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GII PHP TI U HO MNG THNG TIN DI NG GSM Optimize network solution of mobile GSM

Sv: ng Minh Tm, GVHD: Bi Th Cao, Phm Ngc Dng. Khoa Cng ngh in t, Trng H Cng Nghip TP.HCM.
TM TT: Bi bo ny s gii thiu s lc v mng thng tin di ng GSM. Phn chnh ca bi bo s phn tch s cn thit ca vic ti s dng tn s v cc vn pht sinh sau , ng thi s xut phng php ti u mng v tuyn, l vn chnh trong ti u mng thng tin di ng GSM. ABSTRACT:This article introduces a glance over mobile information network GSM. The main part of the article will analyze the need for re-use frequency of the problems arising thereafter, at the same time, will propose methods optimized radio network, being the main problem in the optimal mobile network GSM.

1.1 Tng quan v h thng thng tin di ng GSM

1. GII THIU H thng thng tin di ng ton cu (ting Anh: Global System for Mobile Communications; ting Php: Groupe Spcial Mobile; vit tt: GSM) l mt cng ngh dng cho mng thng tin di ng. Cc mng thng tin di ng GSM cho php c th roaming vi nhau. Do nhng my in thoi di ng GSM ca cc mng GSM khc nhau c th s dng c nhiu ni trn th gii. GSM l chun ph bin nht cho in thoi di ng (TD) trn th gii. Kh nng ph sng rng khp ni ca chun GSM lm cho n tr nn ph bin trn th gii v cho php ngi s dng c th s dng TD ca h nhiu vng trn th gii. GSM khc vi cc chun tin thn ca n v c tn hiu v tc , cht lng cuc gi. N c xem nh l mt h thng TD th h th hai (second generation - 2G). GSM l mt chun m, hin ti n c pht trin bi 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). Vo u thp nin 1980 ti chu u ngi ta pht trin mt mng in thoi di ng ch s dng trong mt vi khu vc. Sau vo nm 1982 n c chun ho bi CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications) v to ra Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) vi mc ch s dng chung cho ton Chu u. Cho n nm 2006 s thu bao di ng GSM ln ti con s 2 t vi trn 700 nh iu hnh, chim gn 80% th phn thng tin di ng trn th gii. Hnh 1. S khi h thng thng tin di ng GSM MS (mobile station): Trm di ng BTS (Base transceiver station): Trm thu pht BSC (Base station controller): B iu khin trm nn BSS (Base station system): H thng trm nn MSC (Mobile services switching center): Trung tm chuyn mch mobile GMSC (Gateway Mobile services switching center): Cng kt ni gia MSC v cc tng i ngoi OMC (Operation and maintenance center): Trung tm khai thc v bo dng OS: H thng khai thc 1.2 Giao din v tuyn (Radio interface) trong GSM Trong GSM, giao din radio s dng tng hp c hai phng thc phn knh theo tn s v thi gian: FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) v TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). Trong GSM s dng bng tn ti 900 MHz (gi l GSM 900) v 1800 MHz (gi l GSM 1800). y ta ch cp n GSM 900. Mi knh c c trng bi mt tn s (sng mang) cho mi hng thu pht, cc tn s ny cch nhau 200 Khz. Trong GSM 900, tn hiu t MS n trm thu pht l 890-915 Mhz l dy tn uplink, cn dy tn downlink t

trm thu pht n MS l 935-960 Mhz . C hai u c rng bng l 25 Mhz, vi 125 knh truyn dn. tng thm hiu sut s dng ph tn s, trong GSM dng k thut TDMA chia mi knh tn s 200 kHz thnh 8 khe thi gian, nh s 0 7. Mi khe s c cp pht cho ngi dng. 1.3 Khi nim Cell

S dng cc Cell ln khi: Sng v tuyn t b che khut (vng nng thn, ven bin ) Mt thu bao thp Yu cu cng sut pht ln Sng v tuyn b che khut (vng th ln) Mt thu bao cao Yu cu cng sut pht nh

S dng cc Cell nh khi: H thng thoi di ng trc y c cu trc ging nh h thng truyn hnh pht thanh qung b: Mt trm pht sng cng sut mnh t ti mt cao im c th pht tn hiu trong vng bn knh n 50km. Trong cu trc ny, s knh thoi trong giao din radio rt hn ch. Gi s dng ht c bng tn GSM 900, theo tnh ton trn ch t ti a l 125* 8 = 1000 knh thoi m thi. Hin nay cn s lng knh thoi gp nhiu ln kt qu tnh ton trn, ngi ta cn ti s dng li tn s ti cc vng khng gian khc nhau, cc vng khng gian ny gi l Cell. Tn s cell ny c th c ti s dng cell khc, cc cuc in thoi vn c duy tr lin tc khi thu bao di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc.

Hnh 3. Thit k cc Cell 1.4 Cp dch v - GoS (Grade of Service) V ngi s dng truy cp knh v tuyn theo kiu ngu nhin. Khi s ngi dng tng ln, s cuc gi i qua knh cng tng, nn thng lng tng ln. C th xy ra tnh hung nhiu ngi dng ng thi truy cp mt knh v tuyn, khi ch c mt ngi c dng knh, nhng ngi khc b tc nghn. Offered Traffic = Carried Traffic + Blocked Traffic mt knh ng trc c cht lng phc v cao th xc sut nghn phi thp. Vy nn s ngi dng c th phi b gii hn. Nu chp nhn mt cp phc v thp hn, tc l xc sut nghn ln hn, th tng ng tng c dung lng mun truyn (tng s ngi dng). GoS cng mt ngha vi xc sut nghn: Lu lng mun truyn: A (lu lng mun truyn) Lu lng b nghn : A*GoS (lu lng mt i) Lu lng c truyn : A*(1 - GoS) (lu lng pht ra) Theo thng k cho thy th cc thu bao c nhn s khng nhn ra c s tc nghn h thng mc di 10%. Tuy nhin mng hot ng vi hiu sut cao th

Hnh 2. Khi nim Cell Cell (t bo hay ): l n v c s ca mng, ti trm di ng MS tin hnh trao i thng tin vi mng qua trm thu pht gc BTS. BTS trao i thng tin qua sng v tuyn vi tt c cc trm di ng MS c mt trong Cell. Gi s bng cch phn chia mt vng trung tm thnh 100 vng nh hn (cc t bo), nu mi cell vi kh nng cung cp 12 knh thoi. Khi nng lc ca h thng v l thuyt c th tng t 12 ln n 12x100 = 1200 knh thoi. Nh vy l dung lng h thng tng ln rt nhiu ln. Vic thit k cc Cell ln hay nh l do thc t.

mng cellular thng c GoS = 2 % ngha l ti a 2% lu lng b nghn, ti thiu 98% lu lng c truyn.

cht lng thoi lun c m bo th mc thu ca sng mang mong mun C (Carrier) phi ln hn tng mc nhiu ng knh I (Interference) v mc nhiu knh ln cn A (Adjacent). 2.1.1. Nhiu ng knh Nhiu ng knh xy ra khi c hai my pht, pht trn cng mt tn s hoc trn cng mt knh. My thu iu chnh knh ny s thu c c hai tn hiu vi cng ph thuc vo v tr ca my thu so vi hai my pht. T s sng mang trn nhiu c nh ngha l cng tn hiu mong mun trn cng tn hiu nhiu. C/I = 10log(Pc/Pi) . Trong : Pc = cng sut tn hiu thu mong mun Pi = cng sut nhiu thu c. Hnh 5. ch ra trng hp m my di ng (cellphone) t trong xe ang thu mt sng mang mong mun t mt trm gc phc v (Serving BS) v ng thi cng ang chu mt nhiu ng knh do nhiu pht sinh ca mt trm gc khc (Interference BS).

Hnh 4. Xc sut nghn GoS 2. PHNG PHP Vi lng bng tn gii hn c phn b trc, tng cht lng phc v, gim nghn mch, ngi ta tm cch tng s knh thoi traffic ln bng cch ti s dng li tn s. Nu tm ra cch phn b cc tn s ln cc Cell hp l s t yu cu ti u cc knh thoi vi cht lng chp nhn c. y l vic phc tp v i hi phi kho st nhiu vn . T vic t chc cu trc li mng t ong (Cells), tm kim cc nguyn nhn gy nhiu cho h thng cng nh o c thc t chng, cn phi d kin tnh hung lu lng tng t bin trong tng lai, ng thi cng cn thit b o v cng c phn mm chuyn dng h tr. Trong thng tin di ng nhiu ng knh nh hng nhiu nht n cht lng thoi, k n l nhiu knh ln cn, cn nhiu trng nh hng khng nhiu so vi 2 loi trn. Nhiu ph thuc nhiu vo cch t chc cc Cell. Ni dung sau s trnh by kh k v hai vn ny v mi lin h gia chng. 2.1. Vn nhiu

Mt c im ca cell l cc knh tn s ang s dng Cell ny c th c s dng cc cell khc. Nhng gia cc cell ny phi c mt khong cch nht nh. iu ny c ngha l cell s b nhiu ng knh do vic cc cell khc s dng cng tn s. Vng ph sng ca trm gc s b gii hn bi l do ny hn l do tp m thng thng. Mt vn trong thit k h t ong l iu khin cc loi nhiu ny mc chp nhn c. iu ny c thc hin mt phn bi vic iu khin khong cch s dng li tn s. Khong cch ny cng ln th nhiu cng b.

Hnh 5. T s nhiu ng knh C/I Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM gi tr C/I b nht m my di ng vn c th lm vic tt l 9 dB. Trong thc t, ngi ta nhn thy rng gi tr ny cn thit phi ln n 12 dB ngoi tr nu s dng nhy tn th mi c th lm vic mc C/I l 9dB. mc C/I thp hn th t l li bit BER (Bit Error Rate) s cao khng chp nhn c v m ho knh cng khng th sa li mt cch chnh xc c. T s C/I c dng cho cc my di ng ph thuc rt ln vo vic quy hoch tn s v mu ti s dng tn
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s. Ni chung vic s dng li tn s lm dung lng tng ng k tuy nhin ng thi cng lm cho t s C/I gim i. Do vic quy hoch tn s cn quan tm n nhiu ng knh C/I. 2.1.2. Nhiu knh ln cn Nhiu knh ln cn xy ra khi sng v tuyn c iu chnh v thu ring knh C song li chu nhiu t knh ln cn C-1 hoc C+1. Mc d thc t sng v tuyn khng c chnh thu knh ln cn , nhng n vn ngh mt s p ng nh l cho php knh ln cn gy nhiu ti knh m my thu ang iu chnh. T s sng mang trn knh ln cn c nh ngha l cng ca sng mang mong mun trn cng ca sng mang knh ln cn. C/A = 10.log(Pc/Pa) Trong : Pc = cng sut thu tn hiu mong mun Pa = cng sut thu tn hiu ca knh ln cn Gi tr C/A thp lm cho mc BER cao. Mc d m ho knh GSM bao gm vic pht hin li v sa li, nhng vic thnh cng th cng c gii hn i vi nhiu. Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM, cho vic quy hoch tn s c tt th gi tr C/A nh nht nn ln hn - 9 dB. C hai t s C/I v C/A u c th c tng ln bng vic s dng quy hoch cu trc tn s. 2.1.3. Mt s bin php khc phc C cc phng php gim can nhiu knh chung (Nhiu ng knh C/I) nh 1. Tng c ly s dng li tn s (D) 2. H thp cao anten trm gc 3. S dng Anten nh hng BTS (Sector ha) Vi phng php tng c ly s dng li tn s D s lm gim can nhiu knh chung, tuy nhin khi s cell trong mi mng mu s tng, tng ng vi s knh tn s dnh cho mi cell s gim v nh vy th dung lng phc v s gim xung. Phng php h thp anten trm gc lm cho nh hng gia cc cell dng chung tn s s c gim bt v nh vy can nhiu knh chung cng c gim bt.

Tuy nhin, vic h thp anten s lm nh hng ca cc vt cn (nh cao tng) ti cht lng ca h thng tr nn nghim trng hn. Phng php s dng Anten nh hng BTS c hai ch li: Mt l bin php lm gim can nhiu knh chung trong khi c ly s dng li tn s khng i, hai l tng dung lng h thng. Khi dng Omni Antenna

Hnh 6. Nhiu khi dng Anten v hng (Omni ) Ta gi thit hai cell E1 v E2 s dng chung mt tn s v E1 c a th cao hn so vi E2. Mt thu bao MS ang di chuyn t E1 ti E2. Khi thu bao di chuyn cng gn E2, kh nng gy nhiu ca n ti E2 cng ln. Khi dng Sector Antenna

Hnh 7. Nhiu khi dng Anten sector ha By gi ta cng vn dng E1 v E2. Nhng c sector ho thnh: EA1, EB1, EC v EA2, EB2, EC2. MS di chuyn v pha E2, xut pht t EA1 (c khong cch ln nht ti E2). Khi MS vt qua v tr trm EA1, n c chuyn giao ti EB1 v khong cch t MS ti E2 gn hn. EB1 cng tn s vi EB2 nhng nh a hnh ta thy, cc nhiu n to ra u nm pha sau anten ca EB2 (v l anten nh hng nn c t s nng lng hng trc trn hng sau = 6 15 dB). iu ny c ngha l kh nng chng nhiu ca h thng tng t 6 15 dB. Tng t nh vy khi MS i ti EA2 n ch to nhiu cho EA1 t pha sau ca anten EA1. Tm li dng sector anten l mt bin php lm tng t s C/ I ca h thng.

2.2.

Khi nim Cell, Site, Cluster

D = R* 3 * N (trong : R l bn knh cell)

Cell l vng khng gian ph bi 1 bp sng ca mt anten Site l vng khng gian ph bi nhiu bp sng ca nhiu anten trong cng trm thu pht sng BTS Vi Cc anten nh hng lch 1200: 1 Site = 3 Cell lch nhau 1200.

Hnh 10. Khong cch D ti s dng tn s Tnh ton C/I Hnh 8. Khi nim Cell, Site Cluster l mt nhm cc cell. Cc knh khng c ti s dng tn s trong mt cluster. Nh khai thc mng c giy php s dng mt s c hn cc tn s v tuyn. Vic quy hoch tn s, ta phi sp xp thch hp cc tn s v tuyn vo mt Cluster sao cho cc Cluster s dng li tn s m khng b nhiu qu mc. ng thi ta c cng thc tnh t s C/I nh sau: P l v tr ca MS thuc cell A, chu nh hng nhiu knh chung t cell B l ln nht.

Hnh 11. S tnh C/I Ti v tr P (v tr my di ng MS) c:


x D C = ( D R) = 1 = ( 3. N -1)x x I R R

Trong x l h s truyn sng, ph bin nm trong khong t 3 n 4 i vi hu ht cc mi trng. C (dB ) = 10x*lg( 3. N -1)
I

Hnh 9. Cluster gm N = 7 cells C ly dng li tn s Ta bit rng s dng li tn s cc cell khc nhau th b gii hn bi nhiu ng knh C/I gia cc cell nn C/I s l mt vn chnh cn c quan tm. D dng thy rng, vi mt kch thc cell nht nh, khong cch s dng li tn s ph thuc vo s Cell N trong 1 Cluster. Nu N cng ln, khong cch s dng li tn s cng ln v ngc li. Ta c cng thc tnh khong cch s dng li tn s:

S cell (N) 3 4 7 9 12 21

T s C/I (dB) x=3,0 9,0 11,7 16,6 18,7 21,0 25,2 x=3,5 10,5 13,7 19,4 21,8 24,5 29,4 x=0 12,0 15,6 22,2 24,9 28,0 33,6

Hnh 12. Bng quan h N & C/I

2.3. Cch t chc Cluster trong mng t ong K hiu ca mu s dng li tn s l M / N M = tng s sites trong Cluster N = tng s cells trong Cluster Ba kiu mu s dng li tn s thng dng l: 3/9, 4/12 v 7/21. a. Mu ti s dng tn s 3/9 Mu ti s dng li tn s 3/9 c ngha cc tn s s dng c chia thnh 9 nhm tn s n nh trong 3 v tr trm gc (Site). Mu ny c khong cch gia cc trm ng knh l D = 5,2R. Cc tn s mu 3/9 (gi thit c 41 bng tn t cc knh 84 n 124, chim bng tn chung 41*0.2 MHz = 8,2 MHz s dng trong mng GSM900 ca VMS)

Theo l thuyt, cu trc mng 9 cells c t s C/I > 9 dB m bo GSM lm vic bnh thng. T s C/A cng l mt t s quan trng v ngi ta cng da vo t s ny m bo rng vic n nh tn s sao cho cc sng mang lin nhau khng nn c s dng cc cell cnh nhau v mt a l. Tuy nhin, trong h thng 3/9 cc cell cnh nhau v mt a l nh A1 & C3; C1 & A2; C2 & A3 li s dng cc sng mang lin nhau. iu ny chng t rng t s C/A i vi cc my di ng hot ng bin gii gia hai cell A1 v C3 l 0dB, y l mc nhiu cao mc d t s ny l ln hn t s chun ca GSM l (- 9 dB). b. Mu ti s dng tn s 4/12 Mu s dng li tn s 4/12 c ngha l cc tn s s dng c chia thnh 12 nhm tn s n nh trong 4 v tr trm gc. Khong cch gia cc trm ng knh khi l D = 6R. Cc tn s mu 4/12:
n nh tn s A1 BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 84 96 108 120 B1 85 97 109 121 C1 86 98 110 122 D1 87 99 111 123 A2 88 100 112 124 B2 89 101 113 C2 90 102 114 D2 91 103 115 A3 92 104 116 B3 93 105 117 C3 94 106 118 D3 95 107 119

n nh tn s
A1 BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 TCH4 84 93 102 111 120 B1 85 94 103 112 121 C1 86 95 104 113 A2 87 96 105 114 122 B2 88 97 106 115 123 C2 89 98 107 116 A3 90 99 108 117 124 B3 91 100 109 118 C3 92 101 110 119

Hnh 13. Phn b tn s cho cc Cell trong Cluster 3/9 Ta thy mi cell c th phn b cc i n 5 sng mang. Nhng phi dnh ra mt khe thi gian cho BCH, mt khe thi gian cho SDCCH/8. Vy s khe thi gian dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (5 x 8 2) = 38 TCH. Trong 9 Cell ca Cluster phi mt 2*9 = 18 knh, cn li 41*8 18 = 310 knh logic dnh cho traffic.

Ta thy mi cell c th phn b cc i l 4 sng mang. Nhng phi dnh ra mt khe thi gian cho BCH, mt khe thi gian cho SDCCH/8. Vy s khe thi gian dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (4 x 8 2) = 30 TCH. Trong 12 Cell ca Cluster phi mt 2*12 = 24 knh, cn li 41*8 24 = 304 knh logic dnh cho traffic.

Hnh 15. Mu ti s dng li tn s 4/12 Hnh 14. Mu ti s dng li tn s 3/9


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V l thuyt, cm 12 cells c t s C/I > 12 dB. y l t s thch hp cho php h thng GSM hot ng tt. Tuy nhin, mu 4/12 c dung lng thp hn so vi mu 3/9 nhng m bo vic n nh tn s sao cho cc sng mang lin nhau khng s dng cc cell cnh nhau v mt a l. c. Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21 Mu 7/21 c ngha l cc tn s s dng c chia thnh 21 nhm n nh trong 7 trm gc. Khong cch gia cc trm ng knh l D = 7,9R. Cc tn s mu 7/21
n nh tn s
A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 G1 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2 F2 G2 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3 F3 G3 BCCH 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 TCH 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124

Ta thy mi cell c th phn b cc i l 2 sng mang. Nhng phi dnh ra mt khe thi gian cho BCH, mt khe thi gian cho SDCCH/8. Vy s khe thi gian dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (2 x 8 2) = 14 TCH. Trong 21 Cell ca Cluster phi mt 2*21 = 42 knh, cn li 41*8 42 = 286 knh logic dnh cho traffic. d. Nhn xt Khi s nhm tn s N gim (21, 12, 9, th khong cch gia cc trm ng knh D s gim 7,9R; 6R; 5,2R. Nh vy, vic la chn mu s dng li tn s phi da trn cc c im a l vng ph sng, mt thu bao ca vng ph v tng s knh ca mng. Mu 3/9: s knh trong mt cell l ln, tuy nhin kh nng nhiu cao. M hnh ny thng c p dng cho nhng vng c mt my di ng cao. Mu 4/12: s dng cho nhng vng c mt lu lng trung bnh. Mu 7/21: s dng cho nhng khu vc mt thp. 2.4. Thay i quy hoch tn s theo phn b lu lng S thay i lu lng v hiu ng im nng (hotspot) hnh thnh nhu cu tng thm knh tn s mt cell no . Khi ngi ta ngh ngay n kh nng ly knh tn s cell no c lu lng rt nh thm vo cho cell no c lu lng qu ln. Tuy nhin, vic lm ny ph hng quy hoch tn s v mang li can nhiu qu mc cho php, gim C/I v C/A nu nh vic thc thi khng ng khoa hc. Mun phn tch chnh xc C/ I, phi k n yu t a hnh thc t. iu ny cn n cng c phn mm c bit x l vn bng my tnh. Mt trong nhng gii php cho vn ny l cu trc ng tm ca cell c tng cng thm ti tn ly t cell khc. Khi , cc ti tn sn c ban u ca cell vn c dng nh vn c, cn ti tn tng cng c pht cng sut b hn mc microcell. Cc nhn t khc: Cng c phn mm quy hoch v tuyn s tnh n nhiu yu t sau y khi chuyn knh tn s: - S khc nhau v cng sut pht v tuyn c cc BTS. - S khc nhau v anten c dng cc c s mt bng.

Hnh 16. Cc tn s mu 7/21

Hnh 16. Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21

- a hnh thay i V GSM l h thng b gii hn bi can nhiu, nn phi xt mu s dng li tn s no c mc can nhiu chp nhn c. Quy hoch ph sng khng lin tc Bi ton quy hoch ny phi x l c bit. Tuy nhin, c s gii bi ton ny vn l quy hoch tn s sao cho cc t s C/ I v C/ A t mc quy nh cht lng. Nhng mu thun pht sinh c th c dung ha ty hon cnh. V d: trong lng x ven quc l c th chu C/ I nh.

b. OSS (Operating SubSystem) L phn mm h tr cho nh khai thc dch v (Operator) tnh nng gim st tnh trng hot ng, vn hnh khai thc ca h thng mng. N cung cp cc giao din quan st, gim st cu hnh, cnh bo ca h thng. N h tr cho cng tc ti u, thit k h thng..v.v..

Hnh 18. Phn mm h tr khai thc OSS. Ta ni qua cc giao din quan trng sau: Hnh 17. Ph sng khng lin tc 2.5. Mt s cng c h tr cng tc ti u a. MapInfo L phn mm bn tr gip quan st v phn tch h thng cc Cell, cc trm ca mng thng tin di ng. Cung cp mt c s d liu v a hnh, a vt ca khu vc a l phn tch. Configuration Management (Qun l cu hnh) a ra giao din ho quan st cu hnh cc thnh phn trong mng, v d nh cu hnh ca cc Cell trong mng.

Hnh 19. Giao din Qun l cu hnh mng.

Hnh 18. Giao din ca MapInfo.

X l cc cu lnh (Command Handling) L giao din thc hin cc lnh gim st h thng mng.

phn tch mt cch kh chnh xc cht lng mng v tuyn ti mt khu vc nht nh.

Hnh 20. Giao din thc hin cc dng lnh Alarm (Cnh bo) Gim st cc cnh bo v tnh trng hot ng ca cc thnh phn mng. Nhn vo y ta c th thy c cc li c th ca h thng, t a ra cc phn ng thch hp mng hot ng tt hn.

Hnh 22. Cc ca s giao din ca TEMS Investigation. Phn tch kt qu o sng pht hin nhiu tn s S dng my TEMS T68i ca Sony Ericsson o sng pht hin nhiu tn s ti khu th mi Php Vn - H Ni. Di y l ph tn hiu thu c ti khu th mi Php Vn.

Hnh 23. Kt qu o sng pht hin nhiu tn Hnh 21. Giao din hin th cc cnh bo (Alarm). c. TEMS Investigation Cng vi cc cng c khc, my TEMS c s dng thng xuyn trong vic o v kim tra cht lng h thng. y l phn mm h tr o c, phn tch cht lng mng v tuyn. Da vo TEMS ta c th bit c cng tn hiu, cht lng tn hiu, Cell phc v v cc Cell ln cn ti mt khu vc kho st. TEMS cung cp cc s kin v cc bn tin o c ca h thng gip Trn biu ph tn hiu thu c ta thy: mt s v tr c ch s C/ I rt thp, c nhng lc b gim xung di 9dB (gi tr C/ I b nht m cht lng c th chp nhn c theo khuyn ngh GSM ). Mc nhiu ng knh qu cao l nguyn nhn dn n s lng yu cu Handover tng t bin trong khi mc thu tn hiu vn tt (RxLevel khong -52 dBm). Nhiu tn s xut hin lm cho tn hiu m thoi d b ngt qung, nghe khng r, nh hng n cht lng thoi. Nu ko di s lm cuc gi b rt mch.

Kt lun: Mc nhiu ng knh nh vy l vt qu mc cho php, iu ny c th l do khi thc hin quy hoch tn s c s khai bo nhm tn s (sau khi kim tra d liu mng cho thy 2 trm BTS ti khu th mi Php Vn khai bo cng tn s BCCH). Nh vy cn kim tra v tin hnh khai bo li tn s m bo yu cu. 3. KT LUN Bi bo trnh by khi qut v cc hot ng ti u trong mng thng tin di ng GSM. Tuy bi bo ny cha thc s i su, phn tch cc d liu ca mng v tuyn, nhng cng nu vn , t nn tng cho ti u mng v tuyn mt cch trc tip hoc gin tip t c trng thi hot ng ca mng v tuyn mt cch tt nht c th. Bi bo cng cp n cc cng vic kho st, thit k, lp t, vn hnh h thng ... Do c th ca mi trng truyn dn l v tuyn v do yu cu pht trin mng li lun lun bin ng tng ngy nn ti u mng v tuyn l hot ng thng xuyn, lin tc, ko di cng vi s tn ti v pht trin ca h thng.

4. TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Thng tin di ng GSM. PTS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng [2] Tnh ton mng thng tin di ng s CELLULAR. V c Th [3] Th vin Alex. Ericsson. [4] BSS System Description. Alcatel. [5] http://www.vntelecom.net [6] http://www.gsmworld.com

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