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ALCasillas

ALCasillas

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Published by: Edgar Saldaña on Nov 27, 2011
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A. L.

CASILLAS

DE TALLER

CAlCUlOS

ES PROPIEDAD

INTELECTUAL BY EDICIONES

DEL

AUTOR

CALCULOS

MAQUINAS
POR

DE TALLER

10

COPYRIGHT

«MAQUINAS"

PRINTED IMPRESO

IN SPAIN EN ESPANA

A. L. CASI LLAS

PR6LOGO

DEL AUTOR

La mas hermosa y noble de todas las labores humanas es la del sembrador en cualquiera de sus aplicaciones que suponga uti/idad para sus semejantes; asi se ha hecho con este pequeiio Iibro, una siembra fructifera que ha conducido y ayudado a muchos millares de hombres en su trabajo. Su autor hace un alto en el camino para meditar y considerar los frutos recogidos, sintiendose satisfecho de una labor que tallto ha sido agradecida por quienes en el campo del trabajo necesitaron de una mano conductora para seguir la ruta profesional, en la cual fue su guia este libro, asi como los demos Iibros complementarios que se han ido editando sucesivamente con un solo ideal: «AI servicio del Trabajo.» Veinticinco ahos cumpliendo una miston que no fue iniciada con Jines comerciales, sino impuesta por el sentido de la necesidad y el deseo de ayudar a quienes tenian que andar por el espinoso camino de la formacion profesional, solos, y separando las zarzas para poder pasar venciendo todas las dificultades que su falta de preparacion les imponia. Es un balance digno de todo examen, porque servir al trabajo. es servir a la mejor de las causas, puesto que este hace posible la existencia de una labor construct iva, y se convierte en el mas fuerte sosten de la sociedad, engrandeciendo las naciones. Agradezco muy de veras a cuantos con sus cartas, escritas unas en Espana y otras desde America, me alien tan a seguir, sus elogiosas frases y su agradecimiento es la mejor recompensa que por mi modesta labor puedo recibir; y por esto quiero dejar sentado el principio de que a ellos debo una -7-

gratitud sin llmites porque han sido Jos animadores de mis obras .. han tenido fe en el hombre desconocido, en el Profesor anonimo, logrando con ello que una poderosa fuerza impulsara y acrecentara esta labor hasta alcanzar el exito obtenido, Un cambio con referencia a tiempos pasados, seiiala el notable avance de la existencia tecnica fundamentado en las Escuelas de Formacion Profesional Industrial, estatales y de empresa, que unidos a los medios de la organizacion cientifica del trabajo, servirdn para que todos cuantos sientan un deseo de formarse profesionalmente, puedan hacerlo y trabajar plenamente capacitados siguiendo una racional tecnica, cumpliendo asi con un ineludible deber de hacer prosperos sus medios de vida, cuyo fundamento tiene su base en el. trabajo con un alto indice de productividad. Esta recomendacion en forma de consejo, no debe nunca olvidarse puesto que sera en el futuro el puntal de toda prosperidad, constituyendo un deber que a todos por igua/ nos obliga. La vida inactiva merced a la labor de otros ha terminado. A. L. CASILLAS

INDICE

DE
CAPiTULO

MATERIAS
PRIMERO
Tobias de 10 drversas. Cuadrados,

Equivalencias rnglescs a rnetrtccs. cubos, ralces. --- Desarrollo

ctrcunferencta.

Tobias Arcos.

CAPiTULO II tr+qonornetrtccs. - ResoJuciones del tri6ngulo cuerdas y flechos. - Elementos de Geometria. gravedad. - Palancas. CAPiTULO III Engranajes. CAPiTULO IV y diferencial para fresadoras. CAPiTULO V de rosccss - Tobias para CAPiTULO VI Sistema de conos. CAPiTULO
Herramientas

rectcnqulo, - Centres

de

Division

ordinaria

-

Posos diversos.

Sistema

general

roscado

en el torno.

VII

de corte en general.

Resistencia

de materiales

CAPiTULO VIII y tratamiento

termico.

CAPiTULO IX Peso y dalo~de maleriales. CAPiTULO
Datos generales. Transmisiones.

X
Elevccion de pesos.

CAPiTULO
Tablas de tolerancias

XI
Medicion.

en cjuste, -

Velocidades

CAPlwLO XII y avances. - Celculos AP~NDICE

de fcbrtcccion.

Reporccion

de outomovrles.

-

Ajustes

y

materiales.

-8-

-9-

Paginas

fNDICE
Pagin.

Cci.ncamos

A
Acerol (elecci6n de mate,ialel) •

herramientas • aleadOi para herramientcu • rapidos para herram ientas • crom e- nlquel de tratamiento cromo-nlquel de cementaci6n nlquel de cementaci6n • carbono d. cemen'aci6n. inoxidablel. • nlquel de trcitamiento. para resort ••• de frelas • » d. machos para roscar . Ajulte internacionall. S. A. agujero y eje unico AI.acion •• de diveflos metale s , Angulos de corte para cuchillas normales. » de corte para cuchillas «Widia» • Antifricci6n • Areas y dimenlionel de Ilguras planas. Aros de pilt6n 0 6mbolo • Arcol, Ilechas y cuerdas para radio I Aumento para piezas a rectillcar Autom6vil .. (reparaci6n). » ,. » ,. ,. » ,. ,. » Afllado

» »

01 carbono 01 carbona

para para

maquinaria

438 439 +to 445 445 441 442 442 442 44] 44] +46 341 -]8] ]07 523 - 55] 448-452
]]9

Calculos de fabricacion Calibres pianos 0 gal gas «Block" . » interiores y exteriores (exactitud). » interiores y exteriores (desgaste). » para roscas (errores y exactitud). » Pie de Rey (Iectura en millmetrol y pulgadas) . Calor y potencias calor Iiicas. » latente de fusi6n • » latent. de YoporizQci6n Camones 0 levas, fresado. . Cargas, equivalencic en toneladas, en libral y en kilo"ramos . Cargas que pueden soportar los tornillol y tuercas • Centros de gravedad . » protegidos para torn ear piezQS
Cemenlacion CinemciticQ. •

521 587 - 626 554 - 555 558 559 - 560 561 - 567 569 - 571 71 79 79 639 - 642 423 - "]4 457 1..2- 144 502 <461 - .. 65 48 503 - 50.. 505 "17· ..20 ..2 .. - .. 3..
409

452 130- 1]5 51] - 516 117 - 1:20 609 629-630

Chave.as «Woodruff» y normales . » solidas con die"tes multiples. Cifras de dureza «Rockwell» y «Brinell». ». de durezQ «Rockwell». «Brinel!». «Shore», . Cinceles y buriles para maquina y mano .
ClasificQcion Columnas de aceros para

«Vickers»

y

piezQs de Qutomovil

B
Barretps 0 pro betas • Bro<al, angulol de alliado, defectos, equivalencia construcci6n 421 -422 y datos de 371 - 379

de agUQ y mercurio . Conos, celeule general, «Morse». «Me'rico», «Brown & Sharp», «Ingle~», casquillos. Contraccion lineal, superficial y cubica. . Conversion. Tablas de equivalencia entre los sistemas metrico e ingles • Comparacion de temperaturas .

6]5 - 636 7..
]09 -

324 455

c
Cabezas universales Cables metalicos Cadenas. • de la freladora «Hure». 264-265 5:20 511 - 519

Correas trapezoidales. . Cuadrados. cubas, raices, circunferencia Cubicacion de material . Cuerdas de cDilamo . Cuchillas para tornos y acepilladoras . » para cizollas » para roscar y metodos Cuila.

yarea .

"9-69 70-71 637 - 638 11-45 500 522 326 - 363 408 290 - 295 1..5

-

10

II

D
Oep6sitos Dlamantes Dilatacl6n ctlfndrtccs, reststenclc moeles a 10 presi6n de esmerll. interior para retornear cublca. Iineal......... • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Paglnas
456 398

P6.ginas

G
Galgas: «Imperial Standard», «Birmingham», Sharp», para elembre, chapa y fleje . Geometda: elementos. • Grados decimales en minutos y segundos . Groved ad (centros) . «Brown & 65-66 130- 141 116 142- l+f

»
Dlncimlca. Dlvlsi6n

ordinaria y dffereeere! en los cabezales de las mciqulnas fresadoras. • • . • . . • • • • • • • • •. • Divisor tlpo de mesa (relacl6n 1/60 -l/SO -1/120 -l/lSO) . Dlvlsl6n de /0 creeonrerencre en N partes Iguales • • •

78 453 048 223 -249 250-257 121

L
Leetura de manometros . Levas 0 cam ones. fresado. limas, datos de caracterrsticas Lubricantes de corte . 75 639 - 642 404- 407 61" - 62

E
Ejes 0 arboles para transmlsiones • • • • • Eleccl6n de mcfterlales

Elementos para elevacl6n de pesos. • • • • • • Engranaje;s. (6rmulas generales s/m6dulo y dlametral • » «~rltish Standard». • » «BostOCk& Bramley». » c6nicos..... » hellcoldales.... » lntertcres y cremallera » ruedas y pUiones para cadena » tornillo sln·fin y su rueda. • » trazado. reslstencla y medlcl6n • » Juego de (resas Simples Equlvalenclas de fracciones here Escariadores c6nlcos. • •

511 438 - 452 517 - 522 1048-155
156 157 -160

LL
Llaves para tuertas • 512

200-m
190-197

M
Machos para roscas (afolado). . Manometros Mandrinos para taladros y sus cuchillas Medici6n (elementos) . Metales (aleaciones): eluminie, duraluminio, cupronfquel, brence, laton. etc .• Micr6metros (Iectura). Minutos y segundos en decimates de grado Momentos de inercia y resistencia Muelas de esmeril. MueUes . 307 75 380 - 382 554 - 576 metal monel, +f8 - 452 568 - 570 116 458 - 460 392 - 400 446 - +f7

199
198 1114-188

161-182 170 623 325 67 - 69 435 - 437 643 325 158-162 163 639- 642 364 - 370

F
Fadores de conversl6n Inglesa a m~trlca Yviteversa » de segurldad en el trabaJo de los metales • F6rmulas generales para dlmenslones de conos. Fracciones de hora • Fresado helicoidal • » de dlentes por los lados » de camones 0 levas. • Fresas. dimenslones normales . » mad res para engranajes rectos y helicoidales » mad res para ruedas a tornillo sin-fin. » simples.•• Frlgorlfocas (mezclas). • •

p
Palancas. . Pasadores c6nicos. Peso de piezCISfundidas segun su mold.., . Peso espedfico. Gt6mico, etc. • Peso ., datos d. materiGles, tubas. GIGmbres, chapcu, bo.rras de cliYersos perfiles, to....illos, tvercas. remach_, etc. Periiles ...... inodOi en""lIular U Y v;lI_ 146 325

183 189
180 80

eo

454

12-

-13 -

Formulas y frenes de ruedos 615-617 127 . » «Almirontozgo Brifanico ADM. Torneado de precisi6n Tornillo. » con sus tuereGS Y orandelas Tornillos. 1'»1 bicicletas y rnotocieletas . foctores..509 ·629 . Paginos 129 145 147 n-74 454 408 Roscodo plono . y kilogramos Resortes. Reaumur. .115 70-71 627 145 277 457 510 122 . Roblones.. ROlcodo con cuchillo en el terne.». 76 77 47 . » de agUQ recalen.Sierras .ador «Universal» . » metricQ internacional .. Reglos d. » tropezoidol «Acme» y «Metrico» » cuadrado • » redonda. Rosco (defectos. l!) en el torno.633 410 . cargal que pueden loportar. Ruedos • 306 506 . 622 401-403-601 R Refriaeracio" de herramientas Reglo de senos.quinos . Triongulo rectangulo (soluciones) 50. Remoches . A.. medicion y formulos) . Poleo diferenciol Pol. » «Shorp (V.n . Presiones . Tranlmisiones .os .51 81 . Velocidades para muelas de esmeril » para ma. » «British Stondord» poro tubos de cobre » «Loewenherz» para mecQnicQ fina y opticQ » para engrasadores «Stauffer» .141 -14~ - 15- .416 424-434 446 -447 550-551-634 268 . libra.128 586 506 .herramientas. E.48 392 587 577 554 .Paginos Pi (n).567 136.. Punto de fusion y color Punzonado. Stondord» poro outomoviles .ado . E. Transpor.126 5n v Vapor de agUQ saturado . » «C.509 147 5 Solarios tipos «Rowan» y «Halsey» . Verificaci6n de maquincu-herramientas J) de colibres Volumen de solidos . Rodamientos Q bolas y rodillos • . A.305 T Toblos de convenion de pulgodos 0 milfmetros Toblos trigonometricos (paginos omorillos) . ResistenciGS de cargQl en toneladas.276 278 279 2BO 2BO 281 2B2 284 284 285 286 286 2ff1 2ff1 2BB 289 2BB 289 292-296 297 . » «S. nivelor .» . » «Brigg» para tubos . Fahrenheit. » inglesQ «Whitworth» . » americana «Standard» » «British Association B. » suizQ «Progress» para reloies . E. F. Temperaturas: CenUgrado. E.» » para builas de Qutomoviles » «Edison» para lam paras electricGS. . de sierra.. Reparacion de Qutomoviles Resistencia de materialas.spirol. Velocidod ongulor.) V.271 2n-273 274. » dien'.

1If. 'lllIDR YOSI&. sa qIDlIlI OLLeCOnSlIGRlIn osszr -17- .I~O SllBLlme IDISlon.c l-tOmBK8 De ~BlIJQ 11IDS ~~pueBros.D6DICll~OKIll.

7084 2041.732 43.7446 3.4662 2.814 3.1854 8.9791 4.832 153. 256 289 314 _3~ 400 49 1 64 I 81: 100 I 343! 2.1414 :3.4200 125.01 ~~~:~~ I' 75.I 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 r.7417 3. 12S00<J__+~~~~ ! 3~84O_.2462 8.555 615.274 2.8171 I 12.3.715 201.283 9.920 572.92/3117.0000 .708 I 19.68 216.72 148877 7.3852 II 3. r- ~-~!!-l---~~!·r~:illf I~~3~~~ r-~:~~~.18 103823 110592 117649.9365·-17.539& 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 25 26 27 28 29 JO 31 32 33 -~..07 197.0686 I +-1 6 7 8 9 16: 25 36 64 125 216 1..8310 5.14 i I 16Oi2! i I 1 4913 -w.141.6811 i ~.iOnT9.673 754.0000 8.2801 3.5034 3.8845 5.2.6:4 68921 74088 79507 85184 :~~~~ 6.6173 78.19 ·1 ~:~~:~_ ~~!~: I~_ 961 1014 1089 29791·--1 5.~~~~~~~:~~~:~::.389 490.567st3.0000 1000--13.53 ~:!:~~ : ~~~:~ I I 1385.~9 1352~.248 855.6332 3.000093731' 3.94 I .3246 I 3.35 8 1 8.9161 6. 169! 196 225.4772! I II 3.681 84. 3721 3844 3969 4096 4225 ~~~ 157464' 166375 175616 7. 2.7563 i 166.4807 6.2599.4845 50..'--·~-~-··l·f~~n~~:m t~E !~:m 59..94 6.8730 : 4.09 10 11 12 13 I. 13824 15625 17576 i I 4.752 _ 729 784 I 84~_1 --rl.s~ 132651 I 7.299 .938 176.8284 729 3. 1764' 1849 1936 ~~~~: II 6.9625 I.65 213.381 i 1134.7854 3.4101 2.239 I 1075.9240 5.79 I 2375..0801 128.2361 2.1623 1.8557 3.27000 .7321 2.097 907. n Cuedrado Cubo cubes.540 81.2396 /' 106. i I._.6350 18.529 314~~ I I 'I 3.8259 I 169.141 6.!l_ I 219.11 .0000 I ..._~.~_.531 35937 I 5.3019 113..6593_J .1 7.416 38.:!~ .1240 4.4482 3.2450 .2426 I 2.982! 47.59 6.062 226.91·1 3848. 150.5664 15..469 283.1644 I 3.93 2463.3666 i 4.3513 2.0828! 3.88 1 4: 9' 4 5 1 8 27 'I 1.2.566 I 12.65 I 2290.991 2.874 530.400() 6.656913.4760 3.20 3318.WO-' .3485 i 3.6342.980 254.78 I 3019.25 201.3589 .407 56.1748 100.~Et' 1'1120:25 128.6207 _ 6859 4.20 6.0207 8.23 i 1520.0000 3.768 804. ·31.: 1809.44 1452.1231 .9282 3.5198 40.81 131.22 172.0623 4.0723 I i I ' II ! i 226981 238328 250047 262144 27462S 287496 I ! /. 2123.3620 i 119. 210.47 194.1016 i 8.66 1256.77 3739.8990 I 2.4031 6.~ • 3..1962 21952 ±5.6684 4.36 . I : 19683 I 5.65 I 1734.63 3631.5574 6.7460 4 7.1544 .7144 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 576 625 676 .21 6.83 175.823 87.45 -18- -19- .7325: 163. + I II i I 1 ::~~~~ 138.5303! ~:~~~~.50 2206.389 32768 5.4i-9"7.0990 2.1416 7.80. rakes 1 I I Ralz cuadrado n 34 Cuadrado Cuba Raizl cuadrado longitud de circunferencia y area de los drculos I I i Roll cubiCQ 1 I I Longitud jCifCUnf4!renCiQ Areo 35 36 37 38 39 40 1156 1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 I I I I Rail ccbrce longitud Circunferentlal .31 207.841 I 132.8030 7.4162 I 3. 6.6088! 147.133 2.549 62.0000 1.398 78.0412 I I 18 5 .0615 4. ~~:: ii r-.690 _ 8000 t I' 2209 2304 2401 2500 2601 2704 2809 2916 3025 3136 : ! 2197 2744 3375 4096 I 3..82 140608 7.0000 1.50 191.3912 ._I !i Area 39304 42875 46656 50653 54872 59319 5.2111 : 3.99 204." 4624 4761 I 300763 314432 328509 II 4900:-343000 8.106 452.g.0000 I i 3.56 7. ~ 1963.4721 12.4422 3. I 2.4142 1.8102 I 3.965 91.7100' 1.2743 .9579: 87'.425 0.850 I 28.5713 5832 4.2655 63.194.Cuadrados.8740 3.06 3216.4833 3.124 50.2915 24389_ 5.:~3~+ 7.4~-"706~858 660~~ 5. 1.0817 4. 153.2711 109.35 3421.1213 r i I.113 j 1017.6458 512 2.5874 i 1.4495 1.3322 I 116.0000 2.6056 2.920 962. 1681. I I E.2075 103.64 I 2922.0000 i ~.95 135.3066 4.7798! 7.I 1.1885.956 1 3.9129 I 21.0366 .265 53.

50 4185.8910 4.6261 4.9164 11.31 298.6416 4.6723 4.9461 4.3 10751.28 364.0133 5.l41O 10.8629 4.0454 11.2195 '9.75 263.2956 4.3795 4.0 12667.7027 4.89 267.0000 9.62 238.7326 I 223.8 1S614~15836.33 254.50 5808.55 5153.02 314.5326 11.._ I 14102.5830 10.86 355.3089 4.29 8494.70 395.9 11882.1408 4.05 226.9597 4.8318 8.1171 S.19 229.03 10028.4868 9.3 10935.91 6939.14 6361.8 I 27_ 286llaI l924207 18113221 I 1157615 1191016 i I 111.1045 5.1172 5.8 13892.15 339.0397 5.67 5026.4891 11.0 13069.7898 .69 7853.42 367.85 8171.88 9331.48 235.5917 9.6301 10.14 361.6503.88 289.2250 11.0 11689.3578 11.»18 5.60 282.7750 8.3137 11.O1 3959.4853 8.7468 9.1104 9.83 420.9443 9.4979 4.2694 11.58 326.6619 i 11.3968 4.0554 9.9 10568.78 7088.99 380.2 13478.8995 9.5468 4.28 8332.8770 4.5307 4.5758 11.9087 10.3 12076.0528 5.19 4071.7 10207.2727 4.1983 4.71 373.1299 5..81 7542.7 15393.26 430.55 414.0000 5.22 7238.7178 8.1980 10.6954.bo I Ralz cuadrado Ralz cubico j Longitud icircunferencio Area 5041 5184 5329 5476 5625 5776 5929 357911 373248 389017 405224 421875 438976 456533 474552 493039 512000 531441 551368 571787 592704 614125 636056 658503 681472 704969 729000 753571 778688 804357 8305&4 857375 8&4736 912673 941192 970299 1000000 1030301 1061208 1092727 1124864 8.5394 9.86 4536.9866 5.6 14313.1803 11.59 304.27 386.90 245.8167 10.7914 4.84 4417.18 273.0658 5.0000 10.0265 5. 9..8059 4.4814 4.6437 9.63 4778.77 5674.2172 4.6875 4.5789 4.89 9852.8346 4.7047 111.01 8824.87 8659.57 370.7475 4.4310 4.0905 11.1426 5.9 11122.27 408.17 295.7177 4.0499 10.0788 5.68 6082.42 389.6104 4.8 13273.7980 9.8488 4.229l i i +fl.4881 10.69 417.12 427.61 5541." 449.80 5944.4340 9.88 311.7 12868.7238 10.9 14526.82 +46.73 329.97 424.0000 11.1 15174.13 383.73 .29 34M3 345.32 276.19 251.J.15 lQ16O.3445 4.4261 8.87 311.6570 4.4647 4.96 7697.8628 10.9 i I I 6084 6241 I i 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 6400 6561 6724 6889 7056 7225 7396 7569 7744 7921 8100 8281 i .54 436.98 8011.1676! 5.68 439.6 -20- -21- .85 376.02 9160.32 9503.61 6792.12 6221.1 14957.1793 4.4455 11.00 5281.5144 4.8743/ 11.4403 10.47 257.3808 9.73 307.44 323.4018 11. 336.7769 4.8882 8.1602 4.1801 5.8 12469.8489 9.2543 4.73 11449 11664 11881 12100 12321 12544 12769 12996 13225 13456 13689 13924 14161 1#00 14641 14884 15129 15376 15625 15876 16129 16384 16641 16900 17161 17424 17689 17956 18225 1&496 18769 190# 19321 1'HOO 1~1 20164 1II+f9 1225043 1259712 1295029 1331000 1367631 1404928 1442897 1481544 1521>875 1560896 1601613 1643032 1685159 1728000 1771561 1815848 1860867 1906624 1953125 2000376 2048383 2097152 2146689 2197000 2248091 2299968 2352637 2406104 2460375 2515456 2571353 2628072 2683619 10.72 351.3621 4.76 241.0995 10.6771 10.n 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Cua· drado Cube Ralz cuadrado Raiz cubica [ Longilud iCircunferencia Area n 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 Cuedrodo C.7 14741.2736 9.8203 4.12 405.9049 4.0 10386.5629 4.56 392.11 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 8464 8649 8836 I i ! I I 902S 9216 9409 9604 9801 10000 10201 10404 10609 10816 11025 11236 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 I .40 433.34 232.45 301.6603 8.74 285.0 11309.5357 10.1489 10.2 136&4.88 6647.3441 10.46 4656.32 9676.04 270.&4 398.2908 4.5440 8.23 7389.36 4901.3267 4.6190 11.61 260.04 248.4140 4.oJ 292.3 12271.7622 4.9583 5.7703 10.#80 4.8322 4.7473 11.16 317.9187 4.9499 10.1925 j .1551 5.9545 11. I 358.6023 8.58 348.46 279.1652 9.9324 4.39 4300.01 5410.3274 9.9732 4.3923 10.41 411.30 320.0916 5.1355 11. 11. ) .5947 4.7 11499.2358 4.00 I 8992.98 402.

5 26302.5602 14.58 40000 40401 800000O 8120601 8242408 8365427 40804 41209 41616 42025 42436 42&49 43264 43681 44100 44521 44944 45369 45796 46225 46656 32047.6357 5.0 20867.2536 5.2127 14.2474 12.2 33653.4499 12.6147 5.1 33006.4 39204 39601 622.7477 13.8 30171.5 24605.22- -23- .1 22431.9 28652.50 524.4848 5.9 29255.2829 14.18 628.5 33979.0000 14.9250 5.3693 5.7 24884.94 512. 4657463 4741632 4826809 4913000 5000211 5088448 5177717 5268024 5359375 5451776 5545233 5639752 573~339 21904.1 36305.0 _.6382 13.23 496.9 ! !.8868 5.5613 5.6041 5.9345 5.unferencia Area 20736 21025 21316 21609 21904 22201 1 1-22500 29859&4 12.21 540.0 36643.7 35298.0830 12.79 530.80 508.52 480.&480 5.5300 12.2415 5.4061 5.50 546.8924 13.8285 5.89 25_.3 27171.3 29559.5 16971.78 552.4164 13.95 490.4 26015.59 659.2665 ~--- 534.73 662.7 19855.65 .0 16741.3875 14.-'-':--'-:- 25600 -.9721 5.8964 5.17 650.7083 5.38 477.__ 505.6774 5.5178 5.0 22167.4900 12.9228 12.8564 13.88 644.9439 5.32 631.7840 13.04 625.19 5&4.61 615.3251 5.0712 14.4 18626.5 30790.4514 5.22 518.2 19113.5934 5.93 I I 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 6859000 6967871 7077888 7189057 73013&4 7414875· 7529536 7645373 7762392 7880599 12.6 27464.44 678.02 669.5069 5.7287 5.4401 5.04 603.37 499.5647 13.8.5288 5.0357 14.4 33329.9627 5.4737 5.4626 5.2896 5.8771 5.90 600.35 543.6 31415.64 549.74 640.67 461.2776 5.31 653.6671 5.3485 5.05 581.0000 565.9907 6.7671 12.76 596.33 609.2 21124.6 27759.5945 14.39 16286.2 26590.5 32685.6252 5.7690 5.06 559.9 31730.6491 12.9814 5.8675 5.08 51!.9 25730.-'-_ 22965.6969 5.9155 5.07 537.30 675.4907 13.6629 14.5 18869.0000 3048625 3112136 3176523 3241792 3307949 3375000 3442951 3511808 3581577 3652264 3723875 3796416 3869893 3944312 12.7113 13.1655 12.1 34966.6877 5.65 527.88 666.81 486.1421 14._-_----5.4288 20106.92&4 13.4.3178 1.7 -1_ 32400 32761 33124 33489 33856 34225 34596 34969 35344 35721 36100 36181 36864 37249 37636 38025 3&416 38809 5832000 5929741 6028568 6128487 : 13.8383 5.53 458.6015 13.24 474.845'2 12.5 17907.6 17671.8186 5.7790 5.2066 12.1244 12.4.2478 14.77 574.0 34636.3 20612.91 578.1 28055.96 468.36 521.8841 12.5721 5.35 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 24052. 23235.5 21642.63 571.6095 --- 24025 24336 24649 24964 25281 I I I 5.6980 5.4 17436.7489 5.7989 5.1067 14.49 568.3015 ~455.5258 14.0 16513.8 22698.5277 13.3947 ---- 471.3288 12.4097 12.4536 13.1 21382.--~-~ ----25921 26244 26569 26896 27225 27556 27889 28224 28561 12.3133 _--.20 562. icircunferencioi Area n 180 181 182 183 1&4 185 186 187 188 189 Cuadrado Cube Rob cuadrado Ralz cubicQ Longitud circ.8203 13.3527 14.10 I 452.2882 12.6 25164.7388 5.4959 5.5828 5.2 --- 20358.4 19359.6567 5.3832 5.92 556.2656 5.5 1---' 28900 f---- 29241 29584 29929 30276 30625 30976 31329 31684 32041 .3791 I '.5 34307.6287 14.4914 14.6748 13.7590 5.46 634.7 31102.6462 5.8 18385.34 587.75 4019679 4096000 4173281 4251528 4330747 4410944 4492125 4574296 I .7 8489664 8615125 8741816 8869743 8998912 9129329 9261000 9393931 9528128 9663597 98003+4 9938375 10077696 ----- 1~~~~4_ 13.2 23778.6886 12.2 28352.5698 12.19 606.0767 13.47 612.16 672.2 23506.7 17203.. lSI 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 --IT~!l' 23409 23716 5.4 26880.0000 ---_-5.9642 14.5397 5.51 502.8 24328.09 493.0416 12.3417 13.33&8 5.1149 13.1909 13.81 464.7890 5.9615 13.3041 13.62 593. .7279 12.3 19606.03 647.3601 5.45 656.8578 5.3717 5.7185 5.9533 5.8088 5.1529 13.5505 5.2 29864.8062 12.9 I 6229504 6331625 6434856 6539203 6644672 6751269 I .4568 14.1 28952.1774 14.60 637.2288 13.n 1+4 145 146 147 148 149 150 Cuedrado Cuba Raiz I cuadrado I I Raiz cublco 'Longitud •. 13.9059 5.9 18145.75 618.9 30480.7 35968.48 590.4 32365.4222 14.9 35632.66 483.

1658 15.2 54739.96 801.1358 6.83 775.4553 ~4633 6. 37668.9 45616.5 57680.41 766.5 60262.68 794.42 744.66 838.0614 16.1245 16.27 741.4312 6.56 747.8 60698.0822 6.5 43005.7797 15.n 217 218 219 drodo 47089 47514 47961 48400 48841 49284 49729 50176 50625 51076 51529 51984 52441 52900 53361 53814 54289 54756 55225 55696 56169 56644 5712) Cue- I Cubo Roiz cuodrado I Rcl.3 42638.5 47529.64 904.1 41187.0 62901.3330 6.6 43743.6525 15.6205 15.0185 6.22 873.0732 6.6733 16.85 731.81 841.7631 16.14 829.65 882.8 40115.2743 6.35 898.5187 6.5499 6.4792 6.4151 6.9 58534.14 716.38 832.9332 14.2658 6.0'112 6.36 876.7332 16.8 40828.09 848.1446 6.8661 14.1 39408.9 58964.0459 6.6 37325.9687 16.96-823.69 772.3095 16.circuriferencia LC"9'I.3080 6.5265 6.39 810.1327 15.0277 6.13 738.3247 I 681.3743 6.2 56410.87 688.5 49087.3948 15.08 870.2488 6.6844 15.5343 6.8819 16.8745 15.6115 I I I 797.98 757.67 816.7 45996.9060 6.- 15.8430 15.2643 15.2573 6.92 50670.cvcd-edc ! i I Raiz cublca loogitud circunferencia Area 10218313 10360232 10~03459 1Q6oI8O()() 10793861 10'141048 11089567 11239414 11390625 11543176 I 14.40 788.26 785.3496 6.6433 16.95 845.0641 6.6 no 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 64516/ 65025 65536 66049 66564 67081 67600 68121 68644 69169 69696 70225 70756 71289 71824 72361 72900 73441 73984 74529 75076 75625 76176 76729 77284 77841 78400 78961 79524 80089 80656 81225 81796 82369 82944 83521 16387064 16581375 16777216 16974593 17173512 17373979 17576000 17779581 17984728 18191447 18399744 1860'1625 188210'16 1904316) 19248832 19465109 196Qj000 19902511 20123648 20346417 20570824 20796875 21014576 21253933 21484952 21717639 21952000 22188041 22425768 22665187 22906304 23149125 23393656 23639903 23887872 24137569 .3 .43 700.37 854.5421 6.11 782.5808 6.55 769.0000 16.5 65144.4596 15.6 41909.0997 15.50 879.72 706.1 46377.3825 6.1797 6.986 14.9 54325.0 46759.1864 16.2403 6.0000 15.7 51070.5654 6.15 694.3401 16.5 47143.5 38013.1 65597.3661 6.4872 6.9 51874.2173 16.4 64692.1972 6.d ! Area n 254 255 256 257 258 259 C.1 63794. ccbtcc I.1 41547.0 ~8.29 697.94 867.0312 16.4232 6.9411 16.2 61575.2315 15.8997 14.4 56832.7480 15.12 760.6 38707.2231 6.9115 16.93 889.82 36983.1987 15.8 63347.6 55571.730'1 14.28 719.3164 6.57 725.58 703.4 49480.3707 16. 14.1555 16.3 43373.9 49875.6 39057.:4621 16.00'12 6.53 813.3297 15.9374 15.07 892.c· drado ! I i Cube Rctz 1.4473 6.8 52279.5030 6.10 826.8226 16.7 61136.5962 6.2 160 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 170 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 11697083 11852352 12008989 12167000 12326391 12487168 12649337 12812904 12977875 13144256 13312053 13481272 13651919 13824000 13997521 14172488 14348907 14526784 14706125 14886936 15069223 15252992 15438149 15625000 15813251 16003008 16194277 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 140 141 242 143 244 145 246 141 248 249 I I ru.65 860.2145 6.7648 14.2481 16.86 710.6 59395.0 64242.2828 6.9 53502.5831 16.8324 .8 62458.1885 6.79 885.9706 17.4 48305.25 807.2912 6.1 53912.8114 15.3579 6.3988 6.2 62015.51 857.81 819.84 753.2996 6.54 791.3907 6.0333 15.52 835.4272 15.3 38359.2317 6.5731 6.6132 16.2788 16.4951 6.5227 16.2 57255.99 735.8523 16.80 863.11 804.70 750.1180 6.6 42273.4317 I moo 58081 58564 59049 59536 60025 60516 6100'1 61504 62001 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 150 251 252 253 -.4 58106.0'135 16.27 763. 61'00 63001 63504 6400'1 ~2"- - 25- .1 44862.6039 6.5885 6.1534 6.3623 15.1622 6.7 45238.73 684.78 907.3413 6.01 691.7162 15.2 52685.5885 15.23 851.1 48695.0665 15.0000 16.0368 6.5108 6.71 728.2058 6.4713 6.1 55154.1710 6.5577 6.50 901.1002 6.3 530'12.5142 15.2971 15.5 44115.4012 6.1.97 779.7033 16.00 713.42 722.5 51471.4924 16.9666 15.5563 15.9 50272.5529 16.1 39760.4919 15.7 59828.0 40470.4070 6.6 55990.4393 6.1269 6.10'11 6.7929 16.2 47916.21 895.0550 6.

7240 6.0740 7.8113 6.1 1071.6494 6.8185 6.0 1090.9727 6.18 983.9 91863.19 961.1138 7.03 1002.7387 6.66# 6.0 98979.0203 7.6 1014.3 1008.3781 17.6 1102.2 1005.9 80424.0 1134.7 90792.88 999.0271 7.0 102".2337 17." 1077.62 948.6191 6.1 1093.4356 17.1006 7.1756 17..2 66052.7824 6.8964 6.0278 18.04 980.4929 17.77 929.9244 6.3 92401.7166 6.7 98423.1172 17.4662 18.5 74023.1335 Ralz longltud circunferencia Area 24389000 24M2171 24897088 25153757 25412184 25672375 25914336 26198073 26463592 26730899 27000000 27270901 27543608 27818127 2809~ 28372625 28652616 2893~3 29218112 29503629 29791000 30080231 30371328 30664297 30959144 31255875 31554496 31855013 32157432 32461759 32768000 33076161 33386248 33698267 3401222 .7679 6.9165 17.9 86049.8 1109.1659 18.0607 7.6 72583.4 69279.7018 6.0587 17.8612 6.74 995.7606 6.8045 17.5784 17.7897 6.0 1068.0 1046.7832147 330 331 332 333 314 335 336 337 338 339 18.75 973.0526 1027.9 79"22. 14328125 34M5976 17.9104 6.5"72 18.8 97314.1914 18.5882712 46268279 46656000 .1384 18.3 85012.2627 17.0 97867.8149 18. 1781923 .3 1074.3 1052.6569 6.0294 17.7752 6.6 1036.6143 6..9521 6.46 989.2 1049.19 939.7313 6.0831 18.5 112"." 1033.9~ 17.7045881 .0000 7.9"73 18.0 82957.9 881"1.3 89196.7 78923.3 1030." 1121.7 68149.6419 6.8 82448.6794 6. 355 356 357 358 359 99225 99856 100489 101124 101761 102400 103041 103684 104329 104976 105625 106276 123904 124609 125316 126025 126736 127449 128164 128881 129600 130321 no 321 322 323 324 325 326 360 361 362 363 131~ 131769 - 26- -27 - . 911.0 90258. 1063625 41421736 .7764 17.9932 7.0406 7.n 190 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 ]GO Cua- drede 84100 &4681 85264 85849 86436 87025 87616 Cubo Ralz cuadrado Ralz ccbtce longitud circunferenda Area n 327 328 329 Cuadrado Cubo Ralz cuadrado coerce 6.0338 7.9658 6..7 1105.3 68813.7 1083.9014 6.0674 7.06 914.0068 7.7 87092.0 66508.6815 18.6 67886.4069 17." 1055.49 923. 3243551 .7 1017.3848 18.8894 6.9382 6.6 1080.3030 18.7437928 .2 69746.0873 7."932 18.6352 17.0 74506.6 1058.04 958..7 83469.0540 7.9 1043.6943 6.0555 6.48 945..9313 6.63 926.8753 6.7083 18.61 970.2 81939.9 1065.9737 19.2 67425.6267 6.91 933.5 70215.8 71157.3 96761.8885 17..8414 18.~108 18.3303 18.89 977.0000 19.4 73061.8328 6.3 92940.2916 17.0940 7.7533 6.7460 6.6635 17.1 1137..6719 6.2 81433.7350 18.1204 7.1 1115.9451 6.8 99538.5203 18...7 1061.5214 17.90 955.5 72106.47 967."120 18..7 1127.1269 7.8680 18.9174 6.33 964.2 100098 100660 101223 101788 102354 102922 103491 IIIl804 89401 88209 90000 90601 91204 91809 92416 93025 93636 94249 948M 95481 96100 96721 97344 97969 98596 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 340 3.8683 6.85"1 6.05 936.3 66966.6548 18.7 77437.32 986.9 1021.8 ~96.0 87615.9 95662.3 96211.3205 17.1 78426.9864 6..0807 7.9209 18.. 3614208 43986977 44361864 44738875 45118016 45499293 .8606 17.0 74990.4 70685.3 85529.8 1131.57"2 18.4391 18.7482 17.8 1087..6279 18.35 920. 1 108900 109561 11022 .1 77931..5 76453.0263 19.3576 18. 110889 111556 112225 112896 113569 114244 114921 115600 116281 116964 117649 118336 119025 119716 120409 121104 121801 122500 123201 14965783 35287552 35611289 35937000 36264691 3659 .0 1112.0 86569.3 1096.0880 17.7617 18.2757 18. 1 H2 H3 344 3.8 76944.5499 17.8041 6.9589 6.9 93482.8 80928.6 75476.5 346 H7 348 149 350 351 352 353 35 .60 992.3494 17..6011 18.5 1011.9722 18.2047 17.882 .0 9402".8326 17.6 79922.2144192 "2508549 42875000 .6068 17.14 942.8944 18.3 88668..0473 7.6918 17.7 9"569.0 9511".7 1039.8 75964.76 951.1072 7.0136 7.3 1140.7883 18.8399 6.9 89727.8256 6. 368 36926037 37259704 37595375 37933056 38272753 38614472 38958219 39304000 39651821 40001688 40353607 40707584 .0000 18.0 91326.6869 6.10 917.4 1099.2209 18.7 73541.14M 17.9795 6.4M2 17.0 106929 107584 1082 .7092 6.4 83981.9 71631.8470 6.3 1118.2483 18.7969 6..7200 17.

4 1253.8 7.2999 ~11_88_4_7 I ~~~~i~ ~i~~: ~ii~i 123163 123786 124410 125036 7.0 1335. 7.2368 ~~:.-:1.9499 119."-2--t-::11::-94::.8 12~.2048'.2"354·r7~116~.~ 12.6398 20.3961 20.3803 7.3 1363.5~9.3224 132025 132670 133317 133965 134614 135265 135918 136572 137228 137885 138544 139205 139867 54010152 54439939 : 19.--59.3558 7.:.3310' 7.7846 20.2240 7.4695 20.8 1262.2177 I 20.5448 .1742 20.1984 :t8s5t.4206 20.7 1350.2 1272.4350 128825 129462 130100 130741 131382 65. 1400 .2 1206.8 1175.1 I I 7.3132 139876 140625' 141376 I I.5007 1"7"56 •• 148225 148996 149769 150544'.-8 .6 1259.4229 7.4679 7.3 1275.3864 7.5 1322.9 7.6214 19.2 108103 108687 109272 11~~~ 111036 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 ! i I 19.8 1306.0499 20.3470 20.4422 19.'_-+'-:5~06":5~30'000=--t--. I 54872000 55306341 55742962 56181887 56623104 57066625 57512456 57960603 58411072 58863869' \ 19.7605 20.!i913 20.9 1266.5 ~~::~ II 1Q.3186 7.4062 1CJo4635 105209 7.2 1250.5185 7.77.8 1284.4410 7.1246 20.6 1281.5770 7.0749 20.4530 7.3619 I 1231.. .5828 149301 .5 1300.0998 20.4470 7.5654 7.21000 69426531 69934528 20.9 1200..8087 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 156025 156816 157609 158404 159201 I 63044792 63521199 19.4710 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 f---444001 _1~ 145161 145924 146689 .5 1234.2558 7. 19.5067 7.-1.5595 7.6 1325.4165 19..1990 20.5 1278.5 1366.5244 140531 141196 141863 142531 143201 143872 144545 145220 145896 146574 147254 147934 148617 2O.2731 20.4450 20.6 1303. 49.~34.3907 ! 7.5 20.:9--.0000 Ralz cubica Longilud jCircunferenda 1256.1:.5712 I i 19.5302 7.8327 20.2811 1196. i i 7.2874 1215.1 1181..5183 20. 184041 184900 185761 186624 187489 188356 189225 190096 20.5670 i I I I 7.6 1347.5192 19.5126 7.7 -152100\ 152881 ~~= 155236 I 59319000 119J~!_:3~!i___:.:~~~ ~~i:i ! 162409 163216 164025 164836 165649 166464 167281 168100 168921 169744 170569 171396 64481201 64964808 65450827 65939264 66430125 66923416 67419143 67917312 68417929 689.1 1291.7364 20.5537 7.n 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 Cuadrado 132496 133225 133956 134689 Cuba Rail cuadrado I Raiz ccbtce Longilud circunferenciaL \ Area n 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 Cuadrado 160000 160801 161604 Cubo Ral' I cuadrado 20.--t-1:c::06:.2622 7.3681 7.7 114009 114608 115209 115812 116416 117021 73034632 73560059 7.1 1269.4889 7..~~~~ 7.2495 7.5 1212.-3.=-26.3434 7.1.3 1297.-1 : 19.5 1344.·.:1~48848 ~~~5117 52313624 52734375 53157376 53582633 19.7231 178084 178929 179776 180625 181476 182329 183184 20.3248! 7.9 i Area I Ii 48228544 48627189256 49027 :::~:~ 19.9-.8494 19.3986 125664 126293 126923 127556 128190 50243409 19.9249 I 7.8567 20.:-.]496 7.2873: .1920 7.4650 7.2.4047 7.4590 172225 173056 173889 174724 175561 20.2094! 7.:~~ \ 1143.::2 _1_1~1 .2 1294.8746 19.3715 20.3124 I 1228..57{)4 i 7.3 1341.7 ~~i~i~ 112815 70444997 70957944 71473375 71991296 72511713 7.5959 19.2237 137Wr.4 120072 60236288! 60698457 61162984 61629875 62099136 62570773 7.2304 7. 151321 I i i I 19.8997 19.3742 7.9 1354.19.5 1168.4770 7.2485 20.2112 7..2685 7.2978 20.8242 19.4 107521 4 ~~!i!i I ~~~~~ I ~::~~i~ I ]~~!:~ .0250 20.6882 1332.9750 i 1247.3391 19.4939 7.0 1313.6155 20.=36~______:c7 +_1-.5420 7.3372 7.4 1209..3 1319.6723 19.0 1178.6469 19.7990 19.9 1288.37 I 7.6 1369.6640 20.2748 7.4829 420 421 422 423' 424 425 426 427 428 429 176400 177241 74088000 74618461 75151448 75686967 76225024 76765625 77308776 77854483 78402752 78953589 79507000 80062991 80621568 81182737 81746504 82312875 82881856 7.3925 7.=-24-:3.2 1316.5478 7.6977 19.2 1338.8 1328.1 1203..5361 7.36491 19.2 1360..6 1237.7123 20.-.0 1357.9 1310.8806 7.:~ 1190.0788 11:'.28- -29- .4108 7.4-.4948 7.. -'5:___9-'-77-6-471--t1-1:-:9~.7 1171.2936 1218.12_25_.1."::5=1'0648=:':1'--11c:'9 1-7 -l---C .4169 7. L~1~36~9OO:::.4290 7.9::.1726 1.1494 20.5426 20.

7 1548.1133 22.5610 Ralz cObico Longitud clrcunferencio Area 190969 191844 192721 193600 194481 195364 196249 197136 198025 198916 199809 200704 201601 202500 203401 204304 205209 206116 207025 207936 208849 209764 210681 211600 212521 213~ 214369 215296 216225 217156 218089 219024 219961 220900 221841 222784 223729 .4 1586.6117 7.9528 7.5 1589.6 1592.3 1407.1585 22.8 1464.9370 7.0000 21.0681 22.7194 7.7 1504.3776 21.4476 21.3 1429.0 1511.3830 22.4 1476.9264 7.9211 7.4 1432.6460 7.7418 7.3383 22.7860 7.3073 21.1 1536.3307 21.4 1564.4499 22.2711 22.6001 7.4 1542.4942 21.8891 7.90<15 20.6564 21.8352 7.9 1420.8784 7.9284 20.7584 7.6631 7.6403 7.7695 7.5639 21.3 1451.846Il 7.8944 7.7715 21.7750 7.6289 7.1 1514.4 1454.0 1467.1896 21.5 1523.9686 7.7473 7.9791 7.9089 21.4 1498.6174 7.6333 21.4009 21.0476 21.2036 22.5 1545.7306 7.8861 21.8 1486. .8837 7.8243 7.7 1460.7945 21.8 1508.1811 22.1 1492.9 1398.2935 22.8188 7.8403 21.7639 7.8676 7.8297 7.0 1423.0000 22.0 1401.7 1570.9523 20.9158 7.6688 7.2 1517.1 1580.4 1388.9 1599.2368 21.8514 7.1424 21.8 1<\.4 1520.7970 7.1 1558.4054 22.2 1382.6744 7.6232 7.8H51453 84027672 84604519 85184000 85766121 86350888 86938307 87528384 88121125 88716536 89314623 89915392 90518849 91125000 91733851 92145408 92959677 93576664 94196375 94818816 95443993 96071912 96702579 97336000 97972181 98611128 99252847 99897344 100544625 101194696 101847563 102503232 103161709 103823000 104487111 105154048 105823817 20.8 1530.1 176460 177205 177952 178701 179451 180203 180956 181711 182467 183225 183984 184745 185508 186272 187038 187805 188574 189345 190117 190890 191665 192442 193221 194000 194782 195565 196350 197136 197923 198713 199504 200296 201090 201886 202683 203482 440 441 442 443 228484 229441 230400 231361 232324 233289 234256 235225 236196 237169 238144 239121 240100 241081 242064 243049 244036 245025 146016 247009 248004 480 481 ~ 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 119095488 119823157 120553784 121287375 122023936 122763473 123505992 124251499 125000000 125751501 126506008 127263527 128024064 128787625 129554216 130323843 131096512 131872229 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 7.6857 7.n 437 438 439 Cuo· drodo Cubo Rail cuadrado Rail cubico longitud rJrcunferencio Area n 474 475 476 477 478 479 Cuedrodo Cuba Roiz cuadrado 21.6801 7.3 1495.3542 21.9 1577.5870 21.2 1583.9051 7.7486 7.9317 7.8 1551.9634 7.6102 21.4944 22.2486 22.0713 21.2 1539.7529 7.0227 22.5 1567.3607 22.'12.6795 21.6574 7.7082 7.5389 22.8998 7.5174 21.7 1394.5407 21.6146 7.3159 22.5167 22.9581 7.7026 7.7256 21.4243 21.9739 7.8174 21.7805 7.6059 7.1 1426.9 1376.1660 21.9423 7.2261 22.0238 21.6 1413.1 1470.9317 21.8 1573.8622 7.5 1501.7 1526.5944 7.5 1479.9843 1489.9476 7.0454 22.6970 7.1187 21.7362 7.0 1533.0 1445.8568 7.2 1404.6 1391.6517 7.6 1435.4722 22.9105 7.0950 21.8406 7.2 1561.9 1555.7 1482.8025 7.1 1448.2132 21.8632 21.7025 21.2603 21.3 1473.4709 21.0 1379.9545 9773 21.1359 22.7 1438.7250 7.8134 7.3 1385.6 1457.0907 22. 1 22.4277 22.4 1410.8079 7.8730 7.8 1595.6914 7.2838 21.7 1416.9762 21.0 149987 150674 151363 152053 152745 151439 154134 154830 15~528 156228 156930 157633 158337 1590<13 159751 160460 161171 161883 162597 163313 164030 164748 165468 166190 166914 167639 168365 224676 225625 226576 227529 106496424 107171875 107850176 108531333 109215352 109902239 110592000 111284641 111980168 112678587 113379904 114084125 1H791256 115501303 116214272 116930169 117649000 '118370771 7.7138 i \ 1372.5886 7.7915 249001 250000 251001 252004 253009 254016 255025 256036 257049 258064 259081 169093 169823 170554 171281 172021 172757 173494 174214 174974 175716 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 470 471 472 473 -30- -31- .

5 1699.3010 8.5372 23.7487 23.1 1646.3 1784.8328 23.8956 2~65 23.9948 8.0517 8.8254 22.7376 22.3 204282 205084 205887 206692 207499 208307 209117 209928 210741 211556 212372 213189 214008 214829 215651 216475 217301 218128 218956 219787 220618 221452 222287 223123 223961 224801 225642 226484 227329 228175 229022 229871230722 231574 232428 233283 234140 299209 300304 301401 302500 303601 304704 305809 306916 308025 309136 310249 311364 312481 313600 314721 315844 316969 318096 319225 320356 321489 322624 323761 324900 326041 327184' 328329 329476 330625 331776 332929 334084 335241 336400 337561 338724 339889 163667323 164566592 165469149 166375000 167384151 168196608 169112377 170031464 170953875 171879616 23.4521 23.3 1806.0 1800.2 1693.1 1781.2670 8.6854 177504328 23.4947 23.2962.7156 22.5 1721.0466 8.8747 23.7276 f79406144 180362125 181321496 182284263 183250432 184220009 185193000 186169411 187149248 188132517 189119224 190109375 191102976 192100033 193100552 194104539 195112000' 196122941 197137368 198155287 23.1517 23.0825 8.3059 8.7 1815.3 1740.3251 8.0156 8m08 8.5797 8.1301 23.4 1831.1084 23.8473 22.2816 8.6643 176558481 23.8 1617.6274 22.811a 23.2 1737.1247 24.3 1828.1454 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 S<IO 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 541 542 543 544 545 546 .9896 7.9 1621.5 1655.0832 24.n 510 Cuedrodo Cubo Rela cuadrado Roiz cubtcc Longitud circunferencio Area n 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 Cuodrodo Cubo Roil cuadrado Rolz ecbtce longitud circunferencio Area 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 510 260100 261121 262144 263169 264196 265225 266256 267289 268324 269361 270400 271441 272484 273529 274576 275625 276676 277729 278784 279841 280900 281961 283024 284089 285156 286225 287296 288369 289444 290521 291600 292681 293764 294849 295936 297025 298116 132651000 133432831 134217728 135005697 135796744 136590875 137388096 138188413 138991832 139798359 140608000 141420761 142236648 143055667 143877824 144703125 145531576 146363183 147197952 148035899 148877000 149721291 150568768 151419437 152273304 153130375 153990656 154854153 155720&72 156590819 157464000 158340421 159220088 160103007 160989184 161878625 162771336 22.7 1749.0217 23.1382 8.9S83 23.4 1809.2621 8.6936 22.3 1630.0876 8.0000 23.3491 8.4 1787.6 1680. 8.1180 8.5 1611.9 1731.1683 8.0 1756.7 1705.3539 1718.1 1825.3666 7.9 1775.2 1605.7065 178453547 23.5584 23.2 1627.9129 22.6 1790.3396 8.0 1668.0774 8.7816 22.6 1614.1733 23.1039 24.1982 8.2865 8.1433 8.1483 8.1281 8.0 1690.0363 8.6 1636.1079 8.5832 22.2 1759.0 1712.5160 23.1932 8.1882 8.8 1819.8537 23.4094 23.2180 8.1231 8.9792 24.1130 8.6 1702.9 1709.2229 8.0416 24~0624 24.203: 8.7596 22.2 1649.1028 8.3203 8.1583 8.7 1727.8 1797.3452 23.1332 8.6053 22.0927 8.6 1658.6 1724.0 1778.D434 23.3 1696.0415 8.0000 8.2594 23.3024 23.2573 ·8.0651 23.0 1822.0569 8.7908 23.7 1793.2913 8.2719 8.1633 8.4 1743.0978 8.0052 8.8035 22.6 1746.2377 8.9374 23.0311 8.9347 22.6008 173741112 23.2 1715.9565 22.5 1633.1833 8.0620 8.0260 8.3300 8.6716 22.3880 23.9783 23.32- .3107 8.5 1677.2327 8.6432 175616000 • 23.9 1643.3 1652.3238 23.2 1671.1733 1602.7697 23.3155 8.2809 23.6220 174676879 23.8 1639.7 1771.2475 8.1948 23.0671 8.0723 8.6 1812.4 1608.0 1734.2379 23.9 1687.9 1665.1533 8.8910 22.2130 8.2768 8.1 1624.3443 8.2426 8.1 1803.2524 8.8 1661.0000 24.8 1683.1783 8.9 1753.3 1674.0208 24.6495 22.0868 23.4307 23.4734 23.6 234998 235858 236720 237583 238448 239314 240182 241051 241922 242795 243669 244545 245422 246301 247181 248063 248947 249832 250719 251607 252497 253388 254281 255176 256072 256970 257869 258770 259672 260576 261482 262389 263298 264208 265120 266033 266948 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 1728P8693 23.2278 8.33- .3 1762.8692 22.2081 8.6 1768.2164 23.3348 8.0104 8.4 1765.

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7 2792.6585 9.5828 9.6757 30.1 2978.6262 9.8 2884.2 2981.6799 9.7 2946.6.9166 29.6479 29.7540 9.2324 30.3974 30.0 2931.4 2830.8161 29.60106 9.0666 30.66<18 29.2 ·2802. 2811.7610 9.7819 9.6513 9.9 2796.9500 29.4 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 840889 842724 8+4561 846400 e48241 850084 851929 853776 855625 857416 859329 861184 863041 864900 866761 868624 870489 872356 874225 876096 877969 8798+4 881721 883600 885481 887364 889149 891136 893025 894916 896809 898704 900601 786330467 788889024 791453125 794022776 796597983 799178752 801765089 804357000 80695+491 809557568 812166237 814780504 817400375 820025856 822656953 825293672 827936019 830584000 2906.6118 9.6370 9.5 2786.7153 9.3 2849.8270 2871.4 2962.7321 29.6834 9.7785 9.1164 30.7825 29.3 2761.5 2965.8 2971.8 2928.5614 30.7 2770.7854 9.5 2921.i'294 9.5 2943.5756 9.3 2805.1496 30.6311 29.8236 9.6763 9.6976 9.6133 676836152 679151139 681472000 683797841 686128968 6880165387 690807104 693154125 695506456 697864103 700117072 702595369 704969000 707347971 709732288 712121957 714516984 716917375 719323136 721734273 724150792 726572699 729000000 731432701 733870808 736314327 738763264 741217625 743677416 746142643 748613312 751089429 753571000 756058031 758550528 761048497 29.7188 9.0333 30.0000 30.7505 9.6692 9.8058 9..7896 30.9333 29.5937 9.8063 9.8329 29.4 2874. 806404 808201 810000 811801 813604 815409 817216 819025 820836 822649 82~ 826281 828100 829921 831744 833560 833237621 835896888 838561807 841232384 843908625 2852.9 2975.5 2764.2 2959.2655 30.7224 9.6727 9.6985 29.8998 29.0167 30.3 2915.4631 30.6046 9.7012 .7889 9.7959 9.8664 29.6105 30.6 2877.2985 30.2 2937.6334 9.5941 30.0500 30.6082 9.5792 9.8 2950.1662 30.8831 29.5865 9.8201 9.1 2890.7924 9.6 2767.2820 30.7 2814.7658 29.6920 30.6905 2912.8 656118 657555 658993 660433 661874 663317 664761 666207 667654 669103 670554 672006 673460 674915 676372 677831 679291 680752 682216 683680 685147 686615 688084 689555 .4959 30.7364 9.7153 29.6477 9.7047 9.7259 9.0 2799.6190 2755.6 2855.6431 30.1 792100 793881 795664 797449 799236 801025 802816 9.3645 30.7575 9.7645 9.6154 9.9833 30.1 2956.7 2836.n 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 Cuadrodo Cuba Raiz cuodrad~ Ralz Langi'ud circunferencia dlbica Areo n 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 Cuadrado Cuba Rolz cuadrado Rolz cubico langi'ud cir(unferencia Area 769129 7708&4 m641 77+400 776161 m924 779689 7814$6 783225 784996 786769 788544 790321 67451.3 2783.7734 30.7118 9.3809 30.7329 9.6941 9.8 2862.8028 9.7750 9.7246 30.6 2789.3 289M 2896.1 2846.2 2758.7082 9.0 2843.7680 9.8167 9.5719 9.4302 30.7 2902.2 2824.1 2868.1993 30.5901 9.6620 9.7409 9.6594 30.2 6001073 605451 606831 608212 609595 610980 612366 613754 615143 616534 617927 619321 620717 622114 623513 624913 626315 627718 629124 630530 631938 633348 634760 636173 637587 639003 640421 641840 643261 644683 646107 647533 648960 650388 651818 653250 654684 835396 837225 839056 7635519+4 766060875 768575296 nl095213 773620632 776151559 778688000 781229961 783m+48 30.42- .8097 9.7435 9.6268 30.3 2827.4 2918.1330 30.6549 9.7083 30.0998 30.0 2821.7400 9.9 2818.7993 9.4 804609 .5123 30.8132 9.6010 9.7 2880.7 2968.8496 29.7489 29.0831 30.0 2m.6 2833.3150 30.5778 30.1828 30.6870 9.6298 9.6816 29.6656 9.0 2953.7470 9.1 2914. - 43- .0 2909.4138 30.9 2840.0 2865.7 2858.3315 30.4 2940.3 846590536 849278123 851971392 85%70349 30.7993 29.2490 30.7715 9.9 2774.7571 30.91028 692502 693978 695455 696934 698415 699897 701380 702865 704352 705840 707330 2780.7 2924.6442 9.5450 30.2159 9.5287 30.0 2887.6226 9.3480 30.4795 30.4467 30.4 2808.5 2899.5973 9.9666 29.6142 29.

8785 9.9565 9.8408 9.0000 3100.9933 9.9 2997.9160 9.8648 9.9 3107.9733 9.9531 2984.8922 9.0 3132.1609.8443 9.3 3116.8707 30.2 3135.8 3037.0483 31.9396 9.8 3059.2 300M 3006.1929 31.8956 9.96n 30.4484 31.6 708822 710315 711809 713306 714803 716303 717804 719306 720810 722316 723823 725332 726842.9363 9.2 3113.8221 30.3050 31.9833 9.86104 9. 728354 729867 731382 732899 734417 735937 737458 738981 740506 742032 743559 745088 746619 748151 749685 751221 752758 754296 755837 757378 758922 760466 762013 763561 974169 976144 978121 980100 982081 984064 986049 988036 990025 992016 994009 996004 998001 1000000 961504803 964430272 967361669 970299000 973242271 976191488 979146657 982107784 985074875 988047936 991026973 994011992 997002999 1000000000 31.8305 9.6 3056.2 3069.4643 31.5 3031.6070 31.8580 9.3528 31.5436 31.8683 9.1 3094.84n 9.5 3053.3369 31.5 3141.9 3063.9194 9.2 3025.9516 30.2410 31.0 3110.8854 9. 31.7 3125.2890 31.2730 31.cuadrado Ralz cubica Longitud Circunferencio Area 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 9n 978 979 902500 90+101 906304 908209 910146 912025 913936 915849 91n64 919681 924600 923521 92S444 927369 929296 931225 933156 935089 937024 938961 940900 942841 944784 946729 948676 950625 952576 954529 9564&1 958+11 96CHOO 962361 964324 966289 9682S6 97022S 972196 30.9666 9.4 3028.9598 9.8 2993.5753 31.0966 31.8 3103.8545 30.9967 10.5119 31.0644 31.4960 31.6 3078.8717 9.8869 30.0161 31.8990 9.1 3000.6 765111 766662 768214 769769 771325 772882 774441 776002 777564 779128 780693 782260 783828 785398 981 982 98J 984 98S 986 -<U- -45- .9295 9.0000 31.9 3129.9227 9.1127 31.2250 31.9 3019.8511 9.9464 9.8339 9.9024 9.3 3050.2 3047.9839 31.5911 31.1769 31.5 2987.0805 31.8 3081.9900 9.8374 9.9430 9.9126 9.9866 9.1288 31.5 3009.5 3119.6 3034.9058 9.5595 31.3847 31.6 3012.0 3088.6 3122.8819 9.3 31)8.9 3041.3209 31.9261 9.5 3097.3688 31.9192 30.2090 31.9800 9.1 3044.1#8 31.2570 31.9031 30.5278 31.n 950 Cuo- drado e"be 857375000 86008S351 8628010408 8655231n 8682S0664 870983875 873722816 876467493 879217912 881974079 884736000 887503681 8902n128 893056347 895841344 898632125 901428696 904231063 907039232 9098S3209 912673000 915498611 918330048 921167317 924010424 926859375 929714176 932574833 935441352 938313739 941192000 944076141 946966168 949862087 952763904 955671625 958585256 Rolz cuadrado Ralz cublca Longitud c:jrcunferenclo Area n 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 Cuodrado Cube Rafz .5 3075.8 3015.1 3066.0322 31.9766 9.9329 9.9 3085.8888 9.4166 31.9632 9.3 30n.9497 9.9699 9.4006 9.8751 9.7 2990.4325 31.4802 31.2 3091.8546 9.1 3022.9354 30.9092 9.6228 9.8383 30.

263 11. se torncrc _::__~_3_3_!_ 4 = 43005.atcrmedios V1960 sc vera que cste volar los numeros '3.6445 7.580 50.2566 1.976 35.975 15.7227 3.363 21..195 14.326 19.82< 33.3038 2.2360 6.02~ 35.181 47.867 46.625 31.7802 2. 2341 = 12812904.522 51.019 018..776 12. REFERENTES RAIZ CUADRADA DIAMETRO" Estas tobias Para Para Para 10 coma Para 10 como obtener obtener obtener estdn indicadas en numeros 234" enteros de 1 a 1000.6180 3.:' 85184.053 10.354 <3.053 pora mas de 1000 numeros del ournero moyor para obtener n reprecolumna se utrlizcn y 10 rcrz y r oiz cubtcc.870 14.883 11.6283 1.61622.934 23.1416 4.316 21.122 35.603 16.860 0.385 38.2729 9.291 36.383 18.103 52.43 se torncru = 54756 y se seporan sepcr cndose dos c.714 2<.991 23.500 36. 192 .972 47.013 38.987 33.923 25.600 47.8540 0.239 "5.708 16.441 17 .289 16."7 52.400 I 24.9690 7.876 2<.999 52.637 50. se cdelcn- tara do~ puestos Estes tobias 10 roiz cuadrado sentoru se tendrc 430.771 24. -: por 23.4351 8.128 36.792 20.839 21.624 12.656 25.1.m ~34 = 6.888 '2.531 29.202 '.9.535 19.883 52.3304 8.4~ 4 10 como tcrnbten }I V2i4 se procederd por interpolaci6n entre V"23 obtener fa coma obtener -r por 234 = 735.553 '5.040 .668 44.27< 29.7389 9.516 42.779 0.075 ( 27.'f('~(~nt~ r('~pec'l"'(lrnent(' 10 r ciz cued-cdc del mjmero 1936 y en 10 '~Jbic(! del nurncro y tercerc columna Pat.3510 .850 19.410 23.060 39.2<9 .3018 i::~~ I i::.465 15.966 36.124 .034 35..705 46.683 30.4558 3.789 50.572 22516 22.322 30..914 47.286 47.416 32.9322 3.'75 51.0162 8.468 21.5501 5. 925 ~5. se odelantcrn 73.3 roil cuadrado de 1000..746 39.89' 51. '5. 506 44.442 36.3.333 '7.658 46.546 17.336 17.479 40.221 19.m 37.364 ".180 27.997 32.903 29.878 .4~ se tomcrd 23.086 25.0369 4.5605 4.7124 5.028 I 26.777 32.360 52.9484 10.7965 9. 12812.13.3142 0..4 y ~24r Para puesto Para entre VI") y V24 respectivcrnente..40< /14.'32 39.761 26.. se odelantaro y se tendrd Para obtener y V2).913 27.029 46.391 46.196 46.091 ]4.S..100 12.459 <3.956 40.9218 5.369 31.176 38.552 25.237 26...205 12. 3.547 37.161 51.229 018. 33.114 50.4681 2.018 31.81] 16.208 52.698 18.740 30.674 52.9.563 .018' 29.897 20.951 50.928 13.347 15.5.611 ~5.093 - 46- -47 - .qf~ro<.982 ~!:!!~ I ~!:~!~ 15.782 22.358 33.(ras Ires cifra s con 10 coma: con 10 como: 547.357 13."12 43.4 se torncrd y se rendrd :-: ~_.857 018..209oi 0.317 40.164 19.8850 1.3407 6.882 33.5870 8..171 018.577 11.4236 1.695 9.881 12.9897 3.500 . 401 .8378 1.671 17.993 23.938 12.022 16.757 37.794 40.773 44.097 42.081 35.6652 4..9<1 52.285 27.406 34 .640 19.13< '5.145 43.583 20.693 28.280 37.227 28.5245 10.153 22.232 16.1888 5.568 33.106 20.729 11.52971.373 20.574 <2.0!85 018.7493 8.1)1) n.647 018.8068 7. se cdelcnturd un puesto un pues'o y se tendrd obtener Vo.499 16.0634 9.9.'01 18.9115 7.3776 9.965 18.265 50.6755 12.786 10.118 39.510 3<.8643 6.438 '7..631 40.929 3<.<28 .5398 7.562 23.904 49.165 38.~.1047 1.102 32.394 16.0000 1.6<2 39.8171 5.7596 6. 087 ~5..l2J 50.338 37.046 30.8746 4.847 .594 38.904. los numeros de ia primera cvbicc 1.305 22.108 40.970 27.0841 I 5.5708 2.0153 14.566 1 2 3 4 5 9 0.389 27.525 20.72' 23.199:1 3.268 20.9794 5.981 25.509 iO.767 34.184 15.155 '1.299 14.605 36.255 53.'26 30 .1681 9.619 23.p!o 460 '70 0180 .7330 1.VALORES DE LA VELOCIDAD OBSERVACIONES DRADO.736 '.2971."3 35.'72 11.2018 23..532 ~9..588 28.003 40..009 50.919 36.95' 20.988 1 0.699 38.950 30.3879 7.804 38.662 36.5133 3.~~~~:.375 40..196 3<.4248 10.5973 6.673 31.1106 10.823 H.001 21.490 37.935 ~3.25.9+1 21..650 17.~~~ I 8.917 16.059 19.069 17.158 11.0265 ~'.2153 10.3201 10.i4 se tomcrd V23'4 1.909 38.007 30.307 <2.077 I 46. V2..276 ~9.90 500 '50 :.9'5 <1.451 15... CIRCUNFERENCIA ° y para SO 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 ~10 ~20 '30 determiner los valores de numeros decimcle s se opera del modo stqulente..527 41.159 31..9587 8.0059 9.206 32.886 22.513.745 19.212 <1.327 39.752 47.687 8.ll2 28.1622.313 5'.751 28.783 "'.367 11.593 18.<57 24.667 24.242 15.414 12.150 53.395135.~3.4189 1.310 12.043 12.621 '3.2832 7.630 21.537 38.223 38.3 .684 50.469 ~2.012 18.830 '3.139 34.677 22. 23.646 28.H2 26.960 29.8" 36.866 26.4823 9.872 3<.448 46.7.353 23.5'3 018.855 27.8284 3.539 52.3614 1.<20 21. se tomara 0.186 36.4086 2.080 15.9425 1.z ~q.311 32.578 30.149 33.056 51.985 13..7699 4.715 .49<4 26.8<1 <1.133 26.127 17.6549 6.174 16.0944 3.6917 8.861 37.2935 5.264 31.835 32.836 51.799 018.049 22.798 28.218 '9.032 14.689 40. 44 y 45..732 52.198 53.609 25.681 10.381 018.820 45.891 11.7021 7.829 23.270 39.556 15.6077 5.462 13.9012 9.258 21.504 25 .584 39.463 33.56.117 18.851 39. 7 25.211 20.5'" 27.301 1.1]7 14.3982 4.819 25..907 18.~~ 30.962 '2.755 17.615 3<.521 32.'22 41.7<2 50..279 17..147 1).940 32. '9.'88 18.260 42.201 22.652 37.810 '7.190 25.066 "9. = 15.. ambos contidcdes cor 50e encontrcrcn 10 se- 440 qundc de 10 Tabla pr ocedow esla entre Inte rpotcctcn.096 2<.627 51.4926 6.8437 10.763 46. EJEMPLO 'U r o.2<3 35.050 41..0+4 31..038 2<.5029 4.678 '2.2463 4..379 29. MERO CUBO.73 31. 296 .720 33.090 13.4454 5.788 31. ANGULAR 6 7 8 A LAS TABLAS Y CUBICA DEL Y AREA DE CUANUDE DE UN CIRCULO n 1O 20 30 40 ° 0.558 35.478 19.071 37.996 11.370 51.726 '3.599 26.0472 2.636 29.295 24.252 13.1519 2.3.808 26.437 27.802 18.845 29.055 0.730 31.519 12. par ejerr..7J5 21.704 27.6342 9...898 40.301 H.892 30.709 0.

DE CINEMATICA v = Ve/ocidad. g = Aceleeeeten producida por 10 gravedad (9. a X I. tenemos las v=1'2gxh. I s UNIFORMEMENTE ACELERADO v Q= --. S = espacio recorrido. segundo).= P X h = P X s. h = altura de calda. s=~-xt= 2 CIRCULAR axt 2 l MOVIMIENTO v= 2.81 metros M = Masa de un cuerpo. ¥' = Velocidad en metros por segundo.. 1=-. FuerzQ cenlr/fugo F de un cuerpo con masa M dotado de velocidad v en metros por segundo 5iluado Q 10 disfaneia R en metros del centro de rcteclen. MOVIMIENTO s=v MOVIMIENTO v = a X I.~ R 60 (1)= 2"n 60 = 0.FORMULAS s = Espocio. I = ~--. = Dlstcnclu en metros del punto considerodo como eje de retceten. FUERZA CENTRIFUGA F= M Xv' - FUERZA VIVA R f= M xv' - 2 . v I V=-. = Numerc de revoluciones per minuto. P = Peso de un cuerpo. UNIFORME s V a = Aceleracion. M caida f=Pxh. w = Yelocidad angular. Considerando un cuerpo siguientes relaciones: de masa Referida a 10 fuerzo vivQ f de un cuerpo de masa M dotado de vetocidad V. TABLAS DE CONVERSION FORMULAS DE DINAMICA por M.h. P = Peso del cuerpo. t = Tiempo. 2 lib~~ en ~I veclo.1047n. h= 2~'9-' hV . -48- . F = Pceree centrlfuga 0 cenlrlpeta de un cuerpo con masa f = Fuerza viva.

......0..0.r .. ~S..."... ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ .o ~~~~ ~~ll ~~:a~ ...o~::g~ ~l~l = ~ :::::~ -51- O....~~S 00 .~! ~~ ~~~~ ~. .:::r::~~ ~~I! .. ~~M:O 8~~~ ~8~~ ""'~OO""" " '"5 0) ~g~§ ~t~$ !!iijj~ ~000 ......0.......0-.. oo .~8 ~~~i :~~s ~~~~ ~~~~ ~!i~ ::::~S~ g:::::~O ~ri~~ ~~.Ml ........:::i-08~ m ~~~~ ~~i5 ~S.....0'" ~~.. .....0 ........oO-... .~o-.:!I!. ~~~~ ....i~5 ~~~~ ~gii ~~~~ ~B~BEEBE ~l!t .. ~~~S ~~N:O g~~~ ~~o'ci **t~ ..... ~~~~ E~~g ~......:! NO-"O . 00 "''''''0--0 ~.r :g~:............0 ~~~~ ~U~ ~~~~ ~~~~ """"""N E~~~ ~§i: ~~~~ ~~~~ ~m~5~.! .. oo ""1""'0'-0 ~1~l ~::o.0-..0."..00 .....0 ......~o-.~::::..a ..... ......~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~g~~ ~~~~ ~~S~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~! =.~~ ::::.o' N~O 0-0-0-0&I'INO<o....00.0 S~. ~-~~~ ~ "'0'''''' ~~~: "''''''0'-0 ..1"1 N~O ....t t·..08 « r -50- ~~~~ ~::~~ ~-~~~ .......0--0 ..0......1~~a.'i'i'i ~~~~ ~......1 ~e.n-D-D": ~~~~ r::iMNr:i NMNN s5i~ !~~~ :g~~~ ~l~... ZUi 1ii~§§ ......:. -"' .0... NM ... "'..........NO-.::::..0""...... ....r "'. oo-..:j::::: ~g~~ ~~~5 ~ii~ 5gi~ ~~:g5 ~~i! ~~~~ S~a.....j.. ....0-.1 .. oo-.~ ..t .....o "':"':":«i ~::U::H....~3~ 00 .~~ ..."'... ............ 0.0-..........0 ~§~~ 00 ~~~~ ~~tt t~~t t~~~ ~~lt §§§~ ~~:g~ ........ CII 0 w .0-. Z§~i ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ """"""... ~~~~ ~~~~ :l:l~~ ...0.."..mN o ......." mN~ ~~~8 . ~~~~ ~~~~ ~::::..8~ ::j~~~ 00...j"'. t~~! H ~~~~ 5SS8 ~~~. ...... ~~:oO E~~~ ~~~~ ..0 :::::::::::::::::::: &I'INO'o..0--0 NNr:i::::l a~~~~~~ a a~~~ 0". ~~~!$ tf_':5..~ ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ :...1"10- n~is~~~ 00 ....0 ~~$$ $~~i .t~~~ .."'.. . ~q~~ .".....0 0" .0":": .. ~-~-~g ~1!............... "''''''0-....M Ei§n ~~ii !.J D.5: on "'tJ 0) ~~~~ ~~S~ !~~S $5~~ ~tEE E~~~ :I! 1:>8.....o N-OO.z 0 (/) ~§~~ §~i~ !!ii5 ~~~~ CS"''''''' ~S~a.~~ 1ii~§§ . ............nvi :f'$'$r. 00 "' It .m ........ ..... ~~~~ ~ ~ ~g.0-._ ".::.... II'INO'..a.-IIi"."...i ~~~........~~ ......r ...-....0'0 . ~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ $~~r:: . ~~!~ U~5: . ..i~ ~8?.....0-.!... ~R~~~~~~ .!a ~~~~ ~~ii ~~t~ ~tt! tf~~ '!H? ?'!!! ~~~~ ~~~~ 8:..o ::::'-o~f CS"""'0.. ~r::i~N ~~~~ ~~$~ ......0 ...........:.~ ~81?~ ~::C!~~ 0'0'0'0 .....:m ~~i2~ ~~~l a~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~ 'f... 0 .§ > 'E Z 0" e on on on II'INO--O ~~~o:: ....... U W <{ ~~.::~o:. ~.~~ ~~~~ ::g:g~~ ~H:i ~~S~ "'. 0 00 ...<S~ ~_~:.....r ....mN .......

0254 ee 513.9 2.000418 -+--7~'O-I 787.025~ mm. el ccnverttr cualquier.4 812..7 ..10005 1 pulgoda inglesQ = 25.oooua .2032 .4 558.07 0.00394 .007 0.<XlOO72 Relacion americana.000157 . .778 2.00039 .09 ...01181 .' Como queda demostrado. 1" 10 Pulg.009 Djferenctc.•.00079 .016 1..4 304.08 0. 330. A. por media de sumas.4 SO.. Diferencias que existen entre 10 relacion americana '1 la inglesa en una m.00197 . y se recomiendo operar para til conversion de medidos de precision por 10 tabla de decimas.. .04 0...04 ..2 00.00027' .6 III 127.-\0005 ~ .03150 . 25. · 25. La equivalttnCia 25. ..01 .008 -OOOoj9... . mos.07 .00157 .0 914.2 . Relcctcn segun vcrtos autores .06 0.5 .00236 .ble para la mecanizaci6n de ptezcs.4 0.006 .8 20 508.2 889.05 . medida. Relacion inglesa.8 711.54 5.003 .008 .•.05 0.02 .ADVERTENCIAS Una insignificanle diferenclc extste en 10 conversten de 10 pulgoda tnglesa Q milimetros.40005 . y ella ~s debtdo Q las eprectactones de d. O.254 .00023.2 «umversul».. 508. 10 cual permite de uno forma rcptdc..004 ..Estodos Untdos de Am~nca Ilene esla retccicn: 1 yordo 3600 3937' de Ingloterro' ~ 3600 3937. yarda = 3 pies. .0113' --~_:.<lO9 1" 1000 Pulg.j ~ 25 .105~ mm.01 0. • .53- . '1' por tanto. .versos_ cutores..2 0.. Unidades Pulg.7 0. Diferencia.00051 Relacion inglesa .03 .08 0.007 ." se procura sea reteeten ..2 355. 25. • por corresponder a 4 ·5 101.•. S.08 01" 100 .0508 ..8 965.000079 Pulg.005 0..3999~8 OO.2 1. 0"2 = 5. .•.• 2 10...09 .. 25.0 5.00315 ..000197 . .. 1000 ~= Stendc 10 retecrcn 1 yordo ~ ---=-.•.4 939.4 685.32 22.002 . 203.8 76. na debe lenerse en cuenta sino pare caics de extreme precisi6n. ~ Diferencia.00035< De estas reiactones se derrvcn los siguientes relociones cproximcdcs : 1 pulgodo (U.508 ..270 1.8 0.0 406..286 .. pero si en los de precision pora 10 clencte e industria.002 0.5 0. 00.0 035..003 0.9144 metros.. .39978 Estas djferencics no deben ser epreoedcs en tecbcjcs de mecdntcc corriente.78 20.•. .0762 .1 0.0275. --mm.' 381.00118 .001 0.1778 .101' ..1270 .00354 0.6 412.86 Pulg. Pulg.3 0.' 0.3 .0 533.8 .004 0.24 17...001 . la difnencia es pradicamente inmed. .2 863.. 0 de pulgad~s a milimetros 10 254.0 25.0 mm .1524 .000315 .2 279.08 mm.006 0. mm.032 2.02 .' 52 - ..399978 Relaci6n segun venes autores ..1 ..01575 .03543 O..0 ISH 177.4 431.00787 . EJEMPLO Cenverur 20"201 pulgadas a milimetros: 20" = 508.7..9 Conversi6n de 1 10 100 1000 de milimetro a pulgadas y viceversa -mm.8 838..3'2 .8 609.8 457.2 990. yo que 10 conversi6n oficiol de los".01969 0.16 12..0 660.0027' .oJ 0.0.08 7 . ..8 5&4. yordo ~ 36 pulgodos. .2 lll. centesimos y miles.06 . 10 100 Pulg.4 .005 .' 730.70 15.ll86 + + pulgodo: Relacion americana.....0254 .5~4 1.6 yarda = 0. 0"001 = 0.

............875 0....~~~"': .... ~ s i~~~=~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~:.203125 33/M 17/32 35/M 9/16 .§ e ~ a...796875 0...........l'lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ ~~!~e~~~R~ . aol....-U"lO''''''''''.. "aoaoo-o-O' ·00 ... 0 ~~*i:::..."."". aoU"lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ s !l ~~~~#~~~~~ i.125 0.... " ~9/M 25/32 51/M 13/16.Mt"'oIt"'oIMM ~~~~~~~~#~ ::~~~~~~:!:!0 '0 C •iii .5 U O..."'."'...oo a aot"'ol..8125 0......546875 0.55- ...609375 0...765625 0.i.... U"I&lt"'ol .........~~~~~~~ . "". 17/M 0............3~375 23/M 0.....~~ .09375 0.625 0. t" po.. aol.~375 0................1875 0....54- ............ S.828125 0..0625 0..............."'o-cU"l~V ""''' .. U"IO-Mr::: ...96875 0........-aoU"lt"'olo'.:aiaOa:o-:a-:oo~ t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIMMM ...25 0....71875 0....65625 0....... c... 53/6~ 27/32 55/M 7/8 ...5625 0.~~~~~:g8 ~~~::~~~$~~ "'....~:8:gv..........359375 3/8 •...........U''IO'M'' ....~~ ~~~a#~~~~~ .265625 9/32 0.......: ~i~~Vi~..........:~ ~""ao~~~:.~~~~~~~~ . ....... ""'" ...046875 0.671875 0... '¢COt"'olU"lO'.. t"'oIt"'oI""'''''''''''~ U"I .... .aoot O~Flgi~~~~~ .... ~1/M 21/32 ~3/M 11/16........... aoU"lt"'l8)~""'o"~ Fracciones de pulgada a decimales I/M 1/32 3/M 1/16 .. "'oI""'~U"I-c. E o ...328125 11/32 0..•390625 0.53125 0..... 0..:i .......59375 0.~11875 0..p.....953125 0...o........ !i! ~ E s ~ 8 !is:~~~~~~~~ ~iii~~~~~~ o..15625 0..9375 0...U''I 8 ~~....... E E ~~"':"':"':~~"'"!"'"! E ..171875 0..o.....78125 0.. U"IU"IU"I...296875 5/16 •• 0.2H375 0...........~~~ ""''''''MMMMMMMM m .1<10625 0.... 0.. O'cooo.. II 'e -a G) III " a .o...... '" ~~~~i~~~~s.oo ~~~r-i"'........ ~~~~o::~~8~:: .375 251M 13/32 27/M 7/16 ....o" § r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i ~~~~~~~~~~ ~=~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~C!.~~~ .:......a.........6-10625 0.~ III G) ...00 ao ..078125 0..03125 0.oi M U"IO-""'" . > C G) ~~~::~~~$~!i "'"!~"':~~~~~"":"": " .5 a -a a 0) III ..p...... ~~~r-ir...."'.~~~~:g.~ .....3125 21/M 0..90625 0.<10625 0. 13/M 7/32 15/M 1/~. "'S 1 Q.015625 0...... 0-8(!..109375 0...-U''I 0..~:g~~~::ri~::::'l .....890625 0...... U"IO-M" .921875 0..28125 19/M 0.:"".......21875 0.. ~ ~~~:o8i~e:!~~ ~~a~~~~~~~ ~~~~p....... 0.. 0 G) CL ~r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i i~~O:~~8~~~ ~~. 9/M 5/32 II/M 3/16 ...... 37/6~ 19/32 39/M 5/8 .-VCOt"'olU"lO'M O'coOO"-C-CU"l'¢V .6875 0..0 t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIM ~ i~~~~~~~~...~:g~~~::ri~~l ... 29/M 15/32 31/M 1/2 ..859375 0.o""...........::O.l'lt"'olO-"'OM " .... ~5/M 23/32 ~7/M 3/~.... 61/M 31/32 63/M 1 ...... aol.46875 0. ...98~375 1.~:::n:~~~S 8 ~Mr-ir-iMr-ir-i""'.ot"'l.....578125 0.. .703125 0.l'lt"'l8)~""'O"~ #&l~r:::" ~~~~ ......~375 0...........~u-lu-l~. 5/M 3/32 7/M 1/8 ....75 0.. a III 2 fi~S~ ~~~8 ~ .t"'oI~ ~~~~~~ "':~~~"'"!"'"!~~'"':~ -..~53125 0..:....515625 0..~375 0.73~375 0. ~~~~~~~~!.... ... JlI ~ ~~. 57/M 29/32 59/6~ 15/16..........

~::: ~ .464286 0"...392857 11/28 1/14 ----.708333 0"..E-J-f--l-}'.0"..25 0"..f.-0".571429 7/28 0"..178571 0".791667 0" .821429 -0"...041667 0" .--------~ -----.357143 5/14 -0".678571 0"..071429 0".25 4/7 --_----.291667 0" .428571 3/28 3/7 ---_ _..833333 0".75 0".166667 0"..: cicicicicidciooooooooo cicicici II 11 11 II II II II II II II II II II II II II 3/24 1/6 Is~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ II II II II 5/14 3/12 7/14 2/6 -J.125 0".75 0".285714 0" ._--. 0"_03S7H ~ 19/28 5/7 0"..208333 0". 9/28 0" .1~29i- 9/14 0".416667 0" .142857 1/7 13/28 .607143 17/28 2/7 1/28 ..458333 0"._--_ --_----------0" .--~ ~1-..~~i~ codo II II II II Decimales equivalentes a 6 avos. 12 avos inglesa 17/24 9/12 19/24 5/6 21/14 11/12 23/14 0". .333333 9/14 5/12 11/14 3/6 13/24 7/12 15/24 4/6 0".541667 0" .57- .~~ ~~~~ ci 0'6 II II II II II cid II II II II II II .642887 27/28 0"_964286 -56- .333714 ~+_0'~-214286 _ 15/28 ~--0".958333 y 24 avos de pulgada 1/24 1/12 0".875 0"..375 0"." cicici II II II ~9!!~! !!! ~ II II II II II II II II II II ddcid 23/28 6/7 25/28 -----13/14 ------- na2!.892857 ------"0".107143 0" .j -- 21/28 0".083333 0". .928571 I 000 ~~~ .f-i--!-i-iiii Decimales equivalentes a 7 avos.."i...583333 0".916667 0".----------~ 1--------0". 14 avos inglesa y 28 avos de pu!gada 0".-~------0".5 0" .666667 e ::l~::l~ ~~a.-f-.1----.857143 0".6250".:. ..5 5/28 7/14 --.714286 I---~-- .785714 ~~0".

147 0.756 6.594 ".83 0.896 6.289 0.861 3.134 0.Q.086 La equivalencia en pulqcdcs de 0.258 0.921 2.832 6.189 0.293 4.02040 0.0252 0.870 0.158 0.16 0.115 0.101 0.287 0.010 6.283 5.Q205 0.84 0.101 0.156 5.318 0.785 3.769 2.0020 0.1]] 8.0311 0.160 0.! Pulgodos 10.105 0.60 ".073 3.168 0.rn 0.0339 0.743 2.0232 0.76 0.394 4.65 0.316 0.5]1 3.113 0.02 0.111 0.164 0.25 0.173 0.620 7.975 8.200 e.185 0.105 5.816 5.350 6. 2.486 5.138 0.759 Pulgodas 0.137 7.110 0.105 0.C26 8.171 0.08 0.n3 O.I5 6. 0.077 8.496 4.0063 putqcdcs.705 6.667 2.004 5.95] PulgQdas O.45 0.38 0.39 Pulgodos 0..080 5.81 0.144 0.096 0.274 6.909 5.309 0.163 0.962 3.985 7.242 4.505 5.191 0.116 O.674 4.lO8 0.301 0.190 0.114 0.161 1.]78 3.318 4.845 2.0083 0.117 0.0358 2.791 5.0362 0.79 0.0272 0.114 0.138 0.m 3.108 0.195 0. = 0.16 de.683 ].842 5.0220 0.893 5.49) 7.303 0.88 0.121 6.104 0.115 0.0012 0.061 7.0039 0.918 0.588 1f1:::.131 0.264 7.0094 0.24] 0.186· 0.766 5.692 2.109 0.307 O.0177 0.299 2.117 0.179 0.67 0.174 0.267 4.0063 0.14 0.0213 i 0.183 0.]<40 7.133 0.106 0.0059 0.85 0. 0.57 0. mm.925 7.141 0.020'1 0.315 0.928 4.49 0.188 7.253 0.256 0.55] 6.959 6.119 mm.969 5.317 0.181 0.6]9 5.94 0.052 8.145 0.257 0.111 0.18 ".171 O.0165 0.140 4.477 6.173 0.05 0.0169 0.131 5.204 0.97 93 0.0150 0.103 0.110 3.00 3.747 7.170 7.436 5.070 6.00081 I 0.11.119 0.118 0.835 3.107 0.823 trn 7.023 3.15<1 0.10 0.715 5.0224 0.63 0.410 5.229 -58- .46 M7 0.0323 0..101 0.197 0.731 6.632 3.750 4.0354 0.90 0.794 2.255 0.311 mm.0189 0.0299 0.1«1 0.180 0.64 0.77 I 0.146 0.210 0.166 I 0.111 O.420 4.801 5.467 7.52 0.197 7.111 0.! Pulgodos I mm.0374 0.314 0.176 o.116 0.187 0.143 0.429 ].113 0.540.Q3 0.401 6.198 0.311 0.819 2.29 0.039 3.35 0.648 4.236 0.442 ].642 2.207 5.165 0.62] ~.181 0.193 0.115 0.0087 0.102 0.m 3.0346 0.139 0.117 0.13 i O.28 0.161 0.26 0.168 0.191 0.502 6.569 7.480 3.0028 0.547 4.n3 O.111 0.137 0.013 4. 0.994 6.0051 0.167 0.108 0.72 0.175 0.2().198 0.359 6.258 5.172 6.029-1 0.912 7.21 0.572 4.213 0.n4 6.221 un O.1 2.629 6.671 7.0287 0.951 O.69 0.06 0.886 3.154 0.195 0. 7.251 0.159 0.53 0.607 7.12: 0.n4 8.0390 0.37 0.H 0.315 7.658 ].0307 0.Q244 0.no mm.0004 0.199 0.165 0.71 0.0295 0.128 0.134 3.51 0.H8 6.281 0.232 5.334 5.305 0.226 3.154 0.161 0.190 0.375 6.174 0.0276 0.301 0.41 I r mm.169 0.68 0.167 0.0016 0.Q248 0.ln 0.111 0.139 0.0378 ].0236 0.0043 0.6Q.112 7.147 0.251 3.150 3.310 0.877 4.0091 0.109 0.036 7.104 0.58 0.0134 0.613 5.0130 0.950 7.150 I I 7.196 0.708 3.86 0.0185 0.454 ].277 3.0382 0.96j 0.54 0.0280 0.163 ! mm.161 0.0181 0.696 7.125 0.0102 0.141 mrn.283 0.0126 0.0370 0.75 0.194 0.0283 0.899 1 0.no 0.0303 0.616 Pulgodas 0.66 0.0394 0.874 7.0315 0.0193 0.934 6.512 5.0110 O.15 0. 0.807 6.689 5.101 0.470 4.064 1 4..-40 I 0.138 0.718 ].782 6.116 0.164 0.902 4.300 0.99 11.0268 0.0118 0.148 0.099 1 4.131 0.001 8. 1 0.578 6.178 0.n4 0.27 0.193 0..810 3.309 6.197 0.153 8.160 0.91 89 1 5.740 6.721 0.775 ~.111 0.302 3.73 0 74 .118 0.153 0.33 0.0173 0.130 O..191 0.87 0.0154 mm.184 0.0031 0. ! 0.107 0.166 0.116 0.119 o.319 o.556 3.ln 0.978 5.145 0.089 4.404 5.50 0.OH2 0.724 4.175 3.141 0.0'1 0.921 0.70 0.135 O. ].170 mm.157 0.147 6.0067 2.0047 0.943 I e.166 0.17 [ 1 0.]4] 4.22 0. 5.0350 0.04 0.0035 0.0386 0.537 5.149 0.699 4..285 0.44 0.655 6.m 0.59 0.0327 0.36 0. Pulgodos 0.0138 O.972 2.100 0.680 7.988 5. Pul9Qda~ 0.055 6.521 4.304 0.56 0. 2.n7 0.80 I 0.029 5.155 0.0335 0. 4.306 0.188 0.417 7.114 0.182 1.m 0.562 6.55 0.106 0.Q7 0.98 0.179 8.150 0.144 3.62 0.171 5.883 6.Decimales de milimetros a decimales de pulgada inglesa mm Pulgodos Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PuI9QdQ~ 0.73< ].32 0.369 4..151 0.858 6.0366 0.0122 0.191 0.664 5.31 0.163 0.597 4.426 6.196 0.0146 0.ln 0.0228 0.867 5.01H 0.48 0.581 3.181 0.161 0.216 4.)84 5.937 4.00204 0.251 0.82 0.m I O.311 0.259 0.78 ' 0.8S1 ".146 0.148 0.020 6.946 2.ll5 0.lll O.798 7.0264 0.848 7.0157 i 0.().Il6 o.5 4.451 7.826 ".0106 0.0201 0.0319 0.0079 Ejemplo: i 7.176 0.169 0.0055 0.0098 0.645 7.110 0.151 0.128 O.43 0.100 0.175 0.179 0.124 3.223 6.103 0.0161 0.528 6.23 10.59- .j91 7.591 2.S.0343 0.1«1 0.0256 0.0217 0.130 0.518 2. 7.128 8.42 0.290 7.0331 0.194 0.30 0.149 0.111 0.366 7.n9 0.191 4.0260 0.116 0.141 0.178 0.114 0.199 0.61 I 0.565 2.0197 0.967 3.01 I 0.125 0.I 7.

690 13.268 12.364 0.584 0.685 0 •• mm.568 0.757 14.230 '.202 19.833 14.763 8.382 0.614 0.494 0.393 0.415 18.608 19.507 19.Hl 15.368 0.795 10.799 15.626 9.366 0.725 12.935 14.566 0.4]] 0.322 9.759 0.<62 13.m -60- -61- .447 0.546 0.868 13. 0.564 0.722 0.585 8.655 0.211 10.706 0.631 0.553 0.824 15.346 0.050 19.529 14.185 10.618 0.779 9.703 0..839 8.551 17.506 0.6Ol 0.071 14.581 0.764 16.577 0.<55 11.947 10.986 15.353 0.511 0.343 0.468 0.729 17.253 19.373 0.395 12.765 0.l8O 0.173 14.3n 0.954 12.559 0.437 0.871 10.103 16.406 0.309 13.062 15.068 9.403 0.724 0.709 0.391 0.535 16.753 9.767 0.374 0.386 13.620 0.678 0.402 14.647 0.524 0.712 8.325 14.408 0..277 11.560 8.261 10.862 11.711 0.176 11.670 0.545 0.659 0.389 18.702 0.662 0.106 1).995 14.856 17.470 0.998 11.514 0.09< 17.252 11.731 0.495 0.817 13.57.855 9.416 0.414 o.894 13.505 0.979 13.<83 8.703 9.820 10.593 0.544 0.552 0.408 16.087 Pulgadas 0.516 0.550 0.518 0.650 0.351 0.379 11.715 0.744 0.624 0.580 0.604 0.875 15.<484 16.W 12..757 0.116 Pulgadas 0.400 0.312 10.716 13.0+9 11.754 17.442 0.439 0.412 0.561 0.355 0.571 0.429 0.700 0.567 18.896 10.351 14.166 12.632 0._ 0.395 0.499 9.233 13.727 8.389 0.430 0.760 11.236 10.360 1).471 0.354 19.365 0.970 13.916 16.696 0.689 0.528 0.960 14.<23 9.043 17.5U 0.532 19.864 18.843 13.616 0.180 16.594 mm.405 0.910 14.652 0.736 0.337 0.674 0.125 '1.780 17.919 13.587 0.0)9 12.737 8.770 0..436 13.441 0.836 11.709 11.347 0.28< 13.643 0.621 15.610 0.547 0.296 9.592 18.589 0..710 0.370 12.561 16.973 18.610 8.554 0.<81 19.776 12.<168 15.617 0.3<8 17.722 15.506 11.573 12.653 0.613 0.644 0. 8.496 0.630 14.411 13.16< 15.542 0.659 0.350 0.963 11.649 0.303 11.507 0.623 0.769 10.598 12.742 0.249 14.928 12.449 9.69l 0.872 18.420 0.465 0.434 16. 10.541 0.531 0.472 0.719 0.428 0.441 0.582 0.367 15.008 18.246 17.915 8.551 14.612 Q.6U 0.607 0.572 0.691 Q.97) 10.891 16.379 O.675 0.519 15.629 0.446 0. 17.214 15.473 0.556 0.384 0.452 0.<81 0.388 10.690 0.752 0.14II 0.679 0.02] 11.625 0.701 0.444 0.938 11.681 14.394 0.642 0.732 14.340 0.489 0.465 10.360 0.363 10.'0.693 0.639 mm.667 0.830 17.740 0.nO 18.785 11.371 0.418 0.417 0.510 0.510 16. 0.345 0.378 0.011 15.788 8.756 0.508 0.526 17.900 15.387 0.982 10.421 O.931 9.316 15.700 12.537 0.771 0.579 0.719 18.703 17. 13.967 16.707 0.661 0.517 0.563 13.5<7 12.663 0.300 14.256 16.714 0.151 19.70 0.532 0.275 14.783 14.634 19.469 0.526 0.417 0.646 15.932 17.706 14.017 9.976 16.237 18.7<8 Pulgada5 0.097 14.618 18.134 10.329 19.227 11.338 0.515 Pulgodas 0.352 0.721 0.090 12.372 15.563 0.672 15.327 0.548 0.585 0.189 15.530 0.454 0.581 0.551 0.033 10.906 9.602 17.l88 0.457 0.541 10.673 0. 9.119 17.814 8.245 9.637 16.453 0.018 17.538 0.859 14.575 0.523 0.288 18.755 0.708 0.+49 17.764 0.656 0.744 10.693 10._ 0.478 0.617 10.501 0.621 O.725 0.415 0.656 14.211 18.3l1 0.642 10.821 18.333 0.11&4 1<.767 13.160 10.316 0.459 16.711 0.6016 0.494 15.543 0.182 13.359 0.414 10.461 0.002 16.664 0.846 10.591 0.093 9.661 8.450 0.634 0.0H 18. 15.278 19.418 15.493 0.9<1 16.612 '.407 8.741 0.3U 0.721 o.357 16.630 0.058 10.749 0.29) 12.425 0.380 19.660 0.525 9.170 17.084 10.390 0.338 18.733 0.774 mm.676 0.599 0.490 10.497 12.713 16.569 0.662 16.721 0.890 I I 8.399 17.761 0.331 0.059 18.m 8.113 15.1<48 14.396 0.430 11.704 0.370 0.658 0.738 16.332 16.030 13. 18.427 14.674 12.801 8.434 0.354 0.458 0.307 16.398 0.625 0.037 15.6<3 18.7lI 0.431 0.420 12.]98 9.5<5 15.306 8.221 17.014 12.536 0.367 0.636 8.746 0.3+4 12.344 0.753 0.<487 13.356 8.846 18.445 0.515 0.449 0.154 16.677 9.122 14.627 17.592 10.330 0.341 0.9 0.007 18.392 0. 0.157 13.m 13.999 19.636 0.410 0.413 0.021 14.611 0.671 0.491 0.616 0.751 12.439 10.280 8.404 0.357 U5a 0.065 12.687 16.595 0.590 0.578 0.<81 11.272 17.897 18.362 0.0.596 0.399 Q.313 18.678 17.603 0.361 0.539 0.576 9.138 15.516 12.381 0.941 8.424 17.557 0.595 15.474 9.558 0.436 0.748 0.402 0.081 13.582 11.619 0.+46 12.789 16.464 0.579 14.773 0.589 13.476 mm.7<5 Pulgadas 0.30< 19.613 0.881 Pulgadas 0.9<48 18.36< 18.<0< 11.055 1].075 19.438 0.186 18.513 13.661 0".522 12.668 10.126 19.951 15.699 0.641 0.509 8.728 9.633 11.497 0.652 9.538 13.419 0._ 0.989 12.747 0.373 Pulgadas 0.416 0.645 0.610 0.814 16.922 10.792 13.118 9.605 0•• 0.69< 18.n3 15.719 10.6M 'o.382 8.271 9..687 8.342 0.478 14.907 17.716 0.053 16.195 9.745 0.411 0.005 1).0704 11.297 17.192 12.161 18.])1 Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros Pulgada5 0.460 0.521 0.338 10.m .957 17.372 0.717 0.865 16.479 0.328 11.957 9.761 0.697 15.611 mm.923 18.614 12.566 10.609 0.259 13.763 0.7)0 0.741 13.452 14.100 19.407 Q.467 0.827 12.220 9.6010 0.349 0.713 0.440 0..<31 19.608 11.654 0.443 0.878 12.9+4 1.614 13.550 9.503 0.669 18.474 0.502 0.492 0.500 0.732 0. 16.291 15.574 0.684 ".601 0.529 0.570 15.455 0.195 17.695 0.811 11.490 0. 12.100 11.177 19.383 0.336 0.347 9.198 14.665 0.560 0.880 9.<82 0.1+4 9.570 0.533 0.456 0.287 10.1)2 13.<56 19.677 0.621 0.135 18.500 17.549 mm.651 0.424 0.512 0.796 18.0<2 9.766 0.542 18.499 0.334 0.<05 19.665 13.734 0.830 9.<83 0 .627 0.401 0.762 0.4 17.903 12.581 0.150 11.887 11.5U 0.504 12.432 0.046 14.808 14.078 16.201 11.485 0.527 0.558 19.992 17.760 0.471 12.991 9.720 0. 11.Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PulgodQ5 0.145 17.068 17.805 17.697 0 .557 11.611 16._ 0.421 0.983 18.409 0.754 0.356 0.217 17.109 10.332 0.369 mm.169 9.339 0.0&0 18.613 0.666 0.601 9.335 0.637 0.852 12.397 0.513 0.562 0.375 0.224 14.281 16.465 18.255 8.462 0.376 14.491 18.658 Pulgadas 0.769 0.385 0.2<0 15.735 11.657 0.565 0.592 0.716 0.615 0.540 0.458 8.468 0.912 11.80< 9.519 0.440 18.509 0.751 0.110 18.735 0.583 19._ 0.129 16.739 0.535 0.586 0.638 0.926 15.5H 8.531 11.597 0.027 16.520 0.586 16.208 13.35< 11.433 0.758 0.383 16.653 17.141 12.705 0.6<0 13.750 0.849 15.262 18.265 15.427 0.435 0.463 0.475 17.617 0 •• 0.672 0.363 0.205 16.3U 17.503 14.498.534 0.014 19.840 16.451 0.4n 0.605 14.573 0.459 mm.591 0.475 0.lli 0.227 19.443 15.319 12.376 mm.680 0.966 8.555 0.392 15.712 0.576 0.649 12.567 0.319 0.

082 21.310 21.171 25.9)8 0.891 0.54S 2]571 23.861 0.955 0..812 0.555 22.147 25.142 20.564 21.%0 24.850 I H876 2].234 21.886 0.881 0.818 21.218 20."'7 10.285 21. '9.811 0.814 0.520 1l.899 0.7-49 23.005 21.792 0.789 0.910 0. es usoda siempre para las comparaciones de velocidades de buques.000 3280.884 0.871 (Iegua marino) 3 millas nauticas (milia geografica) marino (1760 yordo.895 0.418 23.892 24.548 20.259 21.883 0.888 0.961 0. 23.0328 pie.386 21.921 0.368 2).82] ig::~~ 20.003 24 028 14.291 23.980 0.9n 0.12] 21.916 0.672 23.0/2 22.811 0.225 22.819 0.927 0.)9] 19.864 inglesa a milimetros mm 21.776 0.701 kil6metro milia legua = = = 10. 0.196 25.959 0.396 20.361 21.JS2 12.717 21.174 22.795 0.714 24.887 0.889 0.931 0.761 19.858 0.916 0.910 0.132 21.969 0.33J 0.830 0.767 21.428 22.810 0.]/0 10.) milia legal (braza) (yorda) (pie) (pulgada) = 5559 1853 1609.793 21.819 0.437 21.888 19.918 0.975 0.936] 1093. 7 20.92] 0.206 24. 60 millas geograficas = 1 grado en el Ecuador.857 0.904 0.990 0.780 0.04 24.936 0.954 2].854 0.786 0.919 0.523 20.809 22.622 2].091 20.869 21.0936 dedmetro metro decdmetro 20.850 0.srs = ]9.472 0.878 0.139 23.158 21.638 22.952 23.924 0.860 22.269 1.964 0.8288 0.911 0.866 14.862 19..996 mm 20.742 21.215 23.839 0.917 24.784 0.841 0.48 0.837 19.765 24.688 14.913 19.996 22.336 21.984 0.802 o.9370 pulgadas = » » 0.640 21.845 0.968 24.190 2).412 21.()()()() H.148 22.828 Pulgados mm 24.409 24.775 0.805 0. equivalencia a 1853 metros.910 22.815 2-4.066 10.199 PulgQdas 0.2'4 20.()()()() » = 176O.3280 ].851 0.3149 1.848 0..869 H.021 22.069 25.m 0.980 21.901 0.961 0.986 0.241 2].1093 1.400 20.96.911 0.561 24.()()()() 159<40.453 22.691 21.947 0.989 0.817 20.926 23.977 14.797 0.910 0.998 0.987 0.685 19.890 0.814 0.940 0.0254 21.Decimales de pulgada Pulgodas 0.479 22.937 0.981 0.~ 25.971 21.816 0.1Q.885 22.911 mm.836 0.282 24.790 0. .107 21.891 0.841 0.120 25.710 19)33 19.758 22.810 0.'71 0.796 0.934 0.799 21. 6080 pies..6H 20.5()04 = = 0.790 14.063 0.918 0.485 14.'76 0.539 ~:: 0.960 0.320 22.991 0.946 0.781 0.877 0.788 0.8H 22."3 0.961 0.317 Pulgodos 0.779 0.580 22.000 » 5280.791 0.818 20..511 14.988 0.976 O.911 2·4.57<1 20.950 0.040 20.840 0.145 20.974 0.801 0.817 0.870 0.971 O.19] 20.815 0.915 0.99] 25.723 2].726 0.167 10.374 25.783 22.183 21.04 21.9)9 Pulgodas 0.806 0.987 I 23.116 20.915 0.377 22.666 21.808 0.824 0.596 2].037 0.953 0.885 0.)01 12.945 0.811 0.273 25.903 0.675 20.469 23.9144 O.920 21.231 ALMIRANTAZGO BRITANICO 0'816120.3937 3.978 0.999 i .739 24.04-4 21.243 20.000 0.155 24.787 0.019 24.no 24..942 0.612 H.&46 0.785 0.955 20.495 23.859 0.935 0.9()4 I .777 0.957 0.]70113 » zo.587 0.0109 0.793 0.62- 1 Knot para pruebas de buques :d."5 0.939 0.907 0.2808 328.929 20.m 25.856 0.862 0.488 11 :>1] 21.798 0.853 0.298 25.919 0.815 mm.894 0.266 23.90 0.901 0.774 2).733 22.936 22.9n 0.209 21. i Equivalencias entre sistema inglis y mitrico Pesos y medidas MEDIDAS DE LONGITUD sec-lecque 0.307 20."1 0.3Q.863 0.803 0.958 0. 19.979 0.911 0.'75 knot mile fathom yard fool inch nudo centimetre 23.819 20.599 20.800 0.326 n.781 0.358 14.9'.841 0.812 19.707 22.144 0.1 25.901 23.849 0.W Ii.647 23.663 2-4.967 0.799 0.349 25.951 0.897 0.970 0.6]1 22.682 22.906 0.384 24.818 0._ 0.804 0.881 0.896 0.8)8 0.985 0.402 12.900 0.012 23.180 14.015 20.794 0.606 21.911 0.944 0.0.841 24.m 1.079 » » » » » yardas 24.813 0.650 20.989 20.801 0.811 0.948 0.893 0.807 0.809 0.994 0.981 0. 1 milia neuncc = 1 milia geografica.0)1 21.164 23.815 0.098 22.949 0.9-45 n.905 0.874 0.938 metros O.8.250 22. -63 - ..951 0.146 25.817 0.751 0.8n 0.047 22.868 0.983 0.965 0.165 H.615 11.9000 » » » » = 0.053 14.257 o.942 2".917 0.781 0.908'123.971 0.855 0.056 21.860 0.966 0.590 21.817 0.095 25.821 0.529 22.46] 21.841 0.H2 2].+44 23.909 n0l8 0.89.956 0.656 22.961 22.536 24.961 0.851 0.4 H.698 23.222 25.11'1 23. 0.275 22.786 19.6]00 » » » 5280.880 0.778 0.

MEDIDAS DE SUPERFICIE
1 yarda! 1 pie2 1 0,836097

TABLA
pulgQdost
GalgQ Imperial Standard

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (atombre) Pulgodas

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet and Hoop flejes) mm. (chapas
I

m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

pulgodo'

= 0,092899 m' = O,0<J06.45 m'

= 1550 = 10,7M = 1,196

Brow

and

Sharp.

pie,'
yordost

numero

e-. Pulgodas
O,~ 0,372 O,H81 0,324 0,300 0,276 0,252 0,232 0,212 0,192 0,176 0,160 O,1~ 0,128 0,116 O,1M 0,092 0,080 0,072 0,064. 0,056 O,M8 O,~ 0,036 0,032 0,028

"r-i
i

mm.

mm. 11,530 10,795

~--.-

y

Americana p~-t-~QdQS

Pulgodas

T

".

mm. 11,~ 10,-40<1 9,265 8,251 7,3~ 6,5~3 5,827 5,189 ~,621 ~,115 3,6M 3,263 2,906 2,588 2,3M 2,52 1,827 1,627

0000

110,160 9,~~ 8,839 I 8,229 7,620

O,~5~ O,~25 0,380 O,HO 0,300 O,28~ 0,259 0,238 0,220 0,203 0,180 0,165 O,H8 0,134 0,120 0.109 0,095 0,083 0,072 0,065 0,058 O,M9' O,M2 0,035 0,032 0,028

0,500 M~52 O,396~ 0,3532 O,31~7 O,28Q.1 0,2500 0,2225 0,1981 O,17M 0,1570 0,1398 0,1250 0,1113 0,0991 0,0882 0,0785 0,0699 0,0625 0,0556 0,0495 O,~ 0,0392 O,OH9 0,03125

,

12,700 11,308 10,068 8,971 7,993 7,122 6,350 5,651 5,031 ~,~O 3,987 3,550 3,175 2,827 2,517 2,2~ 1,993 1.775 1,587 1,~12 1,257 1,117 0,995 0,886 0,793

O,~ O,~6 O,3~ O,32~ 0,2893 0,2576 O,229~ O,2M3 0,1819 0,1620 O,1~3 0,1285 O,11~ 0,1019 0,0907 0,0808 0,0719 0,0641 0,0570 0,0508 0,0452 O,M30 0,0359 0,0319 O,02~ 0,02535 1 i

MEDIDAS DE VOLUMEN
1 yordo:! 1 1
pie"

000 pulgadasa 00 0 1 2

pulgodo"

= O,7M513 = 0,028315 = 0,000016

m' m" m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

= 61028 = 35,316 = 1.308

pie,'
yordos:S

i

9,652 '8,636 7,620 7,213 6,578 6,M5

: 7,010 ' 6,~
I

MEDIDAS DE CAPACIDAD
1 1 1 1

~
0,070 0,176 1,75980

3

5,892 5,3~

gill, pint (pinto) quart (quarto) gallon (inglo,)

= O,H2 = 0,568 = 1,136 = ~,5~5
=

litro litro
Htr cs lures

1 cennlrtro
1 decilitro 1 litro

=

gill,
pintos pinl~

5 6 7 8 9 10

'

!
I

5,588 5,156 ~,572 ~,190 3,759 3,403 3,~ 2,768 2,413 2,108 1,828 1,651 1,~73 1,2~ 1,066 0,889 0,812

i ~,876 ~,470 4,064 3,657 3,251 2,9~ 2,6~ 2,336 2,032 1,828 1,625 1,422 1,219 1,016 O,9H 0,812 0,711

i

I

1 gallon (americano)

3.785 litros

PESAS
1 ton. {tcneludes]
1 1 1
=

11

22-40

libra,

cwt (quintal) quart (quarto) pound (libra) (cnzc] drachm (dracma)

1 oU'lce 1

= 20 cwts. = 112 libra, = 28 » = 16 onzas = 16 dr.

= 1016,O~8 = 50,802 = 12,700
=
O,~5359 0,Q28H 0,00177 0,0022 2,20'16 220,~H 22M,6H1

12 kgs. » » » » » ltbres » » » 13 H 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

1,~9 1,290 1,H9 1,009 0,911 0,811 0,722 O,M3

1 gromo 1 kilogramo 1

quintal metrico (100 kilogramos)

1 tonelada metrica (1000 kilogramos)

= = = = = =

!

:

I

!

I

0,711

-6-4-

- 65-

TABLA
GalgQ Imperial

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (olombre)

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet (chapas
- ----

Factores de conversion
and Sharp

numero

r---Pulgodas

Standard
--~-

ond

Hoop

Brow

INGLES
Libras por pie lineal Libras per yarda lineal

A METRICO
1,488 0,496 3333,33 1111,11 0,2818 0,07031 1,575 4,883 10,936 1,215 0,5933 16,020 1.329 0,01426 0,09983 48.905 25,8 0,1382 0.309 1,0139 0,477 0,0916 0,0279 0.252 2.713 0,746 kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por kil6metros kilos por centimetres kilos por millmetro" kilos por metro' Tons. por metro' Tons. por metro" kilos por metres kilos por metres Tons. por metres

1--

--

y

mm.

Pulgodas

mm.

Pulgadas

flejes) -----mm

Americana

Gg;;;]--~;;·-0,02257 0,02010 0,01790 0,01594 0,01419 0.01264 0,01125 0,010021 0,00892 0,00795 0,007081 0,00630 0,00561 0,00500 0,00445 0,00396 0,00353 0,00314 0,00280 0,00250 0,00220 0,00200 0,00176 0,00157 0,00140 0,00124

x
X

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

0,024 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,0164 0,0148 0,0136 0,0124 0,0116 0,0108 0,0100, 0,0092 0,0084 0,0076 0,0068 0,0060 0,0052 0.0048
1 ,

0,609 0,558 0,508 0,457 0.416 0,375 0,345 0,314 0,294 0,274 0,254 0,233 0,213 0,193 0,172 0,152 0,132 0,121 0,111 0,101 0,091 0,081 0,071 0,060 0,050 0,040

0,025 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,016 0,014 0,013 0,012 0.010 0,009 0,008 0,007 0,005 0,004

0,635 0,558 0,508 0,457 0,406 0,355 0,330 0,304 0,254 0,228 0,203 0,177 0,127 0,101

0,02782 0,02476 0,02204 0,01961 0,01745 0,01264 0,01390 0.01230 0,01100 0,00980 0,00870 0,00770 0,00690 0,00610 0,00540 0,00480 0,00430 0,00386 0,00343 0,00306 0,00272 0,00242 0,00215 0,00192 0,00170 0,00152

0,706 0,628 0,559 0,498 0,443 0,396 0,353 0,312 0,279 0,248 0,220 0,195 0,175 0,154 0,137 0,121 0,109 0,098 0,087 0,077 0,069 0,061 0,054 0,048 0,043 0,Q38

i

0,573 0,511 0,454 0,404 0,360 0,321 0,285 0,254 0,226 0,201 0,180 0,160 0.142 0,127 0,113 0,100 0,089 0,079 0,071 0,063 0,056 0,051 0,048 0,039 0,035 0,031

Tons. per pie lineal Tons. por yarda Libras por mi1lo Libras por pulgodo2 Tons. por pulgodo2 Libras por pie2 Tons. por Tons. Libras lineal

x x

x x x
x

pte"

x
X X X X X X X X X X X

por yardo2 per yordos3

Libras por ple" Tons. por yarda3

Gramos per gallon Libras per gallon -Gcllcnes Tons. libros por pie"

= gromos
= kilos por

por

litro

litro

-

-

41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48

0,00441 0,0040 0,0036 0,0032 0,0028 0.0024 0,0020 0,0016

-

-

litros por metro" kilogrcimetros kilogrcimetros Tons. metrtccs

pulgodo pie

Tons. pie HP libros Pies' Pies' por por por HP HP HP

c.

V. normal

X
X X X

kilos por C. metros" metre" colodos

v.
C.

por C. por

v. v.

Unidodes termtccs Unidod termlcc HP Tons.
=

-

por pie-

X

cclcrtcs por metro! kilovatios de tonelado

x

abreviotura

- 66-

-67-

Fadores de conversion
METRICO
Metrol Metro'\ por por

Fadores
Kilos por Kilos por Kilos Kilos por por metro metro metro lineal lineal

de conversion
A INGLES
0.672 2.016 0.0003 0.0009 3.548 14.223 0.635 0.2048 0.0914 0.823 1.686 0.0624 0.752 70.12 10.438 0.0204 7.233 0.0387 3.23 0.9863 2.235 Hbras libras tons. tons. por pie lineal por yarda lineal

A INGLES
ptes! por HP HP termiccs.

METRICO
x x
X X

Cy
C. V.

x x
X

10.913 35.806 3.968 0.369 1.340 0.7373 0.00155 645.1 0.155 6,451

pies3 por unrdedes

Calorio ktlcgrumc Calorids Ktlevencs Valios Milimetros2 Milimetros2 CentimetresCentimetres" Metros2 Kil6metros~ Hectcireas Centimetres" Metros:! Metros3 Metros~ por metre'

lineal

por pie lineal por yarda lineal

x x x x
X

unidades termlccs HP

por pie'

metro lineal

Kilos por kil6metro Kilos por centimetre! Kilos por Kilos por Tons. pulgQdast Tons. pulgadast pulgadas' Kilos Kilos Tons. Gramos por por por por metro! metro' metro" metro por por por litro ccbrcc por mlllrnetrct metro! metro!

x x x
X X X X X

libras por milia libras tons. libras tons. tons. libras libras tons. gramos Libras gallones libras tons. tons. HP libras por HP por por pulgada2 pulgada2

Pies libras por segundo pulgadas2

por pie! por por por por por pie! yordo! yordo;! ple" yorda3 por par gallon gal16n por pies pulgada pie pi~

x

10.764

ptes"
acres

x
X X

x 247.1 x
2.471 16.383

Kilos acres pulgadas3 pies" ycrdcs" Lttrcs

litro metros

x
»;
X X

Kilogrometr<;>s Klloqrdmetrcs Tons. metrtces

x x
X

35.315 1.308 264.2

C. V. normal qetlcnes (231 pulgadas') Kilos por C. V.

x x

-68-

69 -

EQUIVALENCIA
C= F= 5 X (F-32) 9 9XC 5
of

ENTRE TEMPERATURAS
R=4XC= 5 4 X (F- 32) 9 C=

EQUIVALENCIA

ENTRE
R= + 32
FahrenheIt

TEMPERATURAS
4X C 5 4 X (F-32) 9

5XR =-4-

5 X (F- 32) 5XR =-49 9XR + 32 = -4c
CeloIw
F

+32=~+32
C Cel,ius

r 9XC .- = -5-

.
JO
31

4
F

FohrO!nhl!l1

.,
oR
24,0
14.8 25.' 16,4

/WG..",IIIf

, """'-,
OR °C +
500
5SO 600

°C

oR
_16,0

°C + +

of
".0 87.8

°C +
80

of

oR +
64.0 64.'

°C +
130

OF +
266,0 267.8 269,6 271.4 171.2
275,0 276,8 278,6 280." 282.2 2114,0 285.8 287,6 291.2 293,0 29",8 296.6 298." 300,2 ]02.0 303,8 307." 309.2 311,0 312,8 314.6 316." 31B.2

OR

°C +
'80 '82

OF

OF

OR
932

-17 _16 -1S -14

-" +
-18 -11
_12 -11 _10

-20

-

'.0 2.2 0.'

-1S.2 _12,8 -12.0 _ 1'.2
-10,4 -1],6

+

'.'
3.2 5.0

''',4

n
14

12

es.e
91,4

82 81

"

9),2
95,0

27.2
28,0 28,8

10."
12.2 H,O

.., - .., - e.a
, .a

lS 36 37 38 39
40

ss.e

100,4 102.2 104,0

...,

..
as
88 90 92

+

176,0
117,8 179,6 181.4 18).2 185,0 186,8 188.6

n,

+

104,0 .104,8

tet

+

356.0
]S7.8 )59,6

+

144.0 1+4,8
145,6 1<W!.4 147,1 148,0 '''',8 '''9.6 1 SO... 151.2 152.0

+

+

1012

..,
400 480 520

65.'
66.' 67,2 68.0 68.'

132 133

i05.6
106,4

134 135 '36 137 '38 139
'40 14' 142 143 '44 145 t .. 148 14' ,SO 1S' 152

107.2.
108,0 108,8 109,6 110," 111,2 112.0 112.8 11],6 11"," 115.2 116,0 116,8 117.6 118." 119,2 120,0 120.8

'83 18'
'85 '87
t ..

29.6
]0,4

31.2 32.0
32,8

_.

-• • -, -• 7 5

1S.B
17,6 19,4 21,2

+

3 2

,
2 3

23.0 24,8 26.6 28.1
)0.2 32,0

- '.0 - 7.2 - 5.' - 4.~ - '.0 - 3.2 - 2.' - t.e - 0.'
0.0

'.'

41
42

105,8 107,6 109.4 111,2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118,4 120.2 122.0 1B.B 125.6 127,4 129.2 1]1.0

n.e
]5.2
]6,0 )6.8

43
44

34,4

4S
46 47 48

0 t

SO
52

"
"
56

37.6 3M
39,2 40.0 40.'

" '" " " " ss " " " reo
94 '01
102

69,6
70,-4 71,2 72,0

190 .. 4
192,2 194,0 195.8 197,6 199,4 201,2

rz.e

n.6
14.4 75,2 76,0

289.'

,,, ,,, ,,, ,.,
'90

361.4 363,1
365,0 3.... 368,6 37M

6SO 700
7SO 0>0

'112
1292 14n '562 '652 17 .. 2 18]2

'202
'382

S60
600

m.r
]7".0

sse

8SO ."

640 680 ".
760 100

375.8 379." 381,2

3n,6

193

..

203.0 lO·U 206.6 208.4
210,2

76,8 77,6
78.4 79.2 80.0 80.'

'47

'94 ,,, '96 , ,,,
'97
200 210

15].6 15 ..... 155,2 156,0 156.8 157,6 158." 159.2 160.0 168.0 176.0

152.'

'000
'050 1100 11SO

'922
'012 2,.,

..

,""
1150

""
2m 2462 2551 2642 2732 2822 2912 3002 3092 3182 1272 J362 3452

840 880

38J,O 3IM,8 386,6 388." ]90.2

,ioo nso
'400 14SO

"82

." ...
,""
1120 1160 ,,40

,
5 7 10

·
• •

B,8 35,6 37.4
]9,2

+

0.'

212.0 213.8
115,6 217,4 21'-2

392

'500
1SSO '600 16SO 1700 1750

1.6
2.' 3.2 '.0

41.6 43.2

et.e
8],2 ".0

42••
44.' 46.' 48.2

"',0'
SO.O

11 12 14

51.B
5],6

n
1S 16

57.2
59,0

55."

10,4

... ,.. ..., ..
5.' 7.2 '.0

53 54 55 57 58
60

42.4

'03 '04
105

82.'

153 .'54
155 '56 157

lOS.'

121.6
122," 123.2 1H.0 114.8 115,6 126." 127.2 128.0 128,B 129,6 110." 131.2

220 230 240 250 260 270

44.0 44.'

132.8
134.6 136.4 138,2 140,0 141,8 143,6 145.4 147.2 149,0 150,8 152.6 154.4

,06
107 10.

221.0
222.'

45.6
46.'

"
61 61 63
64

47.2
48.0 48.'

""
,10

224.6 226.4
228.2

".'
85,1> 87.2 ".0

'" '" '" ,_,
soo
554

.10

,'" ,""
'2110
1320

'000

1114.0 192.0 200.0 208.0 216,0

'360
'400 '440 "80 1520

".'
90.'

nt
112

1)0.0
2]1.8

11.2
12.0

49.6 SO.4 51,2
52.0

113
11. 115 '16 ",

231.6 US," 1)7,2 219.0
140.8

...., ...
92.0

158 159
'60 16'

280
'90 300 310 320 330 340 3SO

".
S36 S72
590 .. 2

'800

224.0
232.0 2 ..1),0 HB.O

'850
eec
ese
2050 2100

320.0
121.8 323,6 325," 327.2 329,0 330,8 H2.6

'62 '63
'64

608 62'
644

2510.0
264.0 272.0 280.0 288.0

21SO 2200 23SO 2400 14SO 1700 2150

35..2

rsse
'680
1720

rrn
3812 3902 3992

3612

,..,
ieee
"40 1920 1960

'600

'1.2 92.B 9].6 94.' 95.2
%.0

1760

" "
20
21

17

60.' 62.6
64.' 66.2 68.0

12,8
1],6 14 .•

15.2
16,0

" " "
66 68

tss
'66 167 '68 16.

112.0
132,8 133,6 135.2 136,0 1l6,B 117.6 13B." 139,2 110,0

52,8 53,6
54,4

360
370

156.2 158,0
159.8 161.6 163,4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172,4 174.1

55.2
56.0 56.' 57,6

,,,
ita 122 123
12. 125

242.6 144.4 246.2 2.... 0 219.8 251.6
25).4

70
71

22 23 24 25 26
27

·n.4
75.2
77.0

6'-8 71.6

16,8
17,6 18.4 19.2 20,0 20.' 21.6 22,4 23.2

120 121

72
73 74

58.4 59.2
60.0

255.2 257.0 258.8

'fT.' "..
".2 100,0 100.8

....

336,2 3]8.0

HH
339.8 H1.6 H)." 3"5,2 H7.0 3"8.8 ]SO.6

13..,,,

380
390

680 '96
716

2250 2300

0082
"'72 4262

296.0
301.0 312.0 120.0 128.0 3l6,O ] ..... 0 352,0 360,0 368,0 176.0 384.0

.. 352
0442 "512 46" ..712 4802 4892

734 7Sl
770 788

'70 17'
172

400
'10 420

2SOO
25SO 2600 2650

173 17.
175

.30
440 'SO .70 "0

806 82.
.. 2

78.8
80.'

7S 76 77

60.'
61.6

tae
127 ",

" "

82.'
".2

" "

62.4 63.2

'"

260.'
262.4
264.2

101.6
102.4 10).2

'"
17.
'79

'76

352."
]54.2

'''1,''
'''3,2

11O.B 141,6

460

""

-70 -

'" ." -71.78

'"

27SO 20>0

...,
son

'880
2000 2080 2120

1160
2200 2240 2180 2320 2360

5162

]92,0

2900 19SO

5252
514l

- TABLA DE CONVERSION
KILOGRAMOS POR CENTIMETRO CUADRADO EN LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA
Kg,. por libra, libra, Kg,. Kg'. por por por por em' ...I'..ulg_ada· em' ....I'.ulg_ada· em' libra, por pulgada' Kg'. por libra, por pulgada'

-TABLA

DE CONVERSION

LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA EN KI LOG RAMOS POR CE NTIMETRO CUADRADO
libras por pulg' Kgs. por libra. por pulg' Kg s, por Libras por pulg' Kgs. por libras por pulg' Kg,. por

em' 17.2

em' 7.031 7.171 7.312

em' 10.827 10.968 11.108 11.249 11.390 11.530 11.671 11.812 11.952 12.093 12.233 12.374 12.515 12.655 12.796 12.937 13.077 13.218 13.358 13.499 13.639 13.780 13.921 14.061 14.202 14.343

em' 14.624 14.764 14.905 15.046 15.186 15.327 15.467 15.608 15.749 15.889 16.030 16.171 16.311

em'

1.0 1.2

104
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2A 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 H 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2

14.1.23 17.068 19.913 22.757 25.602 28.447 31.291 34.136 36.981 39.825 42.670 45.515 48.359 51.204 54.049 56.893 59.738 62.583

604
6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2

91.029 93.874 96.719 99.563 102.408 105.253 108.097 110.942 113.787 116.631 122.321 125.165 128.010 130.855

11.8 12.0 12.2

1204
12.6 12.8 13.0 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2

167.836 170.680 173.525 176.370 179.214 182.059 184.904 187.748 190.593 193.438 196.282 199.127 201.972 204.816 207.661 210.506 213.350 216.195 219.040 221.884 224.729 227.574

244.642 1704 247.486 17.6 250.331 17.8 253.176 18.0 256.020 18.2 18.6 18.8 19.0 19.2 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.2

1804 261.710

258.865

100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152

70453
7.593 7.734 7.874 8.015 8.156 8.296 8.577 8.718 8.858 8.999

154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206

208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 73-

262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310

180420
18.561 18.702 18.842 18.983 19.123 19.264 19.405 19.545 19.686 19.826 19.967 20.108 20.248 20.389 20.530 20.670 20.811 20.951 21.092 21.233 21.373 21.514 21.654 21.795

264.534 267.399 270.244 273.088

804 1190476

80437

1904 275.933
278.778 281.622 284.467 287.312 290.156 293.001 295.846 298.690 301.535 307.224 310.069 312.914

1404
14.6 14.8 15.0 15.2

160452
16.592 16.733 16.874 17.014 17.155 17.295

904 133.699
9.6 136.544 9.8 '139.389 10.0 142.234 10.2 145.078

9.140
9.281

2004
20.6 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.6 21.8 22.0

90421
9.562 9.702 9.843 9.984 10.124 10.265 10.405 10.546 10.687

650427
68.272 71.117 73.961 76.806 79.651 83.495 85.340 88.185

1504
15.6 15.8 16.0 16.2 16.6 16.8 17.0

1004 147.923
10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.4 11.6 150.768 153.612

170436
17.577 17.717 17.858 17.999 18.139 18.280

504
5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2

1560457
159.302 162.146 164.991

1604 233.263

2300418
236.108 238.952 241.797

2104 304.380

140483
-

-72-

DATOS SOBRE PRESIONES
Un milimetro de columna de mercuric

= 13.506 mm. de columna
= 0,0013596 otm6sferos atm6sferas

de aguQ.

metriccs, ontiguas.

»
Un milimetro de columna de agua a

= 0.0013158

+

4" = 1

Kg/m2 mm. de columna
curio
Q

= 0,07355

de mer-

()'>

Una

atmosfera

metrrce

= 1 Kg/em' = 735,5 = 737.4

» » »

mm. de columna mm. de mercuric
inglesas inglesas

de mercurio a 15" de mercuric de agua par a pulgoda

Q

cr
()o

= 28,958 pulgodas

= 10 metros de columna

+

a 4"

LECTURA DE MANOMETROS
EQUIVALENCIAS
Una atmosfera metrlcc
-

= 14.223 libras
= 0,968

cue-

drado. atm6sferas ontiguas. de mercurio a 15° de mercurio de agua
Q

Una atmosfera antigua

= 760 mm. de columna = 766

a

I kilo
por

por ern?

()o

mm. de mercuric

= 29,922 pulgodas = 10;333 metros

inglesas de columnd

a

()o

Kilogramos Un

por

ern? a libras

pulgcdc?

+

4"

kilogramo por libra

»
Una libra par pulgoda cuadrado

= 14.696 libras inglesas = 27.71 .pulgadas = 2.31 pies ingleses = 2.041 pulgadas = 1~ libras por

par pulgada de agua

cuadrado. a 15
0

-

14,223 libras.
a kilogramos ki logramos. por pulgcdo? por em?

inglesas inglesas

Libras Una
0

pulgad~
-

» »

de agua. de mercurio a 15 pie cuadrado.

0,0703
a libras

= 0,068 ctmosfercs. Una pulgada de mercurio a 15
0

Atrnosfercs

= 1.132 = 13,58 = 0.491

pies de agua. pulgadas ltbrcs Hbrcs por per por de agua. pulgada cuadrado.

Una atmosfera Libras Una
NOTA. etmcsfencc.

=

14,223 libras.
a ctrnosferas.

» »
Un pie de agua a 15
0

por libra

pulgada2

= 62.355

pie cuadrado. pulgada cuadrada.

- 0,0703 ctrnosfercs.
los mcnornetros. 10 lecture cere cor responde a 10 presion

»

= 0,433 libras

En todos

-74 -

75 -

i .802 2.241 '.0] 0. absoluto Temperalure Volume" d<'!ll(g en m"' e"'enlig en m' Kg en aIm. e...102 1]1.416 1.338 0.1 129.385 0. 5. ! Go U 1.7 157.138 0.552 7..101 '.5 5.1 141.1 159..28) U87 2.J OJ." 0.65 9. NN~~~~~~~~O N -76 - -77- ...1 126.1 s. 141.~ .. '.1 '. " . ~.256 1.190 0.1 181.7 0..115 1.123 0.0438 0..127 0..117 0...020 1.1 119..993 1.]76 6..2 153..470 0.148 0.99 t.306 0.107 7.069 0...419 0.m 0. .621 6.3 0.171 2.9 1S1.1 193..5 117.~ ...75 '.'" .862 1.4 15.6 1.. ~ .' '.77.77 .' lB.5 152.8 '.9 100....6 no...721 3..227 0.697 0.nt 0.2 69..357 150.0 14].8 194.' '.. ·~ .J 93.161 0.B32 0. 4.161 1.01 6..101 1..331: 0.VAPOR DE AGUA SATURADO Pre~lon oblOlwlo '" aim Temperalurg Volumen de 1 Kg hw d~ 1 en Prnion ~.~ 155. .' .1 1.0 1]6.410 l. U 0.1 110.' 0.568 ]....467 ·s i I! .8 176. '0 · .. ".161 ].1 140.617 0 .4 181..672 0 .6 175.549 0 ..8 1046.4.2 1....269 ~ ~ .451 1.S '''.228 '6.)U 1..459 0 .75 t.1904 76..0 191.670 0.' 1.' '..188 0...5 S.099 137.6 164. .515 4.m 'E ~ .1 155.69 7.4 189.531 0.160 0.248 0.364 0.053 1.495 . " .S 6.118 " . ~ E ~ 0. 0.3.. ..2 81..7 1S1. .173 0. ".3 190..175 4. .9 160.65 10..1 118.141 0.619 1. .10 "" i E "0 > :I II .8 1~..002 0 .5 186..S ... 0.. .163 3.108 1.' lOS.4'1 B43 ].~ P.2 0.. · ~ . U .189 " " " '...853 2..941 ".' '...4 '74..3ao 115. Do E b ::l 7..374 0.1 0.s :.194 0.3'" " " " 10 200 202 lOS 208 )10 21l ...1043 0.. .' O.365 1.172 l.1 139.. · I ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~OO ~~~~~~~~~~~ __ E .87 8.663 0. . ~." 181." 7.521 0.742 7.' '.060 '... ~.. ~.r .5 161..016 97..72] ..7 111.170 0.' '. '.10 8.0:1:1 4.3 14'.. .' '..172 0..901 0 . .!! D. 0. ..7 1504.. 6.1 161.' '. 188.~.176 ]. 14S..8 161..H1 0.671 2.0 1.490 '.5 117.1S4 0.109 0. 0.756 1..B to.1 164.' 187.511 5.~ ..'" 171.6 a.) 1'1.' 11.. .185 ..587 0.110 .6SO .021 S.0 153..596 1.1 4.0.S95 2.811 0. 0...1 169.7S '.786 1.150 2..009 0.' 1.15 9..1 0.419 0.15" 6. 180. b .41' 2.2)0 2.694 1.0 102.s 0..75 11.15 11.S.371 0.4" 0.7 5..009 11..130 0..104 0.916 0..390 1....6SO 4.209 0. ..)16 0.~ de 1 m en Kg encenlig.905 U '.' .640 5.7 115.)14 1.007 1.1 179.l.6 0. .157 0..4 163.<'" 0. ~ .15 11~ 11..115 0..1 121." '1.'99 0..' 121..76<1 185.. 1.170 5.on '41.lSO 0.75 . 1.155 0. 0.915 1.B" 0. .5 "'09 1.S to.1 1..197 3. tG.7 3.' '.' '..' n. I! b ~ .115 0.....956 ].6047 2..753 0.418 1.111 0.180 0.5 170.166 0..5 148.<00 168.181 0.!.' '..508 1.570 1. 0.1046 0.' .1 107. .5 o.9 135.133 0...518 1..n6 O.]94 • .178 2.' U.9 178.177 0. =~ · ~ .102 0.698 2..1 1044. " M 7.' '..1 166.' '.8 172..' '.19] 0.116 0..1 0.140 3. ~ 1. '1.1 149...9 157..265 0.2 "..887 0. u~ 14..ns 'A " ~.' '..133 0.' 132. '.1&4 109.111 159.212 ].0 163.8 165. '.' ." n...' '.7 1'S.543 5.2 1'2.378 0.719 0.' 0.' 1.97 . . .n7 2.' '.7 111.'49 4. :: .' '1. .' '..812 1.." '.~ ~..M' 3.

.000 11. Zinc.9 colories kg/m: 1 CALOR METALES LATENTE DE FUSION CUERPOS Azufre . 10. U. Parafina Gfrcc nno .800 7. ) Buena Hullo I ~n~~~il~.750 8. Alcohol.900 10. = 8.600 4.000 3. 632 calorios-kilogramo.500 2.1 CALORIFICAS COMBUSTIBLE Aceite solar. 427 kilogrcimetros.00110 0. 1. Agua (promedio) Eter .00100 0.4 55. . ill ~ 94. T.00018 9. 6.2 28 LATENTE CUE R PO S COMBUSTIBLE Antrocita.342 calorias-gromo. = Caloria ingleso.000 7.610 10. .230 10. DE VAPORIZACION CALORIA·KG.~ colidod. Petr61eo • Mazut (similar gos-oil) POTENCIAS ~~.4 27.5 63 80. Gas de alto horno. .CA Uno calorio-kilogromo LOR cclorio grande. Alurruruo . Hierro Niquel Mercurio Plata Plomo Plalino .600 completo) 4. Gas ccetlleno Madera Turbo. Coque metchirqtco.4 90 Azufre. Nitrato Ccdnuo. Petr61eo .100 11. Cotorro-Kq 13 30 23 30 4.00050 0. Gas de alumhrado. 0.55 celer-ies kg/kg. U. 8.000 9. Alcohol Benzol. Benzol. T.600 7.8 21 5.6 » Un ktloqrcrnetrc Un HP-hora Un kilovatio-hora Una B.500 INFERIORES CALORIA·KG. 0. 2.100 10. CALOR potcisico.590 -78 - -79 - . CALORIFICAS SUPERIORES CALORIA·KG.00160 0.00018 0. Carbon de madera (combusti6n Coque de gas.000 10.000 10. POTENCIAS Caloria-Kg. 9.100 3. Benzol. Petrclec en bruto .000 calorias-gromo. por pie cubrcc B.000 7.800 7. Liqnltc . Hrc!o (agua).4 14 77 Estono Cobre Fundtcton gris. U. Gltcertnc • Mercurio. Gas-oil (ccette de gas) Benzol.1 42.000 768 11. . /::.000 Brtquetcs de hullo. por libra Uno B. ~~~.4 35. Ete r • (0 O~). T.00120 0. Alcohol Gasolino. Petr61eo [rectificcdo] Gasolino. 860 calorias-kilogromo. DILATACION CUERPOS CUBICA 1" C Amoniaco (a 0"') Acido carbonico 362 210 304.

02793 .06671 .4061 19.9038 22.4 11. <1 .6946 23.9687 16.04774 .06241 .M85 49.01164 .M18 24.3007 3 2 1 0 cmontccc.02328 .9 12.00146 .MI3 63.1 3.03114 .06116 .04191 .03406 .265 .9766 18.8978 24.06788 14.01484 .1708 18..01978 .892 107 .06708 .2900 056.02367 ..1840 22.02036 l' !.01367 .7015 17.04162 .3 64 67 6S •• 00 ~Jg&2 taD 3b:~2~ .02473 .04396 .01862 .06700 I" 1s 1< 13 12 11 10 1.932 171.7601 66. nieve. 37 86 8.03871 .9898 14. 3.06626 .0.022{() .03492 .6321 23.06603 .6762 16.2 10.106 343.7 3.5 11.00669 .4283 16.0IS82' 17. agua agu? agua.06_ .04279 .00<07 .2049 21. .984 180.01776 .6177 38.06970 :8:li .02153 ..79M .7303 32.049'9 :~J . sal amoniaco.06875 .01613 .9244 21 22 23 2' 2.2671 18.6106 17 6206 17.03026 .98 5.03726 .6936 33.760 1718.00624 .9702 19.03066 .1879 19. 01687 .01047 .06153 .1190 16.02968 .06446 .7686 37.7117 27. 16 17 4..01193 ..02939 .00176 .06270 .2261 44.6076 16.03929 .0661 43..3432 17.3 11. .06730 14.8771 28.00068 .03492 .3676 24.014M . .06233 .04104 .2296 26.4~ 18.182 214.02096 . • dct- do nit rico disuelto.'116 30.03667 .00931 00900 .06620 ..03269 .8460 26.06766 .02677 .6363 t •• .00873 .0<'" .8696 .7619 22.9699 30.8319 16.9372 27.4335 41. 17 I.. disuelto.6 . •• .7496 16..847 79.04862 . 28 211 30 MEZCLA Partes en peso Descenso De de temperatura A ·C Salitre. Caoba Lal6n 10 11 • • • • • • 6 7 0 1 .06146 .06796 . 14.3711 29.lOun y Colangenles 2' tan .7 11.943 ~::~~3 74.04Ml .5 0.01M2 .01076 .06881 . MODELO DE Hierro fundido Lal6n Cobre Bronce Aluminio Plnc 0 abeto 16 9 9.0273 33.4823 .3 10.. s6dico. 6() '1 '2 .02&18 .068<7 14.6081 42.8188 20..04366 .2716 27.139 71. ..01426 .8006 3li.6&U 18.6681 16. 33 32 31 30 .3263 20.0760 1lI.03230 .M367 .3678 34.3264 16.03900 .06066 . .02386 .1776 36. .05182 .3369 21.02689 .5 11.6 4.007" .217 96..6833 30.6932 20.11~ 98.02602 .1 11.01106 .6069 .6 I' " .6284 31.0<488 .3 0.04li12 .6367 26.02066 .06737 .9174 40.04832 .05212 .0S007 .04076 .06437 .01280 .3 <7 .607 132. nitrico dt- do sulfurtco suelto ..00349 .01668 .4704 21.00MO .00233 .3679 36.04308 .9 3.3607 .219 190.4899 27.03783 .3662 33. .03346 .4633 88. :1 :2 9:4 .01746 .7 0.7 13.00640 .7 13.03_ 28.621 286.2969 19.3 20 l' .00496 .6418 26..00087 .. .06906 14.03609 .08379 ..06'" 3.4638 lli.0798 24.05328 .939 83.05627 36.000211 .8646 19.4 10.9560 36.2137 23. nitrico sulfurtcc nitrico s6clico.0811 18.8863 17.00663 .7186 24.885 163.7426 21.060562 .00786 .3606 66. de ecleto.06204 .01629 .4368 39.1664 27..1967 24.7"83 16..7 0..03679 .4212 .04220 .1222 16.478 264.908 90.7934 17.01920 .9656 39.2122 16.9 13.4416 M.774 ::~:~n 67.5340 16.04337 .6691 20.01018 .02764 .06291 .00116 .03968 .atH2" .6567 62.06096 .6020 22.9 15.. •• 31 . disuelto dcf do sal nieve.00682 .1181 31.06817 14. Nitrato Cloruro Cloruro Acido Acido Acido Fosfato Fosfato amcmco.3499 16. .06934 H.04716 .03838 .4489 46.04260 .870 1146.00<36 312.219 121. 9:6:4 89' ecren 88' 87' .02619 . 3. 104.4314 17. disuelto.3718 23.1962 16.06533 .4&6 143.9160 16.00262 .2568 17.0636() 211 2.0811 taD 19.04803 .8294 46.04891 .4106 40.otan 86' tan - 80- -81- .436 687.0283 23.0872 19. de sodto.03463 .06087 .06<0. .99 19.06613 .0601SS .9990 16.3032 6O.7678 18.3 <1 3'i 83 36 36 37 38 3.02444 .7317 .06093 14.8813 21.71lil 34.6069 39.8 11.01309 .00291 .05241 ecten .9 14. nfeve.0837 16.06963 14.4316 26.7403 19. .9 Roble.02211 .0<687 .04668 .489 92.00568 38.2 . • • • • 7 6 .01396 .066<.00989 .04133 .OMI6 .60056 21.9460 20.06642 .4 -24 -12 -16 -33 -18 -35 -41 -40 -9 -6 Sal amoniaco.02:1&0 .01833 .4992 69. 60 ISS 67 66 64 68 6' 61 <7 .012~1 .8823 29..6814 16.4 16.02910 .01804 .. .02416 .02881 .01891 .10b 6iilll 64 63.06769 14.04920 .04016 .03812 .95 frigoriftcas 19.06176 .700 IM.02861 .8 12.3 13.441 246..M38 .2671 16.04628 .02106 .. • :1 :1 : 5: 16 :1 +8 + 10 + 10 0 0 -14 -5 -19 + 15 + 12.00962 .0217 21.01671 . nitrato.03621 Cloun tan .1693 17. 3437..01136 .03376 .06664 .06037 .171 101.0667 14.037M ._ 13 1< I.62.1039 48.00320 .06678 .047'6 . .. 27 26 26 23 22 21 20 .7 10.06262 .6(K8 16.0M74 .0307 26.1893 16.1li33 68.4213 32.689 110.00378 .00W .920 869.01222 .2 0.7086 62.967 491.02822 ." 29.00698 .6010 114..lOUD tan .868 202.61056 19.04978 .M9 672.3 3.02007 .8211 16.4121 47.843 81.6161 70.0666 26.2066 20.3943 16.2416 30.1220 28. Haya Tilo Peral Abedul Aliso.02182 .3994 28.1 10.03434 ..02124 .9641 42.~ 16.00611 .269 149.0462 32.0_ 3· cota..01338 .4313 36.14'6 29. 96 .08321 .4466 20.3 15.85 Mezclas 18.00000 Infinite.01716 ._7 .774 118.237 137.3081 22.729 73.2644 26.03987 .03084 . dci· . nfeve..3866 18.06299 . 26 2'.3 14.8821 62.&383 28.0696 34.4617 26.01600 .07'7 20.2 14.060211 .1885 37.8886 .0<&99 .06691 .03143 . •• •• .02736 .02269 .lotaD .8711 18.00727 .8167 49.8 10.01746 !.4Ml 22.01949 .6273 19. nieve.H3 85.662 229.00814 .03172 .02531 .03n7 .426.0863 46.8693 23.0807 61.9168 41.a802 17.8386 44.03201 .02298 . :2 :1 :1 :1 disuelto.00204 .321 122.8348 26.7395 47.8206 31.Peso de las piezas fundidas en relaci6n con su modelo taD o· T angentes !.0436 16.04670 .6 12.0677 22.02997 .03288 .

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" ..99967 .07759 .99786 .02908 .99834: .98327 .96.05466 .99990 .99721 .5 . •• 42 :6~ 40 36 37 38 39 2• 23 22 21 20 ~~!I ~~ ss ~5 • s 7 •• •• •• so 47 '1 ..99999 .01658 .99869 .99979 .04914: ..99994 .07~ .01~39 1. .99974 .08136 .99886 .02181 .99831 .99774 .08107 . •• •• •• eo 47 M '2 M M '7 98671 ..08629 .OM24: .98155 .00785 .99829 .07643 .02763 .99907 .04972 05001 ...02065 02094 .99941 .04420 .01193 . 99994 ..01571 .01164 seno 0 coseno .00994 1..01367 .- -----w--".01018 . 28 27 2. 02938 .01583 1.0703' . 47 42 41 3• 38 37 3• 33 32 31 30 29 2' 27 2• 2' 22 21 20 .04943 .06511 .9884:3 .99876 9<)875 99873 .99902 .99999 .05350 .00233 1. 08513 .08252 08281 .0U74: 1.99930 .99984 . 99994 . 38 3.0444:9 .03965 .04:827 . .99978 .2 r.99996 .99652 99710 .99961 .99912 .99671 .03012 1.00176 ..99993 .97927 . 05669 .99792 .08542 .99868 .55 0.04:100 .99985 . 01047 .05873 .06366 .99189 .99478 .9991)7 .99971 .04653 .024:14 \.99131 .99857 .00461 1.07991 .06569 .01105 .00524 ..7643 .06743 06773 06802 06831 .99977 99977 99976 .01702 1.06540 .04:013 .02821 .99860 .99990 .99901 .08658 .05785 .99813 .99856 .99861 .06611 05640 .02211 .99933 .03112 .02892 1.98441 .99632 .06627 .064:53 .05088 05117 .03228 .91359 .01879 1.5146 0..01524: 1.99942 .04391 .03897 .99678 .99654 .99710 .99725 99723 .03635 .99972 . se M sa .99694 .00378 y Cosenos 0 cosena .00582 .04:623 .02676 .04885 .07527 .99740 .97813 .99784 .99974 .03072 1.06598 .01406 1.99803 .141 .99927 . 38 37 3.0 10 • 11 12 13 .97756 .01803 .02501 .99836 .06976 .08310 .96907 .08020 0.08397 ..99766 .99639 99637 .99995 ..99926 .99989 .00583 1. .998i2 .996tU .99935 .98499 as 34 33 32 31 30 2.99668 .99833 . • 2 2• 30 .03723 .07846 .04866 .01891 .04159 ..02706 .99734 .064:82 .. 99992 .08571 08600 ..99972 .99931 .99963 .99863 .99673 .01053 1.01746 .99738 .00116 1.99885 ..97016 .99708 .99782 .0 f1.99867 .99915 .99991 .04:04:2 . 16 20 11 12 13 ..00642 1.99996 ..00145 . 37 3' 3.99742 .99892 .0 .03141 .8 31 30 50 2• ~~ 11 .99826 .....05989 .03781 .99991 .99946 .96681 96138 .99975 .01076 .99969 .09890 ..99987 .99998 .99731 .99772 . 30 '0 31 32 33 47 " 17 I.9J973 .97586 .~~a .99980 .97984 .99776 .01483 .01425 .99957 .04:217 .99810 .997M .01170 1 sene 1 I ccsenc .99905 .99943 .97020 .99304 .04:129 .99727 .99750 .05321 . 0 1 2 3 • • • 7 8 •• •• .07566 . 20 21 22 23 2.00876 1.00087 . .02443 024:72 .00029 .03810 .05030 05059 .02660 .06860 06889 06918 06947 .99780 .5 . ..00000 ..99826 .99979 seno ~'cosene .00989 .7 . 17 18 ie .0456.98384 . ..05814 . . .99989 .99900 .99997 .99911 .99945 .03693 . 99970 .99982 .01112 1.99241 .99852 .03752 ..03432 03461 .01716 .03664 .03257 .02067 1. 1.99662 99649 99647 .00663 .02036 .00350 1.99746 .99630 .00756 .08194 . 99962 . so •• 35 45 3' 33 .99944 .074:11 ..02414 .99987 .. so •• •• •• •• Senos sene 0 1 2 .02832 1.99969 .05931 .'H75 0520. 00496 .06727 .01454 .5234 .99870 .99815 .99799 .99960 . .99981 .00960 ..00349 .07150 .99992 ..00669 oo6U8 .02269 . 00116 . •• •• as •• :~t~ •• •• ~I .0 5" .99842 .01513 .00727 ..08078 .99934 .99669 .02850 ....99683 .074:69 074:98 ..02713 1.99808 . i• 18 17 Ie 13 12 11 10 .98901 .02952 1.99849 .02123 .08223 .98213 .01761 1.99958 .oosor . 2< .OM08 .99904: .07672 07701 .99G66 •• .99909 .02792 .99925 .99998 .99968 .96625 ..99851 .99940 .01465 1.05263 ..07962 .99642 .99896 .02176 1. 18 17 I• .01832 .00818 1. 08426 084.05234: .99863 .99986 .99824: ..98270 .99716 .07904 .99692 .05553 .00873 .99804 ..99894: .99705 .99878 seno ..99993 ..99762 .99976 .99937 .07788 .02633 1.01774 . or .99806 .2 .06685 coseno .04333 .99797 .03553 1.99999 .01600 .99939 .06134: .02647 .07295 .04478 .05698 . ..99923 .99969 .99701 .97189 . 13 12 11 10 7 0 1 2 3 • • e 3 2 1 0 7 8 10 • • • • .99988 .06105 .99991 .99995 .02356 tan .99719 .99993 U~cosene 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 sene 00611 00640 . . 97810 .99986 I • • e 7 8 10 a 22 601" 23 59 58 57 3• • ..06308 . .99866 .01920 .99667 .99844 ..01949 .99905 .99932 .99986 . sa 99983 .99689 .01347 1.03252 1.0302.2 g~1:~ •• •• .06656 .99964 . 30 31 32 33 34 3' 3.99996 .99966 .02996 .96194 S68W .04769 .99729 . .025a0 .03490 ....02653 1.03519 .02386 .99790 .99999 .03403 .07121 .00931 .98041 .9994:2 1.06976 .99016 .04:071 . 999R9 .03868 .03132 1.03433 1.06395 .04:740 . 27 28 2.0424:6 . .01396 .99778 .04275 .00291 .07092 .02879 .04188 .99696 . .99938 . •• se .01288 1.01820 1.99950 . 41 42 43 tan eotan 1.0436~ ..03083 . 13 12 11 10 8 7 e s •• • 3 2 1 0 '2 1>3 .98958 .00935 1.07933 .02712 1.99817 . .97246 91302 .05495 ..99795 .--tan eotan 1.97700 eotan r-r-: 44' tan ------ 44° eotan 3.999M . .99854 .99714 .07237 .02240 . M 27 1>3 2' '2 2. 02734 .99889 . .99921 .9Q841 .03606 .0.99846 .07353 .99959 .00814 .99768 .0604:7 .99951 .03493 1.98098 .99913 .00902 .03926 . b7 se 2' 2.02295 1.5 .07063 .01542 .99953 .06337 .06424 .02327 .99982 .07M6 07614 .99821 .99999 .99699 .02967 . eotan 45' 45' tan 45' tan 21 22 23 24 2' 2.04694 .07730 .00701 1.04536 .03286 03316 03345 03374: .01280 01309 . !~Il~ 48 31 32 33 45 44 43 42 24 se 25 ss 26 27 M 63 2.99594: .99883 99882 .99788 .03490 60 68 .03372 1.06192 .06163 .05379 .99619 .06018 .99956 .99768 .99963 .99676 .99812 .01251 .00436 .99936 .03839 ..07324 .99712 .01229 21 1.02152 .99680 ..05902 . •• •• 60 .99997 .01687 .02618 .04304 .99864 .99822 .99998 .06714 .06279 .99906 ..00058 1 "17 I.98728 ...01338 .99924 .08166 .99965 .99999 .99922 .99910 .ooses .99997 .01134 .99703 .99847 .01862.08339 Osa68 .99996 .99793 .00759 1.00204 .97133 .04:798 .99838 .98786 .05844 .99801 .99995 .07382 .00526 1.08687 .07876 .04607 .99770 .99420 .99884: .01629 .02689 .02298 ..01745 .00408 1.03054 .06250 .07179 .99988 ..99686 .99917 .00844 .00233 .99939 .oozvi • • 11 12 13 I.0..99013 .99888 .074:4:0 .99998 .07817 .05582 .04711 .99966 . coseno •• .99839 .05766 .99949 99948 99947 .974:16 974:72 97529 .99952 .02117 1.02236 1.7 ss .99766 99764 99762 99760 99758 99756 sene seno .00058 .99627 99625 99622 .07006 .00320 .99819 .99827 .0 .99736 .99929 . 2' 24 23 22 20 •• .02593 1.99919 .99536 . 99916 .99362 ..99918 ..05292 .99999 .

98643 .~~~~ ~ .98304 .21246 .18281 . 17708 .2OM9 .'} .98565 .21132 .18967 . 16677 .98546 .98561 .98430 .98141 .97934 .21016 .97667 .98229 .19609 .1:1254 9H118 40 .97922 .98481 10' sene .13514 ::~:H :~g2~!:~1~ ~~ Ii :~~~~~ .98027 .98383 .09585 .20136 .16873 .97869 .98067 .09324 2. .9M09 .98310 .10164 .17166 . 1'~:~~1 il " .97797 .22410 . 101326 .99508 .97742 .18367 .17995 . 97G88 .17665 .16648 .98283 .98325 .20791 .08716 1 2 .21275 .19224 .0 .97916 .19081 .18138 .18481 .140VO .20307 .'i48 .1~16 .98506 .21644.21616 .16103 .137 .22297 .19109 . 97660 .19880 .98373 .10453 .17823 .5eg?. .20421 .08976 o .12908 .16734 .21331 .98g14 39 37 36 35 34 33 3• 38 37 3S 3' 3• 33 32 31 30 g~ :~~ll :~U~~ Ilmg ~~m\1.98021 .20393 .16964 .99~5.98536 .18023 .15931 .21768 .11320 .~ :g~!A~ 'l~~~f 3~}g~ ~U~~.20990 .98782 3 0 • • 3 2 1 0 • ss 98769 --+--1-cosenc 840 sene coseno 83° -seno coseno! 82° sene cosenc 81e sene coseno j seno 80° cosenc 79° sene coseno 78° coseno 77° - 94- - 95- .21303 . 18196 .97636 .98341 .97969 .99614 9~)612! '.14666 99156 .'32 14 \1 :~~~~~1'1 .993~41.tg~g~ '.1 :H~~~ 46 .98652 .99599 9 .16988 .19338 .16787 .98686 .13341 .:3~.12649 .19452 .16246 .55 ~!~!~ .18767 .16132 .222. 97764 .l~~~1. 68 63 .17737 .~~~~~ .21786 .16218 .99002 54 .19396 .98541 .fHI424 \ 12447 .7 .98714 .20962 .19994 .:eno ~ ~f'.97502 :97496 .97784 .98207 .22467 .9g575 1.98368 .09353 3 .98201 .98288 .97778 .99098 ~~g~:~~t~ l~ •• 45 4.97663 .98073 .mu78 14521 99175.98420 .10045 .98957 98953 98948 98944 45 44 43 42 41 40 11 12 13 If 16 IS 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2.98079 .99553 .11G67 .17694 .97981 .17422 .98728 .14695 98940 9893638 98931 .1181:18 .98129 .98476 .09874 .137i3 .16304 .98760 .16591 .97899 .98245 .09932 .09440 26 09469 27 09498 30 31 .19709 .20636 .9H76 .W 99317 .11523 .97467 .12158 .17637 .97\)92 .979.~~:~~ : g~~~g~g~:t!n~ .18624 .98585 .09614 ~ :g~~~.20336 .16533 .22156 .98394 .98681 .97906 .98196 . .97698 .')~:L90 ~~~g~ I .992.18509 .98352 . 9764.21104.98769 .9D48J .98315 .97987 .16505 .99406 \ 12620 .98039 .99006 55 .16447 .9939\:1 12678 .12':.20563 .14781 .99506 .lg~~b:~g::~ .17393 .98751 .22013 .98460 .97772 .2 '1 .99462 .11234 \)\)367\12966 ..98016 .97698 .22326 .09787 . 97666 . l·lnfiO .97460 .g~~~ :g~~l~ :~:n~ \ :g~~6g~i :l!~~g:g~~~~~ .99567 11031 99564 99562 .08947.20820 .9\1230 ':In226 .16969 ..21966 .99580 I IOSS7 .14148 .97604 .97692 .98858 .12187 .98765 .17164 17193 .98709 .97611 .6 .97711 . 35 3S 37 38 39 .21446 .99167 14608 .20791 coseno .98Of' .91l:.21474 .97437 sene .18595 . I se~~-51.t:~~~ :~ .98399 .97666 .99467 .'i ' tmH:~ 12274 !!1·12216 .98118 .98250 .97642 .97952 .19666 . 57 58 60 1 .9\1619 1 . 203M .97809 .99047 : 99031 99027 .10048 99494 .17623 .97821 .21672 .~n~ 99027 60 99~00213g !98 .20193 .98101 .97692 .98218 .97621 .98367 .98151 .16992 .127:15 993\:10 12764 'II ~\1200 I \18197 99193 !l918\) .17366 .98718 .:gg~~~g ~ ~ i .14651 99171 14580 .98461 .18424 .98140 ..1 42 .14436 14464 14493 98965 .21360 .16730 .~~~tr.11609 .98732 .55 .16846 .97893 .13053 . i8652 .98491 .98662 .20877 .22382 .19908 .9\.97508 .988l4 10 ~~ .98600 .13:199 :i ::~~:~g!i~:Ht8 :g::~~~ :~~8H.16849 .20592 .21M2 .99380 12851 .98107 .18081 .97630 .22098 .98299 .\19222 9'J219 13917 1:1946 13975 : .09179 .16706 .08774 3 08803 -.20478 .98240 .98486 .i .98266 .19167 .16275 .15557 ~~~~~ 15643 .97679 .97815 sene sene .9g551 .13889 .16476 .98531 .16562 .~:~g~:~~m ·~g~~t '~~~1} ~~ g~ :~n~ 'g~~~~ '~g~i~ ·g~l~~ :g~g ~~ :1H~1 :lH1~ .19481 .98136 .13917 .17937 .98614 .98294 .22363 .20022 .98609 .0 f1 42 43 Il1!004S~ .98863 .977el .19538 .~g~~~~5!~~ 'll5?~ ~~~~~ ~1~~~ §~g~~~~~1.\1':1163 14637 \)9160 .98521 .21669 .20165 .21899 .98112 .19652 .34 ..99449 .19.16906 .98927. " 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 sene .988.19281 . 2S 27 28 2.98163 .18738 .97976 .19596 .99511 .16074 .90428 12418 10113 ".'i96II 5 16 17 18 19 o :g~~~~ II .97748 . 20108 .18587 .98336 .:~3gf 1\ .14205 60 '7 ~.97685 .18681 .22041 .21843 .99559 99556 .17365 coseno .98481 . ~ :~g~~g.11176 993741.o.20933 .98272 .90386 12793 11089.11147 ':19377 .15758 .18452 .98902 30 .98496 .98162 . :g~~y .16189 .eno .98179 .19052 .98961 .993.09005 .979.98223 .20450 .99354 99141 37 11060 ..98378 .18262 .18395 . 98060 .0 .20279 ..17909 .11205 ~9370 .98566 .1::!880 .15356 .14119 .98186 .98638 .13081 .17021 17050 .98426 .19823 . I .17250 .09237 092% .21388 .18852 .97766 .994461.21161 . 6 08889 .202M .98501 .99540 .97827 .98404: .18109 .97723 .992.97963 .19794 .98746 .b781' .18538 .\17673 .98576 .16333 . .98261 .98619 .19366 .21047 .21985 .17966 .22126 .igg :~~~~} ~ ~ :t18iU :U:~!:Hl~ U!~bI ~gg~~ :ij~ng i g~ 'I 1 . 30 31 32 33 •• •• •• .e:r..20222 .99144 .98146 . 11783 : \JUSS3 1115241 .20079 .')1 .1882.1224.9918~ 14349 14378 14407 . .178112 .99186 .22.97736 .98\:198 53 9899452 :9988~9086 !01 -" " Hn. 98923 98919 ..97623 .19737 .20677 .97616 .!)!)4521~2187 .98676 .97839 .16419 .20734 .17508 .22212 .1~70~ 91l3f13 .98595 .98690 .19195 .98466 .17651 .1 .21630 .98440 .98580 .09382 24 .en:1 .19937 .98234 .99067 1 " 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 .17078 17107 17136 . 17680 .16390 .22070 .21871 .19966 .18910 .17880 .16701 .97845 ..13370 .98066 .16017 .19138 .16878 .19262 .09295 .99578! 10916 .98010 .98436 .21417 .97881 .98854 21 20 19 29 28 27 2S 2• 24 23 22 21 20 1• 18 17 1• 1• n :~Jyg'g~~~~.98704: .087451.21687 .98033 .99106 i .97680 .~TIi :~~~~~ II.98633 .9H70 .98764 .18166 .o.98667 .98004 .97483 .97876 .97833 .97887 .98590 .98090 .99602 8.97997 .50 .97803 .99456 .16820 .8 f7 09150 .19680 .21218 .98671 .98629 .18996 .16160 .98551 .97463 .19851 .984.19623 .97t89 .12:>89 10684.98695 .1163.18710 .21729 .98624 .09903 .98061 .98700 .20848 .98389 .6 .19081 coseno .97851 .98723 .13629 .09411 25 .17222 .98516 98511 .10742 'J1I421 12476 • • .97673 .~g~~? .9910211.20706 .20051 .98657 .98414 .10308 .g~g~~ !~ I .1383 12822 11118 .16620 .98163 11 sene .98168 .974« .21928 .99537 .20607 .9\)248 -90244 99233 .98471 .20906 .98174 .18881 .98124 .17279 17308 17336 .97628 ..98737 .98190 .913362 .98604 .14177 .18796 .17419 .98648 .97729 .15672 .20763 .092f)8 .98570 .97760 .18338 .97861 .10453 10482 10511 10540 .976.97717 .18938 .996171 '.~§~~!~ .21701 .97857 .'1 .l~H~ :ni~~ ::~~~~ ~~ 1 .19766 .98320 . 980M .eno 6".97910 .3 f2 41 fa .~gg~f :~~:~t ~g ~ I ~ l?.22268 .98526 .98347 .98267 .9\16001 7 :089181. f7 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5.97968 .97617 .18052 .99357 .22183 .99594 I~ ~~~ ~ :g~b -~~~3¥I . 97634 .97863 .99258 .9\)396 .17461 .gg~~~ ~ .16361 .11349 . .21189 .20620 .16643 .9\l.12043 99:!72 00 :10424 .98212 .9764.09570 lI002 .16792 .2181 • .8 .19024 .96 coseno .90572 I097:{ .17794 .23 ..21019 .19309 .97706 .16763 .16935 .18309 .16046 .98331 .~~~i:~~~~} ~~ ~~ :g~~l~' :~~~~~ :n~~ :~ri11} :g~~~:~~g~ .15902 .9_ .22438 .994:101 IOf)5.97928 .:: 8:0.9~)431 .14061 .99520 . 15097 . .98466 .98277 .9~)402 .18224 . so ..

94988 .93789 .95493 .35130 35157 35184 .95874 .27312 .95972 .33271 .25685 .97015 .95630 sene 0 1 2 3 6 7 8 • • • 11 12 13 1.97378 . 33 32 31 30 28 27 2.22623 .34093 34120 34147 34175 .22608 .94264 .22722 .30320 .27927 .93483 .22778 .262(7 .34339 34366 34393 34421 . .29710 .33326 33343 .31510 .96656 .94284 .96682 .68. 17 1.95168 .32557 ..97365 .23514 .32061 .30736 .31178 .97271 .94814 .186 .93869 .29487 .26320 .36347 . 23 22 21 20 •• 30 31 3• 33 3• 3• 37 38 3• .23797 .1)5033 .27M8 .95124 .25038 .96685 . •• •• •• •• U <0 3.32282 32309 .30071 .30902 .29904 . 2S569 ..93769 .24249 .31675 .23996 .23712 .25826 .s 6006 .94019 .28290 .95398 .23882 .34311 .34993 .26769 .94137 .1 60 .28847 .26920 .96332 .23666 .29209 .94345 .96086 .6 47 .24023 .35293 .29737 .31593 ..95319 .29237 .23005 .34966 .26752 . .97278 .96715 .96887 seno 15 coseno .32639 .95186 .97061 .3 ••• 21 .29821 .29265 29293 29321 29348 .31123 31151 .94806 .31923 .94216 94206 .96647 .96471 .26066 .95948 ..27256 .28613 .94712 .33051 . seno .30670 .30846 . .93368 .95150 . 2862b .23373 .950117 95088 95079 95070 .95690 .23611 .24108 .22836 .29ot2 .24926 .96697 . 00 .23938 .96880 .33545 .5432 .96994 .93728 .24390 .30376 .94730 94721 .96340 .23231 .26612 .22693 .0 U .234.31841 .34912 .27452 .94186 . •• 53 50 57 .97030 9702.30929 30957 .23146 .9674.94438 94428 .25938 .30016 .96727 . 96M6 .93410 93400 93389 .966400 ..96519 . 266M .26191 .26668 .96980 .94447 .23863 .28096 .95424 .0 .2l'629 .96706 .26601 .30763 30791 .24446 .94457 .94245 94235 .29070 .94860 .956405 .2 51 '0 47 .33665 .96866 .33161 .95639 .28597 .23429 .96277 .05380 .31344 .28987 .24813 .29237 .968&7 .23599 .33682 .803 34830 .96923 .23033 .34448 . 1• 17 1• 15 ••• • 26 27 . .31730 .97417 .96807 .96261 .33819 33846 .32969 .'3 .26976 .503 24531 .24700 .30431 .28820 .97217 .95266 . 2• 1.31233 .31896 .95749 .27032 .27200 ..24615 .96355 .30708 .96774 .97298 .35619 .28123 " 21 22 23 .96799 .32199 .33298 .31372 .93358 .93544 .24192 eesenc .26892 . 50 57 OS .36375 35402 35429 35456 .26640 .22892 .943{1...35211 .96793 .96134 .97326 ...3738 . 96078 .113979 .94167 .35075 .94851 .24136 .96930 ..1 63 •• .94009 .29543 .96593 .27340 .94924 15 16 17 1• 19 '0 21 22 ..96502 ..31454 .32337 .28039 .28959 .29626 .30403 .95106 sene .94842 .33106 .26616 .31768 .95681 .97404 .68 .25854 .• 6690 .96142 .95177 . 1.33518 . .28708 .24Hl2 .97066 .34584 34612 34639 ..93667 60 10 • • • • 6 7 .96494 .s 6800 .94380 .95204 . 2.34202 •• •• •• •• •• <0 3• 38 37 3• 3• .32364 .31813 .96372 .94466 .96608 .96198 .33983 .95622 95613 .95579 .96771 ..9 60 • • • • • 7 6 3 1 0 •• .94495 .30514 .7 50 50 63 .96174 .32694 .93596 ..96102 sene 60 1 1 coseno .26151 .96660 .29960 .29849 .94274 .93462 .29460 .96070 ..33929 .95724 . 249M .95476 .93819 93800 93799 .29404 .27508 .96301 .97371 .27664 .31951 .97361 .96142 .94627 94618 94609 94599 .31979 .. 3.32089 .96937 . 973M .97127 . 27 23 22 21 '0 .30237 ..94409 .23288 .94196 .96269 .6 60 .96285 . 28457 . 0000& .94637 .32997 .00222 .34721 . .96756 .22750 .96732 .26079 .28792 .96675 .95865 .:57 .35102 .96328 .93879 .93634 93524 .93576 .31399 .34939 .97086 .94997 .26107 .96126 .30819 .26263 .23118 .1 .30680 .96517 .96310 . 96782 ..22977 ..94293 .93626 93616 .27983 .23769 .96433 .33134 .27284 .97093 .97106 .95931 .26948 .96190 .27620 .30098 .. 3.35266 .31620 .96532 .97182 .28402 :28429 .29016 .95389 .95630 .94533 .96628 .33874 33901 . .23966 . 945~3 .96966 . 95981 . •• 93657 .9.23826 .32914 .30874 I .2848& .00987 .25122 .95698 . 3.97391 .95849 .96734 ..31206 .30043 .26500 .94361 .94740 .27564 .95602 .97044 .. 34M3 34530 34fi57 .29376 .93718 93708 .96293 .33710 .96940 .29876 .96379 .29126 . 1.96638 . 22M2 .29571 .96159 .9 .96952 .26303 .23627 .94952 .24728 .96426 .94039 .29615 .28641 .95467 .94665 .27396 .33244 . 28234 .28178 .22807 .96222 .96.94786 .96158 .94979 .25910 .23176 .D6678 .29793 .26219 .26488 .95416 .29932 ..26836 .36320 .25646 .24869 .96371 .93462 .30348 ..96240 96231 .97264 .26207 .96667 .00500 .26471 .27769 .96816 . 10 .sen:r 0 1 2 3 224.95459 .94342 94332 .1:i5043 .96916 .93769 93748 .97030 sene seno 14 ceseno .96554 .32392 .96764 .30469 .32942 .94078 .25010 . 95997 .96571 .2&331 .. 1. 23203 . .9&394 .28150 .23910 .96778 .93919 93900 93899 93889 .32859 32887 .23740 .94068 ~t~~ " 13 12 11 10 coseno 76' coseno 75' eoseno 74' ccsenc 73' .96712 .96308 .94176 .97230 .24897 .33024 .26724 .95511 .96410 .27787 .96829 .95485 .261&3 .96766 .23401 .9b .27116 .86110 .25094 .28346 . 96989 .97134 .24784 .94058 .97141 .95605 .95061 .32447 .29981 .29098 .23642 .29654 .97424 .97437 97430 .27676 .27004 .96054 . 96832 .24982 .97203 .30182 ..96524 .93859 .96664 .94646 .27060 .31096 .28736 .95276 . •• •• •• •• " 13 12 11 10 " •• .26673 .96347 .97176 .22637 .30542 .29599 .25291 .97037 .964033 .26628 .34475 .97304 ..00973 .29682 . .96969 .93989 .96562 .31068 .33381 33408 .I .94370 .24644 .97331 .27480 .26808 .94823 .22920 .29766 .96636 . 3.94485 .29432 .31316 .94542 .35048 .28374 .8 .31427 .96363 . " •• . 37 3.96466 .9M86 .96707 .93379 .94693 .97120 . 2..96402 .24.30265 .9::740 .972M .95407 .24376 .26696 .96363 .94869 .96916 .33189 33216 .241M .94225 .9M198 .94301 .26348 . 24M7 .28318 .96623 .28206 .96966 ..97008 .94049 .32254 .31703 .32777 .96440 .29154 .9 60 60 94088 .96324 .32832 19 coseno ..94832 . 11 12 13 .95015 ! I.94590 94580 94571 94561 94562 :g~:~~ n I .34257 34284 .96206 .24362 .25006 .97384 .26864 .96791 .24305 .27704 .29182 .31040 .34666 34694 .96851 .93779 .96021 96029 .26<0< .27088 .96868 ..94476 .97311 . 17 16 lb .96653 .32474 .30209 .96907 .93677 .93441 93431 93420 .31289 . 37 3• 3.96243 .94768 .94337 .94254 .97196 .27536 .94390 .93999 .27368 .28011 ..2i841 .23684 .32006 .95133 .27144 .96284 .97169 . .3 " .. 30 31 32 33 .32227 . 51 .97411 .23346 .93849 . 20 96037 :~~~~~ ..32612 .93839 .32502 .26780 .96902 . 27 2.27424 .33079 .94758 . 279M .95115 . 96807 .32116 32144 .96600 .23260 .96316 .94795 . .95757 . 2.22948 .26022 .96230 .946H ..97001 . 24659 .8 .30164 .24051 .96742 .2 .96448 .32667 . 25t.96945 ..95441 .94399 .97318 .07210 .97113 .96837 .97079 .27692 .30292 .97100 .24079 .23090 .93586 .97162 .26415 .25460 .94322 .25882 .31565 .94157 .96630 .96182 .36021 .97165 .31261 .33956 .26136 .94878 .95673 .95195 .96946 . .97338 .33737 .94514 .93472 .96118 .95450 . 23062 .96873 .35647 36674 .96645 .287.94777 .94656 .25236 .27843 .32171 .96238 . 1.96882 .93829 . 9r.93647 93637 .32034 . 31 30 29 2.33573 .96246 ..96166 .30985 31012 .25713 .2.26275 .32804 .96013 .33764 33792 .31537 .96616 .22863 .96126' sene seno Ij ccsenc .30902 •• •• •• OS 57 53 .26443 ..93555 .26741 .22680 . 94M:! ..32584 .93606 .94906 94897 .96786 .96844 .94943 94933 .25179 .31482 .94303 .94147 ..93493 .33463 33490 .24418 .33600 33627 .24333 .97345 .23316 .9.25994 .23486 .32557 1M' coseno 95106 .64.95052 .96150 . •• .97398 .95841 .327~ 32749 .97223 .97237 .34857 3.96647 .31868 . ..96964 .30126 .34011 34038 34065 .95213 .26684 .93665 .27172 .97244 .97291 .28680 .sg0 .97072 .9&&17 .96822 .96596 96588 .28931 .96719 .96815 .26050 .31786 .22666 .94702 .94749 .32529 .96923 .28876 .96479 . •• OS .28903 .27731 .94313 . .94970 94961 .96248 .97058 .95364 .34748 34775 3.32419 .34202 34129 .97148 .24220 .94418 .33436 .35484 36511 35M8 35565 ..96562 .24672 .26882 .96593 sene :~~ •• .93969 93959 .94504 .97251 .93969 • • • • • 7 3 2 1 0 coseno sene 72' coseno 71' seno ccsenc 70' sene cosen~l seno 69' - 96- - 97- .24756 .26798 .24474 .27228 .36239 .93949 9a939 93929 .35837 .96570 .94029 .30626 .30486 . 28067 .96463 .96267 .94127 94118 sene 20~oseno .96214 .30597 .94915 .96824 .95293 . 31ij48 . 28262 .27815 .24277 ..97257 .28652 .95024 .35701 35728 35755 :357·'1 35810 .94888 .97189 .30663 .93514 93503 .

88431 .90421 .92642 .91982 .41416 .9280.9:!O28 .91307 .90826 .87729 .37191 . 37 36 35 34 33 32 3I 30 2.40700 .36434 .44802 . 42130 .88782 .89584 .920'.41511 .93159 .87673 .36704 .91188 .47076 .37542 :17..37380 .92016 0 sene .88693 .91891 .37649 .43051 .44229 .45425 .46149 .43680 ..45140 .88445 .89206 .92870 .46175 .35\.36461 .46020 .42077 .88111 .40221 . 41866 .46947 .89636 .90545 .43392 . 2. 20 2I 22 23 24 25 26 27 2.90814 .5 . .88701 .47793 .89389 .89021 .36839 36867 36894 .90408 .89816 .37892 37919 31946 .39608 .89048 . 894M .8883' .43515 .39741 .89828 .40992 .91601 .88377 .45994 . 90887 .43261 .81937 .89298 89285 .9"2'.48430 .43733 .44646 .90790 .38644 38671 38698 38725 38752 .1~16 .90196 .40461 .87515 .92366 92355 92343 .43B-It .90507 .44864 .90924 .45503 . 89245 .42631 .93295 9:l285 .87532 .46661 .92935 92924 .91518 .87840 .48303 ..42525 .44098 . 0 I 2 3 5 6 7 • s " .41337 .89879 sene 0 I sene ..40886 .37272 37299 37326 .90851 .91718 .91845 .}56 .46716 .44516 .46330 .48226 .89519 . .88062 .40008 .88741 .37515 .90875 .12 38859 38886 38912 3893\..36379 .47662 .91660 .47383 .87979 .90483 .81909 .41098 41125 .45192 .88472 .81661 .88607 .89726 .89597 .39768 .92243 .46844 .906i8 ..41892 .89493 ..ssess 211 2s 27 26 26 2< 23 22 21 20 I• Is 17 is I< 13 I2 II 10 I 60 •• •• •• •• •• .92062 .89867 .87882 .906G9 .43491 .42999 .42709 . .93137 . 3678b .41649 .47460 .41760 .41681 .87923 . 41840 .90704 .45295 .42578 .93148 .91496 .47153 .89219 .36244 .37865 .43418 .88048 .41602 .47306 ..93264 .46355 .40035 .16 .45891 45917 .89441 ..37407 37434 37461 0 coseno .3.42946 .42657 .45710 .45347 .93201 .52 .40.92039 .37363 .31973 .43130 .89956 .83376 .37245 .87659 . 3• .36515 .92838 .89687 .44359 .46252 .90082 .92499 .0 3.91128 .47141 .41628 .46999 .48073 .88715 .31130 .90284 .37695 .45787 .88755 .89467 .43104 . 20 2I 22 23 2.89943 . 46587 .88185 .41229 .36677 .48481 " s 7 6 6 3 2 I 0 • .91104 .88620 ..916.'U69 .43182 .92773 .3632.47920 . 48022 .44281 .43549 .89272 .88322 .41813 .90972 .47767 .87645 .48328 .90996 60 5.46690 .38161 .43287 .45036 .45243 .88653 .88089 .35837 .89324 .87715 .44932 .45580 . 58 57 66 54 53 52 51 60 seno 25 coseno .91590 .44984 .91484 .89311 .90271 .47946 .44906 .91068 .19100 39127 391531 .39260 .425.89140 .92751 .'):) sene 23 I cosenc I .88808 .43942 .45865 ..9~042 930.87589 .39046 .45321 . 878M .87462 9 10 II I2 I3 I< 16 17 I.40408 . 37002 37029 37056 37083 .91971 .88674 .92085 .92073 .42841 .42166 42183 .93116 93106 seno 37461 37488 .39848 .41151 41178 .36660 .91764 91752 91741 .44620 .45218 .38531 .89905 .91902 .89415 .44698 ..89662 .85213 .91356 sene .47178 .89739 .90984 .90129 .8S458 .81896 .41107 .41358 .91343 .39341 :~~~~~ :~tgg~ .88539 .40939 . 43 II 12 I3 I4 16 17 I• I.39234 .46896 .45114 .46097 .6 '7 •• •• f7 .91833 .44542 . .88647 .884-17 .92978 92907 .91080 .90532 .43863 43889 .39073.89337 .89153 .88902 ..:18268 38295 38322 38349 .46632 .88942 .47818 .88363 .45968 .90032 . 40ft2! .44411 .36M2 36509 .39394 .39902 . 880 .45166 .89674 .91431 91425 91414 91402 91390 91378 91366 .41134 .41045 .44958 .39982 .46767 .91775 .38483 .47665 .92946 .43628 .89879 .46742 .42867 .37811 .40488 . .36217 .35891 .88295 sene .45136 .37676 .37218 ..93190 .45451 .38376 38403 38430 38466 ...90470 .44612 .87798 . <I .4MJO .48175 .39501 39528 .92510 .36081 . 51 52 53 5.90433 .88768 .93127 .sssos .41409 .9 60 51 52 53 5.42446 .90045 .90960 . I.44464 .90233 .90631 .90158 .47024 .91236 .36731 36768 .88261 .87868 .594 .91856 .44431 .38778 .44151 . 443D7 .46619 .44203 .92141 .43654 .89152 .48201 .38188 38215 .92050 .40647 .41231 .U3306 .91283 .45373 .91224 .11 .!1 92310 92299 92287 .913l!) .89480 .91729 ..90655 .88034 .41998 .42315 .3tiOOO . . 47997 . 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 I• I• 17 16 is I< 13 12 II 10 •• .90582 .43968 ..42894 .43166 .90606 . 30 31 32 33 3< 35 36 37 3.91116 .90221 .43446 .47434 .92707 926')7 U2686 .41537 .47690 .90839 ..42136 .88199 . 35864.47332 .89259 .41515 .43471 .43994 .46458 .88928 .46793 .45010 .89918 .89833 ..92332 fl23:.89713 .91625 .5 •• •• IO • 42262 .47844 .88968 .41522 .9:.43785 .88172 .31784 .88240 .5 '6 '7 ..4&536 .45529 .43837 .88226 .47895 . 47255 .40833 .90120 .92107 . 26 26 27 2. 41945 .87518 .91032 91020 .48160 .93274 .90057 .41284 .90070 .39688 397]5 .90458 .88264 .40541 40567 .89232 .l'OO95 . •• <I 43 ..88728 .93348 .88955 .IH248 .36812 .92821 92816 . 31751 .88634 .48124 .47869 .90495 .42061 .41469 .88666 2 seno ' coseno .88661 ..41251 .88995 .45762 .90334 .88795 .47716 ..90383 .91819 .40328 .88144 . 6.38026 .44046 .36162 .16 .40674 '7 '6 .45399 .48252 .46201 .48379 .44020 .87546 .42235 .39474 .91613 .38241 .45942 ..43623 .39421 .44750 .88390 .93180 9.43025 .91152 .92488 .40088 .40062 .48405 .92471 92466 92455 92444 92432 92~21 !):?41O 92399 92388 92377 .42024 .90766 .89008 .88295 .46123 .42262 24 0 cosenc .41181 .s8888 .46304 .9:)222 .40780 .90692 .41443 .90899 .40168 .44385 .99- .36054 ..47101 .88336 .89930 .43340 .38805 388.88875 . 87993 .43831 60 68 67 66 66 54 63 62 51 60 .a9795 .91543 91531 91519 91508 .41391) .91212 .46381 .46921 .46819 .92209 92198 .43759 .37622 .6 fa is .88349 .43209 .1 38966 389(13 39020 .91706 .87604 .87743 .90631 .43602 .41204 .40966 ..91116 .93232 . 88075 .48048 .89790 .903)9 .48217 .36406 . 66 57 • • 7 6 5 .92762 .93211 .89764 .39367 .88580 .45399 .41363 .91822 .91787 .90246 .:!276 92266 .92152 ..36027 .98- .40434 .46941 • .92264 .91044 .39281 .36921 36948 .39581 .9.30314 .87784 .92740 .48354 .40141 .89892 . 3.87687 .90802 .90321 .83649 .40355 40381 .41019 .44072 .89428 .93243 .89854 .90446 .87476 .87766 .91140 .90657 .93020 93010 92999 9291$8 .88168 .40674 .43236 .91694 .45684 . 88103 .90146 ..92164 .89061 .85512 60 .42683 .92598 92587 92576 92565 92554 92543 92532 92521 .89167 .37999 .17137 37164 .\):2675 92664 U26.89014 .90911 .42473 .47971 .88915 ..89532 .36190 .89571 89558 . " 3• 3s 37 36 36 3< 33 32 31 30 .87490 .41012 .90346 .89101 .90111 .21 sene 0 I 2 3 .90208 .90936 . 36.36488 .89tH .46870 .42420 .40248 40275 40301 .0 41 42 43 .92913 .91056 .44255 .4J31O .93327 .87826 .91472 91461 91449 .89363 .47281 .44724 .38053 380S0 38107 .87770 .46226 .39555 ..81H93 .89402 .36108 36135 .usoes .45606 .39073 22 0 coseno 92718 .36352 .91683 91671 .47486 ..45564 .40806 .38510 .90717 . .91810 .42288 .898U .44124 .42341 .88526 .90259 .91959 .90007 .88130 . 50 57 5• 59 60 .9:1084 fl3074 9:1063 . 88020 .'569 .91799 .87812 .39635 .42209 .91355 .88848 .89100 .41588 ..45269 .46973 .42104 .88822 .39876 .93358 .42394 .89035 .38564 .89101 I j seno .41496 .40115 .80180 .6 cosenc .39448 .46484 .39955 .92119 .89968 .91648 .91200 .39822 .40913 .88981 .9~729 .46407 .47050 .37838 .90019 .91164 .89610 ..88281 .43706 .91260 .90863 .38134 .42920 .5 .38591 38617 .87951 .91092 .91295 .. 36975 .92794 .90371 :90358 .39661 .44828 . 39 '0 s 6 6 7 • :g~~5g .9:1052 .90591 .41972 .92902 92892 92881 .44490 . 36298 . 933~{7 .93253 .81965 . 2.81631 .46433 2 coseno .91948 9HI36 .89127 .45668 .44716 .42604 .90183 .88404 . 90948 .'1973 . .44171 .37703 .44668 .91666 91555 ..36271 .91925 91914 .89777 .45088 .43916 .89506 ..89545 .40721 40753 .r.46046 .42499 .87701 .44594 .47127 .90680 .45062 .45839 .91331 .91008 .92~49 .43313 .91868 .42367 .92859 .90296 .47204 .90668 .46613 .42788 . 88006 .45477 .89994 .92050 sene .88862 .92784 . 211 30 31 32 33 3• 36 36 37 3.90396 .92130 .42162 .90778 .44333 .89350 .92118 .90520 ..40514 .47639 .42912 .46072 .39928 . • 3 2 I 0 cosenc 68 0 seno coseno 67 0 coseno 66' coseno seno 65' coseno 64 coseno seno 63' coseno 62' cosenoJ sene 61' .88308 .41614 .40195 .42815 .81603 .43077 .40860 .90643 .37110 .90133 .46813 ..89623 .IHZ72 .92231 922:.92186 91175 .92631 ..89981 .89087 . .10 .41919 .96 36613 .41666 .118 35f145 .46218 .90753 90741 .81611 .90108 .43366 .

86266 I :=~gi .59599 .54975 .81647 .82887 .50478 .549-27 .54146 .82380 .51703 .66136 .80143 .49040 .80108 .51254 .59459 .8171\5 . .85401 863" .54171 .49090 . .5.80386 .58614 .84959 .5fl95 .52473 .56184 .86427 .80489 .53411 .54732 547 .59972 .56064 .80936 .5.53877 .82115 .59389 .81748 .81SM .53656 .80420 .50327 5035lZ . 53140 .53041 .58283 .7993.52399 .53164 .83017 .57358 .81327 .56880 .51554 .87406 .49217 .81123 ..85325 .3 t4 46 46 -47 -48 49 o .63534 .49798 .79986 .48710 .87021 .80919 .87193 .82985 .43874 .54878 .86704 .84214 .83308 .54049 54073 .59248 .82429 .87260 .87363 .81021 .53509 .58118 .84480 .52597 .83147 .82528 .80748 .601M .86530 .56533 .83389 .87448 .86632 .86849 ..81055 .59693 .85717 86702 .84151 .65919 .50025 .56776 .82065 .87321 .83899 .82839 .69084 .82904 seno 34 coseno .83633 .63975 .49899 .82181 .7 68 60 .85351 .5521 .55388 .84370 .81563 .81848 .56497 .86805 . 85941 .81915 ::l:g~I .87264 .83405 .5672 .5242'3 .85127 .82015 .57143 .5U68 .58307 58330 .80334 .57762 .55847 .81966 .83340 .82032 .59763 .808.85970 .86646 .53361 . 37 38 3.84402 .54902 .84604 ..82757 .52498 .80668 .86515 .49697 49723 49748 .50904 .85985 ..86192 86178 .82098 . • • • • 3 2 1 0 coseno 50" seno coseno sene 59" coseno 58" seno coseno seno 57" seno coseno 56· coseno 55 seno 0 ccsenc 54" seno seno coseno 53" .83501 .58449 .52992 86000 .87434 87420 .85096 . t\2646 .59669 .57904 .81208 .86413 .58661 .48761 .82048 .54829 .68779 08802 .82198 .80765 .5~H08 .85597 . .87306 .84851 .57976 .58425 .84072 .62992 .82413 .81361 .3066 .63214 .82214 .86935 .84697 .58708 .83916 .83421 .54391 .85:218 .59342 .58590 .59225 .51952 .54440 .53017 .81915 .83565 .58212 .55871 .84681 .82082 . .53902 .50929 .82626 .81614 .54513 .49849 .82297 .58849 .86369 86354 86340 863">5 seno 31 coseno .79899 .5.51753 .80953 .80970 .59739 .83804 .80902 .86748 =~~~ I .60019 . .55242 .85821 858~6 .56425 .58779 .86834 .84433 . .57429 .5U295 .83276 . .5167 85142 .81"530 .82396 .82969 .58401 .51529 .87007 .59856 .83629 .8967 .52770 .!659 .81259 .8.83549 .60136 .83485 .5.54708 .57857 .58731 .80438 .87221 .~613 .84759 84743 .49671 .58920 .58826 .53730 .84277 .57262 .83292 .59879 .58189 .804.80679 .56208 .56329 .52621 . 58~)'JO .50101 .85642 .49622 .84728 .50151 .83034 .80782 .54269 .81815 .57643 .83195 .87178 .61404 .51977 .58047 .48684 .86762 .50654 .54293 .84974 .52671 52696 .84261 .84588 .5024 .80196 .50528 .84805 seno 32 coseno .82936 .57453 . 86.83946 .80593 .59014 .81597 .80610 .82165 .80867 .86820 .86588 .81157 .86627 .'9924 .8.59131 .61454 .66160 .85035 85020 85005 .48667 .86074 .50503 1 .51728 .52200 .53091 .g~:g~ 86222 .54683 .57715 577::8 .83835 .65315 .82806 82790 .50377 50403 50428 50453 .55097 .86384 .'.59482 .51004 ~~.81396 .64610 .49116 .54317 .54637 .84009 . 8689:l .5'.81140 .57691 .86603 .84198 .85491 .81680 .81378 .48683 48608 .80799 .84417 .55i99 .84104 .55218 .8066:.58141 .55484 .86104 .60:201 .59622 .83373 . .53926 .56832 .81932 .58755 .86921 .84088 .87349 .58637 .64854 .50829 . 84650 .86045 .57881 .82446 .0 52 53 54 61 52 53 54 56 66 67 68 69 ao 86733 .59318 .'i9 . 17 18 I.51204 .53435 . 30 31 32 33 34 .60060 .61902 .86866 .48913 . .84025 .86551 .60679 .57238 .51029 .81479 .63263 .83708 .81999 .51329 .82248 82231 .55654 .85264 86249 .52943 .59646 .85~B2 .67477 .84292 .54122 .48634 .87207 .56040 .81631 . .87164 .54464.)154 .51828 .86993 .84245 .56784 .80073 .82314 .8.59809 .56904 .56401 .49293 49318 49344 .53754 .86690 .59716 .81174 .84308 .49086 .60182 se se ..56377 .57167 57191 .55436 .80038 .81072 .86676 .51504 .84989 .56808 .58519 .5.56896 .'3978 .83819 .839fl4 .57047 .60089 .55678 55702 .511~4 .84820 .85747 .85279 .56280 .82708 seno 35" coseno .59.5509 .62819 .80178 .56736 .58094 .83867 60 59 58 57 56 56 54 63 52 51 50 49 48 47 .51678 .81106 .86906 .52076 .83001 .83060 .82010 . 4• '8 47 4• 40 11 I I " 13 14 10 I.59832 .84120 .86617 .80472 .86896 .84542 .54586 .50553 .87292 .82495 .80713 .57405 .55363 .g~I .50016 .86486 .83453 . 53607 .84635 . 27 28 2.59506 .87336 .54635 .85431 .84339 84324 . 40 " 24 23 22 21 20 I• 18 17 Ie 10 14 13 12 11 10 8 7 so ..62151 .828:22 .80833 .66353 .50227 .83131 .80987 .83851 .84666 .80021 .82281 .476 . 86544 .70968 .83228 ..56952 .5.52547 .48964 .814'.86777 .60217 50302 . .57619 .56593 .84913 .84230 .83116 .48736 .57024 .51279 .86340 .55339 .82363 .83740 .50779 .! .87278 .59902 59926 .86603 i .50578 M603 . 858M 86836 .86501 .84355 . .80316 80299 . . I .52794 .81546 .49824 .82462 .85203 .81782 .51429 .87136 87121 seno 30 coseno .85567 .51229 .86207 .56256 .53558 .5992 . .84057 .56713 .83692 . .84182 . 575i2 . 84619 .83437 .55726 55750 .58260 .86015 .84167 .80576 .84495 .83244 .81428 .53189 .84041 .86762 .8:!M3 .81832 .53386 . 84673 .M220 .84928 .56943 .86573 .5'.5072 .57952 .80003 .56016 .48989 .52148 .57810 .81242 .48606 4853:2 .81225 .51179 .86355 .798&4 60 O• OS 57 54 53 52 00 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 16 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 .53238 .58165 ..49369 .85536 .85687 .8:. 51054 .81899 .57667 .81731 .81412 .80282 .82511 .56928 .828~5 .53951 .84386 .84712 .85682 .82478 .86457 .86163 I .49773 . 570M ..53828 .49394 49419 49446 49470 49496 .84135 .56521 .84943 .83212 .54342 .50 .83883 . 53632 .816M .51778 .49672 .48888 .59272 . .69552 .53312 . 51604 .58567 .)8354 .83324 .82544 .49975 .55412 .81798 .80361 .57648 .52250 .80885 .62720 .85081 .52967 .64415 .55 .50704 50729 .49647 .67119 .51877 .80091 .51628 .)365 .51852 .5'.82920 .59412 . 5286U . .85777 .59529 .83098 .56617 .53583 .51479 .57286 57310 .58496 .64659 .)178 .55630 .56641 · .86949 .56760 .57368 . 588i3 ..5!I201 .53 .61927 . '7 48 4.86978 86964 .83260 .48786 .84789 .83645 .85881 . 85188 .55266 .84882 .58943 .86·~42 .56856 .85112 .48938 . - 100- 101 - .81344 .~.80816 .86717 as 3.85310 . 2.55291 . 53779 .80902 :~t~~ I :~~~~~ .84511 .49596 .16 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 seno 33 coseno . 20 21 22 23 24 :~~:?.54366 .87235 .86173 8.48659 .55681 .57215 .85956 .48862 .87050 .54781 54S00 .80368 .MOOO .52374 .86059 .50979 .49546 .51104 51129 .51304 . 562:l2 .48837 .52349 .58023 .86089 .85416 .83597 .81004 .81982 .86791 .83962 .56976 .80403 .50804 .86719 .52175 .86471 .5'JOtil .80524 ..58070 .60112 .82593 .80160 .82561 .51803 . 43 42 41 40 3• 38 37 3• 3s 3' 33 32 31 30 2• 28 27 2• :~~t.56306 .80627 .87391 87377 .55460 .80541 ..81089 .80212 .81038 .83163 .82724 .83469 .52893 .82741 .81949 .57833 ..87150 .56823 .81293 .85461 .56169 .M605 .50176 .49166 49192 .59576 .57334 .66449 .57381 .82132 .87036 ::~~~ .80056 .51354 . .54999 .51379 .57624 .81462 .85370 .82963 .86506 . 58M3 .86398 .57071 .51079 .83867 .56569 .S8378 .55194 .82904 .60042 .62918 .84448 .81191 .00000 00000 .79961 .83517 .81714 seno 36 coseno .83660 .'1853 . 53115 .52522 .84526 .56473 . 84774 .80264 .85926 86911 .82264 .82347 .49014 .85792 .83179 .80230 .85294 .56112 .52844 .81513 .56689 .8.83066 .84897 .83581 .57928 .85234 .82773 .79916 .53706 .79881 .83756 .54097 .55919 .53288 .80696 .0.85657 .8::871 .50628 .82330 .86030 .85066 .83676 .83356 .57999 .81882 .58236 .5.49621 .50050 .84836 .66088 .54244 .53460 .83724 .84557 . 84464 .80730 .83082 .65146 .59786 .83772 .81445 .50252 .56665 .85732 .52572 . 54MB .49268 .50054 .81310 .)17 .seno 29 coseno 87462 .85446 .516.57786 .83788 .63337 .84866 .48811 .80507 .59436 .58472 .49950 .53484 .58896 .82677 ..80644 .56545 .55048 .821481 .53681 .80247 .)6 .54464 10 • • • .84805 . 4.64024 .50126 .80125 .53804 .55557 .51~79 .59949 .57000 .52225 .55121 .61504 41 42 43 .57501 .54488 .50854 50879 . •• se •• .52745 .48481 .49242 .54951 .59995 .81276 .57596 .50754 .49141 ..86661 .83930 .

.78801 .69487 .66109 .60968 .60622 .76203 .711"1 .64635 .. 32 33 34' 3.60991 .77843 77824 .75452 . .66978 . 39 3.65956 . .67659 ._74722 .65100 .76003 .71853 .51 .61360 .G2774 .68476 . 33 32 31 3..63810 .68200 .66284 .74-664 .71223 .76059 .744-61 .76456 . 17 16 13 12 11 10 so mig.77144 .65276 .70855 .67901 .61566 .78025 78007 .69966 .70687 .77531 .61689 .71306 .64790 .68962 ..68941 .70711 o o 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 • • ss s •• •• 53 .6 •• 2. 64078 .73846 .74-916 .69926 .72817 .66327 .61291 .63406 .70967 .78243 .67194. 634:!8 .66414.66480 . 21 22 23 2.79706 .65540 .568 .78442 .61978 .70339 .67796 .74953 .!456 .64457 .77273 .77715 I seno .64256 .78819 .64167 .7-t876 .76267 .68983 .68242 ..78351 .66066 .63383 .77769 777.6. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3.6:.72271 .59 ..66718 . :77733 . .63248 .62046 .67409 . 78962 .64145 .64524 .77088 .76398 .73983 .7392" .6050 .77494 .68639 .74-"31 .67430 .73096 .69112 .65011 .72317 .73393 .67688 .70029 .74683 .63000 .65716 .69067 .78152 .74237 .7044-3 .60784 .63113 .73631 .71121 .68761 .61061 .76642 .6994-6 .60506 .63068 .72637 .77384 .7. 65518 .68646 .75509 .79282 .9 6.78496 . .66740 66762 .62229 .69862 ccsenc .7124-3 .794-.75471 6.62842 . 780H8 .63090 .76.5222 .71806 .69883 .68391 .68349 .63944 .64901 .77329 .71284 .66371 .7660 • .60228 602.74799 .78532 .77070 . 69987 . .74586 .70M6 .10711 3• 3• 37 36 3• 34 32 32 31 30 .5 .63630 .64723 .724-67 .73690 .7.78855 .72937 .674-95 ..76977 .64612 .72096 72016 .741.616.66197 .79069 .79846 79829 79811 ..64701 .68793 .70008 .75965 .62819 .17 .73728 .71629 .69717 .52 .5 .66697 .73963 .77162 ..67387 .73314 .65562 .68772 .6883 • .60691 .73866 .76.62160 .79688 . .74934..68682 .5 .642.66088 .76903 . .62138 . • s • • 3 51 .62297 .66436 .7876.63698 .63518 .70813 .2 1 2 3 6 6 7 so .69779 ..66645 . 71)671 79653 .78550 .781881 .77458 .77550 .75642 .74760 .73432 .76567 . 70132 .67752 ..61314.78. . 29 2• 27 26 23 22 21 20 .64501 .78801 sene .75680 .76380 .61383 .76248 .6~~64 65386 .62115 .71762 .77715 .62638 .'181 . ea .63899 .72837 ..65496 .60298 603~1 60344 .68093 .71669 . .60367 .71051 .78315 .76866 . •• .65826 .66966 .61429 .':'2065 72035 7201.6800 • .7"392 .73904.63473 .61153 . .60830 .67837 .70463 .60437 .7394-4 .78944 .79016 .78873 .66913 .78478 .66676 .77310 .70937 .65628 .74-178 .7\.67473 .78261 .78694 ..67268 .61268 .64301 ..732M .70896 .7734-7 . 1 2 3 sene .70091 .78116 .72417 .69026 .67452 .73511 .62433 .5408 .77292 .6:.73363 .65650 .62932 .!864 .62592 .6:3585 .61612 .67580 .79758 .3 .724-37 .65033 .61841 61864 61887 .69842 .64746 .7 .77421 .62092 .74606 . 19 2.79318 ..63271 .67237 .712M .68709 . 66 .66653 . 70916 .7 ss 60 •• gmt I 1 0 • cosenc 52' coseno:::1 seno 51' cosen%~o sene cosenc sene 49° coseno 48' seno coseno 4' cosen~l sene 46' coseno 45' seno -102 - -103 - .64878 .67516 .62660 . 36 37 3.62524 62547 .78424 .73886 .62320 .64923 .! .79168 .72236 .74002 .63316 .75813 .75908 75889 . 2.72697 . 65b94 .6634-9 .541 .76078 .71732 .67709 .715433 .66458 .78711 .7'l608 .77236 .64768 .79176 .63563 .77788 .65298 .73826 .75601 .61406 .64812 .64279 39 coseno ..74628 .79087 .61038 .73373 ..70&67 .76791 sene 4~:oseno .75. 27 26 •• •• •• .69088 .69691 .70236 .78405 .66827 . .74-041 .62909 .64033 .69466 coseno .63180 .65210 65232 .69214 ...69612 .734-13 .74120 . 2.74-198 .70422 .76356 .71508 .75088 .71610 .734-91 ..71914 .76210 .66262 .70360 .73767 . 23 22 21 .9 47 . 65584 . 2.64368 .74276 .73076 .66632 . 79583 .64568 .76921 .67280 .64011 .4-741 .73016 .71)106 .68666 .60599 .6412'1 .78658 .72897.75851 .72797 . 779~8 .6889 • .74-061 .71894 .66601 .68072 .64346 .73472 .68603 .78170 .71388 .73629 .79140 .69608 . 71H12 .77014 76996 .794-06 .86022 is 21 22 23 2.77109 .71691 .67064 .74"70 .64479 .77125 .681.61955 .74266 .61666 .6"'" .75126 .62570 .88306 ..74548 .61566 37 cosenc 79864 .65144 .62206 . .79033 .61681 617u4 .64945 .62342 .78387 78369 .6 . 11 12 13 26 27 2.69403 .73195 . . 16 17 I. I.63854 . 79512 .69800 .69340 .79441 .71630 .56 .68136 .74-363 .66999 .66393 .69277 .69633 .74100 .71671 .75927 . .66978 .69649 .62887 .78043 . .71M!) .77623 .79229 . 3.68920 '.63451 .77861 .72517 .74-838 .63787 .65188 .78297 .77218 .72377 .63832 .72677 .65055 .7.64212 .75165 .66606 . 63:.79388 .67880 .78926 .71)861 .67987 .696M .76473 .&4657 .7"625 .71772 .63225 .60876 .75870 .76173 .66891 .79600 .67773 .6 sene 41 coseno ...78079 .76030 .73216 .64989 .71366 ..78279 .75738 . .79793 .76623 .63022 .72617 .15700 .67366 . 788!H .342 .6:.61543 .72867 .78622 ..63361 .3 .68306 .76337 .62251 .64546 .61176 61199 61222 61245 .62183 .67816 .60182 60206 .67323 . ..662"0 . 26 27 2.71326 .60945 . 79494.51 .68434 .62365 .5 .72717 .71833 .7.77181 .77970 .72477 .64056 .76548 .61451 61474 .70875 .68878 .61015 .72677 .684:12 .77897 . .69236 .67730 . 76041 .76436 .67869 .61635 .61'.752'80 .68286 .3 55 .78134 .69904 .72337 .70162 . 645UO .74703 . • • • . 710B0 .62502 .77934 .76154 .77402.62274 .65166 .71813 .1741 .63540 .76940 .61107 611. 76f1sn .75261 .70196 .75011 .72176 .6734-4.64435 .73787 .72196 .71873 .731.65891 .67151 ~67172 .69629 .78604 .76396 .6179. 3.7.70277 .6071460738 .2 53 s 3 2 1 0 • .74-609 .75528 .62955 62977 .62751 I .73688 .68730 .76097 . 64279 .77476 .61497 .73136 sene seno .'10 .69109 .76323 76304 .79723 .6064.62683 . 69S19 .9'·1 .7323" ..71995 .67043 .73649 .78514 .79776 .76884 .63496 .69737 .793.65017 .71019 .79211 .75299 . •• •• .68661 .74-992 . 60 6.72996 ..75241 .7760.70267 .62024.6::1966 .76286 .715414 .73274.65847 66869 .79300 .66153 .65430 .77916 .77678 .63720 .70112 .70628 .70998 .72216 .77660 .65474.74973 .64190 .75566 .67966 .70978 .706M .66218 .586 .7.7M71 .661&1 .60460 .63653 ..66870 .73136 .682M .73333 . .71711 .74-896 .62001 .67086 .72877 .77586 .61520 .68115 .60390 .76022 .67623 .79530 .78908 . 70216 .66131 .6&523 .69130 .64856 .68221 . .63158 .7083" ..72667 ..7017" .714-27 .60576 .788.70070 .fl.71934 44 sene .72397 .5490 .63608 .79424 .60761 .6li254 .6261.7064-9 ..67602 . •• 43 47 60 .7 .78333 .66176 .69151 .19193 . •• se .62388 .67944.76756 .70319 .74-217 .74818 .78061 .69821 .73116 .74867 .64323 .75069 .72777 .60414 .69696 .10401 .76847 .69298 .68618 .61772 .65781 .71039 .14 .72967 .72367 .68456 .65738 ..62706 .73610 .62479 .72737 .76192 .79353 .35 .71792 .75794 .68497 .77568 .70754 .72637 .72136 .5 .74296 .68370 .73036 . 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" .69768 .76361 .73708 .73176 .69266 .!932 3 coseno .67021 .69676 .77439 .!7'J6 .71407 .6a817 .72497 .72160 .64412 . 75'J84 .76135 .66759 ..69004 .77696 .61337 .74373 .64967 . •• •• 41 .63675 .76146 .79122 .68119 .71974.63203 .69361 .7134-6 .58 .78640 .67129 42 43 coseno .77033 .72767 .65913 .68867 .76.61909 .63742 .61818 .68666 .66666 ..79051 .66588 .61726 61749 .64390 ..452 .6 . 2.75661 .70772· ..:.7U635 .72917 .68814.60853 .78747 .75375 . . 3.70163 .77952 .73747 .19264 19247 .66672 .9 .721l6 .77255 ..75623 .65803 .71203 .73056 .70298 .60668 . 3' .648:14 .74314 . 7G618 ..72297 .(}8()29 .77513 .78980 sene .74334 .6 43 " " •• •• " •• •• .2 .74489 .70690 .75585 .60553 .66913 .60529 .39 .734-.62411 .69193 .63338 ..71690 . 7 6 .6862" .66848 . 71100 .78783 ..76511 .73561 . 73669 .66806 .71934 . 79371 .66935 .68327 . I.78225 206 .76318 .76679 ..61084 .76417 .67301 .62728 .60807 .60922 .77366 .75775 .70793 .77641 .67216 .63989 .7 .76229 .61932 .70626 .76116 .79547 .119M .77107 .74-314 seno .76492 .76772 . I.74-6"" .76184 .60. .72567 .66610 .71182 . 16 17 2.74080 .78729 . . .74780 .60899 . I• 17 16 13 12 11 Io .70670 .66000 .74667 .64100 .65342 . 2.63765 .64679 .72597 .79565 .69670 .7«)22 .70484 . 7 6 31.71"7 . 37 36 3.83 .78460 .76530 .

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'3 4< .3828 1.3820 1.3047 1.4:830 1.3481 1..4169 1.3197 1.314:8 1.4339 1.6017 1."877 1.3902 1.49601 1.3190 1.4&.4563 1.3661 1.3089 1.feM 1.3134 L3138 1.6314: 1.3240 1.• 897 1.3699 1.4238 1.6263 1.3774 1.4382 1.4470 1.4190 1..6022 1.4664: 1.3193 1.3696 1.3230 1.4280 1.-4097 1.4005 1.4:646 1..6101 1. 1. •• •• 23 27 28 29 30 31 33 3.34:63 1.4811 1.6319 1."911 1.66 1.4636 1.3513 1.64:03 1. .4816 1. 33 3.4:723 1.3331 1.3073 1.64:29 I.3778 1.3"96 1.4246 1.3318 1. .3996 1.5126 1.3667 1. .3439 1.9 50 '1 53 30 1.3674 1.334:6 1. 1 .4868 1. 3.6309 1..3"8ti 1.4808 1.3237 1.3622 1.4974 1.6032 1..624:2 1...4Q.4:783 1.3678 1..3247 1.4122 1..3921 1.38M 1.3733 1. 37 39 '0 .4060 44 e.1 •• '1 <0 39 38 37 3.3677 1.3060 1.3442 1.4:626 1 ..4700 1.6237 1.3128 1.3666 1.6111 1.4727 1. 1.6366 1.3890 1.4461 1.5630 I.f613 .1.4:641 1..3600 1.6161 1.3640 1.3411 1. .3463 1.3671 1.3230 1.4492 1..4792 1.3673 e ~ .4200 1.4163 1.3863 1.0 •• 31 L:~= 45° eee '00" 45° .3762 1.3790 1.6299 1.4741 1.3&47 1..3083 1.4361 1.3&34 1.4632 1.4370 1.3638 1.4357 1.4232 1.3898 1.3294 1.9 .6&46 1.3432 1.3941 1.3180 1..4993 1. 38 1. 19 18 17 1.6008 1. 3.3707 1.3106 1.4699 1.3953 1..4436 1.6248 1. 1.4284: 1.3644: 1.3627 1.0 1 .4176 1.3393 1.4736 1.3112 1.34:36 1.3321 1. 11 10 9 57 .01221 1..4844 1.4.6377 1.4774: 1.3414 1.-4093 1.4204 1.4Q.4983 1.60498 I..3376 1.4676 1.3314 1.4134 I. 3.3287 1.6131 1.6263 1.34:07 1.3633 1.3917 1.3988 1.3626 1.6136 1.4179 1..3267 1.60108 1. .4413 1.4260 1.4:636 1.3861 1.4672 1.6062 1.4077 1.1 .3302 1.3263 1.3614 1.4732 1. 51 50 .3867 1..3M2 1.·U38 1.3692 1.4:969 1.3964 1..371'8 1.3972 1.6278 1. - 114- - 115- .6304 1.3662 1.6273 1.41601 1.3383 1.3131 1.4797 1.4821 1.4560 1..4130 1.3233 1..4391 1.6387 1.4618 1.6067 1..• 804 1 . 3. l.• 699 1.3714.4126 1.4686 1._ 1.484. 13 1.3878 1...3710 1.3277 1..41~ 1.4183 1.9 50 '1 .6161 1.3617 '-1.3366 1.4:788 1.4:883 1.6182 1.614:6 1.&371 1.3151 1. 1.64:40 1.4171 1.f6 . ..4:764: 1.4028 1.3771 1.3968 1.<083 • • • • 0 7 1. 1.4288 1.4:9.3946 1.3886 1.3909 1..4778 1.4233 39 38 37 3.3832 1.30604 1.4601 1.9 '0 •• •• 48 .3809 1.6242 1..3109 1.!873 1.4396 1. •• 110 eee 0 1 3 1. 21 '0 .4113 1..3167 1.• 936 1.M19 I.3099 1.3243 1.30e4 1..4000 1.3·&74: . 33 32 31 15 1.4130 1.6037 1.4062 1.6268 1.4448 1.f9 1..4:430 1..504:2 1.4167 1.3631 1.3786 1.3725 1."916 1.4081 1.4408 1.4469 1.4322 1.3668 1.364:9 1.3M6 1.4466 1.6207 1.8 <7 33 3.5346 1.4044 1.3067 1.4109 1.4:14:2 19 18 17 1.4:964: 1.38lM 1.M77 I.3M7 1.3767 1.. .3992 1.6092 1. .6Ml 1.6340 1.3404 1.4:746 1.3691 1.3223 1.3662 1."74 1.3092 1.3806 1.36&0 1.3187 1..64:34 1.4327 1.3102 1.6013 1.4366 1.4387 1.3324 1.3080 1. 17 18 19 '0 l' U <0 •• •• •• •• .6289 1.3449 1.4443 1..6003 1.3115 L3118 1.J428 1.3748 1.6062 1.• 921 1. 37 38 3.314:4 1.6187 1."87 1.4066 1.4348 1.327" 1.4826 1.6325 1.4760 1.4690 1.3 '1 '0 •• .-1217 1.4606 1.6294 1..4704 1.3164: 1.3"80 1.4048 1.4264: 1.3606 1.3307 1..3164: 1.4988 1.3348 1.4:930 1 .3603 1.4020 1..tS192 1.3366 1.4969 1.4496 1.3421 1.3669 1.4:600 1.M61 I.4297 1..4362 1.6361 1.4:769 1.4462 1.4:887 1.638~ 1..34:00 1.3681 1.• 901 1 .3624: 1.3267 1.3386 1.4:6"9 1..3311 1.3-492 1.3663 1.4318 ·1.3342 1.3170 1.3673 1.3200 1. 3.9 • • • • • 7 2 1 0 eo e .4614 1. .3220 1.3976 1.4188 1.4627 1.3769 1.4:617 1 .4101 1.384:3 1.auo.4208 1.614:1 1.e <7 '8 .3620 1. 3.3763 1.4:839 1..3076 1. 11 10 9 8 7 l' .5509 1.3869 1.4016 1.• 926 1 .4073 1.4263 1. 1.3379 1.6171..M60 1.M26 I. 31 29 '8 27 aeo oIJ:~ .3213 1..4271 1.&366 1..3328 1. .4608 1 .4336 1.3882 1..4:1-12 1.3338 1.. 1.37« }.3369 1.6116 1.4683 .3618 1.UI" 1.4677 1.6197 l.e <e .4032 L4036 1.M13 1. 1.4306 1.4269 1.3874 1.6202 1.4:858 1.3839 1...3667 1.4:760 1.4439 1.• 94:6 1.4:310 as 07 50 sa 13 15 1.892 1.3737 1.4331 1.4:718 1.6361 1.3629 1. 0 1 3 9 10 11 40' eceee .4672 1..MM I.«79 1.3870 ).4864: 1.3609 1.3263 1.3824 1.34:77 1.3"99 1.3933 1.&336 1.3813 1."83 1.3926 r.3703 1.3782 1.3161 1._ 1. ..3227 1.3688 1.3984 1.4012 1..3177 1.3067 1.6268 1. 1. .

0056 .4363 0.6 1".02008 0.1667 ran 25 to1 1 ] .4887 0.1745 0. .. 7 .05168 0.'24" 0".3788 1.6 )5".9599 0.1012 0.1395 0.2094 0. .1710 0.4142 - 116- - 117- .6807 0..0865 0.1759 0.04370 0.5847 0.2450 1.2453 0.9948 1.4014 0.4137 1.0125 0128 .5708 I I 0.1910 0.6014 0.B5 21'24" l<' 24'36" 25'12" 25'48" 26'24" 27' 21'36" is'12'' .65 .02763 0.4499 0. 0072 .1520 0. 0".2167 nn DH JO IS" 7 .0598 1.1051 0.02570 0.1614 1.50 JO' 0']6" 1'12" 1'48" 2'2<4" ]' ]'36" 4'12" 4'48" 5'14" 0"55 .. · · · 5<' 54'36" 55'12" 55'''' 56'24" 57' 58'48" 59'24" 60' __ 51'36" 58'12" ~ e .1345 1.00856 0. 7 .6109 0.7167 0.3252 lJ383 1.2120 0.1571 0.15 0'.001S 0078 00B1 0".2989 1.0829 0.7679 0.2396 0.0123 (0297 1.75 .2 10"."7 005' .10 1161 es ..06642 0.3439 1.1313 .0151 1.1254 0.2284 0.7492 0.3987 0.83B · .9080 0.6632 0..0524 0.1868 1.0746 1.08H .OO 1 2 ] ARCOS.45 · · ..2627 0. 44'24" <S' 45'16" ""12" 46'''''' 47'24" 48'3'" SO'14" 49'12" 49'48" 51' 51')6" 52'12" 52'48" 53'24" 28'48" 29'14" 20' .4661 1...01519 0. . 1 1 "'" .6161 • .8203 0.2269 0.0.1961 0..5411 0.2091 0. 7 ))'36" H'12" 1 2 )6').0111 . 00B6 .2956 0.8294 0.1170 1.0821 1. 1·.6981 0. .1171 0.0175 0.7975 0. 0. 60 20" 1 1 25" 7 .00308 0..2066 0. 1 2 00.1328 1.01098 0.06958 0.0698 0. 45" " 18ll 10 '161 00.3963 1.2 18". 7 6BH . 7 W 39'36" .02969 0.5184 1."48" 22'12" 22'48" 19'12" . .1756 1.1569 0.0698 0.2014 0.9235 0.8 14"..25 • .5008 0. • .3316 0..1661 0.00973 0..3767 1389J 1.0111 .OOOO 0161 OB] 0" 1 2 ] 0..1340 0.2043 1.00034 0.0083 '" .5359 15533 1.2867 0.04118 0.1222 0.20 1 2 · ·· · · · .00095 0. .06333 0.0472 1..4486 1. • .5061 0.1743 0.2340 0.02563 0.70 7167 .3665 0.2569 0. .0450 1.1039 1.8135 0.06031 0.2686 0. .7854 0.41)] .5585 0.4712 .6458 0.15 .00137 0.6346 0.7156 0.05448 0... .. 0161 016~ 00. .2586 1.8452 0.4669 0.3614 1.OOOO .1694 1.1212 0.7815 0.0 3".1474 0..9848 1.7505.000] . .0872 0.4835 1. ..5167 <647 · · · · · · · • 5" ~. 7 1 1 ] 0117 0119 0122 .2264 0.5176 0.2722 1..8901 0.<S . Angulo ArC05 FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Hechcs 0. 7 · · · .5934 0.7004 0.5760 0.3491 0. 7 0".010 I l' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 0.3512 1.. · · •..2661 )167 OO.1221 0.~ · · · • 7 · · 2 ] 5' ~ I ~.55 as7 .4 36" SO" " "" 1.02185 0..2175 1.2313 1.9695 0.4 18" 21".01 0102 .8924 0.3090 1.2807 0.50 ~.2856 1.9774 0.3473 0. <0" 1 1 · · . 005.1920 0.0647 1. • 7 1 2 . .03637 0.9389 0..01675 0.8727 0.0175 0.0017 001' "1< 0008 0011 .0167 00.2566 1.Equivolencio de minutos y segundos en partes decimoles de grodo Equivolencio de partes decimoles de grado en minutos y segundo. .2229 0.0301 1.60 7'12" 7'48" "24" 9'36" to' 12" 10''''' 11'24" 12' 1)'12" 13'48" 14'24" 15' lS'36" ".00548 0. • 50' 1 2 · · . 0092 00. .0139 55' 60' · · .00381 0.7330 0.4')18 1.4838 0.04628 0.6283 0.10 1 2 00]9 00<2 0".rs .70 1 2 <2' 0'.2510 0.4333 .0349 0. "" 55" · · .3142 0.05736 0.3129 0.00061 0.1047 0.5010 1.00<7 .3816 0.3640 1.1566 0.0114 0097 ..8767 0.1))3 .SO .0349 0.03407 0.]0 1 1 ] 0". ~.4538 0.0974 0.5667 S131 .95 7 · ..4329 0.15 16'12" 16'<408" 17'24" 18' )0" 1 2 l5' 7 .6Hl .005 ".1090 0.1130 0. 0".5345 0." · · ] 1 2 10'16" 31'12" )"48" 12'14" H' 14'48" )5'24" W 37'12" 1"24" 37'48" .2217 1.6180 0.8378 0. 00.2174 0.1428 0." .1184 1.3301 0.07612 Cuerdos Angulo 46' CUERDAS Arcos Flechos Cuerdas 1~ 1 15' 7 2~ 1 2 · · · • .'')'" 20'24" 21' 21')6" .1384 0.2929 0.7330 0.0524 0.6676 0.9543 0. .3645 0.1613 0.4158 0.0106 01" <0' 1 1 e7 .00187 0." B5 BBH 9161 9))3 · .8029 0.003] 00]6 0".ee ..04894 0.8 32".3121 1.0'12" " 4.07281 0..0937 0.2618 0.2741 12915 1.0873 0. .0900 0.OOO 1 2 60" · 0152 01" 01.4189 0... .6667 .3840 0.]661 lill 25' 7 4167 .5680 0.7654 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 I 0.. . • 7 20 .00244 0.00460 0.5512 0.5236 0.9076 0.1472 1.4312 1.0996 1.0795 0.00643 0.1917 0..6840 0.18'6 1.0133 .03185 0.8552 0.2392 1.03874 0.2793 0.0136 00.05 0022 . · · .0000 1.0141 015 ".3265 1.." .9250 0.2036 1.00 . · •· ".0025 ". 01<2 01.2611 0.00lB 0031 ..00745 0.' " 6']6" ".. 1 2 00.1859 0.35 · · 7 12'36" 0".005 .2443 0.2746 0.2783 0.00 0". 7 ~ ~.9425 0.2437 0.00015 0.01231 0.00004 0.8610 0..65 0".. 7 · · 42'36" 0'12" 43'48".01371 0.1296 0.1396 0.1047 0.6511 0.2967 0.0893 1. 1 ] 13n .01837 0.1808 0.1519 1.

8326 1.9988 1.3639 0.5543 1.7820 1.3213 2.5152 0.2991 0.8436 0.4925 0.6662 0.1293 2.1416 FORMULAS PARA LAS TABLAS DE ARCOS.9406 1.9938 1.7666 0.8264 0.2864 2.9851 1.8052 1.8868 0.3116 0.1241 3.6180 2.5000 0.9526 1.8672 1.0369 3. CUERDAS Y FLECHAS A F C R = = = = Flecha.7836 0.3912 0.5321 1.4784 2.6180 1.9548 1.9845 30020 3.6077 1.8781 0.7402 2.6005 2.7453 1.9780 1. ~'7\ TABLA Areo Areo de la tabla Areo Radio I--- :---::::A~ C----.9302 0.5307 2.7244 0.3843 0.9477 0.9981 1.3374 0.9225 1.7976 1.5652 1.9738 0.4052 0.4481 0.9021 1.9871 1.1642 2.7576 2. - 118- - 119- .8274 2.3309 0.6827 0.3572 0.6704 2.9447 1.0944 2.8100 2.Arcos Arcos 1.9726 1.7899 1.8623 2..8199 1.3387 2. == Cuerda de la tabla .7921 0.7492 1. TABLA DE Cuerda '" CUERDAS Radio X Cuerda de la tabla = Cucrda.5882 1.1468 2.8500 1.7581 0.7104 1.4554 0. Radio.I DE ARCOS Radio X Areo de la tabla = Arco.4627 04701 0.8850 1.9963 1.7076 0.6013 0.8350 0.4260 ' 2.5383 0.4435 2.4408 0.3982 0.8449 2.7750 0.7321 1. I == Radio.4387 1.8410 1.2515 2.8972 2.6354 2.8955 0.6581 1.3707 0.4086 2.6254 0.9999 2.1 1.9563 1.9319 1.9754 1.8910 1.3053 0.9024 19199 1.8798 2.7143 l.5760 1.6335 0. Angulo FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Ftechcs 0.8544 1.980.8126 1.9973 1.1067 3.3911 2.8151 1.8092 0.8341 1.4863 1.6961 1.9890 1.6383 1.8966 1.5482 2.1817 2. Flecha.4264 0.4122 0.7227 2.6416 0.0246 2.7751 2.9908 1.6483 1.9829 1.3180 03244 0.5656 2.8522 0.0420 2.2689 2.4627 1.0718 3.9993 1. Flecha de la tabla Flecha Radio Flecha == Radio.9126 1. de la tabla.6744 0.6930 1.6406 1.3506 0.6580 1.9373 1.9665 1.9722 1.6580 0.9564 0.7328 0.5076 0.8478 Angulo CUERDAS .9215 0.5538 0.9696 1.9924 1.8608 0.37361 2.0543 3.4609 2.9598 1.3038 2.7496 0.6173 Cuerdcs 1.6868 1.9322 29496 2.4193 0.9651 0.9487 1.8695 0.6498 0.0769 2.3439 0.9128 0.7412 0.0892 3. Areo.8733 1.8006 0.72JJ 1.7279 1.5208 1. = Areo de la tabla.0000 Cuerdos 1.9913 1.7160 0.2160 2.9042 0.7053 1.5460 0.4JJ6 0.8271 1.1991 2.6232 1.6057 1.0194 3.3775 0.3563 --I Hechcs 0.5973 1.0595 2.6282 1.9997 1.6093 0.9671 2.2340 2.7977 1.5695 0.8794 1.5616 0.6755 1.ARCOS.6773 1.7407 1.6529 2.4507 1.6878 2.0071 2.4775 0.4958 2.7925 2.4746 1.5831 2.7628 1. TABLA DE Flecha FLECHAS Radio X Ffecha de la tahla .9825 0.5228 05305 0.0000 91" 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136° 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 2.7801 1.6910 0.9632 1.9897 2.5133 2.8675 1.9147 2.9363 1.9176 1.7740 1.4979 1.9390 0. Cuerda de la tabla Cuerda Radio = Radio.8608 1.4265 1.5933 0.5774 05853 0.5867 1.7053 2.8178 0.7576 17659 1.4850 0.9074 1.9273 1.1118 2.6993 0.6678 1.5094 1.8853 1. Cuerda.9951 1.5432 1.

36 11.110] 0.]6 ~. Radio X F1echa de la tabla .. 60 61 62 6J 65 67 • .6109 . 40 109.3 85 86 .2023 0..Cuerda. •• .7654 0.47 6. conocida la cuerda y el radio del ejemplo anterior.36 -t.473 0.4786 0. 500 X 0.1961 0.b _.• 2 3. 3.5.32 6.2S 6.. 99 100 •• - 0.27 5. 8 S·')' 5.20 12.J . J3 l4 35 Calcular-los grados que corresponden a una ftecha de 50 mm.20 7.1566 _ 23. mulhplicord por )20 10 longilud de 10 (uerdo 0.1'84 0. 9.06]5 0.2507 0. 82 90 •• 40 4.1336 0.. .0827 0. Radio 103. • • 0. 17.52 _ 0. I -120 - -121- .0766 •• . sobre una circunfcrencia de 500 rom.0675 0. 10. •• 92 .0775 0. 12 11.H 8.2321 0. 67' de la tabla.14 4.1207 0.l2 5.1'22 0. Flecha _ Fiecha y grades de la tabla. 08 58 5.3676 0. Cuerda -= Radio. .1395 0.1426 0.5.17 ".68 mm.56 1.40 U8 3.51 . en un circulo de 300 mm. Cuerda de la tabla 103.5176 X 200 = 103.1652 0.. Flecha.1282 0. • .55 O.21 15.12 6.1365 6.04 5 4.166 Flocha..49 mm.068.08 16. .0668 0.5 .2 1.7 •.1047 0.0714 0.EJEMPLOS DE CUERDAS Calcular 18 longitud de la cuerda de un areo de 300 en un circulo de 200 milimetros de radio.1901 0:18<16 0.2204 == 71.52 = 200 Radio.. desarrollo.6180 0.08 5.50 13.41 0.2091 0.2240 0.3292 0.1569 0.0923 •• .1697 0. 200 x.11 •.08n 0.5176 0.1793 .. 5..0951 0.4)' 0.22 5.1.Q6.02 3. 22 0.oa1' 0.305.0656 O.30 21.5.03 6.39 15 1•.0967 0.0740 0.Arco.1531 0..2980 0.0806 0. 30 11 l2 I. 200 .7 0.<41 30 27.0884 0.23 4.2611 0.1756 DE ARCOS Calcular el desarrollo de un arco de 35' siendo el radio de 500 mm..0785 0. 60 S1.116<4 0.1609 0..On2 0. 2.]) .17 1.5176 Cuerda y 30' de la tabla. Radio X Arco de la tabla .0757 0.0698 0.3129 .18 6.5176 Calcular los grados de un arcc. Radio ::: = 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1.. 39' de la tabla. 0.01.867.39 7.56 6.51 12..10 7.20 4. de redtc.40 6. Calcula r el radio del circulo anterior.2845 0. EJEMPLOS oc \f~\ ~ . Cuerda _ Cuerda y grados de la tabla. de radio y siendo el angulo dado 65°.06 6 5. Divinones en Grados y Minutos en Gracias y Minutos ~ Angulo Cuerdc Diyjslones en Grados y Mlnutos Cuerdc ~ 3 5 6 7 • 120· 90 n 1.0691 0.42 25 22.37 5. 79 80 n • •. cuerda de las tablas·. Divj. '2 '3 '5 '7 50 51 52 5J 5' 55 56 57 36 37 3.61 0.7321 1.0996 0. 13.)0 7.].10104 0.68 areo..0731 a. Poro dividir uno clrcunferenclo de )20 mm.4' 25. 30' = 0.0795 0.4460 0. longitud de la cuerda.4'58 0.2n3 0. 3.2' 0..20411 0.0848 0.• 2 ~..0604e 0.49 7.0860 0.0748 0.6 . calcular la ftecba.45 mm.lS '5 40 36 12.1>9]7 1.. 20 21 22 2l 24 25 26 27 2. Arco _ Arco y grados de la tabla.2204 ...30 .• 9 ] . 26 4. ... 05 4.ndicodo en 10 loblo poro 28 divisiones Aberluro del com pas se = 320 x 0.5635 0. 70 71 73 7.2. . 4. Calcular el numero de grados de un arco cuyo desarrollo es 340 mm.57 3. .• 5 3 ... de radio.. 75 76 77 7.0911 0.2162 0....1494 0.0837 0.12 7. 0. de radio..1743 .106.ngulo 00 06) \ TABLA DE ANGULOS Y CUERDAS correspondientes a la division en partes iguales de una circunferencia de rodio=l Angulo <. slones Cuerda .108<f 0. Radio 50 300-0.1459 0. 2.6840 0. .0000 0.• 7 ] .17 9.0982 0.0897 0.1231 0.." 5 .3902 0.1)08 0.114] 0.15 10.10 20 18.0705 0. siendo conocida la cuerda y el valor del angulo en grados.1256 0.0628 - Ejemplo..Flecha. 0.52 3 .13 B. en 28 penes Iguoles. DE FLECHAS EJEMPLOS En un circulo de 1SO mm.]5 10.. 0. 150 X 0.10]0 0.52 mm.

.2j: = b C b Sec A Divld.-A~ = Tg A -122 - -123 - .ELEMENTOS DE TRIGONOMETRIA SENCILLAS A B A D G A A C F B _.·.r 1 por 10 sec A sec A = cos A cot A Y sen A Multiplicor 10 cot A par c! sen A cot A x sen A = = cos A sen A Y '9 A Dividir sen A por tq A sen T9 ----- A = cos A --_ col A A HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMU LA Y cosec A Dtvidir COl 1\ por cosec A cot A cosec A = cos A Angulo A Angulos Bye Restor e! cingula B del dnqulo C C-B=A sen A Restor el cccdrcdo del sen A Angulo B Angulos Aye Restor el cingula A del dnqulo C C-A=B T9 A Lado C1 de 1 y extraer do del reslo 10 raiz cuadra- V 1-=--~ = cos A Y b Angulo C Angulos A y B Sumor el dnqulo A y el cingula B iI"+B=C a c 1 A Drvidu- el lado a par r.1·':'=-'05 Al = sen Coseno A A sec A Restor 1 del cucdrcdo de 10 sec A Y exlroer 10 rciz cvodrcdc del restc ~/ ~. f cot A =Tg A Sene A lodos aye Se divide ellado a por ellodo c - =senoA COl A Dividir 1 par col A 1 --~T9A Cosec A Se divide 1 por cosec A -- cosec = senoA sec A -=senA sen Y sen A Multiplicar sec A por sen A sec Ax sen A = ~ T9 A T9 Y cos A Se multipliea T9 A por cos A TgA x cos A T9A ---sec A A Y cos A Dtvtdtr sen A por cos A --~T9A cos A sen A T9 Y sec A Se divide T 9 A por sec A =sen A sec A Y cosec A Drvtdtr sec A ocr cosec A ~-:_-~=TgA cosec A Cos y cot A Se divide e! cos A por 10 cot A Restor el cuadrado del cos A Qe 1 Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado del reate ~=senA cot A \. -E B C C E H 0 G E H SOLUCIONES DEL TRIANGULO RECTANGULO b = Base a Perpendicular = Radio = 1 = Sene = Coseno H = Tcnqente !::: Cotangente F = Seconte = Cosecante = Sene verso = Coseno verso A = Cuerda HALLAR CONOCiENDO REG LA fORMULA Case no A lades bye Dtvrdrr el lado b por el redo c b ~ = cosA 0['.

yb sec A I cosec = seno-verso A c-a 1-cosA = f.--------(OS A 1 ____ cos A = sccA Lcdos c 'I a f-----~----------------~--------A Y T9 A Mult:pllcor cosec A por T9 A CQSE.-:-1 - sec A lado c y sen A c X sen A = lado a 10 sumo - 124 -125- .drr cosec A por sec -----+---------+---------1 cosec A col A V cot A. = cuerda A 2 f--------------A rot A --------COS~( Drvrdrr (OS('C A par (at ----- ~ A -_.---...dtr col A por cos A Sumar 1 01 cuadrado de \0 col A 'I extraer 10 raiz cuadrado de 10 sumo b cot A --cos A = cosec A cosec AY sec A Drv.--. = cos-verso A 1 .CA / T 9 A= Coseno verso A sen A Se restc e! lado a del c y el restc se divide por el lado c Se restc el seno A de 1 Multiplicor e! sen de 10 mitad del cingulo A por 2 y por e! radio del lado c Se resta el cuadrado del lado b del cuadrado del lado c y se extrce 10 rclz cuadrado del resto Multiplicar lado c por sen A --.-..b = cosec A r---+--------. + 1 ( -:. sen A 2c sen!.01 A sec A 'I cot A cosec A cos A Multipllear cosec A per cos A A Mulliplicor sec A por cot A = x cos col A A = secA'ITgA Dividir sec A por Tg A sec A x col A = = cosec A -------~---------------+----------cos A Y sen A Dtvtdtr (as A por sen A cos A ______ sen cosec A sec A A --- sec A Tg A = cosec A = col A colA'IcosA A = cot A Dtv.-----------Sec A Restor 1 del cuadrado de 10 cosec A. extroer 10 raiz CUQdrado del resto V cosec A ~.HALLAR CONOOENDO REG LA FORMULA HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA c --=cosecA a 1 --_ sen A = cosec 1--COl A Lodes b Ya Dtvtdtr lodo b por lode a = cot cosec A A lodas c y Q Dividir lado c POf lodo o Sen A T9 A Drvtdtr 1 por T9 A Drvidrr 1 por sen A A Tg A cosec =<.~:::--:1'"'~col A Lodos c 'I Seno verso A cos A 0_- Se resto el lodo b del lodo c Y el resto se divide por el lado c Se restc el coseno A de 1 = sene-verso A I Lodes .sen A = = cosenc-ver so A 1---T 9 A sen A Dl'lldlr T9 A por sen A f' A '(1 T9~ "'~" sco A A Cue-do A 't.--cot A sec A Lado n Lados c y b ~=\adoa ---.---------01 c ocdrcdc Y ext-ocr lo rail ----------- Sumor 1 at: CUOdi T9 A j T9 A orto oc ~/T9A·~._-----------------.

10 dimensi6n C es igual a 10 pulgadas.6947 119. tanto en pulgadas Inglesas como milfmetros.689 . . 4.m . 0 = Dtdmetrc de los rodillos.TRAZADO HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA PARA ANGULOS DE PRECISION Lode a Lado b y T9 A Multiplicar lodo b par T9 A b x T9 A = lado a =Iodoa No es posible realizar el trazado cor redo de un angulo strvlendcse de un transportador ccrrtente..740 .0111 15· 16· '17 406.7165 44. .6913 169.194 0..1745 4.011 15· 1. ".605 Lado a y cosc A Multiplicar lado a por cosec A a X cosec A = lado c GradOi Pulgada mm.· 4.4'11 l8" 1.145 91. • t166.5· 7.ll61 '06.• siendo 10 f6rmula H=C x senc s.5881 65. y 0 = 1" = 25.9)7 1.447 1. 10 f6rmula general Lado b cos A Dlvtdtr lado b por cos A Ejemplo: a= 30" 45'..550 1.8837 4.. Cuando el valor de « sea en grados H=C X y minutos.907' 99.3490 8.. .864 11· 1.5399 111.0791 51.8716 n..311 4.867 mm.8779 149.128 .5606 .639 41· 6. Lado a y cot A Muitiplicor lado a par cot A a X cot A = lado b «a» Lode n y T9 A Drvidtr lodo a par T9 A ~T9 A = lodob Tabla para determinar en grados.!.958 '. .91)7 74.0711 179. y a efectcs de extremcr 10 maxima precisi6n se recomienda e! uso de un senerllc Instrumento que lIamaremos «Regia de senos».1· 11· . equivalente a 254 milimetros.5919 '.465 1'· ). = = = = -126 _ -127 - .145 113.809 10 altura Gradol Pulgada mm.954 en funci6n del valor B- 0.1187 30.377 6..5837 '.2557 81.tricas).. las dimensiones usuales para su conslrucci6n y delalles del manejo."29 pulgGdGs.1)8 . u- .ll8 177. ...n.86l 6.. y millmetros 7· 1..5643 39..51129 129. ..150 11· 5.431 1· 0. Grados Pulgadas mm. Lodo by cot A Drvidtr lado b par cot A _b_ cot A Lode c y cosec A Drvtdtr lodo ( par cosec A Se resto el cuadrado del lado a del cuodrcdo del lodo c y se extrce 10 rOlz cued-cdc del resto cosec --. ". 5.820 171.871 105.'566 156.51129 (vease tobias trigonom. 4.0674 10).145 115. 19- Lado c Ladas a y b ~ = lodo c 11· 3.1931 159.311 1.4101 86..137 1. se aplicard sene a. .000 1.847 Lado a y sen A Dtvtdir lodo a par sen A _a_=ladoc sen A _b_= ladoc cos A 6. se indican a continuaci6n.'''' 'Bl.3917 Lodo c y sec A Dtvtdf r lodo ( par sec A Sumor los cuadrados de los 10des a y b Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado de 10 sumo Multiplicor lcdo -'-=Iadob sec A 48. H 254 X 0.145 5:7158 145. t0.034 'Sl. H 10 x 0....161 3..298 6..4191 61.015 5._ 138. H en pulgadas S· 0.599 nl..4- 16. Lado c y cos A Multlplicor lc do ( par cos A c x cos A = lado b Con el fin de pcder ulilizar cualquier sene de esccnttllcnes de que se disponga..O901 78.7564 70.820 Lado b y sec A b par sec A b x sec A = lode c Grados Pulgadas mm.107 10l.5l34 13. 17· '5." mm .... Grados Pulgadas mm.0453 1. Seno tt= 0..1495 57. 11· 5.-= A ladoa Lado b Ladas (Y c ~~.:.268 141.4l79 163.7461 95.1991 114.. = lode b H = Altura para medir por medtc de escantillones C = longitud conslanle. '01. "..6976 16.51129 5.1504 130..141 5. pIanos 0 galgas Blocks.

0002618 0.15 se utilizaro esta G tobla..0000775 0..: 0 . "<t"<tM 00 ~ r-...0000678 0. r-.:. U'> ~ ~ ~ .0001260 0.- . . N U'> 0 ~ '" -o 0 U'> N -o 00 00 "<t- N . r-. N U'> ..- U'> 00 ...0001502 0. Seno. .0002327 0.n ~". N 00 00 N '" ~ 1:0 M ." 1:0 -e'" 0 00 "<tr-..0002908 30' 24".......0001406 0.. M N r-.0000290 DE SEGUNDOS c: Segundos 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 JJ 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Seno 0.eocons 0... ~~~ N " " ~k ~I' ~~ - 128- - 129- . U'> M 0 00 r-.0002472 0..0001018 0. "Q ...0000026..0000872 0..0002715 0..0001890 0. "<t- r-.:....0002521 0..0001115 0..'" .D de seqvndos..- '" '" ~ ... IN I ~ 0'> . 0 -o 0 q '" ..0001163 0. -o U'> M .f ..000079 Resumer:: Sene de 11 30' 24" 'J = "Q = 0.0001745 0.."<t.0 . ~ " ~ Qj v 0 0'> c: 0 M .0000436 0..0000193 0.0001599 0. ~ N Para cuanda sea preciso operar con segundos. . N O 0 M 00 N 0 U'> -o 00 0 . como..0001699 0. X N.f .o..00 M N '" M .0001066 0.0002569 0. 0 r-.- 0 r-..0000824 0...662699 '" :E 0 ~ c ~~~ ~ ~ N M U'> N " M " U'> " r-. Ejemplo: 41° 30' 24".0002278 0..' ~~ n _-::::..0000581 0.s QJ OJ '" ~ M "Q -0 c "Q "Q QJ 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 o. = Seno de 15° 30' Sumados Cuondo ccrrecctcn.26724. Seno: 41~ 30' 0.0001939 Segundos 41 42 43 44 Seno 0. N "l M '" ~ OJ c :E 0 " "': M L....0000045. Sene de segundo ccrreqtdc Correction: c = Constante = 0. r:..0001367 0. .()()()()()48 0.tll'l.'" 0 O 0 000000 "<t- 00 N 00 r-. '" .. N el valor del dnqutc 00 N M 00 . Seno de 24" = 0.~~-::::.66262.00000)) 0.0002036 0..... 24 x 0.. .:: '" . estes constontes de contidodes.0001309 0.0002230 0.0001551 0.0002666 0.- '" r-. ambos excedc 0..f '" '" "<t- -e-e- r-....0000145 0.0002084 0. M M "<tr-.0001648 0.0000969 :E 0 t (l£~ t:: I~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ 0'> N .f "" M "<t" ~ l! ~ "<t'" r-. o-..0002181 0.- r-. )0 0400: SO a 60°: 0.0 o'" a:: '" ""! 0 -o 00 U'> M ~ o- .0000532 0.. . M M -o -o r-.. Seno : 24" 0.. "<t..0002811 0. por ejemplo.- ..0002375 0.0001842 0.....000079.0000033..0001163.- U'> .0000038. 0 r-. "l q 0 r-..0000727 0. el sene de 15° 30' 24" = 0.- -o "<t.0002860 0. U'> r-..0 0 <'! '" ""! . '" Constonte_ para 20 a 300: 0.2673563.0000242 0.. 40 a SOD:0.. '" '" ~ . ~ 00 0 ..0002133 0. 0'> " 'v QJ 0 II ~ II > .0 U'> 0 U'> M M "<t.0000484 0.0002424 0..0 N '" 0 §~ 0 ~ .0001212 0.. de 20' se utilizordn c ~ U'> '" r-..- N -::::.0000630 0. ~ N "<t- '" '" '" . 24" 0.0001793 0. N '" '" a:: "<tU'> M N -e-o ": . .. " -o t' I' " t' ~ ..0000096 0.- .. -e'" '" -o M o- 0 U'> '" . U'> 00 00 r-.00 -o o-o 0 . r-..0000387 0.... r-..0002763 0..0001163.SENOS Segundos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seno O.. N U'> N ~ OO M 0 .0001987 0.0000921 0...2 c OJ U'> 0 -o 00 N -.0001454 0..

--.AREAS Y DIMENSIONES DE FIGURAS PLANAS... a A =-2- L ---~--. S= I"~ A a' = T b' 2b c' )' ..- ' TRIANGULO = Vb' + c' TRAPEZOIDE 1 A = AREA A = (H + h) a + bh + cH 2 b=Va'-e' RECTANGULO - e=Va'-b 130 - - 131 - . A t: b= ~ a be TRAP~CIO r~. d' A = s' A s = 0.414 TRIANGULO ACUTANGULO Dado (a + b + c) b) (S c) V S (S • a) (S Bh A = AREA.--.=~ b b Dado S= 11. SUPERFICIES Y VOLUMEN DE S6L1DOS: CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD A = AREA A= I"~ A = AREA..-+~ a' A:: ~ Va' _ ( c' TRIANGULO A = AREAT =A .'. b' c) c) )2 a=~-..7071 d = d VA VA ="2 A= b V. A = a~d'-a' A = ab = bVd'-b' d= v.-~--. (a +b+ = Vd' - = ~a OBTUSANGULO A= V S (S A A a) (S - b) (S - A = AREA A = ab PAkA" tLOGRAMO = AREA (a + b) 2 h "< . bh + = 1. i '''-'-Q' 'b I· A = AREA.-. ( a.414 x s = 1.

433 x L'= r = 0.633 x .082 x r x 5 = 0.7854 d' C = 2:-:.2 d = 3~14'-6.414x CUADRADO R=2x.307 1. A= 0.155x. L2 R= T VR' .2~32 = ~ .828 1.~ V o:78S4 133 - = 0. n A = L2 = 2 R' = 4 x .598 X R2 A = 3.688 x L R=1.765 A = AREA del circulo crrcunscrrto del circulo inscrito x 5' = 2.2 A = 2.868 x R.577 xL.851 xL.': = r t: 1. .564 V-_'.314 r X5 1. C = ClRCUNFERENCIA A =. A=1.1416 d .464 x R=s=1. = 3.~ \I" + .924 X R x R = 0.008727 d -- - 132- .707 x L L=1.378 X R2= 3.207 0.LA SUMA DE LOS TRES ANGULOS ES IGUAL A 180 Y CADA UNO EQUIVALE A 60 0 0 A = AREA R = 1. = 180 - J..176x r = 0.963 x r A·= 3.866 X R I A = AREA.. 6. R' 4' S=2 V R' - ----- r A = 2.732 x R.' = 3.464 x r -----------~--~~~~~~~~~~~ HlP! Al.152 )( L.866 X s = 0.192 x r' r = 0.038 X F6RMULAS R = 0.128 \ A Longitud del arco correspondiente 01 cingulo de centro de 1 = 0.736 x R' = 3.= C.371 x r R A R 5 Radio Radio 4.828 x r n = NUMERO DE LADOS (1 1.598 x s' = 2. z =~. L = 0.634 x L' ~ 2.2 A= _n~' = R = 0.2832. r = 0.ur~u L = 0.828 R' = 3. L=1.nox PENTAGONO ------------------.5 x L R = 0.----5-' 4 . .289 x L L = 3.299 x R'= 5. TRIANGULO EQUILATERO L = 1.1416 t = 0.453x.--+----~------------------- \ /----5-' ' = . = 1. = 6. OCTAGONO • POLIGO NO REGULAR CrRCULO A = -AREA.

1416ab FORMU'LAS APROXIMADAS DEL PERIMETRO "y'2(w+b') .296t SECTOR CIRCULAR A rt = 0.7854(D + d) (D a y X la base = ANGULO DEL SECTOR.' '" p>.296{ . LONGITUD DEL ARCO 7.. ib: // j_. = ANGULO DEL SECTOR (=_!_~ 7.--- A~r.296( --11. = AREA.4248r' = = 2.Y4r'-c'.OO87h(R' .~ ) h=r-'j...b) ~CD-ij Y c=2yh(2r-h) r= SEGMENTO CIRCULAR C • A='j.(rf-c(r-h)) . Xy a r') = 3. A = ~(R'-r')= 360 r.14~~= 180 1 0.r') = SECTOR DE CORONA CIRCULAR = ____:::__ (D'-d')= 4 X 360 A = 3rtr' = 9.A = AREA.r' . \/". r') EI area de la parabola los dos tercios del Y la altura A= 'I.01745" = ~ r A =2 57.7854(D' ...ab=3.= 8h I. A = AREA. x 3.1( : . = ANGULO DEL SEGMENTO . A:':' X X (0 .1."PERIj()./ . " -- Q ~ b HIP log ( : + . LONGITUD DE ClCLOIDE = 0.1416(R + r) (R - r) = d) A = AREA = 0.00218>(D' -d') CICLOIDE - f 135 - = 8r = 4 x d - 134- . P = PERIM~TR.d') = = 0..1416(R' - es equrvolente rectdnqulo. "A ".008727>.3562d' = 3 x AREA DEL CiRCULO GENERATRIZ = 0.- 01 .1 'I I i p A -.(R' - A = AREA. + 4h' !* A =-2---- t= 0. f = LONGITUD DEL ARCO . A = AREA A = .AREA.01745" >= 57.: - :~'v c . r= 2A -(-= 57. siendo A = 3.

= 1. nemos: base es un poligono regular «S» 10 longitud del lcdc: y R = radio r = radio del drculo inscircunscrito. S = AREA LATERAL. S = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL CILINDRO V = 3. h X AREA DE LA BASE de «n» lados. V = '(.+ ~ CUBO v = VOLUMEN V = VOLUMEN V=axbxc C =(ib v V = (2a CUNA + c)bh 6 PARALELEPiPEDO v = VOLUMEN.1416r'h = O.v = VOLUMEN A = AREA DE LA BASE MENOR A = AREA DE LA BASE MAYOR $= Vv V = VOLUMEN PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA V = ~(A.5708d(h. d + h) v = VOLUMEN.1416dh A = AREA TOTAL DEL CILINDRO = = SUPERFICIE LATERAL MAs LA SUPERFICIE DE LAS BASES CILINDRO A = 6. V = 1.5708r'(h. .3927d'(h. te- Silo cntc.1416d('j. 137 - V = VOLUMEN = O.2832rh = 3.+A.) + h. del circulo + h. «h» se PRISMA entlende Q 10 base V = VOLUMEN.) + h.1416r(h. PORCION DE ClLlNDRO S = 3.7854d'h S = 6. A = AREA DE LA BASE Las f6rmulas para determinar perpendicular las drees de las bases estan Indicadas en las poginas onteriores.2832r(r + h) = 3.) PIRAMIDE 136 -.) + h.

: \ + d) + h' v = 0. -8h-ESF~RICA A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL TROZO DE CONO.1416" A = 6. = 0.= 4.h = 3.1812.2618d'h = 1.2618h(D' + Dd + d') 3. r= + h') s= ~= .1416d' PORCION DE CILINDRO r±b USQr mas 0 menos. ~ = ARE~ DE L~ SUPERFICIE C6NIC~.1416h( ~.'rw V~ = 0. segun que el areQ de IQ base sec mayor 0 menor que IQ mltcd del cireulo. v = ~.1 /.1416ht(2r 3.1416(.".6204VV ' = VOLUMEN. ( A = 3. - VOLUMEN.'h A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA v = VOLUMEN V= = 0 .1416ht(d + t) = = 1.d' = 12.d' = -3. a3 ± S = (ad S = AREA LATERAL h b X AREA.1832rh =V(R-r)' 138 - 139- .' = .1416.0472h(R' + Rr + r') = = 0.7854h(D'-d') = 3.. V r= .rh -}) = 3.1416ht(D - V = 3. V = VOLUMEN V = 1.rr:': V"TTn' C 2Vh(2' = C' +.0944"h.= -6.h = 6.C>-472.5708ds SEGMENTO ESF£RICO 3.5708ht(D + d) V= + r) SECTOR ESF£RICU + t) t) C) +T C = 2V h(2..·h V = -3= 2.v= VOLUMEN. + ]~" + A h') CONO TRUNCADO A= a = R-r. V = (2/. ABC) r ± b longilud de areo ABC) h ESFERA A = AREA 0 SUPERFICIE v 4wr' . - =Va' + h' \. ZONA ESF£RICA - = 2.1416h'(' = l.5236d' ± bx A = 4w.1416h(R' = 3.1416ht(R r') AREA TOTAL DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA Y CONICA = A. + ~) ~= 3.1416. . V = VOLUMEN 2.1416 x 5(R + r) = 1.57085(D 5 A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE V = VOLUMEN :~..1416ht(2R t) = 3.5236 h( 3~. 2h h) CILINDRO HUECO = 3. V r' CONO + h' = 3. ~ h).5664" = ]. _416'~ 13 = 1 .1888r' = 0..

V = VOLUMEN =4 A TORO 1t' X Dd' = 2.. cuando b = e V = 4.0349ar' SEGMENTO PARABOLOIDE r') = - = B h(D' + d') = 0.. O..5236(0' d3) V = 2.0116"r' . A = .1888(R3 - 6X ESFERA HUECA V = VOLUMEN.d') v - = 0.'Rr = = En una elipsoide 0 esferoide de revoluei6n.:'Rr' = 19..3927d"h A = AREA.1888 ab' y A = = .'Dd = 9. A = AREA d3) = 0.739Rr' = ~ ~m I A = AREA..262h(201 + IP) Si los areos curvados son de parabola..209h(2D' + - 140- 141 - . 1t h(R' + r') = 1.psI BARRIL v = l/lI7th(201 + cP) .) = 4..5708h(R' + r') CUNA ESF~RICA 41tr2 = 0...4674Dd' 39.2 +re x b I/a' + b2 V = VOLUMEN Sl los lados circulo.1888abe = 4.478Rr +re V = -3- X abc = 4.3927h(D' + d') V = VOLUMEN V = -3-(R3 (03 +re - .8696Dd \<. = 0. APROXIMADO son areos de ELiPSOIDE V = VOLUMEN. V eurvados = '/21tr'h = 0. PARABOLOIDE lV (~ P=8i1 + d2 p'r . Dd +'/.A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA ~= ANGULO DE CENTRO EN GRADOS V = VOLUMEN V = 360 a A = 360 V = VOLUMEN V= " x -3X +re.

+ A. = Base mayor EI centro de grovedad es 10 intersecci6n de las diagonales rXc ~ ~~~h~ Siendo A = Area del segmento SEGMENTO CIRCULAR 0= + 21/A. --------~----PARALELOGRAMO PERIMETRO Y AREA TRIANGULO = I Ih.'/)j:1 . '/. = Base menor A.11 b=U= • r'c =)1\= 2rc ~ 8xlxh = 38.r ~+bx~e~'~ 2 PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA A. X A.~ ~ h(b + c) 2(2b + c) b_ - DOS CUERPOS S6UDOS _ PX 0 c.h APROXIMADA 0= .--- ARCO CIRCULAR a = 'I.ll. PERIMETRO d_ h(b + c) .) h(R' MITAD DE ESFERAHUECA 0= 3(R' -r) 8(R".:.P+Q Q X 0. _'-----. 4(3r -h) . ih C CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD " I \.. 4(A.2(0 + b + c) Q=3 TRIANGULO h jJtffi Solido a PIRAMIDE_--== CONO SEGMENTO ESF~RICO S6UDO 3(2r-h)' b = h(4r-h) 4(3r -h) . _.1") SECTOR ESF~RICO S6UDO a= . ~ . P+Q' - 1042- - 143- .h Para media esfera 0 = b = "I. !d . h(A. r$ Supcrficie c6nica a = A... + 3A._ I I .(2r-h) PARABOLOIDE S6UDO 0 = '/"h . x A.) + VA.197 r sen 7 ARCO CIRCULAR SECTOR CIRCULAR It a= CUNA + 2 Rr + 3r') 4(R' + Rr + r') Superficie c6nica 0= S6UDO h(R + 2r) + cos 7)r = .------ 3(R r) CONO TRUNCADO + V-W!.

. 3n Para movimiento a Q: r P r P F = Q x P .__---.. I" III Z .. MITAD DE PARABOLA ~ .1416 x H' _h3 1+4- R-r -145 - Coeficiente de (ricci6n: fL = Ig. x 3.3h. P = 2Q x Ig (a.1416 x h Porci6n de superficie cilindrica 0= II..6. b o~.1416r.2832 X 6... = Radio de la rosca.TORNILLO AREA Y POLEA DIFERENCIAL Q R r P F = Carga. H'-h' b = '/" x 3.75n b = '/'2 x 3. d = O.x3.1416 X R3 _ r" r) 2R p=2xFxR Con (ricci6n. Q = 6. q...1416 r.2832 x r - I" X I" X DIFERENCIAL ~~(~~i6n. + (/») . P + 6.2832 x r Para movimiento F=Q x + (" X opuesto _!_ R !_ R a Q: X COMPLEMENTO A X B x C c = O. = Paso de la rosca.2832 6. b='/.1416xh ~/~_ Porci6n de elltndro hueco R'-r' P = 2Q xi1= F x R = T(R-r) Q F = P(R P = 2Q x 19 ~ h 1 .2832 x R x F. h 1 \'lb - i'~ a= = Px 2b = T P col x CASQUETE Y ZONA ESF~RICA '/16 X 3. = Brazo de Palanca. = Fuerza aplicada en el extremo de la pa/anca.2832 x R.--'''-----_-" F6RMULA ESTIMANDO EL COEFICIENTE en direcci6n X (" X P DE FRICCI6N: X a = 3 h. 5 b =-8AREA Porci6n de cilindro s6lido: a = "/16 X 3. 10 .. FRICCI6N: PARABOLA a = _21!_ 5 AREA Cilindro de bases paralelas F6RMULA SIN ESTIMAR LA F=Q x P 6.

:. n. = RX R..:...vos de las ruedas. PX r F = -R- t P x aP FxL p =Jf..:.. Fxa .. F ~ P A...-L-' Fxa Pxl . Pxa+P'xb+P"xc I~ i:t=:r' :r= F F 1= F-P =-P- Fxl L de ramales 0 partes del cable (n._.:. 1= P-F I'~F=-: = se~x 'F I p I \ Fx L= P x I r: F = .. =P+T = -P-- x... . Pxa+P'xb+P"xc :r F=_!_XP n -146 - - 1-47- . F x }' = P x a + P' x b + P" xc.. B. etc.xR.x R.. X r.. .. = -1=-.) 'I I r.:. P=--.PALANCAS TIPOS DE PALANCAS Pxl F=-LP=. P = . PXr R=-F-. C Y 0 son los diametros p"mit._.:..- FxL n = Nomero F= Pxsec> 2 f'=2xFxcosx • I 8 Pxa L=FT=-F-' PX/.-._-=r x r. FxR r=-p- FxL=Pxl. x r.. . F P x r X r. Fx a Fx L f' Pxa L= P-F rL p Q ~1 FxL P=--IFxL =-P- ~ p FxR P =-r-. FxRxR..-. =-F-' Pxl Pxl F=-L-.L = P+ F RUEOAS F r V POLEAS F x R = P x r.

EI Diumetro . siendo este igual 01 paso dividtdo por ). slendo tan simple 10 regia que no consiste en mas que el paso contiene una.1416 =~ Dp = De N +2• primi- y. ENGRANAJES RECTOS este paralelo. 10 ventaja de este sistema reside en que el Dicimetro tivo y Didmetrc exterior son siempre numercs enteros.CALCULO DE ENGRANAJES INTRODUCCI6N Uno de los mas importantes ELEMENTAL en las mdquinas es el medios de movimiento sistema de engronojes. sino que subslste sobre 105 trazos. en sentldo inverso del primero. se puede imaginor el mon'aje de dos cilindros frotendc uno sobre el ofro (figura 1). engranando los unos con los otros. Como ya se dijc.1416. EI paso circunferencial este dodo. que tenemos una ruedo dentado ique Modulo le corresponderc ! Formula que mide =- Numero de dlentes. Engronojes helicoldales a eJes perpendiculares.1416. y se preclsa definlr una unldad de medlda.P xN :-: = 3. y ~ste Ie determlna por la dlstancia de un punto de un dlente a otro correspondlente al dlente slgulen". Engronajes de cadena.149- . prtmtuvo. 5 a Los formulas generales M del M6dulo = P J. 105 multiples de :-: en del sistema de Modulo etc. Engronojes helicoidales ejes paralelos. Y u. 105 engranajes pueden estar aslmllados a dos cillndros 11101 correspondlentes a los Didmetros prlmltlvos.1416.- P X N . este circulo es el punto de partida para el cdlculo de engranajes. aumentando dos dientes.708 5 x J. N = Num. este inconque para un juego es fraccionaria. dos. -1048- . etrc que M = intervendrci el factor P J. l Numero de dientes. Silo adherencia de los dos cilindros es suflcjente. Con este sistema los deslizamlentos son l6gicos. del M6dulo multiplicado por ).. Destlnados fransmltlr movimlento IV. Q medird el paso sobre el Didmetro prlmttivo.1416 Paso. La formula para determlnar e! Didmetro del circulo prlmltlvo es: M6c1ulomuillplicado por el •• mero de dle. de dientes : M =~ N + 2' ~t10 mill- Op _ Oldmetro prlmilivo. por consiguiente. y para evitar esto. . tenemos que un engranaje tiene 10 mflimetros de paso. Tornillo 5ln~fin y su rueda. por tonto. por ejemp!o. ---a2 son: 410 = Modulo 5 PASO CIRCUNFERENCIAL Los engranajes 'pueden tener Infinidad de tamaftos. Fig. pero no es Diometro primitivo esl. Engranajes c6nicos. arrollada depende-d del numero de dtentes del engranaje EI Didmetro pr-imitive desarrollado es igual 01 paso. 5. Ejemplo' Paso del Modulo num. por tanto. como yo se dijo. estos se clasifican como sigue: Destinados a transmitir mevrmtentc de ejes parole los: I.r . y 10 longilud del Didmetro prtmittvo des.1416. He cqul una formula sencilla para encontrar el Modulo de un engranaJe. Engranajes rectos 0 cilindricos. y la otra al exterior.tes: Op = M X N. 10 rotaci6n Para transmitir un movimiento circular continuo de un eje Q M6oULO Se senoia que para todo cdlculo de Dicrnetro primitivo M6dulo. --"-0---. I Esta es la norma fundamental de todo engranaje y se Ie denomlna cfrculo primitivo. la manera mds simple estd caraderlzada por el paso. V. veces el numero trensmfnde por uno de ellos pondrd en movlmiento circular continuo al otro. ~ De = Didmetro exterior.. cunferencrcl. M _ M6c1ulo. y. el M6dulo mere entero. M = Modulo no sera nunca un nutompoco . correspondiendo 5 mtlimetros 01 espesor del dtente y 5 milimetros 01 espcc!o entre dos dientes. el Didmetro prtmittvo ventente es particularmente molesto porque Hevc consigo de engranajes 10 cote de distcncic entre ejes y dtdmetros Para veneer esta dificultad se toma como paso Circular lugar de tomar numeros enteros. se mide el Dicimetro exterior y este se divide por el numerc de dientes que tenga el engranaje. tres.. el cilindro liso en realldad desaparece. N = II. multtphccdo per el nGmero de dientes. este sera medido en el Dicrnetro primitivc. una parte de cada diente se establece al Interior del cillndro 1150. P x N P = Paso circunferencial. N Ejemplo: Supongomos metros y tiene 80 dientes. = 15. de ejes perpendiculares: III. Si se toma para el paso un numero enter-c. ddndosele el nombre de paso c. es Igual a . VI. se proveen las superficies en contacto de dientes.

mas des veces et = Dicimetro exterior. = L = Altura de 10 cabeza del diente. y se generchzc muy lentamente. "'" 200 DISTANCIA Esta dutcnc!c A ENTRE EJES 0 DE DOS RUEDAS Fellows 5'" 4 0.. R = OJ x M6dulo (mciximo). es igual 01 Didmetro D.167 x Modulo. Dimensiones en pulgadas 151 - - 150- . menos dos veces = Drdmetrc interior.' 'i' . Nuttall 0."200 0."1075 = 2. c = 0.5 x P.26 mm 2Qo 2O" DIFERENTES los cuales vamos a detallar.1416 X Modulo. y uno de los que primero se ccnecte fue el diente «Stub ». Posteriormente 10 coso R. D."3927 0.10 mitad de 10 sumo de los Didmetros pr-imitives."450 es igual a . CENTROS SISTEMA Dtemetrcl 10 altura del pie del diente. . Altura del pie del diente. = Espesor del diente. segun veremos despues."3927 0. P = Paso circunferencial. ambos casas muestran una diverse opinion re.."2355 0. il = Altura total del diente."250 0. que en 1899 cpltcc este sistema a dtverscs organismos de mcqutncs . siguio cnclcgo procedimiento de dentado. traducido 01 espcjicl «diente sin punta»."450 0. ·ii r--e 0'0 a. las diferentes partes de p. De = Dp + 2M. DIAMETRO De e = 0. ('qura 2. modificando los angulos de presion. R = Radio del pie del diente.lacionada con las alturas de 10cabeza y del pie del diente."4318 = Drstenc!c entre ejes. Nuttall Co.DIMENSIONES DE LOS DIENTES EN FUNCI6N DEL M6DULO EI M6dulo no solo sirve para caracterizar rlwnk vc dc nonuon . y veamosen que conststen esos diferencias.26 mm -e c ~ c -. per tanto vamos a comparar los distintos ststemqs tomando por referencia el Dtcmetrcl Pitch num. cdvirttendo antes que respecto 10 cingulo de presion existe una completa conformidad. o M6dulo multiplicado por el numero de dientes mas des. A = Dp + dp 22' =N + n xM Americano Standard 4 0."250 0."200 0. PITCH 4 e L / h Diferenclc en altura con el diente normal 0. Modulo.73 mm 0. ~."0893 = 2.5 x P EXTERIOR Dp. L = Modulo. = Dp (2 x I). -----T- INTERIOR peimitivo. FORMAS DE LOS DIENTES Aparte del sistema de dentado yo descrtto. marcando sus normas de una manera distinta a Fellows. De = M x (N DIAMETRO 01 + 2). Este Dldmetro este compuesto del Didmetro primitivo."0893 = 2. P=c +e = 3.j. furrrlu!{(s En funci6n de las dtsnntes exigencias de 10 construcclon moderna de mdqut nos y elementos de trcccion. a partir (claro estci) del circulo prtrnitivc. = Espacio entre dientes. sino que los dtentes estdn tombren relacionados con el ."1963 0. encontrando su lugar preferente en 10 industria del cutomovil y mdqumcs-herrcmtentcs. / = 1.167 x Modulo."3927 0. existen otros perfiles de drentes. Esta innovcclon se debe a 10 coso americana Fellows Shaper Co. La Common de Normchzacion Alemana (DIN) adopta el sistema de diente «Stub» conservando las alturas normales del diente : tcmbten 10 American Standard en su norma tiene uno ligera venecten.'1<111<1 In los Dtcmetrcs de un engranaje.35 h = 2. su resultado fue excelente. equivalente 01 Modulo 6. fue precise estudiar engranajes de elevadas condiciones de reststenctc.

250 x Paso cf rcunferenciul. salmente. y los deno.5729 x Paso" 3.1416 Paso circunferenciol Norma American = Diometrol Pilch _ - Oiametro primitivo x 3. 0.!.1416 Numero de dientes .25046X Paso. X Altura del pie del diente = 0. G. M6dulo.300 x Paso ctrcunferenctcl. los numerodores representon 01 Diemetre! Pitch por el que se determino el Didmetro prirnitivo.inodores el Diometrol Pitch que servird para determinor los alturas de los dientes Formulas: Didmetro primitivo Dldmetro = Ncmero de dientes Diometrol Pitch Numero de dientes X Paso 3. Altura del pie del diente = Diometrol Altura "total del diente = Diome~~~1 Pitch = 0. (Ascctccton cantes de Engranojes) Formulas: Altura de 10 cobezo del diente 0. que los el en cuento de Didmetro primitivo +( 2 x De"nominodor ~iometrol Pitch )" Hosto presi6n. Altura de 10 cabeza del diente = Denominodor Nuttal Diometral Pitch los nociones supere trobojo odopt6 vlene trobojon normolizor mejore mencionorse.1"'16 Neme-c de dientes = Oiametro primitivODiametro primitivo x 3.H16 exterior = Numero de dientes Oiometrol Pitch + 1. Paso Diometrol Pilch = 3.3183 X Paso.75 x M6dulo.H16 Paso circunferenciol = Oiometrol Pitch Diente normal en un pin6n de 10 dientes. [Ccmrte 20 0 • de Ncrrnchzcctcn e! cuol Formulas un perfil de diente que 10 empleo el angulo Altura de presi6n de 10 cobezo yo 10 industria cuyo fundomento Altura de 10 cabezo del diente = 0.Referente a los corocteristicos fundomentoles que deben conocerse sobre estes sistemas son los siguientes: Norma Fellows. -151- -153 - .8 = Oiometrol Pitch Pitch 0.5708 = Oiametral Pitch = 0.6 Dtumetro prtrnnivo Dicimetro Numerc = Numerodor exterior = de dientes Diometral Pitch Espesor del diente en el Didmetro primitivo 1.. = Numero de dientes Dtcmetrcl Pitch del diente = 0. M. de diente «Stub» 2()O de dngulo emclecdasuntverque en casi todas en concreto Frances). DE l()O DE IS· Drcmetrcl Pitch = Numero de dientes Die metro prtmitivo «STUB» " COMPARADO EL DIENTE NORMAL 3. Norma reolizodo sfendo C. A. de tenerse frcncesc.95 FORMA DEL DIENTE CON.5 x Paso. N. oqui 10 que se refiere hocer para de los diversos puede por el a 10 forma comisiones si bien y conviene a pesor 0 presente que estos son los normos de normolizaci6n nada es digno 10 mecdnico. Altura del pie del dtente Dtdmetro primitivo = 0. M.1416" Numerc de dientes Americana de Pubrt- Standard A.

0.25 X Otro perfil de diente que alcanza una gran aceptaci6n.ente. 0."583 circular Pitch. . t-----.25 DiametraTPTich ~ . -- 2. Sus caracteristicas son notables. engranajes de 600 metros por minute. Tembten Conocido el Diametral Pitch Conocido el circular Pitch. 'D"ia"'m=etCCroco. puede verse la zona de rodadura y desIizamiento. Las f6rmulas para este sistema de engranajes son las siguientes: Clase A. y en la casi terminaci6n de 10 cabeza del diente en la rueda y cremallera. como podro observarse en los graficos que se publican en la coleccl6n de datos sobre engranajes de este hbrc..155- 0.3183 x Circular Pitch Altura del pie del diente Altura total del dtente. cajas redueteres para turbinal de vapor en -154 - L Espesor del dtente en el Did1. pero muy aplicado: este es el sistema Bostock y Bramley.]979 0.PRECISION Dimension a calcular Dlente «Stub» en un pift6n de 10 dientes.5 x circular Pitch.. que trate de cumplir la aplicaCi6n especial aSignada a ~ste.5708 metro prtmittvo ----oiQmetrOl Pitch . D. Precision. muy poco conocido. 1.+4 DiQmetral Pitch ~ X Espesor del diente en el Did1.. y sv usc mas generaiizado es engranajes helicoidales con ejes parolelos.5708 metro prtmuivo. xi midad del pie del diente en el pin6n. Finalmente.7162 X Circular Pitch ----Circular Pitch.p. las cuales muestran dlversas comparaciones relacionadas con la cremallera. diente normal de 15· y 2()O y el sistema de que se trata. ~/a~e C: Tlpe comerctql para engranajes pef'lfef'lca In(erior a 360 metros por minute. con una velocidad peri(erica que exceda con una velocidad peri(erica de 230 corrientes. para engranajes a 900 metros por minuto.7766 x Circular Pitch. ----~--- Clase B.itc--c. nada se hizo en materia de engranajes can las caracteristicas del diente tan originales como este sistema Bostock y Bramley. puede observarse que el DI6metro primitivo se encuentra en 10 pre.-ALTA CLASE C. con una veiocidad Clase 8.5 x CIrcular Pitch.i-=-a=m=et. este perfil tiene un 6ngulo de 2()O y su aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes de tracclbn.-CLASE COMERCIAL 0. muy especialmente utllizados en la propulsi6n de buques accionados por turbinas de vapor. 'D'..ametrai Pitch 2. cuya aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes reductores de velocldad.:r=a"l P"it"c"-h --------_ ~ _ Altura del pie del diente. Alta close.--h0. Altura total del d. por tanto.aVi~ci~n. en el mayor deseo de dar a conocer todos los tipos de engranajes extstentes. apreci6ndose la enorme ventaja sobre todo otro sistema 0 norma de dtente. se trata de un perfil de diente de inmejorable resultado. 0. Se clasifican en tres grados: Clase A. -_ 0.. . es el «British Standard». y ctrcs cpltcccrones especiaJes. utilizdndose mucho. indicaremos un procedimienfo que revoluciona fodo 10 hasta ahora de uso normal.-- Altura de 10 cabeza del diente.3183 x Circular Pitch.

Close B.Trazado "British Standard" para el perfil del diente en la cremallera y fresas para tallar este sistema.ente para cremallera y ruedas. . Secc.entes para p. Engranajes Bostock & Bramley SecC/on normal en el perfil del d.nones.Alta close. 156- . Para engranajes helicoidales Q unQ seccion en dngulo recto - el perfil del con IQ helice. diente aplicado Seccion normal de los ihentes 157cnqronando.o» 1I0rlllai ell el perfil de los d. Multlpllcar los valores dados por el paso.

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10:

Formulas para enqr cncjes sequn norm as Inglese y cmerrccnc. en Iunc.on del diornetrul PITCH Y circular PITCH Diamelral, PITCH. nombre bc]o e! que se comprende e! no mero de dientes per pul9o~a Ingleso en el dtdmetro prtrrunvo. Ejemp!o: A uno rueda de 84 dtentes que mid a 14 p~Jg~dQS de dtdmetro prtmtttvc Ie corresponde 6 dientes per pulgoda; por constqutente. el diametral PITCH es = 6. Circular PITCH, se. comprende el paso circular del diente en medida Inglese sabre el circulo prrmit t'vo. PITCH, troducido 01 espcfiol = PASO.

0 el)
~

Formulas segun

efdicmetrn!

PITCH

I eII
0.. 0

Formulas segun Para obtener Circular

el circular PITCH Formula

Para obtener Dtcmetrct

Formula

a..
C ~

."

W

PITCH P
Circular

P=

N

0

PITCH P'
Dicmetrcl

3.1416 P' = -P3.1416

:;
."

'0 Qj

> t=
~ ~

E
>..

PITCH P'
Numero de dientes

3.1416 P' = --PN=P x0

.

PITCH P
Numero de dtentes

P=

-p-,-

.!:! a:: .~ ..

.r:.

N PITCH OIAMETER o
Me" 0"

N=OxP-2 0=0-25

N N 25 P PITCH OIAMETER
(Dremeteo primitlvo)

N=

3.1416 x 0 P' N x P' 3.1416(N + 2) x_F" 3.1416

a..
~

:;
u

0
~

.£ 0 a;

.. ...= 'u
E 'jE

a

g

M

[Didmetro

primitivo)

0
Dlemetro

o
0= O=~ W=

=p~ 0+

0= 0= 0

0
Didmetro

U

~ I-

.. .... Ea
'ti
Qj <: ':::>

.!:! .~

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del dienfe

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del diente

0+25

W
Altura de 10 cabeza

2.157 P

W
Altura de la ccbeze

W = 0.6866 x P' P' 3.1416 P'

E a

5

1 5 = pT= 1.5708
p

5
Espesor del diente

5=

'"

..

til

----NNNN~~~"'~~m~o

"

.~~ ----- -~ ------~ ~~~~~~ ~~
-."2 -

Espesor del diente

T
Distancia entre centros

T
Dtstenete entre centros

T='2

C= C=~

N+ n 2P 2 -

C

C=

C 163 -

(N + n) x P' 6.2832

Detalles para el uso del calibre especial para medir dientes de eflgranajes

Calibre especial para medir dientes de engranaje

TABLA PARA EL CALCULO DE VALORES PARA FIJAR LAS DIMENSIONES EN EL CALIBRE
Numero

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun et sistema de Modulo ab bo

Ncmerc

d.
dientes

Para engranojes rectos segon el sistema de MOdulo ab

Numerc

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun el sistema de Modulo ab

-

be

~
1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.571

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17

18

1.062 1.056 1.051 1.047 1.044 1.041 1.038 1.036 1.034

1.564 1.565 1.566 1.567 1.567 1.568 1.568 1.568 1.569

zs:
24

19 20 21 22

25 26 27

1.032 1.031 1.029 1.028 1.027 1.026 1.025 1.024 1.023

1.569 1.569 1.569 1.569 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570

28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-42 43-44 45-00

1.022 1.021 1.020 1.019 1.018 1.017 1.016 1.015 1.014

Los vclores de esto tobla son para hater 10 correcci6n por el numero de drentes. hasta 45. siguiE:ndo 10 diferencic entre 10 cuerda y el orco; Q portir de 45 dientes. esto diferencte es instqniflccnte, y. por tanto, dentro de 10 mas extqente tolerancio. Para determtnc r los vclores de fljccion en el calibre (altura de 10 cebezo. ab, y espesor, be) cuondo los ruedos se odopten 01 sistema de Modulo, los vclores ab y be se multiplicon por el Modulo con que se t-ete de construir el enqrcnc]e, EJEMPLO: Determinar 10 fqcctcn del calibre para medir los dientes de una rueda de 25 dientes tallada con el Modulo 5. ab altura de la cabeza del diente : la tabla indica 1.025 x 5 = 5.125. be = espesor del diente en el circulo primitivo; 10 tabla indica 1.570 x 5 7850 N

P
M Dp

A B C D

Altura

normal.

Altu ra corregida. Correccion. Espesor efectivo.

Nurnero de dientes. Paso Modulo. Didmetrc primitive. Espcc!c entre dientes. Cuerda. Flecha del areo. Altura del diente a partir del dicimetro primitivo = M.

FORMULAS
90 N Dp

x sens
cos ") 2

Dp (1 ab = L be = 5. ab

+

F.

Pure

dentaduras

tntertores.

L-

F.

-lM-

-

165 -

La medicion de ruedas y pinones helicoidales
En los mecanismos de precisi6n se hace necescrtc un riguroso control de dtdmetros en zonas de ccntacto en los floncos de los dientes. ~sto puede rechzone, a folta de operates especioles, (on un senctllo procedimiento, y por media dl -",,_r,.,('nl(' '(''1'''''' -to+otto ,., , .....,d,",,'lr'nn
\(>

Mum. de dientes 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

Dlentes pares. Factor F. Angulo de presi6n 14'/,· 12,415 14.436 16.454 18.468 20.482 22.493 24.502 26.512 28.520 30.526 32.532 34.536 36.542 38.547 2()O 12.413 12.428 16.+40 18,450 20.458 22.465 24,470 26.475 28.481 30.484 32.487 34.491 36.494 38.496 25· 12,431 14.+42 16.450 18.458 20.463 22.468 24.472 26.475 28.479 30.482 32.484

Num.
de dientes 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 53 M6dulo 6 6.5 7 8 9 10 11

Dientes tmpc res. Factor F r-_~~gulo 14f
I /~ ...

~

de pres~~_... __ 2()O 11.258 13.302 15.335 17.359 19.378 21.394 23.406 25.417 27.427 29.435 31.+42 33.+49 35.454 37.460 39.463 41.467 43.472 45.475 55,486 Modulo 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 25· 11.277 13.318 15.347 17,368 19.384 21.398 23.409 25.419 27.427 29.433 31,439 33.+44 35.+48 37.453 39.455 41.458 43.463 45.465 55.474 Fodor K 1.954 1.814 1.696 1.587 1.411 1,270 1.155 1.058 1.016

34.486
36.488 38.489

I,,_,',

i--'I"I''1

'

\..1 ~1~lt.:!I'U

vvu

'I",'\U

JulidL

.....vd c opo r ur sc scqun

40.553
42.557 +4.561 54.576

40.499
42.502 +4.503 54.510

40.491
42.492 +4.493 54.498

el Modulo 0 Drcmetrcl Pitch Ingles. Deben prepororse dos bur-res (on ones discos esfencos que puedon svstttu.r las bolos, y cuyo detolle se indica en el dfbu]o. los did metros mas convententes se determmaran por lo!. sigulentes for-mules
Q

40
42 52

11.256 13.307 15.348 17.376 19.400 21.420 23.437 25.452 27.464 29.476 31.485 33.495 35.503 37.511 39.516 41.523 43.529 45.534 55.554 Fodor K 4,233 3.906 3.628 3.175 2.822 2.540 2.309 2.117

PARA
Drcmetro

[l

SISTEMA DE MODULO = ---KPITCH
=

en mm. de los rodtltos esfertcos

1150

M6dulo x 25,4 1 1.25 1.5 1.75

Factor K 25.400 20.320 16.933 14.514 12.700 11.289 10.160 9.230

M6dulo 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5 5 5.5

Factor K 8.466 7.815 7.257 6.773 6.350 5.6+4 5.080 4.619

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL
Dscmetro en pulqadcs de los rodillos esferrcos

1.750 Diamefra!

EI factor K sera et que perfenezca 01 modulo que se uti lice sequn tabla Despues se precede a determiner 10 dimension D sobre rodi!los esfertcos. cuyo formula es:

2
2.25 2.5 2.75

PARA

EL SISTEMA
D en mm.
=

DE MODULO
-KF x 25.4

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL PITCH
D en pulgadas

12

24
25

= --~-~metre! Die

ADVERTENCIA
Para espescres

IMPORTANTE

EI factor F sera el que pertenezca. en functon de numero de dientes y ongulo de presion sequn tabla. EJEMPlOS: Pinon de 26 dtentes. Modulo 5. Angulo de presion. 14 Peeler F = 28.520 Faclor K = 5,080 La conversion del modulo y diametral M = Modulo M= es 10 siguienfe DP Drcrnetrc!
I .,'

y alturas en los dientes

de las ruedas helicoidoles, en 10 correcci6n de ajuste del calibre, deben tomarse los volores a. b, c. por el numero de dientes ficticio NF. segun 10f6rmula: NF = Num. de dientes
COSl~

El USC DEL CALIBRE ESPECIAl. PARA MEDIR DIENTES DE ENGRANAJE

=

Pitch

-i5P166 -

25,4

DP = _2,S,~
M normal.

Angulo de 10 hehce 167-

Todos los cdlcutos pr ecedentes se refieren a modulo y diametral

MEDICION POR

DE LA Ot.NTAUUKA U~ U" ~"UftAI"'''''''1;. MEDIO DE UN CALIBRE CORRIENTE

Tabla funcion

mdtccdore del numero

del numcro de dientes 2()O EJEMPLO

de espccrcs del engranaje PARA

compt cndtdos en 10 medrdc

K en

y cingulo de presion.
SU 45

usa
Ndm. PRESION 22· 30' DE 18 27 36 45 54 63 81 ENGRANAJE 12 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 = = = = = = = = 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 12 15 22 30 37 44 52 59 = = = = = = = = 14 21 29 35 43 51 58 65 C. 25·
M6dIJlo. Pow Espccto entre d,ente, E,pt',or del dienle. Profundidaddel dienle

Angu 10 de presion. NUMERO DE ESPACIOS

Ndm.

de dientes. DE

de espectcs.

C

=4

Dimensiones del diente en los pasos normales del modulo
~m·! ",
»

ANGULO 14" 30' 17· NUMERO 12 26 18 51 63 76 88 = = = = = = = 25 37 50 62 75 87 tOO 12 22 33 43 54 65 75 86 DE

20DIENTES 12 = 19 = 28 = 37 = 46 = 55 = 64=72 73 =

1 3,1<4 1,57 2,17

1,25 3,93 1,97 2,71

1.5 4,71 2,36 3.25

t,75 5.5 2.]5 3,79 6.28 3,14 4,33

1,l5 7,01 3.54 4,87

l,5 7.B5 3,93 5,42

C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1,75 8,64 4,32 5."

J,2S 9,42 4,71 6.5 10,21 5,11 7.04

= 21 = 32 = 42 = 53 = -64 = 74 = 85 = 96 C

MOdulo. Peso .. EspaCio entre dientes. Espesor del dienle. Profundidaddel d'enle.

mm
" »
»

, ,

1,5 11 5.5 7.58

3,75 11,78 5." 8,13

12,56 6.29 8,67

4,lS 13,35 6.68 9,21

14,13 7.07 9.75

....

4,75 14,92 7.46 10,29

5,25 15,70 7.86 10.83 16,4' '.25 11,]8

5,5 17,28

....

5.75 18.06 9,03 12.46

11,92

M
It

= Modulo_
de dientes Formula K~ general

= Espccios.

N ::::;:Ncm.

del engranaje. en radianes. para cualquier N

1 = Angulo de presion

,,=
cingulo

Y = Num. Angulo

de espacios

MOdulo Peso ..

18,84

6,15 19,64 9.82 13,>4

6,5

7,5 21,99 11 15.17

20.42 10,21 14,08

de presion.

hpaCioenlredientes », 9.43 Espt'Klrdeldie,nle »I Profundioad del dreete. » 13

n.56
11,78 16.25

25.13 12,57 17,32

28,27 14,14 19,5

1t 31.42 15,71 21,67

11 34.56 17.28 23,83

11 37,7 18,85 26

de presion: --" : X N)] 1)1
MOdulo Pesc. , Espocioentredienles hpes~rdel diente Profundidad deJd,ente 13 «l.84 20,42 28,17

MI1I'(Y +~.
Formula

) co. «+ paro

cos «(190:

,.
43,98 21,99 30,33

15 47,12 23,56 32,S

SO.27 25,13 3U7

..

17 53.41 26.70 )6,83

11 56,55 28,27 19

59.69 29,85 41,17

"

62,83 31,42 43.ll

'"

11 65,97 32,98 45,S

n
69,12 34,56 47,67

14" 30' simpltflccdc

K

= M 1(3.04280 X Y) + 1.5218 + (0.00514
Formula paro 15 simplificada:
D

K.~

M 1(3.03455 X Y) + 1.5177 + (0.00594 X N)]
Formula para 20" simplificada:

M6dulo POKl_. hpesor del dienle » Profundidod deldiente.

15 78,54 39,27 53,9

11 87,96

30 94,25 47.12 ".7

n

100,53 50.26

K~

M 1(2.952 X Y) + 1.476 + (0.014 X N)]
168-

60.'

43,98

..

l5 109,96 5",98 75,5

11 109,38 59,69 '1.9

125,66 62,83

..

50 157,08 78,54 107,8

".3

169 -

Tallado de ruedas reetas con dentado evolvente
JUEGO DE FRESAS
pora M6dulo 1· 10 5 para rued as de 26- 3~ dientes 6 » 35- 54 » 7 » SS-1H» 8 » 135-cremallera 8 fralO. por juego, utilizoda. N.- 1 para ruedas de 12 - 13 dtentes N.· »2 » 14 -16» » »3 » 17 - 20» » » -4 » 21 - 2S» » N.» » »
15 fr..... por juego, utilizada. 1 para ruedas de 12 dientes 1 II. » 13» 1 » 14» 2'/. » 15-16» »3 » 17-18» » 3'/, »~ » » 19-20» 21-22»

Resistencia del diente en los engranajes
EI diente de un engranoJe trcbaja por reststence a 10 flexion, debe ser calculado en
0

'I

como

un solido

encostrado c sfue r z c cntculo soportara

10 base, soportondo
de 10 cabeza el por tanto. se si un solo teoria diente esta
no

en 10 extremidad cargo; rd como

el esfuerzo

tangencial. sobre por Inde nos

poro M6dulo 11 y mayores N." 411'1. para ruedas de 23- 25 dientes » S· » 26- 29 » » 5 lIt » 3()" 34 »
»6 » 6 'I. »7 » 7'/, »

La mds notable Mr. Wilfred veshgcdc los datos para
LeWIS,

en Prlcdelfia. para

materia fue dodo a conocer el 15 de octubre de 1892. y todo cuanto se resolver los cdlculos en los casos cornentes tanto,

»
» »

35- ~1 35- S~ 55- 79 BO-1H»

» » »

y rncdrficado. este basado en los prtnclptos LEWIS. A continuccion se don
mas elementales los de altos estudros de prcyeccion y rendinuentcs rno xtmcs superior de 10 tectuco : por que esftmcmos suficrentes :

enqrcncjes. dejando aquellos
hmrtoremos

Num. 8, para ruedas de 135 dientes hasta cremallera

que trabajan a estas formulas

en el grado
generales,

FRESAS PARA «DIAMETRAL

PITCH»
0

DESIGNACION

FORMULAS tangenciol paro e!

Si el calculo para engronojes se efectue segun Diametral numerc de (resas por juego es como sigue:

Circular

Pitch. el
Presion diente V Velocidad
0

esfuerzo perifertca

8 fresas por juego. utilizadas para Diametral Pit"", 16·1' /. N.o 1 para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N.O 5 para rued as de 21·25 dientes »2 » SS-IH dtentes »6 » 17-20 »
»3 »~ » » 35- S~

en Kg.
0

p=

.~~ V

lineal en el diepor sea

26- H

» »

»7 »8

»»

1+16 12-13
I

» »

metro p rimtttvo gundo

en

metros

v « ~~~=

60

--P--

7S

X

F

15 fresas por juego, utilizadas pa~a Diametral

Pitch 2 It .. 1
M

Fuerza en C. V. (caballos transmitir. MOdulo. Espesor del diente del diente. del diente. de reststenc,c de seguridad
prtmitrvo

de vapor)

Nem. 1r para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N,o 11/. para ruedas de 80-13-4 dientes para ruedas de 21-25 dientes N."S
» » 2

2'/. »3

» » »

~

3

'I.

~·I.

» » » » » »

55- 79 ~2- S~ 35- ~1 30- H 26- 29 23- 2S

»

»
» » »

» » » » »

5'/, 6 6'/, 7 8

»
ulfimas

» 7 'I.

» » » » » » porque

19-20 17·18 15-16

en 10 roiz. M=\~ de 10 seccion coeficiente de F= minute. p -~

» »

_H

Altura Ancho

14 13 12

»
» » »

w
C Dp N
i=

Momento rectangular. Carga
Didmetro

(ve c se tabla

VCX132
de volores C)

0

Se advierte de M6dulo.

que las dos tablos marcan

se dan can

a conecer a

en America

trcbc]o por flexion

en Kg. mm-. (en metros).

xV

(U. S. A.) e Inglaterra

las fresas

numero~

10 inverse del sistema

=

Ncmerc

de revotuctones por

-

170-

-171

0. Ni = 1 % Ni = 1.28 31 .5 .235 x M - 172- 173 - . y estdn comprendidos entre 70 a 80 de la resistencia a la trcccion.75 .25 .3.75 al cromo niquel: 27 .3 0.50 % Acero al niquel: 14 -17 24 .6 0. Acero Cr = 0.7 0.40 .25 2.75 2 .5 . basados en los limites de elcsncrdcd de los diversos materiales a ernplear.27 NI = 3. Acero al carbon~: C = 0.3 % se opliccrd la siguiente FORMULA Aprox. 1.31 PC = Profundidad de penetrncron de la cernentccton que deben tener los dientes M = Modulo_ Modulo PC mm. fenolita.5 5. Cuproaluminio Aluminio.1.4 4.15 . Materias 1 1.Resistencia del diente en los engranajes Tabla para valores (C) coeficiente de tr obojo a la flexion en la raiz del pie de los diente s MATERIALES Fundiclon Acero C= Kgs.5 3.5 .2.25 .2 0.0.9 1 pldstlccs.2. X rnrn- Tratamiento termico de ruedas dentadas con dientes cementados (Vcleder o inclusive para rued as con dientes rectificados) 18 a 19 Kgs.5 1. Modulo PC mm.45 Cr = 0. __ Limite eldstlco C 2 PC FORMULA MX n 2 - x 15 100 = 0. etc.75 Del modulo 0.5 0.25 % C = 0.5% 24 .8 0.5 Valores C. rnrn- 4-5 9 . .25 3.3.42 5-6 10 16 3 Bronce fosforoso Duraluminio.75 % . 1.6 6 en adelante 3 .10 moldecdo.4 0.

032 a 0. _D_.-----------f-------.008 0.en'.14 -0.003 De 0.012 O:~ Engranajes cilindricos.020 EN LA DISTANCIA Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR ENTRE DE51GNACION 1a3 Didmetro exterior 15 A.005 a 0.03a + 0.5 a 7 De a 0. Drstcnctc entre ejes 15 A. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras frlsadas 0 rectificadas CLASE ALTA PRECISION TOLERANCIA DE51GNACION EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 1a~ Sumo Error de division.008 a 0.012 a 0.2~ + O. de-echo 0 izquier do. E· a.050 0.. mdximo sobre el flanco del diente.cos De 0.21 + O.020 De 0.".5 a 7 De 0.012 0.020 I Q) o.e _~..061 0. b .005 De 0.05 a 0.:~ LA i De 0.020 De 0. maxima entre el par de engranajes.025 De 0.006 I De 0.-C"~-.15 -0.~__ 01 oguJero TOLERANCIA respecto l__:_?. E.004 I a ().02 a 0.020 CD ® ® Parolelismo Excentricidod maximo entre e! por d ~~~~~e_e~n~9~.ooa 0.02a +0.025 a 0. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE PRECISION TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION EN LA DENTADURA -r-----. EJES 0.25 a 5 -0. I I •• 014 021 n 020 ~ 015 f-~~r)]q+.5 a 10 Mos de 10 -015 -024~ 1 Drc metr o e xte rro r ISA b II ('nlr~-~ - ":"4 . CD ®Error Holguro entre dientes 15 A.-.01 5 a 0._'2_ 0.003 a 0.010 a oms.020 a 0..03 7 a 10 De 0.. .0_a_ir-a_O.-:: ~l''.O~ Mayordel0 De 0.059 + 0.12 0. __ .o!S a 0.OB a 0..030 EJES Mayor de 10 De 0. derechc 0 Izquierdo.005 0.015 0.008 De 0.10: 0. ><. De 0.03 a O.---a I ~ ~. TOLERANCIA ® Pcrcleusrnc del d..03 De 0.010 7 a 10 De 0.~7 + 0.Engranajes cillndricos.010 a 0.075 0. -0.005 a o.060 +-_~-+_a I.26 + 0.010 ~.. respectc De 0.15 -O.Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR DESIGNACION __ ._~__ oc-~OD~~ 1 '.010 De 0..025 Mds de 10 -0. del diente 01 QguJero.oa -r=-~~~'~~~~~~De 0.05 De 0. 0 )32 - 174- 17:.ooa 0.020 5.06 De O.012 0.010 De 0.010 De 0.006 o.030 0.014 MODULO 3. 9.+ 0050 .015 (!jxcentricidod CD Suma Error de division de des flancos de drentes.a~n~a~le~s' Holgura entre dte nte s :~~ 'S_'_A_.032 -----------Duto oc a ISA -~. (!) 0.0011) ._'_0 ~ __ ~ __ fA\ Error maximo sobre e! flonco \:!J del drente.3 2) a 5 Q ~ EN DISTANCIA ENTRE ~ __ 5.20 + O.003 0.05 o..-----.014 a 0.14 -0. de dos floncos de dtentes.008 a 0.002 Q 0.010 PerpendicuJaridad de Ie cora del diente respectc 01 ogujero. : ~ f 9 0061 ItO 075 .-. __0~.5 a 10 -0.

176 -- 2' P = M x 1.167. = Didrnetro prirrntivo.. 0. A = Distancia entre ejes o centres.O~ Q 0. R = Radio del pie del diente.015 ® Paralelismo diente 01 cqujero.Engranajes cilindricos.03 + 0. DESIGNACION P = Paso.. de la cabeza del diente.Q2 De 0.03 Q 0._ N e = T=M x x 2. D -10 + 0.5708.5708. ~.167 Di = Dp - (2M x 1.5 Q 10 Mcisde10 -0.05 Q 0.16 0. M Dp De D. Dp D.) - . + 2).. 0.06 0. + dfl.01 Q 0. el par D.01 D.Q3 CD @ Suma Error de division.28 0. f= Drc me tro IS A.) X M - L = M. 0. O. respecto 0. D-11. Y DIAMETRO DESIGNACION MODULO 3 Q 5 3.03 Q D.05 M = ~= P = M x . sabre 0 dtente.015 Q 0.04 0.O.167). 0.06 Q 0.04 + 0.37 Altura del pie del diente.3 x M (Maximo..33 -0. = Diornetro interior.1 ----. -177 R = 0. = Diornetro exterior. h =M A = Dp = M x N. exterior Q -11. derecho del el flanco izquterdo.07 Q O.20 D.Q2 Excentricidad de engranoles Holgura entre dientes I SA. _ N + n 2 --2= ~.05 Q 0.27 ~0. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE CORRIENTE TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION 3 Q FORMULAS GENERALES para engranajes rectos segun el sistema normal de Modulo EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 5 5.08 0. c= -..34 Dtstcnctc entre eje s IS A. t=Mxl. p 1.. Error del maximo CD @ 0. (Mini mo. de dos Ilcncos de maxima entre dientes.27 -0.0.e. ( e = Modulo.12 + 0. = Espacio entre dientes.15 D.015 D. TOLERANCIA EN LA h = Altura L = Altura DISTANCIA EXTERIOR ENTRE EJES total del diente.13 0.5 Q 10 Mayor de 10 D. De = M x (N ~.06 + 0.10 + 0. = Espesor del diente.1 D. -0. 0.

0 0 "'0 I"'l Q) 0 N Q) :J "'0 -1'3 e e 0 U t)... :J "'0 0 ...... Ie Q.... C Q) Q) Q. e Q) 0 -178 179 ... "'0 0~ 0 0 .() Q) !.."'0 00 0 e0 0 ec !... !....... 0 .... e Q) Q) E 0 !... Q) E !. 0 Q) Q) II> LI"'I c ... II> 0 e 0 Q) II> N :J "'0 "'0 0 0 0 "'0 Q) 0 0~ "'0 0 !... N 0 -0 t)..() :J "'0 Q) Q.... Q) Q) II> e "'0 0 II> E 0 0 Z to:: !. II> c 0 .

I dientes.22 x DP ~~ = R.3xM.5 x P = DP x Sen = 0. R. L = Ccbezc del diente = Modulo. » 14 a 17 » 22 '.= Para . n T= h +1 MOdulo.= R. = 0. n = Ncmerc de dientes cortontes de 10fresa. r = Radio de pie del diente.. 6 0 ~= 1 Minimo. c = Espacio CT = Dtcmetrc zado.1416. -181 - .3 x M (MoxilT)o) 75· R. = 0. e= -y-' P = Paso. ~= Angulo de flanco. II = N.1416 X T9 ~. 10° Mdxlmo Angulo de incidencio. N = Nemerc de dientes r=0.321 x DP Cos. de fradel e = Espesor del diente. del circulo DT ) Circulo de trazado de los DT= K K = Coseno del dnqulc = Drcmetro prlminvo. x DP = CT '. = CT = 0. DATOS PARA DESTALONADO RI R:!R3= Radios para diente.068 x DP r = 0. paso DESIGNACION '/ = Angulo de presion. = 0. = Angulo de complemento. Radios de trazado = Rl~Rs. » 10 a 13 » 25·.22 x DP 75~ R. A = 0 x 3. = 0. = 0. = 0. de 23 a 25 dlentes 17 'I.96592 x DP r). de 10 rueda. P=Mx 3.07 x DP 75· R. a 20-. monos do 10 dlentes 25 a 28". a 20-.33 X DP = 20" CT = 0.6 x M. USUALES Para Para Pcrc '1 = 15" '. = 0. de presi6n.CONSTRUCCION para talla de engranajes DE FRESAS TIPO SIMPLE segun el sistema de Modulo TRAZADO DE LOS DIENTES para engranajes con menos de 30 dientes H = 3. -180 - Para complementos usar f6rmulas generales. h = Altura normal del diente en 10fresa en funci6ndel ANGULOS DE PRESION MAS e = 0. = 0.5)( P (Holguro ancho H.2140 x DP R.07 x DP R.= M x N. DP '1 != Pie del diente. c DE DP=Mx neutral.96815 x DP 0. ~ .33 x DP I ~ Ruedas " » » » con mas de 25 dlentes 14 J I.93969 x DP R. el trazado N = Numero de dientes FORMULAS x DP.1416'=-N=r'f+i. entre dtentes. = 140 I/~ » CT = 0.ralados de los dientes vf:anse las f6rmulas generales. M = M6<lulo. DP. . M= Ii: P DP 3. » 18a22 » 20 a 22·. M ~ Modulo..

= 20". DP= M x N.. de corte.5 x P. P DP M= 3.. FORMULAS P 3. c -' Espocio entre dientes.H16 x cotg v. = Angulo de inclinccion del filete hellce. R = Radio en 10cabeza del diente. t'i reforzado = 40". 0 de /0 == DI6metro prrmtttvc. - + 3 mm. e = Espesor c = Espuctc del diente. normal = 29°. h = Altura total del diente. Para = 15·~ 11= 7S-. R = Radio para trazado del di~nte. ~ == Angulo de complemento. I = Alturas de 10 ccbezc y pie del diente (en este coso ambos iguoles). Para. I Secc. r = Radio del pie del dtente. = ---"'d"p--C:x~3". ~ = 751/.5 x P.96592 x DP..1'-:4"1-.1iIJ. entre dientes.H16 =---. de = dp + 2 x t. Para comptementol usar formulas generates. de = Didmetro exterior. CT = 0. x DP = CT. = Angulo de presi6n. <= = 0. 2. • = 0. Para :r.. DP R =----s' 'X Angulo en el flanco del diente. Ho'gura neutra. normal del modulo.r-= 'l. M= M6dulo.H16.dp " 7. » reforzado = 20:'.H16. .Trazado de los dientes para engranajes con mas de 30 diente. DESIGNACION M = M6dulo.on '('01 0 por el paso normal del M6dulo. CT = 0. dp = de ... cos para roscar en el torno. T = Aneho en el fondo del drente y uncho de 10 punta de 10 cuchillc para roscar. que sera el paso. CT = 0. SP = dp x 3.334 x M. = 141/1°.167 x M. Cos. Aquina automAticas de talla continua por el procedimiento de generaci6n . PT = ~.. t = 1.3 x M (Maximo). P ~ Paso.96815 x DP. N == Numero de dientes. PR = Paso real 0 CT ~ Di6metro del clrculc de trazado.6. ~ = 70". \ Dtente normal = 14 I. PR = M x 3.. PR M Seno 1.05 x P. -182 - SP = Paso de 10 espiral NO = Numero de dientes -t)x x 2 x t9 :.93969 x DP. i. h = 2. dp = Dldmetro prtmttlvo. de 10 fresc. T= (PT x 4cotg:> ~= I " \ Diente =I » r = 0. ~ngu'o de inclina- ci6n del dienfe o de la he/ice.2 x t. de X 3 NO = ----v>T' J=h 183- J = Aneho del diente cortonte. Fresas para tallar engranajes ractas y helicoidalas sobra . DE N+2' PT = Paso del tornillo. R = 0. = Angulo total entre flancos.-.H16' M= DESIGNACION OP FORMULAS P= M x 3. • =-= Espesor del diente.".

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA
TlPO A DES'GNAC'ON TlPO 8 M = Modulo.

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA

P

=

Paso.
primitivo. exterior.

DP = Dtemetrc DE 01

=

TT-=.l' '
i

··ff !L;

.t~
~
.. ..J ....
Secc.on del

Didmetrc

T ~I ~
.

02 = Dremetrc mayor

Fie

y

scbre

or15105. entre ejes

j_L.::~::

, ._l

~.
fdetc segun cjc

E = Di5lancia de to rueda A = Ancho r

Y

sin-fin.

de to rueda. de 10 cebeze. pertfe-

FORMULAS

=

Radio

R = Concavidad rica.
:X

---------------1
DESIGNACION
M = Modulo. n

p M = 3.1416;
Paso para

P=M
el torno

X

3.1416.
entrada

s; el tornillo
0

= Angulo

de las caras. de dientes. de 10 ccbezc

N = Namere L = Altura

trene mas de un filete = P x n. de filetes
0

= Numero

entradas.

del diente. = Altura diente. FORMULAS T'PO A h = Altura diente. M_-P-_~ e = Espesor del diente entre dientes. M_ total del FORMULAS T'PO 8 de! pie del

P = Paso lineal.
rt

Tg' --_P-= = .~_. dp x 3.1416 dp
0

= Angulo de inclinacion 10 heltce. exterior. primitivo.

del tilete

d

de dp 2M dp 2L dp = de - 2M = de - 2L. d= de -2h; h = 2.167

=

+

=

+

de = Didmetro dp = Didmetro

L=M; e=2'

P

x M. 1_1.167xM.
p

(=2'

P
),1416

3.H16

N' x M.

c = Espacio

-1'1'
X M.

DP

d lR F

= Dldmetrc 01 fondo del htlo. = longitud = Extremos
de 10 parte sin rosca. roscada.

DE _ (N
DP=NxM.

+ 2) + +

1-----------1
NOTA. Se recomienda de ser la m4s rueda rests-

DE - (N
DP=NxM. D2

+ 2)
Rx x y R
P

~~ Hlete normnl f e 1//. = :~ Hlete reforzado 20°. = ~ Filete para pasos largos

30".

T
del fllete.

01

=

DE

(O..4775 x P), para
sin-fin y doble. de filete

tornillo simple

et
tipo

empleo A. por

=

2(

'l(

cos

1-) +
filete.

h = Altura
DE.

total del filete. de 10 cabeza

=

(P x cotq :' 4 -

(I

Ix

2

• x 'g e·

l = Altura

LR =
P x (4,5

tente. zecten.

y

sencillc

su meccnrse

A = 2.38 simple

01
A

=

DE
triple

(0.3183 x Pl. para

+ +

6 mm .. para

l = Al'uro
e = Espesor e = Espacio ~= Angulo T

del pre del filete. del fllete. entre filetes. del filete.

+ .~~e

di~~tes ~~~}.

y
P

doble

F = P; Nota. torntllos

R = 0.05 x P
Como norma Sin-fin de: actual' en los

y cu6druple.

En las para mara como dientes una

relaciones rueda

ta-

:Ie

2,38 X P simple

+

6 m m.

e l tornillo segun

sin-fin de 1-2-3-"

A

=
=

2.15 triple

5 mm .. para

cuedruple.

y
x

doble.

en el flanco

A=2.1S
triple R = 0.5 r=

P+
dp P.

5
M.

sea el nome-

R

0.5 x

dp -

M.

mm .. para

rc de flletes.

y

= Ancho en el fondo del filete y ancho de Ftlete simple y doble. ~ = 29". Ftlete triple y cucidruple, A = 40". 10 punta de 10 cuchilla para roscar.
del filete. flancos. = Angulo total entre

cu6druple.

x

R = Radio en 10 cebezc E
=

0.25 x

DP

+
2

dp

,;j

Filetes para pasos largos. ~ = 60°. En algunos casos tam bien se uti/iza 40° para. filete simple y doble.

-

184-

- 185-

Tornillo sin-fin y su rueda Relaciones que existen en diversos casos
1.' s: el nurnero de filetes y revoluciones por minuto de un tornillo sin-fin son conocidos, asi como el numero de dientes de la rueda. Se determina el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda por medio de la formula: Revoluciones N. de revoluciones N.' de la rueda

3.'

Velocidad

de ruedcs a tornillo

sin-fin compuestas.

DATOS PARA EL CALCULO
C = Tornillo sin-fin motriz con filete simple, girando a 1600 revoluciones. E = Tornillo ble filete. sin-fin a do-

D = Rueda de 80 dientes. F = Rueda de 40 dientes. Determinar el nurnero de revoluciones de la rueda F.

=,

del sin-fin

X N.' de filetes

EJEMPLO:

de dientes de la rueda

Tornillo sin-fin A tiene doble filete y gira a 240 revoluciones, la rueda B tiene 80 dientes, el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda sera igual

1600 X (1 X 2)
80 x40

1 revolucl6n. el nurnero de revoel producto del nupor el producto del

240 x2 --8-0-

= 6 revoluciones.

2.' Calcular el nurnero de dientes de una rueda a tornillo sin-fin para una velocidad determinada, conocidos el ruimero de filetes del tornillo sin-fin, y el nurnero de revoluciones por minuto del tornillo y la rueda.

La operaci6n consiste en multiplicar luciones del tornillo sin-fin motriz por mero de filetes de los tornillos, y dividir nurnero de dientes de las ruedas. 4.' puestas. Se opera del modo siguiente: Velocidad de un tornillo sin-fin

con las ruedas com-

FORMULA:

N.' de dientes de la rueda = del tornillo X N.' de filetes

N.' de revoluciones

EJEMPLO:
Si los tornillos nes del sin-fin sin-fin

EJEMPLO:
EI tornillo sin-fin A es de triple filete ygira a 360 revoluciones, la rueda B debe girar a 10 revoluciones, el nurnero de dientes sera:

40 dientes, y la rued a P 20 dientes, el nurnero
motriz

C y E tienen doble filete, la rueda D de revolucioC sera igual al resultado de

--1-0-

360 X

3 -

= 108 dientes.

FxD
CX

E= 2X2
-

20x40

= 200 revoluciones. 187-

186-

Empujes axiales (P) de tornillos sin-fin y sus ruedas girando en diversos sentidos
Sin-fin tr obojondo vobre

Fresa sin-fin para tallar unicamente ruedas a tornillo sin-fin

10 rueda.

at-a
h'l 'I:'

-~ .4 <D .
I

'WON

DOC D"""

"CON OC '"

OESIGNACION

FORMULAS P = M x 3.1416.
exterior del tornillo del paso. sin-

p~
p~ p-

~p

P = Paso. M= M6dulo. de = Di6metro exterior. dp = Di6metro primitivo. h = Altura del diente.
L = Altura bezc.

P M = 3.1416:
de

= Dia.metro
fin

+

1/10

,=

que cor responde Q 10 coy en 10 frese (S Q 10 teveesc. que corresponde 01 pie,

dp = de - 2(. h=2.167xM: L=M. e=·T:
h , Dtente ;3 Diente
0=

(=1.167xM: P R=O.05xP.
14

Altura

Sin-fin

trobojondo

debcjo

de 10 rueda

en

10

Irese es

y

c=T:

Q

10 inverSQ.

e c

= Espesor del dlente. = Espocio entre dientes.
de! diente.

J

+

3 mm. 0 filete normal
0

1//.
20".

R = Radio de 10 cebeze

I

filete reforzado

Diente para posos largos 30°.
~= Como norma actual:

J = Ancho del diente cortante. ~= Angulo en el flanco del diente. 3 = Angulo total entre flancos.
IX

Filete simple

0

doble 29".
D ,

Filete simple reforzado 4O Filete para posos largos 60".

= Angulo

de inclinaci6n

del fllete

o de la helice.
T

= Ancho en el fondo
ancho de 10_punta para roscar.

del diente y de 10 cuchilla de corte. de la Ire'sc.
0

Para filete \ T g , = __ P_ = ~. _ simple I dp x • dp Para mas de\ T9 7. =~. un filete I dp x r. SP = dp x 3.1416 X cotg x . de x 3 NO = ~ (aprox.).

SP = Paso de la espiral NO = Numerc de dientes n = Numerc de filetes milimetrica.

entredns.

, = Divisi6n Sin-fin con ftletes roscados a izquierda. Sin-fin. con ftletes roscados a derecha.

T= (

pxcotg~

4

- 188-

Nota.-Terminada de tal',ar la espiral de corte SP en 10 Iresc. hacer una plantilla del perfil del filete por 10 secci6n perpendicular a la helice. esta plantilla serviro para desto\onor.

-189 -

ENGRANAJES HELICOIDALES

Diagrama para calcular el numere de la Fresa para tallar ruedas helicoidales
GRADOS DEL ANGULO
5

AXIAL
)0 )5.-40

DE LOS-DIENTES
45 50 55 60 65

DE LA RUEDA
70 75 80 8~ 90

m

10

15

20 25

M _ Modulo nor mol 0 real. Ma = M6dulo del paso ctrcunferencrol

oparente.

1:1 15,_ 20 25

III
j:-

N ::0::. Numero de dientes. NF = Numero de dlentes fkncte para eleqrr 10 fresa (si se tollo en fresadora
universal).

Op = DI<imetro prlmitivo. De = DI<imetro exterior. h = Allura del dlenle. P = Paso de le helice.

Pr = Paso real 0 normal. Pa = Paso aparente.

~ !:::::: r>
k"

~

.......1:;::::: ~

I--a.; j;:1'

t-

v r- rV

~

I/:r> V

f7

J

~ ...
II<

)0 )5

J......- V

V~ 1/ II?'

II

~
/_

I

:I 40

FORMULAS
Ma=~=EE... P Pr Pr
0='057.=

De N
X

= Dp
N-~ -

+ 2M.
Ma'
X

cos x
Dp

3.1416
N'
X

=
Dp

Pa

X

cos

x

=
X

3.1416
7:.

M.

h= NF=_N_=

2.167
:x

M.
Dp
X

M= Ma

cos
N

=

N

X

Ma

=

3.1416'

X

Pa

cosa
X

M
X

cosl

7.

... ... ... IZ ... Q ...
0( Q III Q

~5 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
0<

__.

V

V II I II I II
II
I

Vi

7

P

= Dp

3.1416

.colg •.

o II<

Para engranajes helicoidales a ejes paralelos, se recomiendan los ongulos siguientes: at = 10- para ruedas de pequeflo velocidad; x = 30- para rued as de elevada velocldad; at = "So para ruedas de gran velocidad.
Angulo usual para engfanojes ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motrlz helicoidales con ejes perpendiculares. ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motriz DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

... ~

:I Z

90 95

-

I(tv

~h

I..

f-..
)

Z~

t--J I

1.....-'

00
05 10 15 20 25 )0

DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

I

b \.

ivb

,-'Ll>

",)

1 1 1 1 1

:1 : 1.5 :2 : 2.5 :3

~5' 56-19' 63' 26' 68'12' 71'34'

~5' 33' 41' 26'34' 21'48' 18- 26'

1 1 1 1

: 3.5 :~ : ~.5 :5

7~' 03' 75' 58' 77- 28' 78- ~1'

15' 57' 14'02' 12- 32' 11-19'

I V

V

"

EJEMPLO.· Determinar por el diagrama el nlj· mero de 10' fresa que se necesita para taUar una ruede helicoidal de 52 dientes con un angulo axial de 38 grados. Seguir las fJechas del ejemplo y su concurrencia determina el numerc de la fresa. que en este coso es 10 numero 7. -191 -

I

-190-

ANaULO
DE LAS

P _ PaSO de 10 hellce.
OP _ Dldmetro Cotangente
11_

prlmitivo. OP P
X

Calculo de engranajes helicoidales en casos diversos
x cotangente p ). Grados

HEUCES
p Grados

).'4'6·

Paso de 10 hellee p Grad,os

"" OP X ),1416 p Grados

Ruedas hellcoldales con dlametros Iguales y numero de dlenies dlstlnto, dngulo de los eJes 90".
p Grados

DP
0.01 0.02 0,03 0.0< 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.10

del

dngulo 8')0<" 8')0 3S' 82'27' 8')0 16' 89" 5' 88- 5<' 88- <3' 88- 12' 88'21' sa" 11' il8'0'

DP
0.<6 M8 O.SO C.52 O.S< 0,56 0,58 0.60 0,62 0.6< 0.66 0.68 0.70 O,H 0.76 0.78 O.SO 0.82 0.8< 0.86 0.88

del

dngulo 81' <0'

DP
1.75 1.SO 1.85 1.95 2.00 2.05

del

dngulo 60-5<'

DP
3.85

del

cingula

DP
12.SO 13.00 13.SO '4.00

del

6.ngulo ,4" 7' 13'38' 13' 8' 12')9' n"1)' 11' 50' 11"27' 10--46' 10- 28' 10- 5' 9-5<'

a>o 79-

soso-

8,·19'
58' 36' 14' 53'

013'

3.90

39-'.'
38-53' 38-31' 38'10' 37' <8' 37' 2S' 37' 7' 36"48' 36' 27' 36' 8' 35'30' 3<'''-

1.90

O.O~

0.11
0.12 0.13 0,14 0.15 0,16 0,17 0.18 0,19 0.20

78- 50' 78-29' 78' S'

79-11'

'9-32'

2,10
2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2,)5 2.<0 2 •• 2.SO 2.55 2.60

87-4"
87'38' 87" 27' 87'16' 87' 5' 86' 5<' 86- 43' 86'12' 86'21' 86"11' 86' 0'

n·,,7'
n'26'

o.n

0,21

o.n 0.23 0.24 0.25 0,26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.12 0.33 0.3" 0.35 0.36 0,37 0.38 0.39 0,"0 0."2 0 .....

85-"9'
85'38' 85'27' 85'16' 85' 5' 8<'S<' 84' "3' 8<'12' 84'21' &4' 10' 8<' 0' 83' "9" 83'38' 83'27' 83'16' 83' 5' 82- 5.. , 82' "3' 82'22' 82'. 2'

0.90
0.92 0,9" 0.96 0,98 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1,30 1,35 1.<0 1,"5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1,65 1,70

75· l' 40" 74·20' 7"· 0'

n- 5' 76"_+4' 76'23' 75' 3' 75" 4)' 75'n'

59-12' 58' 52' 5&11' 57-31' 56' 53' 56'15' 55'37' 55' 0' S4" 24' 53' <8' 53'12' 52'37' 52' 3' 51'30' 56' .. 9-

3.95 <.00

",05 ".10
4,15 4.20 <.25 <.30 <.<0 <.60 <.SO 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 6.25 6.SO 6,75 7.00 7.25 7.SO 7,75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.SO 9,75 10,00 10.25 10,50 10,75 11,OJ 11.25 11,50 11,75 12.00

'4.50

U

n-12'

12' 8' 30- 5<'

2,65

7"·

7), <0'

2.70 2.75 2.SO 2.85

52' ..,. 22'
..,- 39' 48-16'

soso- 23'

2"+4'

15.00 15,50 16,00 16,50 17.00 17.SO 18.00 19,00 20.00 n.so 25.00

Como orlentacl6n para su celcu!e, se indican estas sencillas reglas: Angulo de los dlentes de una rueda == cr. Angulo de los dlentes de otra rueda = Ut· en los cuales pondremos como norma: = Rueda de menor nemerc de dlentes. Cl'1 = Rueda de mayor numerc de dlentes.
FORMULA

11- 6'

Tg IX

9-23'
8'56' 8' 0' 7'10' 6" 33' 5'59' 5'12' 5" 7'

2.90

47· .7' 47"'17'
<6'<8 046°19" "5' SO' "5'23' ..... 56' "'28' i4' 0' "3'l6' "3' iCY "2'44' "2-20' "1' 57' "1'32' "1' 7'

n'<O'
71'12'

7)'20' 7)' 0'

no 21'
700 ..3'
69- 55' 6" 8' 68- 20' 67'32' 66'046' 66' 0' 65'15' 6<' 3G' 63· .. i' 63' 0' 62'18' 61' 36'

2,95 3.00 3.05 3,10 3,15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.<0 3 ... 5 3.SO 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.SO

25·04" 25' 0' 24"10' 23"26' 22· .. • 22' <. 21'26' 200 51' 200 17' 1""5' 1"15' 18' "7' 18'20' 17' 53' 17'27' 17' 2' 16'39' 16'16' 15'55' ,15-36' 15'17' 104' 58' 104',,0'

26-""

28'<0' 27'38'

27.50

•. EJemplo: Calcular los dngulos de los dlentes de dos ruedas con 12 y 24 dientes, M6dulo 5, ejes a 90-. Didmetros prlmltlvos Iguales. Rueda 12dlenles Tg.

= -I = 90--

Relacl6n dL.los numeros de r. p. m. 'Relacl6~ de los dlometros prlmitivos .

30.00 12.50 35.00

.

)T,50

=

c;) =
-1-

2. (Ver lablas delangenles.)

<0.00

45,00
SO.OO 55.00 60.00 70.00 SO.OO 90.00 100,00 110,00 120.00 130.00 1<0.00 1SO.OO 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 200.00

..OOH'

.. 00 21' 39' 58' 3" 35'

o-w

<. 0' 3-36' 3'17' 3' 0' 2'3'" 2'15' 2' 0' t- <8' 1 39' 1'30' t- 23' 1'17' 1'12' t- 7' t- 3' 1- 0' 00 57'
0

"-2"

..• ..7'

Rueda 24 dlentes .1 = 90- - IS. Por tcnte, lendremos: Rueda de 12 clTentes63' 26' dngulo. Rueda de 24 dlentes 26' ]4' dngulo. la relacl6n del numero de r. p. m. de 10 prlmera rueda a 10 segundo. senS la 24 inversa de la de los nemeres de dlentes. 0 sea 12' Las demos caracteristlcas se calculO'f\1npor las f6rmulas generales. ~ Ruedas hellcoidales. con numere de dientes y dldmetros dlstlntos, dngulo de los ejes 90-. Calcular los dngulos de los dientes de dos ruedas de 30 y 36 dlentes, siendo 10 10 relacl6n del diametro de la prlmera a 10 segundo de 8 y el angulo de los ejes 90". 36 T Relad6n de los numeros de r. p. m. 9 Cl = Relacl6n de los did metros primltlvos (V~se lablas d. langentes.)
01:1=90--«;

Esta tabla simplifica la epereeten para eneentrer el valor en grados del dngulo de la hflice, pun basta dlvidlr el paso de la hfllce entre el dldmefro primitlvo y buscar en la tabla una eenndad igual al ceetente hallado. de la eual se leere el numerc de grados. EJEMPlO: Paso de la hehee: 800 mm, 800 Didmetro primitivo SO mm. = 16 11' 6'.

=

so-

=

4=56-19'; -193 -

4,=33-41'.

-192

-

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE RUEDAS HELICOIDALES CON EJES PERPENDICULARES

DE GIRO

CENTRADO

DE UNA

RUEDA

~D\,--~?J
R"edas lalladas o mono derecho.

t~ t~
~/,--tPRuedas lallodas a mano izquierda.

con la fresa en una maquina fresadora

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE GIRO DE LAS RUED~S A TORNILLO SIN-FIN

off

~J.~+))Ruedas lallados a mono izquierdo. Cuando dos ruedas helicoidales con ejes porolelos engranon enlre s], deben lallarse uno
0

Ruedas lalladas o mano derecho.

Derecha.

la

Izquierda.

derecha

y olra a la izquierdo.

-

194-

.

195 -

se procederd a realizar el trazado para determinar el valor del cingulo P'l grados segun los datos siguientes: en una sccevecrcn que se produce en el pie del dlente..:... Nm =-. _ -. por tanto. tendremos como volor teortcc 10 = Nurnero de dientes de tallarse.. ~r : ~I reducirse Para 2()O Nm = 17. y solamente se nota la interferencia que determina la f6rmula 01 numerc =( y se adara que Nm pertenece y Paso de la hehce --+2 cos :r..!__. DE 3. cos> 7 Dlstancia entre ejes de los ruedas = DP+ dp -~2-~' 196- -197 - . con 10 cue! 20. = " x DP. C1 = Angulo de presion de 10 fresa.. Reducci6n de la altura del diente (Dentadura «Stub»].~' Tg. Paro 15. 0 se puede proceder de Ires 1--__ ~"-~4." 2.Nm = 30. minimo que pue- de se-re. AI ... Se poede tom bien hallar e! M6dulo normal tomando como referencre 10 altura total del diente y comprobando despues el espesor «e» fljando el calibre especial para dientes con 10 altura L = M6dulo normal. AOgyb .Nm = H. interferenctc.. lALLA DE ENGRANAJES CALCULO PARA RUEDAS HELICOIDALES cuando' se trata de tomar datos de una rueda como mUlstra 0 en estado deteriorada y que se Para determinar el angulo de los dlentes de uno rueda helicoidal cuando se dispone de muestra 0 modele. Para evttcr un pirl6n qUE' 10 mterferencre en 10 tollo de debe conserver su altura nor- mal en los dlentes sigulente Nm f6rmuia: y fallado con fresc sin-fin Diente con interferencio. F6rmulas auxiliares M6dulo normal M para comprobaci6n: )....:. wando tolla con frese sin-fin por el procedimiento de generaci6n y en dentaduras rectcs.° La dentadura helicoidal rior a 10 pii\6n. 10 cual permltird hcllur correctamente su dngulo. Sustituir 10 dentadura recta per 10 hehcotdu! permite reducir Nm x el numero rnlntmc de dientes de un cuando el numero de dientes es infeCOS'I ~:.... resulta pore 15 Nm ~ 25 Y para rL"------=-'~. a 516 el numer c 0 -i~ resultado.. corresponderd al didmetro exterior de la rueda. venflccdo esta operaci6n se pasara !a rueda sobre un popel blanco y dejurd marcado en el mismo las huelles del dlente. DP = N x ~.~JtJAJt"'. que el valor de ~ es Igual al ang·Jlo de mchncctcn del diente en el rueda helicoidal. N DE = (~+ ccs 1"t « 2) M.1 ~I dQ Ia he"C9 __ . el angulo efectivo para las co rccteristicas del engranaje es el correspondiente 01 dldmetro prtrnmvo.._- sene' . marrodO fNID0D9I Ampliacion del angulo de presion.!es que deben seguirse para evitar la interferencia en los dientes Interierencia consiste se nembre a 10 figura que toman los dlentes 01 ser tallodos. Ampliaci6n = X DP --rg..!!.=. debiendo considerarse como epereeten previa.>~'''~ .Observacio!. 1.. P . .___.tomar por las huellas marcadas en el popel e! angulo de 10 heltce... con 10 cuol se cbtrene el Diente 51 bien en 10 prdcttcc puede sin . bastara el entintar ligeramente las cabezas de los dientes en su periferia utilizando un tcrmp6n de los empleados para sellos. minimo de dientes admisible para un engranaje con dentadura recta....c. teenco. del dnqulc de presion en los engranajes helic~idales: Nuevo velor Tang =~ cos ': (conocida).~ Para obtener el perfil del diente sin mterferenctc fcrrnes 1.. P = DP x rr X cotg :r. esto es....

(I) c E (I) U .---.:::: (I) o e (I) ..RUEDAS Y PINONES DE CADENA TIPO SIMPLE De = Dicimetro exterior. d = Dicimetro de los rodillos. . N = Nurnero de dientes. Di = Dicimetro interior. III FORMULAS De = Dp + d. e . A 198- + cos z w c - 199- . Dp = Dicimetro primitivo.. B = Distancia entre ejes de los agujeros en el eslcbon de union. sen x T ang ~ = ----.. FORMULAS De~=Dp+d. TIPO DOBLE De = Dicimetro exterior. =-N--. Di = Dicimetro interior... Di = Dp-d. III (I) . A = Distancia entre centros de los rodillos. P = Distancia entre centros de los rod i II os = Paso de 10 cadena.B.. 180" N Dp = A sen ~ C Di = Dp-d... N = Nurnero de dientes.---- C Cl c .. Dp = Dicimetro primitivo. P Dp = sen 7.. 180" .

1. . 9 g! = 2 90 7 =. De = Didrnetr c exterior. .se cclculd per 10 tabla flnal de esto seccton.= AT= VN' 1. I. = Paso. del diente. = '" = Angulo de espesor del drente.~1 - _ 7.'· -"{t.) IoUIl lilli. = Didmetro exterior.707xL. Dp = Didmetro pnnunvo. 7. n = Numero de dientes. :1 = Angulo del pie. = Angulo del primitivo. at = Angulo de talla.707xDp F = (3.1 . J = J x· c NI=1.~ = Angulo del prrrrutrvo. n dp x Sen n 0 c-F -- Y=0. n. De = (2M x Cos ") + Dp. Didmetro prtmttrvo. NI = Nurner o de die nte s ImaglnurlO para ele qrr con que debe tallorse este Jue90 de engranajes. t I I ENGRANAJES Y NUMERO CONICOS CON EJES A 900 DE DIENTES IGUALES ~I -8i I .'~.. EI 6ngulo del pie _.2_ Sen N 0 Tg"=N=OP· T x Cos .41xN. - 200- -.) IoU"'IoU.Lllyl allalli.[ 90 + n' .) + dp. '. de n+(2xCos)~)' _ FORMULAS De (=O.201 - . 1. =~ = n M. N Dp Tg = J[ = nx -. at = VN' l~ - + '.41422 Tg Ii = N 10 fresa RUEDA PINON M p dp de = = Modulo.. de = (2M n=crp-' 2. ~~ Angulo de 10 cabeza del diente. = .) FORMULAS M = !_ dp Dp = N x M. P M=-::-=N= Dp De N+(lxCo".'.. It· _l__0/ d' DESIGNACION M = Modulo. T 9 '. De 2c. P = Paso. N = Numer c de dientes 71 ~..:~ Angulo del pie.Angulo de espesor = AT = Angulo de talla.) "iii "IiIlUlioUIGI ". '~l = Angulo de 10 cobezc del diente.41422M T Dp .x tg 8...

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