hafe de ha- mujl be innured to it from cer el cuerpo a ello defde the firft years, for afterlos primeros aiios, que def- wards it is too late. Let pues es tarde. Miremos us look upon our fqueamifh
nueftras
fas,
fi

lo

ladies, if they fhould have pufieran delante fuch things fet before them^ que fon regalos para as are dainties for our coun-

damas melindro-

les

nueftras labradoras, no les try women, not one morfel entrara bocado en el cuer- would go into their fiomach.

do

Ya que fe ha hablaT. Since fo much has tanto del comer, razon beenfaid of eating, it is but fera no nos olvidemos que reafonable we fhould not fortambien fe ha de beber, y get that we are alfo to drink,
y.

dexando aparte el agua and leaving afide the water que crio Dios en general which God created 7iot only no folo para los hombres, for men, but alfo for all the fino tambien para quantos creatures he has placed in
animales ha puefto en efte
this
ii

world

in general,

wine

miJndo, es

el

vmo

el

mas

the tnofi fovereign of all

foberano

New Spanish Grammar,


known

365

foberano de quantos liquores haft a efte dfa fe han conocido, o que las edades venideras, y la humana invencion hallaran pacionales.

the liquors that have heen


to this day^ or that future ages^ and hutnan in-

vention will ever find out for


the benefit of rational crea'-

ra bien de las criaturas ra- tures.

E. Los vinos que proE. The wines Spain aduce folo Efpana apenas lone -produces are hardly to pues he reckoned up, what then fe pueden contar, de todas las otras mujl there he in all other que fera tierras ? Hablar deflb fue- countries ? 'To talk of that ra nunca acabar. El vi- would he endlefs. Wine in

no en general tiene muchas virtudes templadamente ufado, y fin fer menefter acudir a los medicos que nos las digan, o a los autores antiguos, la efperiencia nos enfena que da fuerzas, alegra el roayudaa
la vifta
el

general

has many virtues

moderately ufed^ and without being obliged to have recourfe to phyficians^ or ancient

authors^
that

experience
it

teaches us,

gives

flrength,

makes the counchearful^


fortifies

tenance

ftro, fortifica los nervios, the

nerves, helps the fight


eyes, cherifhes thefto-

delos ojos, of the

esfuerza

eftomigo, ha- mach,

caufes good digeflion^

ce buena digeftion, defpi- fharpens the appetite, caufes

buen found feep, drives away me-* fueho, quica la trifteza, y lancholy, and rejoyces the pone alegrfaenelcorazon, heart, which are Jufficient que fon baftantes alaban- commendations, and known
erta el apetito, hace

zas,

y verdades conocifin

truths,

which no 7nan can


it

das, que no hai quien las deny, and hefides all this

pueda negar, y

todo isfo agreeable to the palate^ efto es tan agradable al that fo many are ruined onpaladar que por efle folo ly for that pleafure, gufto hai tantos que fe pierden.

D. En verdad que haveis acertado en

J.

In

truth

you have

no can- been

in the right in not tir^

iaraos cgn los difparates ing us with the ahfurdities

de

366

New Spanish Grammar.


of man'^ of the ancients^ with which the moderns who would gain the reputation of

de muchos de los antiguos, con que fiempre nos eftanempalagando los modernos que quieren ganar fama de mui leidos, porque fon tan enfadofas fus reglas, que no hai paciencia que bade para el las. 'Uno nos enfefia quanta agua fe ha de mefclar con el vino ; otro pone tafifa en las veces que fe ha de

having read much are at-

wap
rules

us^ for their are fo difagreeahle^ that no patience can hear

cloying

with them.
teaches us

One of them

how much water

muft he mixed with our wine ; another fiyies the number of glaffes that is to beber ; otro nos dize ha- he drunk ; another tells us fta que edad nos hemos till what age we muft ahde abftener ; otro no qui- ftain ; another will not aU

geres

ere que lo beban las mu- low women to drink it ; and mil pa- thus a thoufand fopperies ; y affi otras taratas conforme a lo que according to what every one

cada uno dellos tenia entonces en la cabeza. F, Yo no entiendo para que ion tantos preceptos, todo hombre templado la be lo que en efle cafo le conviene, fin que

of them had at that time in


his head.

what
for,

F. I do not underftand fo many precepts are


every

moderate
is fit

man

knows what
this cafe,

for him in without ftanding

fean menefter cuentos vi- in need ofoldftories of two ejos de dos mil aiios j y thoufand years % anddrunlos borrachos fe rien, y re- kards laugh at, and curfe all

niegan de todas
zes.

eflas veje-

thofe

antiquities.

Befides

Quanto y mas que that, there are fome young hai mozos que no necefsi- men who have no lefs occatan menos de un trago de ftonfor a glafs of wine than vino que los viejos, y hai the old, and there are fto*
eftomagos que requieren machs that require double doblada la cantitad que 6- the quantity as others. Then Pues decir que no to fay that women muft not tros. mugercs drink it, is alfo a piece of las lo beban tambien tiene fu pedazo madnefs ; as if their bodies de locura, como fi fus cu- wsrs not human^ and did
crpos

A New
alivio tambien

Spanish
como
los

Grammar.

367

erpos no fueran humanos, not ftand in need of that y no neceflitaran de aquel comfort as well as men^

hombres.
T. Que mayor locura puede haver que el ir a pe-

T. What
nefs

greater mad* can there be than to go

dir confejo de los muertos ajk advice of the dead, for para lo que eftamos vien- tbofe things we fee with our do con los ojos, y palpan- eyes^ and feel with our do con las manos ? Pero hands ? But that cuftom is
efta efla

coftumbre tan

troducida, que
ldis

no

in- fo eflablifhed, that the heafolo en then fhilofophers arenotonly

converfaciones entran

thruft into converfation^


,

los philofophos
fin

gentiles, without head or tail

hut

para que ; mas los mifmos predicadores nos aturden con fentencias de Platon, de Seneca, de Plinio, de Socrates, &c.

que

ni

the very preachers ftun us with fentences from Plato,

Seneca,

&c,
ly

as if there

Pliny, Socrates, were no ho-

fathers,

como

no huviera, fantos padres, y dodtores


fi

doifors to

and chrifttan have recourfe to,

chriftianos a quien acudir.

E, No hai cofa mas eE. Nothing is 7nore notovidente que los grandes rious than the great benebienes que hace el vino al fits human race receives genero humano ; pero from wine ; but at the fame tambien es gran laftima time it is a great pity that
que la demasia caufe tan- the excefs of it fhould occa^ tos danos, y no es de ef- fion fo many mischiefs, nor pantar, porque fegun re- is it to be wondered at, for
glas de philofophia la cor- according to the maxims of rupcion de lo mcjcr es la phikfophy, the corruption of
es a faber, peor, quQ the beji things is worjl, that quanto mejores Ton las c6- is, how much the better fas en fi mifmas tanto things are in ihemfelves, fo masperniciofasfon, quan- w^^ -//^^ inore pernicious

do o ellas fe corrompen, o nofotros ufamos mal


dcllas.

they ar^,

when

either they

are themfelves corrupted, or we make an ill ufe of them.

ABien

368

A New Spanish
J.

Grammar.
Tou have ohferved
it is

D, Bien haveis reparado en ello, porque es cierco

rights for

certain that

que nothing produces more 7?iif. mas males acarree que el chiefs than too much drinkdemafiado beber. Quan- ing. How man'j murders^
hai cofa
tas muertes, quantos al- how man'j uproars^ how borotos, quantas defhone- many lewd practices has ftidades ha occafionado la drunkennefs occajioned i and

que no

embriaguez

quantos

how many
doing

thoufands^ with-

millares, fin hacer daiio a out

harm

to

others

otros ban deftruido fu fa- have deftroyed their own iud, e incurridoen infini- health^and fallen into infinite

por haverfe facado de juicio con efte abominable vicio fm hablar de la defhonra, o por mejor decir infamia de ponerfe un hombre en
tas defgracias,
,

misfortunes

by having

put

themfelves heftde their rea-

fon by this abominable vice y not tofpeakofthedifhonoury or tofpeak more properly of


the infamy of a man's putting

peor eftado que las beftias mas brutas, por tan eftra-

himfelf

into

a worfe

condition than the moft brutal beajls^ for the fake of fo

gado apetito como beber con dcmasia.


F,

es el

depraved an

appetite

as

drinking too much,

F. In feveral parts of En muchas partes mundo, no las quiero the worlds I will not name nombrar por no ofender them to avoid giving offence
del
cefliirio,

a nadie, y por no fer ne- to any body^ and becaufe it pues todos los is not neceffary^ fince all
fe

conocen,

ha introduciel

7nen

know them^

this

curf

do

tanto efta maldita co- ed cuftom has fo far taken

flumbre, que

emborra- place^ that to be drunk is charfc no le tiene por a- not looked upon as a dif frenta-, antes hai locos, que grace \ on the contrary there no les puedo dar otro ti- are mad men^ for I can tulo, que fe precian de give them no other iitle^ cmborrachar a otros, y who value themfelves upon cuentan eftasfealdadesco- ?naking others drunk^ and mofi fueran las mayores relate thofe fhameful a^onsj me avergu- as if they were the greatefi hazanas. engo

A
cfta

Nezc;

Spanish
rned

Grammar.
And I am
tell
it^

369
ajha^

inzo de decilio, hai ya mugeres que fe iguaUn en


vileza con los hornbres

exploits.
to

there are

now women
the

that can match

mas intames, elpo*,

mofl infamous

men

in

niendofe ^ qualquier defa- this vile practice, expoftng tino paes haviendo per- tbefnfelves to any folly \ for dido la razon, poco hai when they have loft their reafon^ there is little truft" que irar de lo demas.
ing to the reft,

T.
el

Con

fer cofa natural

T. Though

it

he natural

among which^ the los quales el mas ufaclo moft ufual is heer^ which es la cervcza, la qual ha- they make fo ftrong^ that it wine, exceeds cen tan fuerte que a veces fometimes foprepuja el v^no, aunque though it is not fo wholeno es tan fana con que Je fome^ fo that it wants the falta lo bueno, y le lobra good^ and has too much of lo malo, y en particular the evil^ and particularly it
quor^j^
-,

beber agua, no contentado los hombres con cila ; que en las tierras adonde no race vino, han iriventado ocros generos de brevages, encre

fe han to drink water^

men havs
it^

not been fatisfied with

for in thofe countries which produce 170 wine ^ they havs


invented
other forts of
li

liena Ids cu'erpos de ventofidad.

fills

the bodies with wind.

E. Pnes

la

cidra, aun-

que

es

mas

natural,

le

though

E. Then as for cider^ natural, it is more

hace mucha ventaja a la andmuch preferable to beer c^rveza, no puede com- it cannot ftand in competipctir con el vino, fiendo tion with wine, as being vemui cruda con que caufa ry raw, fo that it occafions
,

defconcierto en los que no fluxes in fuch as are not fe han bi^n acoftumbradp well ufed to it,
a ella.
fe bebe J. The juice of pears de las peras, y (perry) is alfo drunk, and cs tenido por m.as perni- is looked upon as inore mif ciofo que la cidra. La a- chievous than cider. Mead loja e$ cgfa regalada en el is very delicious infummer, verano. B b

D. Tambien

t\

zumo

370

A
el

Neis)

Spanish
mui
fria healthy

Grammar,

verano, fi fe repara en fo- if we only look to our pa)o elapetito ; pero ^\ mira- late ; hut if we regard

mos
para

la falud,

es

it is

too cold for the

eftomago, y por Jlomach^ and


introducido
el

therefore

it is

eflb fe ha

become cujlomary, to terncon un poco de per it with a little brandy ; mefclarla agua ardiente ; pero aim hut even in that cafe it is
requifite to ufe caution^ that
it

en eflb es menefter andar con tiento que no fea demafiada.

be not too

much,

V. We are got into aveF. En buena converfacion nos hemos metido, ry fine difcourfe, that if any que quien nos oyefle, pu- fhould hear us they might diera tenernos en opinion take us for good drinker s^ de buenos bebedores, fin though we have not deferV'
haver merecido tan mala Volvamos pues a fama. cafa mientras fe hace hora de cenar, que ya preed that had name.

Let us
whilfl

then

return home^

fupper-time comes on^ for it will foon draw near^ and

do

fe ira

faltara

llegando, y no en que entretener-

we fh all not want fomething


to divert us,

nos.

mucha ra'T, Teneis zon, pues agora da el rel6x las fiete,

T. Ton
rights

are

much

in the

for the clock

now

buino fir ikes feven^ and it is good cenar temprano, para no to fup early^ to avoid go^ acoftarfe con el eftomago ing to bed with a full fiocargado, y tener tiempo mach, and to have time to de parlar, y divertirnos. chat and to divert ourfelves, E. nat can be very E, 'Eflb mui bien fe hace fobre cena, y mas well done after fupper, efcon un traguito de vino pecially with a moderate moderado, que afsi alegra glafs of wine^ for fo it

es

cl

corazon,

chears the heart.

Coloquios

A
^-'i^^-t
''
i'''ii'.''i

New Spanish Grammar,


i-'.'<i

27^

>"."<

i^'i

>".'"*

>"'< y"'i

f'i

>"^< j^'^ >""<

^"'i :""i

^'"'j >"'i.

>'^i

^"''i^'"''4

'"^ ^""^

>f4

Coloquios Efpanoles e Inglcfes.


Spa72f/b

ami

E^ig/ijh Colloquies.

Coloquio quinto.
bailer 05^

Col

l o qjj

y V.
two two

fEntre dos Ddmas, dos Ca- Between two Ladies,


y dos Criddas.

Gentlemen, and Maid-Servants.

Sdbre vdrias Materias,

Upon
i

various Subjeds.
hither

D. i.T

TEnid
^^^7
eile

aca

Ma-

Lady-^^O/;;*?

V
nedme

y compo-,

\^
order
me-,
this

Mary, and

tocado no os detengais en impcrtinencias, bi:in fabeis que no prefumo de mi, ni defeo

head-drefs for

do not dwell upon im-

pertinence^

you
cf

have no

conceit

know I my felf^

enamorar a inadie i bafta nor do I defire to make any para mi el adorno decen- body fall in love \ it is e^ te, para no parecer ridi- nougb for me to he decently cula. drejfedi not to appear ridi*
culous,

Cr.
facil

I.

Es

V.

m. mui

i,

Serv.

Madam^
pleafed^
I

yon

de contentar, dichofa yo en fervir a quien tiene tan buen gurto j y bien defdichadas de las que han de eflar quacro horas en pie para componer una Dama, y por cabo les parece que no hai cofa bien hecha. D. I, Si en mi hallares cgfa buepa, no quiero

are cafily

am
that

happy

in ferving

one

has fo good a fancy ; and unhappy they who mufi he four hours /landing to drefs a lady, and after all they
think nothing well done.

"L.
is

that

If you fee any thing good in me^ I wculd

b 2

que

372
que

Neiv

Spanish
jjot

Grammar.

tell me of it^ me rece adulacion, cuentalo, for it looks like flattery, you may tell it^ if you will, in fi quifieres, en mi aufen-

lo digas, que pa-

have you

cia

vieres,
te

malo que en mi my ahfence ; what ill you dimelo a mi, que fee in me, tell me of it, and lo agradecere ^ y callalo / will thank you ; and con;

lo

afuera.

cealit abroad.

Cr, 2,

m Sufdna
D.
I
.

Mi
eft a

Senora
aqui.

Do-

Serv.
is

My

Lady Su-

fanna

here,

you keep her i L. Do que entre ? there ^ without bringing her Como OS haceis Senora in ? Madam, why do you tan eftrana ; fiendo tan a- make your felf fo great migas, para que ufays de a ftranger, when we are cumplimientos, fabiendo fuch friends, why do you que no gufto dellos ? ufe co7JipUments, knowing I do not love them? 2 L. It does not look like D, 2. No parece cor-

Pues

la tienes al-

la,

fin decirle

tesia entrarfe fin avifar

y amiftad parece difculpa, fiempre es bueno el decoro, y dicen que la demafiada familiaridad caufa defpre,

aunque

nueftra

good breeding, to come in without giving notice ; and

tho^ourfriendfhipfeemsan
excufe^
yet

decency

is

al-

ways good, and it is a fay* ing, th^t too much familiarity breeds co?itempt,
i

cio,

D.

I.

^EfTo

no

fe
;

en-

L. That

is

not to he
;

tiende entre nofotras

pe- underfiood between us

hut

ro aqui viene Don Juan, here comes Don John, who que es perfona de mucho is a perfon of much worthy merito, y mui entreteni- and very good company,
do.
Cabal,
I.

Mil

aiios vi-

Gent. Long may they

who do me fo much hO' hace, mereciendo yo tan nour^ when I defervefo litpoco ; aunque no eftoi tie ; thd* I am not quite (in merito, pues trahigo a- void of merits for I have qui a Don Rodrzgo, en brought Don Rodrigo, on
va quien
tanta honra
live

me

quien feran bien empleidas elTas alabanzas.


2

whom

thofe

commendations

^nay be well iefiowed,

Cav,

2.'

A
Cah. 2.

New Spanish Grammar.


No

375

2 Gent. / will mt anquiero refponder, no pienfen eftas vyk;^r, left thefe ladies Jhould Senoras que venimos de think, that we have agreed

concierto a decir bien de to [peak favourably of our nofocros mifmos. felves,

D.
fin

I.

Sientenfe v^

m%
es
fe

que tiempo perdido el que


ceremonias,
ellas.
I.

1 L, Be pleafed to fit down without ceremony, for

all the time that


it is loft.

is

fpent in

gafta en

Gent, ^he refpeEl that to Ladies is no cerea las Damas ; ni es lifon- mony ; nor is it any flat" ja decir lo que efta paten- tery to utter that which is te a todos and y por eftb po- apparent to all men dre afirmar que entre las therefore I may affirm, that
Cab,
el

No

es

ceremo-

nia

refpeto que fe debe

is

due

-<,

orras

perfeciones que a- among


a

all

the

perfe^ions

companan

mi
fe

Dona

Ifahel,

Senora that attend my Lady Iefmera en fabel, fJoe excels in the

efcQger criadas ; que fi no choice of her maids ; for if eftuvieran prefentes dos there were not two fuch tales bellezas, parcciera beauties prefent, that of foberana la defta donzel- this maiden would feem fur* la, a quien Dios haga di- prizing, God make her ve*
chofa.
ry fortunate,
I,

D.

Si le decis a
es

muger que
na vez,
el

i L. If you tell a wohermofa u- man once that fhe is hand'

la

diablo fe lo fome, the devil will tell her fegun la vul- fo ten times ^ according to gar opinion ; por efto me- /i'(? vulgar notion \ for jor es callar lasalabanzas, which reafon it is better to aunque fean verdaderas, forbear praifes, though they que no ponerles motivos be true, than to give them de vanidad, que fie m pre occafion for vanity, which fobran en nolotras. is always overflowing in us,
dira diez,
2. No fe que tienen 2 L. / know not what hombres, que por mas ails men, that though they que apetezcan las hermo- are never fo fond of beauti* fas CO mo haya dineros (e ful women, provided there be cafan con las feas. money, they marry the ugly, Cab. 2, Bb 3

D.

los

274
Cab,

-^ '^^'^
2,

Spanish
diccn
fin

Grammar,
They fay
ibey
by weight, with-

'Ellos

2 Gent.

que

las

toman
la
.

a pefo,

tah them
i

iiiirar

en

hechura.

c/ regarding the fajlnon.


afsi,

D. I muchas
tura.

Si

no fuera

L. If

it

were not for


unfortunate

defgraciadas

fe

that^
ones

many

fueran virgenes a

la fepul-

their maidenheads to their graves.


1

would carry
G.
'That

Cab,
defla

I.

Defpoblarafe
el

way

the

manera

mundo, world would

be unpeopled^

pues es verdad conocida, fince it is a known truths que para una buena cara that fur one good face there hai tres malas, y mas de are three bad ones, and aqultro que apenas fe puc- bove four that can fear ce be
called tolerable, den 11am ar pafladeras. 2 L. That which has D, 2, For lo que fe ha dicho, hai tantos mal ca- been faid is the reafm that porque tomandofe there are fo many unhappy fados a pefo, no pueden con la couples ; for as they take carga, y dan con ella en one another by weighty they el fuelo, bufcando otros cannot bear the burden, but
,

entretenimientos.

let it

drop

to feck other di-

ver fions.
2 Gent. Marriages are Cab. 2, No falen fiemlos cafa- not always unhappy by reapre defgraciados mientos por las malas ca- fin of the bad faces, but account of the ras, antes mas veces por oftner on worfe conditions. condiciones. las peorcs i L. Since it is fo, 1 am I), I, Pues afsi es, me

parece que como hai Tri- of opinion, that as there bunales paratodosdelitos, are Courts for all crimes,

lehaviadehaver particular there ought to he in partis para los que cometen los cular for thofe that marcafados 5 no digo folo pa- ried perfins are guilty 0^ ra los adulterios, pero / do not mean only for a-

tambien para caftigar las dulteries, but alfo to punifh culpas que fe cometen en- the faults that are commit' tre marido y muger en ted bettveen hiifband and no traiarfe como deben wife in not treating one aCOU amor, y refpeto, nother as they ought, with dexandofe Z

A
dexandofe
pafliones,

New Spanish Grammar.


llevar

375

de
fe

fus affe^llon^

and refpeH^ givto

con que

pi- ing

way

their pajfions^

erde la paz para fiempre. which deft rojsfome for ever. Cab. r. ^Efifos jueces i G. 'Thofe judges ought

havian de tener don de to have the gift of prophecy^ prophecia ; que de ocra for ctherwife it would he

manera fucra impofgfble rmpojfble to decide who bad averiguar quien tenia mas been mofl to blame in thofe culpa en ellas pendencias home broils \ and for the
caferas

y las mas veces moft part the women are Ton las mugeres las que- the plaintiffs.^ the men being
*,

xofas, callando los horn- filent


bres por
afrenta.

to

avoid difcovering

no defcubrir

fu their fhame,

Cab, 2. Pues fe ha ha2 G. Since mention has blado de juicios, aunque been made of judgments

no

fea

efte

propofito, though

it

be not to this

pur^

fino

les

defagrada

a e- pofe, if

it

be not difpleafing

to thefe Ladies, 1 will raPedro, late a very notable one of que por fcr defgraciado. King Peter, whojn becaufe he was unfortunate, they llamaron el cruel.

Has Senoras, dire uno no-

table del

Rey Don

called the cruel,

m. mu< 2 L. 'Tell it, in God's en buena hora, pues no name. Sir, fmce we are tenemos obligacion de a- 770t bound to confine our tarnos a una materia, y felves to one fubjeB, and
2.

D.

Diga

V.

la variedad

es agradable. variety

is

pleafing,

Cav,

2,

Con

elTa licen-

ch

ano de

dfgo, que un Arcedila Iglefia de Sevih

la, mato a un zapatero, y un hijo fuyo fue ^ pedir jufticia. Condenole juftice. 'The ecciefiaftical el Jucz Ecclefiaftico en Judge condemned him not to que no dixelTe milTa un fay mafs in one year. Soon ano. Dcfde a pocos di- after King Peter came to

G. Upon that per miffion, I fay, that an Arch^ deacon of the church ofSev\\ killed a fhoemaker, and a fon of his went to defnand
2

as

vino

el

Rey Don Fedro


y
el

Sevil,

and

the dead man's

Sevilla,

hijo

del fon complained to

him of

muer;#

376

New Spanish Grammar.


that murder. The King ajk-

muerto fe le quexo de la dicha muerre. El Rey Is peregunto, fi havia pedido judicia. El le conto
eJ
>

ed him., whether he bad demanded juftice. He told him the cafe as it was. The

calb

como

pafiaba. king [aid to him.,

Have
kill

'^ou

Dixo elRey,Seras

tu hoin- courage enough to

him^

bre para maialle, pues no fence ihc^ will tiot do you te hacen jufticia ? Si Se- juftice ? Tes., Sir, anfwered nor, refpondio el zapate- the jhoemaker. Do fo then^ ro. Pues h^zlo afsi, dixo faid the king. The next day

El dia figuiente Arcediano biea cerca del Rey enuna procl

Rey.

the arch-deacon walking ve-

yeado

el

ry near the king in a procejTion^

the

injured

man

cefTion, llegoie el agravi- feept

tip,

and ftabbed him

ado, y diole dos pufiala- in two places., fo that he das de que cayo muerto. dropt down dead. The ofPrendioJe la jullicia, y ficers apprehended him^ and mandoel Rey quele truX' the king ordered that he

y prtgunporque havia muerto el hombre. El mozodixo, Seiior, porque mato a mi padre y aunque pedi jufticia no me ia hicieron. EI juez ecclefiiftico, que
eflen ante el,
tole,
,

feoou Id be brought before

him,

and ajked him why he killed that man. The young man
y^^/W,

Sir,

becaiife

he killed

my father, and though 1 demanded juftice, it was


7iot

done me.

The

ecclefe-

refpondio aftical judge, who was hy^ por ri,que fe la havia he- anfwered for himfelf, that cho, y mui cumplida. El he had done him juftiice^ and
cerca eftaba,

Rey

quifo faber la jufticia. very fully.

The

king

would

El juez refpondio que le know what juftice it was. havia condenado queen un The judge anfwered he had
-mo no dixeffe
milTa.

El condemned

hi?n

not to fay

The king a fu alcalde, Sol- mafe in a year. tad efle hornbre, y yo le then faid to the goaJer, Dif-

Hey dixo

condeno, que en un ano

mifs thai

no cofa zapatos.

demn him
el

man, and I connot to fow any

Jhoes in a year.

D,

modo

L. if we look upon i de proceder, bien tbs manner of the. ;procted'.


.

Si

miramos en

A
fe

New Spanish Grammar,


es

^jj
not ac-

ve que no
las lej^es
fe
,

conforme
fi

fg,

it is

plain

it is
;

mas

en

las

cording to

law

hut if the

Jeycs no
cia,

halla la jufti-

law

will not afford juftice^

razon es que no fake it is hut reafonahle that opor otra via. El matar al ther means he found for it, clerigo el ofendido, pa- The plaintiff ^s killing a clerrece lacrilegio tambien gyman^ looks like facrilege como venganza, fegun la as well as revenge^ accord^ opinion chriftiana, y con ing to the chrijtian notion^ lodo tiene fu juftificacion, and yet it is in [ome manner fiendo por mandado de juftifiahle^ heing done hy the un Rey,que es juez fupre- cojninand of a king, who is mo, y por no haver otro fupr erne judge, and there hecamino de cadi gar tan ing no other way to punijh grave deluo pues el no fo heinous a crime: for the decir mifia en un aiio no not faying mafs during a era pena competente a tal year, was not an equivamaldad, y las que come- lent penalty to fucb an of* ten las perfonas dedica- fence, and thofe that are das a Dios, merecen ma- committed hy perfons dediyor cad 1 go que las de los cated to God, defer ve grea:

feglares.

ter punifhment

than thofi

of the

laity,

Cah,

I.

No

pudiera a-

G. The

verlo decidido

mejor
;

el could not

ahleft lawyer have decided it

mas famofo
fte cafo

letrado

y e-

me

trahe a la

que hizo el Fuefe a helonging to certain religious quexar a el un criado de men went to complain to
lo

moria

hetter-, and this cafe puts me me- in mind of what the Alcalde Al- Calderon did, fervant

calde Calderon,

unosReligiofos, deque ha- hltn, that having ferved viendoles fervido el tiem- them the time he was ohligpo a que eftava obligado ed to hy contra^, they por concierto, no le que- would not pay him, that he rian pagar, porque fe might ft ay with them, they
quedafle con ellos, pare- liking
ciendoles bien fu fervicio. calde,
his fervice.

The Al-

or judge, fent for

El Alcalde embio

11a-

the father procurator, infupli^

mar

al

padre Procuradora treating him as a favour^

378
vinielTe

A
li

New Spanish Grammar.


por

fuplicando
cierto

merced

that he would come to his


to

fa cafa, a tratar houfe,

difcourfe
;

negocio \ y fobre a un Alguazil, que avilo en viniendo le tomalTe la mula, en que venia, y la pufieiTe a baen recaudo.

certain affair

about a and charge


officer^)

ed an Alguazil^ {^^
that

he fbould take the mule he rode


cn^

when

he

came^

and fecure
the

her.

IVhen

Venido

el,

recibiole

el

he came.,

Alcalde re-

Alcalde con mucha cor- ceived him very courteoujiyy tesia, y le rogo pagaffe a- and dejired him to pay that quel pobre hombre, que poor man, who had a mind
fe queria
ir

a fu
fe

tierra.

to

go

away

into'

his

own

EI procurador

fonrio, country.

^e

procurator

diciendo, v. m. no es nu~ fmiling, faid^ Sir, you are eftrojuez, fmo de los fe- not our judge, hut only for glares, fi algo debemos a laymen, if we owe that
eile

hombre, pidalo ante 7nan any


el

thing,

let

him dejuflice.

nueftro juez,
hara' jufticia.

qual

le

7nand

it

before our judge,

Con

efto

who

will do
this

him

fe defpidio, y pldiendo fu IVith

he took his leave,

enquiring for his mule, havia Wt- the fervant faid an AlguaBolvio a quexarfe zil had carried her away. vado. a] Alcalde, el qual le ref- He went hack to complain pondio: Senor, vueiXrz to the Alcalde, who anfwerel

mula, dixo ua Alguazil

mozo, que and

fe la

reverencia no

me
mula

podra ed him.
es fe- cannot deny

I'our

reverence

negar que
glar.

la

but that your

Como tal la guar- 7)iiile is of the laity. As do, hafta que pague el fuch he kept her, till the procurator paid the fcrprocurador al criado.
ZHint.

D.

2.

Buena gracia
cierto
el

tu-

L. Indeed the Alcalde

Alcalde, was very pie afant. Alljudges Tales debieran de fer to- ought to he like him, for the dos los jueces, para ali- benefit of thofe who cannot

vo por

vio de los que no le hal- be otherwife relieved. And fince we ar e upon 'judgments Ian por otra manera. pues va de fentencias, va- take this alfo. ihere was ya tambien efta. Trahian a controvcrfy in an univer-

pleyto

A
pleito en

New Spanish Grammar.


una univerfidad
iria delante,
y//^?,

379

about precedency be-

lobre

quien

Jos dodlores juriftas, y los

tween the doufors of law, and the doBors of pbyfick.


the parties,
is

de medicina. Pregunto.el The judge ajked


juez
ciar
a las partes
*,

Quan- When
a jufti-

man

carried to
thief,

do llevan alguno

execution for being a

por ladron, qual va delante, el que ajuftician, o el verdugo ? Refpondieron, el que ajuftician vz. Si afsi es, dixo delante.
el

which

goes foremoft^

the

criminal ^

or the execution
the

ner ? They anfwered^


criminal goes before.
is

If
let

it

fo, faid the judge,

the

juez, vayan delante los lawyers

go

foremojt
let

as

juriftas

como

ladrones,

y thieves,

and

sigan los

medicos como dans follow

the phyfithem as exe-

cutioners. verdugos. 2 G. Since we are falCab. 2. Ya que hemos dado con los medicos, len upon phyficiatis, I will dare yo mi badajada. En let my clapper go. At pope la mefa del papa Alexdn- Alexander the vith^s table dro vi. fe difputaba un it was argued one day.., dia, fi era provechofoque whether it were advanta^ huvieffe en la republica gious to the public to have

The majority medicos ? La mayor parte ^My;a'^/. tuvo que no y alegar on affirmed it was not, and en fu razon, que Roma e- aUedged to ?nake good their
,

ftuvo 600 anos fin ellos. Dixo el papa, que el no cradeaquel parecer ; porque a fahar ellos, creceria tanto la multitud de
los

affertion,

that

Rome

fified

600
T'he

years

fubwithout
be-

them,

pope faid he
-,

was not of that opinion

hombres, que no
el

caufe if there were none of ca- them, the multitude of men

brian en

mundo,

would
that

increafe

the

fo much, world could not

contain them.
i L. Let us notfpeakill medicos, pues en of phyficians, fince when teniendonecefTidadlos ha- we fhall be in want, we vemos de ilamar aunque mufi fend for them^ though nos

D.

I.

No

digamos^mal

de

los

3S0

New Spanish Grammar.


ever fo
wills^

nos pefe, y ellos a veces nos hacen mal porque afSI \o qucremos, como le pudo fuceder a un hombre mui rico, que haviendofe hallado algo indifpuefto la noche antes, embio a Uamar un mediCO eiqual venido, haviendole tornado el pulfo, pregunto, fi comia bien ? Refpondio, que fi. Bolvio a preguntar el me*,

much

againft our

md
harm

they fometimes

do us

hecaufe

we

will

have it fo, as might happen to a very rich man^ who having found himfelf fomewhat the indifpofed night before, he had a phyftcian
called
,

who

heing

dico,

fi

dormia bien

and having felt his pulfe, ajked, whether he did eat his meat heartily ? He anfwered he did. fhe phyfician afked again, whecome,

Refpondio, que fi. Re- ther hejleptwell^heanfwer^ The phyfician plico el medico, Pues yo ed he did. OS daj-e con que fe os qui- replied, Then I will give you fomething that fh all re* te todo elto. move all that. C^^.i. Buena refpuella^ A good anfwer \ i G. y bien empleado el qui- and it is not done amifs to tarle la falud a quien no deprive one of his healthy eila contento con ella. A- who is not fatisfied with it, unque no parefca tan a- Though it looks not fo exa5i juflado en t6do,por haver in all points, ftnce it concura y falud, dire lo que cerns curing, and health: me ha venido a la cabe- I will tell what is come inman broke Defcalabro uno a fu to my head. za. muger, por cierta terri- his wife^s head for her inbilidad que en ella havi a, tolerable temper, and had J curola con mucha cofta her cured with much cofi y cuidado, tanto que ella afid care, in fo much, that

decia entre fi Yo eftoi fhe faid to herfelf: I am fegura de aqui adelanre no fafe enough, that for the ofe mi marido hacerme future, my hufband will mal, por no gaftar orro not dare hurt me, for fear
:

tanto

como ha
efte

Conmunico
kii^ con fus

penfami- pence vezinas y no She

gaftado. of being at fo great an exas he has now been,


iold

her

neighbours
falto

A
falto

New Spanish Grammar.


fe lo contaflfe al

381
andfo7?ie

quien

what/he thought,

niarido.

Callo

el

hafta body told her bujhand.

He

que eftuvo lana, quando took no notice till floe was Jlamando al cirujano ante vjell, when calling the furella, y fabido lo que mon- geon before her, and under*
taba la cura, le dixo. A- ftanding what the cure came qui tiene v. m. lo que le tOy he /aid to him. Sir, debo, y otro tanto para here is what I owe you^
fe le ofreci- and as much more for anohaya menefter ther time, if 7ny wife floall ere que lo happen to have occafion. mi muger. D. 2. Tales mugeres 2 L. Such women demerecen que a- ferve fuch ufage: for though tal trato unque no es de hombres it does not become men of de porte poner las manos fafloionto Jlrike them^ there en ellas, lenguas hai, y are fuch tongues and terncondiciones que obligan pers as oblige people to do a lo que no fe pienfa. Por what they never thought. efto fe dice que el padre therefore they fay the fada el dote, y Dios la bu- ther gives the portion^ and Pero hai God the good wife. But ena muger. hombres tan fufridos que there are fome men fo papor todo paffan \ tal era tient, that they bear with un cornudo, a quien itn- all things fuch a one was tencio la jufticia, que le a cuckold, who was adjudge azotalTe fu muger, y que ed in court to be whipped fi no le diefTe recio le di- by his wife, and in cafe fhe efie a ella el verdugo. El did not flrike hard, the ex*

otra vez,

fi

buen hombre volvio


cabeza,

la ecutioner

was

to firike her,

^he good man looked about recio a mi Catarina^ no and faid, firike me hard Catherine, that they maj te den a ti.
y dixo.
not firike you.

Dame

2 G. yf fon -in-law was frido un yerno que rogo not fo patient, who defired a fu fuegro que caftigaffe his father-in-law to chaftife

Cab.

2.

No

era tan fu-

fu hija,
ei fabla

porque
que

fi

el la

fligaba feria

mui peor, y

ca- his daughter^ becaufe if be did it himfelf, Jhe would be

k hacia

trai- worfe^

and he knew fhe


cion.

382
cion.

New Spanish Grammar.

Refpondio el fue- was falfe to him, ^he fagro, repoiaos hijo, que ther-inJaw anfweredy Be por vida deencrambos, io eafj^ my fon^ for by both rnifmo hizo fu madre ha- our lives^ her inother did
fta

que IJego

a los fefenta.

the fame^

till

Ella lo perdera, que


]o hizo elTotra.

afsi fixty

years
it

fie came to She of age.


off^

Por

efto will leave

for fo the

T^berefore they fe dice, que fe van al ci- other did. cornudos, por- fay cuckolds go to heaven^ clo los

que

tanta

paciencia
fin

no

becaufe

fo

much

patience

puede quedar
.

premio.

cannot go unrewarded,
i

D. I Algo grofleros, con perdon, fon eftos cuenros, y por mudar, ya que en lo ultirrio fe hablo de ir al cielo, dire lo que he oido acerca de irfe al un buen infierno. predicador, porque deci'a las verdades, le daban

L. Begging your parcoarfe^

don^ thefe tales are fome-

what

fince in the laft

and to change^ there was


to

mention of going

heaven^

will fay

what I have

heard about going to hell, Becaufe a good preacher


fpoke the naked truths they
offered

un

opifpado en las Indias^ en tiempo del Emquinto. perador Carlos el fecrePropufofelo tario de eftado, y el refpondio defta manera. Sepa vueftra fcfioria, que de obifpo es el oficio may gran trabajo, para quien le ha de fervir c6mo es obllgado ; y afsi conociendo yo mi flaqueza de no le poder adminiftrar como debo, creo que puefto en el feria caminar al infierno, pues ir

the

him a biflooprick in Weft-Indies, in the

daysof the Emperor Chd-vlcs


the fifth.
ftate

The Secretary of
it

propofed

to

him^

and he anfwered thus, Tour lordfhip mujl underfi;and^ that the office of a
hifhop is very iroublefome,

for one that will execute


according to his

it

duty

fo

that

incapacity to perform

being fenfible of my it as 1

ought ^ do
zvere

think that

if
it.,

cnce fettled in

I I

floould be in the
to

way
is

to hell^

por

las IndiaSy

pareceme and

go by thezvay cfthe

gran rodeo.

Weft-Indies,
about*

very far

Cab.

I.

A
Cab,
I.

New Span ISH Grammar,


I
.

383

atl cf generofity not to ac^ admitir un obilpado, co- cept of a bijhoprick^ a thing fa harto rara en nueftras very rare in our days^ when
dias,

Grandeza de animo chriftiano tue no

G.

// "uoas a chrifiian

quando mas

fe

tra-

more pains
ven.

is

taken to get
to

baja por ganar lina micra

a mitre ^ than
If
it is

gain hca^
not in

que por ganar


es

el cielo. Si

generofity to

generofidad rehufar lo refufe what


fe

we have
no
lefs

que no

poflee,

no

Jo es pojfeffon^
li-

it is

fo to

menos dar con mano

give freely^

and with a

beral y buena gracia lo que ya es propio. Ella virtud eftuvo en fu punto en el Conde de Urena. Llego a el Don Pedro de Guzman^ a fuplicalle le mandafle daralgun trigo, porque eftaba falto de pan, que aquel diio fe havia cogido poco. Dixo el Conde a fu fecretario le hicieffe un libramiento para un mayordomo fuyo, de mil hanegas de trigo, y

good grace that which is our own already, ^his vir^


in much perefcLlion Count de Ureiia. Don Pedro de Guzman came to defire he would or^

tue

was

in

the

der him fame corn^ becaufe

was fcarce with him^ that year having yielded very lit^
it

^he Count conwianded his fccretary to write an order to one of his flew ards
tie.

for a
.

wheat.,

thou [and hufJoeh of and whilfl the fe^

el fecretario le cretary was writings he difquedo hablando courfed with Don Pedro. con Don Pedro, Venido r/hcn the fecretary brought

mientras

efcribia,

fecretario con el libramiento, hallo que decia, Dareis a Don Pedro mil hanegas de trigo, de que yo le hago merced. Rafgo el libramiento, y con alguna colera dixo al fecretario. No haveis de decir, fino que el Senor Don Pedro de Guzman me hael

the order., he

found

it

run^

T'ou fJjall deliver

to

Don

Pedro a thoufand hufJocls of wheat y which I favour him


with.

He

tore the

order.,

and with fome heat f to aid the fecretary., Tou are not
to

fay

fo.,

but which

Don

Pedro de Guzman does me the favour to accept frofit

nii.

ce merced de recibir de me. This is true nobility, Efta es la verdadera /(? ^'je as becomes the giver, nobleza.

384

-^

New Spanish

Graminar.

nobleza, dar conforme a and not to the receiver^ and quien da y no a quien re- to fave him that afks the cibe, y quitar la verguen- Jhame by the way of giving. za a quien pide con el modo de dar.

D.

2.

Mas

guftofa

ma-

2 L. Thefubje^wehave
is

more agreeable in as much as quanto es mas de eftimar virtue is more to be valued To go on with la virtud que el vicio. Pa- than vice. ra profeguir con ella, al f/, an old gentlewoman Duque dtAlva fuplicou- ^prayed the Duke de Alva na duefia le ayudaiTe para to give her fomething tocafar una hija. El Duque wards marrjingoffa daugh^ le mando dar veinte du- ter. I'he Duke ordered her "The gencades. El camarero a tzventy ducats, quien lo mando diole do- tleman he ordered to do it^ cientos. Al tomarle def- gave her two hundred, pues la cuenta hallo pu- JVhen he came afterwards ducados to take his accounts^ he eftos docientos en lugar de veinte. Dixole found two hundred ducats al camarero c6mo pusiftes fet down inflead of twenty, aqui docientos ducados, He faid to the gentleman^ no haviendo de fer fmo How came you to fet down veinte. El camarero ref- two hundred ducats ^ where* Senor, yo 01 as there fhould be but twenpondio. docientos ducados. Re- ty, ne gentleman anfwerplico el Duque. Bendito ed^ my lord^ I underflood 'The Duke lea Dios, que te dio me- two hundred. jores oidos, que a mi len- replied^ God be praifed^for Y paflo en cuenta giving you better ears, than gua. And fo he me a tongue. los docientos ducados. faffed the two hundred dulaft^

teria es la que tenemos en- in hand tre manos que la pafsada, than the

cats in the account.

2 G. He made good aBien enmendo la falta en el dar con la li- mends for the error in givberalidad de confentir en ing by his liberality in conEl Conde de fettting to what had been lo dado. Fsria tenia tanta grande- given, fb$ Count de Feria _ ^^

Cab,

1,

Neiv

Spanish

Grammar,

385

za de animo, que diva a had fuch a generous JquI^ todos quantos Je pedian. that he gave to all that

Tenia coftumbrede dezir afied him.


a fu

He was

zvont

fay fulano treinta, o quarenta fuch a one thirty^ on forty efcudos i dad a citano ci- crowns^ give fuch another en efcudos, o ciento y an hundred^ or an hundred

mayordomo, Dad

to

to his

Jieward, Give

manera que nunca decia cola Icnalada. El mayordomo Je dixo, de que v^. s^. manda dar algo, dice treince o quarenta, y afsi de otros numeros, con qui- quedo contufo, fin faber a que me acenga. Refpondio el Conde ; Por tu vida
cinquenta, de
te aten fiempre a lo mas,

and

fifty ^ fo

that he never

fold an^ thing certain.

The

Jleward faid

to

him,

when

your lord/hip orders fomething to be given, you fay thirty or forty, and fo of
other 7iu?nbers,
fo

that

am
of /

at an uncertainty, not

knoiving which to lay hold

defire

The Count anfwered^ you will always


mofl,

no mudes mi condicion.

hold to the
flint

do not

my

nature.

D.

las pla:icas,

m\

CefTen un rato i L. Let us for a while y ^lrvan^ev^ ceafe this difcourfe^ and be de tomar algun re- pleafed to take fome refrefh'
I.

freico,

o colacion.
tea,

Aqui
dul-

ment, or collation.

Here

is

hai chocolate,
ces,

chocolate, tea, fweat-jneatSj

y un trago de vino, para que efcoja cada qual lo que mas le agradare que efto de hablar, sino
,

and a
he

glafs

of wine,
choofe

that

every one
likes

may
;

what

befl
it

though

be

for talking^ no labour^

es trabajo,
to,

gafla el alien- fpends the breath,

and

it

menefter dar al- is convenient to give fome gun alivio al eftomago, fupport to the ftomach, fcr que fon muchas las horas there are 7nany hours be-

es

entre la

comida y

la cena.

tween dinner and fupper.

Coioquios

386

'A

New Spanish Grammar.

Coloquios Efpanoles e Inglefes. Spanijh aitd EngliJIj Colloquies.


Coloquio
fexto.

C o l l o qjj y

VI.

^Entre dos Capitdnes^ ydos Between


Cortejdnos,

two Captains, and two Courtiers.


met,

CaprryUtn

encuenSeiiores,

Cap.TTTEZL

j3
dos a dos
\

tro,

conque efta- two and two ; fo that we mos iguales, no nos lie- are equal, wejhall have no varemos ventaja en la fuperiority in conversation \ Converfacion ; y fi huvi- and if we Jhould happen to eremos de reiiir, a pares fall out, we are ready pairvenimos. ed,
1

VV

Gentlemen,

mas
Ics,

efTa cuenta, vale no eftar tan igua-

Cor.

i
it is

Cour. Jfter that rate^


better net to he fo equal,
fitted
to

que en terminos de than

armar pendencias.

juft quarrels,

make

2 Cap. Bien dice v. 2 Cap. T^ou are in the m^. que aca entre Ami- right. Sir, for here amo72g gos folo feha de tratar de friends we mufl only talk of Paz ; la Guerra ha de fer peace ; ^Far mufi be with

con Rey.
mis.

los

enemigos

del the Kinoes enemies,

2 Cor.

efta para v.

2 Cour.

And thai
-,

is

for

que han tornado por you, Genthnen, who have effe camino ; que nofo- taken to that way for we tros mui bien nos halla- are very well fatisfie d with mos con la quietud de la the repofe of the Court.
Corte.
I Cap. 'A nofotros nos ^ ha cabido efto en parte,

to

our

Cap. This has fallen lot, and the other to

ya

'A

Nw Spanish

Grammar.

87

Ca- yours \ every one fuits him; y da lino fe acomoda con felf to that he was born aquello paraque nacio. for, 1 Cor, Fuerza es que i Cour. 'There muft of
a V. m^s. lo otro

world: God made feme ra la Milfcia, otros para for warfare^ others for the Palacio ; unos para Reli- Court ; fame for religious giolbs, otros para tratan- men^ others for trades 5 tes ; unos para oticios fome for mechanic employ^ mechanicos, otros para ments^ others for Feafants% linos para fome to commandy and o^ labradores ; mandar, y otros para fer- thers to ferve,
:

hayadetodoen efte mun'Unos hizoDiospido

neceffity

he of all forts in

this

vir.

2 Cap,

La mifma
fe haJla

riedad que

vaen los

Cap.
is

riety that

The fa^ne vafound in feve^


in the ca-

diferentes eftados,

vemos

ralfiates,

we fee

Capacidades y dif- pacities and difpofitions of poficiones de los hombres. men. There are fome per^ Perfonas hai que fon ha- fans qualified for allpofis^ biles para todos los pue- hut they are few ; and (los, pero fon pocas \ y thofe if they are fortunate^
las

en

eilas

fi

fon

afortunadas

rife
till

from one

to the other

van fubiendo de uno en

otro hafta alcanzar mui grandes honras. Al con- there are others,, that being trario hai otros, que no very undejerving obtain teniendo habilidad para what they pie afe \ and ge* cofa algiina, alcanzan lo nerally fpeaking^ the moji que quicren ; y general- deferving are unlucky^ I mente hablando, \os ni2i% fpeak of the good foldiers.
benemerljtos

they attain to great honours. On the contrary

Ton

defgra-

ciados, digo de los bue-

nos foldados.
2 Cor. Lo mifmo fu2 Cour. The fame hapcede en la Corte, en don- pens at Courts where only de folo aqusllos que em- thofe that fpend all their plean todo fu talento en talent in making much of
agafajar las

Damas

y agra- the

Ladies

and pkafing
darlaSj

c 2

: ^

gSS
darias,

A
fon

New
lofque

Spanish
me^

Grammar.
are ihe ^erfons that

theniy

dran.
I

thrive.

i Cap. That is true % Cap, Eflbes verdad ; viflo al- afid how many we have y quantos hemos canzar pueftos de mucha feen advanced to pofts of

reputacion por iola fu rnuch reputation, only for delverguenza, 6 por {m their impudence, or their dinero, quedandoJe atras money, the deferving perlas

fons being laid afide. perfonas de merito. i Cour. He that is hafhQiiien es encoI Cor. gudrdcfe de entrar ful invft take heed of going gido
*,

ningunos me- to courts ; none thrive like en corces ^v%ncoViio\o%dtic2iX2idos, foreheads of hrafs, flatteaduladores, y lofqae tie- rers, and thofe that have

ncn defpejo.
1

confidence

wilh themfelves,

2 Cap. IVe the foldiers Cap. L.os fold ados tenemos algo de eile vi- have fome floare in that
cio,
te

porque de otra fuerno fueramos de provecho para la guerra tres motives tenemos para exponernos a tantos trabajos y peligros ; que fon, por la Fe, por la honra, y Los por el piovecho.
:

vice,

becaufe otherwife
fit

foould not be

for

we war
many
;

we have
expofe

three

??iotives to

curfelves to fo

hardfhips

and

dangers

which are, for the Faith for honour, and for pro//.

We

the

foldiers,

foldados (Dios nos per- {God forgive us) though

we

done) aunque hagamos "jnake war againjt the Inhuman advantages Infieles, mas fidels, guerra a nos mueven las medras have more influence over us humanas, que las efperan- than the hopes of heaven. La hon- Honour is a fovereign tnozas del Cielo. and though they fay, ra es un motive foberano ; iive that the fame bag cannot y aunque dicen, i\uthonra y prcvecho no cdhen en hold honour and profit, itn sdco, yo digo que /^cK- I fay that honour with* ra fin provccho es fombra out profit is a in ado w Quien ga- without fubilance. Who finfubftdncia. mas lionra que el fa- is there that gained more no
-,

m6fo Capitan

Belifdrio ? honour

than the fa?nous

qui-

A
Y
do?
2 Cor,

New Spanish Grammar,


^nd who more
nate ?

389
?

quien mas defgracia- Com?nander

Belifarius

unfortu-

Grande
la

fue

la

Cour. Great was the

Caida de
fue

Belifdrio,

menor
-,

de

y no fall of Belifarius, nor was Antonio that of Antonio Perez

aquei fue Gene- lefs ; the former was the lmperador7/?ii- Emperor Juftinian'i Geral del ^nd this favorite dno^ y elle Minillro fa- neraU vorecido del Rey Bon Minifler to King Philip P/jc'/f/)^' el fegundo ; el 11- the fecond \ the one a great

Perez

no Gran foldado, el otro no menor Cortefano. Faltole la ventiira


rio

foldier,

a Belifd-

de poder, y tener a donde huir ; tuvola Anto7no Perez^ en efcaparfe y halJar un Rey de Francia que le fuilentalTe con-

Lefs a wanted the fortune to have it in his fower^ and have a place to fl^ to \ Antonio Perez had it in making his efcape^ and finding a King of France to maintain him

the other no

Courtier,

Belifarius

forme a
I

fu

Calidad.

according to his quality,


lo
i
little

Cap.

Ahi

fe

ve

Cap.
trufl

I'hat Jhows
is

how

poco que
las

hai que fiar en

to

herepofedin

grandezas de ella vi- the grandours of this life, Dos de los mayor-es "Two of the greatefl men hombres que huvo en el there have been in the mundo, el uno facados world., one of them his e'jes los ojos, el otro puefto put out^ the other put upen un tormento ; el uno on a rack ; the one leg-^ mendigando por las cal- ging in the flreets^ the other les, el otro huyendo por fl)ing to fave his life \ and
da.
librar
fin
la vida, y efto not for an^^ offence of either culpa de ninguno de of them,

cllos.
I

Cor,

Que un Rey
,

Cour. For a King

to

caftigue a fus Ya.{2\\os puni/b his fubje^s for being por defleales, es jufticia difioyal^ it is juflice ; to per-

pero que persiga fm pie- fecute his fuhje5l without dad un Vafallo, folo por merc\^ only for having
haverle

39<^

^^"^

Spanish
in-

Grammar.
is

haverle obedecido, es

obeyed him^

fuch an hor"
that the

humanidad
que apenas

tan horrible, rid inhimanity^


fe hallara

of it can fear ce he found mejante entre las masijar- among the 7noft barbarous
felike

baras

naciones.

Mucho

nations.

Sojne

authors
in

han

efcrito algunos

Au- have

writ

much

com-

alabanza de apero quien quel Rey, leyere fu vida con atencion, hallara que el fue la ruina de Efpana. 2 Cap, Loque a nofotros nos importa, es procurar fubir, fin ponernos a penfarfipodremoscaer ; 3a dificultad efta en lo primero, y venga defpues loque viniere. 1 Cor. Habilidad y buen animo es menefter patores en

mendation of that King., but whofoever poall read his life

with
that

attention^

will find

he

was

the

ruin

of

Spain.
2
us.,

Cap. JVbat concerns


is

to

endeavour

to rife^

without flanding

to confider
-^

whether we may fall


/'^r/,

the

difficulty confifls in the firfi

and

let

what

will af-

terwards fellow. 2 Cour. There mufl be capacity and a good heart

y lo cierto es, for every thing., and it is que elqueno tiene f^j pun- certain^ that he who has to de Ambicion, mas es not fome fhare in ambition^ para un convento que pa- is fitter for amonafiery than
ra todo, ra el
I

Cap.

mundo. Quien
en los

for the world.


le

ha

Cap.

Who
is

has told
no ambi-

dicho, que

tion in the convents F Do ventos no fe halla cion ? No vemos todos not we fee every day., there los dias que fon dcmafia are too many that trouble dos lofque revuelven el all the world to rife to be mundo para fer Superi^ Superiors^ and even Bi-

Conambi-

ycu,

that there

ores, y ahunObifpos? Gcr. Es cierto, 1

fhops F

// is certain^ i Cour. and we have enough to do harno nos dan enque en-

tender,
2 Cap.
la,

with them,
us

Let 2 Cap. Dexemoflos aldigo, que nu- them there^ I y iolo

leave

only fay^,

eftra

A
ellra

New Spanish Grammar,


es

391
is

vereda

mui

eftre-

that our fath

is

very narto

cha, y ciida pailb fe ha row^ and every ftep de ir ganando a fuego y he gained with fire
a
, -,

and

fangre and if after all we y fi defpues blood de efto fe alcanza algo, attain fomething^ an unhapIlega una defdichada bala py hall comes and overy da con todo en tier- throws it all,
ra.

2
tros

Cor.

Aunque nofotan
fu-

2 Cour.

Although

we

are not fo fuhje^ to fo majetos \ tantos trabajos y ny hard/hips and fatigues^ fatigas, neceffidades, fri- wants, colds, heats, had

no eftamos

OS, calores,

malos dias y days, and worfe nights, to a tantas fo many wounds, and to heridas, y a tantos rief- fo many dangers,fatal effe^s gos, Cetedtos fatales de la of war ; notwithjlanding^ fin embargo, I ajjure you, that we have guerra) les alTeguro, que no nos war and dangers enough in
peores noches,
:

y peligros aunque ]a hacemos de otra fuerte no enfangrentamos \z.% ^{'i^kdas, no gadamos polvora ; no nnatan las balas ;
en
la corte
-,

faltan guerra

courts,

although

we

do

make
-,

it

after another

man-

we do not make our ner fwords hloody, we fpend no


-powder
all
-,

bullet s do not kill \

todas

las vitorias

fe

gained by ga- contrivance andjiratagems ;

viclories are

nan por ardides y


tagennas
;

el

eftra- wit, the pen, and tongue ingenio, la work, and not force. It
is

pluma, y lengua obran,

true,

that

there reign
flattery^

no la fuerza. Es verdad, envy, hypocrify, que alii reinan la invidia, deceits, falfities,
hypocresia,
gafios,
lifonjas,

frauds^

falfedades,

en- and other forts of wickedfrau- nefs, that 1 am afhamed

des,

y otros maldades, to make them public, 1 beque, a no avergonzarme, ing one of them ; but from por fer uno de ellos, las what is faid you may iti' dixera pero de lo dicho fer what pajfei there, V. m^K pueden inferlr loque alii fe paiTa.
,

y 2

392
I

A
y
de

New Spanish Grammar.


es
i

2 Caps, Si efTa
Ja

and

la vida

Corte, vi- the Court

Caps. If that le life^ we rather

vamos y muramos
tros

nofo- chufe to live and die in the where we fight don- /f/^ ; de nos renimos con nu- with our enemies^' and

enlacampana

eftros

enemigos, y

trata-

deal

jujily

with

our

mos verdad con


mfgos.

los

a- friends.

JV

S.

4'

^*^

y.

:?

ICtbrar^.
IN

THE CUSTODY Or ThE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.

^SHELF N

^v^*
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