A. L.

CASILLAS

DE TALLER

CAlCUlOS

ES PROPIEDAD

INTELECTUAL BY EDICIONES

DEL

AUTOR

CALCULOS

MAQUINAS
POR

DE TALLER

10

COPYRIGHT

«MAQUINAS"

PRINTED IMPRESO

IN SPAIN EN ESPANA

A. L. CASI LLAS

PR6LOGO

DEL AUTOR

La mas hermosa y noble de todas las labores humanas es la del sembrador en cualquiera de sus aplicaciones que suponga uti/idad para sus semejantes; asi se ha hecho con este pequeiio Iibro, una siembra fructifera que ha conducido y ayudado a muchos millares de hombres en su trabajo. Su autor hace un alto en el camino para meditar y considerar los frutos recogidos, sintiendose satisfecho de una labor que tallto ha sido agradecida por quienes en el campo del trabajo necesitaron de una mano conductora para seguir la ruta profesional, en la cual fue su guia este libro, asi como los demos Iibros complementarios que se han ido editando sucesivamente con un solo ideal: «AI servicio del Trabajo.» Veinticinco ahos cumpliendo una miston que no fue iniciada con Jines comerciales, sino impuesta por el sentido de la necesidad y el deseo de ayudar a quienes tenian que andar por el espinoso camino de la formacion profesional, solos, y separando las zarzas para poder pasar venciendo todas las dificultades que su falta de preparacion les imponia. Es un balance digno de todo examen, porque servir al trabajo. es servir a la mejor de las causas, puesto que este hace posible la existencia de una labor construct iva, y se convierte en el mas fuerte sosten de la sociedad, engrandeciendo las naciones. Agradezco muy de veras a cuantos con sus cartas, escritas unas en Espana y otras desde America, me alien tan a seguir, sus elogiosas frases y su agradecimiento es la mejor recompensa que por mi modesta labor puedo recibir; y por esto quiero dejar sentado el principio de que a ellos debo una -7-

gratitud sin llmites porque han sido Jos animadores de mis obras .. han tenido fe en el hombre desconocido, en el Profesor anonimo, logrando con ello que una poderosa fuerza impulsara y acrecentara esta labor hasta alcanzar el exito obtenido, Un cambio con referencia a tiempos pasados, seiiala el notable avance de la existencia tecnica fundamentado en las Escuelas de Formacion Profesional Industrial, estatales y de empresa, que unidos a los medios de la organizacion cientifica del trabajo, servirdn para que todos cuantos sientan un deseo de formarse profesionalmente, puedan hacerlo y trabajar plenamente capacitados siguiendo una racional tecnica, cumpliendo asi con un ineludible deber de hacer prosperos sus medios de vida, cuyo fundamento tiene su base en el. trabajo con un alto indice de productividad. Esta recomendacion en forma de consejo, no debe nunca olvidarse puesto que sera en el futuro el puntal de toda prosperidad, constituyendo un deber que a todos por igua/ nos obliga. La vida inactiva merced a la labor de otros ha terminado. A. L. CASILLAS

INDICE

DE
CAPiTULO

MATERIAS
PRIMERO
Tobias de 10 drversas. Cuadrados,

Equivalencias rnglescs a rnetrtccs. cubos, ralces. --- Desarrollo

ctrcunferencta.

Tobias Arcos.

CAPiTULO II tr+qonornetrtccs. - ResoJuciones del tri6ngulo cuerdas y flechos. - Elementos de Geometria. gravedad. - Palancas. CAPiTULO III Engranajes. CAPiTULO IV y diferencial para fresadoras. CAPiTULO V de rosccss - Tobias para CAPiTULO VI Sistema de conos. CAPiTULO
Herramientas

rectcnqulo, - Centres

de

Division

ordinaria

-

Posos diversos.

Sistema

general

roscado

en el torno.

VII

de corte en general.

Resistencia

de materiales

CAPiTULO VIII y tratamiento

termico.

CAPiTULO IX Peso y dalo~de maleriales. CAPiTULO
Datos generales. Transmisiones.

X
Elevccion de pesos.

CAPiTULO
Tablas de tolerancias

XI
Medicion.

en cjuste, -

Velocidades

CAPlwLO XII y avances. - Celculos AP~NDICE

de fcbrtcccion.

Reporccion

de outomovrles.

-

Ajustes

y

materiales.

-8-

-9-

Paginas

fNDICE
Pagin.

Cci.ncamos

A
Acerol (elecci6n de mate,ialel) •

herramientas • aleadOi para herramientcu • rapidos para herram ientas • crom e- nlquel de tratamiento cromo-nlquel de cementaci6n nlquel de cementaci6n • carbono d. cemen'aci6n. inoxidablel. • nlquel de trcitamiento. para resort ••• de frelas • » d. machos para roscar . Ajulte internacionall. S. A. agujero y eje unico AI.acion •• de diveflos metale s , Angulos de corte para cuchillas normales. » de corte para cuchillas «Widia» • Antifricci6n • Areas y dimenlionel de Ilguras planas. Aros de pilt6n 0 6mbolo • Arcol, Ilechas y cuerdas para radio I Aumento para piezas a rectillcar Autom6vil .. (reparaci6n). » ,. » ,. ,. » ,. ,. » Afllado

» »

01 carbono 01 carbona

para para

maquinaria

438 439 +to 445 445 441 442 442 442 44] 44] +46 341 -]8] ]07 523 - 55] 448-452
]]9

Calculos de fabricacion Calibres pianos 0 gal gas «Block" . » interiores y exteriores (exactitud). » interiores y exteriores (desgaste). » para roscas (errores y exactitud). » Pie de Rey (Iectura en millmetrol y pulgadas) . Calor y potencias calor Iiicas. » latente de fusi6n • » latent. de YoporizQci6n Camones 0 levas, fresado. . Cargas, equivalencic en toneladas, en libral y en kilo"ramos . Cargas que pueden soportar los tornillol y tuercas • Centros de gravedad . » protegidos para torn ear piezQS
Cemenlacion CinemciticQ. •

521 587 - 626 554 - 555 558 559 - 560 561 - 567 569 - 571 71 79 79 639 - 642 423 - "]4 457 1..2- 144 502 <461 - .. 65 48 503 - 50.. 505 "17· ..20 ..2 .. - .. 3..
409

452 130- 1]5 51] - 516 117 - 1:20 609 629-630

Chave.as «Woodruff» y normales . » solidas con die"tes multiples. Cifras de dureza «Rockwell» y «Brinell». ». de durezQ «Rockwell». «Brinel!». «Shore», . Cinceles y buriles para maquina y mano .
ClasificQcion Columnas de aceros para

«Vickers»

y

piezQs de Qutomovil

B
Barretps 0 pro betas • Bro<al, angulol de alliado, defectos, equivalencia construcci6n 421 -422 y datos de 371 - 379

de agUQ y mercurio . Conos, celeule general, «Morse». «Me'rico», «Brown & Sharp», «Ingle~», casquillos. Contraccion lineal, superficial y cubica. . Conversion. Tablas de equivalencia entre los sistemas metrico e ingles • Comparacion de temperaturas .

6]5 - 636 7..
]09 -

324 455

c
Cabezas universales Cables metalicos Cadenas. • de la freladora «Hure». 264-265 5:20 511 - 519

Correas trapezoidales. . Cuadrados. cubas, raices, circunferencia Cubicacion de material . Cuerdas de cDilamo . Cuchillas para tornos y acepilladoras . » para cizollas » para roscar y metodos Cuila.

yarea .

"9-69 70-71 637 - 638 11-45 500 522 326 - 363 408 290 - 295 1..5

-

10

II

D
Oep6sitos Dlamantes Dilatacl6n ctlfndrtccs, reststenclc moeles a 10 presi6n de esmerll. interior para retornear cublca. Iineal......... • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Paglnas
456 398

P6.ginas

G
Galgas: «Imperial Standard», «Birmingham», Sharp», para elembre, chapa y fleje . Geometda: elementos. • Grados decimales en minutos y segundos . Groved ad (centros) . «Brown & 65-66 130- 141 116 142- l+f

»
Dlncimlca. Dlvlsi6n

ordinaria y dffereeere! en los cabezales de las mciqulnas fresadoras. • • . • . . • • • • • • • • •. • Divisor tlpo de mesa (relacl6n 1/60 -l/SO -1/120 -l/lSO) . Dlvlsl6n de /0 creeonrerencre en N partes Iguales • • •

78 453 048 223 -249 250-257 121

L
Leetura de manometros . Levas 0 cam ones. fresado. limas, datos de caracterrsticas Lubricantes de corte . 75 639 - 642 404- 407 61" - 62

E
Ejes 0 arboles para transmlsiones • • • • • Eleccl6n de mcfterlales

Elementos para elevacl6n de pesos. • • • • • • Engranaje;s. (6rmulas generales s/m6dulo y dlametral • » «~rltish Standard». • » «BostOCk& Bramley». » c6nicos..... » hellcoldales.... » lntertcres y cremallera » ruedas y pUiones para cadena » tornillo sln·fin y su rueda. • » trazado. reslstencla y medlcl6n • » Juego de (resas Simples Equlvalenclas de fracciones here Escariadores c6nlcos. • •

511 438 - 452 517 - 522 1048-155
156 157 -160

LL
Llaves para tuertas • 512

200-m
190-197

M
Machos para roscas (afolado). . Manometros Mandrinos para taladros y sus cuchillas Medici6n (elementos) . Metales (aleaciones): eluminie, duraluminio, cupronfquel, brence, laton. etc .• Micr6metros (Iectura). Minutos y segundos en decimates de grado Momentos de inercia y resistencia Muelas de esmeril. MueUes . 307 75 380 - 382 554 - 576 metal monel, +f8 - 452 568 - 570 116 458 - 460 392 - 400 446 - +f7

199
198 1114-188

161-182 170 623 325 67 - 69 435 - 437 643 325 158-162 163 639- 642 364 - 370

F
Fadores de conversl6n Inglesa a m~trlca Yviteversa » de segurldad en el trabaJo de los metales • F6rmulas generales para dlmenslones de conos. Fracciones de hora • Fresado helicoidal • » de dlentes por los lados » de camones 0 levas. • Fresas. dimenslones normales . » mad res para engranajes rectos y helicoidales » mad res para ruedas a tornillo sin-fin. » simples.•• Frlgorlfocas (mezclas). • •

p
Palancas. . Pasadores c6nicos. Peso de piezCISfundidas segun su mold.., . Peso espedfico. Gt6mico, etc. • Peso ., datos d. materiGles, tubas. GIGmbres, chapcu, bo.rras de cliYersos perfiles, to....illos, tvercas. remach_, etc. Periiles ...... inodOi en""lIular U Y v;lI_ 146 325

183 189
180 80

eo

454

12-

-13 -

Sierras . E. medicion y formulos) . » inglesQ «Whitworth» . » americana «Standard» » «British Association B. Formulas y frenes de ruedos 615-617 127 . 76 77 47 .os .128 586 506 .115 70-71 627 145 277 457 510 122 . .» » para builas de Qutomoviles » «Edison» para lam paras electricGS.ado . » «C. Velocidades para muelas de esmeril » para ma. foctores. » tropezoidol «Acme» y «Metrico» » cuadrado • » redonda. » de agUQ recalen. ROlcodo con cuchillo en el terne. nivelor . E.271 2n-273 274. Fahrenheit.. E. Paginos 129 145 147 n-74 454 408 Roscodo plono .509 147 5 Solarios tipos «Rowan» y «Halsey» . Tranlmisiones . Triongulo rectangulo (soluciones) 50. Torneado de precisi6n Tornillo.quinos .633 410 .509 ·629 .herramientas. » suizQ «Progress» para reloies . » con sus tuereGS Y orandelas Tornillos.48 392 587 577 554 . » «Shorp (V. cargal que pueden loportar. Reglos d. A.141 -14~ - 15- .. A. » dien'. Verificaci6n de maquincu-herramientas J) de colibres Volumen de solidos . libra.ador «Universal» . » «British Stondord» poro tubos de cobre » «Loewenherz» para mecQnicQ fina y opticQ » para engrasadores «Stauffer» . Rodamientos Q bolas y rodillos • .567 136.51 81 . y kilogramos Resortes..305 T Toblos de convenion de pulgodos 0 milfmetros Toblos trigonometricos (paginos omorillos) . de sierra. Velocidod ongulor. Poleo diferenciol Pol. » «S. » metricQ internacional . Reparacion de Qutomoviles Resistencia de materialas.) V.». Temperaturas: CenUgrado. Presiones . ResistenciGS de cargQl en toneladas. Roblones. 622 401-403-601 R Refriaeracio" de herramientas Reglo de senos. Stondord» poro outomoviles . Remoches .spirol.» .126 5n v Vapor de agUQ saturado . .416 424-434 446 -447 550-551-634 268 . Punto de fusion y color Punzonado.. » «Brigg» para tubos .. F. 1'»1 bicicletas y rnotocieletas . Rosco (defectos. E. Ruedos • 306 506 . l!) en el torno.Paginos Pi (n).276 278 279 2BO 2BO 281 2B2 284 284 285 286 286 2ff1 2ff1 2BB 289 2BB 289 292-296 297 . Reaumur. Transpor.n . » «Almirontozgo Brifanico ADM..

D6DICll~OKIll. 1If.I~O SllBLlme IDISlon.c l-tOmBK8 De ~BlIJQ 11IDS ~~pueBros. sa qIDlIlI OLLeCOnSlIGRlIn osszr -17- . 'lllIDR YOSI&.

5198 40.65 I 1734.874 530.82 140608 7.3912 .Cuadrados.3246 I 3.9791 4.50 2206.72 148877 7.1213 r i I.83 175.20 3318.I 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 r.531 35937 I 5.823 87.0615 4.7563 i 166. I I E.5713 5832 4.920 962.529 314~~ I I 'I 3.0000 1000--13..965 91.1416 7..g.239 I 1075.65 I 2290.3485 i 3.141.0000 I i 3.3666 i 4.25 201.WO-' .2743 .s~ 132651 I 7.106 452.7144 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 576 625 676 ._I !i Area 39304 42875 46656 50653 54872 59319 5.133 2..0000 3. ~~:: ii r-.1962 21952 ±5.50 191.80.5034 3.0623 4. ~ 1963.097 907..4i-9"7.8030 7. 1.425 0.0000 .4760 3.4495 1.6684 4.4833 3.732 43.3019 113.8730 : 4.94 I . 6.:!~ .752 _ 729 784 I 84~_1 --rl.4142 1..1544 .3066 4.690 _ 8000 t I' 2209 2304 2401 2500 2601 2704 2809 2916 3025 3136 : ! 2197 2744 3375 4096 I 3. 1764' 1849 1936 ~~~~: II 6.5874 i 1.06 3216. r- ~-~!!-l---~~!·r~:illf I~~3~~~ r-~:~~~.8845 5.6350 18.78 I 3019.1644 I 3.95 135.47 194.66 1256. 3721 3844 3969 4096 4225 ~~~ 157464' 166375 175616 7.7084 2041.0000 8.8557 3. 210.6332 3.8284 729 3.469 283..6:4 68921 74088 79507 85184 :~~~~ 6.6207 _ 6859 4.768 804.56 7.248 855.539& 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 25 26 27 28 29 JO 31 32 33 -~.2655 63. 13824 15625 17576 i I 4.062 226. I : 19683 I 5.814 3.0817 4.3852 II 3.2075 103. ·31.389 490.982! 47.0000 I .980 254.18 103823 110592 117649.7321 2.2426 I 2.0801 128.77 3739.2462 8. 2123.567st3.299 .398 78.4772! I II 3.~Et' 1'1120:25 128.2.63 3631.8310 5.!l_ I 219.4162 I 3.1748 100.2915 24389_ 5.1885.841 I 132. 153.92/3117.9161 6.81 131.1414 :3.9365·-17.6056 2.141 6.79 I 2375.8102 I 3.540 81.45 -18- -19- .:~3~+ 7.~~~~~~~:~~~:~::.549 62.3620 i 119.2450 .4721 12.7100' 1. + I II i I 1 ::~~~~ 138.416 38. 256 289 314 _3~ 400 49 1 64 I 81: 100 I 343! 2. rakes 1 I I Ralz cuadrado n 34 Cuadrado Cuba Raizl cuadrado longitud de circunferencia y area de los drculos I I i Roll cubiCQ 1 I I Longitud jCifCUnf4!renCiQ Areo 35 36 37 38 39 40 1156 1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 I I I I Rail ccbrce longitud Circunferentlal .88 1 4: 9' 4 5 1 8 27 'I 1.44 1452.555 615.5664 15.8171 I 12._. 150.4482 3.8740 3.4101 2.9625 I.0686 I +-1 6 7 8 9 16: 25 36 64 125 216 1.1 7.000093731' 3.0990 2.01 ~~~:~~ I' 75.2711 109.22 172.4662 2.400() 6.11 .7325: 163.7446 3.673 754.7854 3.1240 4.9579: 87'.0723 I i I ' II ! i 226981 238328 250047 262144 27462S 287496 I ! /.: 1809..4031 6.0412 I I 18 5 .6593_J .956 1 3.I 1." 4624 4761 I 300763 314432 328509 II 4900:-343000 8.1231 ..389 32768 5..65 213.64 I 2922.~ • 3.94 6.8990 I 2.0366 .27000 . n Cuedrado Cubo cubes.0000 i ~.1854 8.407 56.0000 2.3589 .124 50.9240 5.6088! 147.53 ~:!:~~ : ~~~:~ I I 1385.iOnT9. 12S00<J__+~~~~ ! 3~84O_. 1681.3513 2.566 I 12.0828! 3.265 53.8259 I 169.21 6.1623 1.5574 6.938 176.920 572.283 9.194.09 10 11 12 13 I..07 197.93 2463.20 6.1016 i 8.7417 3.35 3421.19 ·1 ~:~~:~_ ~~!~: I~_ 961 1014 1089 29791·--1 5.2361 2._~.6811 i ~.832 153.2396 /' 106.3322 I 116.9129 I 21.0207 8.68 216.0000 1.6342.4200 125.~_.5303! ~:~~~~.0000 1.31 207.3.91·1 3848.59 6.4422 3.14 i I 16Oi2! i I 1 4913 -w.7460 4 7.850 I 28.2801 3.113 j 1017.9282 3.708 I 19.2111 : 3.2599.36 . I 2.~9 1352~.23 i 1520. i I.656913.4~-"706~858 660~~ 5.35 8 1 8.4807 6.715 201.681 84.991 2.99 204.274 2..4845 50.6458 512 2. 169! 196 225.7798! 7. 2.6173 78.2.381 i 1134.'--·~-~-··l·f~~n~~:m t~E !~:m 59.

5917 9.1676! 5.8059 4.04 270.5326 11.7 10207.7238 10.7473 11.77 5674.41 411.3808 9.5947 4.15 lQ16O.1602 4.2694 11.69 417.5629 4.4868 9.11 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 8464 8649 8836 I i ! I I 902S 9216 9409 9604 9801 10000 10201 10404 10609 10816 11025 11236 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 I .12 405.78 7088.70 395.42 367.67 5026.7326 I 223." 449.1489 10.22 7238.5789 4.5440 8.6301 10.19 251.01 5410.40 433.8770 4.6619 i 11.2 13478.14 361.96 7697.0000 9.18 273.6954.4310 4.7980 9.99 380.6261 4.58 326.46 279.4403 10.4979 4.39 4300.57 370.97 424.0 12667.27 408.28 8332.3923 10.47 257.74 285.88 289.7750 8.4647 4.32 9503.55 5153.44 323.0788 5.68 439.9164 11.9583 5.oJ 292.n 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Cua· drado Cube Ralz cuadrado Raiz cubica [ Longilud iCircunferencia Area n 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 Cuedrodo C.90 245.9049 4.229l i i +fl.04 248.81 7542.4140 4. 336.8743/ 11.56 392.0454 11.2543 4.1793 4.9597 4.3795 4.0658 5.85 376.16 317.7475 4. ) .86 4536.8 13273.9 11122.59 304.4261 8.bo I Ralz cuadrado Ralz cubico j Longitud icircunferencio Area 5041 5184 5329 5476 5625 5776 5929 357911 373248 389017 405224 421875 438976 456533 474552 493039 512000 531441 551368 571787 592704 614125 636056 658503 681472 704969 729000 753571 778688 804357 8305&4 857375 8&4736 912673 941192 970299 1000000 1030301 1061208 1092727 1124864 8.3 10935.8 12469.46 4656.8 1S614~15836.6416 4.6 14313.86 355.98 8011.0397 5.&4 398.8628 10.8629 4.6 -20- -21- .l41O 10.»18 5.5758 11.0995 10.2956 4.8488 4.87 311.7 12868.7047 111.88 6647.87 8659.3441 10.17 295.8882 8.3968 4.4340 9.0133 5.83 420.1801 5.4853 8.01 8824.19 229.15 339.9 10568.1803 11.73 329.61 260.13 383.7178 8.0905 11.23 7389.19 4071.9866 5.4018 11.4814 4.6104 4.1045 5.0000 10.3 12076.33 254.68 6082.O1 3959.7 14741.9324 4.6723 4.55 414.6190 11.5307 4.1983 4.50 4185.84 4417.9545 11.89 9852.1 14957.9 i I I 6084 6241 I i 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 6400 6561 6724 6889 7056 7225 7396 7569 7744 7921 8100 8281 i .5357 10.2908 4.3089 4.00 I 8992.3621 4.2736 9.98 402.0 13069.58 348.6875 4.29 8494.14 6361.3 12271.71 373.0000 5.85 8171.7898 .4881 10.73 11449 11664 11881 12100 12321 12544 12769 12996 13225 13456 13689 13924 14161 1#00 14641 14884 15129 15376 15625 15876 16129 16384 16641 16900 17161 17424 17689 17956 18225 1&496 18769 190# 19321 1'HOO 1~1 20164 1II+f9 1225043 1259712 1295029 1331000 1367631 1404928 1442897 1481544 1521>875 1560896 1601613 1643032 1685159 1728000 1771561 1815848 1860867 1906624 1953125 2000376 2048383 2097152 2146689 2197000 2248091 2299968 2352637 2406104 2460375 2515456 2571353 2628072 2683619 10.1652 9.1980 10.8 I 27_ 286llaI l924207 18113221 I 1157615 1191016 i I 111.0 11689.73 .32 9676.02 9160.30 320._ I 14102.2250 11.5394 9.61 6792.8318 8.89 267.50 5808.3274 9.7 11499.1408 4.1426 5.1355 11.7703 10.32 276.9732 4.03 10028.7177 4.26 430.8910 4.3137 11.8322 4.4891 11.88 311.80 5944.42 389.05 226.1299 5.76 241.6570 4.2172 4.3445 4.0 11309.0000 11.9 14526.62 238.1 15174.00 5281.5144 4.9443 9. I 358.75 263.3267 4.31 298...60 282.6437 9.34 232.9187 4.0528 5.0 10386.5468 4.12 427.1551 5.63 4778.9461 4.0499 10.45 301.9 11882.02 314.72 351.2358 4.5830 10.88 9331.54 436.8 13892.82 +46.61 5541.1171 S.8167 10.7027 4.1104 9.. 9.6603 8.69 7853.4455 11.2727 4.12 6221.2195 '9.6771 10. 11.8346 4.3 10751.91 6939.73 307.7468 9.3578 11.J.0554 9.7622 4.6023 8.8995 9.7 15393.27 386.7914 4.9087 10.28 364.9499 10.6503.2 136&4.36 4901.1172 5.1925 j .0265 5.#80 4.29 34M3 345.8489 9.48 235.7769 4.0916 5.8203 4.

52 480.4 39204 39601 622.6629 14.65 .7 35968.34 587. 13.4 32365.4514 5.08 51!.81 464.44 678.7279 12.4 19359.10 I 452.9721 5.5698 12.2415 5.5069 5.3485 5.1909 13.2066 12.0357 14.59 659.4907 13.7489 5.3791 I '.75 4019679 4096000 4173281 4251528 4330747 4410944 4492125 4574296 I .5 30790.5 24605.0767 13.35 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 24052.7113 13.7185 5.8203 13.5505 5.--~-~ ----25921 26244 26569 26896 27225 27556 27889 28224 28561 12.3288 12.3832 5.8564 13.7690 5.6748 13.9615 13.6252 5.4626 5.n 1+4 145 146 147 148 149 150 Cuedrado Cuba Raiz I cuadrado I I Raiz cublco 'Longitud •.1529 13.1 22431.0 34636. 4657463 4741632 4826809 4913000 5000211 5088448 5177717 5268024 5359375 5451776 5545233 5639752 573~339 21904.8285 5.02 669.74 640.4536 13.6 25164.6671 5.96 468.7 19855.6 31415.1 21382.9228 12.6287 14.0712 14.75 618.3717 5.37 499.5945 14.9627 5.7 17203.0 20867.3527 14.6462 5.5 1---' 28900 f---- 29241 29584 29929 30276 30625 30976 31329 31684 32041 .58 40000 40401 800000O 8120601 8242408 8365427 40804 41209 41616 42025 42436 42&49 43264 43681 44100 44521 44944 45369 45796 46225 46656 32047.2 33653.5647 13.8964 5.9 25730.6877 5.73 662.1421 14.05 581.80 508._-_----5.93 I I 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 6859000 6967871 7077888 7189057 73013&4 7414875· 7529536 7645373 7762392 7880599 12.2665 ~--- 534.88 666.1655 12.33 609.7840 13.9345 5.30 675.33&8 5. 23235.4914 14.5 32685.7590 5.7 8489664 8615125 8741816 8869743 8998912 9129329 9261000 9393931 9528128 9663597 98003+4 9938375 10077696 ----- 1~~~~4_ 13.3 27171.8868 5.5 18869.5 26302.67 461.7989 5.3875 14.61 615.88 644.0830 12.2 26590.1149 13.21 540.36 521.1774 14.1244 12.8 18385.4 26880.04 603.8771 5.06 559.9 31730.65 527.1067 14.7790 5.22- -23- .09 493.24 474.60 637.64 549.45 656.9 29255.07 537.4.8 24328.5 33979.46 634.0 _.4164 13.6147 5.-'-':--'-:- 25600 -.6357 5.6567 5.38 477.51 502.7890 5.62 593.9 18145.17 650.3178 1.47 612.2776 5.4097 12.3947 ---- 471.7 35298.81 486.79 530.78 552.5 17907.31 653. lSI 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 --IT~!l' 23409 23716 5.04 625.6382 13.2 29864.03 647.845'2 12.5613 5.5602 14.7 24884.3 29559.2829 14.1 34966.6 27464.2896 5.50 546.0000 3048625 3112136 3176523 3241792 3307949 3375000 3442951 3511808 3581577 3652264 3723875 3796416 3869893 3944312 12.4.8186 5.3601 5.4900 12.3251 5.92&4 13.8578 5.6041 5.6015 13.1 28055.5178 5.2 21124..6491 12.5277 13.18 628.6886 12.2288 13.-'-_ 22965.4737 5.63 571.8 30171.5258 14.53 458.5288 5.3133 _--.92 556.7671 12.48 590.5 16971.89 25_.0 36643.9155 5.6774 5.9814 5.8383 5.76 596.22 518.49 568.8841 12.6969 5.5397 5.3417 13.19 606.9 ! !.6095 --- 24025 24336 24649 24964 25281 I I I 5.91 578.77 574.8062 12.9533 5.3693 5.&480 5.4 26015.7477 13.2 19113.2 23506.9439 5.9 I 6229504 6331625 6434856 6539203 6644672 6751269 I . icircunferencioi Area n 180 181 182 183 1&4 185 186 187 188 189 Cuadrado Cube Rob cuadrado Ralz cubicQ Longitud circ.95 490.0 22167.32 631.1 33006.2 23778.3 19606.3 20612.9907 6.4061 5.3015 ~455.50 524.7287 5.8924 13.39 16286.20 562.19 5&4.5300 12.2 --- 20358.4959 5.8088 5.35 543.4 18626.0000 14.0000 ---_-5.9 28652.3041 13.6 27759.unferencia Area 20736 21025 21316 21609 21904 22201 1 1-22500 29859&4 12.8.0 16513. .1 28952.4 33329.4222 14.5934 5.0000 565.94 512.9250 5.2536 5.66 483.7 -1_ 32400 32761 33124 33489 33856 34225 34596 34969 35344 35721 36100 36181 36864 37249 37636 38025 3&416 38809 5832000 5929741 6028568 6128487 : 13.0 16741.7083 5.2474 12.9 35632.9642 14.2882 12.8675 5.9059 5.4848 5.7 31102.5 34307.6 17671.8 22698.0416 12.__ 505.5 21642.2127 14.90 600.7388 5.4401 5.2656 5.16 672.2478 14.9 30480.1 36305.4 17436.4568 14.2 28352.5721 5.4288 20106.4499 12.6980 5.5828 5.23 496.

5 47529.35 898.5 57680.9666 15.8 52279.08 870.0550 6.4553 ~4633 6.6 41909.4 64692.0'135 16.1 41187.5808 6.8 60698.87 688.85 731.50 901.9374 15.2828 6.82 36983.5962 6.5499 6.6 38707.58 703.2488 6.5142 15.1 46377.56 747.6115 I I I 797.4473 6.8430 15.7 45996.7797 15.22 873.d ! Area n 254 255 256 257 258 259 C.9 54325.21 895.8 62458.2743 6.9 53502.2 61575.2573 6.4312 6.n 217 218 219 drodo 47089 47514 47961 48400 48841 49284 49729 50176 50625 51076 51529 51984 52441 52900 53361 53814 54289 54756 55225 55696 56169 56644 5712) Cue- I Cubo Roiz cuodrado I Rcl.9 49875.5577 6.0000 15.6039 6.2 62015.2912 6.4272 15.4872 6.9 51874.6 55571.0'112 6.5885 6.7929 16.1180 6.8 63347.4919 15.27 763.01 691.3080 6.26 785.0459 6.0 ~8.6 39057.3579 6.2315 15.3095 16.2971 15.42 722.43 700.6 37325.5563 15.1269 6.9 50272.1658 15.3247 I 681.97 779.65 882.57 725.96 801.4317 I moo 58081 58564 59049 59536 60025 60516 6100'1 61504 62001 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 150 251 252 253 -.84 753.98 757.9706 17.6733 16.7 45238.5343 6.1 39408.5 60262.3661 6.3413 6.1 53912.4070 6.9332 14.8997 14.5 44115.cvcd-edc ! i I Raiz cublca loogitud circunferencia Area 10218313 10360232 10~03459 1Q6oI8O()() 10793861 10'141048 11089567 11239414 11390625 11543176 I 14.72 706.10 826.6 42273.4 49480.c· drado ! I i Cube Rctz 1.66 838.10'11 6.5227 16.0 46759.0614 16.5 65144.6433 16.6525 15.71 728.94 867.07 892.8819 16.0000 16.0732 6.2 54739.2403 6.9687 16.3 42638.4 56832.0997 15.80 863.79 885.4596 15.0368 6.4 58106.4012 6.14 716.69 772.09 848.1534 6.3297 15.1446 6. ccbtcc I.00 713.3707 16.1864 16.0 40470.7 59828.3 530'12.13 738.5 51471.7 51070.5108 6.5187 6.0822 6.7332 16.0665 15.2317 6.1358 6.7 61136.8114 15.2643 15.9 58964.1.2145 6.9115 16.1710 6.5654 6.5731 6.3948 15.1 44862.25 807.2058 6.3401 16.4151 6.73 684. 37668.1327 15.2231 6.93 889.53 813.54 791.1002 6.6 59395.4924 16.81 819.1972 6.4 48305.6205 15.3907 6.1 65597.circuriferencia LC"9'I.7033 16.65 860.86 710.1 41547.00'12 6.50 879.28 719.5 47143.9060 6.9 45616. 61'00 63001 63504 6400'1 ~2"- - 25- .99 735.8745 15.3 38359.2173 16.1555 16.2996 6.68 794.5030 6.51 857. 14.67 816.11 782.986 14.8661 14.23 851.8 40115.5529 16.5885 15.95 845.11 804.7648 14.29 697.39 810.55 769.6 43743.83 775.27 741.36 876.41 766.7631 16.3330 6.15 694.3496 6.1797 6.6844 15.42 744.3825 6.96-823.8523 16.52 835.0312 16.1 39760.6132 16.64 904.2481 16.92 50670.2658 6.4951 6.70 750.5 49087.4792 6.14 829.730'1 14.0641 6.1622 6.0277 6.6 55990.1 55154.5421 6.5265 6.5831 16.5 38013.3988 6.7480 15.8324 .1987 15.4393 6.- 15.2 160 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 170 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 11697083 11852352 12008989 12167000 12326391 12487168 12649337 12812904 12977875 13144256 13312053 13481272 13651919 13824000 13997521 14172488 14348907 14526784 14706125 14886936 15069223 15252992 15438149 15625000 15813251 16003008 16194277 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 140 141 242 143 244 145 246 141 248 249 I I ru.0 64242.0 62901.2 56410.12 760.1245 16.8226 16.37 854.3623 15.7162 15.0333 15.2 47916.3 .2 52685.6 no 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 64516/ 65025 65536 66049 66564 67081 67600 68121 68644 69169 69696 70225 70756 71289 71824 72361 72900 73441 73984 74529 75076 75625 76176 76729 77284 77841 78400 78961 79524 80089 80656 81225 81796 82369 82944 83521 16387064 16581375 16777216 16974593 17173512 17373979 17576000 17779581 17984728 18191447 18399744 1860'1625 188210'16 1904316) 19248832 19465109 196Qj000 19902511 20123648 20346417 20570824 20796875 21014576 21253933 21484952 21717639 21952000 22188041 22425768 22665187 22906304 23149125 23393656 23639903 23887872 24137569 .40 788.4232 6.9 58534.38 832.3743 6.0185 6.81 841.9411 16.0000 16.78 907.5 43005.2788 16.:4621 16.3164 6.1885 6.3 43373.1 48695.1 63794.2 57255.4713 6.8 40828.

3 96761.7 68149.0203 7.0 102".9 881"1..6635 17. 911.10 917.7 1017.62 948.9209 18.7824 6.0 90258.0 1134. 110889 111556 112225 112896 113569 114244 114921 115600 116281 116964 117649 118336 119025 119716 120409 121104 121801 122500 123201 14965783 35287552 35611289 35937000 36264691 3659 .0 82957.0 91326.18 983.2757 18.0873 7.0 1068.3 96211..9722 18.0 86569.3 85529.7083 18.3 1030.7 77437.33 964.0555 6.8045 17.7 78923.5499 17.3 68813..6719 6.8328 6.0 66508.4 83981.9~ 17.7897 6.5 112".6943 6.8 1131.0 74506.2 69746.7 1061.1269 7.0880 17.0473 7.3 1074.8149 18.3848 18.2 1049.9"73 18."120 18.06 914.4662 18..7482 17.3 1052.9521 6.7240 6.5 346 H7 348 149 350 351 352 353 35 .48 945.49 923.. 1781923 .0068 7.04 980.4929 17.0000 7.1072 7.3 92401.8 97314.1 1115.19 939.6 1014." 1121.7764 17.0807 7.0000 18.8 99538. 1 H2 H3 344 3.6 1080.1384 18.63 926..4069 17...6419 6..0940 7.3 85012.14 942.8 82448.7092 6.n 190 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 ]GO Cua- drede 84100 &4681 85264 85849 86436 87025 87616 Cubo Ralz cuadrado Ralz ccbtce longitud circunferenda Area n 327 328 329 Cuadrado Cubo Ralz cuadrado coerce 6.8399 6.0000 19.7883 18.7969 6.04 958.9 89727.7387 6.8612 6.9737 19.6918 17.6191 6.1914 18.8 76944.7 87092.2209 18.8753 6.5 1011.0540 7.1172 17.5"72 18.2916 17." 1055.8256 6.66# 6.6 79922.3 1118.7018 6.3 66966.7752 6. 3614208 43986977 44361864 44738875 45118016 45499293 .9382 6.35 920.7617 18.6068 17.6011 18.7350 18.0406 7." 1033.1138 7.9 1021.0 1112.1659 18.32 986.77 929.6494 6.5 70215.7 1127.8 ~96.1204 7. 1063625 41421736 .1756 17.9 71631.90 955.14M 17..1 1093.4 1099.05 936.0 106929 107584 1082 .9 1065.7200 17.6143 6.0587 17.7533 6.5 74023.9727 6.0136 7.3 88668.9932 7.3494 17. 3243551 .9658 6.0740 7.6569 6.6279 18.1006 7.9104 6.8 1109.4 73061.7045881 .5882712 46268279 46656000 .2047 17.8964 6.7 90792.7 1039.6794 6.60 992.4M2 17.4391 18.19 961.0263 19.74 995.9165 17.2 81433.9 80424.8326 17.9589 6.6267 6.6 75476.0 9511".9795 6.8041 6.2144192 "2508549 42875000 .2 81939.9313 6.9 86049.1 77931..6 1036.3205 17. 1 108900 109561 11022 .6869 6.0674 7.1 78426.3303 18.89 977.5 72106.1335 Ralz longltud circunferencia Area 24389000 24M2171 24897088 25153757 25412184 25672375 25914336 26198073 26463592 26730899 27000000 27270901 27543608 27818127 2809~ 28372625 28652616 2893~3 29218112 29503629 29791000 30080231 30371328 30664297 30959144 31255875 31554496 31855013 32157432 32461759 32768000 33076161 33386248 33698267 3401222 .5 76453.9 79"22.9174 6.0 98979.9 95662.6 67886.7 1105.9 91863.0607 7.8683 6.3 1008.0 74990..7832147 330 331 332 333 314 335 336 337 338 339 18.57"2 18.8680 18.7 1083.7 73541.8894 6.8 75964.3 1140.8414 18..4 69279.85"1 6.3 92940.7 9"569.5214 17..75 973.8 71157.0 1046.7460 6.8470 6.2337 17.47 967.2 67425.8885 17.5203 18.9014 6.6 72583.4356 17.46 989.882 ..0831 18.61 970.2 100098 100660 101223 101788 102354 102922 103491 IIIl804 89401 88209 90000 90601 91204 91809 92416 93025 93636 94249 948M 95481 96100 96721 97344 97969 98596 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 340 3.6548 18.6 1058.8185 6.0278 18."932 18.8 80928.0 97867.3 1096.0 87615.91 933.0 1090.76 951.5784 17." 1077.3030 18.1 1137.9451 6.7437928 .7606 6.4 70685.3 89196.8606 17.9 93482.9864 6. 14328125 34M5976 17.88 999.0271 7.2483 18.0526 1027.6815 18.~108 18.8113 6.6352 17.1 1071.8 1087...0294 17.0 9402".7166 6.3576 18.2 1005.9244 6.9 1043.2 66052.3781 17.6 1102.7 98423. 368 36926037 37259704 37595375 37933056 38272753 38614472 38958219 39304000 39651821 40001688 40353607 40707584 .7679 6.2627 17.7313 6.03 1002.0338 7. 355 356 357 358 359 99225 99856 100489 101124 101761 102400 103041 103684 104329 104976 105625 106276 123904 124609 125316 126025 126736 127449 128164 128881 129600 130321 no 321 322 323 324 325 326 360 361 362 363 131~ 131769 - 26- -27 - .8944 18.7 83469.

.2811 1196.3 1363. 19.4829 420 421 422 423' 424 425 426 427 428 429 176400 177241 74088000 74618461 75151448 75686967 76225024 76765625 77308776 77854483 78402752 78953589 79507000 80062991 80621568 81182737 81746504 82312875 82881856 7.4 1209.3961 20.4710 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 f---444001 _1~ 145161 145924 146689 .4410 7.2873: .7 1171.5770 7.28- -29- ."-2--t-::11::-94::.8 7.2495 7.4889 7. L~1~36~9OO:::.3803 7.0 1357.0 1178.8997 19.:.6155 20. 1400 .8 1306.57{)4 i 7.77.4229 7.0 1313.9 1310.5067 7.4290 7.]496 7.2240 7.37 I 7.5192 19.6882 1332.5670 i I I I 7.2368 ~~:.1.:~ 1190.4169 7.5 1212.3907 ! 7.2558 7.7 -152100\ 152881 ~~= 155236 I 59319000 119J~!_:3~!i___:.6723 19.1726 1.1494 20.8 1328..3391 19.8 12~.9 1266.5 1344.9::.2874 1215.12_25_.6 1237.9249 I 7.=-26.3864 7.3558 7.2 1250. 49.2 108103 108687 109272 11~~~ 111036 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 ! i I 19.2731 20.5183 20.2748 7.1 1291. I 54872000 55306341 55742962 56181887 56623104 57066625 57512456 57960603 58411072 58863869' \ 19.2936 1218.5 1366.2112 7.4-.-:1.:-.8567 20.19.8806 7.3 1275.0749 20.2304 7.2 1294.3986 125664 126293 126923 127556 128190 50243409 19.5537 7.2622 7..7605 20.6398 20.5448 .4350 128825 129462 130100 130741 131382 65.4165 19.3619 I 1231.6 1259.2 1272.1 1269.:~~ \ 1143.::2 _1_1~1 .0 1335.--59.5 1300.3742 7.~~~~ 7.4 1253.2 1360.3224 132025 132670 133317 133965 134614 135265 135918 136572 137228 137885 138544 139205 139867 54010152 54439939 : 19.3434 7.7 ~~i~i~ 112815 70444997 70957944 71473375 71991296 72511713 7.6469 19.'_-+'-:5~06":5~30'000=--t--.5 1168.8 1262.~ 12.3 1319.4530 7..3310' 7.!i913 20.8 1175.5 1322.4 107521 4 ~~!i!i I ~~~~~ I ~::~~i~ I ]~~!:~ .5712 I i 19.5~9.5828 149301 .5 1234.7 114009 114608 115209 115812 116416 117021 73034632 73560059 7.2 1316.36491 19.=36~______:c7 +_1-.1 1203.3248! 7.5 20.5126 7.8494 19.. 151321 I i i I 19.-8 .4939 7.1246 20.5426 20.:~~~ ~~i:i ! 162409 163216 164025 164836 165649 166464 167281 168100 168921 169744 170569 171396 64481201 64964808 65450827 65939264 66430125 66923416 67419143 67917312 68417929 689.-3.4422 19.6 1281.4470 7.9 1200.5 1278..3186 7. -'5:___9-'-77-6-471--t1-1:-:9~.3470 20.6 1369..n 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 Cuadrado 132496 133225 133956 134689 Cuba Rail cuadrado I Raiz ccbtce Longilud circunferenciaL \ Area n 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 Cuadrado 160000 160801 161604 Cubo Ral' I cuadrado 20.6 1325.=-24-:3.6640 20. 7.4948 7.0998 20. 184041 184900 185761 186624 187489 188356 189225 190096 20.3 1341.21000 69426531 69934528 20.1 1181.7846 20.8087 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 156025 156816 157609 158404 159201 I 63044792 63521199 19.0250 20.5244 140531 141196 141863 142531 143201 143872 144545 145220 145896 146574 147254 147934 148617 2O.:1~48848 ~~~5117 52313624 52734375 53157376 53582633 19.9750 i 1247.4108 7.6 1303.0000 Ralz cubica Longilud jCircunferenda 1256.7364 20.3 1297.2685 7.5595 7.2 1206.7 1350.:9--..4 120072 60236288! 60698457 61162984 61629875 62099136 62570773 7.·.2"354·r7~116~.1984 :t8s5t.0788 11:'.-1 : 19..4650 7.5959 19.8327 20. .2999 ~11_88_4_7 I ~~~~i~ ~i~~: ~ii~i 123163 123786 124410 125036 7.3715 20.4206 20.5007 1"7"56 •• 148225 148996 149769 150544'.2 1338.5 ~~::~ II 1Q.5654 7.2237 137Wr.2978 20.3372 7.3925 7.2177 I 20.2485 20.9 7.6 1347.1 I I 7.1990 20.7123 20.4047 7.5420 7.5361 7.2.5185 7.3132 139876 140625' 141376 I I..9-.0499 20.6977 19.8242 19.1920 7.8746 19.3124 I 1228.5478 7.6214 19. i i 7..1:.1.5302 7.4679 7.4770 7.4695 20.-.7990 19.~34.4062 1CJo4635 105209 7.--t-1:c::06:."::5=1'0648=:':1'--11c:'9 1-7 -l---C .7231 178084 178929 179776 180625 181476 182329 183184 20.1742 20.8 1284.9 1288.2048'.9499 119.2094! 7.9 1354.-1.3681 7.4590 172225 173056 173889 174724 175561 20.4450 20.9 i Area I Ii 48228544 48627189256 49027 :::~:~ 19.

6801 7.8861 21.4 1388.n 437 438 439 Cuo· drodo Cubo Rail cuadrado Rail cubico longitud rJrcunferencio Area n 474 475 476 477 478 479 Cuedrodo Cuba Roiz cuadrado 21.7715 21.3830 22.7486 7.3 1407.1 1580.7194 7.3383 22.2486 22.2603 21.9317 7.7026 7.4 1520.8297 7.5886 7.6403 7.3776 21. .0 149987 150674 151363 152053 152745 151439 154134 154830 15~528 156228 156930 157633 158337 1590<13 159751 160460 161171 161883 162597 163313 164030 164748 165468 166190 166914 167639 168365 224676 225625 226576 227529 106496424 107171875 107850176 108531333 109215352 109902239 110592000 111284641 111980168 112678587 113379904 114084125 1H791256 115501303 116214272 116930169 117649000 '118370771 7.6289 7.0681 22.9 1599.7529 7.0 1401.8730 7.6574 7.3073 21.7 1504.8 1508.6174 7.9051 7.4054 22.9 1555.5610 Ralz cObico Longitud clrcunferencio Area 190969 191844 192721 193600 194481 195364 196249 197136 198025 198916 199809 200704 201601 202500 203401 204304 205209 206116 207025 207936 208849 209764 210681 211600 212521 213~ 214369 215296 216225 217156 218089 219024 219961 220900 221841 222784 223729 .5870 21.6117 7.0713 21.8025 7.6744 7.7915 249001 250000 251001 252004 253009 254016 255025 256036 257049 258064 259081 169093 169823 170554 171281 172021 172757 173494 174214 174974 175716 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 470 471 472 473 -30- -31- .3 1429.0000 22.4009 21.6146 7.2 1517.8403 21.5 1479.8784 7.8243 7.9545 9773 21.0238 21.9423 7.6970 7.7256 21.1359 22.8352 7.1 1558.1 1448.6 1592.3 1495.0227 22.3159 22.1585 22.8676 7.6914 7.4 1542.1133 22.9317 21.8079 7.0907 22.9089 21.4 1564.4 1476.7945 21.7418 7.6 1391.4499 22.7750 7.1660 21.9 1420.6333 21.'12.8 1573.2935 22.9476 7.8837 7.1187 21.3307 21.8632 21.6517 7.8998 7.7 1570.6059 7.9105 7.4 1586.6001 7.2838 21.5 1567.7082 7.846Il 7.2 1539.8188 7.1 1514.0950 21.7306 7.7639 7.9686 7.0000 21.6460 7.2368 21.4 1432.7362 7.4277 22.4942 21.8891 7.8 1530.9843 1489.8H51453 84027672 84604519 85184000 85766121 86350888 86938307 87528384 88121125 88716536 89314623 89915392 90518849 91125000 91733851 92145408 92959677 93576664 94196375 94818816 95443993 96071912 96702579 97336000 97972181 98611128 99252847 99897344 100544625 101194696 101847563 102503232 103161709 103823000 104487111 105154048 105823817 20.1811 22.2711 22.5389 22.5944 7.9284 20.9791 7.4709 21.5167 22.3 1385.0 1533.6 1413.0 1423.1 1492.0 1379.6688 7.1 1536.6 1457. 1 22.2261 22.7860 7.7473 7.4476 21.0 1511.6631 7.7 1416.9523 20.4722 22.6102 21.2132 21.7 1526.90<15 20.5407 21.2 1583.9 1398.2 1561.8568 7.8 1595.6232 7.5174 21.1 1470.4944 22.7138 i \ 1372.7025 21.4 1454.3 1451.3 1473.6857 7.9581 7.9 1376.7 1394.5639 21.5 1589.1896 21.0476 21.8 1464.7 1438.7695 7.0454 22.9528 7.9211 7.8134 7.4243 21.7805 7.7 1482.8 1486.7584 7.5 1501.1 176460 177205 177952 178701 179451 180203 180956 181711 182467 183225 183984 184745 185508 186272 187038 187805 188574 189345 190117 190890 191665 192442 193221 194000 194782 195565 196350 197136 197923 198713 199504 200296 201090 201886 202683 203482 440 441 442 443 228484 229441 230400 231361 232324 233289 234256 235225 236196 237169 238144 239121 240100 241081 242064 243049 244036 245025 146016 247009 248004 480 481 ~ 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 119095488 119823157 120553784 121287375 122023936 122763473 123505992 124251499 125000000 125751501 126506008 127263527 128024064 128787625 129554216 130323843 131096512 131872229 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 7.4 1410.0 1445.2 1404.8174 21.8 1551.3542 21.2 1382.5 1545.4 1498.6 1435.7 1548.9264 7.0 1467.5 1523.9634 7.1 1426.7250 7.9762 21.6564 21.9158 7.8406 7.7970 7.8514 7.8622 7.1424 21.8 1<\.3607 22.8944 7.2036 22.6795 21.7 1460.9739 7.9370 7.9 1577.

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0532 9.0 2378.1098 9.3 2428.0082 9.0287 9.5500 27.6 2522.2870 9.3 2472.38- .2 2-403.5 2321.6 2456.6 1478.2213 27.1537 9.1338 9.2638 9. 27.7 462041 463247 464454 -465663 466873 468085 469298 470513 471730 4729-48 474168 475389 476612 477836 479062 -480290 -481519 -482750 -483982 -485216 486451 -487688 -488927 490167 491-409 492652 493897 495143 496391 497641 498892 500145 501399 502655 I 9.1109' 27.6 2412.0491 9.4 2453.6767 9.2170 9.9 2331.0856 9.0 2-488.9 2353.3 2384.n 730 731 732 733 714 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 75-4 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 Cuadrado Cubo Roil cvedvede Raiz cubica Longitud circonferencia Area n 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 Cuadrado Cubo Rail cuadrada Ralz cubica longitud circunferencia Area 532'100 514361 535824 537289 538756 5-40225 541696 543169 544644 546121 547600 5-49081 550564 552049 553536 555025 556516 558009 559504 561001 562500 564001 565504 567009 568516 570025 571536 573049 574564 576081 577600 579121 58064-4 582169 583696 585225 586756 389017000 390617891 392223168 393832837 395+16904 397065375 398688256 400315553 -401947272 -403581419 -40522-4000 -406869021 -408518-488 410172-407 411830784 411493625 415160936 416832723 418508992 420189749 421875000 .2397 27.-4044 27.8029 27.2832 9.6586 27.7 2-481.3 249M 2497.1138 9.0535 28.0775 9.0977 9.7 2437.2560 9.1 2513.7 2503.9 2463.0370 27.3 2450.2677 9.6 2302.2029 27.2580 27.3130 27.2 2359.2666 28.2012 9.2716 9.0328 9.3 2362.1933 9.1247 28.074(1 27.8 2393.092~· 27.1425 28.2754 9.2312 28.69-48 27.3 23-40.7308 27.1855 9.1258 9.0937 9.2 2425.0 2400.2130 9.0 2-466.2843 28.8 2149.1017 9.1617 9. 505171 506432 .1736 9.0896 9.0 2510.2-404 9.5 2431.22-48 9.9285 27.0694 2293.1496 27.1780 28.2 2447.5681 27.6225 27.6-405 27.2521 9.4 2318.9464 27.0735 9.4 2296.4408 27.6 2368.5 2387.0164 9.1378 9.2764 27.0000 28.2209 9.6 2414.9821 28.7 2415.5862 27.9 2375.3373 9.2-482 9.2 2469.2 2315.8 2371.8209 27.2365 9.1973 9.1657 9.4955 27.1418 9.1577 9.2091 9.9643 27.3861 27.1894 9.2 2337.1 2312.0613 9.29-47 27.2135 28.4773 27.8568 27.1957 28.0 2444.r-' 6-40000 512000000 641601 513922-401 643204 515849608 644809 517781627 503912 .0041 9.1498 635209 506261573 636804 508169592 638-401 510082399 1---.6 2390.2052 9.8388 27.1603 28.0246 9.1298 9.0713 28.7128 27.4226 27.2326 9.7 2459.5318 27.1 2491.0654 9.0816 9.1069 28.1178 9.5 418539 419686 420835 421986 423138 424293 425447 426604 427762 428922 430084 431247 432412 433578 414746 435916 437087 438259 439433 -4-40609 441786 442965 444146 445328 446511 447697 448883 450072 451262 452453 453646 45-4841 456037 457214 458434 459635 460837 588289 589824 591361 592900 594441 595984 597529 599076 600625 602176 603729 605284 606841 608400 609961 611524 613089 614656 616225 617796 619369 620944 622521 624100 625681 627264 628849 630436 632025 633616 451217663 45298-4832 454756609 456533000 45831-4011 4600996-48 461889917 46368-4824 ~5-48-4375 467288576 469097433 470910952 472729139 474552000 4763795-41 478211768 -480048687 -481890304 -483736625 -485587656 -487443-403 -489303872 491169069 493039000 494913671 496793088 498677257 500566184 502459875 504358336 27.2-489 28.0179 28.3019 28.8 2507.9 2397.1815 9.9 2309.9106 27.0 2422.1458 9.0572 9.3313 27.5 27.8 2327.3 2516.5136 27.6 2324'.5 2343.0123 9.055!.4 2475.oB91 28.5 2365.7-489 27.1218 9.1696 9.29-48 2-409.1775 9.3679 27.9 2419.1293 27.0369 9.2287 9.0205 9.8927 27.018.1477 27.423564751 42525'1008 426957777 428661064 430368875 432081216 433798093 435519512 437245479 438976000 440711081 442450728 444194947 445943744 447697125 449455096 27.2 2381.1662 27.3 2406.2443 9.0357 28.8747 27.1 2334.0450 9.5 2299.1 2356.2909 9.4 2519.6 2346.9 2441.9 2-485.39- .4591 27.3196 28.2793 9.8 2305.6043 27.7849 27.1846 27.7669 27.0410 9.6 2500.2599 9.1057 9.

0000 29.8 50769~ 508958 510223 511490 512758 51~28 515300 .~27 9.329~ 9.5 2698.35~9 28.5307 28.3789 9.2 2~.3523 9.5683 2638.3217 9.~ 2563.~16 9.1 2711.~166 9.2 267M 2673.1 2667.8 2681.3978 9.9 2686.3599 9.3 2538.8097 28.5127 29.~5~1 904578 9.5973 9.~391 9.H08 9.8 2551.7750 28.9818 29.2 2714.2 2582.5 2720.5 25~.1 2579.4605 28.2~ 29.9310 28.3865 9.5060 9.3~7 9.705~ 28. 751689 75142~ 755161 756900 75~1 7603~ 762129 763876 765625 767376 - -.3255 9.~2~ 9.6 2745.5171 9.3598 29.5207 9.3902 9.4958 29.2233 29.5574 9.%15 9.5~ 29. - 7~ 749956 9.~316 .0 2532.6 2657.5537 9.6182 28.~2 28.4788 29.~279 9.6007 28.~7 9.0 255~. 603351125 605~95736 607~5~23 609800192 6119~9 614125000 616295051 61~70208 620650477 622835~ 625026375 627222016 629~22793 631628712 633839779 636056000 638277381 ~503928 ~2735~7 ~9725~ ~721%25 ~9%1896 651714363 653972032 65623~909 658503000 660776311 66305~ 665338617 667627624 669921875 672221376 28.5610 9.5 2566.89~ 28.5 2610.~ 9.39~ I 2525.~1 9.3485 9.5 2632..52~ 9.~ 25~1.7 2635.7~2 28.~9 29.0172 29.n ~ 805 806 807 808 809 810 Cuadrado Cubo Ralz c:uadrada Ralz c:ubica Longltud c:ircunferencia Area n 840 ~1 ~2 ~3 Cuedrado Cubo Ralz cuadrada Ralz c:ublca longitud circunferencia Area 6-16416 M8025 ~9636 6512~9 652~ 65#81 ·656100 65ml 6593~ 660969 662596 ~225 665856 667~ 669114 670761 6n~ 67~1 675~ 677329 678976 680625 682276 683929 6855~ 6872~1 688900 690561 692214 693889 695556 697225 698896 700569 7022~ 703921 51971&464 521660125 523606616 5255579~3 527514112 529~75129 531~1000 53Hll731 535387328 537367797 5393531~ 5~lH3375 5~333~96 5~5338513 ~7HH32 ~9353259 551368000 553387661 55~12H8 557~1767 559~7622~ 561515625 563559976 565609283 567663552 569722789 571787000 573856191 575930368 578009537 5800937~ 582182875 5~277056 586376253 5~72 590589719 28.8 2573.~956 28.3637 9.1 2689.5657 28.3 2695.1719 29.5501 9.~7~ 904801 9.3939 ~2904109 2904279 29.5391 9.~503 9.15~ 29.~29 9.3751 9.0517 29.1 2623.3258 29.7576 28.3 2717.~53 9.12~ 29.0 2598.9 2708.7914 28.8791 28.9 2620.0 2733.3063 9.5 265~.7228 28.31~ 9.3675 9.5114 9.6 2701.1 2535.0 55~177 55~97 556819 558142 559%7 56079~ 562122 561452 5~783 566116 567450 568786 570124 571%3 572803 5741% 575~9O 576835 578182 579530 580880 582232 583585 5~9~ 586297 587655 589014 590375 591738 593102 59+468 595835 5972~ 598575 5999~7 601320 602696 ~5 8% ~7 ~9 850 851 852 853 8~ 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 1113 87~ 875 876 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 810 • 821 822 813 814 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 83~ 835 836 837 838 839 ~ 7~ .1428 29.8 2660.1890 29.40- -41- .1376 29.3 256O.2 2~M 2651.1 2557.8 27~.2 2692.8617 28.~ 2629.4253 2M~29 28.3370 9.~35~ 9.535~ 9.5~ 29.7 2569.9 ~.~75 904912 9049~9 9.6880 28.9 2730.2062 29.~129 9.~ 2607.5317 9.6356 28.0861 29.2986 9.1033 29.9 W2.%90 904727 9.4618 29.27% 29.03~5 29.9655 9.6 2679.3713 9.T 2591.3769 29.3817 9.6 2723.5296 29.4986 9.2575 29.5281 9.5~ 9.3179 9.3 2739.8 2726.3087 29.1 2601.6531 28.5132 28.9 2752.4781 28..3561 9.5~ 28.0689 29.0 2576.5832 28.2916 29.8271 28.~2~1 9.3901 2M077 28. 516573 517~ 519114 52~2 521681 522962 514145 525529 52681~ 528102 529391 530681 531973 533267 5H562 535858 537157 53~56 539758 5~1061 5~2365 5~3671 5~9~79 5%288 5~7599 5~912 550226 5515~1 552858 ~ ~ 705600 707281 7089~ 71~9 712336 71~ 715716 717~ 7191~ 720801 722500 72~201 725~ 727609 729316 731025 732736 73~9 7361~ 737881 739600 741321 743~ 7~769 5927~ 59~321 5969~7688 599077107 6012115~.8 2595.1 2~5.8 27~.3725 28.~ 28.5 2676.7 2613.~38 9.5 2588.5 2742.8 2529.6705 28.2 2736.5635 29.2 2626.5023 9.31()2 9.3025 9.5097 9.3332 9.8 2616.4652 9.9137 28.~ 2585.7 25~7.

6477 9.6757 30.4 2918.1 2956.5901 9.2 2824.6431 30.8831 29.0500 30.7896 30.8028 9.7571 30.8161 29.3 2783.5123 30.7993 9.4 2874.7715 9.7246 30.6262 9.5719 9.7889 9.3 2827.6585 9.2 2937.1 2914.6118 9.7610 9.6976 9.7540 9.9166 29.0 2931.0666 30.6 2877.9500 29.8132 9.0333 30. - 43- .7047 9.4795 30.8270 2871.7993 29.1164 30.0 2843.5 2965.2 2959.4302 30.6870 9.2159 9.9 2796.8 656118 657555 658993 660433 661874 663317 664761 666207 667654 669103 670554 672006 673460 674915 676372 677831 679291 680752 682216 683680 685147 686615 688084 689555 .7 2902.6133 676836152 679151139 681472000 683797841 686128968 6880165387 690807104 693154125 695506456 697864103 700117072 702595369 704969000 707347971 709732288 712121957 714516984 716917375 719323136 721734273 724150792 726572699 729000000 731432701 733870808 736314327 738763264 741217625 743677416 746142643 748613312 751089429 753571000 756058031 758550528 761048497 29.5792 9.2820 30.4 2962.42- .2490 30.6442 9.3150 30.0 2887.1662 30.7 2836.7 2946.8063 9.9 2975.3480 30.6479 29.5828 9.7825 29.6985 29.7259 9.1993 30.7959 9.7364 9.7658 29.7470 9.5 2943.6190 2755.1828 30.7 2814.1 2890.7924 9.7329 9.6941 9.7734 30.6 2833.3 289M 2896.8998 29.7153 29.4 2940.4 804609 .9 2774.8058 9.2 6001073 605451 606831 608212 609595 610980 612366 613754 615143 616534 617927 619321 620717 622114 623513 624913 626315 627718 629124 630530 631938 633348 634760 636173 637587 639003 640421 641840 643261 644683 646107 647533 648960 650388 651818 653250 654684 835396 837225 839056 7635519+4 766060875 768575296 nl095213 773620632 776151559 778688000 781229961 783m+48 30.6105 30.5778 30.6 2855.7083 30.3 2915.0 2821.7012 .8 2971.6594 30.1496 30.7400 9.6226 9.9666 29.3 2761.0 2799.6046 9.6816 29.0167 30.60106 9.7 2792.7 2880.1330 30.7854 9.4138 30.6154 9.n 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 Cuadrodo Cuba Raiz cuodrad~ Ralz Langi'ud circunferencia dlbica Areo n 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 Cuadrado Cuba Rolz cuadrado Rolz cubico langi'ud cir(unferencia Area 769129 7708&4 m641 77+400 776161 m924 779689 7814$6 783225 784996 786769 788544 790321 67451.7645 9.9 2840.7 2770.6370 9.2 ·2802.6142 29.6763 9.0 2909.6268 30.5 2786..6298 9.7321 29. 2811.7409 9.6 2789.8 2862.7489 29.6 2767.4467 30.i'294 9.8201 9.7 2858.66<18 29.0 2m.7153 9.6.5973 9.7750 9.7188 9.0 2865.6334 9.4 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 840889 842724 8+4561 846400 e48241 850084 851929 853776 855625 857416 859329 861184 863041 864900 866761 868624 870489 872356 874225 876096 877969 8798+4 881721 883600 885481 887364 889149 891136 893025 894916 896809 898704 900601 786330467 788889024 791453125 794022776 796597983 799178752 801765089 804357000 80695+491 809557568 812166237 814780504 817400375 820025856 822656953 825293672 827936019 830584000 2906.2 2981.5450 30.7819 9.5937 9.6620 9.8167 9.2 2758.6513 9.6549 9.8496 29.9333 29.5865 9.2985 30.6905 2912. 806404 808201 810000 811801 813604 815409 817216 819025 820836 822649 82~ 826281 828100 829921 831744 833560 833237621 835896888 838561807 841232384 843908625 2852.8236 9.9833 30.5614 30.5756 9.6834 9.8 2884.7680 9.7785 9.7575 9.1 2978.3974 30.0000 30.7224 9.6656 9.5287 30.4 2830.7 2968.3315 30.4631 30.6082 9.7435 9.5 2899.9 2818.8 2928.6692 9.3 846590536 849278123 851971392 85%70349 30.0831 30.8329 29.91028 692502 693978 695455 696934 698415 699897 701380 702865 704352 705840 707330 2780.7 2924.2324 30.8664 29.1 2868.6311 29.6920 30.7118 9.4 2808.6727 9.3 2805.1 2846.5941 30.4959 30.6799 9.7082 9.3 2849.6010 9.3645 30.0 2953.7505 9.8 2950.0998 30.5 2921.1 792100 793881 795664 797449 799236 801025 802816 9.8097 9.5 2764.3809 30.2655 30.

4643 31.8683 9.9 3107.9 3041.9126 9.2890 31.6 3034.8922 9.8221 30.2250 31.2090 31.8374 9.9699 9.96n 30.cuadrado Ralz cubica Longitud Circunferencio Area 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 9n 978 979 902500 90+101 906304 908209 910146 912025 913936 915849 91n64 919681 924600 923521 92S444 927369 929296 931225 933156 935089 937024 938961 940900 942841 944784 946729 948676 950625 952576 954529 9564&1 958+11 96CHOO 962361 964324 966289 9682S6 97022S 972196 30.8707 30.9194 9.86104 9.9464 9.2 3113.9058 9.84n 9.8888 9.0805 31.0 3132.8869 30.3 30n.9024 9.8580 9.9160 9.1 3094.0966 31.2730 31.9598 9.8854 9.3209 31.9900 9.9 3129.6 765111 766662 768214 769769 771325 772882 774441 776002 777564 779128 780693 782260 783828 785398 981 982 98J 984 98S 986 -<U- -45- .9092 9.4 3028.6 3056.4484 31.2 300M 3006.9192 30.2 3025.1#8 31.5 3075.8339 9.9295 9.8 3081.9354 30.9933 9.8511 9.5 3053.1288 31.5 3031.8990 9.4166 31.5 2987.9261 9.8305 9.5436 31.4325 31.6 3122.9031 30.1 3022.5 3141.9800 9.8751 9.4960 31.0000 31.3688 31.6 3012.8 2993.9497 9.9839 31.8443 9.1 3066.7 2990.3528 31.8 3015.9733 9.0000 3100.0644 31.6 3078.8648 9.8 3103.4802 31.8 3037.9766 9.5595 31.5 3097.9 3085.0483 31.2570 31.8956 9.9430 9.0 3088.9 2997.9833 9.9967 10.8717 9.4006 9.2 3047.9227 9.8408 9.8819 9.9 3063.9866 9.2410 31.2 3135.7 3125.9531 2984.8545 30.1 3044.0 3110.9363 9.n 950 Cuo- drado e"be 857375000 86008S351 8628010408 8655231n 8682S0664 870983875 873722816 876467493 879217912 881974079 884736000 887503681 8902n128 893056347 895841344 898632125 901428696 904231063 907039232 9098S3209 912673000 915498611 918330048 921167317 924010424 926859375 929714176 932574833 935441352 938313739 941192000 944076141 946966168 949862087 952763904 955671625 958585256 Rolz cuadrado Ralz cublca Longitud c:jrcunferenclo Area n 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 Cuodrado Cube Rafz .1127 31.3 3116.9516 30.6228 9.3847 31.6070 31.9666 9.9396 9.3 31)8.6 708822 710315 711809 713306 714803 716303 717804 719306 720810 722316 723823 725332 726842.5119 31.0322 31. 31.9329 9.1 3000.1929 31.5753 31.8 3059.1769 31.8383 30.8546 9.5 3119.2 3091.0161 31.3050 31.2 3069.9632 9.1609.5278 31.9 3019.5911 31.3369 31.5 3009.8785 9. 728354 729867 731382 732899 734417 735937 737458 738981 740506 742032 743559 745088 746619 748151 749685 751221 752758 754296 755837 757378 758922 760466 762013 763561 974169 976144 978121 980100 982081 984064 986049 988036 990025 992016 994009 996004 998001 1000000 961504803 964430272 967361669 970299000 973242271 976191488 979146657 982107784 985074875 988047936 991026973 994011992 997002999 1000000000 31.3 3050.9565 9.

108 40.. = 15.0265 ~'.726 '3.851 39.919 36.671 17.6917 8.032 14.102 32.997 32.527 41.786 10.'22 41.5133 3.4~ 4 10 como tcrnbten }I V2i4 se procederd por interpolaci6n entre V"23 obtener fa coma obtener -r por 234 = 735.537 38.8" 36.p!o 460 '70 0180 .310 12.8<1 <1.438 '7.196 46.499 16.268 20.857 018..820 45.897 20..876 2<.040 .3879 7.0472 2.295 24.7493 8.301 H..823 H.389 27.861 37.317 40.050 41.3038 2.316 21.951 50.888 '2..291 36.165 38."7 52.139 34.149 33.1416 4..9425 1.8378 1.987 33.709 0..81] 16.209oi 0.3407 6.8643 6.6652 4.568 33.917 16.720 33.577 11.117 18.705 46.046 30.150 53.988 1 0.478 19.704 27.100 12. 3.227 28.867 46.636 29.553 '5.5'" 27.. los numeros de ia primera cvbicc 1. 44 y 45.6755 12. 12812.279 17.792 20.7227 3.1519 2.307 <2.012 18.882 33.8540 0.'f('~(~nt~ r('~pec'l"'(lrnent(' 10 r ciz cued-cdc del mjmero 1936 y en 10 '~Jbic(! del nurncro y tercerc columna Pat.830 '3.007 30.637 50.928 13.698 18.72' 23.500 36.353 23.9794 5.870 14.122 35.336 17.3 .767 34.003 40.205 12. 506 44.9.5. 087 ~5.509 iO.190 25.950 30.2463 4.305 22.360 52..l2J 50.82< 33. 296 .:' 85184.6180 3.373 20.687 8.689 40.086 25..504 25 .0369 4.'72 11.674 52.714 2<.atcrmedios V1960 sc vera que cste volar los numeros '3.153 22.802 18.40< /14.5029 4.~~~~:.835 32.2<9 . -: por 23.7021 7..982 ~!:!!~ I ~!:~!~ 15.594 38.0841 I 5.161 51.13< '5.018 31.164 19.839 21.028 I 26.~~ 30.546 17.583 20.9.'88 18.229 018.270 39.960 29.056 51.069 17.3510 .855 27.7330 1.829 23.m ~34 = 6.043 12.913 27.732 52.850 19.883 11..708 16.7J5 21. ANGULAR 6 7 8 A LAS TABLAS Y CUBICA DEL Y AREA DE CUANUDE DE UN CIRCULO n 1O 20 30 40 ° 0.m 37.394 16.993 23.730 31.053 pora mas de 1000 numeros del ournero moyor para obtener n reprecolumna se utrlizcn y 10 rcrz y r oiz cubtcc.4454 5.729 11.133 26.4189 1.071 37.326 19.013 38.904 49.90 500 '50 :.903 29.7124 5.z ~q.077 I 46.940 32.9690 7.699 38.5'3 018.584 39. V2.2971.615 3<.7.6549 6.410 23.S.<57 24.313 5'.(ras Ires cifra s con 10 coma: con 10 como: 547. '5.652 37.053 10.5398 7.7802 2.3776 9.2360 6.6283 1.625 31.223 38.522 51.667 24.'75 51.106 20.206 32.8746 4.693 28.124 .018' 29.469 ~2.49<4 26.970 27.2935 5.354 <3. 401 .7389 9.761 26.258 21.383 18.4248 10.892 30. 33.3.763 46.009 50.276 ~9.525 20.4236 1.745 19.029 46..437 27. se odelantcrn 73.923 25.1681 9.1047 1.845 29..~.022 16. 925 ~5.934 23.1888 5.114 50.097 42.479 40..ll2 28.075 ( 27.'01 18.096 2<..25.0162 8.'32 39.799 018.8850 1.521 32.090 13.285 27.907 18.034 35.~~~ I 8.395135.972 47.600 47..8068 7.819 25.878 .059 19.147 1).8171 5.89' 51.4086 2.176 38.180 27.715 .<20 21.810 '7.128 36.385 38.463 33.4681 2.195 14.001 21.43 se torncru = 54756 y se seporan sepcr cndose dos c.751 28.264 31.956 40.2566 1.9218 5.9587 8. se tomara 0.975 15.252 13.935 ~3.038 2<.0153 14.367 11.qf~ro<.127 17.4 se torncrd y se rendrd :-: ~_. se cdelcn- tara do~ puestos Estes tobias 10 roiz cuadrado sentoru se tendrc 430.400 I 24..414 12.242 15.668 44.3..260 42.929 3<.358 33.588 28.3614 1.599 26.619 23.0059 9.6342 9.73 31.755 17.406 34 .2<3 35.624 12.658 46. REFERENTES RAIZ CUADRADA DIAMETRO" Estas tobias Para Para Para 10 coma Para 10 como obtener obtener obtener estdn indicadas en numeros 234" enteros de 1 a 1000.631 40.621 '3.593 18.794 40.6<2 39. EJEMPLO 'U r o.681 10.338 37.999 52.771 24.562 23.684 50.201 22.965 18.462 13.1]7 14.416 32.883 52.181 47.985 13.966 36.866 26.7699 4.788 31.3018 i::~~ I i::.5605 4.4 y ~24r Para puesto Para entre VI") y V24 respectivcrnente..962 '2.218 '9.468 21.519 12.7596 6.773 44.891 11.572 22516 22.789 50..174 16.976 35.563 .8284 3.5245 10. ambos contidcdes cor 50e encontrcrcn 10 se- 440 qundc de 10 Tabla pr ocedow esla entre Inte rpotcctcn.808 26. 7 25.558 35.574 <2..6077 5.677 22.646 28.208 52.286 47.804 38.836 51.609 25.363 21.640 19..145 43.2018 23.580 50.4558 3.881 12.093 - 46- -47 - .'26 30 .647 018.060 39.333 '7.049 22.H2 26.650 17.740 30.516 42.578 30..752 47.196 3<.914 47.0634 9.066 "9.531 29.055 0.. CIRCUNFERENCIA ° y para SO 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 ~10 ~20 '30 determiner los valores de numeros decimcle s se opera del modo stqulente..255 53.5501 5.6445 7.678 '2.299 14.13. 192 .3982 4.782 22..VALORES DE LA VELOCIDAD OBSERVACIONES DRADO.2832 7.627 51.9897 3.898 40.369 31.232 16.776 12.4~ se tomcrd 23.103 52.2729 9.656 25.3304 8.746 39.847 .603 16.212 <1.4823 9.783 "'.221 19.981 25.0+4 31.357 13.465 15.375 40.4351 8.239 "5.155 '1.0!85 018.322 30.. se torncrc _::__~_3_3_!_ 4 = 43005.695 9.265 50.211 20.1)1) n.904.5870 8.27< 29.1106 10..95' 20. MERO CUBO.459 <3.327 39.9484 10.490 37.9322 3.9115 7.280 37.3142 0.158 11.938 12.301 1..186 36.991 23.532 ~9.118 39. '9.611 ~5.381 018.886 22.199:1 3. se cdelcnturd un puesto un pues'o y se tendrd obtener Vo.019 018.860 0.552 25.i4 se tomcrd V23'4 1.539 52.605 36.8437 10.~3.4926 6.1622.171 018.237 26.1.683 30.777 32.7965 9.510 3<.872 3<..289 16.391 46.0944 3.556 15..442 36..757 37.535 19.202 '.798 28. 2341 = 12812904.779 0.3201 10.347 15.263 11.02~ 35.448 46.441 17 .198 53.081 35.159 31.311 32.364 ".370 51. par ejerr.<28 .566 1 2 3 4 5 9 0.736 '.2153 10.9012 9.513..5973 6..9<1 52.7<2 50.."3 35.56.547 37. se odelantaro y se tendrd Para obtener y V2).909 38.52971.662 36.0000 1.9'5 <1.451 15.."12 43.9. 23.5708 2.3 roil cuadrado de 1000.630 21..379 29.61622.500 .184 15.9+1 21.091 ]4.673 31.080 15.996 11.

I s UNIFORMEMENTE ACELERADO v Q= --. t = Tiempo. MOVIMIENTO s=v MOVIMIENTO v = a X I.= P X h = P X s. M caida f=Pxh.h. a X I. F = Pceree centrlfuga 0 cenlrlpeta de un cuerpo con masa f = Fuerza viva. 1=-.. Considerando un cuerpo siguientes relaciones: de masa Referida a 10 fuerzo vivQ f de un cuerpo de masa M dotado de vetocidad V. S = espacio recorrido. s=~-xt= 2 CIRCULAR axt 2 l MOVIMIENTO v= 2. v I V=-. TABLAS DE CONVERSION FORMULAS DE DINAMICA por M. FUERZA CENTRIFUGA F= M Xv' - FUERZA VIVA R f= M xv' - 2 . g = Aceleeeeten producida por 10 gravedad (9. P = Peso del cuerpo. -48- . P = Peso de un cuerpo. = Dlstcnclu en metros del punto considerodo como eje de retceten. segundo). w = Yelocidad angular. UNIFORME s V a = Aceleracion. = Numerc de revoluciones per minuto. DE CINEMATICA v = Ve/ocidad.1047n.FORMULAS s = Espocio. 2 lib~~ en ~I veclo. ¥' = Velocidad en metros por segundo. FuerzQ cenlr/fugo F de un cuerpo con masa M dotado de velocidad v en metros por segundo 5iluado Q 10 disfaneia R en metros del centro de rcteclen. I = ~--. h= 2~'9-' hV .~ R 60 (1)= 2"n 60 = 0.81 metros M = Masa de un cuerpo. tenemos las v=1'2gxh. h = altura de calda.

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0 914...1270 ..03543 O.5 ... yordo ~ 36 pulgodos.5~4 1.003 0. Unidades Pulg..00079 .2 889. pero si en los de precision pora 10 clencte e industria.0275..00394 ..09 .2 00. 00.4 ...ble para la mecanizaci6n de ptezcs. '1' por tanto.ll86 + + pulgodo: Relacion americana.000197 . mm. . .2 .8 838.00027' . S...2 355. na debe lenerse en cuenta sino pare caics de extreme precisi6n. 25.03150 .03 .005 0.004 0. .286 . 10 100 Pulg. .4 0.•.8 0.3999~8 OO.0 533.40005 ..8 711. .005 .1778 ...2032 ..oooua .' Como queda demostrado.9144 metros. • por corresponder a 4 ·5 101.. . 0"2 = 5.54 5..00118 .08 01" 100 ..6 412.8 609..1 . 1000 ~= Stendc 10 retecrcn 1 yordo ~ ---=-. 203.01 .4 431.00354 0.009 Djferenctc.270 1.0 660.Estodos Untdos de Am~nca Ilene esla retccicn: 1 yordo 3600 3937' de Ingloterro' ~ 3600 3937.3 0. Relacion inglesa.8 965.0254 . .01969 0...j ~ 25 .004 ..' 52 - .8 76. medida. A..4 SO.0 406.032 2.000418 -+--7~'O-I 787. Pulg.oJ 0. --mm. Diferencias que existen entre 10 relacion americana '1 la inglesa en una m. Diferencia..6 III 127..8 20 508.•...000079 Pulg.53- ..8 .<lO9 1" 1000 Pulg.08 mm.' 381..4 558. · 25.7. ." se procura sea reteeten . 0"001 = 0.00035< De estas reiactones se derrvcn los siguientes relociones cproximcdcs : 1 pulgodo (U. .0508 .07 .•.0 5.00051 Relacion inglesa .1 0.06 0.001 0..0027' .101' .00236 . 508.001 .70 15.5 0.8 457.02 . la difnencia es pradicamente inmed. 25.007 0. EJEMPLO Cenverur 20"201 pulgadas a milimetros: 20" = 508. O.3 ..2 863.00039 .04 0. yarda = 3 pies. centesimos y miles..002 0.. 10 cual permite de uno forma rcptdc..006 . mos. ..00197 . .000157 ..' 0.7 . Relcctcn segun vcrtos autores .•.05 0.002 .508 .00315 .•.04 .4 304.86 Pulg.2 lll.006 0. por media de sumas.003 .2 1.• 2 10.9 Conversi6n de 1 10 100 1000 de milimetro a pulgadas y viceversa -mm.7 0.10005 1 pulgoda inglesQ = 25.01 0.09 .39978 Estas djferencics no deben ser epreoedcs en tecbcjcs de mecdntcc corriente.2 «umversul».4 939.08 0.0 mm .08 0.0762 . ..105~ mm. yo que 10 conversi6n oficiol de los". 330... La equivalttnCia 25.. 25.3'2 . 1" 10 Pulg.-\0005 ~ .9 2.78 20.08 7 .24 17.2 279.0 25.2 990.000315 .0113' --~_:.254 .025~ mm. y se recomiendo operar para til conversion de medidos de precision por 10 tabla de decimas.<XlOO72 Relacion americana. • .01181 .1524 .4 685.399978 Relaci6n segun venes autores . el ccnverttr cualquier.778 2..00023.008 -OOOoj9.ADVERTENCIAS Una insignificanle diferenclc extste en 10 conversten de 10 pulgoda tnglesa Q milimetros.00157 .06 .. y ella ~s debtdo Q las eprectactones de d.05 . ~ Diferencia.02 .07 0. .' 730.8 5&4.4 812.versos_ cutores.0254 ee 513.0 035. 0 de pulgad~s a milimetros 10 254.016 1..•.007 ..01575 .2 0..0 ISH 177.0.6 yarda = 0.00787 ..008 .32 22.16 12.

.46875 0....o............ 0 G) CL ~r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i i~~O:~~8~~~ ~~. "aoaoo-o-O' ·00 ..~11875 0. ~1/M 21/32 ~3/M 11/16......375 251M 13/32 27/M 7/16 ...078125 0.15625 0...359375 3/8 •...~~~~~~~~ .:..609375 0.... 13/M 7/32 15/M 1/~....59375 0........~~~"': .~~~~~:g8 ~~~::~~~$~~ "'.....78125 0...890625 0................~~~ .. U"IO-Mr::: . 29/M 15/32 31/M 1/2 .:i ..".. 9/M 5/32 II/M 3/16 . 61/M 31/32 63/M 1 ....::O..... JlI ~ ~~..~:g~~~::ri~~l ..........p.. t"'oIt"'oI""'''''''''''~ U"I ..........953125 0...l'lt"'olO-"'OM " ..3125 21/M 0.....328125 11/32 0......:~ ~""ao~~~:. 0-8(!.. U"IO-M" .-U"lO''''''''''..~375 0.l'lt"'l8)~""'O"~ #&l~r:::" ~~~~ .-U''I 0...........p......515625 0.~~~~:g.203125 33/M 17/32 35/M 9/16 . ~~~~o::~~8~:: .... " ~9/M 25/32 51/M 13/16... S......-aoU"lt"'olo'.... t" po.: ~i~~Vi~.....:""..... "".71875 0..96875 0.2H375 0.. ~ s i~~~=~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~:...... 17/M 0...73~375 0.65625 0...~~ ~~~a#~~~~~ ...75 0..~:8:gv...171875 0...828125 0.......00 ao .. 53/6~ 27/32 55/M 7/8 .."'o-cU"l~V ""''' ..90625 0..... E o .....0625 0.55- ... aol........ !i! ~ E s ~ 8 !is:~~~~~~~~ ~iii~~~~~~ o. O'cooo. ~5/M 23/32 ~7/M 3/~... > C G) ~~~::~~~$~!i "'"!~"':~~~~~"":"": " ...125 0. '" ~~~~i~~~~s. aoU"lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ s !l ~~~~#~~~~~ i..~:g~~~::ri~::::'l ......... a III 2 fi~S~ ~~~8 ~ .. aol....... .671875 0.............3~375 23/M 0..oi M U"IO-""'" ... "'S 1 Q.t"'oI~ ~~~~~~ "':~~~"'"!"'"!~~'"':~ -.<10625 0..5625 0........25 0...5 U O.. '¢COt"'olU"lO'.6-10625 0.~~~ ""''''''MMMMMMMM m . ""'" ......109375 0...... 0.... aol... 0...98~375 1.~53125 0........546875 0.~375 0..1<10625 0........•390625 0...265625 9/32 0.. ~ ~~~:o8i~e:!~~ ~~a~~~~~~~ ~~~~p.....875 0....aoot O~Flgi~~~~~ ....046875 0... U"IU"IU"I...578125 0... U"I&lt"'ol .. E E ~~"':"':"':~~"'"!"'"! E ...015625 0....296875 5/16 •• 0...l'lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ ~~!~e~~~R~ .859375 0..8125 0...~:::n:~~~S 8 ~Mr-ir-iMr-ir-i""'....09375 0...53125 0......~ III G) .....9375 0.765625 0. c.. ...... 57/M 29/32 59/6~ 15/16...0 t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIM ~ i~~~~~~~~....oo ~~~r-i"'...28125 19/M 0.625 0..U''I 8 ~~.... "'oI""'~U"I-c...o"".~~~~~~~ .......o.... ~~~~~~~~!.....21875 0....a... .1875 0....."'."'....~375 0...........U''IO'M'' ..... aoU"lt"'l8)~""'o"~ Fracciones de pulgada a decimales I/M 1/32 3/M 1/16 .i...oo a aot"'ol.~~ .921875 0.54- ...03125 0.. 0..o.6875 0.o" § r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i ~~~~~~~~~~ ~=~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~C!.............:aiaOa:o-:a-:oo~ t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIMMM .."". ~~~r-ir.5 a -a a 0) III .. ..§ e ~ a.. II 'e -a G) III " a ..703125 0........... 0 ~~*i:::..ot"'l..-VCOt"'olU"lO'M O'coOO"-C-CU"l'¢V . ....... 37/6~ 19/32 39/M 5/8 ..~ .~u-lu-l~...Mt"'oIt"'oIMM ~~~~~~~~#~ ::~~~~~~:!:!0 '0 C •iii ..796875 0................:............. 5/M 3/32 7/M 1/8 ...."'.

j -- 21/28 0". ~::: ~ .875 0".5 0" ..._--_ --_----------0" .: cicicicicidciooooooooo cicicici II 11 11 II II II II II II II II II II II II II 3/24 1/6 Is~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ II II II II 5/14 3/12 7/14 2/6 -J.:.821429 -0"..25 4/7 --_----....458333 0". 14 avos inglesa y 28 avos de pu!gada 0".0".416667 0" .607143 17/28 2/7 1/28 . ..1----.666667 e ::l~::l~ ~~a...714286 I---~-- ..708333 0".."i.--------~ -----.333333 9/14 5/12 11/14 3/6 13/24 7/12 15/24 4/6 0".208333 0".541667 0" .75 0".892857 ------"0".1~29i- 9/14 0".6250"..142857 1/7 13/28 .958333 y 24 avos de pulgada 1/24 1/12 0".071429 0"..333714 ~+_0'~-214286 _ 15/28 ~--0".833333 0". .392857 11/28 1/14 ----.f.57- ....166667 0".----------~ 1--------0".464286 0". 0"_03S7H ~ 19/28 5/7 0".083333 0"..785714 ~~0".678571 0".75 0".f-i--!-i-iiii Decimales equivalentes a 7 avos.-f-.857143 0".178571 0"._--.285714 0" .5 5/28 7/14 --.. .357143 5/14 -0".916667 0".583333 0".--~ ~1-. 9/28 0" .~~i~ codo II II II II Decimales equivalentes a 6 avos.125 0".291667 0" . 12 avos inglesa 17/24 9/12 19/24 5/6 21/14 11/12 23/14 0".041667 0" ." cicici II II II ~9!!~! !!! ~ II II II II II II II II II II ddcid 23/28 6/7 25/28 -----13/14 ------- na2!.791667 0" .E-J-f--l-}'.107143 0" .~~ ~~~~ ci 0'6 II II II II II cid II II II II II II .375 0".-0"..642887 27/28 0"_964286 -56- .428571 3/28 3/7 ---_ _.-~------0".25 0".571429 7/28 0".928571 I 000 ~~~ .

259 0.130 0.116 0.151 0.176 o.861 3.369 4.0220 0.0327 0.257 0.167 0.036 7.135 O.60 ".317 0.0035 0.221 un O.125 0.144 0.Q3 0.108 0.99 11.196 0.858 6.193 0.052 8.166 0.115 0.642 2.29 0.613 5.174 0.692 2.46 M7 0.114 0.184 0.131 0.845 2.11.0346 0.62 0.426 6.0260 0.26 0.79 0.0197 0.477 6.]78 3.594 ".138 0.53 0.150 3.100 0.166 0.934 6.0272 0.921 2.0028 0.166 I 0.0350 0.82 0.102 0.521 4.191 0.175 0.255 0.101 0.103 0.537 5.972 2.ll5 0.137 0.112 7.163 ! mm.110 0.150 I I 7.198 0.569 7.0354 0.163 0.039 3.223 6.0004 0.39 Pulgodos 0.lll O.0016 0.0319 0.912 7.256 0.44 0.111 0.6Q.0091 0.49 0.010 6.5 4.28 0.77 I 0.197 0.311 mm.029 5.H 0.147 0.173 0.147 6.171 5.04 0.512 5.75 0.921 0.775 ~.689 5.232 5.699 4.83 0.113 0..176 0.759 Pulgodas 0.366 7.226 3.807 6.38 0.798 7.84 0.81 0.077 8.17 [ 1 0.116 0.8S1 ".0067 2.287 0.572 4.101 0.213 0.97 93 0.143 0.874 7.293 4.401 6.486 5.0343 0.0098 0.147 0.199 0.13 i O.0063 putqcdcs.5]1 3.870 0.C26 8.68 0.505 5.157 0.180 0.020'1 0.0287 0.683 ].0256 0.196 0..0110 O.179 0.928 4.165 0.086 La equivalencia en pulqcdcs de 0.00081 I 0.179 8.258 0.013 4.178 0.0339 0.100 0.307 O.886 3.629 6.181 0.064 1 4.191 4.174 0.131 0.41 I r mm.089 4.195 0.154 0.64 0.0315 0.055 6.188 7.0122 0.0'1 0.251 0.02 0.242 4.95] PulgQdas O.70 0.139 0.315 7.429 ].32 0.Q244 0.141 0.301 0.137 7.m I O.311 0.0059 0.0264 0.0189 0.18 ".283 0.480 3.0063 0.277 3.54 0.148 0.56 0.m 0.946 2.141 mrn.114 0.106 0.167 0.114 0.-40 I 0.52 0.197 7.410 5.175 0.66 0.664 5.791 5.540.160 0.43 0.m 3.518 2.597 4.182 1.0031 0.1«1 0.0193 0.655 6.116 0.801 5.467 7.0224 0.6]9 5.0370 0.216 4.161 0.124 3.111 O.101 0.200 e.Q248 0.111 0.978 5.! Pulgodos 10.842 5.193 0.125 0.0366 0.161 0.198 0.236 0.099 1 4.289 0.00 3.581 3.Decimales de milimetros a decimales de pulgada inglesa mm Pulgodos Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PuI9QdQ~ 0.)84 5.305 0.0102 0.731 6.116 0.319 o.119 mm.111 0.001 8.87 0.n3 O.909 5.0157 i 0.186· 0.90 0.n4 8.141 0.0177 0.454 ]. Pulgodos 0.0307 0.23 10.107 0.565 2.766 5.no mm.78 ' 0.658 ].161 1.37 0.0280 0.189 0.00204 0.0331 0.98 0.133 0.0213 i 0.59 0.0169 0.150 0.n4 0.0217 0.0394 0.190 0. 7.0386 0.310 0.105 0.91 89 1 5.204 0.309 0.304 0.721 0.106 0.181 0.724 4.0323 0.190 0.185 0.832 6.140 4.Q.210 0.2().188 0.350 6.607 7.451 7.756 6.73 0 74 .171 O.48 0.15 0. 2.154 0.116 O.194 0.58 0.108 0.969 5.85 0.49) 7.111 0.lO8 0.117 0.667 2.0181 0.I 7.63 0.0390 0.061 7.195 0. 7.334 5.253 0.0083 0.113 0. ].645 7.404 5.290 7.103 0.794 2.76 0.950 7.937 4.06 0.21 0.16 de.80 I 0.0276 0.528 6.169 0.().94 0.30 0.181 0.715 5.417 7.104 0.826 ".588 1f1:::.315 0.OH2 0.680 7.918 0.883 6.146 0.109 0.0154 mm.Q7 0.117 0.62] ~.139 0.420 4.153 0.283 5.110 0.556 3.306 0.740 6. ! 0.141 0.121 6.301 0.191 0.72 0.50 0.274 6.55 0.115 0.]<40 7.251 3.023 3.591 2.0185 0.0118 0.207 5.173 0.620 7.n9 0.105 5.145 0.128 O..648 4.0358 2.05 0.128 0.0051 0.0055 0.165 0.496 4.309 6.194 0.14 0.m 0.156 5.96j 0.0228 0.810 3.151 0.118 0.877 4.769 2.229 -58- .264 7.170 7.71 0.0079 Ejemplo: i 7.73< ].111 0.823 trn 7.171 0.750 4.115 0.0012 0.149 0.134 3.616 Pulgodas 0.985 7.0311 0.111 0.]4] 4.314 0.08 0.470 4.0134 0.170 mm.975 8.104 0.S.01H 0.300 0.251 0.114 0.0283 0.0173 0.101 0.080 5.Q205 0.0043 0.994 6.169 0.161 0.31 0.187 0.718 ].848 7.01 I 0.61 I 0.159 0.144 3. 0.178 0.138 0.160 0.119 0.197 0.1 2.10 0.578 6.070 6.0138 O.191 0.119 o.H8 6.163 0.747 7. = 0. 2.n3 O.0252 0.0362 0.899 1 0.158 0.785 3.442 ].27 0. 0.0236 0.302 3.951 O.0268 0.n7 0.816 5.15<1 0.096 0.632 3.164 0.0087 0.24] 0.0161 0.191 0.109 0.0020 0. 0.0382 0.155 0.86 0.02040 0. 4. mm.153 8.130 O.59- .0047 0.708 3.36 0.020 6.962 3.0130 0.696 7.1«1 0.0295 0.179 0.029-1 0.131 5.88 0.0126 0.12: 0.0165 0.57 0.896 6.134 0.138 0.502 6.318 0.0150 0.35 0.45 0.674 4.867 5.145 0.0094 0.318 4.42 0.743 2.835 3.316 0.436 5.1]] 8.967 3.562 6.0303 0.168 0.959 6..359 6.0232 0.199 0.m 3.ln 0.149 0.925 7.148 0.no 0.117 0.394 4.0146 0.281 0.ln 0.146 0.rn 0.65 0.0106 0.073 3.172 6.258 5.I5 6.j91 7.69 0.ln 0.0201 0.299 2.51 0.893 5.0335 0.168 0.0039 0.. 0.n4 6.267 4..0374 0.705 6. Pul9Qda~ 0.988 5.Il6 o.175 3.303 0.67 0.004 5. 1 0.183 0.671 7.105 0.782 6.0378 ].0299 0.164 0.22 0.311 0. 5.375 6.547 4.107 0.55] 6.111 0.! Pulgodos I mm.16 0.25 0.285 0.118 0.902 4..943 I e.110 3.33 0.161 0.128 8.819 2.

400 0.547 0.208 13.113 15.735 0.788 8.138 15.491 18.707 0.567 0.330 0.690 13.173 14.579 0.535 0.625 0.29) 12.388 10.840 16.563 0.319 0.706 14.712 0.465 0.357 16.262 18.947 10.495 0.721 0.669 18.717 0.751 0.652 9.666 0.489 0.540 0.506 11.652 0.454 0.420 0.659 0.084 10.0704 11.3U 17.424 17.637 16.675 0.865 16.018 17.014 19.363 0.367 15.534 0.356 0.922 10.697 15.l88 0.677 0.572 0.542 0.360 0.046 14.110 18.333 0.995 14.411 0.935 14.354 0.<81 19.754 0.373 0.2<0 15.343 0.938 11.769 0.757 14.764 0.106 1).569 0.891 16.027 16.596 0.437 0.592 18.538 0.421 0.<31 19.527 0.820 10.605 0•• 0.633 11.418 0.612 Q.653 17.735 11.531 0.673 0. 11.043 17.126 19.674 0.817 13.357 U5a 0.776 12.973 18.526 0.410 0.551 0.419 0.941 8.708 0.998 11.583 19.689 0.532 0.461 0.336 0.576 9.843 13.509 8.526 17.0+9 11.485 0.505 0.821 18.650 0.616 0.5<7 12.525 9.510 16.479 0.497 0.355 0.627 17.417 0.664 0.468 0.646 15.413 0.474 9.185 10.154 16.570 15.093 9.m 13.502 0.846 18.595 0.160 10.690 0._ 0.564 0.554 0.385 0.881 Pulgadas 0.050 19.538 13.926 15.983 18.586 0.906 9.363 10.643 0.<81 0.309 13.638 0.741 0.071 14.372 15.979 13.516 0.559 0.5<5 15.497 12.710 0.500 0.713 16.966 8.6U 0.5U 0.373 Pulgadas 0.]98 9._ 0.634 19.684 ".176 11. 18.567 18.544 0.607 0.713 0.931 9.799 15.5U 0.676 0.275 14.864 18.412 0.605 14.463 0.379 11.280 8.732 0.609 0.465 18.568 0.300 14.639 mm.150 11.386 13.706 0.563 13.501 0.700 12.625 0.716 0.636 0.478 14.542 18.795 10.068 9.<168 15.Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PulgodQ5 0.729 17.+46 12.337 0.055 1].529 0.641 0.nO 18.693 0.783 14.367 0.170 17.878 12.741 13.614 0.418 15.352 0.550 9.033 10.629 0.674 12.566 0.613 0.401 0.465 10.135 18.575 0.053 16.9+4 1.582 11.597 0.585 8.695 0.<487 13.278 19.157 13.697 0 .366 0.715 0.100 11. 17.577 0.631 0.528 0.474 0.785 11.11&4 1<.7lI 0.134 10.766 0.632 0.764 16.773 0.562 0.211 18.'0.382 0.lli 0.70 0.747 0.<83 0 . 0.429 0.696 0.062 15.443 0.081 13.342 0.151 19.090 12.613 0.236 10.582 0.592 10.161 18.661 0".217 17.557 0.618 18.963 11.80< 9.475 0.436 0.059 18.612 '.347 0.587 0.581 0.665 13.459 16.7)0 0.205 16.967 16.617 10.765 0.691 Q.332 0.379 O.561 16.761 0.500 17.202 19.678 17.753 0.541 0.531 11.359 0.724 0.932 17.m 8.182 13.<0< 11.265 15.970 13.037 15.644 0.325 14.452 0.296 9.855 9.748 0.492 0.457 0.382 8.552 0.405 0.462 0.256 16.255 8.453 0.880 9.307 16.719 18.894 13.737 8.712 8. 13.381 0.758 0.814 16.744 10.621 O.350 0.414 10.109 10.504 12.353 0.875 15.604 0.447 0.657 0.370 0.621 0.W 12.608 11.792 13.558 19.548 0.087 Pulgadas 0.574 0.383 0.716 13.579 14.97) 10.999 19.491 0.779 9.862 11.145 17.751 12.656 14.761 0.4n 0.103 16.756 0.992 17.573 0.590 0.334 0.451 0.319 12.919 13.731 0.532 19.533 0.007 18.736 0..616 0.441 0.655 0.720 0.375 0.687 16.522 12.642 0.603 0.192 12.769 10.<82 0.767 0.704 0.445 0.420 12._ 0.415 0.442 0.141 12.277 11.654 0.989 12.618 0.890 I I 8.421 O.402 0.517 0.595 15.556 0.m -60- -61- .313 18.399 Q.291 15.553 0.1+4 9. 9.237 18.560 8.224 14.444 0.576 0.499 9.703 9.288 18.515 0.0<2 9.<62 13.498.762 0.075 19. 8.757 0.510 0.+49 17.770 0.002 16.719 0.613 0.836 11.7<5 Pulgadas 0.<484 16.656 0.281 16.384 0.578 0.430 0.365 0.116 Pulgadas 0.897 18.614 13.396 0.332 16.771 0.560 0.530 0.394 0.169 9.125 '1.705 0.642 10.749 0.476 mm.0)9 12.490 10.340 0.351 14.494 15.584 0.m .524 0.058 10.991 9.678 0.438 0.69< 18.546 0.347 9.380 19.571 0.760 0.36< 18.415 18.780 17.328 11.680 0.Hl 15.09< 17.221 17.499 0.503 0.322 9.411 13.02] 11.903 12.456 0.529 14.186 18.017 9.469 0.954 12.432 0.663 0.592 0.611 mm. 0.443 15.458 0.383 16.14II 0.271 9.100 19.414 o.0.514 0.591 0.506 0.589 13.122 14.668 10.407 Q.068 17..272 17.361 0.008 18.356 8.699 0.030 13.490 0.316 0.369 mm.687 8.701 0.636 8. 10.702 0.647 0.3<8 17.364 0.0&0 18.312 10.351 0.021 14.338 0.659 0.374 0.338 18.3+4 12.630 0.201 11.69l 0.424 0.593 0..398 0.744 0.681 14.693 10.473 0.763 0.619 0.760 11.<56 19.439 0.601 9.436 13.910 14.30< 19.896 10.335 0.545 0.679 0.672 15.345 0.833 14.253 19.458 8.620 0.439 10.561 0.227 11.434 16.551 14.0H 18.610 0.349 0.449 0.767 13.449 9.611 16.189 15.3n 0.753 9.407 8.670 0.268 12.6Ol 0.119 17.951 15.57.759 0.513 13.35< 11.912 11..397 0.859 14.344 0.011 15.433 0.329 19.774 mm.404 0.233 13.507 0.370 12.852 12.180 16.391 0.660 0.331 0.610 0.649 12.871 10.])1 Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros Pulgada5 0..623 0.535 16.808 14.566 10.957 9.005 1).259 13.518 0.509 0.n3 15.1<48 14.1)2 13.722 15.658 0.378 0.677 9.558 0.982 10.362 0.651 0.195 9.503 14.742 0.598 12.519 15.839 8.801 8.750 0.403 0.416 0.637 0.303 11.551 17.468 0.630 14.541 10.427 14.446 0..452 14.6010 0.849 15.246 17.661 8.252 11.621 15.430 11.581 0.416 0.846 10.614 12.549 mm.581 0.523 0.435 0.402 14.727 8.617 0 •• 0.957 17.565 0._ 0.617 0.459 mm.467 0.3l1 0.536 0.493 0.868 13.586 16.129 16.4]] 0.725 0.078 16.976 16.611 0.811 11.709 11.460 0.573 12.824 15.725 12.249 14.390 0.827 12.732 14.521 0.594 mm.395 0.755 0.610 8.<05 19.602 17.709 0._ 0.327 0.667 0.470 0.557 11.733 0.645 0.399 17.372 0.6<3 18.<83 8.368 0.227 19.360 1).471 12.716 0.658 Pulgadas 0.195 17.297 17.665 0. 0.376 14.671 0.752 0.928 12.634 0.703 17..341 0.907 17.28< 13.539 0.427 0.789 16.316 15.<23 9.721 o.198 14.478 0.615 0.9<1 16.220 9.915 8.6016 0.9 0.431 0.516 12.626 9.672 0.389 18.406 0.543 0.339 0.661 0.6<0 13.440 0.230 '.916 16.<55 11.703 0.7<8 Pulgada5 0.508 0.728 9.496 0.371 0.9<48 18.585 0.177 19.719 10.214 15.<81 11.830 9.662 16.739 0.599 0. 12.338 10.494 0.986 15.065 12.515 Pulgodas 0.409 0.392 15.754 17.711 0.354 19.166 12.3U 0.591 0.856 17.627 0.653 0.6M 'o.746 0.441 0.16< 15.805 17.649 0.408 16.417 0.796 18.211 10.570 0.721 0.475 17.814 8.392 0.4 17.425 0.520 0.464 0.580 0.662 0.601 0.306 8.887 11.700 0.507 19.589 0.734 0.376 mm.711 0.745 0.960 14.714 0.722 0.512 0.387 0.l8O 0.738 16.393 0.346 0.471 0.519 0.830 17.550 0.537 0.097 14.118 9.245 9.608 19.428 0.763 8.5H 8.261 10.472 0.900 15.440 18.685 0 •• mm.511 0.389 0.872 18.395 12.455 0.014 12.513 0. 16. 15.923 18.624 0.555 0.287 10.740 0.434 0.450 0.408 0.

386 21.326 n.996 mm 20.529 22.)9] 19.830 0.817 20.944 0.811 0.850 0.003 24 028 14.349 25..913 19.818 0.96.]/0 10.726 0.935 0.310 21.82] ig::~~ 20.9n 0.841 0.JS2 12.6]00 » » » 5280.895 0.919 0.917 0.998 0.950 0.259 21.120 25.46] 21.428 22.33J 0.988 0.959 0.488 11 :>1] 21.916 0.860 22.808 0.9-45 n.0.596 2].911 0.374 25.'75 knot mile fathom yard fool inch nudo centimetre 23.485 14.841 0.707 22.158 21.814 0.967 0.991 0.079 » » » » » yardas 24.7-49 23.3280 ].889 0.887 0.107 21.]70113 » zo.523 20..903 0.870 0.361 21.976 O.807 0.891 0.791 0.901 0.956 0.098 22.859 0.901 0.809 0.48 0.199 PulgQdas 0.936] 1093.320 22.910 0.883 0.99] 25.789 0.817 0.888 0.984 0.964 0.777 0.801 0.975 0.066 10.860 0..650 20.9370 pulgadas = » » 0.57<1 20.04 21.948 0.961 0.961 0.817 0.891 0.918 0.878 0.~ 25.880 0.139 23. equivalencia a 1853 metros.971 O.402 12.809 22.8H 22.788 0.854 0.539 ~:: 0.790 0.885 22.890 0.9)8 0.053 14.250 22.850 I H876 2].148 22.&46 0.862 0.828 Pulgados mm 24.6H 20.798 0.901 23.1 25.164 23.885 0.796 0.861 0. 60 millas geograficas = 1 grado en el Ecuador. 19.987 I 23.841 0.836 0.269 1.793 21.599 20.701 kil6metro milia legua = = = 10.+44 23.6]1 22.981 0. 0.638 22.2808 328.857 0.965 0.675 20.209 21.368 2).685 19.m 1.921 0.2'4 20.961 0.815 0..666 21.888 19.412 21.132 21.241 2].961 0.8288 0.218 20.612 H.710 19)33 19."'7 10.840 0.m 0.180 14.936 0.837 19.9()4 I .910 22.358 14.781 0.90 0.srs = ]9.980 0.275 22.911 0..082 21.804 0.957 0.915 0.931 0.911 mm.841 24.282 24.945 0."1 0.1Q.894 0.317 Pulgodos 0.739 24.'76 0.781 0.999 i .147 25.145 20.811 0.155 24.893 0.069 25.818 21.904 0.940 0.W Ii.805 0.587 0.8.672 23.987 0.819 0.793 0.906 0.839 0.926 23.810 0.954 2].012 23.877 0.996 22.815 mm.871 (Iegua marino) 3 millas nauticas (milia geografica) marino (1760 yordo.9000 » » » » = 0.774 2).564 21.951 0.m 25.977 14.911 0.786 0.3149 1.989 20.561 24.005 21.900 0.1093 1.298 25.786 19.818 20.776 0.858 0.0)1 21.955 0.952 23.985 0.3937 3.377 22.971 0.994 0.Decimales de pulgada Pulgodas 0.19] 20.222 25.307 20.758 22.939 0.942 0.784 0.951 0.799 0.%0 24.761 19.802 o.851 0.797 0.919 0.656 22.171 25.778 0.000 3280.863 0.801 0. -63 - .848 0.937 0.851 0.896 0.606 21.942 2".9'.874 0.792 0.11'1 23.174 22.905 0.910 0.816 0.9n 0.8n 0.915 0.5()04 = = 0.813 0.285 21.()()()() » = 176O.266 23.167 10.767 21.864 inglesa a milimetros mm 21.821 0. 1 milia neuncc = 1 milia geografica.647 23.881 0.911 0.780 0.663 2-4.980 21.615 11.916 0..9144 O.929 20.961 22.723 2].063 0.819 20. '9.056 21.869 21.019 24.909 n0l8 0.751 0.234 21.225 22.04 24.437 21.196 25.040 20.691 21.714 24.779 0.934 0.3Q.548 20.968 24.717 21.04-4 21.62- 1 Knot para pruebas de buques :d.622 2].884 0.815 2-4.no 24."5 0.384 24.273 25.979 0.783 22.917 24.()()()() 159<40..000 0.787 0.790 14.949 0.580 22.974 0.92] 0.990 0.536 24.811 0.897 0.785 0.142 20.799 21.849 0.206 24.910 0.) milia legal (braza) (yorda) (pie) (pulgada) = 5559 1853 1609.824 0.'71 0.037 0.947 0.986 0.856 0.765 24.)01 12."3 0. .511 14.918 0.781 0.453 22.190 2).819 0.472 0.89.853 0.845 0.953 0.640 21.981 0.257 o.231 ALMIRANTAZGO BRITANICO 0'816120.()()()() H.775 0.892 24.4 H.794 0.803 0.812 19.881 0.9)9 Pulgodas 0.946 0.015 20.243 20.8)8 0.855 0.144 0. 23.0328 pie.116 20.907 0.396 20.000 » 5280.810 0.869 H.418 23.811 0.989 0.795 0.0936 dedmetro metro decdmetro 20.0/2 22.886 0.983 0.969 0.936 22._ 0.733 22. 7 20.970 0.955 20.866 14.742 21.047 22.409 24.924 0.815 0.520 1l.091 20.555 22. i Equivalencias entre sistema inglis y mitrico Pesos y medidas MEDIDAS DE LONGITUD sec-lecque 0.817 0.215 23.469 23.0109 0.698 23.971 21.966 0.095 25.590 21.682 22.960 0.927 0.868 0.291 23.908'123.165 H.958 0.899 0.495 23. es usoda siempre para las comparaciones de velocidades de buques.021 22.920 21.0254 21.183 21.938 metros O.978 0.814 0.812 0.688 14.800 0.841 0.479 22.54S 2]571 23.806 0. 6080 pies.H2 2].911 2·4.146 25.862 19. 0.336 21.12] 21.400 20.

MEDIDAS DE SUPERFICIE
1 yarda! 1 pie2 1 0,836097

TABLA
pulgQdost
GalgQ Imperial Standard

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (atombre) Pulgodas

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet and Hoop flejes) mm. (chapas
I

m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

pulgodo'

= 0,092899 m' = O,0<J06.45 m'

= 1550 = 10,7M = 1,196

Brow

and

Sharp.

pie,'
yordost

numero

e-. Pulgodas
O,~ 0,372 O,H81 0,324 0,300 0,276 0,252 0,232 0,212 0,192 0,176 0,160 O,1~ 0,128 0,116 O,1M 0,092 0,080 0,072 0,064. 0,056 O,M8 O,~ 0,036 0,032 0,028

"r-i
i

mm.

mm. 11,530 10,795

~--.-

y

Americana p~-t-~QdQS

Pulgodas

T

".

mm. 11,~ 10,-40<1 9,265 8,251 7,3~ 6,5~3 5,827 5,189 ~,621 ~,115 3,6M 3,263 2,906 2,588 2,3M 2,52 1,827 1,627

0000

110,160 9,~~ 8,839 I 8,229 7,620

O,~5~ O,~25 0,380 O,HO 0,300 O,28~ 0,259 0,238 0,220 0,203 0,180 0,165 O,H8 0,134 0,120 0.109 0,095 0,083 0,072 0,065 0,058 O,M9' O,M2 0,035 0,032 0,028

0,500 M~52 O,396~ 0,3532 O,31~7 O,28Q.1 0,2500 0,2225 0,1981 O,17M 0,1570 0,1398 0,1250 0,1113 0,0991 0,0882 0,0785 0,0699 0,0625 0,0556 0,0495 O,~ 0,0392 O,OH9 0,03125

,

12,700 11,308 10,068 8,971 7,993 7,122 6,350 5,651 5,031 ~,~O 3,987 3,550 3,175 2,827 2,517 2,2~ 1,993 1.775 1,587 1,~12 1,257 1,117 0,995 0,886 0,793

O,~ O,~6 O,3~ O,32~ 0,2893 0,2576 O,229~ O,2M3 0,1819 0,1620 O,1~3 0,1285 O,11~ 0,1019 0,0907 0,0808 0,0719 0,0641 0,0570 0,0508 0,0452 O,M30 0,0359 0,0319 O,02~ 0,02535 1 i

MEDIDAS DE VOLUMEN
1 yordo:! 1 1
pie"

000 pulgadasa 00 0 1 2

pulgodo"

= O,7M513 = 0,028315 = 0,000016

m' m" m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

= 61028 = 35,316 = 1.308

pie,'
yordos:S

i

9,652 '8,636 7,620 7,213 6,578 6,M5

: 7,010 ' 6,~
I

MEDIDAS DE CAPACIDAD
1 1 1 1

~
0,070 0,176 1,75980

3

5,892 5,3~

gill, pint (pinto) quart (quarto) gallon (inglo,)

= O,H2 = 0,568 = 1,136 = ~,5~5
=

litro litro
Htr cs lures

1 cennlrtro
1 decilitro 1 litro

=

gill,
pintos pinl~

5 6 7 8 9 10

'

!
I

5,588 5,156 ~,572 ~,190 3,759 3,403 3,~ 2,768 2,413 2,108 1,828 1,651 1,~73 1,2~ 1,066 0,889 0,812

i ~,876 ~,470 4,064 3,657 3,251 2,9~ 2,6~ 2,336 2,032 1,828 1,625 1,422 1,219 1,016 O,9H 0,812 0,711

i

I

1 gallon (americano)

3.785 litros

PESAS
1 ton. {tcneludes]
1 1 1
=

11

22-40

libra,

cwt (quintal) quart (quarto) pound (libra) (cnzc] drachm (dracma)

1 oU'lce 1

= 20 cwts. = 112 libra, = 28 » = 16 onzas = 16 dr.

= 1016,O~8 = 50,802 = 12,700
=
O,~5359 0,Q28H 0,00177 0,0022 2,20'16 220,~H 22M,6H1

12 kgs. » » » » » ltbres » » » 13 H 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

1,~9 1,290 1,H9 1,009 0,911 0,811 0,722 O,M3

1 gromo 1 kilogramo 1

quintal metrico (100 kilogramos)

1 tonelada metrica (1000 kilogramos)

= = = = = =

!

:

I

!

I

0,711

-6-4-

- 65-

TABLA
GalgQ Imperial

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (olombre)

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet (chapas
- ----

Factores de conversion
and Sharp

numero

r---Pulgodas

Standard
--~-

ond

Hoop

Brow

INGLES
Libras por pie lineal Libras per yarda lineal

A METRICO
1,488 0,496 3333,33 1111,11 0,2818 0,07031 1,575 4,883 10,936 1,215 0,5933 16,020 1.329 0,01426 0,09983 48.905 25,8 0,1382 0.309 1,0139 0,477 0,0916 0,0279 0.252 2.713 0,746 kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por kil6metros kilos por centimetres kilos por millmetro" kilos por metro' Tons. por metro' Tons. por metro" kilos por metres kilos por metres Tons. por metres

1--

--

y

mm.

Pulgodas

mm.

Pulgadas

flejes) -----mm

Americana

Gg;;;]--~;;·-0,02257 0,02010 0,01790 0,01594 0,01419 0.01264 0,01125 0,010021 0,00892 0,00795 0,007081 0,00630 0,00561 0,00500 0,00445 0,00396 0,00353 0,00314 0,00280 0,00250 0,00220 0,00200 0,00176 0,00157 0,00140 0,00124

x
X

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

0,024 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,0164 0,0148 0,0136 0,0124 0,0116 0,0108 0,0100, 0,0092 0,0084 0,0076 0,0068 0,0060 0,0052 0.0048
1 ,

0,609 0,558 0,508 0,457 0.416 0,375 0,345 0,314 0,294 0,274 0,254 0,233 0,213 0,193 0,172 0,152 0,132 0,121 0,111 0,101 0,091 0,081 0,071 0,060 0,050 0,040

0,025 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,016 0,014 0,013 0,012 0.010 0,009 0,008 0,007 0,005 0,004

0,635 0,558 0,508 0,457 0,406 0,355 0,330 0,304 0,254 0,228 0,203 0,177 0,127 0,101

0,02782 0,02476 0,02204 0,01961 0,01745 0,01264 0,01390 0.01230 0,01100 0,00980 0,00870 0,00770 0,00690 0,00610 0,00540 0,00480 0,00430 0,00386 0,00343 0,00306 0,00272 0,00242 0,00215 0,00192 0,00170 0,00152

0,706 0,628 0,559 0,498 0,443 0,396 0,353 0,312 0,279 0,248 0,220 0,195 0,175 0,154 0,137 0,121 0,109 0,098 0,087 0,077 0,069 0,061 0,054 0,048 0,043 0,Q38

i

0,573 0,511 0,454 0,404 0,360 0,321 0,285 0,254 0,226 0,201 0,180 0,160 0.142 0,127 0,113 0,100 0,089 0,079 0,071 0,063 0,056 0,051 0,048 0,039 0,035 0,031

Tons. per pie lineal Tons. por yarda Libras por mi1lo Libras por pulgodo2 Tons. por pulgodo2 Libras por pie2 Tons. por Tons. Libras lineal

x x

x x x
x

pte"

x
X X X X X X X X X X X

por yardo2 per yordos3

Libras por ple" Tons. por yarda3

Gramos per gallon Libras per gallon -Gcllcnes Tons. libros por pie"

= gromos
= kilos por

por

litro

litro

-

-

41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48

0,00441 0,0040 0,0036 0,0032 0,0028 0.0024 0,0020 0,0016

-

-

litros por metro" kilogrcimetros kilogrcimetros Tons. metrtccs

pulgodo pie

Tons. pie HP libros Pies' Pies' por por por HP HP HP

c.

V. normal

X
X X X

kilos por C. metros" metre" colodos

v.
C.

por C. por

v. v.

Unidodes termtccs Unidod termlcc HP Tons.
=

-

por pie-

X

cclcrtcs por metro! kilovatios de tonelado

x

abreviotura

- 66-

-67-

Fadores de conversion
METRICO
Metrol Metro'\ por por

Fadores
Kilos por Kilos por Kilos Kilos por por metro metro metro lineal lineal

de conversion
A INGLES
0.672 2.016 0.0003 0.0009 3.548 14.223 0.635 0.2048 0.0914 0.823 1.686 0.0624 0.752 70.12 10.438 0.0204 7.233 0.0387 3.23 0.9863 2.235 Hbras libras tons. tons. por pie lineal por yarda lineal

A INGLES
ptes! por HP HP termiccs.

METRICO
x x
X X

Cy
C. V.

x x
X

10.913 35.806 3.968 0.369 1.340 0.7373 0.00155 645.1 0.155 6,451

pies3 por unrdedes

Calorio ktlcgrumc Calorids Ktlevencs Valios Milimetros2 Milimetros2 CentimetresCentimetres" Metros2 Kil6metros~ Hectcireas Centimetres" Metros:! Metros3 Metros~ por metre'

lineal

por pie lineal por yarda lineal

x x x x
X

unidades termlccs HP

por pie'

metro lineal

Kilos por kil6metro Kilos por centimetre! Kilos por Kilos por Tons. pulgQdast Tons. pulgadast pulgadas' Kilos Kilos Tons. Gramos por por por por metro! metro' metro" metro por por por litro ccbrcc por mlllrnetrct metro! metro!

x x x
X X X X X

libras por milia libras tons. libras tons. tons. libras libras tons. gramos Libras gallones libras tons. tons. HP libras por HP por por pulgada2 pulgada2

Pies libras por segundo pulgadas2

por pie! por por por por por pie! yordo! yordo;! ple" yorda3 por par gallon gal16n por pies pulgada pie pi~

x

10.764

ptes"
acres

x
X X

x 247.1 x
2.471 16.383

Kilos acres pulgadas3 pies" ycrdcs" Lttrcs

litro metros

x
»;
X X

Kilogrometr<;>s Klloqrdmetrcs Tons. metrtces

x x
X

35.315 1.308 264.2

C. V. normal qetlcnes (231 pulgadas') Kilos por C. V.

x x

-68-

69 -

EQUIVALENCIA
C= F= 5 X (F-32) 9 9XC 5
of

ENTRE TEMPERATURAS
R=4XC= 5 4 X (F- 32) 9 C=

EQUIVALENCIA

ENTRE
R= + 32
FahrenheIt

TEMPERATURAS
4X C 5 4 X (F-32) 9

5XR =-4-

5 X (F- 32) 5XR =-49 9XR + 32 = -4c
CeloIw
F

+32=~+32
C Cel,ius

r 9XC .- = -5-

.
JO
31

4
F

FohrO!nhl!l1

.,
oR
24,0
14.8 25.' 16,4

/WG..",IIIf

, """'-,
OR °C +
500
5SO 600

°C

oR
_16,0

°C + +

of
".0 87.8

°C +
80

of

oR +
64.0 64.'

°C +
130

OF +
266,0 267.8 269,6 271.4 171.2
275,0 276,8 278,6 280." 282.2 2114,0 285.8 287,6 291.2 293,0 29",8 296.6 298." 300,2 ]02.0 303,8 307." 309.2 311,0 312,8 314.6 316." 31B.2

OR

°C +
'80 '82

OF

OF

OR
932

-17 _16 -1S -14

-" +
-18 -11
_12 -11 _10

-20

-

'.0 2.2 0.'

-1S.2 _12,8 -12.0 _ 1'.2
-10,4 -1],6

+

'.'
3.2 5.0

''',4

n
14

12

es.e
91,4

82 81

"

9),2
95,0

27.2
28,0 28,8

10."
12.2 H,O

.., - .., - e.a
, .a

lS 36 37 38 39
40

ss.e

100,4 102.2 104,0

...,

..
as
88 90 92

+

176,0
117,8 179,6 181.4 18).2 185,0 186,8 188.6

n,

+

104,0 .104,8

tet

+

356.0
]S7.8 )59,6

+

144.0 1+4,8
145,6 1<W!.4 147,1 148,0 '''',8 '''9.6 1 SO... 151.2 152.0

+

+

1012

..,
400 480 520

65.'
66.' 67,2 68.0 68.'

132 133

i05.6
106,4

134 135 '36 137 '38 139
'40 14' 142 143 '44 145 t .. 148 14' ,SO 1S' 152

107.2.
108,0 108,8 109,6 110," 111,2 112.0 112.8 11],6 11"," 115.2 116,0 116,8 117.6 118." 119,2 120,0 120.8

'83 18'
'85 '87
t ..

29.6
]0,4

31.2 32.0
32,8

_.

-• • -, -• 7 5

1S.B
17,6 19,4 21,2

+

3 2

,
2 3

23.0 24,8 26.6 28.1
)0.2 32,0

- '.0 - 7.2 - 5.' - 4.~ - '.0 - 3.2 - 2.' - t.e - 0.'
0.0

'.'

41
42

105,8 107,6 109.4 111,2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118,4 120.2 122.0 1B.B 125.6 127,4 129.2 1]1.0

n.e
]5.2
]6,0 )6.8

43
44

34,4

4S
46 47 48

0 t

SO
52

"
"
56

37.6 3M
39,2 40.0 40.'

" '" " " " ss " " " reo
94 '01
102

69,6
70,-4 71,2 72,0

190 .. 4
192,2 194,0 195.8 197,6 199,4 201,2

rz.e

n.6
14.4 75,2 76,0

289.'

,,, ,,, ,,, ,.,
'90

361.4 363,1
365,0 3.... 368,6 37M

6SO 700
7SO 0>0

'112
1292 14n '562 '652 17 .. 2 18]2

'202
'382

S60
600

m.r
]7".0

sse

8SO ."

640 680 ".
760 100

375.8 379." 381,2

3n,6

193

..

203.0 lO·U 206.6 208.4
210,2

76,8 77,6
78.4 79.2 80.0 80.'

'47

'94 ,,, '96 , ,,,
'97
200 210

15].6 15 ..... 155,2 156,0 156.8 157,6 158." 159.2 160.0 168.0 176.0

152.'

'000
'050 1100 11SO

'922
'012 2,.,

..

,""
1150

""
2m 2462 2551 2642 2732 2822 2912 3002 3092 3182 1272 J362 3452

840 880

38J,O 3IM,8 386,6 388." ]90.2

,ioo nso
'400 14SO

"82

." ...
,""
1120 1160 ,,40

,
5 7 10

·
• •

B,8 35,6 37.4
]9,2

+

0.'

212.0 213.8
115,6 217,4 21'-2

392

'500
1SSO '600 16SO 1700 1750

1.6
2.' 3.2 '.0

41.6 43.2

et.e
8],2 ".0

42••
44.' 46.' 48.2

"',0'
SO.O

11 12 14

51.B
5],6

n
1S 16

57.2
59,0

55."

10,4

... ,.. ..., ..
5.' 7.2 '.0

53 54 55 57 58
60

42.4

'03 '04
105

82.'

153 .'54
155 '56 157

lOS.'

121.6
122," 123.2 1H.0 114.8 115,6 126." 127.2 128.0 128,B 129,6 110." 131.2

220 230 240 250 260 270

44.0 44.'

132.8
134.6 136.4 138,2 140,0 141,8 143,6 145.4 147.2 149,0 150,8 152.6 154.4

,06
107 10.

221.0
222.'

45.6
46.'

"
61 61 63
64

47.2
48.0 48.'

""
,10

224.6 226.4
228.2

".'
85,1> 87.2 ".0

'" '" '" ,_,
soo
554

.10

,'" ,""
'2110
1320

'000

1114.0 192.0 200.0 208.0 216,0

'360
'400 '440 "80 1520

".'
90.'

nt
112

1)0.0
2]1.8

11.2
12.0

49.6 SO.4 51,2
52.0

113
11. 115 '16 ",

231.6 US," 1)7,2 219.0
140.8

...., ...
92.0

158 159
'60 16'

280
'90 300 310 320 330 340 3SO

".
S36 S72
590 .. 2

'800

224.0
232.0 2 ..1),0 HB.O

'850
eec
ese
2050 2100

320.0
121.8 323,6 325," 327.2 329,0 330,8 H2.6

'62 '63
'64

608 62'
644

2510.0
264.0 272.0 280.0 288.0

21SO 2200 23SO 2400 14SO 1700 2150

35..2

rsse
'680
1720

rrn
3812 3902 3992

3612

,..,
ieee
"40 1920 1960

'600

'1.2 92.B 9].6 94.' 95.2
%.0

1760

" "
20
21

17

60.' 62.6
64.' 66.2 68.0

12,8
1],6 14 .•

15.2
16,0

" " "
66 68

tss
'66 167 '68 16.

112.0
132,8 133,6 135.2 136,0 1l6,B 117.6 13B." 139,2 110,0

52,8 53,6
54,4

360
370

156.2 158,0
159.8 161.6 163,4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172,4 174.1

55.2
56.0 56.' 57,6

,,,
ita 122 123
12. 125

242.6 144.4 246.2 2.... 0 219.8 251.6
25).4

70
71

22 23 24 25 26
27

·n.4
75.2
77.0

6'-8 71.6

16,8
17,6 18.4 19.2 20,0 20.' 21.6 22,4 23.2

120 121

72
73 74

58.4 59.2
60.0

255.2 257.0 258.8

'fT.' "..
".2 100,0 100.8

....

336,2 3]8.0

HH
339.8 H1.6 H)." 3"5,2 H7.0 3"8.8 ]SO.6

13..,,,

380
390

680 '96
716

2250 2300

0082
"'72 4262

296.0
301.0 312.0 120.0 128.0 3l6,O ] ..... 0 352,0 360,0 368,0 176.0 384.0

.. 352
0442 "512 46" ..712 4802 4892

734 7Sl
770 788

'70 17'
172

400
'10 420

2SOO
25SO 2600 2650

173 17.
175

.30
440 'SO .70 "0

806 82.
.. 2

78.8
80.'

7S 76 77

60.'
61.6

tae
127 ",

" "

82.'
".2

" "

62.4 63.2

'"

260.'
262.4
264.2

101.6
102.4 10).2

'"
17.
'79

'76

352."
]54.2

'''1,''
'''3,2

11O.B 141,6

460

""

-70 -

'" ." -71.78

'"

27SO 20>0

...,
son

'880
2000 2080 2120

1160
2200 2240 2180 2320 2360

5162

]92,0

2900 19SO

5252
514l

- TABLA DE CONVERSION
KILOGRAMOS POR CENTIMETRO CUADRADO EN LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA
Kg,. por libra, libra, Kg,. Kg'. por por por por em' ...I'..ulg_ada· em' ....I'.ulg_ada· em' libra, por pulgada' Kg'. por libra, por pulgada'

-TABLA

DE CONVERSION

LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA EN KI LOG RAMOS POR CE NTIMETRO CUADRADO
libras por pulg' Kgs. por libra. por pulg' Kg s, por Libras por pulg' Kgs. por libras por pulg' Kg,. por

em' 17.2

em' 7.031 7.171 7.312

em' 10.827 10.968 11.108 11.249 11.390 11.530 11.671 11.812 11.952 12.093 12.233 12.374 12.515 12.655 12.796 12.937 13.077 13.218 13.358 13.499 13.639 13.780 13.921 14.061 14.202 14.343

em' 14.624 14.764 14.905 15.046 15.186 15.327 15.467 15.608 15.749 15.889 16.030 16.171 16.311

em'

1.0 1.2

104
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2A 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 H 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2

14.1.23 17.068 19.913 22.757 25.602 28.447 31.291 34.136 36.981 39.825 42.670 45.515 48.359 51.204 54.049 56.893 59.738 62.583

604
6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2

91.029 93.874 96.719 99.563 102.408 105.253 108.097 110.942 113.787 116.631 122.321 125.165 128.010 130.855

11.8 12.0 12.2

1204
12.6 12.8 13.0 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2

167.836 170.680 173.525 176.370 179.214 182.059 184.904 187.748 190.593 193.438 196.282 199.127 201.972 204.816 207.661 210.506 213.350 216.195 219.040 221.884 224.729 227.574

244.642 1704 247.486 17.6 250.331 17.8 253.176 18.0 256.020 18.2 18.6 18.8 19.0 19.2 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.2

1804 261.710

258.865

100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152

70453
7.593 7.734 7.874 8.015 8.156 8.296 8.577 8.718 8.858 8.999

154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206

208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 73-

262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310

180420
18.561 18.702 18.842 18.983 19.123 19.264 19.405 19.545 19.686 19.826 19.967 20.108 20.248 20.389 20.530 20.670 20.811 20.951 21.092 21.233 21.373 21.514 21.654 21.795

264.534 267.399 270.244 273.088

804 1190476

80437

1904 275.933
278.778 281.622 284.467 287.312 290.156 293.001 295.846 298.690 301.535 307.224 310.069 312.914

1404
14.6 14.8 15.0 15.2

160452
16.592 16.733 16.874 17.014 17.155 17.295

904 133.699
9.6 136.544 9.8 '139.389 10.0 142.234 10.2 145.078

9.140
9.281

2004
20.6 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.6 21.8 22.0

90421
9.562 9.702 9.843 9.984 10.124 10.265 10.405 10.546 10.687

650427
68.272 71.117 73.961 76.806 79.651 83.495 85.340 88.185

1504
15.6 15.8 16.0 16.2 16.6 16.8 17.0

1004 147.923
10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.4 11.6 150.768 153.612

170436
17.577 17.717 17.858 17.999 18.139 18.280

504
5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2

1560457
159.302 162.146 164.991

1604 233.263

2300418
236.108 238.952 241.797

2104 304.380

140483
-

-72-

DATOS SOBRE PRESIONES
Un milimetro de columna de mercuric

= 13.506 mm. de columna
= 0,0013596 otm6sferos atm6sferas

de aguQ.

metriccs, ontiguas.

»
Un milimetro de columna de agua a

= 0.0013158

+

4" = 1

Kg/m2 mm. de columna
curio
Q

= 0,07355

de mer-

()'>

Una

atmosfera

metrrce

= 1 Kg/em' = 735,5 = 737.4

» » »

mm. de columna mm. de mercuric
inglesas inglesas

de mercurio a 15" de mercuric de agua par a pulgoda

Q

cr
()o

= 28,958 pulgodas

= 10 metros de columna

+

a 4"

LECTURA DE MANOMETROS
EQUIVALENCIAS
Una atmosfera metrlcc
-

= 14.223 libras
= 0,968

cue-

drado. atm6sferas ontiguas. de mercurio a 15° de mercurio de agua
Q

Una atmosfera antigua

= 760 mm. de columna = 766

a

I kilo
por

por ern?

()o

mm. de mercuric

= 29,922 pulgodas = 10;333 metros

inglesas de columnd

a

()o

Kilogramos Un

por

ern? a libras

pulgcdc?

+

4"

kilogramo por libra

»
Una libra par pulgoda cuadrado

= 14.696 libras inglesas = 27.71 .pulgadas = 2.31 pies ingleses = 2.041 pulgadas = 1~ libras por

par pulgada de agua

cuadrado. a 15
0

-

14,223 libras.
a kilogramos ki logramos. por pulgcdo? por em?

inglesas inglesas

Libras Una
0

pulgad~
-

» »

de agua. de mercurio a 15 pie cuadrado.

0,0703
a libras

= 0,068 ctmosfercs. Una pulgada de mercurio a 15
0

Atrnosfercs

= 1.132 = 13,58 = 0.491

pies de agua. pulgadas ltbrcs Hbrcs por per por de agua. pulgada cuadrado.

Una atmosfera Libras Una
NOTA. etmcsfencc.

=

14,223 libras.
a ctrnosferas.

» »
Un pie de agua a 15
0

por libra

pulgada2

= 62.355

pie cuadrado. pulgada cuadrada.

- 0,0703 ctrnosfercs.
los mcnornetros. 10 lecture cere cor responde a 10 presion

»

= 0,433 libras

En todos

-74 -

75 -

.' 0.n6 O.)14 1.~ . 6.157 0.ns 'A " ~.1 '.671 2.~. .7 5.' '. .306 0.812 1.338 0...6 no.97 .. =~ · ~ .1 161.9 157. .S to.802 2..' lOS.' 187. ..133 0.5 117. :: . ".nt 0.99 t.549 0 .009 11..1 1.7 111. .. ~..552 7.. 0.7S '.197 3..)16 0.163 3.053 1.8 194. '.0 102.69 7..901 0 ..2 69.490 '.. · I ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~OO ~~~~~~~~~~~ __ E ..670 0.' n.)U 1.19] 0.0 153. ~ 1..2 ".459 0 ...H1 0.101 1.m 0. .212 ]. b ..7 1S1.853 2..' '.8 1~.. Do E b ::l 7.. .160 0.. ~.'49 4. 0.248 0.' 1.9 100. ~ E ~ 0.1 126..150 2...75 .102 1]1.6 a.4 181.' 0.1 179.. ~.15 11.378 0.' ..107 7.905 U '.697 0.1 0.3 14'.s 0.5 o..617 0 .' '....m 'E ~ .531 0...6 0.'" .~ de 1 m en Kg encenlig..' '.' .811 0. U 0...175 4. .698 2..7 115.176 ].7 3.S95 2.' 121.' '.172 l..2)0 2.2 0. 5. . ~. 141..75 t.5 5..009 0.7 1504.753 0. ·~ ..108 1.' '..1 141.5 186.111 0.123 0..190 0.. 4.lSO 0.619 1.002 0 .l.8 176.2 81.374 0.1 107. 0.3'" " " " 10 200 202 lOS 208 )10 21l .101 '.0.4'1 B43 ].' '.1046 0.' .020 1..4 '74..' 132..." '1.8 165.' '. i ..357 150.~ 155.B to.0 191..069 0.' '..72] .J 93. .65 9.10 8.1 1.3 190.M' 3. '1.110 .887 0.9 178.. .1 166.148 0. 1.' 11.1S4 0. 14S.109 0..117 0.786 1..6 1.177 0.65 10.VAPOR DE AGUA SATURADO Pre~lon oblOlwlo '" aim Temperalurg Volumen de 1 Kg hw d~ 1 en Prnion ~.4 189.161 ].1 169.021 S.' 1.104 0.451 1. 0. U ..115 0.' '.J OJ. 0.' '..521 0.470 0.~ ~.410 l.385 0.1 110.~ ..1 164..364 0.6 164.1 139..15 9.390 1.189 " " " '.621 6.467 ·s i I! .' '.." 181.185 ..663 0.0438 0.141 0. .on '41.4 15.495 .587 0..915 1. absoluto Temperalure Volume" d<'!ll(g en m"' e"'enlig en m' Kg en aIm..0:1:1 4.007 1..B32 0. 0.170 0.1 118.115 0.7 1'S.<'" 0....130 0..416 1.2 1.' '..' '. " M 7.]76 6.1 1044.28) U87 2... ! Go U 1.7 111.916 0.418 1.5 117.170 5. e.1 155.15" 6.8 1046.. '.8 172.<00 168..166 0.87 8.75 '.515 4.]94 • ." n.0 1]6.B" 0.9 135..n7 2..118 " ..419 0.941 "..) 1'1...01 6.75 11.228 '6.5 "'09 1..016 97..518 1.269 ~ ~ ..138 0..694 1.0 163.5 170.5 152.1 0.' '...672 0 ..133 0.9 1S1..756 1. u~ 14.172 0.161 1.6SO .4 163..256 1.. 180.742 7.2 1'2.227 0.6 175.181 0.. 1.. .1 121.15 11~ 11.511 5..' O. · ~ .8 '..5 161.0 1... . ".3...060 '.0 14]." 0.161 0.8 161.173 0. " .. ... '.140 3.S '''.. .!.5 S.543 5.956 ]..719 0.116 0.' '.1 149. tG.3 0.' '.102 0.862 1...S 6.993 1.. NN~~~~~~~~O N -76 - -77- .4" 0.188 0.' '.371 0.' . I! b ~ .." '.241 '..S.1 129.180 0.'" 171.568 ].77 ...209 0..721 3.365 1.570 1.596 1.1&4 109. 0." 7..0] 0.419 0.3ao 115.. '. '0 · . .099 137.1 119.6SO 4. .1 0.2 153.331: 0.4.~ P..' U..r ..' '1.9 160..155 0.7 157.115 1.. ~ .111 159.5 148..s :.1 159.1043 0. ~ .171 2.S .6047 2.~ .1 s..1 181... 188.7 0.76<1 185.1 140.'99 0.77.265 0.640 5. " .....508 1...1904 76. .' 1.!! D.. ..178 2.1 4.194 0.' lB.10 "" i E "0 > :I II .41' 2.127 0..1 193. .

900 10. Gas-oil (ccette de gas) Benzol.342 calorias-gromo.1 42. = 8. CALOR potcisico. Gas de alumhrado. Petr61eo • Mazut (similar gos-oil) POTENCIAS ~~. Nitrato Ccdnuo.750 8. 0. Gas de alto horno.00120 0. Liqnltc . Alcohol. ill ~ 94. . 427 kilogrcimetros. U.55 celer-ies kg/kg. ) Buena Hullo I ~n~~~il~. ~~~.500 INFERIORES CALORIA·KG. Coque metchirqtco. Petr61eo . por pie cubrcc B. 6. 2. U.000 7.4 55.590 -78 - -79 - .600 4.100 11.6 » Un ktloqrcrnetrc Un HP-hora Un kilovatio-hora Una B. Agua (promedio) Eter . 8. 632 calorios-kilogramo. T. Benzol.000 10.1 CALORIFICAS COMBUSTIBLE Aceite solar.4 90 Azufre. /::. Benzol. Alcohol Gasolino.4 14 77 Estono Cobre Fundtcton gris. Hrc!o (agua). Petrclec en bruto . Alurruruo .00018 9.000 Brtquetcs de hullo. . Petr61eo [rectificcdo] Gasolino.600 completo) 4. CALORIFICAS SUPERIORES CALORIA·KG.2 28 LATENTE CUE R PO S COMBUSTIBLE Antrocita.230 10.000 7. Ete r • (0 O~).4 27. DE VAPORIZACION CALORIA·KG. 0.8 21 5.000 11. .000 calorias-gromo. por libra Uno B.600 7.5 63 80.000 10. = Caloria ingleso. Hierro Niquel Mercurio Plata Plomo Plalino .800 7. .00100 0. Cotorro-Kq 13 30 23 30 4. Zinc.00018 0. 1. Parafina Gfrcc nno . 860 calorias-kilogromo. T.800 7. Carbon de madera (combusti6n Coque de gas.9 colories kg/m: 1 CALOR METALES LATENTE DE FUSION CUERPOS Azufre . 9.500 2. POTENCIAS Caloria-Kg.100 3.100 10. DILATACION CUERPOS CUBICA 1" C Amoniaco (a 0"') Acido carbonico 362 210 304.610 10.000 3.000 9.00050 0. .4 35. 10.CA Uno calorio-kilogromo LOR cclorio grande.00160 0.000 768 11. Gas ccetlleno Madera Turbo. Gltcertnc • Mercurio. Alcohol Benzol. U.00110 0. T.~ colidod.

217 96.4466 20..06<0.1 3..06037 .03463 .01671 .3499 16." 29.3678 34.01600 .MI3 63.02822 .99 19. . .8823 29.3 20 l' . dci· .060211 ..03084 .01018 .7086 62.02968 .02764 .7 0.7686 37.6069 39.6161 70.0760 1lI.04Ml .04076 .02473 .06678 .02910 .3 10.870 1146. nfeve.06620 .2137 23.3 3.269 149.7 0.M85 49. 104. .04308 .03376 .00<07 .3264 16.0M74 .03783 .04104 .967 491.03621 Cloun tan ..01164 .4 16. :2 :1 :1 :1 disuelto.1li33 68.066<.0807 61.05328 .06533 .00698 . nieve.4704 21.. 33 32 31 30 .0666 26.01746 .06241 .. 26 2'.03026 .00378 . 3. nitrato. •• 31 .441 246.01338 .01396 .02066 .06766 .436 687. :1 :2 9:4 .06708 .3 15.06970 :8:li .6691 20.04li12 .4316 26.7"83 16.607 132.04016 .000211 .5 11._7 .621 286.6(K8 16.01978 .7395 47.03667 .9 15.1664 27.943 ~::~~3 74.662 229.9 Roble.885 163. .8188 20.04920 .3081 22.0462 32.00000 Infinite.426. MODELO DE Hierro fundido Lal6n Cobre Bronce Aluminio Plnc 0 abeto 16 9 9.03n7 .3 13.02096 .01106 .6010 114.0837 16. nfeve.0IS82' 17.0667 14. agua agu? agua.8693 23.6 .03609 .02106 .04220 ..8813 21. disuelto dcf do sal nieve.06730 14.a802 17.02881 .06291 .OMI6 .007" .06096 .7015 17.0273 33..9 14.06204 .03492 .00262 .774 118.02328 .02036 l' !.6076 16. 28 211 30 MEZCLA Partes en peso Descenso De de temperatura A ·C Salitre.01222 .7426 21.00146 .02211 .0863 46.00568 38.06066 .1708 18.3007 3 2 1 0 cmontccc.8 12.4212 .00873 .8771 28.01833 ..6106 17 6206 17.8319 16.1190 16..8460 26.106 343.1967 24.7 11.5 0.04366 .08321 .04279 .760 1718.9244 21 22 23 2' 2.4416 M.04803 . .689 110.00682 .06934 H. 9:6:4 89' ecren 88' 87' .2644 26.79M .3866 18. Haya Tilo Peral Abedul Aliso.05182 .9 12.02619 .01716 .02531 .8386 44.2900 056.3432 17.892 107 .3 <1 3'i 83 36 36 37 38 3.04191 .4Ml 22. nitrico dt- do sulfurtco suelto .0<'" .9641 42.00349 .01076 .478 264. •• •• .060562 .0<687 .01804 .3711 29. s6dico.M18 24.2 10..01746 !.9699 30.00727 .6932 20.00786 .00116 .&383 28. 96 .00814 .9038 22.. .01920 .4633 88..07'7 20.00989 .2568 17.2969 19.0_ 3· cota.02736 .6020 22.700 IM.06626 .00W .2261 44.H3 85.06299 .03434 .774 ::~:~n 67.2671 16.03288 .219 190..03987 .8711 18. .05212 .182 214.02007 .02269 .3032 6O.06093 14.0811 18.0677 22.05241 ecten .4 10.2671 18. 37 86 8.049'9 :~J .9560 36.01136 .7601 66.7934 17.06270 .61056 19.3662 33.06817 14. <1 .M9 672.012~1 .06116 .4899 27.02444 .0<&99 .0283 23.03172 .1222 16.4&6 143.otan 86' tan - 80- -81- .Peso de las piezas fundidas en relaci6n con su modelo taD o· T angentes !.9 3.4283 16.847 79.00611 .00931 00900 .01949 ..01862 .1840 22. • dct- do nit rico disuelto.06446 .2416 30. disuelto.0636() 211 2.03838 .4992 69.02&18 .7496 16.06691 .01613 ..1 11.8 11.01193 . 6() '1 '2 .02689 .02386 .01280 .00669 .02416 .01367 .8696 .~ 16.06233 .85 Mezclas 18.03812 .4638 lli.068<7 14..00204 .0S007 .9 13.171 101.00663 .3607 .2049 21.02367 .8211 16.04133 .10b 6iilll 64 63.06796 .06671 .06906 14.03230 .06700 I" 1s 1< 13 12 11 10 1.71lil 34..2 14.9372 27. • :1 :1 : 5: 16 :1 +8 + 10 + 10 0 0 -14 -5 -19 + 15 + 12.3679 36.6367 26.0307 26.6321 23.8206 31.00068 .98 5. .8978 24.04396 ..06875 .06963 14.5 11.06881 .7678 18. 17 I.01776 .06'" 3.0696 34.5340 16.3 0.4 -24 -12 -16 -33 -18 -35 -41 -40 -9 -6 Sal amoniaco.11~ 98.1885 37.7619 22.4617 26.03201 .95 frigoriftcas 19.8886 .9460 20.4 11.0798 24.03726 ..6 4.14'6 29.984 180.04260 .04978 .6177 38.0811 taD 19.3 14.6 I' " . de sodto.02861 .9990 16.7186 24...03114 .1693 17.03143 .3994 28.9168 41.7 3.3676 24.4314 17.7 10.6069 .01668 .06737 .04716 .02602 .2122 16.139 71. 01687 .4489 46.489 92.02997 .03406 .6081 42.2716 27.06613 ..04832 . Nitrato Cloruro Cloruro Acido Acido Acido Fosfato Fosfato amcmco.8294 46.7317 . • • • • 7 6 .04628 .04668 .06769 14.3 <7 .02677 .932 171. .920 869. 14.03269 .. disuelto.4213 32.06603 .6&U 18. 16 17 4.037M .8 10.321 122.3 11.1039 48.8821 62.06262 .3369 21.00496 .06_ .1962 16.6363 t •• .0872 19.6833 30.00640 ..908 90.047'6 .7403 19.03929 .6936 33.6418 26.4061 19. 3437.60056 21.06146 . .6946 23. 60 ISS 67 66 64 68 6' 61 <7 .04670 .9702 19.6 12.. .02793 .3263 20.00291 .02:1&0 .01047 .1893 16.M38 .9898 14.00087 .6762 16.9687 16.01891 ..04337 .62.03679 . Caoba Lal6n 10 11 • • • • • • 6 7 0 1 .03346 .03968 .03492 .4106 40.3606 66.2 .237 137.2066 20.8646 19.9656 39. nieve.1776 36.03066 .01M2 .014M .6681 16.06437 .04862 .0661 43.00962 .729 73.06176 .00320 .06788 14.843 81.03871 .1220 28.lOun y Colangenles 2' tan .2 0. . de ecleto._ 13 1< I.8167 49.4~ 18.9160 16.265 .02939 .M367 .939 83.0.4313 36.6273 19.1879 19. 27 26 26 23 22 21 20 . ..9174 40.02182 .8863 17.219 121. sal amoniaco.1181 31.868 202.00624 .03_ 28.0436 16.04891 .06664 .00233 .7 13.02298 .'116 30.0<488 .7 13.8348 26.7117 27.4335 41.00176 .02124 .4823 .0601SS .06087 .6284 31.3943 16.03900 .7303 32.6567 62.022{() .0217 21..00<36 312.2296 26.06642 .08379 .3718 23.3 64 67 6S •• 00 ~Jg&2 taD 3b:~2~ .8006 3li.01484 .lotaD .04162 .1 10.atH2" .9766 18..01309 .4368 39. •• . nitrico sulfurtcc nitrico s6clico.6814 16.lOUD tan .01426 .00MO .05627 36..04774 . 3.01629 .06153 .02153 .4121 47.

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M 27 1>3 2' '2 2.99654 .01465 1.03781 .99997 .00436 ..99935 .0.01862.98041 .99667 .0 10 • 11 12 13 . .02298 .99994 .99838 .99958 .05844 ..01629 .99919 .99927 .01891 .04275 .01978 ..99857 .03252 1.99738 .05495 .03839 . 99994 .99770 .01600 .99995 .99689 .99668 .02176 1.02892 1..99937 .99888 .00116 1.00145 .08339 Osa68 .9991)7 .02327 .99834: .01524: 1.064:53 .02123 .99951 .00756 .99705 .99996 .03170 03199 .00669 oo6U8 .00873 .06727 ..03868 ..07730 .06976 .9Q841 .99972 .06685 coseno .07092 .99974 .98384 .99692 .04420 . .03112 .99905 .99851 .99863 .99999 .99016 .99884: .99632 .08542 .oozvi • • 11 12 13 I.02879 .99896 .99876 9<)875 99873 .99996 . 01047 .99906 . •• se .06627 .04885 .99900 .0604:7 .99998 .02653 1..04:623 .99963 .01658 .07904 .99778 .06221 .01571 .99995 .08397 .07846 .99727 .99662 99649 99647 .03433 1.~~a .99967 .00291 . .00989 .03606 .00526 1..01134 .. 05669 ...0302. 2' 24 23 22 20 •• .99714 .03926 .99910 .07150 ..8 31 30 50 2• ~~ 11 .04:100 . 37 3' 3.99810 .03403 .08716 4' coseno . 18 17 I• .55 0.07324 . •• •• 60 . coseno •• .99907 .07759 .99678 .96681 96138 .07M6 07614 .99978 .99943 .00350 1.99801 .99968 ..99933 .03519 .96.06337 .02117 1.03083 .02366 .99986 .07121 .04943 .074:4:0 .99652 99710 .00583 1.07237 . 27 28 2.99982 .05030 05059 ..99686 .08310 .04159 .04607 .0 .07991 .01716 .03752 .99975 .01222 .00931 .03312 1.06279 .03984 .99712 .99991 .99750 .99839 .99949 99948 99947 .7 .98786 .5 .99988 .06308 .00204 .0424:6 .025a0 .OM24: .99966 .99241 ..99998 ..01542 .064:82 .99905 .999M .04:071 ...99976 .02689 .00087 .99912 .00058 1 "17 I.99694 .98901 . 17 18 ie . se M sa .02065 02094 .ooses .99924 .7 32 .99984 .99989 . ..00960 .01832 ..99939 .99878 seno .01~39 1.97586 .01193 .99902 .98155 .05466 .99699 .01280 01309 .00994 1.97189 .97246 91302 .07788 .974:16 974:72 97529 . 30 '0 31 32 33 47 " 17 I.04653 .03490 .99979 seno ~'cosene . 13 12 11 10 7 0 1 2 3 • • e 3 2 1 0 7 8 10 • • • • .99956 .99992 .00876 1.06424 .99965 .99986 .99821 .00663 .08194 .99993 . 30 31 32 33 34 3' 3.05088 05117 .99942 .02181 .2 r.99784 . 47 42 41 3• 38 37 3• 33 32 31 30 29 2' 27 2• 2' 22 21 20 .99813 .99969 .074:11 .997M .99792 . 00116 .04536 .07179 .03432 03461 .99362 .99999 .99863 .99795 .00058 .00902 ..99803 .98441 .07353 .99847 .99734 .02996 .03141 .99671 .02356 tan .05960 .06611 05640 ...7643 .97813 . 38 3. so •• 35 45 3' 33 .08078 .99952 .99892 .01998 1.99536 .07208 .04:217 .03192 1.99824: .99917 .97984 ..05582 .99999 .99822 .99999 .01746 .97700 eotan r-r-: 44' tan ------ 44° eotan 3...99804 .99940 . sa 99983 .9994:2 1.03664 .99836 .99790 .99883 99882 . .99844 .07566 .01347 1.01406 1. •• •• as •• :~t~ •• •• ~I .99996 . 99994 .0436~ .998i2 .99918 . .03228 ..99930 .99721 .99812 .02240 .00785 .05873 .03012 1.99768 .00582 .99889 .06569 .07876 .05814 . 28 27 2.06366 .96194 S68W .00759 1.99923 .03490 60 68 ..05292 .01251 .99696 .01687 .04:04:2 .2 g~1:~ •• •• .01105 .99736 .00176 .99936 .00029 .99627 99625 99622 ..99945 .99799 ..98728 .99997 .01018 .99984 .98270 .04391 .99934 .99774 .02443 024:72 .02501 .99766 . .02236 1.0.00175 1.01076 .02850 .02967 .99870 ..06860 06889 06918 06947 . 2< .99867 .04478 .04711 .99831 .02211 .0703' .5 .01702 1.99998 .96625 .97927 .99939 .08020 0. .99953 .03553 1.99731 .04866 .99981 .91359 .99959 ..99915 . 99992 .0 5" .03723 .04914: .97133 .99772 .02908 .99893 .02414 .99869 .0456.99990 .99701 .99999 .01288 1.99897 ..99941 . .99985 .99925 .99826 .03493 1.99972 .99998 .07295 ..01745 . 02938 .99864 .99926 . 999R9 . . 16 20 11 12 13 .02633 1.7 ss .04:798 ..99619 .01112 1.01879 1.05698 .01367 ...99990 .0444:9 .0 .99997 .03548 03577 .05263 .- -----w--".99G66 •• .99762 .07527 . eotan 45' 45' tan 45' tan 21 22 23 24 2' 2.99849 .06714 .99782 .'H75 0520. 0 1 2 3 • • • 7 8 •• •• .99703 .99827 .99886 .99420 ..06656 .99966 .96907 .08658 . . . seno 3 2 1 0 • • • • cosena 89' seno 89' sene coseno 89' sene seno ceseno 88' ccsenc 87' sene ceseno 88' coseno 85' -92- - 93- .--tan eotan 1.99938 .05931 .02386 .98958 ..01454 .02036 .03286 03316 03345 03374: .03132 1.06192 .02821 .05553 .99960 .09890 .99669 .99980 .03897 .. 08426 084.03072 1.03693 .05437 . •• 42 :6~ 40 36 37 38 39 2• 23 22 21 20 ~~!I ~~ ss ~5 • s 7 •• •• •• so 47 '1 .99716 . 97810 ..0 f1. 13 12 11 10 8 7 e s •• • 3 2 1 0 '2 1>3 ...99921 . .04682 .99944 .99982 .05902 .99898 . b7 se 2' 2.06018 .08687 .OM08 . 38 37 3.99987 .99860 .99950 .99868 .04769 .99780 .04:827 .02792 .03810 .01761 1.04694 .01774 .5146 0.00814 .024:14 \.01425 .99929 .99768 .00233 .99987 .99932 .00461 1.5 .99304 .06540 .0U74: 1.07962 .01483 .oosor .02593 1..99911 .04972 05001 .996tU . .01338 .99786 .07382 .

98\:198 53 9899452 :9988~9086 !01 -" " Hn.18138 .97623 .98466 .17937 .gg~~~ ~ .17078 17107 17136 .tg~g~ '..13629 ..9\)248 -90244 99233 .99462 .9H70 .98190 .99520 .18967 .19262 .20421 .~§~~!~ .98168 .97666 .17909 .21189 .17508 .98272 .'i96II 5 16 17 18 19 o :g~~~~ II .98027 .988.20677 .98436 .202M .97437 sene .97604 .97460 .97673 .17651 .16419 ..99~5.21019 .20051 .09932 .20734 .16846 .22363 .7 . 1'~:~~1 il " .98481 .98196 . 68 63 . .98336 .20933 .09005 ..21161 .98033 .20636 . .9D48J .98491 .18910 .21669 .~~~tr.18587 .19623 .b781' .16246 .90572 I097:{ .97663 .14695 98940 9893638 98931 .99559 99556 .19737 .99186 .97760 .17995 .:~3gf 1\ .21768 .:gg~~~g ~ ~ i .16074 .21388 .97692 .98016 . 35 3S 37 38 39 .994:101 IOf)5. 9764.98201 .17279 17308 17336 .19994 .99467 .21871 . 101326 .21985 .1~70~ 91l3f13 .\19222 9'J219 13917 1:1946 13975 : . 980M .97766 .97483 .19851 .97863 .98229 . 17708 .11523 .98331 .98609 .17393 .98536 .09179 .~~~~~ .98760 .19138 .97508 .13053 .20620 .16935 .97698 .98526 .98957 98953 98948 98944 45 44 43 42 41 40 11 12 13 If 16 IS 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2.98315 .18624 . i8652 .98629 .97797 .98614 .8 f7 09150 .15672 .9g575 1. I se~~-51.18595 .994461.98066 .09787 .16878 .97857 .16992 .98585 .97698 .!)!)4521~2187 .97\)92 . 97666 .98261 .20307 .98546 .5eg?.18938 .16591 .98476 .lg~~b:~g::~ .97922 .97815 sene sene .98368 .22183 .21966 . 57 58 60 1 . 203M .98854 21 20 19 29 28 27 2S 2• 24 23 22 21 20 1• 18 17 1• 1• n :~Jyg'g~~~~.11320 .9H76 .98140 .98704: .98212 .22467 .988l4 10 ~~ .17021 17050 .\1':1163 14637 \)9160 . 30 31 32 33 •• •• •• .99553 .98283 .98764 .22156 . 20108 .99380 12851 .20706 .15902 .22268 .97893 .6 .99580 I IOSS7 .20563 .97869 .98325 .97729 .98927.98695 .09903 .20877 .08774 3 08803 -.19609 .97987 .1 :H~~~ 46 .17419 .99599 9 .21616 .l~~~1. l·lnfiO .22098 .98240 .21104.22410 .98561 .16017 .14436 14464 14493 98965 .t:~~~ :~ .12043 99:!72 00 :10424 .20193 .97861 .9939\:1 12678 .97827 .98638 .98700 .98516 98511 .')~:L90 ~~~g~ I .98667 .092f)8 .97706 .91l:.16620 .98129 .12187 .11147 ':19377 .16730 .98580 .97851 .14119 .18852 .14781 .11609 . 98923 98919 .20450 .')1 .16275 .16361 .18281 .979.09440 26 09469 27 09498 30 31 .98010 .eno 6".97928 . 16677 .16160 .9M09 .98061 .19081 .18481 .98146 .~~~~ ~ .99537 .98496 .97692 .22438 . 17680 .20478 .98310 .18710 .19908 .9\1230 ':In226 .14205 60 '7 ~. 97764 .18224 .mu78 14521 99175.20165 .12':.17422 . ..18881 .98570 . 97660 .g~g~~ !~ I .18367 .16505 .98218 ..99508 .98124 .19709 .19109 .12908 .18509 .98004 ..20022 .13514 ::~:H :~g2~!:~1~ ~~ Ii :~~~~~ .13:199 :i ::~~:~g!i~:Ht8 :g::~~~ :~~8H.16132 . f7 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5.19309 .10308 .98619 .97910 .22212 .14177 .10048 99494 .98373 .21701 .08716 1 2 .2 '1 .98277 .19666 .19396 .97463 .21687 .2181 • .9_ .16533 .9\1619 1 .98541 ..1:1254 9H118 40 .09411 25 .20222 .99602 8.97839 .97680 .98414 .976.17222 .'i ' tmH:~ 12274 !!1·12216 .13370 .~~:~~ : g~~~g~g~:t!n~ .16643 .97968 .17166 .98179 .13889 .21474 .98648 .98961 .9\l.:: 8:0.97636 .18738 . ~ :~g~~g.09585 .17823 .19880 .55 ~!~!~ .11176 993741.98136 .11G67 .19338 .99106 i .98420 .18052 .~n~ 99027 60 99~00213g !98 .97742 .98714 .98288 .97467 .15758 .17250 .97981 .1383 12822 11118 .97784 .98858 .97976 .984.97679 .98426 .21630 .0 .19652 .08976 o .21899 .99167 14608 .98352 .98399 .97642 .igg :~~~~} ~ ~ :t18iU :U:~!:Hl~ U!~bI ~gg~~ :ij~ng i g~ 'I 1 .50 . .16787 .98604 .98174 .98Of' .98067 .98163 11 sene .9\.19481 .97630 .9~)431 .19596 .19081 coseno .98207 .99006 55 .11234 \)\)367\12966 .19937 .16447 . .18452 .1163.16734 .16969 .20962 .16849 .19167 .97963 .98595 .16701 .137 . I .21303 .17461 .98389 .20848 .18081 .98481 10' sene .16906 .98652 .12:>89 10684.98863 .1~16 .16562 .22041 .21729 .98404: .17637 .21331 .08947. so .98633 .15931 .16103 .09237 092% .19538 .98304 .99456 .98440 .98657 .\17673 .o.16218 .9g551 . 18196 .98461 .98471 .~gg~f :~~:~t ~g ~ I ~ l?.20079 .11349 .22382 .21446 .178112 .21843 .98234 .21132 .20791 .17623 .fHI424 \ 12447 .977el .en:1 .99511 .1 .98590 .98186 .19452 .98118 .20607 .97617 .98294 .99144 .20906 .98383 .97711 .98141 .98676 .97969 .98267 .979.i .9\)396 . 98060 .17966 .1::!880 .22070 .e:r.18681 .13081 .9~)402 .913362 .16189 .97906 .97887 .9\16001 7 :089181.98751 .1181:18 .21218 . .17665 .eno .0 .98662 .97736 .~~~i:~~~~} ~~ ~~ :g~~l~' :~~~~~ :n~~ :~ri11} :g~~~:~~g~ .98039 .98565 .22326 . 15097 .222.993~41.16820 .17366 .97723 .09874 .18424 .1 42 .97803 .09295 .98299 .1224.18309 .99449 .19195 .18109 .21246 .1882.10453 10482 10511 10540 .'i48 .19823 .98686 .98501 .16333 .97621 .21672 .98245 . 6 08889 .97778 .98521 .21M2 .19024 .12649 .16873 .98566 .98643 .98460 .20990 .127:15 993\:10 12764 'II ~\1200 I \18197 99193 !l918\) .137i3 .14651 99171 14580 .98746 .18166 .98090 .16304 .17365 coseno .10742 'J1I421 12476 • • .99002 54 .09570 lI002 .09614 ~ :g~~~.98690 .18796 .19281 .90386 12793 11089.8 .19794 . 2S 27 28 2.10045 .22013 .20279 .98765 .97833 .16763 .17737 .2OM9 .98732 .09324 2.98112 .90428 12418 10113 ".98709 .22126 .97881 .98378 .98902 30 .97997 .18767 .20592 .19.99567 11031 99564 99562 .g~~~ :g~~l~ :~:n~ \ :g~~6g~i :l!~~g:g~~~~~ .98101 .97916 .97628 .98671 .087451.21644.10453 .18996 .98320 ..'32 14 \1 :~~~~~1'1 .14061 .992.16046 .97821 .12158 .98073 .98367 .19052 .16648 .98723 .97934 .13917 .97502 :97496 .140VO .19224 .97899 .99098 ~~g~:~~t~ l~ •• 45 4.99594 I~ ~~~ ~ :g~b -~~~3¥I .6 .98728 .98624 .11205 ~9370 .15557 ~~~~~ 15643 .99406 \ 12620 .l~H~ :ni~~ ::~~~~ ~~ 1 .98266 .99258 .'1 .0 f1 42 43 Il1!004S~ .16792 .98576 .~g~~? .18262 .98486 .98151 .20791 coseno . " 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 sene .99578! 10916 . 11783 : \JUSS3 1115241 .19680 .19366 .21360 .9910211.98347 .19966 .09382 24 .10164 .98531 . 97G88 .20763 .97611 .97685 .98430 .~TIi :~~~~~ II.o.98737 .98107 .14666 99156 .99614 9~)612! '.21275 .97t89 . ..98394 .21016 .993.97717 .16706 .16390 .'} .16988 .98163 .99047 : 99031 99027 .~ :g~!A~ 'l~~~f 3~}g~ ~U~~.22.17880 .~g~~~~5!~~ 'll5?~ ~~~~~ ~1~~~ §~g~~~~~1.22297 .97845 .18338 .16964 .98250 .13341 .98600 .97876 .98551 .974« .98718 .97809 .98782 3 0 • • 3 2 1 0 • ss 98769 --+--1-cosenc 840 sene coseno 83° -seno coseno! 82° sene cosenc 81e sene coseno j seno 80° cosenc 79° sene coseno 78° coseno 77° - 94- - 95- .16476 ..20393 .97616 .23 .21417 .98g14 39 37 36 35 34 33 3• 38 37 3S 3' 3• 33 32 31 30 g~ :~~ll :~U~~ Ilmg ~~m\1.09353 3 .17794 .21928 .99067 1 " 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 .9918~ 14349 14378 14407 .99357 .~:~g~:~~m ·~g~~t '~~~1} ~~ g~ :~n~ 'g~~~~ '~g~i~ ·g~l~~ :g~g ~~ :1H~1 :lH1~ .98466 .20136 .17164 17193 .98769 .34 .98223 .99506 .99540 .3 f2 41 fa .:3~.18023 .55 .21786 ..992.98341 .:eno ~ ~f'.97772 .20820 .21047 .20336 .W 99317 . 97634 .9764.98162 .18538 .996171 '.98021 .98079 .15356 .14148 .98681 .98506 .18395 .96 coseno .99354 99141 37 11060 .97667 .17694 .97748 .97952 .19766 . :g~~y .

96989 .803 34830 .96799 .28708 .24023 ..27312 .23863 .23826 .32089 .95168 .27983 .25713 .94303 .26673 .97318 .30763 30791 .97424 .97361 .28792 . 28234 .93839 .29876 .97127 ..95195 .30902 .23401 .28290 .94665 .27676 ..97371 .23176 .95389 . . 1.95459 .28820 .25938 .97338 .29682 .9::740 .95124 .96230 .96284 .262(7 .96324 .96285 .sen:r 0 1 2 3 224.28597 .96554 .29126 .93879 .95630 sene 0 1 2 3 6 7 8 • • • 11 12 13 1.96267 .93596 . " •• .96685 .30597 .27692 .33737 .35837 .94418 .9 60 60 94088 .22637 .95467 .97391 .94590 94580 94571 94561 94562 :g~:~~ n I .96440 .94009 .96502 .26696 .25010 .93789 .32419 . 1.9.sg0 . .93728 .33682 .96240 96231 .94842 .3 " .97257 .3 ••• 21 .23882 .95319 .96021 96029 .96206 .24136 .94476 .94274 .327~ 32749 .31344 .97106 .32034 .9 .27340 .30292 .96600 .97100 .32667 .93769 .9 60 • • • • • 7 6 3 1 0 •• .24728 .25685 ..24644 .24784 .95115 .9674.96969 .943{1.28847 .34748 34775 3.23684 .30098 .30431 .97365 .96363 .93869 .28206 .29766 .96964 .32584 .34311 .33381 33408 .30265 .36320 .27284 .35266 ..94768 . .24192 eesenc .33573 .22863 .96310 .96952 .30486 .29932 .26079 .96829 . 30 31 32 33 .23599 . •• 93657 .24446 .34912 .26882 .22778 .29098 .I .28680 .96328 .94979 .96930 .96945 .96923 .24756 .9&394 .25994 . 96078 .2l'629 .95407 .96269 .96994 ..29265 29293 29321 29348 .97196 .95948 .96433 .23090 .95150 .95061 .26780 .96916 . •• OS .34721 .94380 .93969 93959 .30071 .30403 .7 50 50 63 .35619 .96923 . 3.27769 .2&331 .95698 .94284 .94457 .94049 . 1.26136 .27060 .30542 .95133 .93368 ..94924 15 16 17 1• 19 '0 21 22 .96630 . 2• 1.33024 .35484 36511 35M8 35565 .94337 .94952 .94749 .26500 .8 .94196 .24376 .32199 ..26050 . 31 30 29 2.94786 .30985 31012 .23966 .956405 .96628 .93859 .26741 .94127 94118 sene 20~oseno ..29376 .95673 .0 U .94039 .00222 .94637 ..31841 .31703 .96608 .93462 .31537 .97331 .36347 .97411 .26616 .1:i5043 .28903 .29737 .94078 .26443 .26219 .s 6800 .22693 .93576 .5432 .234. 96M6 ..96248 ..95204 .26612 .96742 .35701 35728 35755 :357·'1 35810 .23712 .33600 33627 .29821 .26303 .94777 .96308 .29182 .94438 94428 .97030 9702.96940 .33710 .94254 .96126' sene seno Ij ccsenc .26320 .30376 .96593 sene :~~ •• .186 . 23062 .24813 .96645 .23146 .97251 .95724 .97072 .26808 .27032 .97311 .97217 .96159 .24051 .25236 .6 60 .30670 ..97182 .96402 .23429 .96243 .30736 .32804 .26769 .97230 . 1• 17 1• 15 ••• • 26 27 .29070 .94361 .29487 .33463 33490 .96013 .113979 .29710 .31868 .94702 .29654 .96660 .23260 .96142 .30043 .287.86110 .96623 .95511 .95476 .97113 .94245 94235 .30348 . 2.27564 .97237 .30929 30957 .95441 .32997 . 2. •• •• •• •• " 13 12 11 10 " •• .96816 .33764 33792 .95106 sene . .. 96782 .26836 ..33983 .95493 .94399 .29615 .95630 .28178 .34584 34612 34639 .94390 . 249M .97058 .26151 .24249 .95605 .26022 ..95424 .94147 .94495 .31979 .96347 .23797 .32171 .96791 .96379 .97244 .97298 .94058 .27368 .95579 . 28067 .30514 .28959 .95276 .96719 .93462 .32254 .94823 .27704 .97037 .96070 . 3. 37 3.23005 .'3 .28736 .28318 .95213 .94466 . 9r.96616 .94485 .28374 .97120 .9M198 .29ot2 . 28457 .97264 .33956 .96966 . •• •• •• •• U <0 3.26752 .:57 .96.96966 .33079 .94313 .26415 .94915 .96868 .96734 .22920 .96675 .31454 .34666 34694 .30663 ..24700 .28150 .33436 .68 .22807 . .27536 .95485 .94301 ..96837 .29543 . 23 22 21 20 •• 30 31 3• 33 3• 3• 37 38 3• .00973 .33189 33216 .94943 94933 .31675 . 17 16 lb .97203 .35075 .94970 94961 .34857 3.96340 .26948 .32557 1M' coseno 95106 .97417 .26275 .24982 .93665 .29960 . 96807 .95972 .97345 .25646 .93586 . 95997 .97165 .31399 .96647 .94216 94206 .22892 .96479 .96277 .24108 .261&3 .95024 .27144 .94514 ..93819 93800 93799 .24277 .30708 .32694 .97189 .97148 .33929 .94627 94618 94609 94599 .32474 .27620 .22750 .96372 .22836 .31372 .9.93969 • • • • • 7 3 2 1 0 coseno sene 72' coseno 71' seno ccsenc 70' sene cosen~l seno 69' - 96- - 97- .96667 .25122 .96727 .31233 .30016 .94814 .94409 .22977 .96916 .29981 .31813 .93606 .23231 .95757 . 34M3 34530 34fi57 .34339 34366 34393 34421 .28402 :28429 .25179 . .94068 ~t~~ " 13 12 11 10 coseno 76' coseno 75' eoseno 74' ccsenc 73' .93410 93400 93389 . •• 53 50 57 .96086 .26107 .241M .96778 .96426 .25460 . 50 57 OS .96697 .93989 .27228 .24418 .96822 .97278 .96466 .28039 . ...94225 .33518 .946H .34448 .28096 . 00 .96182 .27256 .33051 .96786 .966400 .97066 .33244 .96293 .32447 .36239 .3738 .94795 .93849 .96636 .30126 .36021 .29404 .96824 .94029 ..32942 . 17 1.93555 .96238 .32832 19 coseno . 31ij48 .95177 .D6678 .97404 .27004 ..94293 .25854 . 22M2 .29849 .23118 .28613 .31068 .95874 .27M8 .97001 .94345 .23740 .97437 97430 .34993 .26<0< .27172 .95749 .96102 sene 60 1 1 coseno .93949 9a939 93929 . .96593 .93647 93637 .23346 .33874 33901 .93514 93503 .94167 .24333 .97398 .96570 . 2.25826 .96937 .30819 .32282 32309 .28652 .29209 .24474 .97378 .28346 ..96902 .29237 .32502 .96448 .94888 .29432 .96214 .96190 ..96706 .95931 .31206 .950117 95088 95079 95070 .26864 .24362 .29904 .30164 .94157 ..9&&17 .26628 .31261 .30237 .23769 .24Hl2 .23486 .93472 .32392 ...31178 .25910 .30902 •• •• •• OS 57 53 .30874 I .31730 .27088 .96562 .97141 .96873 .30469 .22680 .97271 .31951 .94693 .35102 .34093 34120 34147 34175 .22623 .26488 .93919 93900 93899 93889 .94264 .96596 96588 .27664 .94019 .96524 .31768 .29460 .96707 .31482 .96261 .96150 .97134 .96198 .95416 .24897 .23642 .30320 .31123 31151 .96355 .96647 .93779 .28641 .27424 .33161 .96844 .94740 .96332 .29599 .24672 .96774 .23996 .96410 .27480 .26640 .1 .94342 94332 .97061 .94906 94897 .97291 .28987 .26601 .95364 .96764 .31923 .27843 .9M86 .97008 .95186 .35647 36674 . 20 96037 :~~~~~ .29237 .96946 .26066 .28123 " 21 22 23 .31565 .32612 .95293 . 27 23 22 21 '0 .96463 .95639 .95052 . 11 12 13 ..31289 . 94M:! .33545 .93999 .94533 .32557 .32639 .96882 .96656 .27396 .93769 93748 .26892 .33271 .32337 .9b .94137 .32227 .95266 . 51 .25291 . 10 .29571 ..32777 ..25006 .32116 32144 .96815 .23514 .96532 .26471 . 3.96562 ..97223 .23373 .94832 .94646 .1 60 . 96832 .97086 .97326 .35211 .96807 .28876 .00987 .93379 .33665 . .26191 .32529 .96471 .972M .28931 .24926 .97162 .96766 .24305 .36375 35402 35429 35456 .96054 .30846 .32859 32887 . 3.31096 .31896 .28011 .24390 .31316 .97030 sene seno 14 ceseno .33298 ..97176 .95622 95613 ..94447 .34939 .23611 .34202 •• •• •• •• •• <0 3• 38 37 3• 3• .93718 93708 .93544 .32006 .33134 .25094 .96134 .96142 .1 63 •• . 33 32 31 30 28 27 2.• 6690 .27787 .96682 .34202 34129 .34475 .93634 93524 .93441 93431 93420 . 2S569 .95450 .95398 .95690 .6 47 .26668 .22608 .23910 .30680 .94176 .96246 . •• .93626 93616 .27731 .00500 .23938 . 28262 .27815 .31510 .96907 . .33106 .96638 . .2 .96316 .29016 .94806 .34966 .96715 .94542 . 1.964033 .96371 .25038 .27116 .29154 .32969 .94656 .1)5033 .96158 .93829 .97079 .94878 .96494 .22666 .94370 .97384 .29626 .97093 .64.23627 . .96712 .97304 .96118 ..96126 .23033 .27200 .33326 33343 .96222 .24615 .93677 .96851 .24079 .27927 ..96887 seno 15 coseno .93493 .96519 .93667 60 10 • • • • 6 7 .34257 34284 .30626 .96174 .24.31620 .26263 .35048 .95865 .95841 . 27 2..94997 .26207 .96866 . seno .96363 . 266M .95015 ! I.27452 .29793 .s 6006 . 24659 .07210 . 25t.22722 ...94758 .93358 .24869 .26798 .31040 .23288 . 2862b .24220 .95602 .30182 . 37 3• 3.35130 35157 35184 . 279M .96756 .94712 .26724 .8 .94860 . 24M7 .23666 .93483 . .0 .96166 .95681 .31786 . 95981 .2i841 .32914 .05380 .. 973M .94504 .96793 .32364 .94186 .25882 .96653 . 945~3 .33819 33846 ..30209 .26348 . 23203 .94988 . .27508 .2 51 '0 47 .97015 .96880 .2..94869 .96571 .68.95849 .26976 .96980 .94851 . 0000& .23316 .31593 .96517 .26684 .2848& .22948 .35293 .968&7 .97169 .96301 .34011 34038 34065 .32061 ..31427 .96732 .26920 .94730 94721 .94322 ..96664 .97044 ..96771 .503 24531 .

90111 .42420 .41469 .45606 ..38161 ..43418 .45968 .40992 .4J31O .9~042 930.47690 ..36108 36135 .45140 . .87518 .43166 .44716 . .91660 .41515 . .42341 .6 cosenc .42841 .43515 .88782 .91543 91531 91519 91508 .39741 .43733 .39281 .89532 .36406 .41892 .89930 . 88075 .90371 :90358 .43209 .91518 .47844 .38053 380S0 38107 .31784 .44124 .92~49 .36190 .47920 .1 38966 389(13 39020 .91164 .88848 .47050 .40886 .90271 .93148 .46484 . 36.89153 .91718 .41134 .45529 ..38531 .47869 .39341 :~~~~~ :~tgg~ .40115 .39555 .83649 .91355 .90911 .5 '6 '7 .39928 .52 .92332 fl23:.87784 .90070 .39073 22 0 coseno 92718 .44620 .46819 .88431 .38564 .9280.91295 .44932 ..:!276 92266 .42166 42183 .89833 .91856 .91200 .8883' .118 35f145 .41760 .41972 .42499 .48303 .41522 .36379 .90433 .47665 .90421 ..92366 92355 92343 . 90887 .89879 .39260 .9.47946 .42920 .16 .ssess 211 2s 27 26 26 2< 23 22 21 20 I• Is 17 is I< 13 I2 II 10 I 60 •• •• •• •• •• .90408 .44828 .91601 .8S458 .IHZ72 .92784 .37272 37299 37326 .93211 .91283 .40913 .90680 .47818 .47383 . .46226 .45580 .89311 .89713 .46613 .47971 .88674 .44411 .88048 .93348 . 3• .90591 .88111 .87532 ..41019 .92707 926')7 U2686 .92499 .90284 .44072 .92870 .89101 .92085 .45243 . 30 31 32 33 3< 35 36 37 3.88089 .90495 .88404 .44171 .93020 93010 92999 9291$8 .45787 .44698 .37515 .43077 . 36298 .45684 .93264 .44802 .46870 .89259 .91068 .37407 37434 37461 0 coseno .89087 .42604 .92119 . 211 30 31 32 33 3• 36 36 37 3.46690 . 443D7 .42235 ..38778 .38241 .87770 .87673 .90383 .89tH ..41537 .43392 .!1 92310 92299 92287 .90924 .48354 .91902 .36660 .47101 .41919 .89854 .46973 .90082 .45710 ..91706 .36921 36948 .42788 .906i8 .44594 .91343 .92935 92924 .90146 .90668 .37363 .9:.46201 .48430 .88902 .89968 .46844 .44864 .88661 .38026 .44516 .44958 . 66 57 • • 7 6 5 . 51 52 53 5.40408 . 41945 .9:)222 .42999 ..87812 .90346 .39501 39528 .40035 .88472 ..47716 .39768 .43182 .87868 .93232 .40674 .42894 .44020 .42709 .90631 .44668 .91810 .46097 .90972 .45088 .46330 .87729 .98- .90196 .41496 .92152 .45321 .89428 .88580 .45114 .89879 sene 0 I sene .40780 .40461 .16 .10 .91152 .88445 .90483 .93274 .19100 39127 391531 .89981 . 87993 .42262 24 0 cosenc .48217 .48226 .90120 .92107 .88755 .91212 .3632.89014 .\):2675 92664 U26. 89245 .87490 .38644 38671 38698 38725 38752 .43968 .89350 .45218 .'):) sene 23 I cosenc I . 47255 .88768 .89389 .46896 .91140 .89402 .46619 .42867 .47793 .41628 .92978 92907 .'569 .90446 .43491 .91819 .41229 .89610 .89035 ..42288 .88377 ..0 41 42 43 .88875 .91092 .39635 .87645 .89777 .90321 .35\.93358 .92164 . 26 26 27 2.88981 .88034 .44612 .5 •• •• IO • 42262 .90655 .90766 .40141 .47434 .89021 .81909 .40939 .41813 .43837 .89101 I j seno .80180 .89994 .36271 .92118 .46941 • .90582 .45891 45917 .44724 .9 60 51 52 53 5.45166 .43366 .40355 40381 .44490 .81603 .46433 2 coseno .91799 .87882 .40008 .45865 .87951 .43916 ..41151 41178 .38805 388.88647 .38591 38617 .90839 .'U69 .45347 . 58 57 66 54 53 52 51 60 seno 25 coseno .45373 .89687 .88728 .41614 .91666 91555 .47076 .920'.36812 .93295 9:l285 .91236 .3tiOOO .39474 .88701 .'1973 .46632 .9"2'.37892 37919 31946 .11 .40541 40567 .87604 .90296 .88928 .45942 .0 3.sssos .46149 . 31751 .41045 .91648 .47024 .40700 .88261 .40062 .90960 .88955 .92762 .44542 .88322 .90717 .89219 .43130 .43628 . " 3• 3s 37 36 36 3< 33 32 31 30 .90643 . 2.906G9 .37838 .89127 ..43104 .37542 :17.44046 .40860 ..43759 .90208 .92488 .93190 .90875 .46407 .92050 sene .44431 ..9:!O28 .41358 .89662 .48175 .83376 .6 '7 •• •• f7 .42912 .46742 .9:1052 .92039 .88808 .89298 89285 ..43785 .46661 .36515 .39394 .92631 .45010 .42631 .90221 .42367 .39367 .45425 .40806 .44984 .90657 .92821 92816 ..90631 .903)9 .90704 .89943 .89441 .IH248 .90045 .47306 .46921 .88308 . 43 II 12 I3 I4 16 17 I• I.48073 .90057 .46381 .92740 .91694 .39234 .81611 .46175 .42024 .89140 .90458 .89008 .39448 .92231 922:.39822 .41231 .90233 .45994 . 878M .91128 . . 0 I 2 3 5 6 7 • s " .43313 .40488 .31973 .91104 .93137 . 6.91116 .40514 .41284 .92062 .43602 .47153 .89232 .88915 .42209 . 880 .45269 .46355 .47639 .88130 .48405 .91496 .39581 .89152 .85512 60 ..39688 397]5 .36352 .88295 sene .87766 . .42136 .1~16 .89790 .46767 . 933~{7 .46716 .87923 . 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 I• I• 17 16 is I< 13 12 II 10 •• .:18268 38295 38322 38349 .37380 .91044 .93253 .90899 .81896 .37999 .42162 .91331 .44646 .90520 .44333 . 2.37110 .36162 .88172 .}56 .90158 .88168 .45564 .36704 .91948 9HI36 .89828 .42446 .89636 . 39 '0 s 6 6 7 • :g~~5g .90108 .87659 .88822 .884-17 .43340 . 41866 .43831 60 68 67 66 66 54 63 62 51 60 .89867 .40088 .44151 ..89905 .88240 .45503 .45295 .90936 .88526 .43549 .90507 .89324 .39876 .91833 .36217 .89519 .37649 .89167 .89956 .89597 .92073 .88995 .93201 .43942 .88185 .99- .. .90019 .46123 .92050 .92838 .40647 .U3306 .81661 .41998 .90183 .21 sene 0 I 2 3 .46304 .92141 .41391) .46813 .39608 .37695 .89337 .44359 .35891 .88281 .41107 .92186 91175 .87840 .39046 .37703 .43623 .90259 . 20 2I 22 23 2.47460 .90007 .3.48160 . • 3 2 I 0 cosenc 68 0 seno coseno 67 0 coseno 66' coseno seno 65' coseno 64 coseno seno 63' coseno 62' cosenoJ sene 61' .44281 .l'OO95 .42683 .41602 .88349 .88795 .37676 .44750 .5 . •• <I 43 .93116 93106 seno 37461 37488 .89816 ..43287 .43654 .89726 .89918 .43863 43889 .90470 .92471 92466 92455 92444 92432 92~21 !):?41O 92399 92388 92377 .594 .39661 .41666 .93159 .91188 ..38376 38403 38430 38466 .88715 .42657 .92946 .45762 .91484 .36M2 36509 .91959 .42315 .46793 .39955 .89571 89558 .91356 sene .12 38859 38886 38912 3893\.88062 .90984 .44203 .90532 .45062 .91008 .44255 .89415 ..91307 . 47997 .45399 .40168 .36677 .42473 .93327 . 88020 .91787 .88199 .41363 .30314 .93180 9.91472 91461 91449 .88666 2 seno ' coseno .37245 .s8888 .42815 .45192 .88144 .43446 .87462 9 10 II I2 I3 I< 16 17 I.6 fa is .89623 .93127 .85213 .47204 .37191 .r.92243 . 50 57 5• 59 60 .40833 .89739 ..87826 .45036 .90133 .9~729 .90396 .90129 . 20 2I 22 23 24 25 26 27 2.91729 .42946 .88968 .91590 .48481 " s 7 6 6 3 2 I 0 • .37622 .425.40248 40275 40301 .43680 .36081 .89674 .91982 .91260 .92773 .40195 . 48022 .88741 .39902 .44385 .91080 .47767 .4&536 .91868 .91625 ..96 36613 .92598 92587 92576 92565 92554 92543 92532 92521 .9:1084 fl3074 9:1063 .36434 .42077 ..91683 91671 .38188 38215 . 40ft2! . 46587 . 894M ..87979 .36839 36867 36894 .88862 ..42525 .45839 .40674 '7 '6 ..87743 .88264 .91775 .89892 .43994 .90863 .91822 .48201 ..90778 .92913 .88607 .87546 .48379 .usoes .45136 .31130 .87798 .43051 .90851 .41337 .913l!) .44906 .88653 .46020 .91891 .41588 . I.40221 .90246 .46947 .43706 .47662 .90692 .88634 . 41840 .87515 .89467 .36244 .88390 ..92264 .46999 .44098 . 42130 .88539 .88363 .90802 .48252 .91845 .44229 .46072 . 3.36027 .42394 .90996 60 5.37811 .5 ..89506 .40966 ..91971 .40721 40753 .87687 .92794 .42578 .87476 .89480 .38483 .92016 0 sene .91613 .90790 .87715 .46218 .88693 .39848 . .41098 41125 .91764 91752 91741 .a9795 .38134 .88336 .43236 .48328 .89764 .17137 37164 ..88226 ..41649 .81631 .88620 .89100 . 37 36 35 34 33 32 3I 30 2.916.92859 .41251 .44464 .90032 .91116 .37865 .81937 .87589 .43B-It .81H93 .39982 .46046 .92751 .92510 .47281 .48048 .47332 .88942 .89272 .47141 .39073.92902 92892 92881 .41416 .40434 .41181 .43025 . 37002 37029 37056 37083 .38510 .92209 92198 .43261 .92642 . 3678b .90826 ..47486 .89061 . 36975 . <I .42104 .91032 91020 .92130 .45477 .87701 .88295 .36054 .47127 .48124 . 90948 .40328 .45668 .90545 . 35864.41409 .43471 .89545 .89584 . .90606 .37218 .46252 .46458 .90753 90741 .89048 .45451 .42061 . 88006 .47895 .39421 .81965 .36731 36768 .36488 . 88103 .41511 ..41012 .93243 .36461 .91925 91914 .89363 .40.91056 .41204 .47178 .89206 .45399 .41681 .35837 .898U .91224 .4MJO .91431 91425 91414 91402 91390 91378 91366 .41443 .90334 .89493 .90814 .

86015 .86632 .84526 .83179 .50054 .49671 .83788 . .85:218 .82462 .54708 .51204 .58943 ..82887 .48964 .81479 .82904 seno 34 coseno .86704 .67477 .84635 .83324 .'3978 .85066 .51104 51129 .16 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 seno 33 coseno .59716 .80713 .54146 .80091 .50979 .50478 .5.68779 08802 .80541 . .86978 86964 . 51604 .5024 .81293 .58637 .84542 .64415 . 858M 86836 .58283 .804.55i99 .54464 10 • • • .)365 .82708 seno 35" coseno .84588 .53828 . I .84805 .84759 84743 .55194 .)6 .84989 .60136 . 37 38 3.86384 .5U68 .83276 .80748 .52893 .50151 .57215 .48837 .80420 .58496 .82181 .51753 .54781 54S00 .54829 .81949 .58590 .87021 .80970 .86506 .5~H08 .86573 .48683 48608 .55919 .84495 .87306 .54488 .66449 .50929 .80264 .53017 .80627 .81310 .84277 .84245 . .83565 .81731 .58118 . 53779 .83756 .60182 se se .57368 .59131 .58567 .57262 .52250 .86777 .85~B2 .86866 .82969 .83195 . '7 48 4.56665 .49040 .84448 .86355 .59856 .69084 .81378 . 4• '8 47 4• 40 11 I I " 13 14 10 I.81563 .80902 :~t~~ I :~~~~~ .82396 .85096 .49975 .83066 .82561 ..80799 .86834 .56943 .52794 .82347 .59972 .59342 .53238 . t\2646 .48736 .5.S8378 .80021 .81191 . 20 21 22 23 24 :~~:?.81899 .54097 . .55678 55702 ..80936 .81428 .59646 .66160 .48710 .85127 .87207 .87336 .87321 . .55242 .85536 .56832 .84104 .80361 .49242 .81782 .53951 .. 84464 ..80867 .55681 .86993 .50227 .54732 547 .85881 .51703 .55 .87235 .55557 .58449 .51728 .53681 .58779 .84230 .80489 .81748 .56641 · . .86849 .86921 .57976 . .80730 .83356 .57952 .57904 .57928 .82082 .83946 .49798 ..82757 .80334 .84370 .821481 .52175 .49090 .70968 .84072 .5'JOtil .50025 .84308 .52225 .00000 00000 .8::871 .85956 .49217 .48481 .52200 .52621 .57286 57310 . .55654 .83930 .5509 .51852 .48684 .51778 .85597 .80196 .81225 .56952 .511~4 .59506 .81412 .8171\5 .85717 86702 .58614 .55388 .83060 .59995 .82048 . 85941 .84511 .84959 .5.83867 .56256 .81915 ::l:g~I .83469 .83244 .81999 .86906 .61454 .59529 .81259 .84851 .61404 .83389 .58260 .84198 .54049 54073 .)178 .84135 .54999 .5!I201 .86515 .52597 .56776 .53509 .56713 .85821 858~6 .81140 .83851 .85446 .53877 .86104 .83517 .86398 .52844 .80038 .84866 .81021 .56856 .84292 .80230 .55484 .51329 .85112 .85461 .57334 .52498 .49950 .56904 .81513 .8. .54342 .84057 .86617 .86030 .80833 .48938 .54440 .50654 .83835 .67119 .63263 .59318 .82963 .60019 .83292 .82446 .81848 .84820 .56617 .59693 .86471 .84943 .81815 .80212 .86588 .'1853 .87164 .81327 .83017 .56808 .53730 .51554 .63214 .79986 .54586 .. 51054 .87050 .86074 .85985 . - 100- 101 - .86486 .49014 .49697 49723 49748 .81445 .82281 .59436 .50176 .79881 .56928 .55630 .85234 .48761 .80816 .85325 .61504 41 42 43 .80386 .83260 .62918 .52671 52696 .83633 .83228 .51628 .g~I .85777 .5072 .50101 .55847 .81832 .85970 .80160 .83485 .57047 .57762 .57024 .55048 . 84774 .86340 .57071 .59739 .53288 .82248 82231 .52770 .85732 .59. .81361 .! .49596 .50854 50879 .5'.58047 .84681 .79961 .59949 .53 .5U295 .62720 .50704 50729 . 4.87349 .81647 .52943 .82363 .51254 .57667 .50754 .87036 ::~~~ .83708 .50904 .81915 .58731 .58165 .49899 .51828 .82214 .86690 .57619 .58070 .59225 .49086 .79916 .80765 .~.85310 .84339 84324 .85264 86249 .86266 I :=~gi .59879 .81208 .54902 . 570M .5.83549 .82198 .51479 .83453 .51429 .57000 .81966 .66136 .69552 .8967 .84913 .80073 .83147 .53164 .84557 .55097 .57596 .81680 .814'.87363 .48913 .54269 .49647 .51877 .56497 .87150 .49621 .49849 .86457 .59248 .52399 .87136 87121 seno 30 coseno .601M .50 ..81982 .86427 .81123 .80610 .63534 .83034 .81714 seno 36 coseno .84214 .59786 .84261 .5521 .80403 .55412 .81631 . . 84673 .81344 . 53140 .56569 .51379 . .83660 .84897 .55436 . 5286U .86192 86178 .58661 .56760 .82115 .53312 .54391 .83645 .57786 .87221 . 86.82297 .82495 .83724 .48659 .84836 .808.0.82032 .81055 .85351 .50252 .59482 .828~5 .62992 . 575i2 .80987 .87264 .56545 .81932 .53361 .85657 .48989 .51304 .48667 .86748 =~~~ I .53754 .50126 .59809 . 588i3 .53902 .51678 .seno 29 coseno 87462 .5'. 8689:l .49116 .53411 .83819 .57405 .54637 .51504 .83098 .80125 .798&4 60 O• OS 57 54 53 52 00 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 16 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 . 43 42 41 40 3• 38 37 3• 3s 3' 33 32 31 30 2• 28 27 2• :~~t. • • • • 3 2 1 0 coseno 50" seno coseno sene 59" coseno 58" seno coseno seno 57" seno coseno 56· coseno 55 seno 0 ccsenc 54" seno seno coseno 53" .80056 .52148 . .86820 .54171 .81"530 .82165 .54317 .82330 .56377 .64659 .86059 .82904 .87178 .55726 55750 .80472 .56593 .60089 .55291 .57691 .82839 .81089 .49293 49318 49344 .84604 .81038 .83340 .59599 .57624 .8:!M3 .60042 .84433 .83676 .54635 .5'.82478 .56976 .51354 . .56280 .56823 .65919 .63337 .85567 .55363 .87193 .50779 .85416 .80524 ..80679 .85491 .82806 82790 .51803 .81882 .86949 .82429 .49394 49419 49446 49470 49496 .81106 .82098 .48862 .58094 .59576 .49773 .85926 86911 .83421 .83373 .'i9 .86603 .59669 .59389 .3066 .83437 .50050 .83212 .84182 .80003 .86896 .86791 .84355 .53804 .56040 .83131 .82741 .86530 .5.5992 . . 53632 .51004 ~~.83916 .8.53460 .50628 .83001 .516.58472 .54366 .81157 .56306 .80178 .50804 .49622 .57238 .60060 .58896 .56521 .82528 .86·~42 .52076 .85401 863" .57857 . .56689 .85035 85020 85005 .51977 .53435 .53558 .52473 .54683 .51029 .83308 .86369 86354 86340 863">5 seno 31 coseno .59459 .51~79 .84974 .80902 .86717 as 3.86676 .80438 .56533 .!659 .81174 .86646 .56473 .52349 .62151 .87434 87420 .49546 .59902 59926 .86762 .50327 5035lZ .59622 .82920 .56784 .84009 .84120 .54122 .50829 .83597 . •• se •• .85370 .83116 .57833 .53041 .80696 .82677 .56401 .63975 .86603 i .58826 .57143 .54513 .57167 57191 .54464.84697 .58708 .48888 .'9924 .82010 .50503 1 .65146 .80368 .49672 .87278 .62819 .58519 .86762 .)17 . 2.58425 .87007 .80885 .56880 .83082 .58920 .52572 .57643 .81242 . 58~)'JO .51952 .55460 . 30 31 32 33 34 .5672 .86413 .57358 .49824 .56425 .52374 .476 .82413 .84712 .82593 .86627 .549-27 . 85188 .59763 .80953 .49141 .82626 .80644 .58023 .43874 . 27 28 2.59412 .52522 .80108 .53484 .84666 .5242'3 .53926 .57810 .85294 .51279 .)8354 ..48786 .58141 .50578 M603 .M220 .49268 .80668 .84386 .51529 .~613 .84882 .59272 .54951 .58307 58330 .56208 ..8066:.86501 .54293 .83581 .8.7 68 60 .53189 .66088 .86805 .5.55266 .82380 . .50553 .86045 .84728 .80593 .56896 .82985 .65315 . .86719 .80782 .87292 .81798 .86661 .81597 .52547 ..83883 .64854 .50528 .50016 .53656 .56016 .50377 50403 50428 50453 . 53607 .57501 . 40 " 24 23 22 21 20 I• 18 17 Ie 10 14 13 12 11 10 8 7 so .85081 .54878 .8:.84928 .84088 .55339 .83163 .49369 .5167 85142 .57453 .85203 .g~:g~ 86222 .84789 .56112 .64610 .51079 .80507 .82132 .58212 .57381 .81276 .56736 .83501 .54975 .81546 .85747 .84041 .8.53583 .3 t4 46 46 -47 -48 49 o .82264 .56184 .79899 .57715 577::8 .84402 .83899 .83405 .83692 .58401 . 562:l2 .86207 .59832 .66353 .56329 .80247 .87391 87377 .57429 .61902 .7993.85792 .51229 .58236 .82724 .82314 .84167 .56169 .56064 .81004 .80143 .81SM .'.60112 .80282 .83629 .82065 .49166 49192 . 58M3 .85687 .57648 .52745 .58189 .84025 .80919 ..M605 .84151 .55218 .82015 . 53115 ..64024 .59014 .86551 .57999 .86173 8.86935 .81396 .57881 .54244 .85431 .60679 .80576 .48634 .5.81072 .87260 .60217 50302 .82936 .61927 .55871 .87448 .60:201 .83962 .86163 I .)154 .84480 .48811 . 17 18 I..85642 .816M .82511 .58849 .82544 .MOOO .81462 .52967 .52992 86000 .85682 .83804 .81614 .55121 .86089 .83772 . 84650 .58755 .51179 .839fl4 .80316 80299 .82773 .83867 60 59 58 57 56 56 54 63 52 51 50 49 48 47 . 54MB . 84619 . 86544 .85279 .53386 .53706 .5fl95 .53091 .0 52 53 54 61 52 53 54 56 66 67 68 69 ao 86733 .828:22 .83740 .84805 seno 32 coseno .84417 .48606 4853:2 .87406 .

72777 .79565 .76396 .66759 .71468 .72637 .6 •• 2.66480 .72377 .65738 .65320 . 73669 ..77384 .79353 .76492 .68136 . I• 17 16 13 12 11 Io .67987 . 70132 .60761 .75509 .76192 .63338 .7134-6 .71223 .68119 .74237 .64945 .:.67268 .67773 .66414..76116 .66913 .61314.77107 .3 .74"12 . 788!H .68115 .69670 .79688 .79318 .67021 .642. .7.62592 .71691 .59 . 60 6. 79494.71)861 . .66999 . 79583 .60807 .7. 64279 .73708 .71853 .65956 .76548 .39 ..69821 .76417 .70754 .66806 .2 53 s 3 2 1 0 • .78622 .79600 .64812 .68093 .72737 .63922 .68878 .64701 .78405 .75851 .77916 . 2.. .66393 .77329 .72497 .3 55 .68761 ..61015 .674-95 .67659 .70670 . 63:.61520 .70813 .67366 .75794 .'10 .60576 .63406 .75452 .63518 .74-178 .75299 . • s • • 3 51 .73076 .77550 .66632 .52 . .62932 .68603 .. 70216 .74606 .76059 .63451 .7"392 . 2. " .60506 .602H .76229 .63653 .75375 .79723 .69737 .67730 .724-67 .75908 75889 .78025 78007 .71284 .79846 79829 79811 .74-041 .68682 .72297 .66588 .74934. 2. 1 2 3 sene .6"'" .76735 76717 .60182 60206 . 75'J84 . 79512 .60991 .74314 .68349 . .66176 .76248 .71934 44 sene .60599 .68962 .78676 .78261 .72837 . 779~8 .61909 .60228 602.62638 .61932 .6 sene 41 coseno .69361 .75965 .74-838 .73631 .77402. .61406 .77513 .65847 66869 .68639 .77144 . 71H12 .69883 .70937 . .63698 .66697 .7\.63158 ..72136 .70690 .70091 .73983 .64723 .732M .66645 .71"7 .66676 .7660 • .65430 .72176 .74-217 .6 .72717 .71813 .67107 .70196 .73274. .67816 . 27 26 •• •• •• .66827 .69862 ccsenc .61635 .19193 . 21 22 23 2._74722 .64612 .'181 .62046 .65496 .61566 37 cosenc 79864 .76323 76304 .6800 • .64856 .69109 . 16 17 2.66436 .76642 .66262 . .67837 .64145 .74953 .10401 . 710B0 . 11 12 13 26 27 2. 26 27 2.64056 .79016 .67944. 76041 .76511 .62819 .60529 .70029 .64878 .724-37 ..66848 .73195 . 39 3.61153 .63113 . •• se .715414 .62479 .70&67 . •• 43 47 60 .67516 .69151 .63787 .61429 .79388 .76456 ...72517 .71051 .63045 . 32 33 34' 3.61268 .6li254 .64790 .76361 .74703 .77843 77824 . 780H8 .68051 . .70319 .70711 o o 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 • • ss s •• •• 53 .!93 .65210 65232 .5 .74-664 . 19 2.71792 .5 .715433 .74002 . 2. 79371 .76003 .76356 .76756 .78279 .60414 .. .64301 . .61681 617u4 .60853 . .721l6 .14 .65540 .73136 sene seno .74373 .72236 .70422 .74-363 .69067 .66606 .72976 .67237 .78225 206 .78873 .76791 sene 4~:oseno .2 1 2 3 6 6 7 so .69214 . 29 2• 27 26 23 22 21 20 .77310 .620~ ..65055 .78170 .72677 .75241 .67064 .67623 .70M6 ..61497 .73826 . 37 36 3.76286 .19264 19247 .64524 .75528 .62251 .5 .71690 .5222 .71873 .76866 .77970 .64746 .68476 .7394-4 .76398 .. . 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3.79176 .6.342 .6 43 " " •• •• " •• •• .63854 .73688 .7.74780 .63630 .78442 .15700 .61566 . •• •• 41 .73846 .76030 .67280 .67602 .77366 .62524 62547 .5490 .62502 .681.69612 .73294.61818 .75471 6.72397 .62887 .74683 .72337 .75261 .69236 .78061 .!932 3 coseno ..77715 .69691 .72667 .74628 .62229 .77897 .744-61 .fl. 645UO .7.63720 ..79441 . 23 22 21 .64256 .788.69130 . 36 37 3.79706 .71833 . 7 6 31. .7"625 .73373 .64457 .64323 .65650 .66458 .73393 .66666 .79776 .69193 .73314 .6 .69340 .79087 .73363 .68456 .72897.78908 .79793 .':'2065 72035 7201.69277 .75.79051 .72567 .7«)22 .62411 .66718 .78043 .78944 .68497 .72996 .77218 .661&1 .77494 .63090 ..71894 .76380 .73136 .77181 . ea .61337 .66672 .60830 .64568 .70008 .5 .6889 • .77568 .78297 .65166 .. .76884 .68666 .616.77879 .62206 .72677 .63022 .58 .60460 . I.73747 .61772 .68221 .6:.60298 603~1 60344 .65891 .73036 .71995 .72797 .63989 .70772· .63899 .77788 .68434 .64279 39 coseno .2 .79300 .62660 . 6M2:.662"0 . 79477 .61291 .73176 .76921 .586 .77696 .17 .71)106 .62365 .67323 .71039 .77952 .69112 . :77733 .63473 .77125 .63248 .61451 61474 .69026 .75088 ...74-6"" .61726 61749 .62955 62977 .5 .70687 .6179.60437 .65606 .73432 .68814.734-91 .64435 .741. .72160 .73728 .62706 .73866 .68370 .7083" .73629 .60622 .70967 .69800 .76154 .64368 .73056 .73806 .78.73333 .73670 .78819 .75680 .7M71 . 70916 .62138 . I.71610 . 69987 ..71914 .77255 .79033 .76022 .78694 .78387 78369 .68867 .61689 .69633 .6::1966 .64679 .65144 .61612 .716liO .67923 .77033 .72196 .68730 .7044-3 .73649 . 78962 .75642 .78478 .77715 I seno .68306 .68200 .69926 .706M .67216 .60922 .75661 .65716 . 65b94 .79211 .73472 .67796 . 3.64989 .70896 .74276 .76.78550 .7017" .68772 .66066 .66740 66762 . 17 16 13 12 11 10 so mig.76107 .73690 .70628 .119M .648:14 .64390 .71306 .76210 .62160 .75719 .78747 . 3.65011 . 69S19 .72317 .70112 .64346 .77273 .68661 .73963 .66601 .74-061 .65803 .78783 .6634-9 .64768 .6064.66153 .71326 .60784 .67194.71772 ..71203 .61841 61864 61887 .70298 .!456 .71M!) .63180 .78586 .61955 .60691 .64212 .77678 .68920 '.73016 .72877 .72477 .69676 .75566 . 7G618 .6261..76078 .734-13 .684:12 .61383 .77641 .74586 .65100 .9 47 .64479 . I.6&523 .35 .76847 .51 .60968 .64967 ..712M ..72917 .63540 .68286 .70277 .711"1 .78514 .6862" .63608 .67709 .60899 .76903 . .74266 .10711 3• 3• 37 36 3• 34 32 32 31 30 .72367 .71182 .61176 61199 61222 61245 ..64412 .70236 .74867 .63496 .65276 .7.77088 .63000 .51 .67452 .74"70 . .69904 .72267 .66966 .69696 . 2.65913 ..74-198 .64546 .714-88 .541 . 7 6 .70855 .77070 .70484 .60553 ..3 .72637 .70163 .78116 .63225 .60367 .7.64190 .71711 .7124-3 . 634:!8 .78532 .69298 .69717 .66891 .71019 .76473 .70463 .62024.69266 .79530 ..83 .63203 .78729 .72937 .74760 .62183 .. '166~)8 .76267 .68646 .731.63068 .75623 .62320 .62683 .67688 .78711 . 71100 .63944 .69966 .71671 .781881 . 33 32 31 3.69842 .69629 .78333 .62570 .68200 .74080 .70978 .67880 .73511 . 64078 .68941 .70998 .62001 .74-896 .1741 .76.7'l608 .77162 ..63361 .74159 .67580 .69487 .752'80 .74296 .61360 .63832 .76.682M .78658 .66284 .65298 .74548 .64033 .61543 .794-06 .7 . 65584 . 3.6412'1 . .7 ss 60 •• gmt I 1 0 • cosenc 52' coseno:::1 seno 51' cosen%~o sene cosenc sene 49° coseno 48' seno coseno 4' cosen~l sene 46' coseno 45' seno -102 - -103 - .7734-7 .72216 .6883 • .65017 .74120 .63742 .69403 .78926 .66088 .62342 .72867 .73886 .72417 .71366 .70162 .76623 .67043 . 76f1sn .7 .76772 ..75165 .63271 .66218 .66371 .76097 .76977 .6:.79424 .77531 .714-27 .7-t876 .77458 .65826 . .71121 .73096 .79229 .67752 .69649 .7 .67473 .67901 ..71762 .74334 .74489 .63563 .66327 . 3' .70339 .794-.568 .78496 ..70731 .78079 .75738 .74-"31 .64100 .64501 . .56 .61666 .9'·1 .452 . 65518 .63316 .66935 .734-.67538 .64923 .76135 .70267 .67129 42 43 coseno .73904.69088 .62388 .63675 .70360 .66197 .76679 .71974.5408 .64011 .&4657 .6734-4.63383 .! .70875 .68242 .7876.78855 .6~~64 65386 .61978 ..71732 . .67151 ~67172 .73116 . . 66 .73767 .71407 .77660 . •• •• .(}8()29 .77623 .79122 .75813 .78243 .78424 .70626 .70070 .68391 .6050 .66109 .15946 ...86022 is 21 22 23 2.72767 .79758 ..69608 .62842 .6:3585 .67086 .79547 .76146 .62297 . • • • .72597 .76530 .74818 .75870 .67301 .76832 .4-741 .71934 .7392" .69382 .79140 .60390 .73787 .63810 .78152 .!864 .65188 .6071460738 .68983 .62751 I .64167 .66131 .7323" .76337 .78134 .60.79168 .74799 .71508 .72817 .73216 ..9 6.62092 .77861 .75585 .72617 .793.78460 .6994-6 . •• ...71806 .65935 .67869 .77109 .75126 .77586 .!7'J6 .9 .69466 coseno .62909 .71069 .61038 .74-992 .66000 .76940 .74-314 seno .67409 .61107 611.66913 .67387 .66978 .67645 .74973 .76318 .76436 .76203 .74100 .68072 .77014 76996 .66978 ..66870 .65562 .62728 .7U635 .66653 .71629 .76184 .77292 .79069 .65628 .78801 sene .69768 .78980 sene .70793 .77236 ..63765 .75775 .76567 .61084 .78351 .68709 .68618 .72271 .6a817 .88306 .78801 .G2774 .65342 .60668 .78604 .74667 .64901 . se 53 60 47 .71669 .73610 .75011 .76604 • • •• M .7064-9 .74-609 .62274 .71388 .67966 .77934 .73561 .62433 .68793 .63135 .77421 .75927 .77769 777.60876 .79282 .61'.65781 .7760.62115 .72096 72016 .65474. 16 17 I.75069 .64635 .76173 .69004 .696M .60945 .75601 .69779 .68666 .78640 .66610 .78315 .61061 .77476 .6:.65033 .77439 .74-916 .67430 .72697 . .68327 .71630 ..72967 . 71)671 79653 .

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2 10".6511 0.2807 0.4661 1. 1 1 "'" .2264 0.8610 0.2856 1. 7 ..B5 21'24" l<' 24'36" 25'12" 25'48" 26'24" 27' 21'36" is'12'' .9695 0.1759 0.0 3".1130 0.9599 0.2967 0.70 1 2 <2' 0'.2014 0..45 · · ."48" 22'12" 22'48" 19'12" .5061 0." · · ] 1 2 10'16" 31'12" )"48" 12'14" H' 14'48" )5'24" W 37'12" 1"24" 37'48" .1313 .01 0102 .83B · .3614 1.6109 0.1614 1.5708 I I 0.02185 0.01675 0.03185 0.0.2120 0.rs .8552 0.06333 0.2453 0. .50 ~.0698 0.0025 ".2783 0. · •· ".9389 0.0114 0097 .7167 0.6676 0.00015 0.005 "..1859 0.0111 .2443 0. 1·...2746 0.2175 1.00244 0. .1090 0.3640 1.6346 0.2167 nn DH JO IS" 7 ..]661 lill 25' 7 4167 .0017 001' "1< 0008 0011 .00lB 0031 . 7 0".6161 • .3121 1.1743 0." B5 BBH 9161 9))3 · .6667 .9848 1.4158 0.2340 0.00004 0.41)] . 0"..6632 0.2627 0. "" 55" · · .6 )5".0647 1.2956 0.2094 0.00381 0.4312 1.9425 0.7975 0.15 .000] .1047 0.3512 1.5667 S131 .5934 0.6014 0.5847 0.7004 0.55 as7 .2 18". .7654 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 I 0.1184 1.1745 0..00548 0.3767 1389J 1. 7 W 39'36" ..0'12" " 4.3301 0.05736 0..]0 1 1 ] 0".0123 (0297 1.8 14".9235 0.00061 0.00095 0.1170 1.0151 1.0349 0.0872 0.06031 0.1520 0. 1 2 00.4329 0.Equivolencio de minutos y segundos en partes decimoles de grodo Equivolencio de partes decimoles de grado en minutos y segundo.00034 0.1221 0.70 7167 .1566 0.20 1 2 · ·· · · · . .35 · · 7 12'36" 0".0795 0.7505.2618 0.4333 .1254 0.2989 1.. 0092 00.9250 0.010 I l' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 0.3816 0.4')18 1.. 60 20" 1 1 25" 7 .1222 0.ee . 1 ] 13n .10 1161 es .00856 0.05 0022 .07612 Cuerdos Angulo 46' CUERDAS Arcos Flechos Cuerdas 1~ 1 15' 7 2~ 1 2 · · · • .04118 0.03407 0.50 JO' 0']6" 1'12" 1'48" 2'2<4" ]' ]'36" 4'12" 4'48" 5'14" 0"55 ..00308 0.1920 0.'')'" 20'24" 21' 21')6" .0349 0.2036 1.0746 1.0698 0.7156 0.005 . 0.. .8452 0.1661 0.1613 0.1917 0.SO .1328 1.04894 0.1667 ran 25 to1 1 ] . 7 ))'36" H'12" 1 2 )6').3473 0. 0".7330 0.2611 0.00 .2722 1.1569 0.02763 0. • 50' 1 2 · · . 7 · · · ." .0167 00.4 36" SO" " "" 1.4486 1.2686 0.5359 15533 1.0175 0.4835 1.6283 0.01231 0.7492 0. ~.00745 0.7815 0.2174 0.4 18" 21".5008 0.4363 0. · · •.65 .3491 0.4838 0.0111 .1808 0.00<7 .8727 0.02008 0.9543 0. 44'24" <S' 45'16" ""12" 46'''''' 47'24" 48'3'" SO'14" 49'12" 49'48" 51' 51')6" 52'12" 52'48" 53'24" 28'48" 29'14" 20' .4142 - 116- - 117- .0937 0.04628 0..5167 <647 · · · · · · · • 5" ~. .3129 0.7854 0.1296 0.8135 0.2450 1. .0821 1. 7 6BH .1384 0.2793 0. <0" 1 1 · · .03874 0.2066 0.1710 0.0974 0.3840 0.4669 0.5345 0.2284 0..'24" 0".1345 1.1474 0.1961 0.8203 0.1472 1.0136 00.6807 0.1910 0.6Hl .02563 0.3265 1..0125 0128 . 7 · · 42'36" 0'12" 43'48".2313 1.' " 6']6" ".6 1"..60 7'12" 7'48" "24" 9'36" to' 12" 10''''' 11'24" 12' 1)'12" 13'48" 14'24" 15' lS'36" ".00460 0.7679 0.2392 1.03637 0.15 0'.5411 0." .1395 0. 01<2 01.4887 0.9076 0.3665 0.6840 0..8378 0.10 1 2 00]9 00<2 0".8 32". .1756 1. · · .2929 0.2586 1.5512 0.5760 0.5010 1.00973 0.0301 1.9080 0. .01837 0.2510 0.OOOO .0083 '" .08H .0829 0.1428 0.8924 0.2043 1.00137 0.4014 0..003] 00]6 0". • 7 1 2 .04370 0..1051 0.. 0161 016~ 00.0175 0.00 0". 45" " 18ll 10 '161 00..0865 0.06958 0. 00B6 .. • .1694 1.4538 0.0893 1..3788 1...1))3 .8029 0.0141 015 ".1340 0.06642 0..1212 0.05168 0.0598 1. 00.3987 0.01371 0.0133 .1571 0.8294 0.2269 0.9948 1.0873 0.9774 0. 7 ~ ~.<S .15 16'12" 16'<408" 17'24" 18' )0" 1 2 l5' 7 .. 7 .~ · · · • 7 · · 2 ] 5' ~ I ~.3439 1..7330 0. .6458 0..25 • .2867 0.. .1039 1.2437 0. • 7 20 .2229 0. 1 2 00.0524 0.01098 0.3963 1.00643 0.."7 005' .4189 0..2091 0.5176 0.0524 0.01519 0.OO 1 2 ] ARCOS.0106 01" <0' 1 1 e7 .75 .2566 1.1171 0. 7 1 1 ] 0117 0119 0122 ..1868 1.65 0". • . .0000 1.3142 0.2569 0. . .02969 0.OOOO 0161 OB] 0" 1 2 ] 0.5680 0.5236 0.2741 12915 1. 005.0472 1. .00187 0.0450 1.2217 1.8767 0.1519 1.18'6 1..5184 1.8901 0.0900 0.0139 55' 60' · · .1012 0.0056 .5585 0. Angulo ArC05 FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Hechcs 0.6180 0.0996 1.2661 )167 OO.95 7 · .3316 0.OOO 1 2 60" · 0152 01" 01.02570 0.4137 1..1047 0.07281 0.4712 . . · · · 5<' 54'36" 55'12" 55'''' 56'24" 57' 58'48" 59'24" 60' __ 51'36" 58'12" ~ e .3252 lJ383 1.05448 0. . ..3645 0.1396 0.3090 1. 0072 . .6981 0.001S 0078 00B1 0".2396 0.4499 0.

4507 1.7496 0.1241 3.4850 0.6383 1.6529 2.9563 1.4958 2.2340 2.37361 2.8794 1.5543 1.7412 0.6580 0. = Areo de la tabla.4264 0.4925 0.7801 1.5882 1.9021 1.4481 0. CUERDAS Y FLECHAS A F C R = = = = Flecha.0071 2.9722 1.4435 2.1118 2.3213 2.9390 0.I DE ARCOS Radio X Areo de la tabla = Arco.4784 2.8006 0.3843 0.7053 1.0000 Cuerdos 1. Areo.9871 1.1817 2.7581 0.7740 1.4086 2.8544 1.8151 1.0944 2.9477 0.9825 0.6180 2.3038 2.9897 2.4052 0.6335 0.8868 0.8966 1.4387 1. Angulo FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Ftechcs 0.0194 3.9851 1. Flecha.7143 l.2515 2.0420 2.0892 3.4554 0.8850 1.4265 1.6930 1.9696 1.1991 2.3563 --I Hechcs 0.8271 1.8675 1.8695 0.6282 1.6878 2.8199 1.8100 2.4193 0.5460 0.6773 1.7750 0.7576 2.2864 2.9981 1.7104 1.5094 1.6077 1.1 1.9273 1.3053 0.9302 0.5831 2.7402 2.4260 ' 2.ARCOS. TABLA DE Flecha FLECHAS Radio X Ffecha de la tahla .5133 2.3775 0.9993 1.9963 1.7977 1.8733 1.5307 2.1468 2.9829 1.7820 1.8500 1.9024 19199 1.6755 1.9447 1.3506 0.9780 1. - 118- - 119- .8178 0.8350 0.9726 1.7666 0.1416 FORMULAS PARA LAS TABLAS DE ARCOS.9671 2.9632 1.7751 2.8781 0.7244 0.9999 2.7453 1.9924 1.9913 1.9225 1.9406 1.7836 0.3912 0.8608 1.3639 0.3116 0.9951 1.3982 0.6483 1.7076 0.8522 0.980.9908 1.4408 0.7328 0. ~'7\ TABLA Areo Areo de la tabla Areo Radio I--- :---::::A~ C----. == Cuerda de la tabla .7628 1.9322 29496 2.5000 0.0595 2.3180 03244 0.6993 0.7321 1.5432 1.6498 0.4775 0.6678 1.9890 1.8910 1.5973 1.6173 Cuerdcs 1.5152 0.8052 1.9564 0.9526 1.9042 0.8436 0.9845 30020 3. Cuerda.4JJ6 0.5695 0.9074 1.9363 1.9147 2.4122 0.6827 0.6910 0.7576 17659 1.7976 1.7492 1.6180 1.8092 0.0543 3.1293 2.Arcos Arcos 1.1642 2.9938 1. TABLA DE Cuerda '" CUERDAS Radio X Cuerda de la tabla = Cucrda.4979 1.7279 1.9973 1.8341 1.5867 1.5616 0.8798 2.5228 05305 0.6581 1.6961 1.2991 0.9665 1.8264 0.0000 91" 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136° 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 2.0718 3.6013 0.8449 2.9126 1.7899 1.5933 0.1067 3.9754 1.7921 0.6354 2.9997 1.5076 0.7925 2.6057 1.7407 1.8608 0.3439 0.6416 0..9215 0.6005 2.0769 2.7160 0.9988 1.8126 1.3374 0.8853 1.8274 2. Flecha de la tabla Flecha Radio Flecha == Radio. Cuerda de la tabla Cuerda Radio = Radio.9548 1.3387 2.8326 1.5383 0.8410 1.0246 2.6406 1.6744 0.4627 04701 0.6232 1.8972 2.5321 1.6254 0.2689 2.6580 1.3309 0. Radio.9738 0.8955 0.5656 2.8672 1.5652 1.7227 2.5538 0. de la tabla.3707 0.9176 1.8623 2.2160 2.4627 1.6093 0. I == Radio.9319 1.72JJ 1.3572 0.3911 2.4746 1.4609 2.5482 2.5774 05853 0.8478 Angulo CUERDAS .6662 0.4863 1.9651 0.9128 0.9373 1.9598 1.6868 1.7053 2.6704 2.9487 1.5760 1.0369 3.5208 1.

1569 0. Arco _ Arco y grados de la tabla..14 4.11 •.b _. •• 92 . 60 S1.1531 0.50 13.2240 0...0884 0. 39' de la tabla.5176 0. I -120 - -121- .0748 0. 200 x.1901 0:18<16 0.06]5 0.12 6.1231 0.0982 0. 70 71 73 7. Radio ::: = 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1.]) .1566 _ 23. cuerda de las tablas·.08 16.1047 0..15 10.13 B. slones Cuerda .1336 0. 2.57 3. 10. 0.2980 0." 5 . desarrollo..56 1.55 O.32 6..7654 0.68 areo. 67' de la tabla.1'84 0. 8 S·')' 5.5176 Cuerda y 30' de la tabla. . 26 4. •• .2204 == 71.40 U8 3.l2 5. Divj.lS '5 40 36 12.1756 DE ARCOS Calcular el desarrollo de un arco de 35' siendo el radio de 500 mm.18 6.2023 0.. • .0714 0. 13.ndicodo en 10 loblo poro 28 divisiones Aberluro del com pas se = 320 x 0.0000 0.0795 0. .473 0.1256 0.51 12. EJEMPLOS oc \f~\ ~ . Radio X Arco de la tabla ... Radio X F1echa de la tabla . 150 X 0.1>9]7 1. 30 11 l2 I.• 5 3 .22 5.7321 1.23 4.0951 0. 22 0.On2 0.1282 0. conocida la cuerda y el radio del ejemplo anterior.. . longitud de la cuerda. ..0604e 0.21 15.H 8.6840 0.5176 Calcular los grados de un arcc.Arco. 40 109.110] 0.1652 0.12 7.6180 0.39 7.30 .08 5. de radio. 5.01.49 mm.52 = 200 Radio.0837 0.1)08 0.. Poro dividir uno clrcunferenclo de )20 mm. 05 4. Radio 103.3 85 86 .08n 0. Calcular el numero de grados de un arco cuyo desarrollo es 340 mm. 200 .0923 •• ..• 2 ~.37 5.4' 25.47 6..5.1.)0 7. siendo conocida la cuerda y el valor del angulo en grados. 3.42 25 22.04 5 4.5176 X 200 = 103.0967 0.49 7.2845 0. en 28 penes Iguoles. 0.2611 0. Flecha.0785 0.1609 0.].52 mm.108<f 0..1'22 0.39 15 1•. 9.1743 . de radio y siendo el angulo dado 65°.17 1.20 7..0668 0..1697 0.0731 a.6109 .5 .0766 •• . Radio 50 300-0.41 0..10]0 0.30 21.0675 0.116<4 0.52 3 .068. 79 80 n • •.68 mm.10 7.40 6... en un circulo de 300 mm.• 7 ] .2162 0. 60 61 62 6J 65 67 • .2507 0.45 mm. 30' = 0.Cuerda.• 9 ] . Cuerda de la tabla 103.2n3 0.0860 0.51 .1426 0. sobre una circunfcrencia de 500 rom. 99 100 •• - 0..36 11.0827 0.06 6 5.EJEMPLOS DE CUERDAS Calcular 18 longitud de la cuerda de un areo de 300 en un circulo de 200 milimetros de radio.5635 0.2S 6. 20 21 22 2l 24 25 26 27 2. 4.20 12.2 1. . Cuerda -= Radio.17 9.56 6. 3.02 3.1961 0. de redtc.• 2 3..52 _ 0.J . .7 •. 75 76 77 7..20 4.0757 0.Q6.1395 0.2.1365 6.Flecha.0911 0..2204 .17 ".106.36 -t. '2 '3 '5 '7 50 51 52 5J 5' 55 56 57 36 37 3.. J3 l4 35 Calcular-los grados que corresponden a una ftecha de 50 mm.166 Flocha.0897 0.0775 0.4'58 0... Calcula r el radio del circulo anterior.. 17.03 6.. Divinones en Grados y Minutos en Gracias y Minutos ~ Angulo Cuerdc Diyjslones en Grados y Mlnutos Cuerdc ~ 3 5 6 7 • 120· 90 n 1. 500 X 0. 0.20411 0.114] 0.10 20 18.0740 0.2' 0.3676 0.0806 0. DE FLECHAS EJEMPLOS En un circulo de 1SO mm.867.0848 0. de radio. 12 11.0705 0.7 0.0996 0.]6 ~. Cuerda _ Cuerda y grados de la tabla.4)' 0.2091 0.ngulo 00 06) \ TABLA DE ANGULOS Y CUERDAS correspondientes a la division en partes iguales de una circunferencia de rodio=l Angulo <.0628 - Ejemplo.0698 0.1494 0.<41 30 27.3292 0. . calcular la ftecba.4460 0.oa1' 0. • • 0.1793 .5.0691 0.1207 0.3129 ..]5 10..4786 0. 08 58 5. 0.3902 0.1459 0.10104 0.. Flecha _ Fiecha y grades de la tabla.0656 O.6 . 2. 82 90 •• 40 4.2321 0.5. mulhplicord por )20 10 longilud de 10 (uerdo 0.61 0.305.27 5.

2j: = b C b Sec A Divld.-A~ = Tg A -122 - -123 - ..r 1 por 10 sec A sec A = cos A cot A Y sen A Multiplicor 10 cot A par c! sen A cot A x sen A = = cos A sen A Y '9 A Dividir sen A por tq A sen T9 ----- A = cos A --_ col A A HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMU LA Y cosec A Dtvidir COl 1\ por cosec A cot A cosec A = cos A Angulo A Angulos Bye Restor e! cingula B del dnqulo C C-B=A sen A Restor el cccdrcdo del sen A Angulo B Angulos Aye Restor el cingula A del dnqulo C C-A=B T9 A Lado C1 de 1 y extraer do del reslo 10 raiz cuadra- V 1-=--~ = cos A Y b Angulo C Angulos A y B Sumor el dnqulo A y el cingula B iI"+B=C a c 1 A Drvidu- el lado a par r.1·':'=-'05 Al = sen Coseno A A sec A Restor 1 del cucdrcdo de 10 sec A Y exlroer 10 rciz cvodrcdc del restc ~/ ~.·. -E B C C E H 0 G E H SOLUCIONES DEL TRIANGULO RECTANGULO b = Base a Perpendicular = Radio = 1 = Sene = Coseno H = Tcnqente !::: Cotangente F = Seconte = Cosecante = Sene verso = Coseno verso A = Cuerda HALLAR CONOCiENDO REG LA fORMULA Case no A lades bye Dtvrdrr el lado b por el redo c b ~ = cosA 0['.ELEMENTOS DE TRIGONOMETRIA SENCILLAS A B A D G A A C F B _. f cot A =Tg A Sene A lodos aye Se divide ellado a por ellodo c - =senoA COl A Dividir 1 par col A 1 --~T9A Cosec A Se divide 1 por cosec A -- cosec = senoA sec A -=senA sen Y sen A Multiplicar sec A por sen A sec Ax sen A = ~ T9 A T9 Y cos A Se multipliea T9 A por cos A TgA x cos A T9A ---sec A A Y cos A Dtvtdtr sen A por cos A --~T9A cos A sen A T9 Y sec A Se divide T 9 A por sec A =sen A sec A Y cosec A Drvtdtr sec A ocr cosec A ~-:_-~=TgA cosec A Cos y cot A Se divide e! cos A por 10 cot A Restor el cuadrado del cos A Qe 1 Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado del reate ~=senA cot A \.

-.drr cosec A por sec -----+---------+---------1 cosec A col A V cot A.-:-1 - sec A lado c y sen A c X sen A = lado a 10 sumo - 124 -125- . + 1 ( -:..-----------Sec A Restor 1 del cuadrado de 10 cosec A. = cuerda A 2 f--------------A rot A --------COS~( Drvrdrr (OS('C A par (at ----- ~ A -_. = cos-verso A 1 . extroer 10 raiz CUQdrado del resto V cosec A ~..sen A = = cosenc-ver so A 1---T 9 A sen A Dl'lldlr T9 A por sen A f' A '(1 T9~ "'~" sco A A Cue-do A 't.--.--cot A sec A Lado n Lados c y b ~=\adoa ---.01 A sec A 'I cot A cosec A cos A Multipllear cosec A per cos A A Mulliplicor sec A por cot A = x cos col A A = secA'ITgA Dividir sec A por Tg A sec A x col A = = cosec A -------~---------------+----------cos A Y sen A Dtvtdtr (as A por sen A cos A ______ sen cosec A sec A A --- sec A Tg A = cosec A = col A colA'IcosA A = cot A Dtv.HALLAR CONOOENDO REG LA FORMULA HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA c --=cosecA a 1 --_ sen A = cosec 1--COl A Lodes b Ya Dtvtdtr lodo b por lode a = cot cosec A A lodas c y Q Dividir lado c POf lodo o Sen A T9 A Drvtdtr 1 por T9 A Drvidrr 1 por sen A A Tg A cosec =<.---.--------(OS A 1 ____ cos A = sccA Lcdos c 'I a f-----~----------------~--------A Y T9 A Mult:pllcor cosec A por T9 A CQSE.b = cosec A r---+--------.~:::--:1'"'~col A Lodos c 'I Seno verso A cos A 0_- Se resto el lodo b del lodo c Y el resto se divide por el lado c Se restc el coseno A de 1 = sene-verso A I Lodes ._-----------------.---------01 c ocdrcdc Y ext-ocr lo rail ----------- Sumor 1 at: CUOdi T9 A j T9 A orto oc ~/T9A·~.dtr col A por cos A Sumar 1 01 cuadrado de \0 col A 'I extraer 10 raiz cuadrado de 10 sumo b cot A --cos A = cosec A cosec AY sec A Drv.CA / T 9 A= Coseno verso A sen A Se restc e! lado a del c y el restc se divide por el lado c Se restc el seno A de 1 Multiplicor e! sen de 10 mitad del cingulo A por 2 y por e! radio del lado c Se resta el cuadrado del lado b del cuadrado del lado c y se extrce 10 rclz cuadrado del resto Multiplicar lado c por sen A --.yb sec A I cosec = seno-verso A c-a 1-cosA = f.. sen A 2c sen!.

ll8 177.1504 130. Grados Pulgadas mm.268 141.6913 169. H en pulgadas S· 0.m .. Cuando el valor de « sea en grados H=C X y minutos.. 10 dimensi6n C es igual a 10 pulgadas.4- 16.820 Lado b y sec A b par sec A b x sec A = lode c Grados Pulgadas mm..605 Lado a y cosc A Multiplicar lado a por cosec A a X cosec A = lado c GradOi Pulgada mm..150 11· 5.51129 5.4l79 163.311 4.011 15· 1. .7564 70.809 10 altura Gradol Pulgada mm.740 .'566 156.. . ".1991 114.820 171. y 0 = 1" = 25.194 0.86l 6.161 3. H 10 x 0.8837 4.n..3917 Lodo c y sec A Dtvtdf r lodo ( par sec A Sumor los cuadrados de los 10des a y b Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado de 10 sumo Multiplicor lcdo -'-=Iadob sec A 48.4191 61..5837 '.7461 95.."29 pulgGdGs.1187 30. .4101 86." mm .2557 81...550 1.431 1· 0. 17· '5..1745 4..5643 39. Lado c y cos A Multlplicor lc do ( par cos A c x cos A = lado b Con el fin de pcder ulilizar cualquier sene de esccnttllcnes de que se disponga.447 1.1931 159.-= A ladoa Lado b Ladas (Y c ~~.. y a efectcs de extremcr 10 maxima precisi6n se recomienda e! uso de un senerllc Instrumento que lIamaremos «Regia de senos». ..!.5919 '.599 nl.907' 99.145 113...311 1.689 .8716 n. • t166. tanto en pulgadas Inglesas como milfmetros.7165 44..0453 1._ 138.5l34 13.· 4. .5· 7.tricas).'''' 'Bl. t0. = lode b H = Altura para medir por medtc de escantillones C = longitud conslanle.145 115.145 91. 0 = Dtdmetrc de los rodillos.145 5:7158 145.. H 254 X 0. Seno tt= 0.639 41· 6.864 11· 1. equivalente a 254 milimetros.1495 57..137 1. y millmetros 7· 1.847 Lado a y sen A Dtvtdir lodo a par sen A _a_=ladoc sen A _b_= ladoc cos A 6.9)7 1. se indican a continuaci6n.. ". 5.5399 111.141 5. 19- Lado c Ladas a y b ~ = lodo c 11· 3...4'11 l8" 1..0711 179.0791 51. 10 f6rmula general Lado b cos A Dlvtdtr lado b por cos A Ejemplo: a= 30" 45'. 4.6947 119.91)7 74.015 5. Lodo by cot A Drvidtr lado b par cot A _b_ cot A Lode c y cosec A Drvtdtr lodo ( par cosec A Se resto el cuadrado del lado a del cuodrcdo del lodo c y se extrce 10 rOlz cued-cdc del resto cosec --..1)8 .1· 11· . las dimensiones usuales para su conslrucci6n y delalles del manejo. pIanos 0 galgas Blocks..958 '.5606 . = = = = -126 _ -127 - .107 10l. Lado a y cot A Muitiplicor lado a par cot A a X cot A = lado b «a» Lode n y T9 A Drvidtr lodo a par T9 A ~T9 A = lodob Tabla para determinar en grados.51129 129. '01.5881 65.ll61 '06.465 1'· ). u- .871 105.298 6..TRAZADO HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA PARA ANGULOS DE PRECISION Lode a Lado b y T9 A Multiplicar lodo b par T9 A b x T9 A = lado a =Iodoa No es posible realizar el trazado cor redo de un angulo strvlendcse de un transportador ccrrtente.000 1.6976 16. ".:.377 6. . 11· 5.867 mm.8779 149.128 .034 'Sl. . se aplicard sene a..O901 78.0111 15· 16· '17 406..0674 10). 4.954 en funci6n del valor B- 0.3490 8. Grados Pulgadas mm.51129 (vease tobias trigonom..• siendo 10 f6rmula H=C x senc s.

M M -o -o r-.662699 '" :E 0 ~ c ~~~ ~ ~ N M U'> N " M " U'> " r-. r-. N U'> 0 ~ '" -o 0 U'> N -o 00 00 "<t- N .0000096 0.0000581 0.s QJ OJ '" ~ M "Q -0 c "Q "Q QJ 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 o... IN I ~ 0'> . ~ " ~ Qj v 0 0'> c: 0 M .0001066 0.0000026...... de 20' se utilizordn c ~ U'> '" r-. r-.~~-::::..0002666 0....00 M N '" M ..0001018 0..0002084 0.:...0002521 0...f .0000630 0.0000290 DE SEGUNDOS c: Segundos 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 JJ 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Seno 0...0 .0000038. 0 -o 0 q '" .0001699 0. N '" '" a:: "<tU'> M N -e-o ": ." 1:0 -e'" 0 00 "<tr-.D de seqvndos...0002327 0.0002811 0. -o U'> M .- . .. estes constontes de contidodes.f "" M "<t" ~ l! ~ "<t'" r-.. .- r-..2 c OJ U'> 0 -o 00 N -. -e'" '" -o M o- 0 U'> '" .()()()()()48 0. Ejemplo: 41° 30' 24".... 0 r-. 24 x 0.:.0000678 0..- -o "<t. '" Constonte_ para 20 a 300: 0. Seno: 41~ 30' 0..0001309 0... N U'> N ~ OO M 0 . Sene de segundo ccrreqtdc Correction: c = Constante = 0.0002133 0..0002569 0.. U'> ~ ~ ~ .0000484 0. r-.000079 Resumer:: Sene de 11 30' 24" 'J = "Q = 0.'" 0 O 0 000000 "<t- 00 N 00 r-. M M "<tr-.0002424 0.... N el valor del dnqutc 00 N M 00 .' ~~ n _-::::.0001163...0002763 0.0000145 0.. N U'> . el sene de 15° 30' 24" = 0... ~ N Para cuanda sea preciso operar con segundos.0002715 0..0 N '" 0 §~ 0 ~ . r:.0001163.0 U'> 0 U'> M M "<t.0001260 0.15 se utilizaro esta G tobla.0000193 0...... como..0 o'" a:: '" ""! 0 -o 00 U'> M ~ o- .0002181 0.00 -o o-o 0 .. "Q .00000)) 0. "<t..0001551 0.. o-..0001890 0.tll'l.- . U'> M 0 00 r-.0002908 30' 24".0 0 <'! '" ""! .eocons 0.0000033..SENOS Segundos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seno O... .0001939 Segundos 41 42 43 44 Seno 0.0000436 0.. ambos excedc 0..... Seno : 24" 0.0000872 0. ~ N "<t- '" '" '" .0001842 0...000079.f ..f '" '" "<t- -e-e- r-.0001454 0. 0'> " 'v QJ 0 II ~ II > .0002036 0.n ~".0001793 0. . U'> r-. ..: 0 .0000921 0..0002230 0.0001406 0. ~ 00 0 .0000045. r-.. ...0002860 0.'" ..0001599 0.0000969 :E 0 t (l£~ t:: I~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ 0'> N ... 24" 0. X N.0001212 0.. M N r-.2673563.26724.- U'> 00 .- N -::::.0002472 0.0000387 0. N O 0 M 00 N 0 U'> -o 00 0 ..0002278 0.. N "l M '" ~ OJ c :E 0 " "': M L. "l q 0 r-.o. N 00 00 N '" ~ 1:0 M . ~~~ N " " ~k ~I' ~~ - 128- - 129- .- 0 r-. "<t- r-.66262. por ejemplo..0001648 0. U'> 00 00 r-. Seno. '" '" ~ .. "<t"<tM 00 ~ r-.- '" r-. 40 a SOD:0..0000242 0...0000727 0.0001367 0. .0001163 0...0001115 0.0001502 0.- U'> .0002618 0.0000775 0. '" .. )0 0400: SO a 60°: 0.. Seno de 24" = 0.:: '" .."<t.0002375 0..0000824 0. " -o t' I' " t' ~ ... 0 r-.- '" '" ~ ..0000532 0. = Seno de 15° 30' Sumados Cuondo ccrrecctcn.- .0001745 0.0001987 0.

--.7071 d = d VA VA ="2 A= b V. b' c) c) )2 a=~-. ( a..-+~ a' A:: ~ Va' _ ( c' TRIANGULO A = AREAT =A . (a +b+ = Vd' - = ~a OBTUSANGULO A= V S (S A A a) (S - b) (S - A = AREA A = ab PAkA" tLOGRAMO = AREA (a + b) 2 h "< .. i '''-'-Q' 'b I· A = AREA..-.-~--.- ' TRIANGULO = Vb' + c' TRAPEZOIDE 1 A = AREA A = (H + h) a + bh + cH 2 b=Va'-e' RECTANGULO - e=Va'-b 130 - - 131 - .AREAS Y DIMENSIONES DE FIGURAS PLANAS.. A t: b= ~ a be TRAP~CIO r~.'.414 x s = 1. SUPERFICIES Y VOLUMEN DE S6L1DOS: CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD A = AREA A= I"~ A = AREA. S= I"~ A a' = T b' 2b c' )' . bh + = 1.=~ b b Dado S= 11.--. d' A = s' A s = 0.. A = a~d'-a' A = ab = bVd'-b' d= v. a A =-2- L ---~--.414 TRIANGULO ACUTANGULO Dado (a + b + c) b) (S c) V S (S • a) (S Bh A = AREA.

ur~u L = 0.732 x R.564 V-_'. = 180 - J.155x.~ V o:78S4 133 - = 0.--+----~------------------- \ /----5-' ' = .433 x L'= r = 0.634 x L' ~ 2.828 x r n = NUMERO DE LADOS (1 1. = 6.152 )( L. L=1. 6.378 X R2= 3.~ \I" + .866 X R I A = AREA.2 A = 2.828 1.765 A = AREA del circulo crrcunscrrto del circulo inscrito x 5' = 2.289 x L L = 3.207 0.2 d = 3~14'-6. A= 0.707 x L L=1.2832. .371 x r R A R 5 Radio Radio 4.176x r = 0. z =~. L = 0. n A = L2 = 2 R' = 4 x .924 X R x R = 0.128 \ A Longitud del arco correspondiente 01 cingulo de centro de 1 = 0.598 x s' = 2. = 3.633 x . L2 R= T VR' . TRIANGULO EQUILATERO L = 1. OCTAGONO • POLIGO NO REGULAR CrRCULO A = -AREA.1416 d .577 xL.1416 t = 0. C = ClRCUNFERENCIA A =.299 x R'= 5. r = 0.828 R' = 3.nox PENTAGONO ------------------.= C.414x CUADRADO R=2x. A=1..038 X F6RMULAS R = 0.7854 d' C = 2:-:.192 x r' r = 0..464 x r -----------~--~~~~~~~~~~~ HlP! Al.307 1.736 x R' = 3.2~32 = ~ .868 x R.851 xL. .598 X R2 A = 3. = 1.008727 d -- - 132- .': = r t: 1.464 x R=s=1.453x.----5-' 4 .LA SUMA DE LOS TRES ANGULOS ES IGUAL A 180 Y CADA UNO EQUIVALE A 60 0 0 A = AREA R = 1.314 r X5 1.082 x r x 5 = 0.5 x L R = 0. R' 4' S=2 V R' - ----- r A = 2.688 x L R=1.2 A= _n~' = R = 0.963 x r A·= 3.866 X s = 0.' = 3.

(rf-c(r-h)) .AREA. + 4h' !* A =-2---- t= 0.296t SECTOR CIRCULAR A rt = 0. = AREA..' '" p>..1 'I I i p A -.--- A~r. siendo A = 3..1( : .1416(R + r) (R - r) = d) A = AREA = 0. ib: // j_. x 3. "A ".1416(R' - es equrvolente rectdnqulo. " -- Q ~ b HIP log ( : + . Xy a r') = 3.~ ) h=r-'j. = ANGULO DEL SECTOR (=_!_~ 7./ . A = AREA A = .- 01 . LONGITUD DE ClCLOIDE = 0. r= 2A -(-= 57.14~~= 180 1 0.d') = = 0. = ANGULO DEL SEGMENTO ..."PERIj().r' .r') = SECTOR DE CORONA CIRCULAR = ____:::__ (D'-d')= 4 X 360 A = 3rtr' = 9.(R' - A = AREA. LONGITUD DEL ARCO 7. f = LONGITUD DEL ARCO . A = AREA.296( --11.3562d' = 3 x AREA DEL CiRCULO GENERATRIZ = 0. A = ~(R'-r')= 360 r.7854(D' . A:':' X X (0 .7854(D + d) (D a y X la base = ANGULO DEL SECTOR. \/".1.008727>.01745" = ~ r A =2 57.A = AREA. r') EI area de la parabola los dos tercios del Y la altura A= 'I.OO87h(R' .01745" >= 57.ab=3.b) ~CD-ij Y c=2yh(2r-h) r= SEGMENTO CIRCULAR C • A='j.296{ .= 8h I.00218>(D' -d') CICLOIDE - f 135 - = 8r = 4 x d - 134- .: - :~'v c .4248r' = = 2.1416ab FORMU'LAS APROXIMADAS DEL PERIMETRO "y'2(w+b') . P = PERIM~TR..Y4r'-c'.

) + h. S = AREA LATERAL.+A.1416r(h. nemos: base es un poligono regular «S» 10 longitud del lcdc: y R = radio r = radio del drculo inscircunscrito.1416d('j.) + h.1416dh A = AREA TOTAL DEL CILINDRO = = SUPERFICIE LATERAL MAs LA SUPERFICIE DE LAS BASES CILINDRO A = 6. = 1. V = '(. h X AREA DE LA BASE de «n» lados. .v = VOLUMEN A = AREA DE LA BASE MENOR A = AREA DE LA BASE MAYOR $= Vv V = VOLUMEN PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA V = ~(A.+ ~ CUBO v = VOLUMEN V = VOLUMEN V=axbxc C =(ib v V = (2a CUNA + c)bh 6 PARALELEPiPEDO v = VOLUMEN. A = AREA DE LA BASE Las f6rmulas para determinar perpendicular las drees de las bases estan Indicadas en las poginas onteriores. te- Silo cntc. del circulo + h. 137 - V = VOLUMEN = O.5708d(h. S = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL CILINDRO V = 3.) PIRAMIDE 136 -.) + h. V = 1.2832r(r + h) = 3.2832rh = 3. d + h) v = VOLUMEN. «h» se PRISMA entlende Q 10 base V = VOLUMEN.1416r'h = O. PORCION DE ClLlNDRO S = 3.5708r'(h.7854d'h S = 6.3927d'(h.

1888r' = 0.5708ds SEGMENTO ESF£RICO 3. V r' CONO + h' = 3.h = 6.v= VOLUMEN..1812. ( A = 3..·h V = -3= 2.1416 x 5(R + r) = 1.2618h(D' + Dd + d') 3.'h A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA v = VOLUMEN V= = 0 . ZONA ESF£RICA - = 2.1416(.5708ht(D + d) V= + r) SECTOR ESF£RICU + t) t) C) +T C = 2V h(2. + ]~" + A h') CONO TRUNCADO A= a = R-r. -8h-ESF~RICA A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL TROZO DE CONO.1416ht(R r') AREA TOTAL DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA Y CONICA = A.1416ht(d + t) = = 1.1416.1416h(R' = 3. .d' = -3.1416ht(2r 3.5664" = ].rr:': V"TTn' C 2Vh(2' = C' +.0944"h.1832rh =V(R-r)' 138 - 139- . V = (2/.". - VOLUMEN.7854h(D'-d') = 3. a3 ± S = (ad S = AREA LATERAL h b X AREA. r= + h') s= ~= .57085(D 5 A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE V = VOLUMEN :~.= 4.1 /. segun que el areQ de IQ base sec mayor 0 menor que IQ mltcd del cireulo.1416h'(' = l.0472h(R' + Rr + r') = = 0. 2h h) CILINDRO HUECO = 3. + ~) ~= 3.'rw V~ = 0.2618d'h = 1. v = ~. _416'~ 13 = 1 . ~ h).1416ht(D - V = 3.d' = 12.6204VV ' = VOLUMEN..h = 3.' = .5236 h( 3~.= -6.. = 0.5236d' ± bx A = 4w.1416h( ~.1416. : \ + d) + h' v = 0.C>-472. - =Va' + h' \. V = VOLUMEN 2.1416ht(2R t) = 3. V = VOLUMEN V = 1.1416d' PORCION DE CILINDRO r±b USQr mas 0 menos.rh -}) = 3. ABC) r ± b longilud de areo ABC) h ESFERA A = AREA 0 SUPERFICIE v 4wr' .1416" A = 6. ~ = ARE~ DE L~ SUPERFICIE C6NIC~. V r= .

2 +re x b I/a' + b2 V = VOLUMEN Sl los lados circulo.. V = VOLUMEN =4 A TORO 1t' X Dd' = 2. A = .0349ar' SEGMENTO PARABOLOIDE r') = - = B h(D' + d') = 0.1888 ab' y A = = .3927d"h A = AREA.3927h(D' + d') V = VOLUMEN V = -3-(R3 (03 +re - .478Rr +re V = -3- X abc = 4..psI BARRIL v = l/lI7th(201 + cP) .'Dd = 9.:'Rr' = 19. cuando b = e V = 4. Dd +'/..1888(R3 - 6X ESFERA HUECA V = VOLUMEN.d') v - = 0.. PARABOLOIDE lV (~ P=8i1 + d2 p'r .'Rr = = En una elipsoide 0 esferoide de revoluei6n..4674Dd' 39. O.. APROXIMADO son areos de ELiPSOIDE V = VOLUMEN. V eurvados = '/21tr'h = 0.5236(0' d3) V = 2.A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA ~= ANGULO DE CENTRO EN GRADOS V = VOLUMEN V = 360 a A = 360 V = VOLUMEN V= " x -3X +re. A = AREA d3) = 0.209h(2D' + - 140- 141 - .0116"r' .. 1t h(R' + r') = 1.) = 4.1888abe = 4..739Rr' = ~ ~m I A = AREA. = 0.8696Dd \<..262h(201 + IP) Si los areos curvados son de parabola.5708h(R' + r') CUNA ESF~RICA 41tr2 = 0.

------ 3(R r) CONO TRUNCADO + V-W!. + 3A. = Base menor A.1") SECTOR ESF~RICO S6UDO a= . X A.197 r sen 7 ARCO CIRCULAR SECTOR CIRCULAR It a= CUNA + 2 Rr + 3r') 4(R' + Rr + r') Superficie c6nica 0= S6UDO h(R + 2r) + cos 7)r = . ih C CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD " I \.11 b=U= • r'c =)1\= 2rc ~ 8xlxh = 38.--- ARCO CIRCULAR a = 'I.h Para media esfera 0 = b = "I. --------~----PARALELOGRAMO PERIMETRO Y AREA TRIANGULO = I Ih.'/)j:1 .P+Q Q X 0. x A. 4(A. !d .. 4(3r -h) . PERIMETRO d_ h(b + c) .r ~+bx~e~'~ 2 PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA A. + A.(2r-h) PARABOLOIDE S6UDO 0 = '/"h . _.) + VA.) h(R' MITAD DE ESFERAHUECA 0= 3(R' -r) 8(R".~ ~ h(b + c) 2(2b + c) b_ - DOS CUERPOS S6UDOS _ PX 0 c. ~ .:. r$ Supcrficie c6nica a = A. = Base mayor EI centro de grovedad es 10 intersecci6n de las diagonales rXc ~ ~~~h~ Siendo A = Area del segmento SEGMENTO CIRCULAR 0= + 21/A.h APROXIMADA 0= ...2(0 + b + c) Q=3 TRIANGULO h jJtffi Solido a PIRAMIDE_--== CONO SEGMENTO ESF~RICO S6UDO 3(2r-h)' b = h(4r-h) 4(3r -h) . h(A. '/.ll._ I I . P+Q' - 1042- - 143- . _'-----.

--'''-----_-" F6RMULA ESTIMANDO EL COEFICIENTE en direcci6n X (" X P DE FRICCI6N: X a = 3 h. 3n Para movimiento a Q: r P r P F = Q x P .6..2832 X 6.3h.75n b = '/'2 x 3. P + 6.2832 x r Para movimiento F=Q x + (" X opuesto _!_ R !_ R a Q: X COMPLEMENTO A X B x C c = O.... h 1 \'lb - i'~ a= = Px 2b = T P col x CASQUETE Y ZONA ESF~RICA '/16 X 3.. 5 b =-8AREA Porci6n de cilindro s6lido: a = "/16 X 3.1416 r. = Paso de la rosca.1416 x h Porci6n de superficie cilindrica 0= II. FRICCI6N: PARABOLA a = _21!_ 5 AREA Cilindro de bases paralelas F6RMULA SIN ESTIMAR LA F=Q x P 6. = Fuerza aplicada en el extremo de la pa/anca.x3.. = Brazo de Palanca. MITAD DE PARABOLA ~ .2832 x R.2832 x r - I" X I" X DIFERENCIAL ~~(~~i6n.1416 x H' _h3 1+4- R-r -145 - Coeficiente de (ricci6n: fL = Ig. I" III Z .. d = O. 10 .TORNILLO AREA Y POLEA DIFERENCIAL Q R r P F = Carga. P = 2Q x Ig (a.. q. b='/.2832 x R x F.1416 X R3 _ r" r) 2R p=2xFxR Con (ricci6n.1416xh ~/~_ Porci6n de elltndro hueco R'-r' P = 2Q xi1= F x R = T(R-r) Q F = P(R P = 2Q x 19 ~ h 1 .2832 6. = Radio de la rosca. x 3. b o~.1416r.. Q = 6.__---. H'-h' b = '/" x 3. + (/») .

. Pxa+P'xb+P"xc :r F=_!_XP n -146 - - 1-47- .:.-.._-=r x r.. =-F-' Pxl Pxl F=-L-. = RX R...-L-' Fxa Pxl . F ~ P A.. FxRxR. ..:. P = .- FxL n = Nomero F= Pxsec> 2 f'=2xFxcosx • I 8 Pxa L=FT=-F-' PX/.x R.. . Fxa .L = P+ F RUEOAS F r V POLEAS F x R = P x r.vos de las ruedas.. P=--. .. B._..:._. F P x r X r.. etc. =P+T = -P-- x. F x }' = P x a + P' x b + P" xc. Fx a Fx L f' Pxa L= P-F rL p Q ~1 FxL P=--IFxL =-P- ~ p FxR P =-r-. = -1=-.:. x r.) 'I I r.-. FxR r=-p- FxL=Pxl.. X r. 1= P-F I'~F=-: = se~x 'F I p I \ Fx L= P x I r: F = .:. Pxa+P'xb+P"xc I~ i:t=:r' :r= F F 1= F-P =-P- Fxl L de ramales 0 partes del cable (n... C Y 0 son los diametros p"mit.. PXr R=-F-..:.xR.. PX r F = -R- t P x aP FxL p =Jf. n.PALANCAS TIPOS DE PALANCAS Pxl F=-LP=.

M = Modulo no sera nunca un nutompoco .. el cilindro liso en realldad desaparece. Silo adherencia de los dos cilindros es suflcjente. Engranajes rectos 0 cilindricos. -1048- . ddndosele el nombre de paso c. y para evitar esto. el M6dulo mere entero. La formula para determlnar e! Didmetro del circulo prlmltlvo es: M6c1ulomuillplicado por el •• mero de dle. Engronojes helicoidales ejes paralelos. Engronajes de cadena. es Igual a . y la otra al exterior. tenemos que un engranaje tiene 10 mflimetros de paso. slendo tan simple 10 regia que no consiste en mas que el paso contiene una. en sentldo inverso del primero. I Esta es la norma fundamental de todo engranaje y se Ie denomlna cfrculo primitivo. correspondiendo 5 mtlimetros 01 espesor del dtente y 5 milimetros 01 espcc!o entre dos dientes.1416.1416 =~ Dp = De N +2• primi- y. ENGRANAJES RECTOS este paralelo. 105 multiples de :-: en del sistema de Modulo etc. EI paso circunferencial este dodo. VI. Q medird el paso sobre el Didmetro prlmttivo.CALCULO DE ENGRANAJES INTRODUCCI6N Uno de los mas importantes ELEMENTAL en las mdquinas es el medios de movimiento sistema de engronojes. EI Diumetro .r .P xN :-: = 3. Engranajes c6nicos. = 15.1416.tes: Op = M X N. . Tornillo 5ln~fin y su rueda. Ejemplo' Paso del Modulo num. por tanto. Y u. cunferencrcl. este circulo es el punto de partida para el cdlculo de engranajes. tres.1416. la manera mds simple estd caraderlzada por el paso.1416. por ejemp!o. por tonto. y se preclsa definlr una unldad de medlda. 10 ventaja de este sistema reside en que el Dicimetro tivo y Didmetrc exterior son siempre numercs enteros. N = Num. ---a2 son: 410 = Modulo 5 PASO CIRCUNFERENCIAL Los engranajes 'pueden tener Infinidad de tamaftos. Si se toma para el paso un numero enter-c. siendo este igual 01 paso dividtdo por ). que tenemos una ruedo dentado ique Modulo le corresponderc ! Formula que mide =- Numero de dlentes. Destlnados fransmltlr movimlento IV. y 10 longilud del Didmetro prtmittvo des. por consiguiente.708 5 x J. pero no es Diometro primitivo esl. y ~ste Ie determlna por la dlstancia de un punto de un dlente a otro correspondlente al dlente slgulen". como yo se dijo. del M6dulo multiplicado por ). veces el numero trensmfnde por uno de ellos pondrd en movlmiento circular continuo al otro. 5 a Los formulas generales M del M6dulo = P J. el Didmetro prtmittvo ventente es particularmente molesto porque Hevc consigo de engranajes 10 cote de distcncic entre ejes y dtdmetros Para veneer esta dificultad se toma como paso Circular lugar de tomar numeros enteros. --"-0---. se puede imaginor el mon'aje de dos cilindros frotendc uno sobre el ofro (figura 1). 10 rotaci6n Para transmitir un movimiento circular continuo de un eje Q M6oULO Se senoia que para todo cdlculo de Dicrnetro primitivo M6dulo. M _ M6c1ulo. y. V. sino que subslste sobre 105 trazos. multtphccdo per el nGmero de dientes. de ejes perpendiculares: III.. 5. He cqul una formula sencilla para encontrar el Modulo de un engranaJe.149- . Fig. una parte de cada diente se establece al Interior del cillndro 1150. etrc que M = intervendrci el factor P J. P x N P = Paso circunferencial. Engronojes helicoldales a eJes perpendiculares. se mide el Dicimetro exterior y este se divide por el numerc de dientes que tenga el engranaje. N = II. prtmtuvo.1416 Paso. engranando los unos con los otros. Como ya se dijc. 105 engranajes pueden estar aslmllados a dos cillndros 11101 correspondlentes a los Didmetros prlmltlvos. se proveen las superficies en contacto de dientes. este sera medido en el Dicrnetro primitivc.- P X N . aumentando dos dientes. N Ejemplo: Supongomos metros y tiene 80 dientes. este inconque para un juego es fraccionaria. dos. arrollada depende-d del numero de dtentes del engranaje EI Didmetro pr-imitive desarrollado es igual 01 paso. estos se clasifican como sigue: Destinados a transmitir mevrmtentc de ejes parole los: I. de dientes : M =~ N + 2' ~t10 mill- Op _ Oldmetro prlmilivo. l Numero de dientes. ~ De = Didmetro exterior. Con este sistema los deslizamlentos son l6gicos..

. cdvirttendo antes que respecto 10 cingulo de presion existe una completa conformidad. traducido 01 espcjicl «diente sin punta»."450 0. R = Radio del pie del diente. La Common de Normchzacion Alemana (DIN) adopta el sistema de diente «Stub» conservando las alturas normales del diente : tcmbten 10 American Standard en su norma tiene uno ligera venecten. ·ii r--e 0'0 a. Nuttall Co. es igual 01 Didmetro D. segun veremos despues. PITCH 4 e L / h Diferenclc en altura con el diente normal 0. Posteriormente 10 coso R.167 x Modulo."0893 = 2. -----T- INTERIOR peimitivo.10 mitad de 10 sumo de los Didmetros pr-imitives. DIAMETRO De e = 0. marcando sus normas de una manera distinta a Fellows.' 'i' . P = Paso circunferencial. ambos casas muestran una diverse opinion re. = Espesor del diente."250 0. Esta innovcclon se debe a 10 coso americana Fellows Shaper Co.26 mm 2Qo 2O" DIFERENTES los cuales vamos a detallar.5 x P.26 mm -e c ~ c -. su resultado fue excelente. D."1963 0. siguio cnclcgo procedimiento de dentado. De = M x (N DIAMETRO 01 + 2). CENTROS SISTEMA Dtemetrcl 10 altura del pie del diente. equivalente 01 Modulo 6. Altura del pie del diente."3927 0. Nuttall 0. y se generchzc muy lentamente. menos dos veces = Drdmetrc interior. P=c +e = 3."250 0.lacionada con las alturas de 10cabeza y del pie del diente. ~. modificando los angulos de presion."3927 0."200 0."450 es igual a ."200 0.'1<111<1 In los Dtcmetrcs de un engranaje.73 mm 0.. Modulo. = Espacio entre dientes. R = OJ x M6dulo (mciximo)."0893 = 2. Este Dldmetro este compuesto del Didmetro primitivo..j. = Dp (2 x I).DIMENSIONES DE LOS DIENTES EN FUNCI6N DEL M6DULO EI M6dulo no solo sirve para caracterizar rlwnk vc dc nonuon ."1075 = 2."3927 0. FORMAS DE LOS DIENTES Aparte del sistema de dentado yo descrtto. mas des veces et = Dicimetro exterior. furrrlu!{(s En funci6n de las dtsnntes exigencias de 10 construcclon moderna de mdqut nos y elementos de trcccion. per tanto vamos a comparar los distintos ststemqs tomando por referencia el Dtcmetrcl Pitch num.1416 X Modulo. / = 1.35 h = 2. o M6dulo multiplicado por el numero de dientes mas des."4318 = Drstenc!c entre ejes. De = Dp + 2M. il = Altura total del diente. que en 1899 cpltcc este sistema a dtverscs organismos de mcqutncs . y veamosen que conststen esos diferencias."2355 0. fue precise estudiar engranajes de elevadas condiciones de reststenctc. y uno de los que primero se ccnecte fue el diente «Stub ». L = Modulo. las diferentes partes de p. sino que los dtentes estdn tombren relacionados con el . a partir (claro estci) del circulo prtrnitivc. A = Dp + dp 22' =N + n xM Americano Standard 4 0. = L = Altura de 10 cabeza del diente.5 x P EXTERIOR Dp.167 x Modulo. "'" 200 DISTANCIA Esta dutcnc!c A ENTRE EJES 0 DE DOS RUEDAS Fellows 5'" 4 0. Dimensiones en pulgadas 151 - - 150- . encontrando su lugar preferente en 10 industria del cutomovil y mdqumcs-herrcmtentcs. existen otros perfiles de drentes. ('qura 2. c = 0.

.5708 = Oiametral Pitch = 0.75 x M6dulo.95 FORMA DEL DIENTE CON. M. A.250 x Paso cf rcunferenciul.6 Dtumetro prtrnnivo Dicimetro Numerc = Numerodor exterior = de dientes Diometral Pitch Espesor del diente en el Didmetro primitivo 1. Altura del pie del dtente Dtdmetro primitivo = 0. oqui 10 que se refiere hocer para de los diversos puede por el a 10 forma comisiones si bien y conviene a pesor 0 presente que estos son los normos de normolizaci6n nada es digno 10 mecdnico. 0.H16 Paso circunferenciol = Oiometrol Pitch Diente normal en un pin6n de 10 dientes. salmente. DE l()O DE IS· Drcmetrcl Pitch = Numero de dientes Die metro prtmitivo «STUB» " COMPARADO EL DIENTE NORMAL 3. Altura de 10 cabeza del diente = Denominodor Nuttal Diometral Pitch los nociones supere trobojo odopt6 vlene trobojon normolizor mejore mencionorse. los numerodores representon 01 Diemetre! Pitch por el que se determino el Didmetro prirnitivo.1416 Paso circunferenciol Norma American = Diometrol Pilch _ - Oiametro primitivo x 3.1416" Numerc de dientes Americana de Pubrt- Standard A.25046X Paso. G. (Ascctccton cantes de Engranojes) Formulas: Altura de 10 cobezo del diente 0. que los el en cuento de Didmetro primitivo +( 2 x De"nominodor ~iometrol Pitch )" Hosto presi6n.5729 x Paso" 3.5 x Paso.300 x Paso ctrcunferenctcl.8 = Oiometrol Pitch Pitch 0. Altura del pie del diente = Diometrol Altura "total del diente = Diome~~~1 Pitch = 0. de tenerse frcncesc. M.inodores el Diometrol Pitch que servird para determinor los alturas de los dientes Formulas: Didmetro primitivo Dldmetro = Ncmero de dientes Diometrol Pitch Numero de dientes X Paso 3. M6dulo.Referente a los corocteristicos fundomentoles que deben conocerse sobre estes sistemas son los siguientes: Norma Fellows. X Altura del pie del diente = 0. = Numero de dientes Dtcmetrcl Pitch del diente = 0.1"'16 Neme-c de dientes = Oiametro primitivODiametro primitivo x 3. Paso Diometrol Pilch = 3. N.!.H16 exterior = Numero de dientes Oiometrol Pitch + 1.3183 X Paso. y los deno.1416 Numero de dientes . [Ccmrte 20 0 • de Ncrrnchzcctcn e! cuol Formulas un perfil de diente que 10 empleo el angulo Altura de presi6n de 10 cobezo yo 10 industria cuyo fundomento Altura de 10 cabezo del diente = 0. de diente «Stub» 2()O de dngulo emclecdasuntverque en casi todas en concreto Frances). Norma reolizodo sfendo C. -151- -153 - .

utilizdndose mucho. -_ 0.5708 metro prtmittvo ----oiQmetrOl Pitch . ..aVi~ci~n. con una veiocidad Clase 8. Tembten Conocido el Diametral Pitch Conocido el circular Pitch.-ALTA CLASE C.:r=a"l P"it"c"-h --------_ ~ _ Altura del pie del diente. diente normal de 15· y 2()O y el sistema de que se trata. 0. Las f6rmulas para este sistema de engranajes son las siguientes: Clase A.ametrai Pitch 2.]979 0. Se clasifican en tres grados: Clase A. muy especialmente utllizados en la propulsi6n de buques accionados por turbinas de vapor. pero muy aplicado: este es el sistema Bostock y Bramley.itc--c. 1. Sus caracteristicas son notables. y sv usc mas generaiizado es engranajes helicoidales con ejes parolelos. Alta close.7766 x Circular Pitch. cajas redueteres para turbinal de vapor en -154 - L Espesor del dtente en el Did1. t-----..25 X Otro perfil de diente que alcanza una gran aceptaci6n.5 x circular Pitch. y ctrcs cpltcccrones especiaJes. nada se hizo en materia de engranajes can las caracteristicas del diente tan originales como este sistema Bostock y Bramley. es el «British Standard».. 'D"ia"'m=etCCroco. que trate de cumplir la aplicaCi6n especial aSignada a ~ste. -- 2. apreci6ndose la enorme ventaja sobre todo otro sistema 0 norma de dtente. Finalmente. como podro observarse en los graficos que se publican en la coleccl6n de datos sobre engranajes de este hbrc. . Altura total del d.5 x CIrcular Pitch. puede verse la zona de rodadura y desIizamiento. indicaremos un procedimienfo que revoluciona fodo 10 hasta ahora de uso normal.. muy poco conocido. este perfil tiene un 6ngulo de 2()O y su aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes de tracclbn. se trata de un perfil de diente de inmejorable resultado.i-=-a=m=et.155- 0. 'D'. Precision. D.-CLASE COMERCIAL 0. cuya aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes reductores de velocldad. 0.--h0. y en la casi terminaci6n de 10 cabeza del diente en la rueda y cremallera.+4 DiQmetral Pitch ~ X Espesor del diente en el Did1.5708 metro prtmuivo. por tanto. ~/a~e C: Tlpe comerctql para engranajes pef'lfef'lca In(erior a 360 metros por minute.7162 X Circular Pitch ----Circular Pitch.p."583 circular Pitch.25 DiametraTPTich ~ . engranajes de 600 metros por minute.3183 x Circular Pitch. en el mayor deseo de dar a conocer todos los tipos de engranajes extstentes.ente. para engranajes a 900 metros por minuto.3183 x Circular Pitch Altura del pie del diente Altura total del dtente.. ----~--- Clase B.-- Altura de 10 cabeza del diente. xi midad del pie del diente en el pin6n.PRECISION Dimension a calcular Dlente «Stub» en un pift6n de 10 dientes. puede observarse que el DI6metro primitivo se encuentra en 10 pre. 0. con una velocidad peri(erica que exceda con una velocidad peri(erica de 230 corrientes. las cuales muestran dlversas comparaciones relacionadas con la cremallera.

Alta close. Secc.entes para p. diente aplicado Seccion normal de los ihentes 157cnqronando.Trazado "British Standard" para el perfil del diente en la cremallera y fresas para tallar este sistema. 156- . Close B. .o» 1I0rlllai ell el perfil de los d.ente para cremallera y ruedas. Multlpllcar los valores dados por el paso. Engranajes Bostock & Bramley SecC/on normal en el perfil del d.nones. Para engranajes helicoidales Q unQ seccion en dngulo recto - el perfil del con IQ helice.

.. U o e: CO 0 4) .~ . 4) e In o u '" .....::to 4) II e EoE :::l 4) 4) U £%: :::l ...... e: 4) -0 -0 -0 e~ ... e: e: '0 Ie: ·u 0 C"'I 4) a: e -0 Lee 0- E E L- UZ -158 - 0 0 ... 4) L- -:J e: 0 e: o M -0 e: 4) M 4) -0 '0 '.~~...~ E L- .. -0 -0 " L..--! 0 4) i I u --_ e: 4) >-Z E e LCO -0 g 4) 4) >.. 4) e: 4) o L. 0 4) e: -0 -0 .. 4) 0 r----..... 0 In O~ '" " N L........In -- ~~ -- .. 4) 4) In e: 4) ..159- ... -- 4) -0 e: e ..

---------,
o .... C
v
V .... C
VI

I
,0 0-'

E

o
VI

N V

:::J -0 -0

o ...
o

v\

-0

;I=>

c

o
CO
\1

o

0::

o II

-0 V. :::J 0::

o

V .... C

VI

v
-0

o

"'" II
-0
IC C

VlOVlC'lCO'-DVI"'C'lC'I-C'lOOCOCO C'lC'IC'IC'I---_-'-D--'-D-VlO

°

VI

~~6~~~~~~~~6~~~~
C'lC'IC'I---------

o,

"..,NNNM-----------

---------------'
160 161-

eI)

~I~
10:

Formulas para enqr cncjes sequn norm as Inglese y cmerrccnc. en Iunc.on del diornetrul PITCH Y circular PITCH Diamelral, PITCH. nombre bc]o e! que se comprende e! no mero de dientes per pul9o~a Ingleso en el dtdmetro prtrrunvo. Ejemp!o: A uno rueda de 84 dtentes que mid a 14 p~Jg~dQS de dtdmetro prtmtttvc Ie corresponde 6 dientes per pulgoda; por constqutente. el diametral PITCH es = 6. Circular PITCH, se. comprende el paso circular del diente en medida Inglese sabre el circulo prrmit t'vo. PITCH, troducido 01 espcfiol = PASO.

0 el)
~

Formulas segun

efdicmetrn!

PITCH

I eII
0.. 0

Formulas segun Para obtener Circular

el circular PITCH Formula

Para obtener Dtcmetrct

Formula

a..
C ~

."

W

PITCH P
Circular

P=

N

0

PITCH P'
Dicmetrcl

3.1416 P' = -P3.1416

:;
."

'0 Qj

> t=
~ ~

E
>..

PITCH P'
Numero de dientes

3.1416 P' = --PN=P x0

.

PITCH P
Numero de dtentes

P=

-p-,-

.!:! a:: .~ ..

.r:.

N PITCH OIAMETER o
Me" 0"

N=OxP-2 0=0-25

N N 25 P PITCH OIAMETER
(Dremeteo primitlvo)

N=

3.1416 x 0 P' N x P' 3.1416(N + 2) x_F" 3.1416

a..
~

:;
u

0
~

.£ 0 a;

.. ...= 'u
E 'jE

a

g

M

[Didmetro

primitivo)

0
Dlemetro

o
0= O=~ W=

=p~ 0+

0= 0= 0

0
Didmetro

U

~ I-

.. .... Ea
'ti
Qj <: ':::>

.!:! .~

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del dienfe

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del diente

0+25

W
Altura de 10 cabeza

2.157 P

W
Altura de la ccbeze

W = 0.6866 x P' P' 3.1416 P'

E a

5

1 5 = pT= 1.5708
p

5
Espesor del diente

5=

'"

..

til

----NNNN~~~"'~~m~o

"

.~~ ----- -~ ------~ ~~~~~~ ~~
-."2 -

Espesor del diente

T
Distancia entre centros

T
Dtstenete entre centros

T='2

C= C=~

N+ n 2P 2 -

C

C=

C 163 -

(N + n) x P' 6.2832

Detalles para el uso del calibre especial para medir dientes de eflgranajes

Calibre especial para medir dientes de engranaje

TABLA PARA EL CALCULO DE VALORES PARA FIJAR LAS DIMENSIONES EN EL CALIBRE
Numero

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun et sistema de Modulo ab bo

Ncmerc

d.
dientes

Para engranojes rectos segon el sistema de MOdulo ab

Numerc

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun el sistema de Modulo ab

-

be

~
1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.571

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17

18

1.062 1.056 1.051 1.047 1.044 1.041 1.038 1.036 1.034

1.564 1.565 1.566 1.567 1.567 1.568 1.568 1.568 1.569

zs:
24

19 20 21 22

25 26 27

1.032 1.031 1.029 1.028 1.027 1.026 1.025 1.024 1.023

1.569 1.569 1.569 1.569 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570

28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-42 43-44 45-00

1.022 1.021 1.020 1.019 1.018 1.017 1.016 1.015 1.014

Los vclores de esto tobla son para hater 10 correcci6n por el numero de drentes. hasta 45. siguiE:ndo 10 diferencic entre 10 cuerda y el orco; Q portir de 45 dientes. esto diferencte es instqniflccnte, y. por tanto, dentro de 10 mas extqente tolerancio. Para determtnc r los vclores de fljccion en el calibre (altura de 10 cebezo. ab, y espesor, be) cuondo los ruedos se odopten 01 sistema de Modulo, los vclores ab y be se multiplicon por el Modulo con que se t-ete de construir el enqrcnc]e, EJEMPLO: Determinar 10 fqcctcn del calibre para medir los dientes de una rueda de 25 dientes tallada con el Modulo 5. ab altura de la cabeza del diente : la tabla indica 1.025 x 5 = 5.125. be = espesor del diente en el circulo primitivo; 10 tabla indica 1.570 x 5 7850 N

P
M Dp

A B C D

Altura

normal.

Altu ra corregida. Correccion. Espesor efectivo.

Nurnero de dientes. Paso Modulo. Didmetrc primitive. Espcc!c entre dientes. Cuerda. Flecha del areo. Altura del diente a partir del dicimetro primitivo = M.

FORMULAS
90 N Dp

x sens
cos ") 2

Dp (1 ab = L be = 5. ab

+

F.

Pure

dentaduras

tntertores.

L-

F.

-lM-

-

165 -

La medicion de ruedas y pinones helicoidales
En los mecanismos de precisi6n se hace necescrtc un riguroso control de dtdmetros en zonas de ccntacto en los floncos de los dientes. ~sto puede rechzone, a folta de operates especioles, (on un senctllo procedimiento, y por media dl -",,_r,.,('nl(' '(''1'''''' -to+otto ,., , .....,d,",,'lr'nn
\(>

Mum. de dientes 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

Dlentes pares. Factor F. Angulo de presi6n 14'/,· 12,415 14.436 16.454 18.468 20.482 22.493 24.502 26.512 28.520 30.526 32.532 34.536 36.542 38.547 2()O 12.413 12.428 16.+40 18,450 20.458 22.465 24,470 26.475 28.481 30.484 32.487 34.491 36.494 38.496 25· 12,431 14.+42 16.450 18.458 20.463 22.468 24.472 26.475 28.479 30.482 32.484

Num.
de dientes 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 53 M6dulo 6 6.5 7 8 9 10 11

Dientes tmpc res. Factor F r-_~~gulo 14f
I /~ ...

~

de pres~~_... __ 2()O 11.258 13.302 15.335 17.359 19.378 21.394 23.406 25.417 27.427 29.435 31.+42 33.+49 35.454 37.460 39.463 41.467 43.472 45.475 55,486 Modulo 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 25· 11.277 13.318 15.347 17,368 19.384 21.398 23.409 25.419 27.427 29.433 31,439 33.+44 35.+48 37.453 39.455 41.458 43.463 45.465 55.474 Fodor K 1.954 1.814 1.696 1.587 1.411 1,270 1.155 1.058 1.016

34.486
36.488 38.489

I,,_,',

i--'I"I''1

'

\..1 ~1~lt.:!I'U

vvu

'I",'\U

JulidL

.....vd c opo r ur sc scqun

40.553
42.557 +4.561 54.576

40.499
42.502 +4.503 54.510

40.491
42.492 +4.493 54.498

el Modulo 0 Drcmetrcl Pitch Ingles. Deben prepororse dos bur-res (on ones discos esfencos que puedon svstttu.r las bolos, y cuyo detolle se indica en el dfbu]o. los did metros mas convententes se determmaran por lo!. sigulentes for-mules
Q

40
42 52

11.256 13.307 15.348 17.376 19.400 21.420 23.437 25.452 27.464 29.476 31.485 33.495 35.503 37.511 39.516 41.523 43.529 45.534 55.554 Fodor K 4,233 3.906 3.628 3.175 2.822 2.540 2.309 2.117

PARA
Drcmetro

[l

SISTEMA DE MODULO = ---KPITCH
=

en mm. de los rodtltos esfertcos

1150

M6dulo x 25,4 1 1.25 1.5 1.75

Factor K 25.400 20.320 16.933 14.514 12.700 11.289 10.160 9.230

M6dulo 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5 5 5.5

Factor K 8.466 7.815 7.257 6.773 6.350 5.6+4 5.080 4.619

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL
Dscmetro en pulqadcs de los rodillos esferrcos

1.750 Diamefra!

EI factor K sera et que perfenezca 01 modulo que se uti lice sequn tabla Despues se precede a determiner 10 dimension D sobre rodi!los esfertcos. cuyo formula es:

2
2.25 2.5 2.75

PARA

EL SISTEMA
D en mm.
=

DE MODULO
-KF x 25.4

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL PITCH
D en pulgadas

12

24
25

= --~-~metre! Die

ADVERTENCIA
Para espescres

IMPORTANTE

EI factor F sera el que pertenezca. en functon de numero de dientes y ongulo de presion sequn tabla. EJEMPlOS: Pinon de 26 dtentes. Modulo 5. Angulo de presion. 14 Peeler F = 28.520 Faclor K = 5,080 La conversion del modulo y diametral M = Modulo M= es 10 siguienfe DP Drcrnetrc!
I .,'

y alturas en los dientes

de las ruedas helicoidoles, en 10 correcci6n de ajuste del calibre, deben tomarse los volores a. b, c. por el numero de dientes ficticio NF. segun 10f6rmula: NF = Num. de dientes
COSl~

El USC DEL CALIBRE ESPECIAl. PARA MEDIR DIENTES DE ENGRANAJE

=

Pitch

-i5P166 -

25,4

DP = _2,S,~
M normal.

Angulo de 10 hehce 167-

Todos los cdlcutos pr ecedentes se refieren a modulo y diametral

MEDICION POR

DE LA Ot.NTAUUKA U~ U" ~"UftAI"'''''''1;. MEDIO DE UN CALIBRE CORRIENTE

Tabla funcion

mdtccdore del numero

del numcro de dientes 2()O EJEMPLO

de espccrcs del engranaje PARA

compt cndtdos en 10 medrdc

K en

y cingulo de presion.
SU 45

usa
Ndm. PRESION 22· 30' DE 18 27 36 45 54 63 81 ENGRANAJE 12 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 = = = = = = = = 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 12 15 22 30 37 44 52 59 = = = = = = = = 14 21 29 35 43 51 58 65 C. 25·
M6dIJlo. Pow Espccto entre d,ente, E,pt',or del dienle. Profundidaddel dienle

Angu 10 de presion. NUMERO DE ESPACIOS

Ndm.

de dientes. DE

de espectcs.

C

=4

Dimensiones del diente en los pasos normales del modulo
~m·! ",
»

ANGULO 14" 30' 17· NUMERO 12 26 18 51 63 76 88 = = = = = = = 25 37 50 62 75 87 tOO 12 22 33 43 54 65 75 86 DE

20DIENTES 12 = 19 = 28 = 37 = 46 = 55 = 64=72 73 =

1 3,1<4 1,57 2,17

1,25 3,93 1,97 2,71

1.5 4,71 2,36 3.25

t,75 5.5 2.]5 3,79 6.28 3,14 4,33

1,l5 7,01 3.54 4,87

l,5 7.B5 3,93 5,42

C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1,75 8,64 4,32 5."

J,2S 9,42 4,71 6.5 10,21 5,11 7.04

= 21 = 32 = 42 = 53 = -64 = 74 = 85 = 96 C

MOdulo. Peso .. EspaCio entre dientes. Espesor del dienle. Profundidaddel d'enle.

mm
" »
»

, ,

1,5 11 5.5 7.58

3,75 11,78 5." 8,13

12,56 6.29 8,67

4,lS 13,35 6.68 9,21

14,13 7.07 9.75

....

4,75 14,92 7.46 10,29

5,25 15,70 7.86 10.83 16,4' '.25 11,]8

5,5 17,28

....

5.75 18.06 9,03 12.46

11,92

M
It

= Modulo_
de dientes Formula K~ general

= Espccios.

N ::::;:Ncm.

del engranaje. en radianes. para cualquier N

1 = Angulo de presion

,,=
cingulo

Y = Num. Angulo

de espacios

MOdulo Peso ..

18,84

6,15 19,64 9.82 13,>4

6,5

7,5 21,99 11 15.17

20.42 10,21 14,08

de presion.

hpaCioenlredientes », 9.43 Espt'Klrdeldie,nle »I Profundioad del dreete. » 13

n.56
11,78 16.25

25.13 12,57 17,32

28,27 14,14 19,5

1t 31.42 15,71 21,67

11 34.56 17.28 23,83

11 37,7 18,85 26

de presion: --" : X N)] 1)1
MOdulo Pesc. , Espocioentredienles hpes~rdel diente Profundidad deJd,ente 13 «l.84 20,42 28,17

MI1I'(Y +~.
Formula

) co. «+ paro

cos «(190:

,.
43,98 21,99 30,33

15 47,12 23,56 32,S

SO.27 25,13 3U7

..

17 53.41 26.70 )6,83

11 56,55 28,27 19

59.69 29,85 41,17

"

62,83 31,42 43.ll

'"

11 65,97 32,98 45,S

n
69,12 34,56 47,67

14" 30' simpltflccdc

K

= M 1(3.04280 X Y) + 1.5218 + (0.00514
Formula paro 15 simplificada:
D

K.~

M 1(3.03455 X Y) + 1.5177 + (0.00594 X N)]
Formula para 20" simplificada:

M6dulo POKl_. hpesor del dienle » Profundidod deldiente.

15 78,54 39,27 53,9

11 87,96

30 94,25 47.12 ".7

n

100,53 50.26

K~

M 1(2.952 X Y) + 1.476 + (0.014 X N)]
168-

60.'

43,98

..

l5 109,96 5",98 75,5

11 109,38 59,69 '1.9

125,66 62,83

..

50 157,08 78,54 107,8

".3

169 -

Tallado de ruedas reetas con dentado evolvente
JUEGO DE FRESAS
pora M6dulo 1· 10 5 para rued as de 26- 3~ dientes 6 » 35- 54 » 7 » SS-1H» 8 » 135-cremallera 8 fralO. por juego, utilizoda. N.- 1 para ruedas de 12 - 13 dtentes N.· »2 » 14 -16» » »3 » 17 - 20» » » -4 » 21 - 2S» » N.» » »
15 fr..... por juego, utilizada. 1 para ruedas de 12 dientes 1 II. » 13» 1 » 14» 2'/. » 15-16» »3 » 17-18» » 3'/, »~ » » 19-20» 21-22»

Resistencia del diente en los engranajes
EI diente de un engranoJe trcbaja por reststence a 10 flexion, debe ser calculado en
0

'I

como

un solido

encostrado c sfue r z c cntculo soportara

10 base, soportondo
de 10 cabeza el por tanto. se si un solo teoria diente esta
no

en 10 extremidad cargo; rd como

el esfuerzo

tangencial. sobre por Inde nos

poro M6dulo 11 y mayores N." 411'1. para ruedas de 23- 25 dientes » S· » 26- 29 » » 5 lIt » 3()" 34 »
»6 » 6 'I. »7 » 7'/, »

La mds notable Mr. Wilfred veshgcdc los datos para
LeWIS,

en Prlcdelfia. para

materia fue dodo a conocer el 15 de octubre de 1892. y todo cuanto se resolver los cdlculos en los casos cornentes tanto,

»
» »

35- ~1 35- S~ 55- 79 BO-1H»

» » »

y rncdrficado. este basado en los prtnclptos LEWIS. A continuccion se don
mas elementales los de altos estudros de prcyeccion y rendinuentcs rno xtmcs superior de 10 tectuco : por que esftmcmos suficrentes :

enqrcncjes. dejando aquellos
hmrtoremos

Num. 8, para ruedas de 135 dientes hasta cremallera

que trabajan a estas formulas

en el grado
generales,

FRESAS PARA «DIAMETRAL

PITCH»
0

DESIGNACION

FORMULAS tangenciol paro e!

Si el calculo para engronojes se efectue segun Diametral numerc de (resas por juego es como sigue:

Circular

Pitch. el
Presion diente V Velocidad
0

esfuerzo perifertca

8 fresas por juego. utilizadas para Diametral Pit"", 16·1' /. N.o 1 para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N.O 5 para rued as de 21·25 dientes »2 » SS-IH dtentes »6 » 17-20 »
»3 »~ » » 35- S~

en Kg.
0

p=

.~~ V

lineal en el diepor sea

26- H

» »

»7 »8

»»

1+16 12-13
I

» »

metro p rimtttvo gundo

en

metros

v « ~~~=

60

--P--

7S

X

F

15 fresas por juego, utilizadas pa~a Diametral

Pitch 2 It .. 1
M

Fuerza en C. V. (caballos transmitir. MOdulo. Espesor del diente del diente. del diente. de reststenc,c de seguridad
prtmitrvo

de vapor)

Nem. 1r para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N,o 11/. para ruedas de 80-13-4 dientes para ruedas de 21-25 dientes N."S
» » 2

2'/. »3

» » »

~

3

'I.

~·I.

» » » » » »

55- 79 ~2- S~ 35- ~1 30- H 26- 29 23- 2S

»

»
» » »

» » » » »

5'/, 6 6'/, 7 8

»
ulfimas

» 7 'I.

» » » » » » porque

19-20 17·18 15-16

en 10 roiz. M=\~ de 10 seccion coeficiente de F= minute. p -~

» »

_H

Altura Ancho

14 13 12

»
» » »

w
C Dp N
i=

Momento rectangular. Carga
Didmetro

(ve c se tabla

VCX132
de volores C)

0

Se advierte de M6dulo.

que las dos tablos marcan

se dan can

a conecer a

en America

trcbc]o por flexion

en Kg. mm-. (en metros).

xV

(U. S. A.) e Inglaterra

las fresas

numero~

10 inverse del sistema

=

Ncmerc

de revotuctones por

-

170-

-171

5 5.8 0.1.75 Del modulo 0.5 .4 4.9 1 pldstlccs. .5% 24 .75 .0.5 .235 x M - 172- 173 - . 1.2 0. Modulo PC mm.50 % Acero al niquel: 14 -17 24 .5 1. Cuproaluminio Aluminio.3. y estdn comprendidos entre 70 a 80 de la resistencia a la trcccion.27 NI = 3.45 Cr = 0.25 .Resistencia del diente en los engranajes Tabla para valores (C) coeficiente de tr obojo a la flexion en la raiz del pie de los diente s MATERIALES Fundiclon Acero C= Kgs.7 0.31 PC = Profundidad de penetrncron de la cernentccton que deben tener los dientes M = Modulo_ Modulo PC mm.5 3.28 31 .3 % se opliccrd la siguiente FORMULA Aprox. Acero al carbon~: C = 0. Acero Cr = 0.15 . rnrn- 4-5 9 . X rnrn- Tratamiento termico de ruedas dentadas con dientes cementados (Vcleder o inclusive para rued as con dientes rectificados) 18 a 19 Kgs. Ni = 1 % Ni = 1. fenolita. Materias 1 1. etc.2.75 % .25 . 1.5 0.6 6 en adelante 3 .75 2 .3. basados en los limites de elcsncrdcd de los diversos materiales a ernplear.5 .5 Valores C.6 0.75 al cromo niquel: 27 .10 moldecdo.42 5-6 10 16 3 Bronce fosforoso Duraluminio.3 0.40 .2.25 2.25 3.25 % C = 0.0. __ Limite eldstlco C 2 PC FORMULA MX n 2 - x 15 100 = 0.4 0.

.O~ Mayordel0 De 0.ooa 0.". maxima entre el par de engranajes.0011) .008 a 0.014 MODULO 3.5 a 10 -0.. de dos floncos de dtentes. Drstcnctc entre ejes 15 A.5 a 7 De a 0.10: 0.010 De 0.010 ~.010 De 0.012 O:~ Engranajes cilindricos.050 0.03 7 a 10 De 0. respectc De 0. E. EJES 0.003 0.+ 0050 .010 a 0.020 CD ® ® Parolelismo Excentricidod maximo entre e! por d ~~~~~e_e~n~9~. _D_.004 I a ().-----.05 o. __0~. __ .003 a 0.5 a 7 De 0.02 a 0.01 5 a 0.14 -0.010 De 0. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras frlsadas 0 rectificadas CLASE ALTA PRECISION TOLERANCIA DE51GNACION EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 1a~ Sumo Error de division.14 -0. -0.e _~.012 0.26 + 0.:~ LA i De 0.059 + 0.006 o.061 0.05 a 0.15 -O. 9. De 0.02a +0.a~n~a~le~s' Holgura entre dte nte s :~~ 'S_'_A_._~__ oc-~OD~~ 1 '.015 0.020 I Q) o. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE PRECISION TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION EN LA DENTADURA -r-----. (!) 0.Engranajes cillndricos.2~ + O. 0 )32 - 174- 17:.05 De 0.015 (!jxcentricidod CD Suma Error de division de des flancos de drentes..-.025 Mds de 10 -0.030 0. I I •• 014 021 n 020 ~ 015 f-~~r)]q+.012 a 0. CD ®Error Holguro entre dientes 15 A.---a I ~ ~.-C"~-. E· a. del diente 01 QguJero...020 a 0.03a + 0.12 0. derechc 0 Izquierdo.020 EN LA DISTANCIA Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR ENTRE DE51GNACION 1a3 Didmetro exterior 15 A.~__ 01 oguJero TOLERANCIA respecto l__:_?.005 De 0.25 a 5 -0.002 Q 0.010 PerpendicuJaridad de Ie cora del diente respectc 01 ogujero.5 a 10 Mos de 10 -015 -024~ 1 Drc metr o e xte rro r ISA b II ('nlr~-~ - ":"4 . ._'2_ 0. TOLERANCIA ® Pcrcleusrnc del d.005 0..005 a o.-.032 a 0. ><.OB a 0..21 + O.014 a 0.oa -r=-~~~'~~~~~~De 0.15 -0.010 a oms..008 a 0._'_0 ~ __ ~ __ fA\ Error maximo sobre e! flonco \:!J del drente.006 I De 0. mdximo sobre el flanco del diente.ooa 0.~7 + 0.075 0.-----------f-------.020 De 0.en'. : ~ f 9 0061 ItO 075 .008 De 0.o!S a 0.060 +-_~-+_a I.030 EJES Mayor de 10 De 0.03 De 0.3 2) a 5 Q ~ EN DISTANCIA ENTRE ~ __ 5.cos De 0.06 De O.03 a O.005 a 0.025 De 0.012 0.032 -----------Duto oc a ISA -~.20 + O.003 De 0. de-echo 0 izquier do. b .025 a 0.020 De 0.010 7 a 10 De 0..008 0.0_a_ir-a_O.-:: ~l''.020 5.Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR DESIGNACION __ .

04 0.1 ----. h =M A = Dp = M x N.03 Q 0.13 0.34 Dtstcnctc entre eje s IS A.04 + 0. + 2).01 D.5 Q 10 Mayor de 10 D. _ N + n 2 --2= ~. ~. = Espesor del diente.5708.O~ Q 0.5708.08 0. respecto 0. De = M x (N ~. derecho del el flanco izquterdo.16 0.015 Q 0.28 0.33 -0.. -0.12 + 0.167 Di = Dp - (2M x 1.05 Q 0.06 0. + dfl. p 1.15 D. A = Distancia entre ejes o centres. c= -. de dos Ilcncos de maxima entre dientes..0. t=Mxl.20 D._ N e = T=M x x 2. 0. ( e = Modulo.03 Q D. 0.015 ® Paralelismo diente 01 cqujero.Q2 Excentricidad de engranoles Holgura entre dientes I SA. TOLERANCIA EN LA h = Altura L = Altura DISTANCIA EXTERIOR ENTRE EJES total del diente.5 Q 10 Mcisde10 -0.Q3 CD @ Suma Error de division.167).1 D. -177 R = 0.) - . = Espacio entre dientes.03 + 0.3 x M (Maximo.37 Altura del pie del diente. (Mini mo.27 ~0. f= Drc me tro IS A. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE CORRIENTE TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION 3 Q FORMULAS GENERALES para engranajes rectos segun el sistema normal de Modulo EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 5 5.06 + 0. el par D..167.27 -0. = Diornetro interior.Engranajes cilindricos.07 Q O. M Dp De D. D -10 + 0. 0. O. Y DIAMETRO DESIGNACION MODULO 3 Q 5 3. DESIGNACION P = Paso.06 Q 0. sabre 0 dtente.) X M - L = M..O. D-11.e.Q2 De 0.01 Q 0.015 D.. Error del maximo CD @ 0. de la cabeza del diente. R = Radio del pie del diente. Dp D. 0.05 Q 0.10 + 0. exterior Q -11. 176 -- 2' P = M x 1. 0.05 M = ~= P = M x .. = Diornetro exterior. = Didrnetro prirrntivo.

() :J "'0 Q) Q... 0 Q) Q) II> LI"'I c .. Q) E !. Ie Q.. e Q) Q) E 0 !. !... C Q) Q) Q. e Q) 0 -178 179 .. 0 . N 0 -0 t). II> 0 e 0 Q) II> N :J "'0 "'0 0 0 0 "'0 Q) 0 0~ "'0 0 !. :J "'0 0 ..."'0 00 0 e0 0 ec !. Q) Q) II> e "'0 0 II> E 0 0 Z to:: !......() Q) !........... "'0 0~ 0 0 .. 0 0 "'0 I"'l Q) 0 N Q) :J "'0 -1'3 e e 0 U t)..... II> c 0 ......

33 X DP = 20" CT = 0. a 20-. c DE DP=Mx neutral. = 0. 6 0 ~= 1 Minimo.22 x DP 75~ R.96592 x DP r). entre dtentes. I dientes..07 x DP 75· R. M ~ Modulo. = 0.= R. -180 - Para complementos usar f6rmulas generales. » 10 a 13 » 25·.5 x P = DP x Sen = 0.3xM. del circulo DT ) Circulo de trazado de los DT= K K = Coseno del dnqulc = Drcmetro prlminvo. = CT = 0. r = Radio de pie del diente.068 x DP r = 0. R. N = Nemerc de dientes r=0. n = Ncmerc de dientes cortontes de 10fresa. de 23 a 25 dlentes 17 'I. de 10 rueda. DATOS PARA DESTALONADO RI R:!R3= Radios para diente. h = Altura normal del diente en 10fresa en funci6ndel ANGULOS DE PRESION MAS e = 0.07 x DP R. = 0.3 x M (MoxilT)o) 75· R. M = M6<lulo. .1416. L = Ccbezc del diente = Modulo.= Para . USUALES Para Para Pcrc '1 = 15" '. -181 - . monos do 10 dlentes 25 a 28". A = 0 x 3. el trazado N = Numero de dientes FORMULAS x DP. P=Mx 3. c = Espacio CT = Dtcmetrc zado. de presi6n. » 18a22 » 20 a 22·. DP. Radios de trazado = Rl~Rs. = 0. x DP = CT '. = 140 I/~ » CT = 0.5)( P (Holguro ancho H. 10° Mdxlmo Angulo de incidencio. ~ . = Angulo de complemento.. M= Ii: P DP 3.93969 x DP R.96815 x DP 0. a 20-.= M x N. = 0.2140 x DP R.ralados de los dientes vf:anse las f6rmulas generales. DP '1 != Pie del diente.321 x DP Cos. ~= Angulo de flanco. n T= h +1 MOdulo. = 0.6 x M. de fradel e = Espesor del diente. = 0. paso DESIGNACION '/ = Angulo de presion.1416 X T9 ~.33 x DP I ~ Ruedas " » » » con mas de 25 dlentes 14 J I. II = N.1416'=-N=r'f+i.CONSTRUCCION para talla de engranajes DE FRESAS TIPO SIMPLE segun el sistema de Modulo TRAZADO DE LOS DIENTES para engranajes con menos de 30 dientes H = 3.22 x DP ~~ = R. » 14 a 17 » 22 '. e= -y-' P = Paso. = 0.

Cos. t = 1.2 x t. PR M Seno 1. SP = dp x 3.96592 x DP. 2. DE N+2' PT = Paso del tornillo. que sera el paso.H16 =---. ~ = 751/. DESIGNACION M = M6dulo. I Secc.r-= 'l. I = Alturas de 10 ccbezc y pie del diente (en este coso ambos iguoles). 0 de /0 == DI6metro prrmtttvc.334 x M.-. CT = 0. normal del modulo. i. T = Aneho en el fondo del drente y uncho de 10 punta de 10 cuchillc para roscar. de X 3 NO = ----v>T' J=h 183- J = Aneho del diente cortonte. ~ = 70". FORMULAS P 3. = Angulo de presi6n.6.". = Angulo de inclinccion del filete hellce.. PT = ~. Aquina automAticas de talla continua por el procedimiento de generaci6n .1iIJ. dp = Dldmetro prtmttlvo. Para comptementol usar formulas generates. R = 0. Fresas para tallar engranajes ractas y helicoidalas sobra .3 x M (Maximo). Ho'gura neutra. dp = de . <= = 0. Para = 15·~ 11= 7S-.H16.1'-:4"1-. CT = 0. -182 - SP = Paso de 10 espiral NO = Numero de dientes -t)x x 2 x t9 :. T= (PT x 4cotg:> ~= I " \ Diente =I » r = 0.H16 x cotg v. N == Numero de dientes. \ Dtente normal = 14 I.167 x M. x DP = CT. » reforzado = 20:'..5 x P. entre dientes.5 x P. = Angulo total entre flancos. de = dp + 2 x t. ~ngu'o de inclina- ci6n del dienfe o de la he/ice. PR = Paso real 0 CT ~ Di6metro del clrculc de trazado. = 20". P ~ Paso. de 10 fresc.H16..96815 x DP. c -' Espocio entre dientes. CT = 0. normal = 29°..05 x P. R = Radio para trazado del di~nte. ~ == Angulo de complemento. = 141/1°. . de corte. de = Didmetro exterior. R = Radio en 10cabeza del diente. h = Altura total del diente.93969 x DP. M= M6dulo.Trazado de los dientes para engranajes con mas de 30 diente. = ---"'d"p--C:x~3".dp " 7.. DP R =----s' 'X Angulo en el flanco del diente. • = 0. - + 3 mm.. e = Espesor c = Espuctc del diente. DP= M x N..on '('01 0 por el paso normal del M6dulo. Para. P DP M= 3. PR = M x 3.H16' M= DESIGNACION OP FORMULAS P= M x 3.. Para :r. h = 2. • =-= Espesor del diente. t'i reforzado = 40". r = Radio del pie del dtente. cos para roscar en el torno.

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA
TlPO A DES'GNAC'ON TlPO 8 M = Modulo.

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA

P

=

Paso.
primitivo. exterior.

DP = Dtemetrc DE 01

=

TT-=.l' '
i

··ff !L;

.t~
~
.. ..J ....
Secc.on del

Didmetrc

T ~I ~
.

02 = Dremetrc mayor

Fie

y

scbre

or15105. entre ejes

j_L.::~::

, ._l

~.
fdetc segun cjc

E = Di5lancia de to rueda A = Ancho r

Y

sin-fin.

de to rueda. de 10 cebeze. pertfe-

FORMULAS

=

Radio

R = Concavidad rica.
:X

---------------1
DESIGNACION
M = Modulo. n

p M = 3.1416;
Paso para

P=M
el torno

X

3.1416.
entrada

s; el tornillo
0

= Angulo

de las caras. de dientes. de 10 ccbezc

N = Namere L = Altura

trene mas de un filete = P x n. de filetes
0

= Numero

entradas.

del diente. = Altura diente. FORMULAS T'PO A h = Altura diente. M_-P-_~ e = Espesor del diente entre dientes. M_ total del FORMULAS T'PO 8 de! pie del

P = Paso lineal.
rt

Tg' --_P-= = .~_. dp x 3.1416 dp
0

= Angulo de inclinacion 10 heltce. exterior. primitivo.

del tilete

d

de dp 2M dp 2L dp = de - 2M = de - 2L. d= de -2h; h = 2.167

=

+

=

+

de = Didmetro dp = Didmetro

L=M; e=2'

P

x M. 1_1.167xM.
p

(=2'

P
),1416

3.H16

N' x M.

c = Espacio

-1'1'
X M.

DP

d lR F

= Dldmetrc 01 fondo del htlo. = longitud = Extremos
de 10 parte sin rosca. roscada.

DE _ (N
DP=NxM.

+ 2) + +

1-----------1
NOTA. Se recomienda de ser la m4s rueda rests-

DE - (N
DP=NxM. D2

+ 2)
Rx x y R
P

~~ Hlete normnl f e 1//. = :~ Hlete reforzado 20°. = ~ Filete para pasos largos

30".

T
del fllete.

01

=

DE

(O..4775 x P), para
sin-fin y doble. de filete

tornillo simple

et
tipo

empleo A. por

=

2(

'l(

cos

1-) +
filete.

h = Altura
DE.

total del filete. de 10 cabeza

=

(P x cotq :' 4 -

(I

Ix

2

• x 'g e·

l = Altura

LR =
P x (4,5

tente. zecten.

y

sencillc

su meccnrse

A = 2.38 simple

01
A

=

DE
triple

(0.3183 x Pl. para

+ +

6 mm .. para

l = Al'uro
e = Espesor e = Espacio ~= Angulo T

del pre del filete. del fllete. entre filetes. del filete.

+ .~~e

di~~tes ~~~}.

y
P

doble

F = P; Nota. torntllos

R = 0.05 x P
Como norma Sin-fin de: actual' en los

y cu6druple.

En las para mara como dientes una

relaciones rueda

ta-

:Ie

2,38 X P simple

+

6 m m.

e l tornillo segun

sin-fin de 1-2-3-"

A

=
=

2.15 triple

5 mm .. para

cuedruple.

y
x

doble.

en el flanco

A=2.1S
triple R = 0.5 r=

P+
dp P.

5
M.

sea el nome-

R

0.5 x

dp -

M.

mm .. para

rc de flletes.

y

= Ancho en el fondo del filete y ancho de Ftlete simple y doble. ~ = 29". Ftlete triple y cucidruple, A = 40". 10 punta de 10 cuchilla para roscar.
del filete. flancos. = Angulo total entre

cu6druple.

x

R = Radio en 10 cebezc E
=

0.25 x

DP

+
2

dp

,;j

Filetes para pasos largos. ~ = 60°. En algunos casos tam bien se uti/iza 40° para. filete simple y doble.

-

184-

- 185-

Tornillo sin-fin y su rueda Relaciones que existen en diversos casos
1.' s: el nurnero de filetes y revoluciones por minuto de un tornillo sin-fin son conocidos, asi como el numero de dientes de la rueda. Se determina el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda por medio de la formula: Revoluciones N. de revoluciones N.' de la rueda

3.'

Velocidad

de ruedcs a tornillo

sin-fin compuestas.

DATOS PARA EL CALCULO
C = Tornillo sin-fin motriz con filete simple, girando a 1600 revoluciones. E = Tornillo ble filete. sin-fin a do-

D = Rueda de 80 dientes. F = Rueda de 40 dientes. Determinar el nurnero de revoluciones de la rueda F.

=,

del sin-fin

X N.' de filetes

EJEMPLO:

de dientes de la rueda

Tornillo sin-fin A tiene doble filete y gira a 240 revoluciones, la rueda B tiene 80 dientes, el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda sera igual

1600 X (1 X 2)
80 x40

1 revolucl6n. el nurnero de revoel producto del nupor el producto del

240 x2 --8-0-

= 6 revoluciones.

2.' Calcular el nurnero de dientes de una rueda a tornillo sin-fin para una velocidad determinada, conocidos el ruimero de filetes del tornillo sin-fin, y el nurnero de revoluciones por minuto del tornillo y la rueda.

La operaci6n consiste en multiplicar luciones del tornillo sin-fin motriz por mero de filetes de los tornillos, y dividir nurnero de dientes de las ruedas. 4.' puestas. Se opera del modo siguiente: Velocidad de un tornillo sin-fin

con las ruedas com-

FORMULA:

N.' de dientes de la rueda = del tornillo X N.' de filetes

N.' de revoluciones

EJEMPLO:
Si los tornillos nes del sin-fin sin-fin

EJEMPLO:
EI tornillo sin-fin A es de triple filete ygira a 360 revoluciones, la rueda B debe girar a 10 revoluciones, el nurnero de dientes sera:

40 dientes, y la rued a P 20 dientes, el nurnero
motriz

C y E tienen doble filete, la rueda D de revolucioC sera igual al resultado de

--1-0-

360 X

3 -

= 108 dientes.

FxD
CX

E= 2X2
-

20x40

= 200 revoluciones. 187-

186-

Empujes axiales (P) de tornillos sin-fin y sus ruedas girando en diversos sentidos
Sin-fin tr obojondo vobre

Fresa sin-fin para tallar unicamente ruedas a tornillo sin-fin

10 rueda.

at-a
h'l 'I:'

-~ .4 <D .
I

'WON

DOC D"""

"CON OC '"

OESIGNACION

FORMULAS P = M x 3.1416.
exterior del tornillo del paso. sin-

p~
p~ p-

~p

P = Paso. M= M6dulo. de = Di6metro exterior. dp = Di6metro primitivo. h = Altura del diente.
L = Altura bezc.

P M = 3.1416:
de

= Dia.metro
fin

+

1/10

,=

que cor responde Q 10 coy en 10 frese (S Q 10 teveesc. que corresponde 01 pie,

dp = de - 2(. h=2.167xM: L=M. e=·T:
h , Dtente ;3 Diente
0=

(=1.167xM: P R=O.05xP.
14

Altura

Sin-fin

trobojondo

debcjo

de 10 rueda

en

10

Irese es

y

c=T:

Q

10 inverSQ.

e c

= Espesor del dlente. = Espocio entre dientes.
de! diente.

J

+

3 mm. 0 filete normal
0

1//.
20".

R = Radio de 10 cebeze

I

filete reforzado

Diente para posos largos 30°.
~= Como norma actual:

J = Ancho del diente cortante. ~= Angulo en el flanco del diente. 3 = Angulo total entre flancos.
IX

Filete simple

0

doble 29".
D ,

Filete simple reforzado 4O Filete para posos largos 60".

= Angulo

de inclinaci6n

del fllete

o de la helice.
T

= Ancho en el fondo
ancho de 10_punta para roscar.

del diente y de 10 cuchilla de corte. de la Ire'sc.
0

Para filete \ T g , = __ P_ = ~. _ simple I dp x • dp Para mas de\ T9 7. =~. un filete I dp x r. SP = dp x 3.1416 X cotg x . de x 3 NO = ~ (aprox.).

SP = Paso de la espiral NO = Numerc de dientes n = Numerc de filetes milimetrica.

entredns.

, = Divisi6n Sin-fin con ftletes roscados a izquierda. Sin-fin. con ftletes roscados a derecha.

T= (

pxcotg~

4

- 188-

Nota.-Terminada de tal',ar la espiral de corte SP en 10 Iresc. hacer una plantilla del perfil del filete por 10 secci6n perpendicular a la helice. esta plantilla serviro para desto\onor.

-189 -

ENGRANAJES HELICOIDALES

Diagrama para calcular el numere de la Fresa para tallar ruedas helicoidales
GRADOS DEL ANGULO
5

AXIAL
)0 )5.-40

DE LOS-DIENTES
45 50 55 60 65

DE LA RUEDA
70 75 80 8~ 90

m

10

15

20 25

M _ Modulo nor mol 0 real. Ma = M6dulo del paso ctrcunferencrol

oparente.

1:1 15,_ 20 25

III
j:-

N ::0::. Numero de dientes. NF = Numero de dlentes fkncte para eleqrr 10 fresa (si se tollo en fresadora
universal).

Op = DI<imetro prlmitivo. De = DI<imetro exterior. h = Allura del dlenle. P = Paso de le helice.

Pr = Paso real 0 normal. Pa = Paso aparente.

~ !:::::: r>
k"

~

.......1:;::::: ~

I--a.; j;:1'

t-

v r- rV

~

I/:r> V

f7

J

~ ...
II<

)0 )5

J......- V

V~ 1/ II?'

II

~
/_

I

:I 40

FORMULAS
Ma=~=EE... P Pr Pr
0='057.=

De N
X

= Dp
N-~ -

+ 2M.
Ma'
X

cos x
Dp

3.1416
N'
X

=
Dp

Pa

X

cos

x

=
X

3.1416
7:.

M.

h= NF=_N_=

2.167
:x

M.
Dp
X

M= Ma

cos
N

=

N

X

Ma

=

3.1416'

X

Pa

cosa
X

M
X

cosl

7.

... ... ... IZ ... Q ...
0( Q III Q

~5 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
0<

__.

V

V II I II I II
II
I

Vi

7

P

= Dp

3.1416

.colg •.

o II<

Para engranajes helicoidales a ejes paralelos, se recomiendan los ongulos siguientes: at = 10- para ruedas de pequeflo velocidad; x = 30- para rued as de elevada velocldad; at = "So para ruedas de gran velocidad.
Angulo usual para engfanojes ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motrlz helicoidales con ejes perpendiculares. ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motriz DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

... ~

:I Z

90 95

-

I(tv

~h

I..

f-..
)

Z~

t--J I

1.....-'

00
05 10 15 20 25 )0

DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

I

b \.

ivb

,-'Ll>

",)

1 1 1 1 1

:1 : 1.5 :2 : 2.5 :3

~5' 56-19' 63' 26' 68'12' 71'34'

~5' 33' 41' 26'34' 21'48' 18- 26'

1 1 1 1

: 3.5 :~ : ~.5 :5

7~' 03' 75' 58' 77- 28' 78- ~1'

15' 57' 14'02' 12- 32' 11-19'

I V

V

"

EJEMPLO.· Determinar por el diagrama el nlj· mero de 10' fresa que se necesita para taUar una ruede helicoidal de 52 dientes con un angulo axial de 38 grados. Seguir las fJechas del ejemplo y su concurrencia determina el numerc de la fresa. que en este coso es 10 numero 7. -191 -

I

-190-

ANaULO
DE LAS

P _ PaSO de 10 hellce.
OP _ Dldmetro Cotangente
11_

prlmitivo. OP P
X

Calculo de engranajes helicoidales en casos diversos
x cotangente p ). Grados

HEUCES
p Grados

).'4'6·

Paso de 10 hellee p Grad,os

"" OP X ),1416 p Grados

Ruedas hellcoldales con dlametros Iguales y numero de dlenies dlstlnto, dngulo de los eJes 90".
p Grados

DP
0.01 0.02 0,03 0.0< 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.10

del

dngulo 8')0<" 8')0 3S' 82'27' 8')0 16' 89" 5' 88- 5<' 88- <3' 88- 12' 88'21' sa" 11' il8'0'

DP
0.<6 M8 O.SO C.52 O.S< 0,56 0,58 0.60 0,62 0.6< 0.66 0.68 0.70 O,H 0.76 0.78 O.SO 0.82 0.8< 0.86 0.88

del

dngulo 81' <0'

DP
1.75 1.SO 1.85 1.95 2.00 2.05

del

dngulo 60-5<'

DP
3.85

del

cingula

DP
12.SO 13.00 13.SO '4.00

del

6.ngulo ,4" 7' 13'38' 13' 8' 12')9' n"1)' 11' 50' 11"27' 10--46' 10- 28' 10- 5' 9-5<'

a>o 79-

soso-

8,·19'
58' 36' 14' 53'

013'

3.90

39-'.'
38-53' 38-31' 38'10' 37' <8' 37' 2S' 37' 7' 36"48' 36' 27' 36' 8' 35'30' 3<'''-

1.90

O.O~

0.11
0.12 0.13 0,14 0.15 0,16 0,17 0.18 0,19 0.20

78- 50' 78-29' 78' S'

79-11'

'9-32'

2,10
2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2,)5 2.<0 2 •• 2.SO 2.55 2.60

87-4"
87'38' 87" 27' 87'16' 87' 5' 86' 5<' 86- 43' 86'12' 86'21' 86"11' 86' 0'

n·,,7'
n'26'

o.n

0,21

o.n 0.23 0.24 0.25 0,26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.12 0.33 0.3" 0.35 0.36 0,37 0.38 0.39 0,"0 0."2 0 .....

85-"9'
85'38' 85'27' 85'16' 85' 5' 8<'S<' 84' "3' 8<'12' 84'21' &4' 10' 8<' 0' 83' "9" 83'38' 83'27' 83'16' 83' 5' 82- 5.. , 82' "3' 82'22' 82'. 2'

0.90
0.92 0,9" 0.96 0,98 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1,30 1,35 1.<0 1,"5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1,65 1,70

75· l' 40" 74·20' 7"· 0'

n- 5' 76"_+4' 76'23' 75' 3' 75" 4)' 75'n'

59-12' 58' 52' 5&11' 57-31' 56' 53' 56'15' 55'37' 55' 0' S4" 24' 53' <8' 53'12' 52'37' 52' 3' 51'30' 56' .. 9-

3.95 <.00

",05 ".10
4,15 4.20 <.25 <.30 <.<0 <.60 <.SO 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 6.25 6.SO 6,75 7.00 7.25 7.SO 7,75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.SO 9,75 10,00 10.25 10,50 10,75 11,OJ 11.25 11,50 11,75 12.00

'4.50

U

n-12'

12' 8' 30- 5<'

2,65

7"·

7), <0'

2.70 2.75 2.SO 2.85

52' ..,. 22'
..,- 39' 48-16'

soso- 23'

2"+4'

15.00 15,50 16,00 16,50 17.00 17.SO 18.00 19,00 20.00 n.so 25.00

Como orlentacl6n para su celcu!e, se indican estas sencillas reglas: Angulo de los dlentes de una rueda == cr. Angulo de los dlentes de otra rueda = Ut· en los cuales pondremos como norma: = Rueda de menor nemerc de dlentes. Cl'1 = Rueda de mayor numerc de dlentes.
FORMULA

11- 6'

Tg IX

9-23'
8'56' 8' 0' 7'10' 6" 33' 5'59' 5'12' 5" 7'

2.90

47· .7' 47"'17'
<6'<8 046°19" "5' SO' "5'23' ..... 56' "'28' i4' 0' "3'l6' "3' iCY "2'44' "2-20' "1' 57' "1'32' "1' 7'

n'<O'
71'12'

7)'20' 7)' 0'

no 21'
700 ..3'
69- 55' 6" 8' 68- 20' 67'32' 66'046' 66' 0' 65'15' 6<' 3G' 63· .. i' 63' 0' 62'18' 61' 36'

2,95 3.00 3.05 3,10 3,15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.<0 3 ... 5 3.SO 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.SO

25·04" 25' 0' 24"10' 23"26' 22· .. • 22' <. 21'26' 200 51' 200 17' 1""5' 1"15' 18' "7' 18'20' 17' 53' 17'27' 17' 2' 16'39' 16'16' 15'55' ,15-36' 15'17' 104' 58' 104',,0'

26-""

28'<0' 27'38'

27.50

•. EJemplo: Calcular los dngulos de los dlentes de dos ruedas con 12 y 24 dientes, M6dulo 5, ejes a 90-. Didmetros prlmltlvos Iguales. Rueda 12dlenles Tg.

= -I = 90--

Relacl6n dL.los numeros de r. p. m. 'Relacl6~ de los dlometros prlmitivos .

30.00 12.50 35.00

.

)T,50

=

c;) =
-1-

2. (Ver lablas delangenles.)

<0.00

45,00
SO.OO 55.00 60.00 70.00 SO.OO 90.00 100,00 110,00 120.00 130.00 1<0.00 1SO.OO 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 200.00

..OOH'

.. 00 21' 39' 58' 3" 35'

o-w

<. 0' 3-36' 3'17' 3' 0' 2'3'" 2'15' 2' 0' t- <8' 1 39' 1'30' t- 23' 1'17' 1'12' t- 7' t- 3' 1- 0' 00 57'
0

"-2"

..• ..7'

Rueda 24 dlentes .1 = 90- - IS. Por tcnte, lendremos: Rueda de 12 clTentes63' 26' dngulo. Rueda de 24 dlentes 26' ]4' dngulo. la relacl6n del numero de r. p. m. de 10 prlmera rueda a 10 segundo. senS la 24 inversa de la de los nemeres de dlentes. 0 sea 12' Las demos caracteristlcas se calculO'f\1npor las f6rmulas generales. ~ Ruedas hellcoidales. con numere de dientes y dldmetros dlstlntos, dngulo de los ejes 90-. Calcular los dngulos de los dientes de dos ruedas de 30 y 36 dlentes, siendo 10 10 relacl6n del diametro de la prlmera a 10 segundo de 8 y el angulo de los ejes 90". 36 T Relad6n de los numeros de r. p. m. 9 Cl = Relacl6n de los did metros primltlvos (V~se lablas d. langentes.)
01:1=90--«;

Esta tabla simplifica la epereeten para eneentrer el valor en grados del dngulo de la hflice, pun basta dlvidlr el paso de la hfllce entre el dldmefro primitlvo y buscar en la tabla una eenndad igual al ceetente hallado. de la eual se leere el numerc de grados. EJEMPlO: Paso de la hehee: 800 mm, 800 Didmetro primitivo SO mm. = 16 11' 6'.

=

so-

=

4=56-19'; -193 -

4,=33-41'.

-192

-

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE RUEDAS HELICOIDALES CON EJES PERPENDICULARES

DE GIRO

CENTRADO

DE UNA

RUEDA

~D\,--~?J
R"edas lalladas o mono derecho.

t~ t~
~/,--tPRuedas lallodas a mano izquierda.

con la fresa en una maquina fresadora

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE GIRO DE LAS RUED~S A TORNILLO SIN-FIN

off

~J.~+))Ruedas lallados a mono izquierdo. Cuando dos ruedas helicoidales con ejes porolelos engranon enlre s], deben lallarse uno
0

Ruedas lalladas o mano derecho.

Derecha.

la

Izquierda.

derecha

y olra a la izquierdo.

-

194-

.

195 -

~r : ~I reducirse Para 2()O Nm = 17. teenco.." 2..~JtJAJt"'.° La dentadura helicoidal rior a 10 pii\6n.... venflccdo esta operaci6n se pasara !a rueda sobre un popel blanco y dejurd marcado en el mismo las huelles del dlente. del dnqulc de presion en los engranajes helic~idales: Nuevo velor Tang =~ cos ': (conocida). DP = N x ~.:. _ -. Reducci6n de la altura del diente (Dentadura «Stub»]..!es que deben seguirse para evitar la interferencia en los dientes Interierencia consiste se nembre a 10 figura que toman los dlentes 01 ser tallodos.. bastara el entintar ligeramente las cabezas de los dientes en su periferia utilizando un tcrmp6n de los empleados para sellos. con 10 cuol se cbtrene el Diente 51 bien en 10 prdcttcc puede sin .!!. Nm =-.Nm = 30.. AOgyb .. corresponderd al didmetro exterior de la rueda..... interferenctc.c.tomar por las huellas marcadas en el popel e! angulo de 10 heltce. con 10 cue! 20.. tendremos como volor teortcc 10 = Nurnero de dientes de tallarse. wando tolla con frese sin-fin por el procedimiento de generaci6n y en dentaduras rectcs. esto es. Se poede tom bien hallar e! M6dulo normal tomando como referencre 10 altura total del diente y comprobando despues el espesor «e» fljando el calibre especial para dientes con 10 altura L = M6dulo normal.>~'''~ .._- sene' ...~' Tg. F6rmulas auxiliares M6dulo normal M para comprobaci6n: ). P . marrodO fNID0D9I Ampliacion del angulo de presion. 10 cual permltird hcllur correctamente su dngulo. y solamente se nota la interferencia que determina la f6rmula 01 numerc =( y se adara que Nm pertenece y Paso de la hehce --+2 cos :r. AI . P = DP x rr X cotg :r... 1.. minimo que pue- de se-re. Sustituir 10 dentadura recta per 10 hehcotdu! permite reducir Nm x el numero rnlntmc de dientes de un cuando el numero de dientes es infeCOS'I ~:.. a 516 el numer c 0 -i~ resultado.Observacio!. por tanto.. 0 se puede proceder de Ires 1--__ ~"-~4. debiendo considerarse como epereeten previa. el angulo efectivo para las co rccteristicas del engranaje es el correspondiente 01 dldmetro prtrnmvo. Para evttcr un pirl6n qUE' 10 mterferencre en 10 tollo de debe conserver su altura nor- mal en los dlentes sigulente Nm f6rmuia: y fallado con fresc sin-fin Diente con interferencio.Nm = H. se procederd a realizar el trazado para determinar el valor del cingulo P'l grados segun los datos siguientes: en una sccevecrcn que se produce en el pie del dlente.___. DE 3..:..1 ~I dQ Ia he"C9 __ . lALLA DE ENGRANAJES CALCULO PARA RUEDAS HELICOIDALES cuando' se trata de tomar datos de una rueda como mUlstra 0 en estado deteriorada y que se Para determinar el angulo de los dlentes de uno rueda helicoidal cuando se dispone de muestra 0 modele.~ Para obtener el perfil del diente sin mterferenctc fcrrnes 1. Ampliaci6n = X DP --rg. resulta pore 15 Nm ~ 25 Y para rL"------=-'~. cos> 7 Dlstancia entre ejes de los ruedas = DP+ dp -~2-~' 196- -197 - . Paro 15.. minimo de dientes admisible para un engranaje con dentadura recta. N DE = (~+ ccs 1"t « 2) M... que el valor de ~ es Igual al ang·Jlo de mchncctcn del diente en el rueda helicoidal. C1 = Angulo de presion de 10 fresa. = " x DP.!__.=.. .

P = Distancia entre centros de los rod i II os = Paso de 10 cadena. Dp = Dicimetro primitivo... d = Dicimetro de los rodillos. III (I) .RUEDAS Y PINONES DE CADENA TIPO SIMPLE De = Dicimetro exterior. e . sen x T ang ~ = ----. A = Distancia entre centros de los rodillos. Di = Dicimetro interior. P Dp = sen 7.. III FORMULAS De = Dp + d. N = Nurnero de dientes. =-N--. Di = Dp-d.. B = Distancia entre ejes de los agujeros en el eslcbon de union.:::: (I) o e (I) ... TIPO DOBLE De = Dicimetro exterior.---- C Cl c .B.. . Di = Dicimetro interior. Dp = Dicimetro primitivo. (I) c E (I) U .. N = Nurnero de dientes.---.. 180" . A 198- + cos z w c - 199- . 180" N Dp = A sen ~ C Di = Dp-d. FORMULAS De~=Dp+d..

7.. De = Didrnetr c exterior. 1. = Angulo del primitivo.. at = VN' l~ - + '. Dp = Didmetro pnnunvo.41xN. del diente. t I I ENGRANAJES Y NUMERO CONICOS CON EJES A 900 DE DIENTES IGUALES ~I -8i I .'.. =~ = n M.x tg 8. - 200- -.'~.2_ Sen N 0 Tg"=N=OP· T x Cos . = Paso.41422M T Dp . EI 6ngulo del pie _. ~~ Angulo de 10 cabeza del diente.se cclculd per 10 tabla flnal de esto seccton.) + dp. 9 g! = 2 90 7 =. N Dp Tg = J[ = nx -.) FORMULAS M = !_ dp Dp = N x M. T 9 '.41422 Tg Ii = N 10 fresa RUEDA PINON M p dp de = = Modulo.707xDp F = (3. '~l = Angulo de 10 cobezc del diente. De 2c. I. P M=-::-=N= Dp De N+(lxCo". . NI = Nurner o de die nte s ImaglnurlO para ele qrr con que debe tallorse este Jue90 de engranajes. = '" = Angulo de espesor del drente. J = J x· c NI=1.) IoUIl lilli.) IoU"'IoU.1 . n dp x Sen n 0 c-F -- Y=0.~ = Angulo del prrrrutrvo..:~ Angulo del pie. Didmetro prtmttrvo. P = Paso. = Didmetro exterior.[ 90 + n' . .. :1 = Angulo del pie. at = Angulo de talla. n = Numero de dientes.Angulo de espesor = AT = Angulo de talla. de = (2M n=crp-' 2.= AT= VN' 1.707xL.201 - .) "iii "IiIlUlioUIGI ".Lllyl allalli. De = (2M x Cos ") + Dp. N = Numer c de dientes 71 ~. = . '.. n.~1 - _ 7.'· -"{t. It· _l__0/ d' DESIGNACION M = Modulo. de n+(2xCos)~)' _ FORMULAS De (=O. 1.