Está en la página 1de 15

ABSTRACT

W e p ro p o s e a n e w m e th o d fo r s tre n g th e n in g th e s e c u rity o f in fo rm a tio n th ro u g h a c o m b in a t s ig n a l p ro c e s s in g , c ry p to g ra p h y a n d s te g a n o g ra p h y . C ry p to g ra p h y p ro v id e s th e s e c u rity b y c o n c e a lin g th

a n d s te g a n o g ra p h y p ro v id e s s e c u rity b y c o n c e a lin g e x is te n c e o f in fo rm a tio n b e in g c o m m u n ic a te d . S ig n a l p

a d d s a d d itio n a l s e c u rity b y c o m p re s s in g a n d tra n s fo rm in g th e in fo rm a tio n . T h e p ro p o s e d m e th o d , v iz . S te g a

B a s e d In fo rm a tio n P ro te c tio n M e th o d (S B IP M ), c o n s is ts o f s c a n n in g , c o d in g , e n c ry p tio n , re s h a p in g , c o v e r p a n d e m b e d d in g s te p s .

W e th e n tu rn to d a ta -h id in g in im a g e s . S te g a n o g ra p h y in im a g e s h a s tru ly c o m e o f a g e w ith th e in

o f fa s t, p o w e rfu l c o m p u te rs . S o ftw a re is re a d ily a v a ila b le o ff th e In te rn e t fo r a n y u s e r to h id e d a ta in s id

T h e s e s o ftw a re s a re d e s ig n e d to fig h t ille g a l d is trib u tio n o f im a g e d o c u m e n ts b y s ta m p in g s o m e re c o g n is a b in to th e im a g e .T h e m o s t p o p u la r te c h n iq u e is L e a s t S ig n ific a n t B it in s e rtio n , w h ic h w e w ill lo o k a t. A ls o ,

m o re c o m p le x m e th o d s s u c h a s m a s k in g a n d filte rin g , a n d a lg o rith m s a n d tra n s fo rm a tio n s , w h ic h o ffe r ro b u s tn e s s to a tta c k , s u c h a s th e P a tc h w o rk m e th o d w h ic h e x p lo its th e h u m a n e y e 's w e a k n e s s to v a ria tio n . W e w ill ta k e a b rie f lo o k a t s te g a n a ly s is , th e s c ie n c e o f d e te c tin g h id d e n m e s s a g e s a n d d e s tro y in

W e c o n c lu d e b y fin d in g th a t s te g a n o g ra p h y o ffe rs g re a t p o te n tia l fo r s e c u rin g o f d a ta c o p y rig h t, a n d d e in frin g e rs . S o o n , th ro u g h s te g a n o g ra p h y ,p e rs o n a l m e s s a g e s ,file s , a ll a rtis tic c re a tio n s , p ic tu re s , a n d s o n p ro te c te d fro m p ira c y .

1. INTRODUCTION

N o w a d a y s , v a rio u s m o d e s o f c o m m u n ic a tio n lik e L A N , W A N a n d IN T E R N E T a re w id e ly u

c o m m u n ic a tin g in fo rm a tio n fro m o n e p la c e to a n o th e r a ro u n d th e g lo b e . S u c h c o m m u n ic a tio n n e tw o rk s w h ic h a n y o n e c a n a c c e s s e a s ily . T h e y a re re g u la rly m o n ito re d a n d a n in te rc e p te d . S te g a n o g ra p h y , fro m th e G re e k , m e a n s c o v e re d , o r s e c re t w ritin g , a n d is a lo n g -p ra c tis e d fo rm o f h i

in fo rm a tio n . A lth o u g h re la te d to c ry p to g ra p h y , th e y a re n o t th e s a m e . S te g a n o g ra p h y 's in te n t is to h id e th e e o f th e m e s s a g e , w h ile c ry p to g ra p h y s c ra m b le s a m e s s a g e s o th a t it c a n n o t b e u n d e rs to o d . M o re p re c is e ly ,

'T h e g o a l o f s te g a n o g ra p h y is to h id e m e s s a g e s in s id e o th e r h a rm le s s m e s s a g e s in a w a y th a t d a llo w a n y e n e m y to e v e n d e te c t th a t th e re is a s e c o n d s e c re t m e s s a g e p re s e n t."

S te g a n o g ra p h y in c lu d e s a v a s t a rra y o f te c h n iq u e s fo r h id in g m e s s a g e s in a v a rie ty o f m e d ia . A m o n

m e th o d s a re in v is ib le in k s , m ic ro d o ts , d ig ita l s ig n a tu re s , c o v e rt c h a n n e ls a n d s p re a d -s p e c tru m c o m m u n i

m e s s a g e is e m b e d d e d in a c o v e r m e d ia in a n in v is ib le m a n n e r s o th a t o n e c o u ld n o t s u s p e c t a b o u t its e x is te

In th is p a p e r w e p re s e n t a s u b s titu tio n b a s e d in fo rm a tio n p ro te c tio n m e th o d w h e re w e c

c ry p to g ra p h ic , s te g a n o g ra p h ic a n d s ig n a l p ro c e s s in g c o n c e p ts to g e th e r fo r a c h ie v in g s e c u rity . T h e m e th o d

a s S te g a n o g ra p h y B a s e d In fo rm a tio n P ro te c tio n m e th o d . In th is m e th o d w e s u b s titu te th e in fo rm a tio n b it in s e le c te d p ix e ls a t ra n d o m p la c e s w ith in L S B re g io n .

2. STEGANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE

S te g a n o g ra p h y is th e a rt a n d s c ie n c e o f c o m m u n ic a tin g in a w a y w h ic h h id e s th e th e e x is te n c e

s e c re t m e s s a g e c o m m u n ic a tio n . It a im s to h id e in fo rm a tio n /c o v e re d w ritin g . In fo rm a tio n to b e p ro te c te d is

a n o th e r d a ta k n o w n a s c o v e r o r c a rrie r. D a ta c o n ta in in g h id d e n m e s s a g e a re c a lle d a s S te g a n o s o r S te g o s .

lo o k lik e c o v e r d a ta a n d it is d iffic u lt to d iffe re n tia te b e tw e e n th e m . S te g a n o g ra p h y b a s e d c o m m u n ic a tio n o a c c e s s ib le p la tfo rm s to p re v e n t le a k a g e o f in fo rm a tio n .

2. 1 Kerck Off Principle: In c ry p to g ra p h y , th is p rin c ip le s ta te s th a t "th e s e c u rity o f th e s y s te m h a s to b e b a s e d o n th e a s s u m p th e e n e m y h a s fu ll k n o w le d g e o f th e d e s ig n a n d im p le m e n ta tio n d e ta ils o f th e s te g a n o g ra p h ic s y s te m "

m is s in g in fo rm a tio n fo r th e e n e m y is a s h o rt, e a s ily e x c h a n g e a b le ra n d o m n u m b e r s e q u e n c e , th e s e c re t k e y

3. STEGANOGRAPHY METHODS;

A c c o rd in g to m o d ific a tio n in c o v e rs , th e m e th o d s c a n b e c a te g o riz e d a s

S u b s titu tio n T ra n s fo rm d o m a in S p re a d s p e c tru m S ta tis tic a l D is to rtio n C o v e r g e n e ra tio n


3. 1 Substitution Method:

It is c o m m o n ly u s e d s im p le m e th o d in w h ic h w e c a n p u t in fo rm a tio n b its in L S B s e q u e n tia lly a p la c e , ra n d o m ly a t fix e d p la c e o r ra n d o m ly a t ra n d o m p la c e s in c o v e r p ix e ls . T h e m e s s a g e to b e p ro te c t th ro u g h s c a n n in g , c o d in g , e n c ry p tio n p ro c e s s to fo rm a n e m b e d d e d m e s s a g e . S c a n n in g , c o d in g , e n c ry p tio n s te p s m a k e th e in fo rm a tio n u n in te llig ib le s o th a t o n e c a n n o t e x tra m essage. E m b e d d in g m a k e th e m e s s a g e in v is ib le s o th a t o n e c a n n o t d e te c t it.

R e s h a p in g s p re a d s th e m e s s a g e s o th a t e m b e d d e d m e s s a g e c a n b e d e te c te d fro m d is to rte d s te g a n a u th o riz e d re c e iv e rs .

C o v e r p ro c e s s in g m a k e s d e te c tio n o f e m b e d d e d m e s s a g e m o re d iffic u lt s in c e th e d is to rtio n is e ith e r n o is e a d d itio n o r d u e to m e s s a g e e m b e d d in g .

T h is w o u ld in c re a s e s th e ro b u s tn e s s a n d s e c u rity . M a n y a tta c k s o n s u c h s te g a n o g ra p h ic s y s te m s a r s u g g e s te d . S o m e a tta c k s th a t c a n b e a p p lie d a re g iv e n b e lo w :

S te g o -O n ly A tta c k M e s s a g e -S te g o A tta c k

C o v e r-S te g o A tta c k M e s s a g e -C o v e r-S te g o A tta c k


3.2 Proposed Method:

T h e fra m e w o rk o f p ro p o s e d S te g a n o g ra p h y B a s e d In fo rm a tio n P ro te c tio n m e th o d is s h o w n in F ig 1 . Its d e s is p re s e n te d in th e fo llo w inFRAME WORK OF SBIPM g s te p s .

M ESSAGE

CRYPTO -K E Y S C RYPTO PART

S C A N N IN G

C O D IN G

E N C R Y P T IO N

R E S H A P IN G CO VER STEGO PART E M B E D D IN G '- -- - -- - -- - -- - - -- -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - - *--

C O V E R IM A G E S T E G O IM A G E 3.3 Visual Perception:

STEGO KEYS

F o r a n y s te g a n o g ra p h y b a s e d s e c u re s y s te m , th e p e rc e p tio n o f s te g a n o s s h o u ld b e c o v e r im a g e its e lf s o th a t o n e c a n n o t d iffe re n tia te th e m a n d d e te c t th e e x is te n c e o f e m b e d d e d m e s s a g e .

3.4 Difference Analysis:

T h e "d iffe re n c e -im a g e s "o b ta in e d b y ta k in g th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n c o v e r, p ro c e s s e d c o v e r a n d s te g o

im a g e s a re n o t v is ib le . F o r m a k in g th e d iffe re n c e v is ib le in "d iffe re n c e -im a g e s " fo r v is u a l in te rp re ta tio n , w e in c re a s e d iffe re n c e s b y m u ltip lic a tio n o f w e ig h t fa c to r a n d th e n re v e rt th e v a lu e s to g e t th e s tre n g th e n e d STEGANOGRAPHY

"d iffe re n c e -im a g e s ".F ro m a n a ly s is o f th e s e "d iffe re n c e -im a g e s ", o n c o u ld n o t s a y th a t th e c h a n g e s a re e ith

c o v e r p ro c e s s in g o r m e s s a g e e m b e d d in g a n d h e n c e w e c a n s a y th a t th e m e th o d is s a fe fro m k n o w n c o a tta c k . 3.5 Distortion Analysis:

D is to rtio n a n a ly s is o f s te g o im a g e s is c a rrie d o u t b y s tu d y in g d is to rtio n / s im ila rity m e s s a g e s s ta ti

T h e re a re m a n y m e th o d s fo r m e a s u rin g d is to rtio n th a t c a n b e u s e d fo r d is to rtio n a n a ly s is . D is to rtio n b e t

d iffe re n t im a g e s is m e a s u re d b y c o n s id e rin g M e a n S q u a re E rro r (M S E ), M e a n A b s o lu te E rro r (M A E ) o r H S im ila rity (H S ).

3.6 Depth Vs Distortion Analysis:

D is to rtio n o c c u rre d in d iffe re n t s te g a n o s is re q u ire d b y v a ry in g th e d e p th o f h id in g fo r e m b in fo rm a tio n in c o v e r im a g e . T h e re la tio n b e tw e e n d e p th o f h id in g u s e d a n d d is to rtio n o c c u rre d in th e s te g o

s h o w n in F ig . th a t d e p th o f h id in g w ith in s o m e L S B re g io n is m o s t s u ita b le fo r m e s s a g e e m b e d d in g a s th e is v e ry s m a ll in th is re g io n . A s th e d e p th o f h id in g in c re a s e s b e y o n d p re fe ra b le re g io n , th e d is to rtio n n o tic e a b le a n d u n s u ita b le fo r m e s s a g e h id in g .


DEPTH OF HIDING (D)---------------

DISTORTION (MAE)

3.7 Steganography in Images:

In th is s e c tio n w e d e a l w ith d a ta e n c o d in g in s till d ig ita l im a g e s . In e s s e n c e , im a g e s te g a n o g ra p h y a b o u t e x p lo itin g th e lim ite d p o w e rs o f th e h u m a n v is u a l W y s te mre a s o n , a n y p la in te x t, c ip h e r te x t, (HVS). s ith in

o th e r im a g e s , o r a n y th in g th a t c a n b e e m b e d d e d in a b it s tre a m c a n b e h id d e n in a n im a g e . W h e n e m b e d d i is im p o rta n t to re m e m b e r th e fo llo w in g re s tric tio n s a n d fe a tu re s : S T E G A N O G R A_P_H Y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ , __ th e e m b e d d e d d a ta s h o u ld b e a s im p e rc e p tib le a s p o s s ib le . (T h is d o e s n o t m e a n th e e m b e d d e d d a ta n e e d s to b e in v is ib le ; it is p o s s ib le fo r th e d a ta to b e h id d e n w h ile it re m a in s in p la in s ig h t.) T h e e m b e d d e d d a ta s h o u ld b e d ire c tly e n c o d e d in to th e m e d ia , ra th e r th a n in to h e a d e r o r w ra p p e r, to m a in ta in d a ta c o n s is te n c y a c ro s s fo rm a ts . T h e e m b e d d e d d a ta s h o u ld b e a s im m u n e a s p o s s ib le to m o d ific a tio n s fro m in te llig e n t a tta c k s o r a n tic ip a te d m a n ip u la tio n s s u c h a s filte rin g a n d re s a m p lin g . S o m e d is to rtio n o r d e g ra d a tio n o f th e e m b e d d e d d a ta c a n b e e x p e c te d w h e n th e c o v e r d a ta is m o d ifie d . T o m in im is e th is , e rro r c o rre c tin g c o d e s s h o u ld b e u s e d . T h e e m b e d d e d d a ta s h o u ld b e s e lf-c lo c k in g o r a rb itra rily re -e n tra n t. T h is e n s u re th a t th e e m b e d d e d d a ta c a n s till b e e x tra c te d w h e n o n ly p o rtio n s o f th e c o v e r d a ta is a v a ila b le . F o r e x a m p le , if o n ly a p a rt o f im a g e is a v a ila b le , th e e m b e d d e d d a ta s h o u ld s till b e re c o v e ra b le .

T h e c o v e r d a ta s h o u ld n o t b e s ig n ific a n tly d e g ra d e d b y th e e m b e d d e d d a ta , a n d

STEGA NO G RAPH Y

4. STEGANOGRAPHY DIAGRAMAT1C FLOW

In fo rm a tio n to b e h id d e n

H id d e n docum ent

Sitego tool
J

L a w e n fo rc e m e d in te rc e p t but doe! know th a tStego tool d o c u m e n t.

U s e r c a n g e t th e h id d e n in fo rm a tio n u s in g p a s s w o rd

4.1 Im a g e s : T o a c o m p u te r, a n is a n a rra y o f n u m b e rs th a t re p re s e n t lig h t in te n s itie s a t v a rio u s p o in ts , image o r pixels. T h e s e p ix e ls m a k e u p th e rastere data. A n im a g e s iz e o f 6 4 0 b y 4 8 0 p ix e ls , u tiliz in g 2 5 6 im a g 's c o lo rs (8 b its p e r p ix e l) is fa irly c o m m o n . S u c h a n im a g e w o u ld c o n ta in a ro u n d 3 0 0 k ilo b its o f d a ta .

D ig ita l im a g e s a re ty p ic a lly s to re d in e ith e r 2 4 -b it o r 8 -b it p e r p ix e l fd e s . 2 4 -b it im a g e s a re s o m e

k n o w n atrue colour im a g e s . O b v io u s ly , a 2 4 -b it im a g e p ro v id e s m o re s p a c e fo r h id in g in fo rm a tio n ; h o w e v s 2 4 -b it im a g e s a re g e n e ra lly la rg e

Dept OfCSE

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGANOGRAPHY a n d n o t th a t c o m m o n . A 2 4 -b it 2 4 apgix e ls w id e b y 7 6 8 p ix e ls h ig h w o u ld h a v e a s iz e in e x c e s s o f 2 10 im e

m e g a b y te s . A s s u c h , la rg e file s w o u ld a ttra c t a tte n tio n w e re th e y to b e tra n s m itte d a c ro s s a n e tw o rk o r th e I

Im a g e c o m p re s s io n is d e s ira b le . H o w e v e r, c o m p re s s io n b rin g s w ith it o th e r p ro b le m s , th a t s h a ll b e e x p la in e A lte rn a tiv e ly , 8 -b it c o lo u r im a g e s c a n b e u s e d to h id e in fo rm a tio n . In 8 -b it c o lo u r im a g e s , (s u

G IF file s ), e a c h p ix e l is re p re s e n te d a s a s in g le b y te . E a c h p ix e l m e re ly p o in ts to a c o lo u r in d e x ta b le , o r palette,

w ith 2 5 6 p o s s ib le c o lo u rs . T h e p ix e l's v a lu e , th e n , is b e tw e e n 0 a n d 2 5 5 . T h e im a g e s o ftw a re m e re ly n e e d th e in d ic a te d c o lo u r o n th e s c re e n a t th e s e le c te d p ix e l p o s itio n .

If u s in g a n 8 -b it im a g e a s th e c o v e r-im a g e , m a n y s te g a n o g ra p h y e x p e rts re c o m m e n d u s in g im fe a tu rin g 2 5 6 s h a dgrayoa s th e p a le tte , fo r re a s o n s th a t w ill b e c o m e a p p a re n t. G re y -s c a le im a g e s a re p re fe rr es f

b e c a u s e th e s h a d e s c h a n g e v e ry g ra d u a lly b e tw e e n p a le tte e n trie s . T h is in c re a s e s th e im a g e 's a b ilit in fo rm a tio n . W h e n d e a lin g w ith 8 -b it im a g e s , th e s te g a n o g ra p h e r w ill n e e d to c o n s id e r th e im a g e a s w e ll p a le tte . O b v io u s ly , a n im a g e w ith la rg e a re a s o f s o lid c o lo r is a p o o r c h o ic e , a s v a ria n c e s c re a te d b y e m b e

m ig h t b e n o tic e a b le . O n c e a s u ita b le c o v e r im a g e h a s b e e n s e le c te d , a n im a g e e n c o d in g te c h n iq u e n e chosen.

4.2 Im a g e C o m p re s s io n :

Im a g e c o m p re s s io n o ffe rs a s o lu tio n to la rg e im a g e file s . T w o k in d s o f im a g e c o m p re s s io


lossless

a n d lossy c o m p re s s io n . B o th m e th o d s s a v e s to ra g e s p a c e b u t h a v e d iffe rin g e ffe c ts o n

u n c o m p re s s e d h id d e n d a ta in th e im a g e .

L o s s y c o m p re s s io n , a s ty p ifie d b y J P E G (J o in t P h o to g ra p h ic E x p e rts G ro u p ) fo rm a t file s , o ffe rs

c o m p re s s io n , b u t m a y n o t m a in ta in th e o rig in a l im a g e 's in te g rity . T h is c a n im p a c t n e g a tiv e ly o n a n y h id d e th e im a g e . T h is is d u e to th e lo s s y c o m p re s s io n a lg o rith m , w h ic h m a y "lo s e " u n n e c e s s a ry im a g e d a ta , p

c lo s e a p p ro x im a tio n to h ig h -q u a lity d ig ita l im a g e s , b u t n o t a n e x a c t d u p lic a te . H e n c e , th e te rm " T o s s y " c o m L o s s y c o m p re s s io n is fre q u e n tly u s e d o n tru e -c o lo u r im a g e s , a s it o ffe rs h ig h c o m p re s s io n ra te s . L o s s le s s c o m p re s s io n m a in ta in s th e o rig in a l im a g e d a ta e x a c tly ; h e n c e it is p re fe rre d w h e o rig in a l in fo rm a tio n m u s t re m a in in ta c t. It is th u s m o re fa v o u re d STEGANOGRAPHY

b y s te g a n o g ra p h ic te c h n iq u e s . U n fo rtu n a te ly , lo s s le s s c o m p re s s io n d o e s n o t o ffe r s u c h h ig h c o m p re s s io n lo s s y c o m p re s s io n . T y p ic a l e x a m p le s o f lo s s le s s c o m p re s s io n fo rm a ts a re C o m p u s e rv e 's G IF (G ra p h ic s In F o rm a t) a n d M ic ro s o ft's B M P (B itm a p ) fo rm a t. 4.3 Image Encoding Techniques: In fo rm a tio n c a n b e h id d e n m a n y d iffe re n t w a y s in im a g e s . S tra ig h t m e s s a g e in s e rtio n c a n b e

w h ic h w ill s im p ly e n c o d e e v e ry b it o f in fo rm a tio n in th e im a g e . M o re c o m p le x e n c o d in g c a n b e d o n e to e

m e s s a g e o n ly n o i s y a" re a s o f th e im a g e th a t w ill a ttra c t le s s a tte n tio n . T h e m e s s a g e m a y a ls o b e s c a tte r " in ra n d o m ly th ro u g h o u t th e c o v e r im a g e .T h e m o s t c o m m o n a p p ro a c h e s to in fo rm a tio n h id in g in im a g e s a re :

L e a s t s ig n ific a n t b it (L S B ) in sM rtioknin g a n d > e a s


filte rin g te c h n iq u e s

A lg o rith m s a n d tra n s fo rm a tio n s

Dept Of CSE

Anoop Shrivastava

E a c h o f th e s e c a n b e a p p lie d to v a rio u s im a g e s , w ith v a ry in g d e g re e s o f s u c c e s s . E a c h o f

s u ffe rs to v a ry in g d e g re e s fro m o p e ra tio n s p e rfo rm e d o n im a g e s , s u c h a s c ro p p in g , o r re s o lu tio n d e c re m d e c re a s e s in th e c o lo u r d e p th .

4.4 Least Significant Bit Insertion: O n e o f th e m o s t c o m m o n te c h n iq u e s u s e d in s te g a n o g ra p h y to d a y is c a lle d le a s t s ig n ific a n t b it

in s e rtio n . T h is m e th o d is e x a c tly w h a t it s o u n d s lik e ; th e le a s t s ig n ific a n t b its o f th e c o v e r-im a g e a re a lte re th e y fo rm th e e m b e d d e d in fo rm a tio n . T h e fo llo w in g e x a m p le s h o w s h o w th e le tte r A c a n b e h id d e n in th e b y te s o f th re e p ix e ls in a 2 4 -b it im a g e .

P ix e ls : (0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 ) (0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 ) (1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 00100111 11101001)

A:

10000001

Dept Of CSE

Anoop Shrivastava

STEG A N O G RA PH Y

R e s u lt: (0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 ) (0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 ) (1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 )

T h e th re e u n d e rlin e d b its a re th e o n ly th re e b its th a t w e re a c tu a lly a lte re d . L S B in s e rtio n re q u ire s o n

a v e ra g e th a t o n ly h a lf th e b its in a n im a g e b e c h a n g e d . S in c e th e 8 -b it le tte r A o n ly re q u ire s e ig h t b y te s to h th e n in th b y te o f th e th re e p ix e ls c a n b e u s e d to h id e th e n e x t c h a ra c te r o f th e h id d e n m e s s a g e .

A s lig h t v a ria tio n o f th is te c h n iq u e a llo w s fo r e m b e d d in g th e m e s s a g e in tw o o r m o re o f th e le a s t s ig

b its p e r b y te . T h is in c re a s e s th e h id d e n in fo rm a tio n c a p a c ity o f th e c o v e r-o b je c t, b u t th e c o v e r-o b je c t d e g ra s ta tis tic a lly , a n d it is m o re d e te c ta b le . O th e r v a ria tio n s o n th is te c h n iq u e in c lu d e e n s u rin g th a t s ta tis tic a l c

th e im a g e d o n o t o c c u r. S o m e in te llig e n t s o ftw a re a ls o c h e c k s fo r a re a s th a t a re m a d e u p o f o n e s o C h a n g e s in th e s e p ix e ls a re th e n a v o id e d b e c a u s e s lig h t c h a n g e s w o u ld c a u s e n o tic e a b le v a ria tio n s in th e 4.5 Advantages Of LSB Insertion: M a jo r a d v a n ta g e o f th e L S B a lg o rith m is it is q u ic k a n d e a s y . T h e re h a s a ls o b e e n s te g a n o g ra p h y s o ftw a re d e v e lo p e d w h ic h w o rk a ro u n d L S B c o lo r a lte ra tio n s v ia p a le tte m a n ip u la tio n .

L S B in s e rtio n a ls o w o rk s w e ll w ith g ra y -s c a le im a g e s . A s lig h t v a ria tio n o f th is te c h n iq u e a llo w s fo r

e m b e d d in g th e m e s s a g e in tw o o r m o re o f th e le a s t s ig n ific a n t b its p e r b y te . T h is in c re a s e s th e h id d e n in fo r c a p a c ity .

4.6 Masking And Filtering : M a s k in g a n d filte rin g te c h n iq u e s h id e in fo rm a tio n b y m a rk in g a n im a g e in a m a n n e r s im ila r to w a te rm a rk s . B e c a u s e w a te rm a rk in g te c h n iq u e s a re m o re in te g ra te d in to th e im a g e , th e y m a y b e a p p lie d w

o f im a g e d e s tru c tio n fro m lo s s y c o m p re s s io n . B y c o v e rin g , o r m a s k in g a fa in t b u t p e rc e p tib le s ig n a l w ith a m a k e th e firs t n o n -p e rc e p tib le , w e e x p lo it th e fa c t th a t th e h u m a n v is u a l s y s te m c a n n o t d e te c t s lig h t c c e rta in te m p o ra l d o m a in s o f th e im a g e .

Dept Of CSE

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGA NO G RAPH Y T e c h n ic a lly , w a te rm a rk in g is n o t a s te g a n o g ra p h ic fo rm . S tric tly , s te g a n o g ra p h y c o n c e a ls d a ta

im a g e ; w a te rm a rk in g e x te n d s th e im a g e in fo rm a tio n a n d b e c o m e s a n a ttrib u te o f th e c o v e r im a g e , p ro v id in o w n e rs h ip o r c o p y rig h t d e ta ils . M a s k in g te c h n iq u e s a re m o re s u ita b le fo r u s e in lo s s y J P E G im a g e s th a n L S B in s e rtio n b e c a u s e re la tiv e im m u n ity to im a g e o p e ra tio n s s u c h a s c o m p re s s io n a n d c ro p p in g .

Dept Of CSE

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGA NO G RAPH Y

5. Algorithms and transformations


B e c a u s e th e y a re h ig h q u a lity c o lo u r im a g e s w ith g o o d c o m p re s s io n , it is d e s ira b le to u s e J P E G a c ro s s n e tw o rk s s u c h a s th e In te rn e t. In d e e d , J P E G im a g e s a re b e c o m in g a b u n d a n t o n th e In te rn e t.

J P E G im a g e s u s e th e d is c re te c o s in e tra n s fo rm (D C T ) to a c h ie v e c o m p re s s io n . D C T is a

c o m p re s s io n tra n s fo rm , b e c a u s e th e c o s in e v a lu e s c a n n o t b e c a lc u la te d p re c is e ly , a n d ro u n d in g e rro r

in tro d u c e d . V a ria n c e s b e tw e e n th e o rig in a l d a ta a n d th e re c o v e re d d a ta d e p e n d s o n th e v a lu e s a n d m e th th e c a lc u la te th e D C T .

Im a g e s c a n a ls o b e p ro c e s s e d u s in g fa s t F o u rie r tra n s fo rm a tio n a n d w a v e le t tra n s fo rm a tio n .

p ro p e rtie s s u c h a s lu m in a n c e c a n a ls o b e u tilis e d . T h e H V S h a s a v e ry lo w s e n s itiv ity to s m a ll c h a n g e s in lu

b e in g a b le to d is c e rn c h a n g e s o f n o le s s th a n o n e p a rt in th irty fo r ra n d o m p a tte rn s . T h is fig u re g o e s u p to o 2 4 0 fo r u n ifo rm re g io n s o f a n im a g e .

M o d e rn s te g a n o g ra p h ic s y s te m s u s e s p re a d -s p e c tru m c o m m u n ic a tio n s to tra n s m it a n a rro w b a n d o v e r a m u c h la rg e r b a n d w id th s o th a t th e s p e c tra l d e n s ity o f th e s ig n a l in th e c h a n n e l lo o k s lik e n o is e .

T h e tw o d iffe re n t s p re a d -s p e c tru m te c h n iq u e s th e s e to o ls e m p lo y a re c a lle d d ire c t-s e q u e n c fre q u e n c y h o p p in g . T h e fo rm e r h id e s in fo rm a tio n b y p h a s e -m o d u la tin g th e d a ta s ig n a l (c a rrie r) w ith a p s e u n u m b e r s e q u e n c e th a t b o th th e s e n d e r a n d th e re c e iv e r k n o w . T h e la tte r d iv id e s th e a v a ila b le b a n d w id th in c h a n n e ls a n d h o p s b e tw e e n th e s e c h a n n e ls (a ls o trig g e re d b y a p s e u d o ra n d o m n u m b e r s e q u e n c e ).

T h e P a tc h w o rk m e th o d is b a s e d o n a p s e u d o ra n d o m , s ta tis tic a l p ro c e s s th a t ta k e s a d v a n ta th e h u m a n w e a k n e s s e s to lu m in a n c e v a ria tio n . U spattern encoding to re p e a te d ly s c a tte r h id d e n redundant in g in fo rm a tio n th ro u g h o u t th e c o v e r im a g e , lik e a p a tc h w o rk , P a tc h w o rk c a n h id e a re a s o n a b ly s m a ll m e s s tim e s in a im a g e . In th e P a tc h w o rk pm e th o d ,im a g e p o in tsa re ra n d o m ly c h o s e n . T h e b riga tn e s s o f n a irs f (a,b) h is d e c re a s e d b y o n e a n d th e b rig h is e sc re a s e d b y o n e . F o r a b tn in s o f

Dept OfCSE

10

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGANO GRAPHY th a t a fte r J P E G c o m p re s s io n , w ith th e q u a lity fa c to r s e t to 7 5 , th e m e s s a g e c a n s till b e d e c o d e d w ith a n 8 5

la b e le d im a g e , th e e x p e c te d v a lu e o f th e s u m o f th e d iffe re n c e s o f th e n p a irs o f p o in ts is th e n 2 n . B e n d

T h is a lg o rith m is m o re ro b u s t to im a g e p ro c e s s in g s u c h a s c ro p p in g a n d ro ta tin g , b u t a t th e c m e s s a g e s iz e . T e c h n iq u e s s u c h a s P a tc h w o rk a re id e a l fo r w a te rm a rk in g o f im a g e s . E v e n if th e im a g e is th e re is a g o o d p ro b a b ility th a t th e w a te rm a rk w ill s till b e re a d a b le .

O th e r te c h n iq u e s e n c ry p t a n d s c a tte r th e h id d e n th ro u g h o u t th e im a g e in s o m e p re -d e te rm m a n n e r. It is a s s u m e d th a t e v e n if th e m e s s a g e b its a re e x tra c te d , th e y w ill b e u s e le s s w ith o u t th e a lg o s te g o -k e y to d e c o d e th e m . A lth o u g h s u c h te c h n iq u e s d o h e lp p ro te c t a g a in s t h id d e n m e s s a g e e x tra c tio n n o t im m u n e to d e s tru c tio n o f th e h id d e n m e s s a g e th ro u g h im a g e m a n ip u la tio n .

Dept OfCSE

11

Anoop Shrivastava

STEG A N O G RA PH Y

6. SYSTEM DESIGN:

T h e s e a re th e s te p s fo llo w e d in im a g e h id in g w h ile tra n s m is s io n a n d d e n o is in g a fte r re c e iv in g :

1. G e t a c o v e r im a g e (p u b lic ly a c c e s s ib le m a te ria l) 2. T a k e th e in fo rm a tio n to b e h id d e n (m e s s a g e o r im a g e ) 3. C o m b in e c o v e r im a g e w ith th e in fo rm a tio n to b e h id d e n (w e fo llo w L S B a lg o rith m fo r th is ) 4. W h ile tra n s m is s io n it w ill b e c o rru p te d b y n o is e 5. U s e a n y o f th e fd te rin g m e th o d s , e x : w ie n e r filte rin g fo r d e n o is in g in w a v e le t d o m a in 6. H e re fd te r is e m p lo y e d in o rd e r to re m o v e th e n o is e 7. D u rin g e x tra c tio n a p a s s w o rd c h e c k is p ro v id e d 8. If p a s s w o rd is m a tc h e d th e n e x tra c tio n o f h id d e n in fo rm a tio n .
7. SECURITY:

A m e th o d , S B IP M , fo r p ro v id in g th e s e c u rity o f o u r im p o rta n t in fo rm a tio n is b a s e d o n th e te c h n iq

s ig n a l p ro c e s s in g , c ry p to g ra p h y , a n d s te g a n o g ra p h y . T h e s e c u rity o f in fo rm a tio n h a s b e e n s tre n g th e n e d b y

s c a n n in g , c o d in g , e n c ry p tio n , c o v e r p ro c e s s in g a n d e m b e d d in g te c h n iq u e s in th e m e th o d . R e s h a p in g s t

m e th o d p ro v id e s ro b u s tn e s s fo r d e te c tin g m e s s a g e c o rre c tly in s u c h s itu a tio n w h e n s te g o im a g e is d is to m e th o d d e v e lo p e d is s a fe fro m v a rio u s a tta c k s . S im u la tio n a n d s te g a n a ly s is re s u lts s h o w n in th is p a p e r s o n e w ill n o t b e a b le to d is tin g u is h b e tw e e n c o v e r a n d s te g o im a g e s . T h u s w e c o n c lu d e th a t th e s tre n g th o f s e c u rity a c h ie v e d is v e ry h ig h a n d u n a u th o riz e d re c e iv e r w il a b le to g e t b a c k th e o rig in a l m e s s a g e u s in g e x h a u s tiv e w ith o u t th e k n o w le d g e o f k e y p a ra m e te rs .

D ig ita l S te g a n o g ra p h y is in te re s tin g fie ld a n d g ro w in g ra p id ly fo r in fo rm a tio n h id in g in th e a

in fo rm a tio n c u rity h a s a v ita l ro le in d e fe n c e a s w e ll a s c iv il a p p lic a tio n s . In fu tu re w e w ill m o re o f s e c u re s y s t se .lt

b a s e d o n th is te c h n o lo g y . S e v e ra l m e th o d s fo r h id in g d a ta in , im a g e s w e re d e s c rib e d , w ith a p p ro p ria te in tr to th e e n v iro n m e n ts o f e a c h m e d iu m , a s w e ll a s th e s tre n g th s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f e a c h m e th o d .T h e k e y

fo r d e s ig n in g th e s te g a n o g ra p h y s y s te m h a s b e e n d e a lt. M o s t d a ta -h id in g s y s te m s ta k e a d v a n ta g e o p e rc e p tu a l w e a k n e s s e s , b u t h a v e w e a k n e s s e s o f th e ir o w n . W e c o n c lu d e th a t fo r n o w , it s e e m s th a t n o d a ta -h id in g is to ta lly im m u n e to a tta c k .

H o w e v e r, s te g a n o g ra p h y h a s its p la c e in s e c u rity . T h o u g h it c a n n o t re p la c e c ry p to g ra p h y to ta l

in te n d e d to s u p p le m e n t it. Its a p p lic a tio n in w a te rm a rk in g a n d fin g e rp rin tin g , fo r u s e in d e te c tio n o f u n a u ille g a lly c o p ie d m a te ria l, is c o n tin u a lly b e in g re a lis e d a n d d e v e lo p e d .

8.FUTURE SCOPE

In th is re p o rt m a n y re le v a n t is s u e s w e re p re s e n te d , fro m a te c h n ic a l p o in t o f v ie w . H o w e v e r, litt b e e n d o n e to m o tiv a te th e s e s tu d ie s . A m o re d e ta ile d in v e s tig a tio n o f a p p lic a tio n s , a n d a c o m p a ris o n w i

te c h n iq u e s in s te g a n o g ra p h y w o u ld h a v e b e e n in te re s tin g . F o r e x a m p le , a th o ro u g h e v a lu a tio n o f th e a d n a tu ra l la n g u a g e -b a s e d te c h n iq u e s c a n o ffe r o v e r im a g e -b a s e d te c h n iq u e s c o u ld h a v e o ffe re d v a lu a b le in s

Dept Of CSE

12

Anoop Shrivastava

STEG A N O G RA PH Y

A n im p o rta n t c o n trib u tio n o f th is p ro je c t to n a tu ra l la n g u a g e s te g a n o g ra p h y is th e lin s o p h is tic a tio n o f th e m o d e l fo r w o rd -s u b s titu tio n p u t fo rw a rd . T h e le x ic a l m o d e ls e m p lo y e d in c u rre n t s u b a s e d s y s te m s w e re o fte n c ritic is e d a n d th e ir in a d e q u a te b e h a v io r u s u a lly d e s c rib e d w ith re s p e c t to

th e o ry . T h e s e p h e n o m e n a c o u ld h a v e b e e n d e m o n s tra te d b y e x a m p le , s h o w in g te x ts a n d in a d e q u a te re p l

c a rrie d o u t b y c u rre n t s te g o s y s te m s . A m o re d e ta ile d a n a ly s is o f h o w c o m m o n th e s e c ritic a l s itu a tio n s re a

ty p ic a l te x t c o u ld h a v e g iv e n c lu e s fo r th e c o n s tru c tio n o f s u c h s y s te m s , to d e c id e w h e th e r th e a d d itio n a l c in tro d u c e d b y s ta tis tic a l w o rd -s e n s e d is a m b ig u a tio n is w o rth th e e ffo rt.

O th e r lin g u is tic m o d e ls h a v e b e e n s tu d ie d , in a d d itio n to th e le x ic a l o n e s , a n d p u t in re la tio n to

o th e r, a n d to th e ir u s e fo r s te g a n o g ra p h ic p u rp o s e s . T h e s te g a n o g ra p h ic a s p e c ts w e re th e n c o v e re d b y in f

th e o re tic m o d e ls . H o w e v e r, little h a s b e e n d o n e to ju s tify th is c h o ic e . It m ig h t h a v e b e e n fru itfu l to p re s c h a ra c te riz a tio n s o f s te g a n o g ra p h y a n d to c o m p a re th e ir s u ita b ility to n a tu ra l la n g u a g e s te g a n o g ra p h y . A c e n tra l p a rt o f th e p ro b le m m o tiv a tin g th is re p o rt w a s th a t th e re a re n o m o d e ls fo rm a liz in g th e d e s

a n a ly s is o f n a tu ra l la n g u a g e s te g o s y s te m s . A lth o u g h th e p re s e n t re p o rt s o m e w h a t im p ro v e s th e s itu p ro v id in g a s y s te m a tic in v e s tig a tio n o f th e to p ic , th e re is s till n o s y s te m to b u ild u p o n fo r m a k in g fo rm a l c la s e c u rity o r ro b u s tn e s s in th e n a tu ra l la n g u a g e s c e n a rio .

9. CONCLUSION:

S e v e ra l m e th o d s fo r h id in g d a ta in , im a g e s w e re d e s c rib e d , w ith a p p ro p ria te in tro d u c tio n s e n v iro n m e n ts o f e a c h m e d iu m , a s w e ll a s th e s tre n g th s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f e a c h m e th o d .T h e k e y a lg

d e s ig n in g th e s te g a n o g ra p h y s y s te m h a s b e e n d e a lt. M o s t d a ta -h id in g s y s te m s ta k e a d v a n ta g e o f h u m a n p

w e a k n e s s e s , b u t h a v e w e a k n e s s e s o f th e ir o w n . W e c o n c lu d e th a t fo r n o w , it s e e m s th a t n o s y s te m o f d a ta to ta lly im m u n e to a tta c k .

H o w e v e r, s te g a n o g ra p h y h a s its p la c e in s e c u rity . T h o u g h it c a n n o t re p la c e c ry p to g ra p h y to ta l

in te n d e d to s u p p le m e n t it. Its a p p lic a tio n in w a te rm a rk in g a n d fin g e rp rin tin g , fo r u s e in d e te c tio n o f u n a u ille g a lly c o p ie d m a te ria l, is c o n tin u a lly b e in g re a lis e d a n d d e v e lo p e d .

A ls o , in p la c e s w h e re s ta n d a rd c ry p to g ra p h y a n d e n c ry p tio n is o u tla w e d , s te g a n o g ra p h y c a n b e u c o v e rt d a ta tra n s m is s io n . S te g a n o g ra p h y c a n b e u s e d a lo n g w ith c ry p to g ra p h y to m a k e a n h ig h ly s e c u re

w a y .F o rm e rly ju s t a n in te re s t o f th e m ilita ry , S te g a n o g ra p h y is n o w g a in in g p o p u la rity a m o n g th e m a s s e s . S c o m p u te r u s e r w ill b e a b le to p u t h is o w n w a te rm a rk o n h is a rtis tic c re a tio n s . T h u s w e c o n c lu d e th a t th e s tre n g th o f s e c u rity a c h ie v e d is v e ry h ig h a n d u n a u th o riz e d re c e iv e r w il a b le to g e t b a c k th e o rig in a l m e s s a g e u s in g e x h a u s tiv e w ith o u t th e k n o w le d g e o f k e y p a ra m e te rs .

D ig ita l S te g a n o g ra p h y is in te re s tin g fie ld a n d g ro w in g ra p id ly fo r in fo rm a tio n h id in g in th e a in fo rm a tio n c u rity h a s a v ita l ro le in d e fe n c e a s w e ll a s c iv il a p p lic a tio n s . se .lt

Dept Of CSE

13

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGA NO G RAPH Y

10. REFERENCE:
l.M .K u h n . W W W :ttp ://w w w jjtc x o m /S te g a n o g ra p h y /s te g lis t.h tm H , P riv a te S ite , H a m b u rg . G e rm a n y 1995.

2 .N .F .J o h n s o n . S te g a n o g ra p h y . W W W :ttp ://\v w w .jjtc .c o m /s teG d o c / e M a s o n U n iv e rs ity h . g e o rg

CONTENTS

1 . I N T R O D U C T ............................................................................................................... IO N 1
2 . S T E G A N O G R A T E C H N I Q U.......................................................................... P H Y E S 2 2 . 1 K E R C O F FP R I N C I P ................................................................................... K LE 2 3. S TE G A N O G R AMH YH O D S P E T ................................................................................... 3

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

S U B S T I T U T IM EN T H O............................................................................. O D 3 P R O P O S E DE T H O....................................................................................... M D 4 V I S U A P E R C E P T I ...................................................................................... L O N 4 D I F F E R E N A N A L Y S ................................................................................ C E IS 4

3.5 D E P T H S D I S T O R T I O N A L Y S .......................................................... V A IS 5 3.6 S T E G A N O G R A IPNHI M A G E..................................................................... Y S 7


4. S TE G A N O G R A P H Y D I A G R A M A T ILCO W F .......................................................................................... 7 4 . 1 I M A G E O M P R E S S .................................................................................................. C IO N 8 4 . 2 I M A GEEN C O D I N G
Dept Of CSE

14

Anoop Shrivastava

STEGA NO G RAPH Y T E C H N I Q U............................................................................................................ E S 9 4 . 3L E A S S I G N I F I C A B IT T N T IN S E R T IO N ............................................................................................................... 10 4 . 4 M A S K I N G DF I L T E R I N G A N ............................................................................................ 10 5 . A L G O R I T H AMN SDT R A N S F O R M A T .............................................................. IO N S 12 6 . S Y S T EDME S I G ..................................................................................................................... N 14 7 . S E C U R I..................................................................................................................................... TY 15 8 . F U T U RS EC O P ....................................................................................................................... E 16 9 . C O N C L U S I.......................................................................................................................... O N 17 1 0 . R E F E R E N .......................................................................................................................... C E 18

Dept Of CSE

15

Anoop Shrivastava