A. L.

CASILLAS

DE TALLER

CAlCUlOS

ES PROPIEDAD

INTELECTUAL BY EDICIONES

DEL

AUTOR

CALCULOS

MAQUINAS
POR

DE TALLER

10

COPYRIGHT

«MAQUINAS"

PRINTED IMPRESO

IN SPAIN EN ESPANA

A. L. CASI LLAS

PR6LOGO

DEL AUTOR

La mas hermosa y noble de todas las labores humanas es la del sembrador en cualquiera de sus aplicaciones que suponga uti/idad para sus semejantes; asi se ha hecho con este pequeiio Iibro, una siembra fructifera que ha conducido y ayudado a muchos millares de hombres en su trabajo. Su autor hace un alto en el camino para meditar y considerar los frutos recogidos, sintiendose satisfecho de una labor que tallto ha sido agradecida por quienes en el campo del trabajo necesitaron de una mano conductora para seguir la ruta profesional, en la cual fue su guia este libro, asi como los demos Iibros complementarios que se han ido editando sucesivamente con un solo ideal: «AI servicio del Trabajo.» Veinticinco ahos cumpliendo una miston que no fue iniciada con Jines comerciales, sino impuesta por el sentido de la necesidad y el deseo de ayudar a quienes tenian que andar por el espinoso camino de la formacion profesional, solos, y separando las zarzas para poder pasar venciendo todas las dificultades que su falta de preparacion les imponia. Es un balance digno de todo examen, porque servir al trabajo. es servir a la mejor de las causas, puesto que este hace posible la existencia de una labor construct iva, y se convierte en el mas fuerte sosten de la sociedad, engrandeciendo las naciones. Agradezco muy de veras a cuantos con sus cartas, escritas unas en Espana y otras desde America, me alien tan a seguir, sus elogiosas frases y su agradecimiento es la mejor recompensa que por mi modesta labor puedo recibir; y por esto quiero dejar sentado el principio de que a ellos debo una -7-

gratitud sin llmites porque han sido Jos animadores de mis obras .. han tenido fe en el hombre desconocido, en el Profesor anonimo, logrando con ello que una poderosa fuerza impulsara y acrecentara esta labor hasta alcanzar el exito obtenido, Un cambio con referencia a tiempos pasados, seiiala el notable avance de la existencia tecnica fundamentado en las Escuelas de Formacion Profesional Industrial, estatales y de empresa, que unidos a los medios de la organizacion cientifica del trabajo, servirdn para que todos cuantos sientan un deseo de formarse profesionalmente, puedan hacerlo y trabajar plenamente capacitados siguiendo una racional tecnica, cumpliendo asi con un ineludible deber de hacer prosperos sus medios de vida, cuyo fundamento tiene su base en el. trabajo con un alto indice de productividad. Esta recomendacion en forma de consejo, no debe nunca olvidarse puesto que sera en el futuro el puntal de toda prosperidad, constituyendo un deber que a todos por igua/ nos obliga. La vida inactiva merced a la labor de otros ha terminado. A. L. CASILLAS

INDICE

DE
CAPiTULO

MATERIAS
PRIMERO
Tobias de 10 drversas. Cuadrados,

Equivalencias rnglescs a rnetrtccs. cubos, ralces. --- Desarrollo

ctrcunferencta.

Tobias Arcos.

CAPiTULO II tr+qonornetrtccs. - ResoJuciones del tri6ngulo cuerdas y flechos. - Elementos de Geometria. gravedad. - Palancas. CAPiTULO III Engranajes. CAPiTULO IV y diferencial para fresadoras. CAPiTULO V de rosccss - Tobias para CAPiTULO VI Sistema de conos. CAPiTULO
Herramientas

rectcnqulo, - Centres

de

Division

ordinaria

-

Posos diversos.

Sistema

general

roscado

en el torno.

VII

de corte en general.

Resistencia

de materiales

CAPiTULO VIII y tratamiento

termico.

CAPiTULO IX Peso y dalo~de maleriales. CAPiTULO
Datos generales. Transmisiones.

X
Elevccion de pesos.

CAPiTULO
Tablas de tolerancias

XI
Medicion.

en cjuste, -

Velocidades

CAPlwLO XII y avances. - Celculos AP~NDICE

de fcbrtcccion.

Reporccion

de outomovrles.

-

Ajustes

y

materiales.

-8-

-9-

Paginas

fNDICE
Pagin.

Cci.ncamos

A
Acerol (elecci6n de mate,ialel) •

herramientas • aleadOi para herramientcu • rapidos para herram ientas • crom e- nlquel de tratamiento cromo-nlquel de cementaci6n nlquel de cementaci6n • carbono d. cemen'aci6n. inoxidablel. • nlquel de trcitamiento. para resort ••• de frelas • » d. machos para roscar . Ajulte internacionall. S. A. agujero y eje unico AI.acion •• de diveflos metale s , Angulos de corte para cuchillas normales. » de corte para cuchillas «Widia» • Antifricci6n • Areas y dimenlionel de Ilguras planas. Aros de pilt6n 0 6mbolo • Arcol, Ilechas y cuerdas para radio I Aumento para piezas a rectillcar Autom6vil .. (reparaci6n). » ,. » ,. ,. » ,. ,. » Afllado

» »

01 carbono 01 carbona

para para

maquinaria

438 439 +to 445 445 441 442 442 442 44] 44] +46 341 -]8] ]07 523 - 55] 448-452
]]9

Calculos de fabricacion Calibres pianos 0 gal gas «Block" . » interiores y exteriores (exactitud). » interiores y exteriores (desgaste). » para roscas (errores y exactitud). » Pie de Rey (Iectura en millmetrol y pulgadas) . Calor y potencias calor Iiicas. » latente de fusi6n • » latent. de YoporizQci6n Camones 0 levas, fresado. . Cargas, equivalencic en toneladas, en libral y en kilo"ramos . Cargas que pueden soportar los tornillol y tuercas • Centros de gravedad . » protegidos para torn ear piezQS
Cemenlacion CinemciticQ. •

521 587 - 626 554 - 555 558 559 - 560 561 - 567 569 - 571 71 79 79 639 - 642 423 - "]4 457 1..2- 144 502 <461 - .. 65 48 503 - 50.. 505 "17· ..20 ..2 .. - .. 3..
409

452 130- 1]5 51] - 516 117 - 1:20 609 629-630

Chave.as «Woodruff» y normales . » solidas con die"tes multiples. Cifras de dureza «Rockwell» y «Brinell». ». de durezQ «Rockwell». «Brinel!». «Shore», . Cinceles y buriles para maquina y mano .
ClasificQcion Columnas de aceros para

«Vickers»

y

piezQs de Qutomovil

B
Barretps 0 pro betas • Bro<al, angulol de alliado, defectos, equivalencia construcci6n 421 -422 y datos de 371 - 379

de agUQ y mercurio . Conos, celeule general, «Morse». «Me'rico», «Brown & Sharp», «Ingle~», casquillos. Contraccion lineal, superficial y cubica. . Conversion. Tablas de equivalencia entre los sistemas metrico e ingles • Comparacion de temperaturas .

6]5 - 636 7..
]09 -

324 455

c
Cabezas universales Cables metalicos Cadenas. • de la freladora «Hure». 264-265 5:20 511 - 519

Correas trapezoidales. . Cuadrados. cubas, raices, circunferencia Cubicacion de material . Cuerdas de cDilamo . Cuchillas para tornos y acepilladoras . » para cizollas » para roscar y metodos Cuila.

yarea .

"9-69 70-71 637 - 638 11-45 500 522 326 - 363 408 290 - 295 1..5

-

10

II

D
Oep6sitos Dlamantes Dilatacl6n ctlfndrtccs, reststenclc moeles a 10 presi6n de esmerll. interior para retornear cublca. Iineal......... • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Paglnas
456 398

P6.ginas

G
Galgas: «Imperial Standard», «Birmingham», Sharp», para elembre, chapa y fleje . Geometda: elementos. • Grados decimales en minutos y segundos . Groved ad (centros) . «Brown & 65-66 130- 141 116 142- l+f

»
Dlncimlca. Dlvlsi6n

ordinaria y dffereeere! en los cabezales de las mciqulnas fresadoras. • • . • . . • • • • • • • • •. • Divisor tlpo de mesa (relacl6n 1/60 -l/SO -1/120 -l/lSO) . Dlvlsl6n de /0 creeonrerencre en N partes Iguales • • •

78 453 048 223 -249 250-257 121

L
Leetura de manometros . Levas 0 cam ones. fresado. limas, datos de caracterrsticas Lubricantes de corte . 75 639 - 642 404- 407 61" - 62

E
Ejes 0 arboles para transmlsiones • • • • • Eleccl6n de mcfterlales

Elementos para elevacl6n de pesos. • • • • • • Engranaje;s. (6rmulas generales s/m6dulo y dlametral • » «~rltish Standard». • » «BostOCk& Bramley». » c6nicos..... » hellcoldales.... » lntertcres y cremallera » ruedas y pUiones para cadena » tornillo sln·fin y su rueda. • » trazado. reslstencla y medlcl6n • » Juego de (resas Simples Equlvalenclas de fracciones here Escariadores c6nlcos. • •

511 438 - 452 517 - 522 1048-155
156 157 -160

LL
Llaves para tuertas • 512

200-m
190-197

M
Machos para roscas (afolado). . Manometros Mandrinos para taladros y sus cuchillas Medici6n (elementos) . Metales (aleaciones): eluminie, duraluminio, cupronfquel, brence, laton. etc .• Micr6metros (Iectura). Minutos y segundos en decimates de grado Momentos de inercia y resistencia Muelas de esmeril. MueUes . 307 75 380 - 382 554 - 576 metal monel, +f8 - 452 568 - 570 116 458 - 460 392 - 400 446 - +f7

199
198 1114-188

161-182 170 623 325 67 - 69 435 - 437 643 325 158-162 163 639- 642 364 - 370

F
Fadores de conversl6n Inglesa a m~trlca Yviteversa » de segurldad en el trabaJo de los metales • F6rmulas generales para dlmenslones de conos. Fracciones de hora • Fresado helicoidal • » de dlentes por los lados » de camones 0 levas. • Fresas. dimenslones normales . » mad res para engranajes rectos y helicoidales » mad res para ruedas a tornillo sin-fin. » simples.•• Frlgorlfocas (mezclas). • •

p
Palancas. . Pasadores c6nicos. Peso de piezCISfundidas segun su mold.., . Peso espedfico. Gt6mico, etc. • Peso ., datos d. materiGles, tubas. GIGmbres, chapcu, bo.rras de cliYersos perfiles, to....illos, tvercas. remach_, etc. Periiles ...... inodOi en""lIular U Y v;lI_ 146 325

183 189
180 80

eo

454

12-

-13 -

herramientas.spirol. Transpor. Velocidades para muelas de esmeril » para ma.305 T Toblos de convenion de pulgodos 0 milfmetros Toblos trigonometricos (paginos omorillos) .271 2n-273 274. cargal que pueden loportar.. Tranlmisiones .n . Ruedos • 306 506 . .126 5n v Vapor de agUQ saturado ..» » para builas de Qutomoviles » «Edison» para lam paras electricGS.os . 76 77 47 .) V. 1'»1 bicicletas y rnotocieletas .48 392 587 577 554 .. Temperaturas: CenUgrado. ROlcodo con cuchillo en el terne. ResistenciGS de cargQl en toneladas.509 147 5 Solarios tipos «Rowan» y «Halsey» . » metricQ internacional . » inglesQ «Whitworth» . E. Rodamientos Q bolas y rodillos • . » de agUQ recalen.633 410 .509 ·629 . Reglos d.128 586 506 . Fahrenheit.» .. » «Almirontozgo Brifanico ADM. Velocidod ongulor. » dien'.115 70-71 627 145 277 457 510 122 . .Paginos Pi (n). Rosco (defectos. Reaumur. E. » «S.276 278 279 2BO 2BO 281 2B2 284 284 285 286 286 2ff1 2ff1 2BB 289 2BB 289 292-296 297 . Verificaci6n de maquincu-herramientas J) de colibres Volumen de solidos . » tropezoidol «Acme» y «Metrico» » cuadrado • » redonda. » con sus tuereGS Y orandelas Tornillos. medicion y formulos) .». Presiones .ado .416 424-434 446 -447 550-551-634 268 . de sierra. Roblones..ador «Universal» . 622 401-403-601 R Refriaeracio" de herramientas Reglo de senos. » americana «Standard» » «British Association B. Punto de fusion y color Punzonado. Paginos 129 145 147 n-74 454 408 Roscodo plono . Poleo diferenciol Pol. A. y kilogramos Resortes. Torneado de precisi6n Tornillo. Stondord» poro outomoviles . E. l!) en el torno. » «C. » suizQ «Progress» para reloies . » «Shorp (V.141 -14~ - 15- . libra. Reparacion de Qutomoviles Resistencia de materialas.51 81 .. nivelor . A.Sierras . E.quinos . » «Brigg» para tubos . Triongulo rectangulo (soluciones) 50. F. Formulas y frenes de ruedos 615-617 127 . foctores. » «British Stondord» poro tubos de cobre » «Loewenherz» para mecQnicQ fina y opticQ » para engrasadores «Stauffer» . Remoches .567 136.

c l-tOmBK8 De ~BlIJQ 11IDS ~~pueBros. 'lllIDR YOSI&.D6DICll~OKIll.I~O SllBLlme IDISlon. 1If. sa qIDlIlI OLLeCOnSlIGRlIn osszr -17- .

8284 729 3.6811 i ~.389 490. 1.8740 3.194.681 84.7325: 163.4i-9"7.2915 24389_ 5.2450 .0000 1.4772! I II 3.0412 I I 18 5 .7144 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 576 625 676 .83 175.000093731' 3.0615 4. I : 19683 I 5.14 i I 16Oi2! i I 1 4913 -w.3066 4.4721 12.I 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 r.. n Cuedrado Cubo cubes.9161 6.63 3631.79 I 2375.92/3117.097 907. 2123.6458 512 2.106 452.: 1809.0686 I +-1 6 7 8 9 16: 25 36 64 125 216 1.874 530.6350 18.841 I 132.50 191.1416 7.4200 125.0723 I i I ' II ! i 226981 238328 250047 262144 27462S 287496 I ! /.1962 21952 ±5.23 i 1520.529 314~~ I I 'I 3.94 I .2426 I 2.299 .7084 2041.06 3216. 150.4~-"706~858 660~~ 5.g..4495 1.0817 4.0000 8.956 1 3.6342.99 204.9625 I.823 87.2743 .2801 3.1213 r i I.425 0.2.0990 2..8259 I 169.7417 3.400() 6.2361 2. + I II i I 1 ::~~~~ 138.45 -18- -19- . i I.6173 78.540 81.21 6.44 1452.1644 I 3.82 140608 7.549 62.80.7100' 1. ~ 1963.768 804. I 2.7563 i 166.690 _ 8000 t I' 2209 2304 2401 2500 2601 2704 2809 2916 3025 3136 : ! 2197 2744 3375 4096 I 3.6684 4.980 254.95 135.3589 .2599.93 2463.1240 4..4662 2.2396 /' 106.265 53.0000 i ~. r- ~-~!!-l---~~!·r~:illf I~~3~~~ r-~:~~~.6056 2..4482 3.9791 4.3322 I 116.8557 3.88 1 4: 9' 4 5 1 8 27 'I 1. 1764' 1849 1936 ~~~~: II 6.850 I 28._.65 I 1734.64 I 2922. ~~:: ii r-.7798! 7. 169! 196 225.6:4 68921 74088 79507 85184 :~~~~ 6.0000 I i 3.5574 6.398 78.65 I 2290.." 4624 4761 I 300763 314432 328509 II 4900:-343000 8.~ • 3..36 .0623 4.0828! 3.:!~ .407 56..248 855.113 j 1017.389 32768 5.5034 3.965 91.!l_ I 219.7446 3.920 572.8730 : 4.94 6.732 43.4833 3.11 .s~ 132651 I 7.65 213.673 754.0000 1000--13.7854 3.47 194.0000 I .~Et' 1'1120:25 128.2.1414 :3.53 ~:!:~~ : ~~~:~ I I 1385. 3721 3844 3969 4096 4225 ~~~ 157464' 166375 175616 7.4142 1.0366 . 6.9240 5.77 3739.66 1256..0000 1.27000 .539& 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 14 25 26 27 28 29 JO 31 32 33 -~.I 1.920 962.2711 109.656913.50 2206.4807 6.566 I 12.4101 2.4760 3.9282 3.0000 3.0801 128..~9 1352~.8990 I 2.1885.~_.31 207.982! 47.81 131.6207 _ 6859 4._~.7321 2.8310 5.WO-' .35 8 1 8.09 10 11 12 13 I. 12S00<J__+~~~~ ! 3~84O_.2111 : 3.9129 I 21.1 7.59 6. 1681.567st3.991 2.5303! ~:~~~~. ·31.3019 113.:~3~+ 7.5664 15.18 103823 110592 117649. 153.274 2.283 9.1623 1.4162 I 3.3852 II 3.1016 i 8.6332 3.416 38.1854 8.91·1 3848.6593_J .5198 40.0207 8.01 ~~~:~~ I' 75.Cuadrados.239 I 1075.4031 6.715 201.3485 i 3.68 216.3666 i 4. I I E.0000 .555 615.22 172.3912 . 2.062 226.531 35937 I 5.4422 3.469 283.3.124 50.1544 . 256 289 314 _3~ 400 49 1 64 I 81: 100 I 343! 2.20 3318.1231 .9579: 87'.6088! 147.78 I 3019. 13824 15625 17576 i I 4.7460 4 7.752 _ 729 784 I 84~_1 --rl.3246 I 3.72 148877 7.25 201.133 2.5874 i 1. rakes 1 I I Ralz cuadrado n 34 Cuadrado Cuba Raizl cuadrado longitud de circunferencia y area de los drculos I I i Roll cubiCQ 1 I I Longitud jCifCUnf4!renCiQ Areo 35 36 37 38 39 40 1156 1225 1296 1369 1444 1521 I I I I Rail ccbrce longitud Circunferentlal .2075 103.8171 I 12.'--·~-~-··l·f~~n~~:m t~E !~:m 59._I !i Area 39304 42875 46656 50653 54872 59319 5.8030 7.20 6.9365·-17.19 ·1 ~:~~:~_ ~~!~: I~_ 961 1014 1089 29791·--1 5.35 3421. 210.iOnT9.2462 8.1748 100..5713 5832 4.938 176.814 3.381 i 1134.708 I 19.4845 50.~~~~~~~:~~~:~::.3513 2.56 7.0000 2.8102 I 3.3620 i 119.832 153.8845 5.141 6.2655 63.07 197.141.

_ I 14102.8059 4.77 5674.0995 10.0499 10.0 12667.34 232.4018 11.55 414.2956 4.3578 11.13 383.8 I 27_ 286llaI l924207 18113221 I 1157615 1191016 i I 111.9164 11.0 10386.01 5410.75 263.44 323.4310 4.4455 11.9049 4.7177 4.00 5281.O1 3959.7475 4.8346 4.1171 S.29 8494.84 4417.1172 5.16 317.17 295.4814 4.3441 10.19 4071.9 10568.2694 11.68 439.59 304.87 311. 336.85 8171.7703 10." 449.9732 4.6261 4.6190 11. 11.1045 5.8743/ 11.89 9852.31 298.l41O 10.5357 10.41 411.91 6939.69 7853.6954.8322 4.57 370.96 7697.1104 9.1980 10.4403 10.7622 4.42 389.5830 10.6301 10.61 6792.6570 4.58 348.80 5944.1355 11.9324 4.J.69 417..5758 11.1676! 5.5789 4.72 351.60 282.7178 8.8489 9.9461 4.15 lQ16O.8 13273.2 136&4.32 276.7898 .7 10207.2172 4.2 13478.7980 9.1426 5.78 7088.42 367.1 15174.8770 4.32 9676.6 -20- -21- .45 301.14 361.0 13069.23 7389.90 245.9 11882.3137 11.8167 10.73 11449 11664 11881 12100 12321 12544 12769 12996 13225 13456 13689 13924 14161 1#00 14641 14884 15129 15376 15625 15876 16129 16384 16641 16900 17161 17424 17689 17956 18225 1&496 18769 190# 19321 1'HOO 1~1 20164 1II+f9 1225043 1259712 1295029 1331000 1367631 1404928 1442897 1481544 1521>875 1560896 1601613 1643032 1685159 1728000 1771561 1815848 1860867 1906624 1953125 2000376 2048383 2097152 2146689 2197000 2248091 2299968 2352637 2406104 2460375 2515456 2571353 2628072 2683619 10.39 4300..7468 9.19 251.70 395.1652 9.9499 10.8 12469.3621 4.40 433.99 380.19 229.1801 5.0000 10.oJ 292.62 238.8995 9.6104 4.50 4185.9 14526.6023 8.5440 8.1489 10.9583 5.32 9503.73 307.5307 4.73 329.3445 4.6771 10.68 6082.89 267.3808 9.8488 4.29 34M3 345.5468 4.88 9331.86 355.5394 9.1299 5.5326 11.50 5808.05 226.2908 4.33 254.2358 4.2543 4.229l i i +fl.9866 5.30 320.0788 5.5947 4.02 9160.9545 11.&4 398.7047 111.4979 4.56 392.6723 4.63 4778.6437 9.1551 5.46 4656.0000 5.2736 9.8 13892.76 241.88 311.9 11122.4881 10.6 14313.4853 8.0916 5.00 I 8992.4891 11.7473 11.6875 4.7769 4.48 235.8203 4.7914 4.3923 10.88 289.1925 j .9187 4.3 12271.5629 4.27 408.58 326. 9.73 ..85 376.36 4901.2195 '9.7326 I 223.0658 5.n 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Cua· drado Cube Ralz cuadrado Raiz cubica [ Longilud iCircunferencia Area n 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 Cuedrodo C.98 402.9443 9.0 11309.9087 10.7 15393.8910 4.0554 9.27 386.67 5026.28 364.0265 5.7750 8.61 5541.97 424.83 420.6619 i 11.2250 11.3089 4.3267 4.6603 8.0000 9.bo I Ralz cuadrado Ralz cubico j Longitud icircunferencio Area 5041 5184 5329 5476 5625 5776 5929 357911 373248 389017 405224 421875 438976 456533 474552 493039 512000 531441 551368 571787 592704 614125 636056 658503 681472 704969 729000 753571 778688 804357 8305&4 857375 8&4736 912673 941192 970299 1000000 1030301 1061208 1092727 1124864 8. ) .1602 4.81 7542.71 373.98 8011.88 6647.28 8332.8318 8. I 358.4261 8.6503.7027 4.46 279.5917 9.0905 11.87 8659.0000 11.5144 4.15 339.1408 4.0528 5.3968 4.47 257.8628 10.12 427.3 10935.8629 4.12 405.74 285.22 7238.04 270.1 14957.1803 11.0397 5.18 273.55 5153.14 6361.3 12076.86 4536.7 14741.0454 11.8 1S614~15836.6416 4.3274 9.02 314.82 +46.1793 4.7 12868.8882 8.7 11499.3 10751.4868 9.61 260.4340 9.2727 4.»18 5.54 436.7238 10.4140 4.26 430.0 11689.12 6221.0133 5.9 i I I 6084 6241 I i 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 6400 6561 6724 6889 7056 7225 7396 7569 7744 7921 8100 8281 i .9597 4.1983 4.#80 4.3795 4.03 10028.4647 4.01 8824.04 248.11 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 8464 8649 8836 I i ! I I 902S 9216 9409 9604 9801 10000 10201 10404 10609 10816 11025 11236 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 I .

89 25_.4 39204 39601 622.24 474.0000 3048625 3112136 3176523 3241792 3307949 3375000 3442951 3511808 3581577 3652264 3723875 3796416 3869893 3944312 12.4626 5.5 16971.4499 12.37 499.38 477.9615 13.9 25730.3832 5.50 524.2474 12.5288 5.1244 12.8203 13.1655 12.4401 5.64 549.3 19606.5277 13.4907 13.35 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 24052.92 556.0 _.7279 12.59 659. 13.0 16741.&480 5.2536 5.3041 13.51 502.0 16513.8841 12.9 31730.19 5&4.48 590.2 19113.7 -1_ 32400 32761 33124 33489 33856 34225 34596 34969 35344 35721 36100 36181 36864 37249 37636 38025 3&416 38809 5832000 5929741 6028568 6128487 : 13.1 34966.4164 13.67 461.3791 I '.6357 5.5 26302.93 I I 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 6859000 6967871 7077888 7189057 73013&4 7414875· 7529536 7645373 7762392 7880599 12.5 18869.50 546.8924 13.2829 14.06 559.6491 12.33&8 5.4 32365.76 596.2 33653.2656 5.5178 5.3875 14.8285 5.2776 5.8 30171.9 ! !.3133 _--.7477 13.66 483.4097 12.6 27759.7989 5.18 628.3693 5.7890 5.7113 13.7287 5.0416 12.4222 14.2415 5.5 17907.9 I 6229504 6331625 6434856 6539203 6644672 6751269 I .05 581.34 587.04 603.58 40000 40401 800000O 8120601 8242408 8365427 40804 41209 41616 42025 42436 42&49 43264 43681 44100 44521 44944 45369 45796 46225 46656 32047.4.1149 13.36 521.n 1+4 145 146 147 148 149 150 Cuedrado Cuba Raiz I cuadrado I I Raiz cublco 'Longitud •.8868 5.9814 5.unferencia Area 20736 21025 21316 21609 21904 22201 1 1-22500 29859&4 12.7388 5.5613 5.47 612.6015 13.22- -23- .2066 12.9 28652.-'-_ 22965.95 490.45 656.2 23778.75 4019679 4096000 4173281 4251528 4330747 4410944 4492125 4574296 I .53 458.8383 5.1 21382.0712 14.5 34307.35 543.39 16286.5934 5.9627 5.5647 13.8 22698.73 662.4900 12.2478 14.6147 5.2896 5.9250 5._-_----5.9155 5.2882 12.4 33329.6 17671.49 568.7671 12.2 26590.8186 5.8088 5.-'-':--'-:- 25600 -.8 18385.3 27171.3015 ~455.7840 13.7 31102.3947 ---- 471.5698 12.60 637.4.08 51!.09 493.0357 14.8062 12. icircunferencioi Area n 180 181 182 183 1&4 185 186 187 188 189 Cuadrado Cube Rob cuadrado Ralz cubicQ Longitud circ.2665 ~--- 534.77 574.9 35632.17 650.9228 12.88 644.96 468.9533 5.22 518.8675 5.7 8489664 8615125 8741816 8869743 8998912 9129329 9261000 9393931 9528128 9663597 98003+4 9938375 10077696 ----- 1~~~~4_ 13.3601 5.5 1---' 28900 f---- 29241 29584 29929 30276 30625 30976 31329 31684 32041 .0 34636. 23235.5 21642.52 480.1 22431.6287 14.46 634.21 540.5258 14.6629 14.4 26880.5397 5.3 29559.9 18145.63 571.79 530.3485 5.9439 5.03 647.62 593.74 640.1 28055.6462 5.7590 5.6877 5.4959 5.6 27464.4536 13.20 562.65 527.8964 5.19 606.6748 13.61 615.3251 5.1421 14.0000 565.90 600.6252 5.33 609.9 30480.16 672.2 29864.6095 --- 24025 24336 24649 24964 25281 I I I 5.--~-~ ----25921 26244 26569 26896 27225 27556 27889 28224 28561 12.2 --- 20358.7083 5.5 33979.6 31415.81 464.81 486.8578 5.9059 5.5602 14.7 19855.0 36643.2 23506.4288 20106.5828 5.44 678.2 28352.94 512.0767 13.9345 5.5721 5.1 36305. .1067 14.9721 5.2288 13.8.6567 5.3717 5.0 22167.1529 13.845'2 12.0000 14.5069 5.7 24884.6969 5.8771 5.5 32685.3288 12.5505 5.32 631.7 35298.9907 6.5 24605.88 666.4 17436.__ 505.65 . 4657463 4741632 4826809 4913000 5000211 5088448 5177717 5268024 5359375 5451776 5545233 5639752 573~339 21904.30 675.7 35968.5 30790.91 578.6 25164.1 33006.07 537.4 18626.2127 14.10 I 452.5300 12.6041 5.23 496.4 26015.7489 5.7 17203..1 28952.8564 13.1774 14.0830 12.7185 5.4568 14.4737 5.8 24328.6671 5.0 20867.0000 ---_-5.7690 5.6886 12.6980 5.80 508.75 618.78 552.4914 14.3178 1.3417 13.02 669.6382 13.1909 13.9642 14.4 19359.5945 14.9 29255.4061 5.3527 14.2 21124.4514 5.6774 5.04 625.92&4 13.3 20612.31 653.4848 5. lSI 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 --IT~!l' 23409 23716 5.7790 5.

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8414 18.0 9402".3 1096..6943 6.7460 6.9932 7.7 1127.0 1090.3 96211.9 93482.3 88668.1 1115.0 1068.3848 18.8680 18.9589 6.0526 1027.0 1112.7883 18.7 1039.8 71157.8 97314.4929 17.9165 17.1384 18..7 98423.0000 18.60 992.0000 7.7166 6.8 82448.1072 7..0136 7.47 967.5 112".9658 6.3030 18.6548 18.5882712 46268279 46656000 .61 970.4 1099.9795 6.3 92940.62 948." 1055.9 881"1.76 951.7 1083.7 78923.8 ~96.9 95662.8683 6.0674 7.8 1109.0 102".4 70685. 1 H2 H3 344 3.1 78426.9 91863.7606 6.4391 18.6068 17.9174 6.0 91326.7437928 .8149 18.4356 17.5499 17.1138 7.2 81939.0831 18.7 68149.9451 6.7832147 330 331 332 333 314 335 336 337 338 339 18..8894 6.2 1005.0338 7.1006 7.4 73061.7533 6..7018 6.5 346 H7 348 149 350 351 352 353 35 .6143 6.0 66508.0587 17." 1033.8113 6. 14328125 34M5976 17.0555 6.3 85012.3205 17.18 983.2 81433. 1063625 41421736 .3303 18.7969 6...0 98979.0 86569.8328 6.0 87615.1 1093.46 989.3 66966.6011 18.7824 6..1659 18.6918 17.4 83981.4M2 17.6 1014.1172 17.9 1065.8 1087.2 69746.3 1074.7 1105.0 90258.1335 Ralz longltud circunferencia Area 24389000 24M2171 24897088 25153757 25412184 25672375 25914336 26198073 26463592 26730899 27000000 27270901 27543608 27818127 2809~ 28372625 28652616 2893~3 29218112 29503629 29791000 30080231 30371328 30664297 30959144 31255875 31554496 31855013 32157432 32461759 32768000 33076161 33386248 33698267 3401222 .4 69279.0 74990.5 76453.0880 17.5 74023.7617 18.35 920.3576 18.1 1137.0278 18....6279 18." 1121.14 942.7 83469. 355 356 357 358 359 99225 99856 100489 101124 101761 102400 103041 103684 104329 104976 105625 106276 123904 124609 125316 126025 126736 127449 128164 128881 129600 130321 no 321 322 323 324 325 326 360 361 362 363 131~ 131769 - 26- -27 - .66# 6.2627 17.9313 6.3 1008.9"73 18.8470 6.1 1071.0473 7..8612 6.0 1134.9727 6.7 77437.0940 7.2916 17.9104 6.9014 6.0540 7.6719 6..9~ 17.7897 6.74 995.14M 17.5 1011.1 77931.9864 6.05 936..6815 18.6869 6.8606 17.04 958.88 999.0 82957..7 9"569.7387 6. 110889 111556 112225 112896 113569 114244 114921 115600 116281 116964 117649 118336 119025 119716 120409 121104 121801 122500 123201 14965783 35287552 35611289 35937000 36264691 3659 .5784 17.882 .0873 7.0607 7.8185 6.7679 6.2757 18.0203 7.63 926.6 1058.0 97867.3 1140.6419 6.3781 17.85"1 6.1914 18.8964 6.8 99538.03 1002.0271 7.7 1017.3 92401.5 72106. 3614208 43986977 44361864 44738875 45118016 45499293 .6 1080.2 100098 100660 101223 101788 102354 102922 103491 IIIl804 89401 88209 90000 90601 91204 91809 92416 93025 93636 94249 948M 95481 96100 96721 97344 97969 98596 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 340 3.7045881 .0807 7.9 1043.6635 17.2337 17.5214 17.91 933.06 914.4069 17.6 67886.0068 7.6 79922."932 18.2483 18.8 75964.1204 7.1269 7.04 980.7240 6.8041 6.7 90792.6191 6.8 1131.9 80424.9209 18.2144192 "2508549 42875000 . 911.5"72 18.0 106929 107584 1082 .9382 6.2047 17.8 76944.0 74506.8753 6.75 973.6 72583.2 67425.9722 18.7350 18.7764 17.n 190 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 ]GO Cua- drede 84100 &4681 85264 85849 86436 87025 87616 Cubo Ralz cuadrado Ralz ccbtce longitud circunferenda Area n 327 328 329 Cuadrado Cubo Ralz cuadrado coerce 6.9 71631.8944 18.6569 6.6 1036.19 939.9737 19.8885 17.8 80928. 1781923 .3 1052.6794 6.7482 17.6494 6.0000 19.3 85529.32 986.8256 6.3 1030.48 945.0 9511".3 89196.~108 18.7200 17.0740 7.49 923.7752 6..7083 18.77 929."120 18.7092 6." 1077. 3243551 .0406 7.5203 18.1756 17.4662 18.8326 17.3 68813. 368 36926037 37259704 37595375 37933056 38272753 38614472 38958219 39304000 39651821 40001688 40353607 40707584 .19 961.7 73541.10 917.3 1118.5 70215.6267 6.9521 6.6 75476.89 977.0263 19.7 87092. 1 108900 109561 11022 .9 86049..57"2 18.9 89727.3494 17.33 964.7 1061.0294 17.9 1021.7313 6.9 79"22.9244 6.6 1102.0 1046.2 66052.2209 18.2 1049.8399 6.8045 17.90 955.3 96761.6352 17.

1400 .6469 19.4-.4169 7.0 1335. 151321 I i i I 19.7231 178084 178929 179776 180625 181476 182329 183184 20.'_-+'-:5~06":5~30'000=--t--..5126 7.4650 7.8806 7.5 20.9 1354.8 1284.2 1338.-1 : 19..1990 20..3372 7.~ 12.:1~48848 ~~~5117 52313624 52734375 53157376 53582633 19.2112 7.2978 20.0788 11:'.5361 7.5~9.6 1325."-2--t-::11::-94::.0749 20.8 1262.8 1328.:.4710 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 f---444001 _1~ 145161 145924 146689 . 19.9 1288.8 12~.3619 I 1231..1:.4695 20.5067 7.n 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 Cuadrado 132496 133225 133956 134689 Cuba Rail cuadrado I Raiz ccbtce Longilud circunferenciaL \ Area n 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 Cuadrado 160000 160801 161604 Cubo Ral' I cuadrado 20.3124 I 1228.5420 7.6155 20.28- -29- .3681 7.0 1313.5 ~~::~ II 1Q.8 1306.1246 20.4 120072 60236288! 60698457 61162984 61629875 62099136 62570773 7.2 1294.3742 7.6723 19.9 1200.3715 20.2685 7.:~ 1190. 7.2 1206.2 1272.5959 19.37 I 7.~34.1.4679 7.0250 20.5 1168.-:1.5007 1"7"56 •• 148225 148996 149769 150544'.2748 7.8494 19. i i 7.7605 20.2811 1196.5670 i I I I 7.7 -152100\ 152881 ~~= 155236 I 59319000 119J~!_:3~!i___:.9::. .5 1212.4590 172225 173056 173889 174724 175561 20.:~~ \ 1143..5828 149301 .=-24-:3.3248! 7.0 1178.4047 7.5183 20.5478 7.1 1269.5 1278.8 7.4939 7.6640 20.4889 7.7364 20.7123 20.6 1281.8567 20."::5=1'0648=:':1'--11c:'9 1-7 -l---C .-3.2237 137Wr.2558 7.0000 Ralz cubica Longilud jCircunferenda 1256.3986 125664 126293 126923 127556 128190 50243409 19.6977 19.=36~______:c7 +_1-.::2 _1_1~1 .4450 20.2.1494 20.9 7.1920 7.4470 7.2495 7.2 1316.5244 140531 141196 141863 142531 143201 143872 144545 145220 145896 146574 147254 147934 148617 2O.2 1360.6 1259.:9--.6214 19.5712 I i 19.-8 .4206 20. I 54872000 55306341 55742962 56181887 56623104 57066625 57512456 57960603 58411072 58863869' \ 19.4829 420 421 422 423' 424 425 426 427 428 429 176400 177241 74088000 74618461 75151448 75686967 76225024 76765625 77308776 77854483 78402752 78953589 79507000 80062991 80621568 81182737 81746504 82312875 82881856 7.:~~~ ~~i:i ! 162409 163216 164025 164836 165649 166464 167281 168100 168921 169744 170569 171396 64481201 64964808 65450827 65939264 66430125 66923416 67419143 67917312 68417929 689.4948 7.5770 7.~~~~ 7.=-26. -'5:___9-'-77-6-471--t1-1:-:9~.1984 :t8s5t..3864 7.8087 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 156025 156816 157609 158404 159201 I 63044792 63521199 19.]496 7.4410 7.6 1369. 184041 184900 185761 186624 187489 188356 189225 190096 20.5537 7.8327 20.2304 7.:-.8 1175.2 108103 108687 109272 11~~~ 111036 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 ! i I 19.0499 20.5 1300.2094! 7.!i913 20.·.3 1297.36491 19.3 1275.2873: .9499 119.9750 i 1247.1742 20.3803 7.5 1366.21000 69426531 69934528 20.1 1203.9249 I 7.4062 1CJo4635 105209 7.57{)4 i 7.4770 7.2936 1218..3907 ! 7.6 1237.4422 19.3434 7.6398 20.2240 7..3186 7.7 1350.4 107521 4 ~~!i!i I ~~~~~ I ~::~~i~ I ]~~!:~ .8242 19.4530 7.19.5 1234.4290 7.0998 20.2999 ~11_88_4_7 I ~~~~i~ ~i~~: ~ii~i 123163 123786 124410 125036 7.3925 7.4165 19. L~1~36~9OO:::.6 1303.3961 20..2 1250.1 1291.3132 139876 140625' 141376 I I.5654 7.4229 7.12_25_.4108 7.2874 1215.5302 7.7 114009 114608 115209 115812 116416 117021 73034632 73560059 7.1 1181.8746 19.9-.5 1344.2485 20.5185 7.3558 7.1 I I 7.4 1209.7 ~~i~i~ 112815 70444997 70957944 71473375 71991296 72511713 7.7990 19.4350 128825 129462 130100 130741 131382 65.3224 132025 132670 133317 133965 134614 135265 135918 136572 137228 137885 138544 139205 139867 54010152 54439939 : 19.77.3391 19..--t-1:c::06:.2"354·r7~116~.5448 .2622 7.-.9 1266.3470 20.3 1319.2048'.2368 ~~:.1726 1.6882 1332.3 1341.5595 7.9 i Area I Ii 48228544 48627189256 49027 :::~:~ 19.1.8997 19.6 1347.5 1322.0 1357.5192 19.3 1363.-1.5426 20.--59.9 1310..4 1253.2177 I 20.2731 20.7846 20.7 1171. 49.3310' 7.

9476 7.4009 21.6801 7.1896 21.7025 21.2 1517.2261 22.6117 7.5610 Ralz cObico Longitud clrcunferencio Area 190969 191844 192721 193600 194481 195364 196249 197136 198025 198916 199809 200704 201601 202500 203401 204304 205209 206116 207025 207936 208849 209764 210681 211600 212521 213~ 214369 215296 216225 217156 218089 219024 219961 220900 221841 222784 223729 .6 1435.7256 21.9634 7.2 1404.6232 7.0000 22.7 1548.4 1520.6289 7.0 1423.6 1413.9545 9773 21.3307 21.3159 22.1 1558.5407 21.7250 7.9686 7.7639 7.6333 21.7 1526.7 1482.9843 1489.8 1508.n 437 438 439 Cuo· drodo Cubo Rail cuadrado Rail cubico longitud rJrcunferencio Area n 474 475 476 477 478 479 Cuedrodo Cuba Roiz cuadrado 21.2 1583.8891 7.9105 7.8514 7.5 1567.7418 7.6059 7.6970 7.7584 7.7529 7.5389 22.7860 7.2486 22.5886 7.0907 22.1811 22.4 1542.7082 7.8174 21.7362 7.90<15 20.8676 7.9211 7.9 1599.9523 20.0950 21.6795 21.7 1416.4944 22.2935 22.846Il 7.4942 21.2838 21.6574 7.9 1577.9 1420.7 1438.9089 21.1 1536.6403 7.6857 7.1660 21.0713 21.9051 7.8403 21.6 1592.3 1451.8622 7.4476 21.0681 22.8998 7.6914 7.7805 7.8 1530.6631 7.4722 22.8243 7.3073 21.0227 22.6517 7.0 1511.6744 7.1359 22.7473 7.6564 21.7750 7.1585 22.5870 21.2711 22.8944 7.5 1589.0 149987 150674 151363 152053 152745 151439 154134 154830 15~528 156228 156930 157633 158337 1590<13 159751 160460 161171 161883 162597 163313 164030 164748 165468 166190 166914 167639 168365 224676 225625 226576 227529 106496424 107171875 107850176 108531333 109215352 109902239 110592000 111284641 111980168 112678587 113379904 114084125 1H791256 115501303 116214272 116930169 117649000 '118370771 7.8730 7.5 1545.4243 21.8H51453 84027672 84604519 85184000 85766121 86350888 86938307 87528384 88121125 88716536 89314623 89915392 90518849 91125000 91733851 92145408 92959677 93576664 94196375 94818816 95443993 96071912 96702579 97336000 97972181 98611128 99252847 99897344 100544625 101194696 101847563 102503232 103161709 103823000 104487111 105154048 105823817 20.8632 21.1 176460 177205 177952 178701 179451 180203 180956 181711 182467 183225 183984 184745 185508 186272 187038 187805 188574 189345 190117 190890 191665 192442 193221 194000 194782 195565 196350 197136 197923 198713 199504 200296 201090 201886 202683 203482 440 441 442 443 228484 229441 230400 231361 232324 233289 234256 235225 236196 237169 238144 239121 240100 241081 242064 243049 244036 245025 146016 247009 248004 480 481 ~ 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 119095488 119823157 120553784 121287375 122023936 122763473 123505992 124251499 125000000 125751501 126506008 127263527 128024064 128787625 129554216 130323843 131096512 131872229 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 7.3 1407.8025 7.1 1448.8568 7.3 1495.0476 21.7 1504.'12.6102 21.0 1401.7 1394.2 1382.4499 22.9284 20.0 1379.2132 21.8134 7.8406 7.4 1564.3383 22.2368 21.4 1498.9158 7.6 1457. 1 22.0 1467.9 1398.8861 21.7306 7.0000 21.4054 22.3776 21.6001 7.7 1570.8297 7.0454 22.7486 7.4 1388.8784 7.5 1523.8 1573.0 1533.7945 21.9264 7.4709 21.1133 22.2 1561.1 1514.6688 7.9370 7.9317 21.8 1<\.8352 7.1424 21.7026 7.3607 22.7970 7.8079 7.6146 7.6 1391.7695 7.5 1479.7715 21.4277 22.9762 21.5639 21.5167 22.6460 7.8837 7.5174 21.7915 249001 250000 251001 252004 253009 254016 255025 256036 257049 258064 259081 169093 169823 170554 171281 172021 172757 173494 174214 174974 175716 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 470 471 472 473 -30- -31- .4 1476.1 1470.9 1376.9 1555.2603 21.1187 21.3 1473.6174 7.9791 7.3 1385.8 1464.9423 7.4 1432.1 1492.8 1595.9581 7.7 1460.3830 22.3542 21.4 1410.5 1501.2 1539.7138 i \ 1372.4 1586.9317 7.8188 7.0238 21.8 1486.9528 7.3 1429. .5944 7.2036 22.7194 7.8 1551.1 1580.4 1454.0 1445.1 1426.9739 7.

1932 8.9 1687.0208 24.7156 22.0217 23.9948 8.5832 22.6 1790.1039 24.0978 8.2621 8.2180 8.2 1605.7 1793.1454 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 S<IO 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 541 542 543 544 545 546 .7908 23.1483 8.0 1800.2379 23.2719 8. 8.2 1715.2809 23.3 1784.3 1762.0774 8.2 1693.3 1696.1084 23.4307 23.7596 22.5372 23.7276 f79406144 180362125 181321496 182284263 183250432 184220009 185193000 186169411 187149248 188132517 189119224 190109375 191102976 192100033 193100552 194104539 195112000' 196122941 197137368 198155287 23.3300 8.0415 8.4094 23.1783 8.2913 8.2 1649.2130 8.9 1643.1982 8.0 1822.3491 8.3 204282 205084 205887 206692 207499 208307 209117 209928 210741 211556 212372 213189 214008 214829 215651 216475 217301 218128 218956 219787 220618 221452 222287 223123 223961 224801 225642 226484 227329 228175 229022 229871230722 231574 232428 233283 234140 299209 300304 301401 302500 303601 304704 305809 306916 308025 309136 310249 311364 312481 313600 314721 315844 316969 318096 319225 320356 321489 322624 323761 324900 326041 327184' 328329 329476 330625 331776 332929 334084 335241 336400 337561 338724 339889 163667323 164566592 165469149 166375000 167384151 168196608 169112377 170031464 170953875 171879616 23.2 1671.0 1712.5797 8.203: 8.1882 8.5 1721.1 1825.3155 8.3059 8.0 1668.811a 23.1683 8.0 1756.3024 23.32- .0832 24.9565 22.7065 178453547 23.7 1771.5584 23.2426 8.0927 8.2 1737.9 1621.n 510 Cuedrodo Cubo Rela cuadrado Roiz cubtcc Longitud circunferencio Area n 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 Cuodrodo Cubo Roil cuadrado Rolz ecbtce longitud circunferencio Area 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 510 260100 261121 262144 263169 264196 265225 266256 267289 268324 269361 270400 271441 272484 273529 274576 275625 276676 277729 278784 279841 280900 281961 283024 284089 285156 286225 287296 288369 289444 290521 291600 292681 293764 294849 295936 297025 298116 132651000 133432831 134217728 135005697 135796744 136590875 137388096 138188413 138991832 139798359 140608000 141420761 142236648 143055667 143877824 144703125 145531576 146363183 147197952 148035899 148877000 149721291 150568768 151419437 152273304 153130375 153990656 154854153 155720&72 156590819 157464000 158340421 159220088 160103007 160989184 161878625 162771336 22.8 1661.6495 22.9 1775.1 1803.0 1734.5160 23.3539 1718.1382 8.0 1778.3396 8.8 1683.0620 8.6 1614.1433 8.6854 177504328 23.3203 8.8035 22.0671 8.6053 22.2081 8.9347 22.7 1815.6716 22.2816 8.9 1709.1733 23.3010 8.1 1624.7 1727.3666 7.9 1753.3238 23.2670 8.0466 8.5 1633.7 1749.0000 8.6 1636.3452 23.1833 8.0156 8m08 8.0363 8.0260 8.6936 22.2475 8.6 1702.4 1809.1517 23.3348 8.9896 7.7376 22.9 1731.1247 24.9 1665.1948 23.0416 24~0624 24.8 1639.8 1617.1281 8.0 1690.4 1787.2 1627.0651 23.6 234998 235858 236720 237583 238448 239314 240182 241051 241922 242795 243669 244545 245422 246301 247181 248063 248947 249832 250719 251607 252497 253388 254281 255176 256072 256970 257869 258770 259672 260576 261482 262389 263298 264208 265120 266033 266948 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 1728P8693 23.6432 175616000 • 23.0104 8.2 1759.3107 8.8473 22.6220 174676879 23.1130 8.8 1797.3251 8.1533 8.8328 23.1180 8.7697 23.4 1608.6 1812.D434 23.8 1819.6 1658.8254 22.6 1680.7487 23.2573 ·8.8747 23.1733 1602.2377 8.2229 8.9374 23.1 1646.1332 8.5 1699.6008 173741112 23.3 1806.1301 23.2768 8.9S83 23.6 1746.3 1828.9792 24.0723 8.7816 22.0311 8.33- .4 1765.2594 23.0000 24.1 1781.3 1674.8692 22.1231 8.9783 23.4 1831.8956 2~65 23.1028 8.2327 8.3 1630.0825 8.3 1652.8537 23.5 1655.7 1705.8910 22.4734 23.4521 23.1633 8.6274 22.5 1611.0517 8.0052 8.5 1677.4 1743.6643 176558481 23.0000 23.0876 8.3880 23.1079 8.0569 8.6 1724.9129 22.2524 8.6 1768.2278 8.2865 8.2164 23.1583 8.3 1740.2962.3443 8.4947 23.0868 23.

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1138 9.3373 9.9 2309.6 2414.2 2381.1815 9.8 2149.4408 27.8 2305.1 2312.1662 27.7-489 27.9285 27.018.7 2-481.8 2371.4773 27.7669 27.0532 9.0369 9. 505171 506432 .2716 9.6225 27.0082 9.074(1 27.2580 27.1603 28.0 2422.8747 27.2870 9.8 2327.2287 9.0713 28.3 2428.2666 28.0205 9.5 418539 419686 420835 421986 423138 424293 425447 426604 427762 428922 430084 431247 432412 433578 414746 435916 437087 438259 439433 -4-40609 441786 442965 444146 445328 446511 447697 448883 450072 451262 452453 453646 45-4841 456037 457214 458434 459635 460837 588289 589824 591361 592900 594441 595984 597529 599076 600625 602176 603729 605284 606841 608400 609961 611524 613089 614656 616225 617796 619369 620944 622521 624100 625681 627264 628849 630436 632025 633616 451217663 45298-4832 454756609 456533000 45831-4011 4600996-48 461889917 46368-4824 ~5-48-4375 467288576 469097433 470910952 472729139 474552000 4763795-41 478211768 -480048687 -481890304 -483736625 -485587656 -487443-403 -489303872 491169069 493039000 494913671 496793088 498677257 500566184 502459875 504358336 27.4591 27.1957 28.1418 9.6 2412.5681 27.5 2431.2012 9.2443 9.3 2516.8 2393.7849 27.2638 9.3313 27.6 2324'.5862 27.0735 9.oB91 28.1258 9.29-47 27.0164 9.3 2406.1736 9.3 249M 2497.3 2384.5136 27.2130 9.0357 28.n 730 731 732 733 714 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 75-4 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 Cuadrado Cubo Roil cvedvede Raiz cubica Longitud circonferencia Area n 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 Cuadrado Cubo Rail cuadrada Ralz cubica longitud circunferencia Area 532'100 514361 535824 537289 538756 5-40225 541696 543169 544644 546121 547600 5-49081 550564 552049 553536 555025 556516 558009 559504 561001 562500 564001 565504 567009 568516 570025 571536 573049 574564 576081 577600 579121 58064-4 582169 583696 585225 586756 389017000 390617891 392223168 393832837 395+16904 397065375 398688256 400315553 -401947272 -403581419 -40522-4000 -406869021 -408518-488 410172-407 411830784 411493625 415160936 416832723 418508992 420189749 421875000 .5 27.1498 635209 506261573 636804 508169592 638-401 510082399 1---.1780 28.0246 9.9 2463.6 2522.6586 27.0000 28.9 2419.2 2469.1846 27.3 2450.8 2507.8927 27.0 2378.2 2447.2170 9.0370 27.4 2318.5 2365.3196 28.1775 9.6 2346.2 2425.0937 9.1 2356.4226 27. 27.1855 9.1696 9.7 2415.2213 27.7 462041 463247 464454 -465663 466873 468085 469298 470513 471730 4729-48 474168 475389 476612 477836 479062 -480290 -481519 -482750 -483982 -485216 486451 -487688 -488927 490167 491-409 492652 493897 495143 496391 497641 498892 500145 501399 502655 I 9.0694 2293.0 2-488.1293 27.423564751 42525'1008 426957777 428661064 430368875 432081216 433798093 435519512 437245479 438976000 440711081 442450728 444194947 445943744 447697125 449455096 27.1537 9.7128 27.6 2500.3 23-40.5 2343.0410 9.5318 27.0287 9.6 1478.1425 28.2-489 28.2754 9.1017 9.2599 9.2843 28.3 2472.0572 9.4 2475.2-482 9.2029 27.1218 9.r-' 6-40000 512000000 641601 513922-401 643204 515849608 644809 517781627 503912 .6 2390.2091 9.9 2-485.8209 27.3861 27.1617 9.9 2375.1577 9.9 2397.2397 27.0123 9.3019 28.0491 9.0775 9.8388 27.2764 27.1057 9.7 2503.-4044 27.9 2331.9106 27.6 2368.0 2-466.0041 9.2 2315.38- .2135 28.5500 27.1496 27.39- .0654 9.0 2510.0816 9.1069 28.6 2302.2209 9.1378 9.6043 27.1 2491.0977 9.4 2519.1178 9.9 2441.2 2359.0896 9.5 2387.1458 9.1657 9.2 2337.69-48 27.1338 9.0328 9.1247 28.4 2296.1477 27.0856 9.4 2453.6 2456.0613 9.1894 9.7308 27.0450 9.1109' 27.2 2-403.2909 9.8568 27.22-48 9.2560 9.2326 9.1 2513.055!.1973 9.1933 9.5 2299.29-48 2-409.0535 28.3679 27.2-404 9.4955 27.6767 9.1098 9.2793 9.5 2321.1298 9.9464 27.7 2459.3 2362.092~· 27.0 2400.2052 9.9821 28.1 2334.2677 9.7 2437.8029 27.0179 28.9 2353.2312 28.3130 27.6-405 27.2832 9.2365 9.9643 27.0 2444.2521 9.

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6941 9.1 2846.5937 9.7489 29.7819 9.3809 30.7680 9.5450 30.7610 9.8 656118 657555 658993 660433 661874 663317 664761 666207 667654 669103 670554 672006 673460 674915 676372 677831 679291 680752 682216 683680 685147 686615 688084 689555 .0000 30.9833 30.4 2808.7188 9. 806404 808201 810000 811801 813604 815409 817216 819025 820836 822649 82~ 826281 828100 829921 831744 833560 833237621 835896888 838561807 841232384 843908625 2852.6442 9.0 2909.6334 9.0 2865.3480 30.5 2943.5 2921.5865 9.7750 9.8028 9.0 2799.66<18 29.1164 30.7 2880.3 2783.6105 30.2 2824.6.5614 30.3 846590536 849278123 851971392 85%70349 30.7 2792.6010 9.7540 9.4 2830.8161 29.6 2789.6142 29.7 2858.7571 30.9 2774.7409 9.7224 9.8097 9.6905 2912.91028 692502 693978 695455 696934 698415 699897 701380 702865 704352 705840 707330 2780.9666 29.8270 2871.n 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 Cuadrodo Cuba Raiz cuodrad~ Ralz Langi'ud circunferencia dlbica Areo n 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 Cuadrado Cuba Rolz cuadrado Rolz cubico langi'ud cir(unferencia Area 769129 7708&4 m641 77+400 776161 m924 779689 7814$6 783225 784996 786769 788544 790321 67451.4 2940.4959 30.7329 9.2 2959..6268 30.4302 30.3974 30.8 2950.7 2836.6311 29.3 2805.6 2855.3645 30.0500 30.6727 9.3 2915.6620 9.6585 9.6757 30.6082 9.5719 9.6976 9.4 2918.7321 29.5792 9.8 2971.6920 30.7012 .2159 9.6816 29.7959 9.1 792100 793881 795664 797449 799236 801025 802816 9.2985 30.3 2761. 2811.7470 9.7259 9.6133 676836152 679151139 681472000 683797841 686128968 6880165387 690807104 693154125 695506456 697864103 700117072 702595369 704969000 707347971 709732288 712121957 714516984 716917375 719323136 721734273 724150792 726572699 729000000 731432701 733870808 736314327 738763264 741217625 743677416 746142643 748613312 751089429 753571000 756058031 758550528 761048497 29.6656 9.6226 9.7 2814.7993 29.8 2928.8664 29.0831 30.9500 29.3 2827.5287 30.4138 30.0 2887.5941 30.1496 30.2 2758.5778 30.1828 30.9 2818.5 2764.6549 9.7854 9.0 2843.6298 9.5828 9.7 2770.9 2796.8201 9.i'294 9.0 2953.6370 9. - 43- .7118 9.7889 9.6763 9.7 2924.3150 30.0666 30.6 2877.1 2914.60106 9.2820 30.7896 30.4 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 840889 842724 8+4561 846400 e48241 850084 851929 853776 855625 857416 859329 861184 863041 864900 866761 868624 870489 872356 874225 876096 877969 8798+4 881721 883600 885481 887364 889149 891136 893025 894916 896809 898704 900601 786330467 788889024 791453125 794022776 796597983 799178752 801765089 804357000 80695+491 809557568 812166237 814780504 817400375 820025856 822656953 825293672 827936019 830584000 2906.8167 9.7435 9.7153 29.5756 9.0998 30.7082 9.7083 30.3 289M 2896.7645 9.6118 9.1 2978.0167 30.2324 30.2 6001073 605451 606831 608212 609595 610980 612366 613754 615143 616534 617927 619321 620717 622114 623513 624913 626315 627718 629124 630530 631938 633348 634760 636173 637587 639003 640421 641840 643261 644683 646107 647533 648960 650388 651818 653250 654684 835396 837225 839056 7635519+4 766060875 768575296 nl095213 773620632 776151559 778688000 781229961 783m+48 30.1 2890.8058 9.8 2862.7 2968.5 2786.3 2849.0 2931.6870 9.1 2956.8063 9.5901 9.8998 29.7153 9.7400 9.1330 30.4 2874.7364 9.0333 30.5123 30.7246 30.5 2899.9166 29.9 2975.7924 9.2 2937.8 2884.8831 29.7047 9.5973 9.6046 9.1993 30.7 2902.6594 30.7825 29.6 2833.0 2m.7 2946.1662 30.6190 2755.3315 30.2655 30.4631 30.4 2962.6154 9.7785 9.9 2840.8132 9.2 2981.7575 9.6431 30.4467 30.8329 29.6985 29.6834 9.0 2821.2 ·2802.42- .6479 29.4795 30.1 2868.5 2965.6262 9.6513 9.7715 9.9333 29.6692 9.7734 30.6 2767.7658 29.8496 29.4 804609 .7993 9.6799 9.7505 9.8236 9.6477 9.2490 30.

2 3069.9800 9.5119 31.9 3107.9565 9.2 300M 3006.9092 9.4 3028.8374 9.0805 31.1 3094.1127 31.4166 31.8 3103.6 708822 710315 711809 713306 714803 716303 717804 719306 720810 722316 723823 725332 726842.8546 9.7 2990.1 3000.9 3085.5 2987.9933 9.9 3063.9 3041.2410 31.9516 30.8888 9.2730 31.9354 30.8819 9.8408 9.1929 31.8221 30.2890 31.0644 31.6 3012.3369 31.2570 31.9531 2984.cuadrado Ralz cubica Longitud Circunferencio Area 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 9n 978 979 902500 90+101 906304 908209 910146 912025 913936 915849 91n64 919681 924600 923521 92S444 927369 929296 931225 933156 935089 937024 938961 940900 942841 944784 946729 948676 950625 952576 954529 9564&1 958+11 96CHOO 962361 964324 966289 9682S6 97022S 972196 30.8683 9.9 2997.8869 30.5 3097.1#8 31.4325 31.4006 9.0322 31.8 2993.0966 31.0000 31.5911 31.8 3037.8545 30.8 3015.9430 9.3 3116.6 3034.1288 31.5 3141.9 3019.8854 9.0 3110.5595 31.3847 31.96n 30.8648 9.2 3135.1609.9 3129.4960 31.9632 9.5 3053.84n 9.8922 9.2090 31.1 3022.9194 9.9126 9.6 3122.2 3025.0483 31. 728354 729867 731382 732899 734417 735937 737458 738981 740506 742032 743559 745088 746619 748151 749685 751221 752758 754296 755837 757378 758922 760466 762013 763561 974169 976144 978121 980100 982081 984064 986049 988036 990025 992016 994009 996004 998001 1000000 961504803 964430272 967361669 970299000 973242271 976191488 979146657 982107784 985074875 988047936 991026973 994011992 997002999 1000000000 31.5 3119.9598 9.1 3044.5 3031.1 3066.9024 9.8580 9.n 950 Cuo- drado e"be 857375000 86008S351 8628010408 8655231n 8682S0664 870983875 873722816 876467493 879217912 881974079 884736000 887503681 8902n128 893056347 895841344 898632125 901428696 904231063 907039232 9098S3209 912673000 915498611 918330048 921167317 924010424 926859375 929714176 932574833 935441352 938313739 941192000 944076141 946966168 949862087 952763904 955671625 958585256 Rolz cuadrado Ralz cublca Longitud c:jrcunferenclo Area n 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 Cuodrado Cube Rafz .8751 9.9666 9.9839 31.9733 9.8 3081.2 3047.9227 9.9192 30.9833 9.9464 9.6070 31.5753 31.8511 9.8707 30.8990 9.8 3059.7 3125.9900 9.9967 10.3209 31.86104 9.8305 9.6 3056.0 3088.8785 9.9766 9.5 3075.4484 31.6 3078.8383 30.9295 9.1769 31.4643 31.9699 9.9031 30. 31.6228 9.5278 31.3 3050.3 31)8.2250 31.3 30n.3688 31.3528 31.5 3009.6 765111 766662 768214 769769 771325 772882 774441 776002 777564 779128 780693 782260 783828 785398 981 982 98J 984 98S 986 -<U- -45- .9160 9.8717 9.8339 9.9058 9.3050 31.0161 31.4802 31.9261 9.2 3113.0000 3100.9866 9.9363 9.9497 9.8443 9.9396 9.0 3132.2 3091.8956 9.9329 9.5436 31.

437 27.038 2<.678 '2.81] 16.369 31.3776 9.546 17.499 16.972 47..73 31.556 15.358 33.4351 8.8068 7.1681 9.221 19..8746 4.145 43. 44 y 45.4 se torncrd y se rendrd :-: ~_.7.9..018 31..8171 5.316 21..0153 14.147 1).7021 7.z ~q.9012 9.155 '1..~~~ I 8.552 25.7699 4.055 0...619 23.379 29.677 22.1622..013 38.019 018.777 32.3142 0.836 51..681 10.3 .086 25.9690 7.850 19.2<9 .463 33.056 51.2971.268 20.4 y ~24r Para puesto Para entre VI") y V24 respectivcrnente.662 36.395135.0634 9.684 50.490 37.8850 1. se torncrc _::__~_3_3_!_ 4 = 43005.687 8."12 43..053 10.022 16.'72 11.'88 18.333 '7.199:1 3.159 31.510 3<.229 018.363 21.239 "5."7 52.8" 36.400 I 24.8437 10.106 20.647 018.0841 I 5.<57 24.m ~34 = 6.509 iO.935 ~3. '9.6445 7.835 32.7965 9.081 35.209oi 0..153 22.m 37.578 30.l2J 50.3038 2.9218 5.5973 6.965 18.860 0.0369 4. 925 ~5.032 14.2935 5.547 37.43 se torncru = 54756 y se seporan sepcr cndose dos c.218 '9.82< 33.205 12.459 <3. CIRCUNFERENCIA ° y para SO 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 ~10 ~20 '30 determiner los valores de numeros decimcle s se opera del modo stqulente.8284 3.133 26.839 21.715 .208 52.6077 5.295 24.909 38.414 12. MERO CUBO.1.6652 4.180 27.3304 8.4189 1.25. 192 .0000 1. -: por 23.127 17.9.8540 0.5501 5.108 40.558 35.4086 2.4~ 4 10 como tcrnbten }I V2i4 se procederd por interpolaci6n entre V"23 obtener fa coma obtener -r por 234 = 735.705 46.353 23. EJEMPLO 'U r o. '5.940 32.599 26.999 52.0+4 31.096 2<.783 "'.1416 4.003 40.708 16..9.928 13.779 0.4926 6.1106 10...'26 30 .195 14.2153 10.. REFERENTES RAIZ CUADRADA DIAMETRO" Estas tobias Para Para Para 10 coma Para 10 como obtener obtener obtener estdn indicadas en numeros 234" enteros de 1 a 1000.5870 8.264 31. 087 ~5.656 25.736 '.761 26.907 18..'f('~(~nt~ r('~pec'l"'(lrnent(' 10 r ciz cued-cdc del mjmero 1936 y en 10 '~Jbic(! del nurncro y tercerc columna Pat.469 ~2.059 19. 401 .876 2<.751 28.950 30.'01 18.987 33.810 '7.212 <1.'32 39.732 52.938 12.2<3 35.040 .531 29.139 34.1047 1.326 19..~3.2832 7.804 38.904.500 .007 30.394 16.232 16. 33.018' 29.3614 1.615 3<.406 34 .730 31..299 14.3879 7.729 11.624 12.6180 3.9794 5.996 11.913 27.709 0.27< 29.755 17.~.798 28.786 10.997 32.808 26..171 018.588 28.72' 23.52971.(ras Ires cifra s con 10 coma: con 10 como: 547.438 '7..258 21.1888 5.2360 6.802 18.p!o 460 '70 0180 .90 500 '50 :.9'5 <1.2018 23. 12812.0472 2.970 27.381 018.975 15.. V2.830 '3.847 .043 12.3982 4.451 15.861 37.<28 .100 12.462 13.788 31.650 17.7124 5.190 25.5'3 018.357 13.776 12.i4 se tomcrd V23'4 1.8378 1.270 39.468 21.5029 4.572 22516 22.6<2 39.981 25.3018 i::~~ I i::.982 ~!:!!~ I ~!:~!~ 15.<20 21.3 roil cuadrado de 1000.7<2 50.605 36.383 18.674 52.7802 2.441 17 .525 20.049 22.069 17.02~ 35.237 26.566 1 2 3 4 5 9 0.689 40..855 27.7J5 21..227 28.500 36.537 38.652 37.695 9.7596 6.001 21.89' 51.631 40.6755 12.891 11.600 47.829 23.373 20.465 15.097 42.668 44. ANGULAR 6 7 8 A LAS TABLAS Y CUBICA DEL Y AREA DE CUANUDE DE UN CIRCULO n 1O 20 30 40 ° 0.301 H.186 36.448 46.280 37.202 '.966 36.49<4 26.883 11.206 32.7389 9.563 .562 23.532 ~9.951 50. los numeros de ia primera cvbicc 1. se tomara 0.919 36.673 31.720 33.6917 8.416 32.322 30.9<1 52. 506 44.763 46.6549 6.535 19.310 12.364 ".568 33.181 47..956 40.6283 1.782 22. 296 .1)1) n.934 23.4454 5.527 41.196 3<.2566 1.745 19.9322 3.714 2<.9897 3.0!85 018.513.150 53.792 20.075 ( 27.265 50.9+1 21.4236 1.090 13.211 20.~~ 30.636 29.671 17.338 37.993 23.630 21.307 <2. se odelantcrn 73...028 I 26.611 ~5.276 ~9.2729 9.7227 3.757 37.qf~ro<..H2 26.962 '2.5133 3.012 18.61622.5398 7.960 29.285 27. se cdelcnturd un puesto un pues'o y se tendrd obtener Vo.882 33.820 45.819 25.929 3<.7330 1..746 39.184 15. par ejerr.410 23.867 46.872 3<.667 24.4248 10.625 31.698 18.263 11.198 53.897 20.5'" 27.519 12.029 46.521 32.577 11.118 39."3 35.196 46.0059 9.077 I 46.009 50.5.103 52.5605 4.479 40.646 28.305 22.898 40.360 52..845 29..4558 3.354 <3.367 11.988 1 0.580 50.3.704 27..370 51.286 47.4823 9.726 '3.917 16.799 018.991 23.034 35. 23.904 49.9115 7.773 44.7493 8.389 27.4~ se tomcrd 23.914 47.539 52.771 24.0944 3..060 39.223 38.091 ]4.149 33.504 25 .'22 41.347 15.080 15.336 17.40< /14.8<1 <1.046 30.071 37.0162 8.522 51.164 19.~~~~:.279 17.56.201 22.9425 1.311 32. 7 25.9587 8.158 11.atcrmedios V1960 sc vera que cste volar los numeros '3.102 32.124 .174 16.5708 2..627 51.ll2 28.794 40.3201 10.122 35.317 40.252 13.693 28. 2341 = 12812904.95' 20.767 34.883 52.161 51.593 18.583 20.'75 51.857 018.8643 6.603 16.301 1.985 13.851 39.478 19.553 '5.165 38.621 '3.903 29.6342 9.2463 4.740 30.313 5'..242 15.13.:' 85184.886 22.176 38.823 H.0265 ~'.289 16.878 .888 '2.260 42..9484 10.3.1]7 14.923 25.327 39.114 50..255 53. se cdelcn- tara do~ puestos Estes tobias 10 roiz cuadrado sentoru se tendrc 430.053 pora mas de 1000 numeros del ournero moyor para obtener n reprecolumna se utrlizcn y 10 rcrz y r oiz cubtcc.3510 .442 36..870 14.594 38.584 39.291 36.1519 2.637 50.789 50.683 30.640 19.752 47.117 18.516 42.881 12.609 25.050 41.093 - 46- -47 - .13< '5.574 <2.VALORES DE LA VELOCIDAD OBSERVACIONES DRADO. 3.976 35.5245 10.3407 6. se odelantaro y se tendrd Para obtener y V2).066 "9.128 36.375 40.385 38.892 30.S.866 26. ambos contidcdes cor 50e encontrcrcn 10 se- 440 qundc de 10 Tabla pr ocedow esla entre Inte rpotcctcn. = 15.391 46.4681 2.699 38.658 46.

P = Peso del cuerpo. 2 lib~~ en ~I veclo. s=~-xt= 2 CIRCULAR axt 2 l MOVIMIENTO v= 2. = Numerc de revoluciones per minuto. DE CINEMATICA v = Ve/ocidad.FORMULAS s = Espocio.81 metros M = Masa de un cuerpo.h. MOVIMIENTO s=v MOVIMIENTO v = a X I. UNIFORME s V a = Aceleracion. -48- . a X I.= P X h = P X s. v I V=-. g = Aceleeeeten producida por 10 gravedad (9.1047n. = Dlstcnclu en metros del punto considerodo como eje de retceten. w = Yelocidad angular. S = espacio recorrido. h = altura de calda. I = ~--. segundo). P = Peso de un cuerpo. FUERZA CENTRIFUGA F= M Xv' - FUERZA VIVA R f= M xv' - 2 . TABLAS DE CONVERSION FORMULAS DE DINAMICA por M. F = Pceree centrlfuga 0 cenlrlpeta de un cuerpo con masa f = Fuerza viva. I s UNIFORMEMENTE ACELERADO v Q= --. M caida f=Pxh. Considerando un cuerpo siguientes relaciones: de masa Referida a 10 fuerzo vivQ f de un cuerpo de masa M dotado de vetocidad V. tenemos las v=1'2gxh. h= 2~'9-' hV .~ R 60 (1)= 2"n 60 = 0. t = Tiempo. FuerzQ cenlr/fugo F de un cuerpo con masa M dotado de velocidad v en metros por segundo 5iluado Q 10 disfaneia R en metros del centro de rcteclen. ¥' = Velocidad en metros por segundo.. 1=-.

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007 .2 «umversul»..254 .9 2. .09 .101' .7.4 685.j ~ 25 .54 5.ble para la mecanizaci6n de ptezcs.8 5&4.05 0.0 035.1 0.00354 0.2 00.08 7 .-\0005 ~ .2 990.•.008 -OOOoj9.00035< De estas reiactones se derrvcn los siguientes relociones cproximcdcs : 1 pulgodo (U.06 .03543 O.•.0762 .. 1" 10 Pulg. .000315 .000079 Pulg..•.5 0.. la difnencia es pradicamente inmed.40005 .8 .02 ..6 III 127...78 20.006 .0 25. 00. .002 0.. .0 mm ..016 1.00197 .105~ mm. 203. 0"2 = 5. A.08 0.025~ mm.6 yarda = 0. Pulg. • por corresponder a 4 ·5 101. mm. centesimos y miles..Estodos Untdos de Am~nca Ilene esla retccicn: 1 yordo 3600 3937' de Ingloterro' ~ 3600 3937.5 . 25. medida.2032 .4 304.•.01 0. yo que 10 conversi6n oficiol de los".003 0. .8 76.ADVERTENCIAS Una insignificanle diferenclc extste en 10 conversten de 10 pulgoda tnglesa Q milimetros. 10 100 Pulg.5~4 1.7 .0 ISH 177.05 . Diferencias que existen entre 10 relacion americana '1 la inglesa en una m. La equivalttnCia 25. O.01181 .00051 Relacion inglesa .0254 ee 513. . .2 0. .00315 ..•..1 . ~ Diferencia. Diferencia.0 660..2 1.03150 .0275.9 Conversi6n de 1 10 100 1000 de milimetro a pulgadas y viceversa -mm.•.0027' .004 0... .versos_ cutores.32 22.0 5. y se recomiendo operar para til conversion de medidos de precision por 10 tabla de decimas.9144 metros.8 20 508.. por media de sumas.8 457.01 .1778 ...... 10 cual permite de uno forma rcptdc.001 0.01969 0.4 558.7 0..08 mm.' 52 - .002 .oJ 0. • .1524 .. --mm.16 12...2 355.0254 .2 .. '1' por tanto.. .' Como queda demostrado. 0 de pulgad~s a milimetros 10 254. EJEMPLO Cenverur 20"201 pulgadas a milimetros: 20" = 508. S.<lO9 1" 1000 Pulg...8 838.005 0.008 .8 609.08 0.001 . 25.' 730.07 0.004 . na debe lenerse en cuenta sino pare caics de extreme precisi6n.4 0.3'2 . yordo ~ 36 pulgodos.508 .0.4 939.8 965.09 .02 .007 0.04 0. . Relacion inglesa.00039 .399978 Relaci6n segun venes autores .0 914..39978 Estas djferencics no deben ser epreoedcs en tecbcjcs de mecdntcc corriente.08 01" 100 ..6 412.032 2.0508 . · 25.0 406.53- .3999~8 OO.2 889.006 0..4 431.4 .<XlOO72 Relacion americana.003 . 1000 ~= Stendc 10 retecrcn 1 yordo ~ ---=-.8 711...." se procura sea reteeten ... el ccnverttr cualquier.oooua .3 .1270 .000418 -+--7~'O-I 787.• 2 10..01575 .009 Djferenctc. yarda = 3 pies.ll86 + + pulgodo: Relacion americana...000157 . Relcctcn segun vcrtos autores .06 0.2 lll.3 0..4 SO..00394 . mos.70 15..86 Pulg.24 17.8 0.' 0. Unidades Pulg. . 508. pero si en los de precision pora 10 clencte e industria..0 533.03 .286 .4 812. .10005 1 pulgoda inglesQ = 25.00079 .778 2.2 863.00023.005 ..00027' .000197 .00157 ...07 .0113' --~_:.270 1.00236 .04 .00787 . 330. y ella ~s debtdo Q las eprectactones de d. 25. 0"001 = 0.00118 .' 381.2 279.

....953125 0.. aol...l'lt"'olO-"'OM " ..671875 0.... 0-8(!..§ e ~ a...~ III G) .o..... ...375 251M 13/32 27/M 7/16 . II 'e -a G) III " a ... E E ~~"':"':"':~~"'"!"'"! E ...875 0......171875 0..<10625 0..oo a aot"'ol...aoot O~Flgi~~~~~ ..... ~ s i~~~=~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~:.l'lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ ~~!~e~~~R~ ....5 U O...75 0.....a.oi M U"IO-""'" .... > C G) ~~~::~~~$~!i "'"!~"':~~~~~"":"": " .•390625 0.54- .:... "aoaoo-o-O' ·00 ....... 0 G) CL ~r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i i~~O:~~8~~~ ~~...........265625 9/32 0. aol.515625 0......:"".ot"'l...........p...o" § r-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-ir-i ~~~~~~~~~~ ~=~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~C!.. t" po..65625 0."".59375 0.......... U"IO-M" .. !i! ~ E s ~ 8 !is:~~~~~~~~ ~iii~~~~~~ o.....~~~~~:g8 ~~~::~~~$~~ "'.00 ao ..:..28125 19/M 0............ ""....~53125 0.8125 0....... U"I&lt"'ol ....oo ~~~r-i"'..71875 0.03125 0........6875 0..~~~ ""''''''MMMMMMMM m ....3~375 23/M 0... '" ~~~~i~~~~s..~375 0..... aol............9375 0...... 0 ~~*i:::...... .6-10625 0..703125 0.-aoU"lt"'olo'......~~~~:g......98~375 1. '¢COt"'olU"lO'...... ~ ~~~:o8i~e:!~~ ~~a~~~~~~~ ~~~~p."'... ""'" ... E o .296875 5/16 •• 0."'........046875 0. 0..........."...........Mt"'oIt"'oIMM ~~~~~~~~#~ ::~~~~~~:!:!0 '0 C •iii .609375 0.... 29/M 15/32 31/M 1/2 .o....109375 0....... 57/M 29/32 59/6~ 15/16.96875 0.. .. ~~~~o::~~8~:: . U"IO-Mr::: .."'..~:g~~~::ri~~l .-VCOt"'olU"lO'M O'coOO"-C-CU"l'¢V . aoU"lt"'l8)~""'o"~ Fracciones de pulgada a decimales I/M 1/32 3/M 1/16 ..p..... 0.21875 0............3125 21/M 0. "'S 1 Q..l'lt"'l8)~""'O"~ #&l~r:::" ~~~~ . ~~~~~~~~!.55- .....015625 0...09375 0. " ~9/M 25/32 51/M 13/16. .~11875 0....2H375 0. O'cooo... 9/M 5/32 II/M 3/16 . t"'oIt"'oI""'''''''''''~ U"I .....73~375 0.890625 0.-U''I 0.5 a -a a 0) III ...... U"IU"IU"I.~375 0...........0625 0.1875 0.... ....921875 0..... 5/M 3/32 7/M 1/8 ............. a III 2 fi~S~ ~~~8 ~ ....~ .~:8:gv...15625 0..:aiaOa:o-:a-:oo~ t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIt"'oIMMM ..328125 11/32 0......203125 33/M 17/32 35/M 9/16 ... 53/6~ 27/32 55/M 7/8 .... 17/M 0....0 t"'oIt"'oIt"'oIM ~ i~~~~~~~~.. 13/M 7/32 15/M 1/~. "'oI""'~U"I-c..."'o-cU"l~V ""''' ......~~~~~~~~ ....5625 0.~:::n:~~~S 8 ~Mr-ir-iMr-ir-i""'...1<10625 0......o""....:~ ~""ao~~~:.765625 0..~:g~~~::ri~::::'l ..:i .........~~~~~~~ ...125 0..........i.. ~~~r-ir.............578125 0.......t"'oI~ ~~~~~~ "':~~~"'"!"'"!~~'"':~ -..25 0... c...~~ .546875 0..::O.796875 0..~375 0.....078125 0....... aoU"lt"'olO-"'OMO"~ s !l ~~~~#~~~~~ i....o.859375 0..53125 0....... JlI ~ ~~..~~~ ...-U"lO''''''''''..~~~"': .... 37/6~ 19/32 39/M 5/8 ...625 0..U''I 8 ~~. 0........ 61/M 31/32 63/M 1 ..: ~i~~Vi~.90625 0...78125 0. ~1/M 21/32 ~3/M 11/16..359375 3/8 •...~u-lu-l~.... ~5/M 23/32 ~7/M 3/~...~~ ~~~a#~~~~~ ..46875 0. S.....828125 0.U''IO'M'' ....

142857 1/7 13/28 .571429 7/28 0".._--.541667 0" .916667 0".375 0".. .857143 0".708333 0".714286 I---~-- ....285714 0" .178571 0".E-J-f--l-}'.392857 11/28 1/14 ----.f.041667 0" .57- .25 0".--~ ~1-.----------~ 1--------0".678571 0".--------~ -----..._--_ --_----------0" .j -- 21/28 0".428571 3/28 3/7 ---_ _. ...~~i~ codo II II II II Decimales equivalentes a 6 avos.083333 0".464286 0".: cicicicicidciooooooooo cicicici II 11 11 II II II II II II II II II II II II II 3/24 1/6 Is~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ II II II II 5/14 3/12 7/14 2/6 -J..6250".071429 0".416667 0" .791667 0" .666667 e ::l~::l~ ~~a.928571 I 000 ~~~ .583333 0". ~::: ~ .333333 9/14 5/12 11/14 3/6 13/24 7/12 15/24 4/6 0".166667 0".5 5/28 7/14 --. 9/28 0" .:."i." cicici II II II ~9!!~! !!! ~ II II II II II II II II II II ddcid 23/28 6/7 25/28 -----13/14 ------- na2!..107143 0" .833333 0".25 4/7 --_----..607143 17/28 2/7 1/28 .357143 5/14 -0".458333 0".75 0". 12 avos inglesa 17/24 9/12 19/24 5/6 21/14 11/12 23/14 0".642887 27/28 0"_964286 -56- .-~------0".785714 ~~0"..821429 -0".892857 ------"0".-0".291667 0" .. 0"_03S7H ~ 19/28 5/7 0". .75 0".333714 ~+_0'~-214286 _ 15/28 ~--0".1~29i- 9/14 0"..208333 0".125 0".958333 y 24 avos de pulgada 1/24 1/12 0"..1----.5 0" .-f-.875 0"..~~ ~~~~ ci 0'6 II II II II II cid II II II II II II ..0".f-i--!-i-iiii Decimales equivalentes a 7 avos.. 14 avos inglesa y 28 avos de pu!gada 0".

671 7.125 0.148 0.144 3.175 3.193 0.131 5.0165 0.51 0.1«1 0. 0.743 2.2().16 0.962 3.934 6.107 0.943 I e.1 2.169 0.0055 0.55 0.m 0.49) 7.985 7.Il6 o.528 6.185 0.103 0.128 O.756 6.816 5.138 0.194 0.658 ].086 La equivalencia en pulqcdcs de 0.0004 0.307 O.5 4.315 0.-40 I 0.0319 0.146 0.417 7.404 5.731 6.061 7.153 8.150 0.020'1 0.0197 0.521 4.972 2.no 0.0102 0.41 I r mm.27 0.759 Pulgodas 0.556 3.n4 0.167 0.375 6.782 6.301 0.49 0.84 0.45 0.C26 8.111 0.210 0.747 7.0295 0.118 0.160 0.0350 0.0138 O.315 7.148 0.436 5.937 4.0256 0.184 0.115 0. ! 0.680 7.256 0.73 0 74 .151 0.0091 0.94 0.m 3.0201 0.420 4.128 0..170 7.98 0.111 0.883 6.197 0.191 0.0220 0.17 [ 1 0.]<40 7.197 0.115 0.149 0.039 3.0362 0.886 3..004 5.505 5.116 0.156 5.303 0.0031 0.350 6.11.H8 6.1«1 0.0134 0.14 0.301 0.304 0.200 e.073 3.181 0.001 8.191 0.0331 0.664 5.23 10.562 6.950 7.111 0.50 0.715 5.175 0. 0.216 4.13 i O.251 3.26 0.174 0.116 0.163 0.858 6.110 3.318 0.785 3.81 0.158 0.22 0.173 0.183 0.141 0.Decimales de milimetros a decimales de pulgada inglesa mm Pulgodos Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PuI9QdQ~ 0.0035 0.161 0.! Pulgodos I mm.69 0.139 0. ].442 ].289 0.190 0.951 O.613 5.99 11.j91 7.199 0.116 0.165 0.107 0.108 0.25 0.117 0.106 0.179 0.111 0.32 0.43 0.102 0.029-1 0.96j 0.318 4.118 0.31 0.0280 0.15<1 0.28 0.46 M7 0.366 7.87 0.114 0. 4.080 5.311 0.401 6.131 0.925 7.0307 0.912 7.101 0.0268 0.052 8.467 7.502 6.147 0.175 0.101 0.0189 0.195 0.013 4.154 0. Pulgodos 0.104 0.90 0.42 0.0106 0.Q244 0.909 5.().Q205 0.310 0.12: 0.0146 0.969 5.578 6.0346 0.264 7.188 7.141 0.0272 0.798 7.369 4.m 3.66 0.0224 0.306 0.02040 0.n4 6.180 0.0386 0.138 0.429 ].0016 0.077 8.ll5 0.928 4.149 0.299 2.842 5.848 7.0260 0.15 0.178 0.179 0.119 mm.147 0.164 0.n3 O.18 ".Q7 0.150 I I 7.258 0.893 5.101 0.0354 0.n7 0.0228 0.187 0.10 0.300 0.870 0.117 0.791 5.036 7.616 Pulgodas 0.902 4.155 0.055 6. 7.06 0.223 6.959 6.0118 0.172 6.696 7.0283 0.0043 0.116 O.n9 0.236 0.0079 Ejemplo: i 7.100 0.171 0.0185 0.1]] 8.410 5.112 7.835 3.0181 0. 0.103 0.0087 0.0378 ].54 0.30 0.Q3 0.867 5.794 2.161 0.020 6.113 0.632 3. 2.106 0.257 0.75 0.171 O.191 4.Q248 0.m 0.151 0.67 0.359 6.607 7.110 0.451 7.0339 0.775 ~.0161 0.0094 0.0'1 0.72 0.lO8 0.150 3.168 0.0213 i 0.674 4.769 2.823 trn 7. 0.OH2 0.721 0.109 0.204 0.569 7.n4 8.0232 0.147 6.0252 0.089 4.lll O.121 6.91 89 1 5.105 0.0366 0.163 ! mm.182 1.16 de.176 0.138 0.44 0.109 0.131 0.193 0.283 0.m I O.899 1 0.133 0.135 O.281 0.0287 0.111 0.6Q.37 0.0236 0.195 0.21 0.166 I 0.35 0.101 0.683 ].55] 6.163 0.537 5.699 4.8S1 ".161 0.00204 0.0020 0.167 0.143 0.305 0.188 0.! Pulgodos 10.0130 0.52 0.978 5.181 0.161 0.540.115 0.97 93 0.0098 0.77 I 0.100 0.918 0.946 2.114 0.111 0.0177 0.655 6.0150 0.283 5.629 6.0059 0.620 7.154 0.0311 0. 1 0.191 0.232 5.114 0.518 2.68 0.141 mrn.0028 0.62 0.rn 0.572 4.164 0.171 5.581 3.070 6.547 4.311 0.099 1 4.79 0.226 3.24] 0.594 ".191 0.ln 0.00081 I 0.178 0.251 0.229 -58- .H 0.0067 2.]4] 4.78 ' 0.0217 0.198 0.877 4.766 5.134 3.642 2.334 5.174 0.0122 0.124 3.194 0.213 0.0299 0.029 5.648 4.105 5.064 1 4.04 0.496 4.480 3.5]1 3.59- .33 0.83 0.096 0.01H 0.724 4.807 6.189 0.314 0.0276 0.810 3.80 I 0.119 0.02 0.0358 2.287 0.111 0.0315 0.0394 0. mm.130 O.170 mm.199 0.198 0.119 o.146 0.104 0.317 0.117 0.179 8.160 0.588 1f1:::.I 7.718 ].0193 0.832 6.64 0..59 0.05 0.826 ".08 0.153 0.137 7.95] PulgQdas O.454 ].114 0.88 0.140 4.221 un O.512 5.285 0.967 3.259 0.740 6.0173 0.186· 0.293 4.82 0.176 o.141 0.Q.591 2.6]9 5.0047 0.139 0.0374 0.73< ].60 ".0264 0.S.85 0.38 0.]78 3.477 6.845 2.58 0.36 0.0343 0.0323 0.145 0.255 0.750 4.309 6.105 0.0083 0.0110 O.819 2.921 2.61 I 0.861 3.62] ~.no mm.48 0.110 0.0126 0.166 0.196 0.65 0.116 0.56 0.597 4.0169 0.)84 5.39 Pulgodos 0.311 mm.130 0.00 3.319 o.267 4.29 0.161 1.010 6.71 0.705 6.0370 0.144 0.63 0.181 0.470 4.173 0.0063 0.277 3.53 0.159 0.801 5.145 0.486 5.258 5. 5.70 0.0063 putqcdcs..0154 mm.242 4.ln 0.125 0.165 0.0390 0.988 5.316 0.689 5. 2.0039 0.196 0.0335 0..76 0.207 5.0327 0.ln 0.251 0.166 0.692 2.274 6.0051 0.01 I 0.137 0.921 0.0157 i 0..394 4.874 7.134 0. Pul9Qda~ 0.0382 0.113 0. = 0.86 0.896 6..0012 0.168 0.169 0.253 0.157 0.111 O.n3 O.023 3.645 7. 7.309 0.128 8.0303 0.108 0.975 8.994 6.667 2.426 6.57 0.708 3.I5 6.197 7.190 0.290 7.302 3.565 2.

<62 13.672 0._ 0.609 0.4 17.510 0.769 10.106 1).3U 0..522 12.856 17.322 9.033 10.443 0.900 15.351 0.697 15.493 0.704 0.941 8.490 0.126 19.017 9.427 0.517 0.6<0 13.637 16.485 0.541 10.733 0.585 0.14II 0.408 16.363 10.436 13.0+9 11.579 14.595 15.716 0. 0.424 0.7<8 Pulgada5 0.670 0.3<8 17.627 0..352 0.411 13.727 8.319 0.759 0.910 14.520 0.661 0.610 0.002 16.705 0.827 12.894 13.779 9.719 10.328 11.871 10.027 16.221 17.011 15.668 10.186 18.912 11.396 0.Hl 15.180 16.lli 0.767 0.501 0.3n 0.5<5 15.574 0.703 17.438 0.6010 0.008 18.m -60- -61- .766 0.<81 19.185 10.439 0.291 15.872 18.547 0. 17.769 0.721 0.577 0.69l 0.268 12.676 0.303 11.674 0.995 14.335 0.233 13.5U 0.649 12.763 0.005 1).512 0.754 0.613 0.830 17.087 Pulgadas 0.799 15.751 0.353 0.141 12.659 0.138 15.700 0. 0.811 11.037 15.404 0.789 16.m 13.674 12.632 0.690 0.564 0.543 0.381 0.581 0.l8O 0.715 0.214 15.425 0.471 0.569 0.341 0.687 16.566 0.732 14.614 13.364 0.336 0.957 9.586 0.998 11.757 14.524 0.709 0.591 0.100 19.572 0.261 10.416 0.479 0.608 19.755 0.388 10.386 13.653 17.491 0.134 10.0)9 12.508 0.382 8.724 0.363 0.30< 19.568 0.421 0.9 0.28< 13.271 9._ 0.663 0.<81 11.801 8. 13.607 0.747 0.339 0.055 1].440 18.506 11.373 0.533 0.621 O.57.280 8.763 8.169 9.503 14.418 15.69< 18.<55 11.499 0.601 9.393 0.558 19.110 18.973 18.319 12.157 13.383 16.330 0.414 10.129 16.603 0.+46 12.906 9.690 13.325 14.951 15.938 11.<168 15.189 15.792 13.629 0.685 0 •• mm.592 18.701 0.767 13..0H 18.954 12.497 0.401 0.720 0.552 0.150 11.407 Q.523 0.706 14.379 11.531 0.119 17.580 0.068 17.383 0.499 9.385 0.151 19.125 '1.275 14.170 17.612 '.367 15.653 0.696 0.721 o.427 14.97) 10.478 14.357 U5a 0.550 9.35< 11.651 0.397 0.11&4 1<.859 14.579 0.287 10.675 0.382 0.300 14.616 0.389 0.616 0.773 0.581 0.739 0.02] 11.093 9.551 0.680 0.182 13.556 0.7)0 0.559 0.605 0•• 0..437 0.0704 11.500 17.<56 19.6U 0.725 12.703 0.706 0.642 0.412 0.530 0.394 0.516 0.582 11.113 15.774 mm.195 9.395 0.608 11.887 11.758 0.29) 12.'0.360 0.780 17.525 9.9<1 16.785 11.546 0.410 0.611 mm.529 0.494 0.681 14.907 17.654 0.598 12.719 0.297 17.0.630 0.741 13.528 0.327 0.366 0.413 0.109 10.757 0.452 0.411 0.542 0.741 0.551 14.557 0.312 10.563 13.507 0.535 16.586 16.503 0.563 0.420 0.712 8.931 9.673 0.16< 15._ 0.253 19.043 17.173 14.664 0.046 14.612 Q.<83 8.Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros PulgodQ5 0.471 12.760 11.398 0.740 0.470 0.891 16.529 14.817 13.211 18.068 9.489 0.450 0.702 0.613 0.281 16.<81 0.495 0.350 0.1<48 14.960 14.458 8.593 0.970 13.641 0.230 '.722 0.666 0.555 0.714 0.237 18.846 10.409 0.551 17.459 mm.762 0.331 0.<484 16.166 12.211 10.451 0.371 0.595 0.369 mm.346 0.745 0.865 16.372 0.395 12.693 10.461 0.575 0.751 12.638 0.761 0.710 0.436 0.562 0.491 18.372 15.532 19.368 0.754 17.560 8.582 0.581 0.387 0.526 17.059 18.614 12.030 13.689 0.m 8.220 9.617 0.875 15.122 14.453 0.365 0.621 15.504 12.625 0.500 0.693 0.375 0.617 0 •• 0.475 17.878 12.855 9.441 0.849 15.208 13.<23 9.278 19.6Ol 0.418 0.457 0.405 0.665 13.897 18.5U 0.631 0.716 13.614 0.506 0.691 Q.433 0.70 0.474 9.589 13.557 11.344 0.864 18.967 16.645 0.650 0.514 0.611 16.417 0.355 0.449 0.677 0.431 0.915 8.090 12.502 0.830 9.265 15.890 I I 8.566 10.756 0.665 0.703 9.646 15.613 0.014 19.nO 18.630 14.633 11.618 18.744 0.749 0.583 19.983 18.700 12.1+4 9.071 14.118 9. 8.558 0.337 0.441 0.976 16.531 11.539 0.476 mm.W 12.671 0.821 18.738 16.445 0.545 0.014 12.619 0.367 0.3l1 0.338 0.573 12.227 11.338 10.843 13..656 14.342 0.999 19.513 13.256 16.259 13.660 0.621 0.636 0.]98 9._ 0.868 13.458 0.717 0.627 17.620 0.699 0.255 8.370 12.742 0.444 0.509 0.432 0.561 16.634 0.687 8.521 0.659 0.989 12.430 0.419 0.605 14.548 0.435 0.236 10.456 0. 18.417 0.288 18.592 10.662 16.966 8.711 0.492 0.490 10.154 16.176 11.610 0.053 16.313 18.356 0.465 0.601 0.678 17.467 0.776 12.177 19.846 18.695 0.544 0.347 0.376 14.610 8.963 11.473 0.262 18.306 8.656 0.602 17.746 0.09< 17.750 0.639 mm.626 9.252 11.511 0.195 17.161 18.316 0.928 12.592 0.329 19.442 0. 10.833 14.202 19.957 17.862 11.428 0.604 0.516 12.737 8.796 18.399 Q.657 0.728 9.753 9.647 0.697 0 .272 17.460 0.591 0.379 O.058 10.587 0.576 9.567 0.454 0.6016 0.455 0.576 0.537 0.062 15.764 16.081 13.201 11.783 14.439 10.103 16.550 0.374 0.709 11.748 0.468 0.636 8.549 mm.415 18.443 15.567 18.1)2 13.926 15.192 12.084 10.532 0.880 9.661 8.722 15.415 0.380 19.360 1).065 12.770 0.475 0.9<48 18.469 0.662 0.399 17.391 0.684 ".349 0.0&0 18.570 15.538 0.553 0.018 17.463 0.246 17.667 0.734 0.735 0.3U 17. 15.805 17.116 Pulgadas 0. 16.392 0.570 0.515 Pulgodas 0.519 0.554 0.721 0.434 0.361 0.389 18.498.376 mm.542 18.761 0.n3 15.80< 9.736 0.753 0.468 0..494 15.979 13.642 10.624 0.982 10.560 0.713 16.472 0.462 0.351 14.744 10.935 14.421 O.565 0.795 10.735 11.824 15.356 8.507 19.408 0.359 0.6M 'o.135 18.m .<487 13.465 18.7<5 Pulgadas 0.634 19.611 0.986 15.535 0.249 14.400 0.652 0.354 19.465 10.731 0.652 9.932 17.896 10.403 0.378 0.3+4 12.584 0.712 0.788 8.050 19.509 8.497 12.420 12.519 15.919 13.440 0.760 0.309 13.446 0.334 0.852 12..9+4 1.808 14.<0< 11.307 16. 9.536 0.<31 19.075 19.430 11.])1 Decimales de pulgada inglesa a milimetros Pulgada5 0.362 0.679 0.370 0.771 0.392 15.474 0.599 0.406 0.644 0.198 14. 11.578 0.916 16.407 8.<83 0 .414 o.416 0.672 15.658 0.571 0.021 14.373 Pulgadas 0.205 16.538 13.677 9.496 0.007 18.<82 0.725 0.820 10.447 0.36< 18.+49 17.160 10.661 0".245 9.625 0.729 17.617 10.678 0.814 16.839 8.097 14.713 0.510 16.597 0.732 0.078 16.992 17.354 0.6<3 18.296 9.478 0.561 0.752 0.357 16.594 mm.526 0.764 0.649 0.333 0. 0.708 0.711 0.658 Pulgadas 0.402 14.637 0.589 0.277 11.452 14.515 0.840 16.513 0.643 0.390 0.655 0.814 8.541 0.5H 8.573 0.719 18.623 0.518 0.4]] 0.340 0.145 17.449 9.429 0.618 0.434 16.505 0.332 16.922 10.615 0.991 9.345 0.402 0.100 11.903 12.540 0.224 14.836 11.343 0.l88 0.<05 19.7lI 0.332 0.5<7 12.217 17.590 0.384 0._ 0.459 16.338 18.923 18.227 19.947 10.716 0.527 0.585 8.765 0.424 17.707 0.316 15.669 18.4n 0.881 Pulgadas 0.596 0.347 9.2<0 15.534 0. 12.464 0.0<2 9.

638 22.860 0.488 11 :>1] 21. 6080 pies.180 14.951 0.779 0.053 14.777 0.919 0.9n 0.548 20.310 21.04 24.980 0.797 0.241 2].910 0. 0.836 0.11'1 23.905 0.951 0.056 21.96.788 0.358 14.984 0.971 0.890 0.000 » 5280.6H 20.851 0.874 0.991 0.942 2".479 22.869 H.761 19.726 0.915 0.9)9 Pulgodas 0.998 0.174 22.789 0.904 0.784 0.860 22.871 (Iegua marino) 3 millas nauticas (milia geografica) marino (1760 yordo.907 0.587 0. 1 milia neuncc = 1 milia geografica.453 22.971 O.885 0.793 0.615 11.805 0.877 0.887 0.0936 dedmetro metro decdmetro 20.349 25.891 0.336 21.015 20.947 0.893 0.291 23.12] 21.975 0. es usoda siempre para las comparaciones de velocidades de buques.047 22.021 22.979 0.8n 0.807 0.781 0.132 21.815 mm.803 0.167 10.m 0.896 0.4 H.8.981 0.881 0.9-45 n.92] 0.000 3280.978 0.8288 0.90 0..536 24.861 0.961 22.786 0.688 14.()()()() » = 176O.650 20.790 0.939 0.1Q.880 0.911 2·4.561 24.04 21.804 0..361 21.840 0.899 0.0254 21.948 0.()()()() H.144 0.949 0.656 22.400 20.698 23.069 25.986 0.818 0.850 I H876 2].)9] 19.758 22.900 0.911 0. i Equivalencias entre sistema inglis y mitrico Pesos y medidas MEDIDAS DE LONGITUD sec-lecque 0.396 20.921 0.428 22.m 25.384 24.066 10.srs = ]9.808 0.250 22.841 0.799 0.275 22."3 0.936 0.564 21.'75 knot mile fathom yard fool inch nudo centimetre 23.298 25.H2 2].955 0.'76 0. 19.819 0.839 0.889 0.956 0.1 25.999 i .971 21.955 20.802 o.012 23.147 25.814 0.~ 25.2808 328.599 20.107 21.no 24.243 20.781 0. equivalencia a 1853 metros.881 0.647 23.99] 25.8H 22.019 24.164 23.888 0.596 2].231 ALMIRANTAZGO BRITANICO 0'816120.218 20.3149 1.6]1 22.778 0.810 0.965 0.845 0.48 0.869 21.091 20.837 19.989 20.987 I 23.JS2 12.841 0.781 0.812 19.04-4 21.935 0.&46 0. 0.798 0. -63 - .285 21..120 25.190 2).966 0.199 PulgQdas 0.859 0.412 21.926 23.944 0.2'4 20.775 0.5()04 = = 0.848 0.961 0.765 24.3937 3.916 0.911 0.555 22.895 0.946 0.783 22.950 0.961 0.612 H.811 0.685 19.952 23.849 0.146 25.234 21.148 22.967 0.225 22.640 21.841 24.961 0..851 0.273 25.691 21.813 0.54S 2]571 23.580 22.990 0.158 21.0/2 22.8)8 0.959 0.257 o.976 O.854 0.098 22.W Ii.911 mm.901 0.9000 » » » » = 0.924 0.785 0.980 21.917 0.9'.418 23.911 0.780 0.437 21.940 0.714 24.818 20.33J 0.819 20.'71 0. '9.977 14.666 21.142 20.961 0.942 0.717 21.812 0.809 22.815 2-4.884 0.858 0.529 22.523 20.9n 0.918 0.811 0.787 0.799 21.000 0.733 22.870 0.855 0.767 21.472 0.821 0.792 0.790 14.183 21.891 0.590 21.606 21.326 n.817 0.920 21.374 25.960 0.]70113 » zo.994 0.9370 pulgadas = » » 0.796 0.037 0.9)8 0.964 0.985 0.901 0.866 14.266 23.469 23.3280 ].862 19.857 0.082 21.806 0.215 23.954 2].888 19.981 0.817 20."1 0.095 25.259 21.710 19)33 19.320 22.307 20.672 23.()()()() 159<40..402 12.) milia legal (braza) (yorda) (pie) (pulgada) = 5559 1853 1609.864 inglesa a milimetros mm 21.862 0.89.809 0.791 0.209 21.7-49 23.915 0.816 0.894 0.622 2].937 0.801 0.945 0.82] ig::~~ 20.]/0 10.774 2)."5 0.663 2-4.282 24.079 » » » » » yardas 24.908'123.810 0.116 20.742 21.793 21.987 0.906 0.919 0.)01 12.723 2]. 60 millas geograficas = 1 grado en el Ecuador.377 22.969 0.800 0.911 0.739 24.909 n0l8 0.819 0. 23.539 ~:: 0.063 0.815 0.841 0.910 22.62- 1 Knot para pruebas de buques :d.9144 O.863 0.0.850 0.931 0.269 1.988 0.003 24 028 14.938 metros O. .485 14..983 0.139 23.786 19.005 21.957 0.989 0.828 Pulgados mm 24.958 0.841 0.0328 pie. 7 20.57<1 20.927 0.+44 23.883 0.901 23._ 0.830 0.853 0.811 0.701 kil6metro milia legua = = = 10.795 0.776 0.811 0."'7 10.897 0.675 20.917 24.818 21.511 14.934 0.892 24.936 22.682 22.0)1 21.936] 1093.953 0.040 20.824 0.368 2).856 0.910 0.878 0.9()4 I .707 22.0109 0.815 0.886 0.222 25.Decimales de pulgada Pulgodas 0.996 22.317 Pulgodos 0.996 mm 20.929 20.801 0.817 0.46] 21.155 24.495 23.903 0.%0 24.968 24.171 25.3Q.19] 20.794 0.165 H.1093 1.196 25.m 1.520 1l.206 24.974 0.145 20.751 0.6]00 » » » 5280.817 0.913 19.868 0.918 0.916 0..910 0.814 0.970 0.409 24.885 22.386 21.

MEDIDAS DE SUPERFICIE
1 yarda! 1 pie2 1 0,836097

TABLA
pulgQdost
GalgQ Imperial Standard

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (atombre) Pulgodas

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet and Hoop flejes) mm. (chapas
I

m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

pulgodo'

= 0,092899 m' = O,0<J06.45 m'

= 1550 = 10,7M = 1,196

Brow

and

Sharp.

pie,'
yordost

numero

e-. Pulgodas
O,~ 0,372 O,H81 0,324 0,300 0,276 0,252 0,232 0,212 0,192 0,176 0,160 O,1~ 0,128 0,116 O,1M 0,092 0,080 0,072 0,064. 0,056 O,M8 O,~ 0,036 0,032 0,028

"r-i
i

mm.

mm. 11,530 10,795

~--.-

y

Americana p~-t-~QdQS

Pulgodas

T

".

mm. 11,~ 10,-40<1 9,265 8,251 7,3~ 6,5~3 5,827 5,189 ~,621 ~,115 3,6M 3,263 2,906 2,588 2,3M 2,52 1,827 1,627

0000

110,160 9,~~ 8,839 I 8,229 7,620

O,~5~ O,~25 0,380 O,HO 0,300 O,28~ 0,259 0,238 0,220 0,203 0,180 0,165 O,H8 0,134 0,120 0.109 0,095 0,083 0,072 0,065 0,058 O,M9' O,M2 0,035 0,032 0,028

0,500 M~52 O,396~ 0,3532 O,31~7 O,28Q.1 0,2500 0,2225 0,1981 O,17M 0,1570 0,1398 0,1250 0,1113 0,0991 0,0882 0,0785 0,0699 0,0625 0,0556 0,0495 O,~ 0,0392 O,OH9 0,03125

,

12,700 11,308 10,068 8,971 7,993 7,122 6,350 5,651 5,031 ~,~O 3,987 3,550 3,175 2,827 2,517 2,2~ 1,993 1.775 1,587 1,~12 1,257 1,117 0,995 0,886 0,793

O,~ O,~6 O,3~ O,32~ 0,2893 0,2576 O,229~ O,2M3 0,1819 0,1620 O,1~3 0,1285 O,11~ 0,1019 0,0907 0,0808 0,0719 0,0641 0,0570 0,0508 0,0452 O,M30 0,0359 0,0319 O,02~ 0,02535 1 i

MEDIDAS DE VOLUMEN
1 yordo:! 1 1
pie"

000 pulgadasa 00 0 1 2

pulgodo"

= O,7M513 = 0,028315 = 0,000016

m' m" m'

1 1 1

m' m' m'

= 61028 = 35,316 = 1.308

pie,'
yordos:S

i

9,652 '8,636 7,620 7,213 6,578 6,M5

: 7,010 ' 6,~
I

MEDIDAS DE CAPACIDAD
1 1 1 1

~
0,070 0,176 1,75980

3

5,892 5,3~

gill, pint (pinto) quart (quarto) gallon (inglo,)

= O,H2 = 0,568 = 1,136 = ~,5~5
=

litro litro
Htr cs lures

1 cennlrtro
1 decilitro 1 litro

=

gill,
pintos pinl~

5 6 7 8 9 10

'

!
I

5,588 5,156 ~,572 ~,190 3,759 3,403 3,~ 2,768 2,413 2,108 1,828 1,651 1,~73 1,2~ 1,066 0,889 0,812

i ~,876 ~,470 4,064 3,657 3,251 2,9~ 2,6~ 2,336 2,032 1,828 1,625 1,422 1,219 1,016 O,9H 0,812 0,711

i

I

1 gallon (americano)

3.785 litros

PESAS
1 ton. {tcneludes]
1 1 1
=

11

22-40

libra,

cwt (quintal) quart (quarto) pound (libra) (cnzc] drachm (dracma)

1 oU'lce 1

= 20 cwts. = 112 libra, = 28 » = 16 onzas = 16 dr.

= 1016,O~8 = 50,802 = 12,700
=
O,~5359 0,Q28H 0,00177 0,0022 2,20'16 220,~H 22M,6H1

12 kgs. » » » » » ltbres » » » 13 H 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

1,~9 1,290 1,H9 1,009 0,911 0,811 0,722 O,M3

1 gromo 1 kilogramo 1

quintal metrico (100 kilogramos)

1 tonelada metrica (1000 kilogramos)

= = = = = =

!

:

I

!

I

0,711

-6-4-

- 65-

TABLA
GalgQ Imperial

DE
Birmingham Wire and Stubs (olombre)

GALGAS
Birmingham Sheet (chapas
- ----

Factores de conversion
and Sharp

numero

r---Pulgodas

Standard
--~-

ond

Hoop

Brow

INGLES
Libras por pie lineal Libras per yarda lineal

A METRICO
1,488 0,496 3333,33 1111,11 0,2818 0,07031 1,575 4,883 10,936 1,215 0,5933 16,020 1.329 0,01426 0,09983 48.905 25,8 0,1382 0.309 1,0139 0,477 0,0916 0,0279 0.252 2.713 0,746 kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por metro lineal kilos por kil6metros kilos por centimetres kilos por millmetro" kilos por metro' Tons. por metro' Tons. por metro" kilos por metres kilos por metres Tons. por metres

1--

--

y

mm.

Pulgodas

mm.

Pulgadas

flejes) -----mm

Americana

Gg;;;]--~;;·-0,02257 0,02010 0,01790 0,01594 0,01419 0.01264 0,01125 0,010021 0,00892 0,00795 0,007081 0,00630 0,00561 0,00500 0,00445 0,00396 0,00353 0,00314 0,00280 0,00250 0,00220 0,00200 0,00176 0,00157 0,00140 0,00124

x
X

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

0,024 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,0164 0,0148 0,0136 0,0124 0,0116 0,0108 0,0100, 0,0092 0,0084 0,0076 0,0068 0,0060 0,0052 0.0048
1 ,

0,609 0,558 0,508 0,457 0.416 0,375 0,345 0,314 0,294 0,274 0,254 0,233 0,213 0,193 0,172 0,152 0,132 0,121 0,111 0,101 0,091 0,081 0,071 0,060 0,050 0,040

0,025 0,022 0,020 0,018 0,016 0,014 0,013 0,012 0.010 0,009 0,008 0,007 0,005 0,004

0,635 0,558 0,508 0,457 0,406 0,355 0,330 0,304 0,254 0,228 0,203 0,177 0,127 0,101

0,02782 0,02476 0,02204 0,01961 0,01745 0,01264 0,01390 0.01230 0,01100 0,00980 0,00870 0,00770 0,00690 0,00610 0,00540 0,00480 0,00430 0,00386 0,00343 0,00306 0,00272 0,00242 0,00215 0,00192 0,00170 0,00152

0,706 0,628 0,559 0,498 0,443 0,396 0,353 0,312 0,279 0,248 0,220 0,195 0,175 0,154 0,137 0,121 0,109 0,098 0,087 0,077 0,069 0,061 0,054 0,048 0,043 0,Q38

i

0,573 0,511 0,454 0,404 0,360 0,321 0,285 0,254 0,226 0,201 0,180 0,160 0.142 0,127 0,113 0,100 0,089 0,079 0,071 0,063 0,056 0,051 0,048 0,039 0,035 0,031

Tons. per pie lineal Tons. por yarda Libras por mi1lo Libras por pulgodo2 Tons. por pulgodo2 Libras por pie2 Tons. por Tons. Libras lineal

x x

x x x
x

pte"

x
X X X X X X X X X X X

por yardo2 per yordos3

Libras por ple" Tons. por yarda3

Gramos per gallon Libras per gallon -Gcllcnes Tons. libros por pie"

= gromos
= kilos por

por

litro

litro

-

-

41
42 43 44 45 46 47 48

0,00441 0,0040 0,0036 0,0032 0,0028 0.0024 0,0020 0,0016

-

-

litros por metro" kilogrcimetros kilogrcimetros Tons. metrtccs

pulgodo pie

Tons. pie HP libros Pies' Pies' por por por HP HP HP

c.

V. normal

X
X X X

kilos por C. metros" metre" colodos

v.
C.

por C. por

v. v.

Unidodes termtccs Unidod termlcc HP Tons.
=

-

por pie-

X

cclcrtcs por metro! kilovatios de tonelado

x

abreviotura

- 66-

-67-

Fadores de conversion
METRICO
Metrol Metro'\ por por

Fadores
Kilos por Kilos por Kilos Kilos por por metro metro metro lineal lineal

de conversion
A INGLES
0.672 2.016 0.0003 0.0009 3.548 14.223 0.635 0.2048 0.0914 0.823 1.686 0.0624 0.752 70.12 10.438 0.0204 7.233 0.0387 3.23 0.9863 2.235 Hbras libras tons. tons. por pie lineal por yarda lineal

A INGLES
ptes! por HP HP termiccs.

METRICO
x x
X X

Cy
C. V.

x x
X

10.913 35.806 3.968 0.369 1.340 0.7373 0.00155 645.1 0.155 6,451

pies3 por unrdedes

Calorio ktlcgrumc Calorids Ktlevencs Valios Milimetros2 Milimetros2 CentimetresCentimetres" Metros2 Kil6metros~ Hectcireas Centimetres" Metros:! Metros3 Metros~ por metre'

lineal

por pie lineal por yarda lineal

x x x x
X

unidades termlccs HP

por pie'

metro lineal

Kilos por kil6metro Kilos por centimetre! Kilos por Kilos por Tons. pulgQdast Tons. pulgadast pulgadas' Kilos Kilos Tons. Gramos por por por por metro! metro' metro" metro por por por litro ccbrcc por mlllrnetrct metro! metro!

x x x
X X X X X

libras por milia libras tons. libras tons. tons. libras libras tons. gramos Libras gallones libras tons. tons. HP libras por HP por por pulgada2 pulgada2

Pies libras por segundo pulgadas2

por pie! por por por por por pie! yordo! yordo;! ple" yorda3 por par gallon gal16n por pies pulgada pie pi~

x

10.764

ptes"
acres

x
X X

x 247.1 x
2.471 16.383

Kilos acres pulgadas3 pies" ycrdcs" Lttrcs

litro metros

x
»;
X X

Kilogrometr<;>s Klloqrdmetrcs Tons. metrtces

x x
X

35.315 1.308 264.2

C. V. normal qetlcnes (231 pulgadas') Kilos por C. V.

x x

-68-

69 -

EQUIVALENCIA
C= F= 5 X (F-32) 9 9XC 5
of

ENTRE TEMPERATURAS
R=4XC= 5 4 X (F- 32) 9 C=

EQUIVALENCIA

ENTRE
R= + 32
FahrenheIt

TEMPERATURAS
4X C 5 4 X (F-32) 9

5XR =-4-

5 X (F- 32) 5XR =-49 9XR + 32 = -4c
CeloIw
F

+32=~+32
C Cel,ius

r 9XC .- = -5-

.
JO
31

4
F

FohrO!nhl!l1

.,
oR
24,0
14.8 25.' 16,4

/WG..",IIIf

, """'-,
OR °C +
500
5SO 600

°C

oR
_16,0

°C + +

of
".0 87.8

°C +
80

of

oR +
64.0 64.'

°C +
130

OF +
266,0 267.8 269,6 271.4 171.2
275,0 276,8 278,6 280." 282.2 2114,0 285.8 287,6 291.2 293,0 29",8 296.6 298." 300,2 ]02.0 303,8 307." 309.2 311,0 312,8 314.6 316." 31B.2

OR

°C +
'80 '82

OF

OF

OR
932

-17 _16 -1S -14

-" +
-18 -11
_12 -11 _10

-20

-

'.0 2.2 0.'

-1S.2 _12,8 -12.0 _ 1'.2
-10,4 -1],6

+

'.'
3.2 5.0

''',4

n
14

12

es.e
91,4

82 81

"

9),2
95,0

27.2
28,0 28,8

10."
12.2 H,O

.., - .., - e.a
, .a

lS 36 37 38 39
40

ss.e

100,4 102.2 104,0

...,

..
as
88 90 92

+

176,0
117,8 179,6 181.4 18).2 185,0 186,8 188.6

n,

+

104,0 .104,8

tet

+

356.0
]S7.8 )59,6

+

144.0 1+4,8
145,6 1<W!.4 147,1 148,0 '''',8 '''9.6 1 SO... 151.2 152.0

+

+

1012

..,
400 480 520

65.'
66.' 67,2 68.0 68.'

132 133

i05.6
106,4

134 135 '36 137 '38 139
'40 14' 142 143 '44 145 t .. 148 14' ,SO 1S' 152

107.2.
108,0 108,8 109,6 110," 111,2 112.0 112.8 11],6 11"," 115.2 116,0 116,8 117.6 118." 119,2 120,0 120.8

'83 18'
'85 '87
t ..

29.6
]0,4

31.2 32.0
32,8

_.

-• • -, -• 7 5

1S.B
17,6 19,4 21,2

+

3 2

,
2 3

23.0 24,8 26.6 28.1
)0.2 32,0

- '.0 - 7.2 - 5.' - 4.~ - '.0 - 3.2 - 2.' - t.e - 0.'
0.0

'.'

41
42

105,8 107,6 109.4 111,2 113.0 114.8 116.6 118,4 120.2 122.0 1B.B 125.6 127,4 129.2 1]1.0

n.e
]5.2
]6,0 )6.8

43
44

34,4

4S
46 47 48

0 t

SO
52

"
"
56

37.6 3M
39,2 40.0 40.'

" '" " " " ss " " " reo
94 '01
102

69,6
70,-4 71,2 72,0

190 .. 4
192,2 194,0 195.8 197,6 199,4 201,2

rz.e

n.6
14.4 75,2 76,0

289.'

,,, ,,, ,,, ,.,
'90

361.4 363,1
365,0 3.... 368,6 37M

6SO 700
7SO 0>0

'112
1292 14n '562 '652 17 .. 2 18]2

'202
'382

S60
600

m.r
]7".0

sse

8SO ."

640 680 ".
760 100

375.8 379." 381,2

3n,6

193

..

203.0 lO·U 206.6 208.4
210,2

76,8 77,6
78.4 79.2 80.0 80.'

'47

'94 ,,, '96 , ,,,
'97
200 210

15].6 15 ..... 155,2 156,0 156.8 157,6 158." 159.2 160.0 168.0 176.0

152.'

'000
'050 1100 11SO

'922
'012 2,.,

..

,""
1150

""
2m 2462 2551 2642 2732 2822 2912 3002 3092 3182 1272 J362 3452

840 880

38J,O 3IM,8 386,6 388." ]90.2

,ioo nso
'400 14SO

"82

." ...
,""
1120 1160 ,,40

,
5 7 10

·
• •

B,8 35,6 37.4
]9,2

+

0.'

212.0 213.8
115,6 217,4 21'-2

392

'500
1SSO '600 16SO 1700 1750

1.6
2.' 3.2 '.0

41.6 43.2

et.e
8],2 ".0

42••
44.' 46.' 48.2

"',0'
SO.O

11 12 14

51.B
5],6

n
1S 16

57.2
59,0

55."

10,4

... ,.. ..., ..
5.' 7.2 '.0

53 54 55 57 58
60

42.4

'03 '04
105

82.'

153 .'54
155 '56 157

lOS.'

121.6
122," 123.2 1H.0 114.8 115,6 126." 127.2 128.0 128,B 129,6 110." 131.2

220 230 240 250 260 270

44.0 44.'

132.8
134.6 136.4 138,2 140,0 141,8 143,6 145.4 147.2 149,0 150,8 152.6 154.4

,06
107 10.

221.0
222.'

45.6
46.'

"
61 61 63
64

47.2
48.0 48.'

""
,10

224.6 226.4
228.2

".'
85,1> 87.2 ".0

'" '" '" ,_,
soo
554

.10

,'" ,""
'2110
1320

'000

1114.0 192.0 200.0 208.0 216,0

'360
'400 '440 "80 1520

".'
90.'

nt
112

1)0.0
2]1.8

11.2
12.0

49.6 SO.4 51,2
52.0

113
11. 115 '16 ",

231.6 US," 1)7,2 219.0
140.8

...., ...
92.0

158 159
'60 16'

280
'90 300 310 320 330 340 3SO

".
S36 S72
590 .. 2

'800

224.0
232.0 2 ..1),0 HB.O

'850
eec
ese
2050 2100

320.0
121.8 323,6 325," 327.2 329,0 330,8 H2.6

'62 '63
'64

608 62'
644

2510.0
264.0 272.0 280.0 288.0

21SO 2200 23SO 2400 14SO 1700 2150

35..2

rsse
'680
1720

rrn
3812 3902 3992

3612

,..,
ieee
"40 1920 1960

'600

'1.2 92.B 9].6 94.' 95.2
%.0

1760

" "
20
21

17

60.' 62.6
64.' 66.2 68.0

12,8
1],6 14 .•

15.2
16,0

" " "
66 68

tss
'66 167 '68 16.

112.0
132,8 133,6 135.2 136,0 1l6,B 117.6 13B." 139,2 110,0

52,8 53,6
54,4

360
370

156.2 158,0
159.8 161.6 163,4 165.2 167.0 168.8 170.6 172,4 174.1

55.2
56.0 56.' 57,6

,,,
ita 122 123
12. 125

242.6 144.4 246.2 2.... 0 219.8 251.6
25).4

70
71

22 23 24 25 26
27

·n.4
75.2
77.0

6'-8 71.6

16,8
17,6 18.4 19.2 20,0 20.' 21.6 22,4 23.2

120 121

72
73 74

58.4 59.2
60.0

255.2 257.0 258.8

'fT.' "..
".2 100,0 100.8

....

336,2 3]8.0

HH
339.8 H1.6 H)." 3"5,2 H7.0 3"8.8 ]SO.6

13..,,,

380
390

680 '96
716

2250 2300

0082
"'72 4262

296.0
301.0 312.0 120.0 128.0 3l6,O ] ..... 0 352,0 360,0 368,0 176.0 384.0

.. 352
0442 "512 46" ..712 4802 4892

734 7Sl
770 788

'70 17'
172

400
'10 420

2SOO
25SO 2600 2650

173 17.
175

.30
440 'SO .70 "0

806 82.
.. 2

78.8
80.'

7S 76 77

60.'
61.6

tae
127 ",

" "

82.'
".2

" "

62.4 63.2

'"

260.'
262.4
264.2

101.6
102.4 10).2

'"
17.
'79

'76

352."
]54.2

'''1,''
'''3,2

11O.B 141,6

460

""

-70 -

'" ." -71.78

'"

27SO 20>0

...,
son

'880
2000 2080 2120

1160
2200 2240 2180 2320 2360

5162

]92,0

2900 19SO

5252
514l

- TABLA DE CONVERSION
KILOGRAMOS POR CENTIMETRO CUADRADO EN LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA
Kg,. por libra, libra, Kg,. Kg'. por por por por em' ...I'..ulg_ada· em' ....I'.ulg_ada· em' libra, por pulgada' Kg'. por libra, por pulgada'

-TABLA

DE CONVERSION

LIBRAS POR PULGADA CUADRADA EN KI LOG RAMOS POR CE NTIMETRO CUADRADO
libras por pulg' Kgs. por libra. por pulg' Kg s, por Libras por pulg' Kgs. por libras por pulg' Kg,. por

em' 17.2

em' 7.031 7.171 7.312

em' 10.827 10.968 11.108 11.249 11.390 11.530 11.671 11.812 11.952 12.093 12.233 12.374 12.515 12.655 12.796 12.937 13.077 13.218 13.358 13.499 13.639 13.780 13.921 14.061 14.202 14.343

em' 14.624 14.764 14.905 15.046 15.186 15.327 15.467 15.608 15.749 15.889 16.030 16.171 16.311

em'

1.0 1.2

104
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2A 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 H 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2

14.1.23 17.068 19.913 22.757 25.602 28.447 31.291 34.136 36.981 39.825 42.670 45.515 48.359 51.204 54.049 56.893 59.738 62.583

604
6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2

91.029 93.874 96.719 99.563 102.408 105.253 108.097 110.942 113.787 116.631 122.321 125.165 128.010 130.855

11.8 12.0 12.2

1204
12.6 12.8 13.0 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2

167.836 170.680 173.525 176.370 179.214 182.059 184.904 187.748 190.593 193.438 196.282 199.127 201.972 204.816 207.661 210.506 213.350 216.195 219.040 221.884 224.729 227.574

244.642 1704 247.486 17.6 250.331 17.8 253.176 18.0 256.020 18.2 18.6 18.8 19.0 19.2 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.2

1804 261.710

258.865

100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152

70453
7.593 7.734 7.874 8.015 8.156 8.296 8.577 8.718 8.858 8.999

154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206

208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 73-

262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310

180420
18.561 18.702 18.842 18.983 19.123 19.264 19.405 19.545 19.686 19.826 19.967 20.108 20.248 20.389 20.530 20.670 20.811 20.951 21.092 21.233 21.373 21.514 21.654 21.795

264.534 267.399 270.244 273.088

804 1190476

80437

1904 275.933
278.778 281.622 284.467 287.312 290.156 293.001 295.846 298.690 301.535 307.224 310.069 312.914

1404
14.6 14.8 15.0 15.2

160452
16.592 16.733 16.874 17.014 17.155 17.295

904 133.699
9.6 136.544 9.8 '139.389 10.0 142.234 10.2 145.078

9.140
9.281

2004
20.6 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.6 21.8 22.0

90421
9.562 9.702 9.843 9.984 10.124 10.265 10.405 10.546 10.687

650427
68.272 71.117 73.961 76.806 79.651 83.495 85.340 88.185

1504
15.6 15.8 16.0 16.2 16.6 16.8 17.0

1004 147.923
10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.4 11.6 150.768 153.612

170436
17.577 17.717 17.858 17.999 18.139 18.280

504
5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2

1560457
159.302 162.146 164.991

1604 233.263

2300418
236.108 238.952 241.797

2104 304.380

140483
-

-72-

DATOS SOBRE PRESIONES
Un milimetro de columna de mercuric

= 13.506 mm. de columna
= 0,0013596 otm6sferos atm6sferas

de aguQ.

metriccs, ontiguas.

»
Un milimetro de columna de agua a

= 0.0013158

+

4" = 1

Kg/m2 mm. de columna
curio
Q

= 0,07355

de mer-

()'>

Una

atmosfera

metrrce

= 1 Kg/em' = 735,5 = 737.4

» » »

mm. de columna mm. de mercuric
inglesas inglesas

de mercurio a 15" de mercuric de agua par a pulgoda

Q

cr
()o

= 28,958 pulgodas

= 10 metros de columna

+

a 4"

LECTURA DE MANOMETROS
EQUIVALENCIAS
Una atmosfera metrlcc
-

= 14.223 libras
= 0,968

cue-

drado. atm6sferas ontiguas. de mercurio a 15° de mercurio de agua
Q

Una atmosfera antigua

= 760 mm. de columna = 766

a

I kilo
por

por ern?

()o

mm. de mercuric

= 29,922 pulgodas = 10;333 metros

inglesas de columnd

a

()o

Kilogramos Un

por

ern? a libras

pulgcdc?

+

4"

kilogramo por libra

»
Una libra par pulgoda cuadrado

= 14.696 libras inglesas = 27.71 .pulgadas = 2.31 pies ingleses = 2.041 pulgadas = 1~ libras por

par pulgada de agua

cuadrado. a 15
0

-

14,223 libras.
a kilogramos ki logramos. por pulgcdo? por em?

inglesas inglesas

Libras Una
0

pulgad~
-

» »

de agua. de mercurio a 15 pie cuadrado.

0,0703
a libras

= 0,068 ctmosfercs. Una pulgada de mercurio a 15
0

Atrnosfercs

= 1.132 = 13,58 = 0.491

pies de agua. pulgadas ltbrcs Hbrcs por per por de agua. pulgada cuadrado.

Una atmosfera Libras Una
NOTA. etmcsfencc.

=

14,223 libras.
a ctrnosferas.

» »
Un pie de agua a 15
0

por libra

pulgada2

= 62.355

pie cuadrado. pulgada cuadrada.

- 0,0703 ctrnosfercs.
los mcnornetros. 10 lecture cere cor responde a 10 presion

»

= 0,433 libras

En todos

-74 -

75 -

. .0.1904 76.160 0. · I ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~OO ~~~~~~~~~~~ __ E .....1 159..7 157.188 0..4 '74.' 0.75 t... . " .....470 0.180 0...117 0.543 5. absoluto Temperalure Volume" d<'!ll(g en m"' e"'enlig en m' Kg en aIm. '0 · .862 1.101 1..587 0.6 175.S '''.161 ].6 164...111 159.209 0.511 5.' '.1043 0. 5...172 l..on '41.109 0.163 3.7 111.97 .060 '.173 0.4.7 115.7 1504. 0." 7.915 1.905 U '. .531 0.002 0 .020 1..5 "'09 1.M' 3.65 9.155 0. 0.5 S.1 166. U 0.111 0..1 164..B32 0.3ao 115.521 0.' 0...' '..115 0..742 7..331: 0.102 1]1.549 0 ." '1.161 0.S.9 135.9 157.8 1~.495 .1 121.390 1.172 0.' '.6 a.' '.7 111.672 0 ..~. ~ .75 '.'49 4..212 ].6SO 4.175 4.15" 6..1 181.1 0. tG. ~ . .1 110. ..185 .887 0..m 'E ~ .' '.!.0 14]...2 81.0 102.1 '.S95 2. ..140 3..3 190.148 0.1 193.' lOS.009 0..B to.1 118.451 1.69 7.1 149...021 S.170 0.508 1.' '.4 189. . u~ 14.7 0.916 0.1 161.. ~ 1. 180.<'" 0.552 7.3 14'.1 4.365 1.694 1.853 2.053 1.5 148....1S4 0..190 0.1046 0.9 160.6 1.'99 0.' '.' 11.099 137.9 1S1.1 1.719 0.' n.' '.10 "" i E "0 > :I II .77 .2 0..619 1.8 1046.467 ·s i I! .]94 • ..107 7.568 ].007 1..2 153.' U.4 15.n7 2. 188.721 3.178 2.490 '. 141..170 5.~ 155.72] ..' '.419 0.138 0.m 0.7 1S1.3'" " " " 10 200 202 lOS 208 )10 21l ....901 0 . :: ..H1 0. 0.1 179. 0... 6. '.016 97.141 0. U .194 0. ~.' 132." n.75 11. =~ · ~ . 1..2 ".' '.. ~ E ~ 0.956 ].596 1.n6 O....0 163.)16 0.374 0.189 " " " '..5 152.364 0.1 169. .8 194.<00 168. .~ . ...671 2.0 1]6..171 2.133 0.8 165.166 0.0 1.5 5.' '.1 0. · ~ .. ! Go U 1.2 1'2.77.811 0..697 0.S to.4" 0.~ ..2)0 2.15 9. ..)14 1.256 1.101 '.5 o.640 5. .176 ].416 1.. Do E b ::l 7...670 0..698 2." 181...' .0438 0.9 100....663 0..1&4 109.123 0.41' 2. .nt 0..lSO 0.570 1.VAPOR DE AGUA SATURADO Pre~lon oblOlwlo '" aim Temperalurg Volumen de 1 Kg hw d~ 1 en Prnion ~. '.241 '.' 121.1 0.1 141..104 0..' O...' '.~ ~.]76 6.65 10...~ P. ~.. "." '. ~.127 0.' '1.265 0.115 1... b .5 161.19] 0.2 1.133 0.197 3.1 1044. ". ..' 187.102 0.357 150.)U 1. 1.1 119. ·~ .' lB.87 8.515 4.J 93.5 117...118 " .10 8.' '..1 129.621 6..1 126. .802 2.418 1.157 0.l.' .459 0 ..941 ".5 186..110 .1 1.ns 'A " ~. '1.75 .5 117.. .' '..S ..4'1 B43 ]..76<1 185.410 l. 0. '.!! D. I! b ~ .130 0. '.518 1...' 1. 0.419 0..7S '.2 69.' '.s 0..~ de 1 m en Kg encenlig..756 1.. " M 7.6047 2.617 0 .115 0..S 6..371 0..... .'" .9 178.3.1 107..' '.' '.s :.269 ~ ~ .8 172.009 11.5 170.~ .15 11~ 11.1 140.7 1'S..177 0. 0.4 181.. ... 14S..' .812 1. i .753 0.181 0.306 0.0] 0.116 0.8 '.0:1:1 4.3 0..108 1.6 no.' '.378 0.J OJ.786 1.'" 171..15 11.r .0 153.28) U87 2.1 139.069 0.. e.385 0.6 0.7 3. .7 5. " ..4 163.B" 0.99 t. . .) 1'1.0 191. 4.227 0.." 0.01 6. NN~~~~~~~~O N -76 - -77- .' 1... ~.248 0.993 1....' 1.228 '6..161 1.1 155.1 s.338 0.8 176..150 2.6SO .' .8 161.

T.4 27. 8.CA Uno calorio-kilogromo LOR cclorio grande. Gas de alumhrado.800 7.000 10. CALOR potcisico.000 Brtquetcs de hullo.000 7.5 63 80. Alurruruo .6 » Un ktloqrcrnetrc Un HP-hora Un kilovatio-hora Una B. ~~~. U. 9. por libra Uno B. Benzol. = 8. 6. 1. T.000 10. Gltcertnc • Mercurio.800 7.55 celer-ies kg/kg. DE VAPORIZACION CALORIA·KG.500 INFERIORES CALORIA·KG. Benzol. Petr61eo [rectificcdo] Gasolino.00120 0.8 21 5.00100 0. Ete r • (0 O~).00018 9.9 colories kg/m: 1 CALOR METALES LATENTE DE FUSION CUERPOS Azufre .4 90 Azufre. Agua (promedio) Eter .600 completo) 4. Petr61eo . /::. DILATACION CUERPOS CUBICA 1" C Amoniaco (a 0"') Acido carbonico 362 210 304. = Caloria ingleso. 0. ) Buena Hullo I ~n~~~il~.00160 0. POTENCIAS Caloria-Kg.000 calorias-gromo. Parafina Gfrcc nno . Gas ccetlleno Madera Turbo.610 10.342 calorias-gromo.600 4. Carbon de madera (combusti6n Coque de gas. Gas-oil (ccette de gas) Benzol.4 55. .4 14 77 Estono Cobre Fundtcton gris.600 7. 427 kilogrcimetros.100 3. Alcohol Benzol.590 -78 - -79 - . 860 calorias-kilogromo.100 10. Zinc.000 768 11. . Coque metchirqtco. por pie cubrcc B. .1 CALORIFICAS COMBUSTIBLE Aceite solar. 10. Gas de alto horno.~ colidod.230 10.000 3.4 35. 632 calorios-kilogramo. Alcohol.00110 0.750 8.00018 0. Hierro Niquel Mercurio Plata Plomo Plalino .000 7. Petrclec en bruto . U. Liqnltc . CALORIFICAS SUPERIORES CALORIA·KG.000 9.900 10. T.500 2. .100 11. Cotorro-Kq 13 30 23 30 4.00050 0. Nitrato Ccdnuo. 2.000 11. Hrc!o (agua). ill ~ 94. 0.1 42. . U.2 28 LATENTE CUE R PO S COMBUSTIBLE Antrocita. Alcohol Gasolino. Petr61eo • Mazut (similar gos-oil) POTENCIAS ~~.

6273 19.7619 22.'116 30.01047 .06766 .1181 31.047'6 .0601SS .02968 . .0462 32.1039 48. disuelto.4617 26.0863 46.06146 .10b 6iilll 64 63.6681 16.3 64 67 6S •• 00 ~Jg&2 taD 3b:~2~ . 37 86 8.3866 18.4489 46.6 4..3943 16.04670 .049'9 :~J .6367 26.4335 41..6106 17 6206 17.06<0.03838 .04774 ..01862 .9460 20.321 122..02764 .0677 22.1840 22.8167 49.6762 16.99 19.00176 .06262 .06'" 3.03n7 .04716 .00989 .3369 21.2049 21.8 10. nitrico sulfurtcc nitrico s6clico.M85 49.M38 .6418 26.939 83.H3 85.6020 22.066<.02096 .621 286.2969 19.02602 .0<'" .3676 24.04162 .7086 62.3607 .03434 ..4&6 143.0760 1lI.03143 .03084 .03968 ..98 5.00611 .06176 .1967 24. 28 211 30 MEZCLA Partes en peso Descenso De de temperatura A ·C Salitre.3 11.8886 .2 0.00669 .7426 21.3994 28.6069 39.4704 21.9560 36.03871 .8711 18. •• 31 . nitrico dt- do sulfurtco suelto .04396 .00698 .3 <7 .1li33 68.01804 .8 12.5340 16.774 ::~:~n 67.0. .lOun y Colangenles 2' tan . 104.9656 39.007" . • :1 :1 : 5: 16 :1 +8 + 10 + 10 0 0 -14 -5 -19 + 15 + 12.04016 .0<687 .02:1&0 .01396 .3007 3 2 1 0 cmontccc.000211 . sal amoniaco.4~ 18.0666 26.022{() .7 10.03230 .00<36 312.03492 . s6dico.01833 .2137 23.&383 28. .03066 .atH2" .04279 .01280 .04803 .3679 36.00320 .00682 .3 10.02124 .4Ml 22.7 3.8206 31. 01687 .00624 .. Haya Tilo Peral Abedul Aliso.6 I' " .689 110.03_ 28.02881 .14'6 29.012~1 .01668 .6 12.3 3.01776 .06817 14.03783 .04220 .0811 taD 19.774 118.01309 .1885 37.478 264.71lil 34.06613 .3 <1 3'i 83 36 36 37 38 3.9898 14.00233 .014M .0IS82' 17.06881 .3678 34.00087 .3032 6O.4213 32.00146 .01629 .1220 28.943 ~::~~3 74.8348 26.139 71.06963 14.2 .02036 l' !.06093 14.0636() 211 2.01920 .04366 .02416 .7186 24.4638 lli..237 137.06970 :8:li .03288 .. 3.11~ 98.01076 .03269 .01164 .9372 27.920 869.85 Mezclas 18.00814 .04832 .843 81.6(K8 16.8821 62.02386 .04628 .02910 .06_ .7 13.6161 70.. de ecleto.03492 .9174 40. Nitrato Cloruro Cloruro Acido Acido Acido Fosfato Fosfato amcmco.00568 38.4314 17.0273 33.9038 22.06233 .9244 21 22 23 2' 2.760 1718.4316 26.9 3.2 10.01136 ..7395 47. 3437.3606 66.037M .662 229.8211 16.7496 16.1962 16.06664 . MODELO DE Hierro fundido Lal6n Cobre Bronce Aluminio Plnc 0 abeto 16 9 9.4466 20.00663 .2066 20.7117 27.06708 .8696 .06096 .61056 19.03900 .04191 . .3 20 l' . .8693 23.2296 26.4368 39.182 214.7"83 16.8294 46.6691 20.8813 21.08321 .106 343.. .06737 .03726 .03201 .8 11.0307 26.9687 16. agua agu? agua.1 11.967 491.8646 19.06642 .6567 62.0<&99 .04li12 .06906 14.01193 .441 246.02939 .~ 16.06934 H..02153 .8978 24.9 12.7601 66.1693 17.06700 I" 1s 1< 13 12 11 10 1.06626 .6&U 18.06116 .01746 .06066 .1 3..932 171.08379 ._ 13 1< I.04104 .02473 .01671 .9 15.984 180.04337 .02531 .03667 .03026 .6932 20. <1 .0217 21.8319 16.4416 M.05212 .219 121.95 frigoriftcas 19.6076 16.01367 . .892 107 .02822 .4 -24 -12 -16 -33 -18 -35 -41 -40 -9 -6 Sal amoniaco.00<07 .03987 . de sodto.7 0.171 101..02619 .4061 19.3081 22.5 0.4212 .00116 .03172 . .7 13.1190 16.5 11.01600 .2900 056.04920 .4899 27.3264 16.00MO .1 10. 96 .79M .426.06769 14.3432 17.06678 . • • • • 7 6 .9168 41.4 10..7015 17.6833 30.02106 .MI3 63.01891 .01716 .2122 16.06796 .01484 .0696 34.60056 21.9 14. .04Ml . • dct- do nit rico disuelto.4633 88.02677 .8386 44.7934 17.00204 . 33 32 31 30 . 6() '1 '2 .06671 .04891 .02066 .00931 00900 .01M2 .6177 38.06270 .00W .269 149..06446 .9160 16.2716 27.06603 .03346 .060211 .04862 .068<7 14.3 13. 26 2'. 16 17 4.3718 23.7303 32.5 11.265 .9641 42..03406 .7 0.06875 .04076 .9699 30. dci· .02793 .06788 14. .7403 19.8823 29. 17 I.04260 .8863 17..1708 18.1222 16.0S007 .00727 .908 90.00068 .6069 .489 92.4313 36.8006 3li.2416 30.06037 .0436 16..607 132.4121 47.02861 .. •• •• .3662 33.02&18 ..00262 .00496 .06620 .03114 .00349 .03463 .729 73. 14.2 14.0811 18.06291 .0_ 3· cota.1893 16.00873 .02444 .02367 .01106 .1879 19.0<488 .03679 .0283 23.3 15.M9 672.03609 . Caoba Lal6n 10 11 • • • • • • 6 7 0 1 . disuelto dcf do sal nieve.Peso de las piezas fundidas en relaci6n con su modelo taD o· T angentes !.6 .06299 .06204 .00291 ..7317 .M18 24.06533 .4992 69.6946 23. 27 26 26 23 22 21 20 .06087 .01613 .8771 28.6321 23.3711 29.870 1146.1776 36.9 Roble.03929 .8460 26.02269 .1664 27.0807 61.436 687.2261 44.01978 .6363 t •• .04133 .6081 42.02211 .OMI6 .05328 .0872 19.9702 19.02689 . nitrato.7686 37.3 0.3 14.885 163.02007 .4 16..01222 .02736 .02328 . nfeve.03812 .2568 17.00786 ._7 .01426 .04978 ..6010 114.0798 24.otan 86' tan - 80- -81- .lOUD tan .2644 26.03376 .219 190.0M74 . ..06153 ." 29.lotaD ..00640 .4 11. nieve.6936 33.9990 16.05241 ecten .7 11. nieve. 60 ISS 67 66 64 68 6' 61 <7 .217 96.868 202.06730 14.0667 14.01018 .04308 .9766 18.7678 18.M367 .01746 !. .700 IM.0661 43. :1 :2 9:4 . disuelto.06437 .07'7 20.01338 .4106 40.847 79.6814 16.02182 . 3.2671 18.9 13.00000 Infinite.04668 .01949 .02997 . . •• .00378 ..4823 . :2 :1 :1 :1 disuelto.8188 20.060562 ..2671 16.05627 36..05182 .02298 . nfeve.3499 16.03621 Cloun tan .6284 31.06241 .a802 17.06691 .0837 16..62.00962 .3263 20. 9:6:4 89' ecren 88' 87' .4283 16.

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M 27 1>3 2' '2 2. •• 42 :6~ 40 36 37 38 39 2• 23 22 21 20 ~~!I ~~ ss ~5 • s 7 •• •• •• so 47 '1 .04420 .99949 99948 99947 .9974:4 .02821 ..99893 .0302.02967 .9J973 .99889 .99803 .06076 .04682 . •• •• •• eo 47 M '2 M M '7 98671 .99958 .99999 .04:04:2 .99986 ..02660 .00116 1. !~Il~ 48 31 32 33 45 44 43 42 24 se 25 ss 26 27 M 63 2. .99839 .99959 .00876 1.99826 .0 5" . 47 42 41 3• 38 37 3• 33 32 31 30 29 2' 27 2• 2' 22 21 20 .98098 .05785 .99995 .05582 .99863 .00204 .07179 .99827 .99892 .141 .03192 1.99999 .99901 .99896 .99869 ..98327 . 13 12 11 10 8 7 e s •• • 3 2 1 0 '2 1>3 .. coseno •• .0 . .05350 .07150 .00408 1.99925 .5146 0.98901 .02892 1. .06656 .99945 .. 02007 .01832 .98270 .01193 .04694 .025a0 .00058 .03012 1.5 .08310 .01~39 1. 08426 084.01862. •• •• as •• :~t~ •• •• ~I .06569 .7 ss .96194 S68W .06714 .99838 .03432 03461 .99740 .08542 .97984 .02356 tan .99972 .01746 .99996 .99772 .05495 .99999 .03493 1.99960 .01600 .99594: .99870 ..05088 05117 . .00669 oo6U8 .98786 .00000 .08252 08281 .99997 .03433 1.03839 .97586 .99766 .05437 .06192 .99793 .04653 .06976 . .99933 .99963 .06163 . .01367 .99013 .9Q841 .99913 . 02734 .99884: .07324 . . •• .03519 .99824: .99750 ..05321 .07382 .99980 .03553 1.99966 .01483 .99989 .0 f1.99736 .99919 .00349 .99797 .99999 .0.99842 .00145 .99898 .00233 .96907 .99699 .99911 .02240 .99952 ..06611 05640 .99856 .99989 .99849 .99671 .99988 .07M6 07614 .97020 .01076 .06337 .99999 .99904: .96.01571 .99833 .99995 .99991 .99993 . 99992 .99836 .99918 ..99834: .05873 .08716 4' coseno .05292 .074:69 074:98 . 30 '0 31 32 33 47 " 17 I.08629 . 99994 .7 32 .99944 .99768 .03286 03316 03345 03374: .01425 .04:798 .99619 .99632 .01978 . .0436~ .99966 .02633 1.06250 .03257 . • 2 2• 30 .oozvi • • 11 12 13 I.98384 .97246 91302 .99729 .99991 ..06685 coseno .99829 .99907 ..08078 .99782 .99931 .03228 .99969 .01465 1.99846 . 38 37 3. 20 21 22 23 2.05844 .99710 .00378 y Cosenos 0 cosena .07566 .99812 .00814 .99997 .99935 .--tan eotan 1.07991 .03170 03199 .2 .96681 96138 .99932 . 99962 .99930 .99939 .9991)7 .02366 .5 ...99652 99710 .99G66 •• .00902 . b7 se 2' 2..01288 1.06743 06773 06802 06831 .05960 .99770 .99241 .99742 .99961 .0 . 17 18 ie .06511 .99788 .99189 .02067 1.01879 1.99999 .00960 .04972 05001 .997M .01513 .99950 .08223 .99972 .99923 ..99627 99625 99622 .99986 I • • e 7 8 10 a 22 601" 23 59 58 57 3• • .05766 .00524 .04885 .00583 1.064:53 .99894: ..01105 .99996 .99696 .99692 .99905 .02443 024:72 . so •• 35 45 3' 33 .07904 .00350 1. 1.02414 .98041 .04943 .07933 .00262 .00931 .99998 .99984 .06308 .03490 60 68 ...OM08 .01338 .00701 1.99979 .99694 .99016 .998i2 ..00844 .08166 .024:14 \.99993 .04:827 .01891 .02706 .03403 .00873 .99937 .03252 1.02850 .00087 .03083 .. •• •• 60 . .99721 .03635 .99975 .01406 1.99922 .08339 Osa68 .05030 05059 .99968 .99996 .07121 .02501 .99799 .9884:3 .99808 .00756 .08571 08600 .5234 .03141 .07295 .02123 .07672 07701 .04159 .04:129 .0703' .06018 .99994 . •• se .05379 .99678 .99683 .99806 .. 0 1 2 3 • • • 7 8 •• •• . " .01774 .00233 1.01229 21 1.99304 .99984 .97133 .02952 1..01583 1.07208 .99900 .08136 .99863 .02298 .99885 .99938 .99969 .99815 .99536 .01542 .02386 .99969 .01998 1.99981 .99131 .99822 .05989 .00818 1.99861 .01164 seno 0 coseno .99654 ..99776 .08658 .2 g~1:~ •• •• .99813 .074:11 .07962 .99979 seno ~'cosene .00029 .03490 .01745 .05902 ..02618 .01134 .074:4:0 .99867 .03752 .97016 .99953 .99905 .07063 .02908 . 99994 . se M sa ..- -----w--".99851 .99734 .99762 .08107 .02792 .99866 .99987 .00175 1.03072 1.98499 as 34 33 32 31 30 2.05698 .99956 ..99420 .01642 1.99897 ..03312 1.00176 . . 999R9 .06279 .02879 ..99821 .99778 . sa 99983 .97756 . .04769 .99686 .06366 .99998 .9994:2 1. 08513 . so •• •• •• •• Senos sene 0 1 2 . 99970 ..04:013 .09890 .07876 .99716 . .06105 .99978 .99878 seno .06860 06889 06918 06947 .97700 eotan r-r-: 44' tan ------ 44° eotan 3.99902 .99630 .03965 .99731 .00058 1 "17 I.. seno 3 2 1 0 • • • • cosena 89' seno 89' sene coseno 89' sene seno ceseno 88' ccsenc 87' sene ceseno 88' coseno 85' -92- - 93- . 00116 .00759 1.99669 . eotan 45' 45' tan 45' tan 21 22 23 24 2' 2.07237 .02036 .99725 99723 .0 10 • 11 12 13 ..99977 99977 99976 .99951 .98441 .99909 .99929 .99680 .01629 .02712 1.99982 .99662 99649 99647 ..01018 .99986 .99985 .99667 .01687 .03781 .02269 .00994 1.04391 .04275 ..99998 ..99992 .99768 .06598 .99810 .99673 .97813 ..07817 .07006 ...05814 .02647 .974:16 974:72 97529 .03723 . .05553 . 01047 ..99917 ..0444:9 .01702 1.99998 .99703 .0.00989 ..04:100 .99701 .01347 1.07643 .08687 . 2' 24 23 22 20 •• .01222 .99927 .04188 .01524: 1. 99916 . 00496 ..06221 .03984 .03054 ..99940 ..98728 .01454 .99826 .99844 .04914: .03132 1.99996 .04711 .99974 . .99886 . 97810 .03897 .99995 .'H75 0520.0604:7 .91359 .99860 .99876 9<)875 99873 .99801 .01112 1.04304 .04:071 .07846 .99639 99637 .99708 .99792 ..99766 99764 99762 99760 99758 99756 sene seno .00642 1.03548 03577 .99963 .99912 .99888 ..00935 1.99987 .01280 01309 . i• 18 17 Ie 13 12 11 10 .99795 .OM24: ..03606 .99993 U~cosene 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 sene 00611 00640 .99780 .2 r.04478 .00436 . 2< .96625 . .03868 .02065 02094 . 38 3.99956 .99883 99882 .07353 .~~a .99957 .00291 .99786 . 18 17 I• .99971 .99946 .99974 .07527 . 02938 .96963 .02327 .02996 .99714 .01820 1.04:623 .99924 .99906 ..00461 1.99936 .0424:6 .02295 1.01920 .00785 .. .00582 .. 28 27 2.99934 .98213 .99952 .08397 .99719 .07092 .99915 .07759 ..99852 .0U74: 1.08194 .99687 .02152 ..99854 .01761 1..064:82 ..oosor .08020 0. 37 3' 3..01949 .02181 .99999 .00526 1.99965 . 05669 .5 .7643 .00727 .00663 .99998 .99988 ..06976 .02676 .99997 .00320 .06134: .02763 .01658 .999M .99986 . .99976 .05263 .06727 .07~ .99804 .7 .02713 1.0456.03926 .03693 .02593 1.99982 .07788 .02653 1. or .99964 .05466 .02236 1.99921 .97189 . 41 42 43 tan eotan 1.07730 . 16 20 11 12 13 .03664 .99990 .99926 .01251 .99910 .99817 .99642 .99712 .99967 .98958 .99784 .99668 .99868 ..01396 .01053 1.03112 .06395 . 27 28 2.ooses .03810 .99847 .99990 .98155 .9974:8 .06424 . 99998 .99689 .99478 .04866 . ..99942 .8 31 30 50 2• ~~ 11 .99864 ..04607 .99991 .. I• 17 18 1 20 eotan .06627 .04536 .

21189 .98516 98511 .98430 .98580 .13889 .99354 99141 37 11060 .20620 .18767 .22326 .19680 .17794 .97833 .98016 .992.17694 .34 .21672 .98531 .15356 .11G67 .16730 .98272 .98686 .98196 .16074 .97636 .99186 .98004 .97876 .98140 .i .19794 .0 f1 42 43 Il1!004S~ .21218 .97736 .97623 .21161 .97460 .98118 .20136 .18424 . 97764 .20607 .'i ' tmH:~ 12274 !!1·12216 .. so . 97G88 .9H76 .1 42 .988l4 10 ~~ .20421 .993.13053 . .98331 .9\.98471 .98714 .99144 .98299 .9H70 .18338 .98325 .18910 .97922 . .98546 .18996 .97803 .18681 .21843 .21019 . 35 3S 37 38 39 .55 ~!~!~ .19109 .97968 .20906 .e:r.17665 .19309 .19823 .11147 ':19377 .19195 . i8652 .98066 . 16677 . .98751 .eno 6".97483 .16873 .97881 .20706 .09005 . I .17366 .19281 .. .98039 .16792 .18281 .14148 .98486 .21768 .t:~~~ :~ .15557 ~~~~~ 15643 .21016 .98961 .97698 .22268 .092f)8 .09903 .20478 .97\)92 .igg :~~~~} ~ ~ :t18iU :U:~!:Hl~ U!~bI ~gg~~ :ij~ng i g~ 'I 1 .98863 .16189 .20820 .1163.18710 .12':.17021 17050 .09237 092% .:gg~~~g ~ ~ i .97437 sene .1224.98746 .99449 .9764.l~~~1.98704: .9g575 1.18023 .17880 .98179 .'i48 .21966 .18166 .97893 .99511 .13370 .98718 .98600 .98186 .99098 ~~g~:~~t~ l~ •• 45 4.15931 .1181:18 .16333 .9\l.~~~tr.98267 .en:1 .9\)396 .98440 .18109 .99002 54 .98609 .98212 .16648 .18938 . 97666 .97809 .98163 .98604 . 203M .12043 99:!72 00 :10424 .97899 .6 .16787 .20791 coseno .19.98638 .97815 sene sene .17422 .97723 .10308 . .18052 .08976 o .20051 .98420 .98760 .99106 i .98536 .16706 .1 .09324 2.99047 : 99031 99027 .97839 .99599 9 .:: 8:0.98294 .09787 .14695 98940 9893638 98931 .98129 .22382 .W 99317 .11523 .992.98378 ..18738 .98426 .20165 .\17673 .17637 .98067 .14666 99156 .98229 .19538 .98541 .98347 .16935 .16132 .gg~~~ ~ .99508 .16533 .19052 .21786 .20734 .99553 . 97634 .98341 .19396 .97692 . 9764.17393 .99462 .96 coseno .087451.99406 \ 12620 . l·lnfiO .19224 .21871 .0 .23 .98201 .18595 .18587 .994461.979.21985 .97692 .18967 .08947.21275 .98902 30 .3 f2 41 fa .98245 . 68 63 .98151 .19609 .12908 .:eno ~ ~f'.99167 14608 .1383 12822 11118 .22.98414 .22297 .97845 .22467 .98320 .09179 .98101 .17250 .98283 .98614 .98570 . 98060 .98061 .19167 .16419 .98595 .993~41.99067 1 " 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 .9910211.20877 .09570 lI002 .1::!880 .09932 .97711 .21630 .11176 993741.21246 .98501 .97t89 .16849 .97857 .98436 .988.10742 'J1I421 12476 • • .98288 .98671 .98461 .98566 .98021 .98033 .9\1230 ':In226 .99258 .97508 . f7 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 5.97621 ..21360 .97987 .127:15 993\:10 12764 'II ~\1200 I \18197 99193 !l918\) .15902 .99540 .14651 99171 14580 .17995 .97910 .976.97679 .8 .98234 .22212 .!)!)4521~2187 .97797 .16878 .g~~~ :g~~l~ :~:n~ \ :g~~6g~i :l!~~g:g~~~~~ .17651 .9~)431 .o.98146 .17222 .99467 .90428 12418 10113 ".99578! 10916 . ~ :~g~~g.19262 .20393 .17164 17193 .98368 .18452 .20848 .97611 .99380 12851 .97706 .97467 .'} .18852 . 1'~:~~1 il " .20933 .98162 .17078 17107 17136 .8 f7 09150 .9918~ 14349 14378 14407 .14205 60 '7 ~.09585 .19452 .98624 .98629 .97667 .22041 .11320 .16988 .18624 .22438 .98561 .994:101 IOf)5.97742 .19652 .97642 .98266 .91l:.21104.16964 .137 .98690 .12:>89 10684.fHI424 \ 12447 . 101326 .974« .97698 .98769 .13514 ::~:H :~g2~!:~1~ ~~ Ii :~~~~~ .11609 .17937 .140VO .09382 24 .o.21331 .19994 .98367 .21388 .98476 .~g~~? .98565 .19966 . 11783 : \JUSS3 1115241 .20022 .09440 26 09469 27 09498 30 31 .lg~~b:~g::~ .21446 .99580 I IOSS7 .98681 .18509 .9_ .98782 3 0 • • 3 2 1 0 • ss 98769 --+--1-cosenc 840 sene coseno 83° -seno coseno! 82° sene cosenc 81e sene coseno j seno 80° cosenc 79° sene coseno 78° coseno 77° - 94- - 95- .tg~g~ '.19081 coseno .19666 .17737 .22098 .178112 .16846 .22070 .21047 . 30 31 32 33 •• •• •• .97502 :97496 .21616 .98073 .98695 .9\16001 7 :089181.97784 .97963 .08716 1 2 .09614 ~ :g~~~. 98923 98919 .99614 9~)612! '..98218 .98399 .97981 .20450 .98336 .99537 .1~16 .~TIi :~~~~~ II.98Of' .98304 .19937 .9~)402 .98700 .1 :H~~~ 46 .b781' .97952 .98404: .22126 .16992 .98506 .0 .19880 .20677 .19908 .21303 .16643 .98765 .97766 .98854 21 20 19 29 28 27 2S 2• 24 23 22 21 20 1• 18 17 1• 1• n :~Jyg'g~~~~.18309 .98277 .19138 .17419 .13341 . 2S 27 28 2.98389 . 20108 .16734 .:~3gf 1\ . :g~~y .16275 .98250 .9g551 .98496 .10453 10482 10511 10540 .97628 .18395 .~~~i:~~~~} ~~ ~~ :g~~l~' :~~~~~ :n~~ :~ri11} :g~~~:~~g~ .11349 .99~5.98648 .9D48J .9\)248 -90244 99233 .98174 .98590 .12158 .16969 .18881 .20222 .55 .21687 ..97760 .97630 .18796 .g~g~~ !~ I .17909 .~~:~~ : g~~~g~g~:t!n~ .98657 .1~70~ 91l3f13 .14119 .98521 .19081 .98676 .97863 .'i96II 5 16 17 18 19 o :g~~~~ II .21669 .16701 .98764 .979.97663 .21701 .9M09 .97969 .98261 . 980M .98190 .97827 .20636 .14061 .21644.98141 .17279 17308 17336 .eno .97928 .21928 . 6 08889 .'1 .98168 .:3~.97616 .12649 .98619 .10453 .97916 .98112 .17461 .98551 .16103 . 17708 .21132 .977el .98460 .08774 3 08803 -.~~~~~ .20563 .16820 .20791 .19024 ..20336 .15672 .16046 .')1 .1:1254 9H118 40 .17166 .98373 . I se~~-51.9\1619 1 .9939\:1 12678 .98723 .09353 3 .984.~n~ 99027 60 99~00213g !98 .13:199 :i ::~~:~g!i~:Ht8 :g::~~~ :~~8H.98732 .16447 .16390 .98709 .~§~~!~ .19338 .97778 .98481 .~:~g~:~~m ·~g~~t '~~~1} ~~ g~ :~n~ 'g~~~~ '~g~i~ ·g~l~~ :g~g ~~ :1H~1 :lH1~ .98136 .90572 I097:{ .18224 .98g14 39 37 36 35 34 33 3• 38 37 3S 3' 3• 33 32 31 30 g~ :~~ll :~U~~ Ilmg ~~m\1.97617 .99006 55 .996171 '.98466 .97851 .913362 .98737 .98466 .98652 .17508 .19481 . 18196 .99567 11031 99564 99562 .97463 .97748 .98010 ..98585 .98223 .2181 • .98383 .97673 .11205 ~9370 .~ :g~!A~ 'l~~~f 3~}g~ ~U~~.16160 .19737 .16304 .17365 coseno .97666 .20990 .15758 .16505 .17623 .98728 .98667 . 15097 .97934 . 97660 . .22156 .14177 .98481 10' sene .98927.98858 .99520 .20307 .97685 .10045 .20592 ..99506 .16906 .98394 .137i3 .99559 99556 .l~H~ :ni~~ ::~~~~ ~~ 1 .98633 .19766 .98662 .98491 .98107 .20193 .99357 .~g~~~~5!~~ 'll5?~ ~~~~~ ~1~~~ §~g~~~~~1.17823 .16476 .19623 .6 .11234 \)\)367\12966 .16562 .97887 .21474 .5eg?. 57 58 60 1 .~gg~f :~~:~t ~g ~ I ~ l?.222.99456 .7 .97680 .16246 .10048 99494 ..09411 25 .17966 .18262 .98957 98953 98948 98944 45 44 43 42 41 40 11 12 13 If 16 IS 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2.10164 .20279 .19596 .22183 .16591 .21899 .1882.98352 .22013 .98315 .90386 12793 11089.~~~~ ~ .98207 .21417 .18081 . " 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 10 sene .21M2 .98576 .13917 .97821 .09874 .99602 8.97869 .18138 .\19222 9'J219 13917 1:1946 13975 : .'32 14 \1 :~~~~~1'1 .98\:198 53 9899452 :9988~9086 !01 -" " Hn.22363 .98163 11 sene .97906 .98526 .202M .13629 .22410 .50 .98643 .98310 ..16361 .')~:L90 ~~~g~ I .97772 .98240 .20962 .98079 .98124 .21729 .20763 .98090 .13081 .2 '1 .16218 .12187 .18367 .14781 .97861 .09295 .18538 .97729 .97717 .99594 I~ ~~~ ~ :g~b -~~~3¥I .18481 .16017 .14436 14464 14493 98965 .97997 .\1':1163 14637 \)9160 .97976 . 17680 .20079 .16763 .2OM9 ..98027 .19366 .19709 . .16620 .97604 .mu78 14521 99175.19851 .

29209 .26443 .96923 .24023 .96887 seno 15 coseno .95293 .97106 . 95981 .96402 .96142 ...94361 .26920 .96616 .27452 .32392 .96964 ..97338 . 20 96037 :~~~~~ .30514 . 2S569 .2.8 .25236 ..00500 .96645 .25291 .96756 .31813 .26151 .27843 .32282 32309 .32557 .96013 .31096 .93596 .94952 .97244 .30985 31012 .27731 .97030 sene seno 14 ceseno .26348 .96524 ..94979 .27815 .34202 •• •• •• •• •• <0 3• 38 37 3• 3• .96667 .241M .27676 .33463 33490 .96267 .31289 .96774 .94665 .32447 .26320 . 31ij48 .23910 . 96989 .32337 . 2862b .24333 .34448 .96715 .6 60 .22836 .95841 . 2.30071 .97237 . 51 .94225 .94068 ~t~~ " 13 12 11 10 coseno 76' coseno 75' eoseno 74' ccsenc 73' .94216 94206 .29154 .96596 96588 .94823 .22778 ..32694 . 2.. 27 2.234.3738 .97230 .95622 95613 .30486 ..26<0< . . 945~3 .2 .28641 .93769 .95204 .96653 .30016 .30182 .30431 .96308 .94176 .33737 .26612 .94730 94721 .25038 .96021 96029 .34857 3..1 63 •• .29710 .26640 ..96126 .94409 .94943 94933 .96126' sene seno Ij ccsenc .23826 . 25t.95407 .93634 93524 .D6678 .95681 .26079 .94418 .33189 33216 .29237 .33682 .30597 .31454 ..22680 .96347 .2&331 .24108 .31427 .86110 .97141 .32859 32887 .28402 :28429 .97398 .34748 34775 3.28959 .96363 . •• •• •• •• U <0 3.29876 .95441 .96664 .24079 .96448 . •• OS .96807 .30708 .96248 . 249M .94806 .96102 sene 60 1 1 coseno .31233 .96969 .26275 ..95364 .34093 34120 34147 34175 . 1. .96766 .32116 32144 .32474 .95150 . 1.29265 29293 29321 29348 . 96832 .25646 . 3. 27 23 22 21 '0 .95213 .31951 ..327~ 32749 .97030 9702.96371 .27060 .23797 .33381 33408 .32969 .28903 .97271 .97251 ..94137 .96554 .25179 .25094 .29904 .94245 94235 .94637 .96712 .94970 94961 ..95931 .27172 .24376 .94878 .24615 .96727 .93919 93900 93899 93889 .94646 . 973M . 28457 .96816 .27340 .31399 .29793 . 37 3• 3.95168 .28613 .35619 .32612 .968&7 ..29737 .96285 .96269 ..97278 .:57 .96952 .96880 .964033 .287.26050 .93969 • • • • • 7 3 2 1 0 coseno sene 72' coseno 71' seno ccsenc 70' sene cosen~l seno 69' - 96- - 97- .32502 .0 U .32557 1M' coseno 95106 .94457 .97072 .25006 .31206 . 28262 . 1.33983 .30098 .95467 .96660 .29960 .24418 .26673 . •• 93657 .97217 .96628 .24Hl2 .24756 .95061 . 24659 .503 24531 .33024 .23712 . .97127 .30902 .96502 .31068 .96791 .9&&17 .95024 .95389 .96822 .26136 .30626 . seno . .27396 . 34M3 34530 34fi57 .23005 .97162 .28318 .34339 34366 34393 34421 .24305 .95319 .22863 . 22M2 .94284 .94749 .29487 . 2• 1.32061 .22920 .94860 . 23203 .96571 .93779 .96426 .97345 .25460 .95398 .30763 30791 .94009 .. 96078 .94399 .94438 94428 .186 .94814 .32254 .96293 .94495 ..27144 .95424 .2 51 '0 47 .96799 .33665 .35647 36674 .27088 .31510 .97203 . •• 53 50 57 .94702 .96174 ..28011 .96980 . 00 .s 6800 .25994 .93665 .36347 .96638 .94758 . 10 .2l'629 .94851 .96600 .22750 .97061 .23642 .27032 .94380 .25010 .96882 .26836 .31703 . .94740 .94293 .35837 .97037 .94337 .94274 .803 34830 .93368 . 23 22 21 20 •• 30 31 3• 33 3• 3• 37 38 3• .31979 .9M198 .24362 .31261 .27692 . 30 31 32 33 .94590 94580 94571 94561 94562 :g~:~~ n I .28374 .24.29682 .97424 . 0000& .30680 .96562 ..95690 . 279M .96771 .2848& .68 .31868 .94627 94618 94609 94599 .9M86 .32006 .26864 .93586 .32171 .94693 .26892 .95177 .95639 .972M .94342 94332 .24982 .27480 .113979 .95186 .93989 .96593 .93829 ..33545 . 23062 .97169 .96301 .25854 .33298 .956405 . .31620 .27256 .94832 .95972 .23599 .96238 .96923 .31123 31151 .26808 .96937 .95195 .97100 .3 ••• 21 ..96410 .96786 .94768 .35075 .96190 .31482 .96685 .93677 . 28234 .95106 sene .35484 36511 35M8 35565 .35701 35728 35755 :357·'1 35810 .33956 . 1.33326 33343 .96593 sene :~~ •• .26415 .33244 .94345 .96623 .93410 93400 93389 . .96570 .97093 .I ..24474 .22722 .96166 ..96532 .34584 34612 34639 .22892 .27620 .33874 33901 .33710 .26724 .28597 .93859 .97134 .26696 .26798 .05380 ..96946 .96519 .94390 .24728 . 50 57 OS .96966 .95724 .97304 .94869 .94712 .23996 .29932 . 31 30 29 2.29599 .96851 .29ot2 .96682 .29016 .26263 .95630 sene 0 1 2 3 6 7 8 • • • 11 12 13 1.07210 .27004 .30320 .96372 . 1• 17 1• 15 ••• • 26 27 ..97196 .94447 .31178 .93969 93959 .96159 .94795 .34011 34038 34065 . 17 16 lb .94466 .93769 93748 ..96647 .25826 .sg0 .9674.35048 .96471 .25122 .93472 . 95997 .96916 .29571 .34939 .23316 ..28820 .96198 . .29098 .23176 .29182 ..3 " .34721 .93483 .24192 eesenc .97223 .96363 .96118 .24700 .96656 .33600 33627 .94186 .32034 .• 6690 .32584 .93462 .23288 .96824 .24897 .95874 .9 60 60 94088 .95757 .28652 .94264 .96719 . 96782 .96945 . .96734 .96966 .30348 . 3.30209 .28290 .30237 .24784 .95605 .27927 .94019 .28708 .96562 .'3 ..96355 .34257 34284 .96994 .23666 .23514 .23684 .94924 15 16 17 1• 19 '0 21 22 .29460 .93728 .94147 .96463 .94906 94897 .96844 .31372 .23373 .97365 .93462 .93949 9a939 93929 .96778 .95630 .00987 .23346 .32227 .29432 .22666 .29821 .25910 .23401 .94533 .24644 .28876 .34993 .94301 .93358 . 266M .32667 .34202 34129 .31593 .28123 " 21 22 23 .27787 .23146 .33518 .943{1.96182 .96440 .27536 .97086 .96332 .33436 .95579 .34966 .27424 .32199 .24672 .30126 .261&3 .28150 .31316 .26948 .94157 .27312 .97182 .23611 .29404 .95698 .9 .s 6006 .33819 33846 .29543 .94196 .27769 .36239 .sen:r 0 1 2 3 224.23966 .97001 .2i841 .96479 .96742 .94915 .30265 .31923 .24446 .28178 .95749 .31768 .33134 .26741 .35102 .96150 . 2.93789 .97015 .26668 .30164 .28206 .97298 .29654 .97176 .32942 .22623 .31841 .35211 .97066 ..96379 .35266 .32777 .23769 .96815 .23740 .36021 .96902 .22977 . 37 3.94514 ..94656 . .35293 .1 60 .97257 .97411 .26500 .32529 .30663 .97113 .94058 .94485 .95459 ..9 60 • • • • • 7 6 3 1 0 •• .94777 .96.33929 .94127 94118 sene 20~oseno .1 .32832 19 coseno .1:i5043 .95015 ! I.30929 30957 .97404 .95485 .23882 .262(7 .26471 .96916 .97058 .27704 .22693 .24051 .96907 .22948 .26107 . 3.22608 .29981 .27284 .96316 .94476 .32364 .96070 .93626 93616 .96240 96231 .97331 .97291 .96086 .95416 .26684 .33051 .30376 .30542 .97371 .29626 .26601 .7 50 50 63 .96647 .96214 .31537 .95115 .94888 .30292 .33573 .24249 .94167 .26191 .95511 .96675 .96608 .96158 .93667 60 10 • • • • 6 7 .27116 .94842 .9b .26976 .28096 ..97008 .93493 . .26066 .23938 .24136 .29376 .36375 35402 35429 35456 .96636 .23429 .97311 .30902 •• •• •• OS 57 53 .30670 .96940 .8 .95948 .31786 .29615 .96142 .96261 .32089 .27368 .9&394 .68.00973 .96466 .26219 .22807 .32997 .27508 .96340 .23033 .29766 ..24926 .26488 .96706 .94786 .96230 .96206 .25713 .27664 ..23118 .94029 .946H . " •• . 9r.97437 97430 .29126 . 96M6 .25685 .97378 .93514 93503 .93441 93431 93420 .32804 .94254 .27564 .94303 .26628 . •• •• •• •• " 13 12 11 10 " •• .22637 .34475 .96829 .33106 .97326 .96837 .28847 .30043 .96732 .26022 .31675 .30403 .95276 .26616 .96054 ..32419 .00222 . 24M7 .31896 .95602 .97318 .28039 . 33 32 31 30 28 27 2.95450 .23486 .29070 . •• .96697 .94997 .93718 93708 .28346 .33079 .94542 ..93849 .95133 .24220 .96868 .94370 .96134 .34912 .97264 .95476 . 94M:! .96866 .95865 .35130 35157 35184 .34311 .93606 .97165 .96284 .94313 .33271 .97148 .26769 .96277 ..31344 .30819 .64.32914 . 28067 .27200 .26780 .33161 .96246 .0 .5432 .95493 .97384 .96873 .34666 34694 . .26752 .97079 .31730 .95124 .24813 .93555 .97120 .23627 .26882 .96517 .93819 93800 93799 .97391 ..96630 .97361 .97417 .31040 .94322 .95849 ..96793 .30736 .25882 .31565 .93999 .94049 .28680 .28736 .9..93544 .30846 .95266 .28987 .94039 . 11 12 13 .96764 .96433 .27M8 .93839 . 96807 .966400 .95673 .. 3.32639 .28792 .94078 .30469 .9::740 .950117 95088 95079 95070 .36320 .96243 .23260 .23090 .95052 . .30874 I .96494 .24869 ..97044 .27228 . 17 1.29849 .97189 .93379 .27983 .1)5033 .93576 .96310 .9.93869 .24390 .23231 .33764 33792 .96328 .23863 .93879 .96222 .25938 .94988 .28931 .24277 .96930 .26303 .94504 .93647 93637 .6 47 .96324 .26207 . .29237 .96707 .

90495 .90007 .39768 .913l!) . 66 57 • • 7 6 5 .916.81611 .81965 .6 cosenc .91891 .43831 60 68 67 66 66 54 63 62 51 60 .87645 .44828 .91819 .87589 .88295 .43680 .89879 sene 0 I sene .44072 .44594 .45891 45917 .36190 .90070 .87462 9 10 II I2 I3 I< 16 17 I.45994 .89739 .43287 .37649 . 443D7 .89219 .41522 .47818 .91787 .83649 .81909 .88875 .88308 .43628 .47383 .99- . 47255 .42867 .47971 .92016 0 sene .91845 . 6.36515 ..87979 .91948 9HI36 .42209 .87743 .91799 .90233 .42894 .88661 .89087 .42788 .40195 .90371 :90358 .12 38859 38886 38912 3893\.89008 .91152 . 211 30 31 32 33 3• 36 36 37 3.39848 .92118 .38531 .42841 ..42946 .44431 .9280.90396 .45710 .88795 .38134 .89867 .90924 .47767 . 88075 .89272 .36839 36867 36894 .46896 .0 3.87798 . .89597 ..40674 .8883' .44464 .91971 .91902 .90433 .36054 .\):2675 92664 U26.37245 .91484 .118 35f145 .37218 .85213 .48160 .90259 .87770 .43623 .88349 .43261 .. •• <I 43 .89662 .88240 .36461 .41416 .87546 . 31751 .IH248 .92141 .91868 .89101 I j seno .91140 .90158 .45425 .31784 .37999 .41649 .89232 .43602 .906i8 .90778 .43837 .42446 .91355 .5 '6 '7 .38241 .47178 . 26 26 27 2.43863 43889 ..87882 .89636 .41469 .45114 .44229 .91307 .92130 .91518 .47332 . 20 2I 22 23 24 25 26 27 2.41813 .91283 .40062 .45136 . 20 2I 22 23 2.37838 . 878M .90936 .39341 :~~~~~ :~tgg~ .17137 37164 .44646 .44612 .r.44490 .45010 .90271 .48048 .90851 .43366 .39555 .87812 .88431 .92784 .87923 .92073 .88715 .41229 ..48124 .45564 . . 88103 .81937 .40434 .88620 .9:)222 .90183 .91044 .43418 .40780 .89206 .44516 .43549 .40488 .39394 .11 .40541 40567 .47024 .46813 .88144 .89100 .36660 .41588 .44668 .42683 .89610 .46941 • .42604 .89571 89558 . I.46097 .35837 .46355 .81661 .43942 . 37 36 35 34 33 32 3I 30 2.92231 922:.46407 . 87993 .43994 .9~729 .91343 .44281 .89480 .36352 .5 •• •• IO • 42262 ..21 sene 0 I 2 3 .9:1052 .s8888 .44020 .90019 .91128 .89918 .46201 .41515 .41098 41125 .42367 .ssess 211 2s 27 26 26 2< 23 22 21 20 I• Is 17 is I< 13 I2 II 10 I 60 •• •• •• •• •• .88741 .42104 .89014 .90655 . . 2.45839 .92488 ..39073.91212 .83376 .39608 .92243 .36704 .43916 .93137 .47076 .91822 ..93211 .43130 .39955 .91694 .36244 .89140 . 41866 ..90680 . 39 '0 s 6 6 7 • :g~~5g .91613 .40939 .93358 .91056 .87518 .88862 .5 .40700 .44333 . 58 57 66 54 53 52 51 60 seno 25 coseno .88607 .37542 :17.91260 .37515 ..43654 .89623 .41892 .45036 .36271 .90284 .46175 .48226 .48405 .91295 .45606 .31130 .89905 .41443 .87515 .36027 .81631 .88539 .38376 38403 38430 38466 .88111 .903)9 . • 3 2 I 0 cosenc 68 0 seno coseno 67 0 coseno 66' coseno seno 65' coseno 64 coseno seno 63' coseno 62' cosenoJ sene 61' .88942 .425.45088 .88336 .920'.89713 .45192 .45218 .91683 91671 .93190 .89048 .38483 ..90582 .91431 91425 91414 91402 91390 91378 91366 . 41840 .44411 .91116 .41045 .39635 ..88848 .40008 .80180 .'U69 .43B-It .90383 .47101 .93232 .46819 .41919 .92762 .85512 60 .92186 91175 .40115 .88955 .93020 93010 92999 9291$8 .45477 .9:.90532 . 933~{7 .40721 40753 .89519 .47844 .46947 .41602 .41231 .89363 .89532 .41012 .46381 .42912 .42657 .92264 .41181 .46632 .40647 .87476 .16 .37695 .91188 .'):) sene 23 I cosenc I .46330 .88168 .45269 .42162 .89545 ..91729 .90643 .44864 .44203 . 46587 .47895 . 41945 .39688 397]5 .92039 .37676 . 30 31 32 33 3< 35 36 37 3.92107 .40806 .3632.41681 .IHZ72 .43968 .91590 . 47997 . .36921 36948 .36081 .93116 93106 seno 37461 37488 .39982 .37811 .89777 .92332 fl23:.90321 .91008 .41337 .90120 .89298 89285 .42166 42183 .42473 .91032 91020 .9 60 51 52 53 5.40408 .35891 . 51 52 53 5.48354 .88981 ..46072 .92946 .16 .88281 ..88404 .46716 .92366 92355 92343 .48217 .91543 91531 91519 91508 .48201 .37110 .41284 .46149 . .46999 .42999 .88261 .89428 . 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 I• I• 17 16 is I< 13 12 II 10 •• .0 41 42 43 .87604 .81603 .90875 .30314 .89816 . 36975 .42077 .898U .89021 .91925 91914 .41666 .36677 .42288 .89441 .47281 .87951 .43051 .47153 .88377 .41151 41178 .43491 .90591 .91666 91555 .90984 .36108 36135 .91833 .46433 2 coseno .90334 .38591 38617 .40514 .45580 .88472 ..43104 .88653 .42262 24 0 cosenc .90470 .47869 .45762 .46458 ..46844 .44542 .88701 .47434 .88264 .90129 .91331 .45166 .9.81H93 .40328 .87673 .36731 36768 .90507 .90045 .81896 .48252 ..48073 .90766 .90704 . 88020 .43209 .90863 .89828 .39046 .90657 .45451 .4MJO .92794 .93295 9:l285 .10 .40461 .39876 .45668 .47665 .48328 . . 35864.40833 .37407 37434 37461 0 coseno .9:!O28 .92~49 .92050 .39260 .90545 .47690 .90246 .88768 .6 '7 •• •• f7 .91472 91461 91449 .45968 ..92821 92816 .45529 .87532 .37191 .40088 .90208 .89467 .45243 .44958 .46613 .43340 .90346 .90520 .92499 .40913 ..87687 .91104 .88172 .39928 . .47920 .44359 .40355 40381 .88782 .41628 .40674 '7 '6 .91116 .90408 .47486 . 3.88185 .46304 .46973 .42136 .45062 .89152 .39073 22 0 coseno 92718 .41972 .88363 .47127 .41537 .93127 . 36298 .41511 .91625 .44716 .92085 .9"2'.92062 .91200 ..41391) .37865 .47639 .44385 .44046 .45399 .92870 .92902 92892 92881 .39501 39528 .36217 .88674 .45140 .43471 .89tH ..6 fa is .96 36613 .44620 .89402 .90111 .39421 . 2.89981 .87701 .88295 sene .39661 .sssos .89167 . 37002 37029 37056 37083 .41363 .45321 .4J31O .37380 .93201 .46619 . " 3• 3s 37 36 36 3< 33 32 31 30 .88693 ..45399 .91660 .46218 .43515 .88089 .90839 .43236 .90133 .42578 .88048 .38778 .36434 .89879 .45865 ..92838 .90458 .92913 .92707 926')7 U2686 .90082 .89726 .89674 .89127 .47793 .42499 .87729 .40035 . 42130 .89943 ..89584 .89930 ..36379 .39448 . 48022 .88647 .88580 .42709 ..88666 2 seno ' coseno .39581 .43446 ..93148 ..88915 . 880 .91648 .47306 .45373 .92164 .41204 .43025 .91775 .41107 .43182 .47050 .90960 .89968 .88199 .89892 .usoes .U3306 .3.89337 .88995 .91856 .42315 .47662 ..48379 .90032 .88526 .91982 . 50 57 5• 59 60 .91356 sene .46767 .90606 .43785 .91080 .87659 .88968 .92050 sene .38805 388.92598 92587 92576 92565 92554 92543 92532 92521 .44151 .5 .90057 .87766 .90421 .43313 ..93274 .87868 .46870 .a9795 .41998 .92209 92198 .44098 .!1 92310 92299 92287 .92471 92466 92455 92444 92432 92~21 !):?41O 92399 92388 92377 .92510 .89350 .9~042 930.93348 .39367 .93159 .91496 .90196 .46661 .88728 .1 38966 389(13 39020 .36M2 36509 .88062 .42061 .88902 .46690 .42394 .40860 .93327 .884-17 .38644 38671 38698 38725 38752 .90631 .38564 .92152 . <I .89833 . 40ft2! .90911 .48430 .41614 .88634 .40.42420 .8S458 .90790 .40992 .91810 .42631 .'1973 .92119 .90717 .90108 .92751 ..90483 .91224 .89493 .91068 .36812 .43733 .19100 39127 391531 .89035 .90753 90741 .87784 .45347 .88322 .45787 .46793 .46046 .46742 ..47141 .40966 .'569 .39281 .42235 .42920 .88445 .90899 .42341 .4&536 . 90887 .89259 .39902 .89687 .36406 .90802 .91164 .47946 .44698 .39822 .44255 .90446 .90296 .:!276 92266 .48303 .43166 .36162 .46020 .42525 .91718 .91601 .40221 .44932 .46226 .98- .9:1084 fl3074 9:1063 . 36.89389 ..89764 .47204 .88808 .41134 .91092 .89790 .92642 .:18268 38295 38322 38349 .88755 .92978 92907 .43706 .90814 .89324 ..38510 . 89245 ..91764 91752 91741 .89854 .594 .90221 .52 . 90948 .88928 .89311 . 0 I 2 3 5 6 7 • s " .41251 .91959 . 88006 .93264 .37363 .89061 .92740 .906G9 ..89956 .39234 .40168 .44802 .44171 .41358 .88822 .89506 .47460 .47716 .38026 .88130 .90631 .90668 .89415 .93253 .3tiOOO .87715 .39741 .91706 .93243 .46123 .42024 .37892 37919 31946 .93180 9.91236 .40248 40275 40301 .46921 .31973 . 3• .92859 .37703 ..87826 .43759 .44724 .40886 .44906 .46484 .89153 .48481 " s 7 6 6 3 2 I 0 • .41760 .42815 .l'OO95 .45295 .36488 . 3678b .44750 .92935 92924 .41409 .}56 .92631 . 43 II 12 I3 I4 16 17 I• I.45684 .35\.44984 .88390 .90826 .41496 .45503 .88034 . .87840 . 894M .89994 .90972 .90146 .48175 ..38053 380S0 38107 .87490 .90996 60 5.88226 .43392 .92773 .44124 .39474 .38188 38215 .90692 .41019 .89101 . .37622 .38161 .40141 .43077 .37272 37299 37326 .1~16 .46252 .45942 .

83066 .86059 .839fl4 .84851 .64024 .83724 ..80073 .82904 seno 34 coseno .80541 .56823 .48913 .85747 .80160 .87178 .81412 .81782 .54878 .57501 .57429 .59225 .80748 .8::871 .82264 .85732 .86207 .81882 .81361 .56689 .48684 .83163 .56569 .52349 .87306 .58496 .57904 .69084 .84292 .50025 .80021 .84943 .48481 .59482 .80524 . .52844 .80282 .64659 .86413 .56880 . .52225 .53730 .84913 .80593 .48683 48608 .51104 51129 .53189 .86921 .48786 .57762 .52175 .80489 .57262 .80644 .81748 .84417 .54317 .84789 .48710 .49166 49192 .66088 .83835 .52374 .58260 .82985 .58307 58330 .53 .84681 .51728 .81SM .80730 . 58M3 .84635 .84974 .51703 .86704 .55121 .79916 .601M .50553 .50779 .62151 .84897 .81327 .57286 57310 .81004 .3 t4 46 46 -47 -48 49 o .80970 . I . • • • • 3 2 1 0 coseno 50" seno coseno sene 59" coseno 58" seno coseno seno 57" seno coseno 56· coseno 55 seno 0 ccsenc 54" seno seno coseno 53" .82724 ..52967 .54902 .58449 .59436 .59459 .83453 .83260 .56112 .82429 .81123 .51304 .84198 .56976 .86603 i .86603 .5242'3 .49622 .51877 .49293 49318 49344 .85294 .80091 .49014 . 588i3 .49824 .61927 . .84989 .55097 .80885 .84009 . .53754 .52745 .'1853 .52473 .0.68779 08802 . 53779 .52893 .86369 86354 86340 863">5 seno 31 coseno .56521 .86398 .84402 .86173 8.84151 .87336 .85642 .86993 .49546 .49040 .50252 .85401 863" .55654 .56184 .81966 .56329 ..84355 .54732 547 .86676 .59879 .49773 .81999 .56473 .83708 .84339 84324 .54391 .82363 .55194 .54171 .53238 .82347 .55412 ..56425 .87260 . 53607 .56641 · .87363 .55630 .85446 . 53632 .49090 .MOOO .82936 . 575i2 .54829 .85881 .58779 .85081 .82032 . t\2646 .58283 .53583 .82181 .5.84370 .82528 .56665 . •• se •• .59342 . 562:l2 .57358 .54488 .83946 .80056 .59131 .81614 .82593 .81055 .52076 .58731 .50804 .54586 .55871 .476 .81089 .85792 .56808 .86501 .86820 .87391 87377 .51329 .49596 .82561 .58165 .84025 .84805 seno 32 coseno .54269 .49242 .53804 .81"530 .87406 .59669 .85279 . 84774 .M605 . .49697 49723 49748 .56928 .87278 .59014 .52498 .85431 .57596 .821481 .50227 .81242 .85066 . 4.51~79 .5~H08 .808.82330 .84836 .8..56169 .50 .58896 .59599 .85985 .58590 .80799 .81445 .51029 .8967 .51678 .50704 50729 .86163 I .58472 .81647 .48989 .81563 .85777 .86777 .5024 .85657 .84882 .82010 .8.84666 .65919 .85970 .86·~42 .48837 .85597 .59995 . 86544 . .52597 .80867 .80713 .84928 .48964 .S8378 .82544 .83340 . 84464 .50929 . 40 " 24 23 22 21 20 I• 18 17 Ie 10 14 13 12 11 10 8 7 so .82757 .51429 .87448 .83804 .54366 .83276 .86978 86964 . 8689:l .52572 .55388 .60019 .82165 .86340 .54342 .85112 .8.57368 .83212 .80953 . .57999 .5'JOtil .50654 .85:218 .54635 .84041 .62918 .80679 .86896 .804.8.58425 .51379 .83930 .)365 .55048 .64854 .60060 .87007 .816M .85821 858~6 .82098 .54999 .63263 .53706 .57648 .5'.85203 .83883 .57381 .55460 .51504 .)6 .87193 .80987 .58189 .84167 .85926 86911 .79899 ..58849 .53017 .63534 .84542 .55919 . .57810 .86834 .86646 .81259 .83469 .50754 .63337 .5..80212 .86457 .49647 .83017 .80361 .87349 .81396 .54293 .64415 .48888 . 51604 .80264 .54708 .8:!M3 .58401 .798&4 60 O• OS 57 54 53 52 00 1 2 3 4 6 8 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 16 18 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 .84277 .84959 .83195 .60089 .55291 .57691 .57643 .52399 .49394 49419 49446 49470 49496 .53926 .50528 .86486 .58047 .55484 .52148 .83308 .54683 .86866 .61454 .85461 . 84650 .g~I .67119 .60136 .57624 .85682 .86192 86178 .80368 .49849 . .84182 .58661 .55681 .82839 .79961 .82904 .84712 .51354 .59248 .56943 .55847 .56280 .57047 .49671 .53902 .~. .55242 .51828 .58826 .86627 .82969 .57952 .83437 .59856 . .82380 . . 84619 .81848 .80833 .52794 .48761 .52621 .57928 .84104 .50016 .55557 .61504 41 42 43 .86690 .56896 .53164 .86949 .48659 .83517 .56593 .86588 .86030 .53484 .84072 .49621 . '7 48 4.50377 50403 50428 50453 .59412 .58212 .81344 .83633 .5fl95 .82015 .53558 .84480 .83405 .60182 se se .8171\5 .83867 60 59 58 57 56 56 54 63 52 51 50 49 48 47 .81631 .60679 .84866 .49975 .82446 .62992 .511~4 .86427 ..54440 .60042 .58920 .56016 . 85941 .50578 M603 .80816 .82963 .66136 .51229 .63214 .49217 .62720 .58141 .49672 . 58~)'JO .82214 .83756 .5.85234 .87434 87420 .81731 .51204 .86762 .56952 .83692 .54513 .81982 .83098 .58637 .58567 .87207 .83899 .86661 .48667 .58708 .66449 .80178 .'9924 .51179 .81072 .50904 .49798 .8066:.'i9 .80902 :~t~~ I :~~~~~ .81798 .84604 .48606 4853:2 .80420 . 858M 86836 .82741 .80334 .51279 .59576 .83676 .59786 . - 100- 101 - .80668 .51254 .85687 .86849 .85127 .83660 .51554 .57405 .59693 .84433 .59949 .81815 .85491 .81949 .57857 .65146 .53091 .49268 .83373 .63975 .61404 .56856 .5.52671 52696 .80902 . 53140 .5U68 .g~:g~ 86222 .81174 .)154 .69552 .81714 seno 36 coseno .7 68 60 .50327 5035lZ .53435 .82462 .54951 .80610 .86617 .82132 .50126 .82115 .57334 .51079 .83581 . .80386 .16 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 1 2 3 4 7 8 seno 33 coseno .59739 .58023 .56713 .59972 .53361 .59809 . 51054 .86074 . .82478 .86632 .84120 .82495 .53951 .83629 .56306 .84557 .84511 .54122 .87036 ::~~~ .5072 .80125 . .49141 .87235 .85370 .54637 .85416 .66353 .58236 .81932 .83034 .55i99 .59763 .55266 .82773 .)17 .81276 .54975 .54464 10 • • • .56904 .58614 .86551 .814'. 4• '8 47 4• 40 11 I I " 13 14 10 I.56377 .80696 .86104 .86573 .87164 .549-27 .84308 .83389 .55678 55702 .87292 .57833 .50050 .50478 .83867 .86530 .84386 .65315 .83819 .83597 .86762 .85956 .84230 .53877 .55339 .84214 .81140 .61902 .84088 .57071 . 43 42 41 40 3• 38 37 3• 3s 3' 33 32 31 30 2• 28 27 2• :~~t.53411 .56784 .~613 .57024 .00000 00000 .85~B2 .51004 ~~.85717 86702 .80403 .86089 .82413 .50829 .53681 .80003 .5.80316 80299 .55 .86717 as 3.55436 .56545 .84820 .51977 ..5'.51852 .49116 .81462 .55218 .83082 .56832 .50151 .54244 .81225 .57786 .56040 .53386 . 37 38 3. 54MB .82248 82231 .50054 .3066 .86015 .83772 .86384 .80247 .81428 . 84673 .56736 . .52547 .59506 .52943 .83916 .82887 .81191 .83147 .59622 .82708 seno 35" coseno .5'.8:.83740 .56497 . 53115 .53312 .57143 .84526 .80143 .56776 .87136 87121 seno 30 coseno .56617 .57453 .59272 .59529 .52250 .85325 .82314 .83645 .49899 . 86.62819 .80038 .84448 .81310 .60112 .67477 .50176 .! .48938 .55726 55750 .57667 .58070 .57881 .50503 1 .0 52 53 54 61 52 53 54 56 66 67 68 69 ao 86733 .81208 .86805 .85096 .49950 .82806 82790 .56401 .80230 . 27 28 2.82082 .84135 .83228 .52522 .57000 .5U295 .83485 . 85188 .82297 .81915 .82396 .87221 .51803 .50101 .56760 .M220 .59646 .52770 .51529 .5.85536 .828:22 .80919 .49086 .59.85035 85020 85005 . 570M .84261 .84495 .81513 .81293 .56208 .5672 .'.80196 ..58755 .83962 .83549 .83501 .52992 86000 .53509 . 17 18 I.52200 ..85351 . 20 21 22 23 24 :~~:?.86791 .seno 29 coseno 87462 .59716 .50628 .57238 .87021 .58118 .80765 .84805 .43874 .53288 .79881 .80936 .83356 .60217 50302 .86719 .57619 .54146 .48862 .80627 ..83788 .58943 .53041 .7993.50854 50879 .49369 .83001 .56533 .84697 .81038 .5992 .81680 .57215 . .82626 .58094 .87050 .83421 .86748 =~~~ I .85264 86249 .!659 .86045 .64610 .81832 .51479 .57167 57191 . 2.56256 .83131 .79986 .80782 .828~5 .87150 .54097 .5.84588 .58519 .55363 .48634 . .54464.60:201 .59389 . 30 31 32 33 34 .)8354 .51628 .53828 .86506 .516.5521 .81899 .70968 .83565 .83116 .86355 .82048 .81479 .86266 I :=~gi .86471 .84245 ..53460 .82198 .81021 .84057 .82920 .50979 .83244 .82511 .57715 577::8 .56064 .80576 .83851 .59902 59926 .87264 .59318 .80507 .5!I201 .57976 .80472 .87321 .85567 .51952 .53656 ..'3978 .66160 .86515 .81378 .48811 . 5286U .84759 84743 .51778 .81106 .84728 .83060 .59832 .81546 .81597 .)178 .82677 .51753 .83324 ..81157 .80438 .81915 ::l:g~I .82065 .86935 .86906 .48736 .54781 54S00 .5509 .85310 .82281 .54049 54073 .80108 .5167 85142 .83292 .83179 .

61841 61864 61887 .79723 .71407 .73866 .70008 .74-061 .74373 .73983 .74-217 .77421 .77310 .'181 .73314 .752'80 . 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3.67301 .71833 .77788 .62342 .78043 .65913 .70628 .64546 .6li254 .64212 .78658 .64679 .68497 ..63675 .77843 77824 .78152 .64056 .7.74296 .78604 .68603 .76530 .71873 .76921 .6 43 " " •• •• " •• •• .67923 .15946 ..79300 .60414 ..69214 .72637 .65033 .61451 61474 .72337 .75738 .66806 .64346 .63989 .76903 .66601 .77916 .70112 .71284 .77329 .64746 . .69109 .7124-3 .66153 . 3.67043 .74-041 . 6M2:.65144 ..64790 .71M!) .7M71 .77125 .51 ..58 . 645UO .76847 .65320 .60553 .70855 .77236 .69629 .74-198 .71711 .64901 ..61084 .. .65650 .63000 ..73904. 64279 .79547 .75241 .72297 .66109 .77861 ..72817 .64033 .79016 .68709 .76679 .71508 .63742 . 7 6 31.63225 .61689 . 79477 .76323 76304 .74-916 .67816 .67752 .68772 .60529 . .68793 .64923 .77586 .63158 .66371 .71388 .3 55 .59 .76756 .79530 .73688 .76361 .76940 .72377 .6734-4.60784 .62229 .71690 .65430 . 76041 .7323" .77384 ..66458 .62046 .66666 .73728 .66588 .72996 .706M .3 .72367 . •• .71671 .70196 .60945 .76398 .72567 .68666 .65935 . .68200 .69696 . 26 27 2.78676 .74-314 seno .68761 .75.67086 . .61'.7734-7 .77107 ..19193 . 63:.77255 .7-t876 .68618 .70626 .74-609 .69612 . 16 17 I.7«)22 .60876 .5408 .67602 .64167 .72236 .6883 • .63653 .74628 .77660 . .66978 .681.76286 .6.75719 . I• 17 16 13 12 11 Io .696M .72767 .72136 .62388 .67021 .73294.72917 .67151 ~67172 .71762 ..62479 .78.6412'1 .7"392 .71)106 . .61909 .79176 . 76f1sn .7 . . 70216 .62160 .60807 .68136 .67944.674-95 .66284 .62433 .65017 ..76642 .75375 .51 .73116 .63630 .70339 .74548 .76396 .72196 .66848 .78170 .7"625 . .64435 .78980 sene .72637 .76192 .73767 . 60 6.67837 .74-838 .71121 .7083" .76107 .6179.78926 .67966 .62024.69670 ..5 .76097 .63698 .60460 .67107 .78496 . 32 33 34' 3.10711 3• 3• 37 36 3• 34 32 32 31 30 .75069 .2 .76248 .70029 .63787 .70875 .74-6"" .79051 .!932 3 coseno .715414 .77458 .72837 .67901 . I.66480 .77879 .68666 .!7'J6 .73631 .39 .69649 .69800 .73846 . •• •• 41 .76229 .63765 .61566 37 cosenc 79864 . 7 6 .6889 • .69112 .69676 .9 . .6050 .77181 .64812 .67323 .67194. 70916 .64967 .72797 . 65518 ..7.69466 coseno .715433 .64145 .&4657 .68051 .61955 .66740 66762 . .7.70896 .741.76356 .62251 .62320 .65781 .78261 . 65b94 .6261.69821 .5 .71792 .73629 .72777 . .74100 .61061 .71223 . 71)671 79653 .79229 .60968 .67129 42 43 coseno .61291 .68646 .75011 ..73690 .75642 .69088 .67796 .6 .77970 .77292 .61681 617u4 .73886 .77769 777.'10 .7 ss 60 •• gmt I 1 0 • cosenc 52' coseno:::1 seno 51' cosen%~o sene cosenc sene 49° coseno 48' seno coseno 4' cosen~l sene 46' coseno 45' seno -102 - -103 - .65716 .61383 .62138 .64524 .62183 .66697 .78819 .66197 .61107 611. 21 22 23 2.78424 .65100 .79424 .66978 .74780 .73096 .794-06 . 73669 .75452 .75965 .77109 .64279 39 coseno .79776 .71974.70978 .78460 .66176 .74-896 .68814.65826 .63832 .73016 .76203 . 70132 .78279 .67452 .79565 .72597 .67773 .62932 .60599 .65847 66869 . 64078 .78801 .62411 .68867 .17 .62365 .75794 .63022 .75813 ..69737 .77402.64011 .71669 .64768 .62570 .67473 .72737 .6 sene 41 coseno .35 .74606 .15700 .68115 .79282 . I.64501 .68476 .74080 .66672 .75680 . 69S19 .65606 .6 •• 2.73036 . .61818 .78855 .68983 .78025 78007 .67366 .62592 .:.69966 .75927 ..67580 .66913 .69487 .64256 .65738 .793.70M6 .71051 . ..71468 .69883 .71)861 .70754 ..73076 .73472 .65562 .77952 .64190 .56 .6a817 .2 53 s 3 2 1 0 • .71069 .60367 .714-88 .68370 .65166 .74489 .62297 .60182 60206 .76003 .76832 .76623 .67659 .76.568 .66066 .77623 .76184 .76135 .7134-6 .72176 .64390 .69382 ..76173 . 29 2• 27 26 23 22 21 20 .66436 .77897 .68941 .78387 78369 .64723 .68242 .61520 .74703 . 66 .77531 .77088 .75261 .66632 .66414.68434 .62751 I .9 6. .64412 .(}8()29 .72271 .76417 .65055 .70319 .68456 .67880 .74"70 .74799 .71995 .79069 .78532 . 2.75088 .60298 603~1 60344 .76154 .69403 .61360 .71326 .75585 . .6:.67387 ..68962 .70162 .60853 .79087 .72397 .71772 .70070 .60576 .79140 .G2774 .744-61 .62502 . 2.63473 . 2.60437 .684:12 .79388 .61566 .76146 .61543 .86022 is 21 22 23 2. • s • • 3 51 .71934 .62909 .7 .62274 .721l6 .78908 .71853 .61497 .76337 .63406 .60899 .70772· .79793 .66610 .65891 .661&1 .. 779~8 .7U635 .119M .76030 .78061 .74276 .68730 .60761 .61038 .63540 .79211 .69691 . 37 36 3.71039 .74159 .69862 ccsenc .77033 .78079 .19264 19247 .72976 .76791 sene 4~:oseno .70731 .74314 .76059 .62728 .79706 .69779 .64989 .69236 .66653 .65210 65232 .64878 .6:.68306 .67280 .79353 .63068 .73787 .6"'" .63563 .72617 .72937 .60390 . 79371 .71894 ..77696 .78550 .6::1966 .72317 .74760 .79600 .76884 .61978 .68072 .64100 .60691 .67216 .714-27 .66827 .62092 .63248 . 11 12 13 26 27 2.69926 ..70267 . .78711 .64945 .68349 .452 .71691 .70793 .63135 . 33 32 31 3.!456 . 634:!8 .4-741 .78944 .69067 .65474.68221 .75775 .70163 .73670 .66000 . 17 16 13 12 11 10 so mig.78783 .69130 .712M .73511 .63944 .63090 .70813 . 788!H .78243 .62955 62977 .66645 .7876.64856 ...!864 .72267 .71366 .70360 .77162 .74-664 .79168 .63720 . 36 37 3. 3.75126 .9 47 .76.70463 .77366 .77439 .68682 .6994-6 .732M .72717 .61612 .66759 .67409 .64612 .67869 .65342 .73373 .73708 .734-.642.682M .76772 ..66393 .77070 . .74667 .76078 .76866 .78801 sene ...60991 .74-"31 . .6064. 78962 .74-363 .7\.61772 .63496 .65540 .7064-9 .620~ . 39 3.14 .76473 .74934.63316 .6 .74683 .72417 .78333 .63899 .68878 .7017" .67064 .88306 ..68200 .69717 .73393 .70091 .74973 .63810 .63203 .6:.68286 .67237 .78315 . •• •• .6~~64 65386 .71182 . " .78694 .61337 .75509 .62819 .79033 .61666 .61726 61749 .5 .79758 .68093 ..64635 .71732 .6800 • .64701 .66870 .781881 .60922 .734-13 .65496 .72677 .6:3585 .70&67 .69277 .2 1 2 3 6 6 7 so .76380 .78640 .77550 .79846 79829 79811 .78351 .7660 • .66327 .78225 206 . 69987 .72697 .7.74867 .62206 .73806 . .83 .69768 .62660 . se 53 60 47 . •• 43 47 60 .73561 .64301 .63045 .66262 .69266 .62115 .69633 .78405 .68391 .65628 . 79494.61015 .77678 .78478 .67516 .60506 .74002 .64457 .60622 .fl.63338 . ..74818 .68639 . :77733 .67430 .67268 .72677 .75299 .52 .71629 .7.71914 .63451 .67623 .70937 .74953 .62001 . . 2.63180 .77715 I seno .76548 .68661 . '166~)8 .77144 . 3' .71"7 .7 .72667 .62887 .70670 .70711 o o 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 • • ss s •• •• 53 .63383 .66088 .61406 .69842 .64323 .65276 .72096 72016 .64568 .70236 .77273 .71019 .788.74"12 .! .68119 .75661 .586 . 23 22 21 .5 .73610 .63518 .75566 .71610 .648:14 .6071460738 .78586 .70967 .69193 .78297 .77014 76996 .73056 .7.62524 62547 .76318 .76022 .79318 .74334 .73826 .78747 .76.731.65803 . 7G618 .79441 .61153 .61429 .76116 .76511 .60228 602.794-.74120 .3 .70298 .6862" .541 ..72897.65188 .75528 .7044-3 ..6&523 .64368 .61176 61199 61222 61245 .66718 .76977 . 3.75601 .67730 .66218 .67709 .5 .76210 .67538 . •• se .75851 .66676 .602H .73649 .63854 .63113 .76492 .7760.79122 .711"1 .60668 .78116 ..63608 .61268 .73274.73216 .76735 76717 .716liO .63361 .60.70687 .78622 .71806 .70422 .734-91 .69004 . .74-178 .60830 .64479 . • • • .77513 .72967 .73136 sene seno . 79583 .77641 .71934 44 sene .74-992 .68920 '. 65584 .71203 .1741 . ea .7392" . . 780H8 .78134 .65298 .724-37 . . 710B0 .66913 .77934 .62842 .69608 .74237 .73333 ..72517 .66999 .5490 .69026 . 2.342 . 75'J84 ..63922 .69340 .78514 .69361 .73963 .70484 .75870 .662"0 .72477 .63271 . 79512 .72877 .. 16 17 2.72160 .5222 ._74722 .79688 ..68327 ..73195 .66131 .70690 .71306 .':'2065 72035 7201..72216 .66966 .62638 .69298 .!93 .65011 .62706 .69904 .76436 .78729 .74266 .75471 6.10401 .616.73176 . 1 2 3 sene .69151 .77494 .71630 .75908 75889 .77218 .76456 .72497 .66891 .7'l608 .70277 .77715 . I.77568 .67688 .62683 .724-67 .78873 .65956 .73432 . 71100 .9'·1 .6634-9 .75165 .73136 .61932 ..71813 .66935 .73363 .76604 • • •• M .75623 .74586 .61635 .. 27 26 •• •• •• .73747 .70998 .61314.66606 .78442 . 19 2.67987 .7394-4 .67645 .72867 .77476 . 71H12 .76267 .76567 .

112 19.161 29.161 10.11 i29.3238 8.4795 7.450 26.0007 1.0028 1. e eoeee 14.0012 1.1476 8.494: 13.0073 1.0017 1.0004 1. .323 11.127 10.0060 1.18 214.1612 9. .0087 1.359 55. .2065 .~ 78.2055 8.522 7.0056 1. 33 32 31 30 .0156 7.5 572. .0042 1.0015 1.1S4 27.0042 1.0098 1.235 23.0007 1.7124: 7.0082 1.7010 9.0044 1.661 25.0046 1.90 107.0001 1.0008 1.6933 9.0003 1.0046 1. 37 3.24:8 12. .0005 1.0006 eoeee ~:.003' 1.0001 1.0079 1.0092 1.0069 1.4:60 45.0030 1.2002 7.637 15. .0006 1.8112 9.758 10.9059 7.0026 1.9711.7296 7.0008 1.0025 1.94:79 8.836 31.()()OO 1.0076 1..0096 1.330 241.5141 9.0090 1. 2.043 13..0057 1.6776 7.0097 1.9971 7.0091 1.0011 1.55 229.0049 1.44 681.518 39.793 12.70 166.4:56 14:.422 47.471 23.3843 8.1668 8.0017 1.0014 cosec coeee 19.0023 1.0.0049 1.134: 13.002 IS.0084 1.0001 1.0078 1.0041 1."""" 1.0037 1.978 39.8168 7.0020 1.90 1145.0095 1. 17 1.0018 1.3039 8.0081 1.0014 1.0029 1.0004 1.286 13.0651 9.0001 1.765 21.624 22.94:21 7.411 25.6711 8.0060 1.0032 1.562 24..8700 7.222 15.198 18.494 21.0017 1.38..70 171S.0002 1.114 48.0004 1."".0001 1.0009 1. 3.0019 1.0016 1.0002 1.6108 7.0082 1.0009 1..0058 1.0003 1.0001 1.QOO.0092 1.0014 1. ~ 47 60 61 2.3439 8.t91 35..nite.0037 1.0084 1.417 2S.388 29.8790 8.0016 1. .0890 9.257 30.4620 9.0032 1.0038 1.3683 7.234:6 9.299 1.874 13.0047 1.::!30 27.358 15.0060 1..0001 1.0036 1.914 17.0031 1.0026 1.853 15..4:33 10.0052 1.924:0 7.50 9.0006 1.726 \0.7223 8.24:53 7.9239 9. .5 12.0078 1.0061 1.S97 IS. ~~:.0080 1.060 32.0069 1..0001 1.0006 1.0060 1.0067 1.0012 1.0011 1.0090 1. .61 132. 1..0012 1.1285 8.880 23.4:105 9.0053 1.0018 1.496 15.24: 137.780 15.6363 8.0061 1.4811 8.198 17.0002 1.0046 1.891 52.4/.826 10.0001 1.336 12.008 20.0006 1.0092 1.276 14:.107" see eee 1.0010 1.0002 1.0001 1.0018 1.894: 28.313 50.0066 1.437 32.0049 1.0005 1.0021 1.0020 1.0059 1.204 12.860 10. 27 2.102 14.amI 10.0034: 1.553 23. .290 15.284 25. 1.787 11.350 20.32 '12'2.476 22.508 1.986 13.3092 9.0075 eoeee 21 22 23 2' .9812 9.3640 8.78 114.0018 1.4:69 88.0084 1.629 21.1004 8.6469 9..0003 1.0019 1.0063 1.612 11.0094: 1..0004 1.0010 1.217 14:. " .0002 1.0003 1.98.4:1 143.075 26.660 12.0088 1.868 11.617 16.0414 9.766 19. 8.0082 1.0048 1.0033 1.24:9 11.226 J6.549 17.~~.59.460 17.44:5 4:1.4:41 13:389 13.0057 1.44 245..0012 1.0016 1.0002 1.0057 1.2302 1.0013 1.0029 1.716 23.0023 1.042 33. 3.8966 9.0016 1. 27 2.. 2.8391 9.0085 1.0013 1.0043 1.0022 1.650 44.694:2 7." 110.237 44.698 12 .24:46 8.0048 1.0003 1.0065 1. .4:156 7.0003 I.48 264.628 11.0036 1.3 ..0046 1.076 12.340 10.880 19..0 3.653 19.0059 1.0067 1.930 13.eo 2' 2.216 24.717 20.593 20.0026 1.4:97 10..000 15. 37 3.133 73.0072 1.450 64.669 10.0016 1. 2.0009 1.746 12.335 14:.:'')96 9.0019 1.9(14 21.0046 1.708 15.0033 1.0097 1..0022 1.0031 1.146 71.0033 1..517 14.0010 1.638 16.0002 1.0063 1.0024: 1.0004 1. 3.2 •3 56 67 58 60 :~:~.0005 1.0083 1.5611 7.3372 7.866 63.0090 1.139 28.104- -105 - .069 11.0093 1.92 18.0(}()1 1.235 13.660 11.0048 1.4:663 8.230 20. cosec eee 1.0031 1.360 21.0011 1.423 40.0011 1. ".0019 1.578 14.995 19.2 .0039 1.0003 1.5668 9.009< 1. 2.0088 1.708 13.0042 1. • • • 7 8 1.284:0 8.0005 1.388 24.59 aee 1. .0061 1.0080 1.0002 1.159 14:.0043 1.023 14. 3.0001 1.0064 1..380 .664: 60.0021 1.0069 1.ooM 1.1863 eee 1 2 3 10 • • • • 7 !l' s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 12 13 1.0017 1.4:967 7.958 1'. .0061 1...668 11.0003 1.840 12.285 17. .0021 1.861 16.0031 1.0002 1.0001 1.371 10.034:2 8.0014 1.8879 7.0005 1.510 53.034: 11.99 ISO.0003 1.0073 1.828 11.0065 1.0027 1.0007 1.4:28 30. .0078 1.68 9.0012 1.0085 1.0061 1.0066 1.007' 1.008 17. 7 3 2 1 0 152 sa 67 58 60 •• 89° 88° 87° 86° 85° .97 343.398 11.925 22.295 18.0075 1.0018 1.566 15.0074: 1.0031 1.145 32.90 8.826 4\l. .5 1.544 31.0019 1.396 14:.9248 8.176 11.2593 9.0012 1.039 10.0066 1.303 16.3 .114 1.2767 7.0041 1.0021 1.0060 1.0033 1.0024: eoeee 1 3° cosec 57.0068 1.0002 1.0028 1.5499 8.86 202. 23 '2 21 20 i• 17 i• 13 12 11 10 I.0013 1.)14 1.0009 1.782 37.928 41.818 13.0062 1. •• 31 32 33 2.050 25.0038 1.6783 7.0079 1.0006 1.161 12.520 42.0087 1.26 14:9.0005 1.0089 1. .699 30.3840 7.5U 1-9.77 312.0036 1.2100 9.89 163. .8337 8.0026 1.6404 9..0054 1. 3.976 30.1OG4 8.495 92. 17 • . •• •• .1861 8.0089 1..74:7 11.6. 27 2.84:0 45.8.563 8.0010 1.765 14.0041 1.0006 1.0066 1.626 10.0027 1.0003 1.0091 1.1.3627 7.6276 7.U3 64.7.150 16075 16.0009 1.43 104.8344: 7.0023 1.002{l 1.0007 1.312 17.0038 1.0030 1.814 35.004:6 1.7642 7. 23 22 21 20 1.291 12.64:1 29.0057 1.0020 1. 29 30 31 32 33 . 73 171.eoss I.0044: 1.6138 8.118 12.17 101.0004 1.0039 1.0055 1.0032 1.004:3 1.0018 1.0004 1.0021 1.0024 1.0032 1.0024 1.0044 1.0062 1.662 12.090 61.0001 eeeee . .0026 1.0039 1.0010 1.033 10.0002 1.5668 eee sec ~.436 11.655 26.2909 1.382 34.155 15.i2 381.0009 1. 3.0071 1. .0036 1.0068 1.0006 1.0024 1.9787 7.0008 1.864 26.0011 1.0013 1.708 33.74:44 8.849 i.228 21.0026 1.0008 1. .0015 1.4251 8.1129 9.0041 1.0004 1.2842 9..069 38.0001 1.558 49. .5.9018 8.0036 1.079 22.7992 7.929 10. .6569 8. 30 3.955 27.946 83.0062 1.0034 1.0063 1.9626 9.614: 12. •• 61 .591 18.0529 8.0001 1. 37 3.0093 1.098 10. 2. e 60 r.0064 1.0070 1.192 10.0070 1.427 15.8&4 25.(.. .311 36.213 11.6079 8.Secantes U· eee coeee In6. " 67 56 sa .561 10..893 14:.547 13.44:5 35.0029 1.034: 12.0015 1.774 22.0028 1.0058 9.274 68.201 37.52 286.0043 1.0071 1.0059 1.779 16.084 34:.393 18.0006 1.0076 1.3998 7.0016 1.077 4:3.2604 7.0086 1.·0008 1.631 38.54 2S.0098 cosec cosec 8.937 12.0002 1.140 11.783" 9.0026 1.210 57.606 12.0031 1.0001 1..0063 1.894 10.0073 1.0012 1.692 10.918 24.0010 1. as 20 .730 17.22 100.oooa 1.0011 1.0002 1.698 16.0080 1.0002 1.248 10.640 14.6M -eee see 1.360 11.0064 1.184: 13.0011 1.0083 1.194 18.926 15.0077 1.0026 1.0023 1.0038 1.379 12.843 20.U)46 8.0001 1.0024 1.000"{ 1.1855 9.970 20.4:02 10.0060 1.0006 1.6613 7.0027 1. 3437.0007 1.0008 1.100 24:.44:14: 7.639 17.223 96.0032 1.576 36.3217 7 . 84° 83° 82° .393 23.0003 1.701 11.718 52.2 61 60 4" 47 .008.089 15..7283 9.0046 1.6119 7.381 33.9 16.0061 1.750 47.0019 1.6963 1.8672 9.0002 1.0001 1.0006 1. '0 '2 .0060 1.0025 1.096 46.992 '11.0040 1.103 18. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.4:66 10.0009 1.11 98. 2.0002 1..160 68.4362 9.0022 1.409 66.600 13. • • • • .0062 1.0004 1.0048 1.0008 1.6282 7.0071 1.3343 9.7t.0021 1.214 19.0040 1..0022 1.0086 1.474 11.0081 1.0'.M46 7.0005 1.\6 1.899 29.6786 8.4:634 7.0041 1.0036 1.431 19.1370 9..084 13.763 13. I.0056 1.0007 1.424 12.4880 9.0003 1.0020 1. 20 .888 12.0061 1.622 70.0029 1.0001 1.969 36.0008 1.988 10.337 13.00.. 17 1.0062 1.0056 1..010 9.3OG3 1.003' 1.0097 1.930 40.0036 1.6739 9.0076 1..829 14.0010 1.0072 1..0036 1.0053 1.134 31.0079 1. • 7 • s .0717 8.278 10.2 118.0028 1.96 491.0013 1.930 11.130 27. 37 3.299 56.491 18.107 19.0068 1.7469 7.0011 1..0015 1.101 14.113 17.0001 1.0021 1.336 . .664 13.0070 1..0071 1. 2.0040 1.0005 3.469 12.249 28.0001 1.0044 1.4:48 39.44:67 8.322 19.0064 l.2260 8.963 10.6924 8.0006 1.739 24:.7665 8.0015 1.821 17.. 60 16.0001 1.028 16.0001 1.693 10.4:316 7.944 16.0038 eceee 1.529 10.0002 1.0039 1.104 11.0004 1.3 .7817 7.186 22.8112 8.0087 1.149 85.0004 1.0040 1.0029 1.0007 1.0056 cosec cosec 11. 47 .9604 7.0008 1..47' 5' see .6289 8.0075 1.0010 1.2152 7.286 11.914 90.729 34.0013 1.6444: 1.009< 1.0007 1.264:2 8.0011 1.'l 1.og06 8.0030 1.0055 1.i '" •• 3 2 1 0 • .0014 1.. .~87 10.9i6 4:2. 34 33 32 :H 30 •• •• " 13 21 22 23 2.689 11.6200 9.0016 1. 13 12 11 10 I.0074: 1. 47 53 '2 51 50 •• •• •• •• 60 67 56 1 2 3 10 11 " .0023 1..309 10.8.0005 1.7888 8.i2 127.909 11.0030 1.211 10. 27 2.0179 8.0013 1.994:4 8.0004: 1.0047 1.0089 1.0001 1.757 67.044 21.0022 1.04723.0076 1." 1.314 69.0003 y Cosecantes cosec 2S.

0213 1.0226 1.6379 6.2836 ".9176 ".0208 1.0268 1. 3.7937 3.f26 4.0342 1.0 53 .0366 1.0166 1.0368 1.5838 6.0186 1.0278 1.0117 1.6663 5.0190 1..0373 1.26"6 6.0162 1.0176 1..7665 6.0322 1.0231 1.8229 ".0307 1.0192 1. 14' 10' 1.8097 4. - 12' .3 6. 38 37 36 '.1972 4.0143 1.0220 1..8933 3.0'098 1..0119 1.3 ". 1.2.0296 1.1191 "..0181 1.7657 3. 27 28 30 .0349 1.0319 1..Cf211 4.0317 1.0201 1.7267 ".02 ...0126 1.9f96 3.0332 1.0167 1.6428 ". li.. 38 31 3.0388 1.0249 1. 6.1227 6..0132 1.013.6817 1.969. ..0302 ".8630 4. 33 3.0170 1.3.03M 1. • 3 2 1 • • • e .03"9 1.3847 4.0325 1.0202 1.1481 4.7398 5. 1.0211 1..9147 3.9190 3..a ...0123 1.0159 .8368 5.5660 6.0396 1.030< 1.730.0376 6.6221 6.0136 1·0136 1.0196 1.9260 5.0230 1..0380 1.0139 1.3286 6.9664 5..6390 3. 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'3 4< .6309 1.3126 1.3692 1.3390 1..9 .6273 1.4700 1.4:882 1.3614 1.5121 1.1 .4627 1. 0 1 3 9 10 11 40' eceee .3161 1. .3622 1.• 622 1.6263 1.614:6 1. 3. 4 1.4246 1.3671 1.3673 1.6067 1.4366 1.6294 1._ 1.3816 1.4167 1.4664: 1.34:00 1.3087 1..3466 41' e oeee 1.6Ml 1.3740 1.3106 1.3906 1..3946 1.364:9 1..3863 1.3170 1.4117 1.J428 1.3668 1.4704 1..4:600 1....6027 1.3324 1..4066 1.3786 1.3167 1. •• •• 23 27 28 29 30 31 33 3.4681 1.3237 1.4:830 1..4496 1.3369 1.3164: 1.3240 1.3673 e ~ .6361 1. 3.3372 1. •• •• •• •• as as 26 1.6197 l.e <e .4130 1.4:426 1..4808 1.4122 1.3921 1.4391 1..4:839 1.3832 1.6289 1.M26 I.9 50 '1 53 30 1.3824 1.f9 1.3047 1.3187 1.4269 1.4408 1.3600 1.3861 1."911 1.3836 1.3606 1. 38 1.4413 1.4238 1. .4233 39 38 37 3.4492 1.3839 1.4:636 1.3362 1.4699 1.4314 1.4998 1..4606 1.4370 1.

.00004 0.0937 0. 0".1569 0..65 0". 1 ] 13n .2586 1.7167 0.5061 0. .6840 0.2443 0.4835 1.6161 • .2722 1.1917 0. .~ · · · • 7 · · 2 ] 5' ~ I ~.1047 0. 7 ))'36" H'12" 1 2 )6').1012 0. .1051 0.6 )5".2856 1.3512 1.1667 ran 25 to1 1 ] .003] 00]6 0".7975 0.7156 0.0821 1.1254 0.03637 0. • 50' 1 2 · · .3816 0.01837 0.1170 1." · · ] 1 2 10'16" 31'12" )"48" 12'14" H' 14'48" )5'24" W 37'12" 1"24" 37'48" .4189 0.15 .50 ~.7854 0.0167 00.1756 1.2569 0.2396 0.01675 0.2094 0.0450 1.0111 .3491 0.41)] .0873 0.5512 0.3614 1.6014 0.4538 0.3788 1.B5 21'24" l<' 24'36" 25'12" 25'48" 26'24" 27' 21'36" is'12'' .3301 0.00548 0.2967 0.2783 0.0795 0.4712 .9848 1. 1·.5585 0. 7 · · · .1396 0. 7 .0301 1. 0.5934 0.3252 lJ383 1.2392 1.3142 0.0175 0.2175 1.<S .04628 0.6981 0.8294 0. 7 6BH .3640 1. · · •.9948 1.07281 0.5167 <647 · · · · · · · • 5" ~.3645 0. 0092 00.000] .15 0'.0125 0128 .0647 1. .0175 0..00034 0.1694 1...4486 1.4158 0.2269 0.5184 1. 0".2611 0.8767 0.65 .00745 0.0872 0.03874 0.00643 0. 1 2 00.04118 0.0974 0. ." .7004 0.6458 0.4838 0.06642 0. .8610 0.2091 0.8029 0...5359 15533 1.01098 0.2437 0.9543 0.2284 0.2264 0.3840 0.0106 01" <0' 1 1 e7 . .0472 1.1313 .8203 0.1961 0.5760 0.6511 0. .0123 (0297 1.9389 0.. 00B6 .6807 0. 01<2 01.5176 0.3963 1. .0698 0. · · .SO . 0161 016~ 00.15 16'12" 16'<408" 17'24" 18' )0" 1 2 l5' 7 .0698 0.010 I l' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 0.06333 0.1743 0.]661 lill 25' 7 4167 . 44'24" <S' 45'16" ""12" 46'''''' 47'24" 48'3'" SO'14" 49'12" 49'48" 51' 51')6" 52'12" 52'48" 53'24" 28'48" 29'14" 20' .0893 1.8 32".9076 0. 7 .6180 0.OO 1 2 ] ARCOS.6632 0.4329 0.4014 0.7492 0.4499 0..2036 1.1613 0.2741 12915 1.00lB 0031 . 00. Angulo ArC05 FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Hechcs 0.00244 0.0017 001' "1< 0008 0011 .01 0102 .9080 0.03185 0.75 .00187 0..1340 0.00460 0.7679 0. ." .ee .1384 0.2120 0.83B · .5680 0.2 18".3121 1.2989 1.1520 0.2627 0.6283 0.2167 nn DH JO IS" 7 .0025 ". .35 · · 7 12'36" 0"..2313 1.4669 0.00308 0.2450 1.4142 - 116- - 117- .rs .2014 0.9599 0.1920 0. 45" " 18ll 10 '161 00.005 ..5667 S131 ."48" 22'12" 22'48" 19'12" .5708 I I 0.2340 0.1571 0.05168 0..01519 0..Equivolencio de minutos y segundos en partes decimoles de grodo Equivolencio de partes decimoles de grado en minutos y segundo.0'12" " 4.02969 0.02763 0.6346 0.1472 1.2 10".0900 0.2453 0.OOO 1 2 60" · 0152 01" 01. · •· ". 005.1221 0.3316 0.0114 0097 .]0 1 1 ] 0".3987 0.0 3".0136 00.55 as7 . .5411 0.1868 1.04894 0.1566 0. • 7 20 .05736 0.4 36" SO" " "" 1.00<7 .1212 0.50 JO' 0']6" 1'12" 1'48" 2'2<4" ]' ]'36" 4'12" 4'48" 5'14" 0"55 .4661 1..2793 0.2229 0.2174 0.1759 0. 7 W 39'36" ."7 005' .4137 1.7654 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 I 0.4')18 1.6 1".4312 1. 60 20" 1 1 25" 7 .2929 0. ~.0133 .' " 6']6" ".1))3 .4 18" 21".2066 0." B5 BBH 9161 9))3 · .1428 0.10 1 2 00]9 00<2 0".1519 1.8 14".0349 0..1710 0.0598 1.02563 0.00 ..8135 0.'')'" 20'24" 21' 21')6" .1296 0.3090 1.3265 1.9774 0.2956 0.. 1 1 "'" .0349 0. • .8727 0.0000 1.1090 0.2217 1.7330 0.00 0".7330 0.OOOO 0161 OB] 0" 1 2 ] 0....02570 0.6676 0.1047 0..9695 0.0524 0.3129 0.1345 1..1859 0. <0" 1 1 · · .2618 0.5345 0. 7 1 1 ] 0117 0119 0122 .0141 015 ".4887 0.8552 0. .60 7'12" 7'48" "24" 9'36" to' 12" 10''''' 11'24" 12' 1)'12" 13'48" 14'24" 15' lS'36" ".6109 0.00381 0.0151 1.2566 1.5008 0.2746 0.0111 .'24" 0". .1171 0. ... 7 ~ ~..0996 1.06958 0.9250 0.5236 0.1808 0.1328 1.7815 0. . · · · 5<' 54'36" 55'12" 55'''' 56'24" 57' 58'48" 59'24" 60' __ 51'36" 58'12" ~ e .0083 '" .03407 0.0139 55' 60' · · .1614 1.06031 0.08H .20 1 2 · ·· · · · ... • .00015 0.2807 0.00095 0.0524 0.01371 0.00137 0. • 7 1 2 ..1661 0.1130 0..8452 0. 1 2 00.1910 0. 7 · · 42'36" 0'12" 43'48".8901 0.00856 0.0056 .2661 )167 OO.10 1161 es .01231 0.70 1 2 <2' 0'.1474 0.05 0022 .4333 ..3473 0.00061 0.005 ".45 · · .70 7167 .3767 1389J 1..04370 0.00973 0.05448 0. 0072 ..3439 1.2510 0.8378 0.2867 0.8924 0.0.07612 Cuerdos Angulo 46' CUERDAS Arcos Flechos Cuerdas 1~ 1 15' 7 2~ 1 2 · · · • .9425 0.. 7 0".6667 .5847 0.4363 0.0746 1...1184 1.02008 0.6Hl .2043 1.001S 0078 00B1 0". "" 55" · · .1745 0. .OOOO .2686 0.7505..5010 1.0829 0.1395 0.02185 0.95 7 · .1222 0.25 • . .9235 0.1039 1.0865 0..18'6 1..3665 0.

1 1.9988 1.8972 2.4507 1.8274 2.9871 1.7576 17659 1.6383 1.8675 1.6868 1.8868 0.7321 1.9908 1.4264 0.7492 1.9651 0.I DE ARCOS Radio X Areo de la tabla = Arco.9963 1.7227 2.9563 1.8436 0.6173 Cuerdcs 1.6013 0.8522 0.7402 2.5133 2.3439 0.4052 0.7581 0.9722 1.7104 1.9447 1.9373 1.6827 0. Radio.8733 1.3639 0.6254 0.8100 2.9671 2.3213 2.6005 2.9913 1.6910 0.7750 0.4784 2.6282 1.5616 0.0944 2.8449 2.7899 1.9215 0.9780 1.9754 1.9726 1.9390 0.9487 1.2991 0.5094 1.9021 1.3309 0.7053 1.5383 0. TABLA DE Flecha FLECHAS Radio X Ffecha de la tahla .3180 03244 0.2515 2.ARCOS.1468 2.3053 0.6773 1.8178 0.3116 0.8500 1.0420 2.7666 0.5321 1.9042 0.0543 3.9851 1.8672 1.8798 2.7407 1.4958 2.3374 0.9981 1. - 118- - 119- .8478 Angulo CUERDAS .5867 1.7751 2.7076 0.4627 1..9890 1.8126 1.3843 0.8623 2.8608 1.5482 2.8350 0.6580 0.6416 0.1241 3.9273 1.3387 2.9738 0.7628 1.8608 0.3038 2.0000 Cuerdos 1.2160 2.1293 2.1991 2.7328 0.9825 0.9302 0.9997 1.6662 0.5882 1. TABLA DE Cuerda '" CUERDAS Radio X Cuerda de la tabla = Cucrda. Flecha.2340 2. Angulo FLECHAS Y PARA RADIO=l Ftechcs 0.9632 1.6180 1.4122 0.6180 2.8326 1.5695 0.5228 05305 0.7279 1.6498 0.6993 0.0246 2.4850 0.9993 1.7412 0.3982 0.6406 1.4JJ6 0.9999 2. Cuerda.8006 0.9973 1.1817 2.0071 2.37361 2.8850 1.5152 0.72JJ 1.1067 3.9951 1.9225 1.4925 0. ~'7\ TABLA Areo Areo de la tabla Areo Radio I--- :---::::A~ C----.2689 2.4260 ' 2.3775 0.8341 1.9024 19199 1.980.9128 0.9845 30020 3.6232 1. CUERDAS Y FLECHAS A F C R = = = = Flecha.5543 1.3563 --I Hechcs 0.1642 2.9319 1.9829 1.7925 2.0769 2.7143 l.5656 2.8966 1.9598 1.Arcos Arcos 1.0194 3.5307 2.5076 0.9564 0.7576 2.0595 2.5652 1.7976 1.9665 1.6354 2.4086 2.4863 1.6580 1.9696 1.9074 1.4627 04701 0.6093 0.6077 1.4435 2.5973 1.7496 0.0000 91" 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136° 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 2.6961 1. Cuerda de la tabla Cuerda Radio = Radio.9126 1.6529 2.7836 0. de la tabla.5538 0.5774 05853 0.4609 2.4481 0.5460 0.6057 1.6704 2.7053 2.5760 1.7921 0.0718 3.7244 0.8781 0.7453 1.4746 1.9924 1.9477 0.9406 1. == Cuerda de la tabla .7977 1.4979 1.9526 1. = Areo de la tabla.8052 1.4775 0.0369 3.6678 1.8410 1.8910 1.9363 1.6930 1.1416 FORMULAS PARA LAS TABLAS DE ARCOS.8955 0.8271 1.8794 1.9938 1.5933 0.4554 0.9548 1.8544 1.6483 1.4408 0.7820 1.9897 2. I == Radio.0892 3. Areo.3572 0.3911 2.2864 2.6744 0.6755 1.8853 1.9322 29496 2.9176 1. Flecha de la tabla Flecha Radio Flecha == Radio.6878 2.4193 0.6581 1.3707 0.8092 0.8199 1.5831 2.3506 0.1118 2.6335 0.8151 1.5432 1.3912 0.5000 0.4387 1.8695 0.8264 0.7740 1.7801 1.5208 1.9147 2.4265 1.7160 0.

H 8.0806 0. 0..0982 0.6109 .1609 0. 4.5.30 21. 17. J3 l4 35 Calcular-los grados que corresponden a una ftecha de 50 mm.2n3 0..22 5.06 6 5.• 2 3.3129 .4460 0.2321 0. 08 58 5.• 5 3 . • • 0.0731 a. 05 4.12 7.55 O.3 85 86 .1459 0.10]0 0.. 60 S1.10 7.1231 0.3676 0. . '2 '3 '5 '7 50 51 52 5J 5' 55 56 57 36 37 3.7 •.Arco.2240 0.2611 0.0675 0. sobre una circunfcrencia de 500 rom.13 B. 3.7654 0.114] 0...2845 0.2. en 28 penes Iguoles..1336 0.36 -t. Poro dividir uno clrcunferenclo de )20 mm.21 15.0000 0.5176 Calcular los grados de un arcc.• 9 ] ..03 6.0996 0. Radio 50 300-0.51 12..4786 0.42 25 22.30 .l2 5.. de radio.20 4.On2 0.68 areo.0714 0.J .1'84 0.1566 _ 23.20411 0.02 3.52 = 200 Radio..5176 Cuerda y 30' de la tabla.oa1' 0.52 _ 0. de redtc.110] 0. 3.0668 0.2023 0..ngulo 00 06) \ TABLA DE ANGULOS Y CUERDAS correspondientes a la division en partes iguales de una circunferencia de rodio=l Angulo <.. Calcular el numero de grados de un arco cuyo desarrollo es 340 mm.0860 0.5176 0. DE FLECHAS EJEMPLOS En un circulo de 1SO mm.0705 0. Radio ::: = 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1.1365 6. siendo conocida la cuerda y el valor del angulo en grados.068. 20 21 22 2l 24 25 26 27 2.Flecha..18 6. Flecha. en un circulo de 300 mm. 9.0785 0.0775 0. 70 71 73 7.EJEMPLOS DE CUERDAS Calcular 18 longitud de la cuerda de un areo de 300 en un circulo de 200 milimetros de radio.lS '5 40 36 12.20 7.1'22 0. 2. 60 61 62 6J 65 67 • .. I -120 - -121- . 8 S·')' 5. desarrollo.473 0.61 0.2 1..06]5 0. 200 . 13.1743 .2' 0.0923 •• .1)08 0.12 6.04 5 4.0766 •• . .1>9]7 1. de radio y siendo el angulo dado 65°.0740 0.0951 0.49 7.40 6.2507 0.41 0. ..4' 25.1961 0.0628 - Ejemplo.0691 0. •• 92 .08n 0. ..52 mm.10 20 18.2204 . 2.. 39' de la tabla. Divj.]. cuerda de las tablas·. •• .. Arco _ Arco y grados de la tabla. 200 x. slones Cuerda .6 ..17 "..106.68 mm.• 7 ] .0884 0." 5 .1426 0.2162 0. EJEMPLOS oc \f~\ ~ . 30 11 l2 I.0837 0. 99 100 •• - 0. 0.108<f 0.11 •. 30' = 0.6840 0.7 0.0827 0.39 7.17 9. de radio.1256 0. 75 76 77 7. 500 X 0.0757 0..1652 0.6180 0.1494 0. Radio X Arco de la tabla . . .37 5.Cuerda.b _.0698 0.1756 DE ARCOS Calcular el desarrollo de un arco de 35' siendo el radio de 500 mm.2091 0.]6 ~.50 13.305..56 1.. 67' de la tabla.14 4..56 6.3902 0. longitud de la cuerda.1901 0:18<16 0.)0 7.20 12. Radio X F1echa de la tabla .27 5.2980 0.08 16.2204 == 71. 79 80 n • •. 150 X 0.1697 0.0656 O. Cuerda -= Radio. 12 11. • . Flecha _ Fiecha y grades de la tabla.0897 0. calcular la ftecba.1282 0.0748 0.1395 0.0967 0.. 40 109.7321 1.08 5.1793 .0848 0. Radio 103.Q6. mulhplicord por )20 10 longilud de 10 (uerdo 0.17 1. . 82 90 •• 40 4.40 U8 3. Cuerda _ Cuerda y grados de la tabla. 22 0.1569 0. 26 4.23 4.5.57 3..1.0911 0.....39 15 1•.3292 0.• 2 ~.867. Cuerda de la tabla 103.<41 30 27.]) . 0.ndicodo en 10 loblo poro 28 divisiones Aberluro del com pas se = 320 x 0.10104 0.5635 0.1531 0.32 6..45 mm.15 10.0604e 0.36 11.01.47 6.5176 X 200 = 103.1207 0. 10. conocida la cuerda y el radio del ejemplo anterior.4'58 0.49 mm.0795 0.52 3 .5.]5 10.51 .2S 6. 0.4)' 0.5 . Divinones en Grados y Minutos en Gracias y Minutos ~ Angulo Cuerdc Diyjslones en Grados y Mlnutos Cuerdc ~ 3 5 6 7 • 120· 90 n 1.1047 0.116<4 0. 5. Calcula r el radio del circulo anterior.166 Flocha.

-A~ = Tg A -122 - -123 - . f cot A =Tg A Sene A lodos aye Se divide ellado a por ellodo c - =senoA COl A Dividir 1 par col A 1 --~T9A Cosec A Se divide 1 por cosec A -- cosec = senoA sec A -=senA sen Y sen A Multiplicar sec A por sen A sec Ax sen A = ~ T9 A T9 Y cos A Se multipliea T9 A por cos A TgA x cos A T9A ---sec A A Y cos A Dtvtdtr sen A por cos A --~T9A cos A sen A T9 Y sec A Se divide T 9 A por sec A =sen A sec A Y cosec A Drvtdtr sec A ocr cosec A ~-:_-~=TgA cosec A Cos y cot A Se divide e! cos A por 10 cot A Restor el cuadrado del cos A Qe 1 Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado del reate ~=senA cot A \.r 1 por 10 sec A sec A = cos A cot A Y sen A Multiplicor 10 cot A par c! sen A cot A x sen A = = cos A sen A Y '9 A Dividir sen A por tq A sen T9 ----- A = cos A --_ col A A HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMU LA Y cosec A Dtvidir COl 1\ por cosec A cot A cosec A = cos A Angulo A Angulos Bye Restor e! cingula B del dnqulo C C-B=A sen A Restor el cccdrcdo del sen A Angulo B Angulos Aye Restor el cingula A del dnqulo C C-A=B T9 A Lado C1 de 1 y extraer do del reslo 10 raiz cuadra- V 1-=--~ = cos A Y b Angulo C Angulos A y B Sumor el dnqulo A y el cingula B iI"+B=C a c 1 A Drvidu- el lado a par r..·.ELEMENTOS DE TRIGONOMETRIA SENCILLAS A B A D G A A C F B _.2j: = b C b Sec A Divld. -E B C C E H 0 G E H SOLUCIONES DEL TRIANGULO RECTANGULO b = Base a Perpendicular = Radio = 1 = Sene = Coseno H = Tcnqente !::: Cotangente F = Seconte = Cosecante = Sene verso = Coseno verso A = Cuerda HALLAR CONOCiENDO REG LA fORMULA Case no A lades bye Dtvrdrr el lado b por el redo c b ~ = cosA 0['.1·':'=-'05 Al = sen Coseno A A sec A Restor 1 del cucdrcdo de 10 sec A Y exlroer 10 rciz cvodrcdc del restc ~/ ~.

drr cosec A por sec -----+---------+---------1 cosec A col A V cot A.-:-1 - sec A lado c y sen A c X sen A = lado a 10 sumo - 124 -125- .b = cosec A r---+--------. sen A 2c sen!.--.. = cuerda A 2 f--------------A rot A --------COS~( Drvrdrr (OS('C A par (at ----- ~ A -_.CA / T 9 A= Coseno verso A sen A Se restc e! lado a del c y el restc se divide por el lado c Se restc el seno A de 1 Multiplicor e! sen de 10 mitad del cingulo A por 2 y por e! radio del lado c Se resta el cuadrado del lado b del cuadrado del lado c y se extrce 10 rclz cuadrado del resto Multiplicar lado c por sen A --.---. extroer 10 raiz CUQdrado del resto V cosec A ~.-----------Sec A Restor 1 del cuadrado de 10 cosec A.sen A = = cosenc-ver so A 1---T 9 A sen A Dl'lldlr T9 A por sen A f' A '(1 T9~ "'~" sco A A Cue-do A 't.dtr col A por cos A Sumar 1 01 cuadrado de \0 col A 'I extraer 10 raiz cuadrado de 10 sumo b cot A --cos A = cosec A cosec AY sec A Drv.--------(OS A 1 ____ cos A = sccA Lcdos c 'I a f-----~----------------~--------A Y T9 A Mult:pllcor cosec A por T9 A CQSE.yb sec A I cosec = seno-verso A c-a 1-cosA = f.01 A sec A 'I cot A cosec A cos A Multipllear cosec A per cos A A Mulliplicor sec A por cot A = x cos col A A = secA'ITgA Dividir sec A por Tg A sec A x col A = = cosec A -------~---------------+----------cos A Y sen A Dtvtdtr (as A por sen A cos A ______ sen cosec A sec A A --- sec A Tg A = cosec A = col A colA'IcosA A = cot A Dtv.--cot A sec A Lado n Lados c y b ~=\adoa ---. + 1 ( -:.-..~:::--:1'"'~col A Lodos c 'I Seno verso A cos A 0_- Se resto el lodo b del lodo c Y el resto se divide por el lado c Se restc el coseno A de 1 = sene-verso A I Lodes .HALLAR CONOOENDO REG LA FORMULA HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA c --=cosecA a 1 --_ sen A = cosec 1--COl A Lodes b Ya Dtvtdtr lodo b por lode a = cot cosec A A lodas c y Q Dividir lado c POf lodo o Sen A T9 A Drvtdtr 1 por T9 A Drvidrr 1 por sen A A Tg A cosec =<. = cos-verso A 1 ._-----------------.---------01 c ocdrcdc Y ext-ocr lo rail ----------- Sumor 1 at: CUOdi T9 A j T9 A orto oc ~/T9A·~..

4l79 163...311 1..867 mm.145 113.431 1· 0..• siendo 10 f6rmula H=C x senc s.86l 6.2557 81.137 1. H 10 x 0..m .141 5. 17· '5.4191 61.5399 111.'566 156.9)7 1.6976 16. H 254 X 0.!.6913 169.150 11· 5.0453 1." mm .128 .5643 39.447 1.0711 179..51129 5. "..6947 119...7564 70.599 nl.. .8716 n.1991 114.015 5.1495 57.4- 16. • t166. y 0 = 1" = 25.51129 (vease tobias trigonom. H en pulgadas S· 0. equivalente a 254 milimetros.847 Lado a y sen A Dtvtdir lodo a par sen A _a_=ladoc sen A _b_= ladoc cos A 6.871 105. 10 f6rmula general Lado b cos A Dlvtdtr lado b por cos A Ejemplo: a= 30" 45'.034 'Sl.3490 8.639 41· 6. ..0111 15· 16· '17 406. se indican a continuaci6n. ". ".. Grados Pulgadas mm.5881 65.. Grados Pulgadas mm.0791 51.145 5:7158 145. Lado c y cos A Multlplicor lc do ( par cos A c x cos A = lado b Con el fin de pcder ulilizar cualquier sene de esccnttllcnes de que se disponga.91)7 74.1)8 .8837 4. 4. 0 = Dtdmetrc de los rodillos.1504 130.:.8779 149.51129 129.311 4.268 141. = = = = -126 _ -127 - . las dimensiones usuales para su conslrucci6n y delalles del manejo.145 115. pIanos 0 galgas Blocks.1931 159. Lodo by cot A Drvidtr lado b par cot A _b_ cot A Lode c y cosec A Drvtdtr lodo ( par cosec A Se resto el cuadrado del lado a del cuodrcdo del lodo c y se extrce 10 rOlz cued-cdc del resto cosec --.954 en funci6n del valor B- 0. = lode b H = Altura para medir por medtc de escantillones C = longitud conslanle.0674 10)..689 .740 .. .465 1'· ).4'11 l8" 1.298 6.ll61 '06.. 5.3917 Lodo c y sec A Dtvtdf r lodo ( par sec A Sumor los cuadrados de los 10des a y b Y extrcer 10 rciz cuadrado de 10 sumo Multiplicor lcdo -'-=Iadob sec A 48.7461 95.377 6.161 3."29 pulgGdGs. Cuando el valor de « sea en grados H=C X y minutos. 4.5919 '.n.'''' 'Bl.1187 30.864 11· 1.4101 86. .._ 138.-= A ladoa Lado b Ladas (Y c ~~. 19- Lado c Ladas a y b ~ = lodo c 11· 3.907' 99.605 Lado a y cosc A Multiplicar lado a por cosec A a X cosec A = lado c GradOi Pulgada mm. . y a efectcs de extremcr 10 maxima precisi6n se recomienda e! uso de un senerllc Instrumento que lIamaremos «Regia de senos».5l34 13.000 1.ll8 177.107 10l. .· 4.tricas). Lado a y cot A Muitiplicor lado a par cot A a X cot A = lado b «a» Lode n y T9 A Drvidtr lodo a par T9 A ~T9 A = lodob Tabla para determinar en grados..5606 . Seno tt= 0.. u- . . 10 dimensi6n C es igual a 10 pulgadas.5· 7..1745 4.809 10 altura Gradol Pulgada mm..145 91.958 '.194 0.011 15· 1.TRAZADO HALLAR CONOCIENDO REG LA FORMULA PARA ANGULOS DE PRECISION Lode a Lado b y T9 A Multiplicar lodo b par T9 A b x T9 A = lado a =Iodoa No es posible realizar el trazado cor redo de un angulo strvlendcse de un transportador ccrrtente... t0.820 Lado b y sec A b par sec A b x sec A = lode c Grados Pulgadas mm. 11· 5.7165 44. tanto en pulgadas Inglesas como milfmetros.1· 11· ..O901 78.820 171. '01. se aplicard sene a...5837 '. y millmetros 7· 1....550 1.

40 a SOD:0.0002036 0.0002472 0.0001551 0.0002327 0. "<t- r-.26724.- '" r-..:..f '" '" "<t- -e-e- r-. .. ~ N Para cuanda sea preciso operar con segundos... -o U'> M ...0000727 0. U'> ~ ~ ~ .- -o "<t.- N -::::.f .0000242 0. N O 0 M 00 N 0 U'> -o 00 0 .. 24" 0.00000)) 0.0002521 0.0001066 0.0001406 0.s QJ OJ '" ~ M "Q -0 c "Q "Q QJ 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 o. ~~~ N " " ~k ~I' ~~ - 128- - 129- .. ...f .00 -o o-o 0 ."<t..0002811 0.0000775 0..0000921 0.. -e'" '" -o M o- 0 U'> '" .- . 0 r-.- U'> .. ..0001163.0002860 0.. como.~~-::::... 24 x 0. estes constontes de contidodes. " -o t' I' " t' ~ .2673563. Ejemplo: 41° 30' 24".0000045.0000290 DE SEGUNDOS c: Segundos 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 JJ 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Seno 0. '" Constonte_ para 20 a 300: 0. N U'> N ~ OO M 0 .- '" '" ~ ..: 0 .. r-..0000193 0.. U'> r-..0001745 0.. 0'> " 'v QJ 0 II ~ II > ..0002908 30' 24".0000096 0... ~ 00 0 .SENOS Segundos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seno O. ~ N "<t- '" '" '" .0000436 0.0000387 0. '" '" ~ .. M N r-.0001260 0. N U'> 0 ~ '" -o 0 U'> N -o 00 00 "<t- N .- . )0 0400: SO a 60°: 0.f "" M "<t" ~ l! ~ "<t'" r-.. "<t"<tM 00 ~ r-.0001987 0.....- r-.0001018 0. 0 -o 0 q '" ... Seno: 41~ 30' 0.0000969 :E 0 t (l£~ t:: I~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ 0'> N .0 N '" 0 §~ 0 ~ .0002666 0..0002230 0.- .0001648 0.. M M -o -o r-.....2 c OJ U'> 0 -o 00 N -.0002618 0. r:.0002375 0.n ~"... o-.- U'> 00 .000079..15 se utilizaro esta G tobla.00 M N '" M .0000033..:. el sene de 15° 30' 24" = 0. r-.. U'> 00 00 r-..0 o'" a:: '" ""! 0 -o 00 U'> M ~ o- ....0001939 Segundos 41 42 43 44 Seno 0..:: '" ...0002569 0..0000145 0. '" .... .. N '" '" a:: "<tU'> M N -e-o ": . = Seno de 15° 30' Sumados Cuondo ccrrecctcn.. ~ " ~ Qj v 0 0'> c: 0 M . 0 r-.0001842 0.. Seno de 24" = 0. de 20' se utilizordn c ~ U'> '" r-. U'> M 0 00 r-. M M "<tr-.0000872 0...0000581 0.0002424 0.0000824 0. .0001699 0.0000532 0.'" . Seno : 24" 0..0002278 0..0000038..0001309 0.0002133 0. N U'> .0001599 0.0001454 0.tll'l.'" 0 O 0 000000 "<t- 00 N 00 r-.0000678 0.. "Q .0002763 0. r-.0001163 0.0001502 0... .0000630 0..0000026.eocons 0.()()()()()48 0. Sene de segundo ccrreqtdc Correction: c = Constante = 0.. por ejemplo.' ~~ n _-::::. IN I ~ 0'> .0001163.. N 00 00 N '" ~ 1:0 M . N "l M '" ~ OJ c :E 0 " "': M L.. "<t.0002715 0.0000484 0..0 .0 U'> 0 U'> M M "<t. X N. ambos excedc 0.o..0001212 0.0001793 0...0001367 0..662699 '" :E 0 ~ c ~~~ ~ ~ N M U'> N " M " U'> " r-. r-.D de seqvndos.- 0 r-.000079 Resumer:: Sene de 11 30' 24" 'J = "Q = 0. N el valor del dnqutc 00 N M 00 .0002181 0...0 0 <'! '" ""! .0002084 0... Seno.. "l q 0 r-... .0001890 0...0001115 0.." 1:0 -e'" 0 00 "<tr-.66262.

bh + = 1.'. d' A = s' A s = 0. A = a~d'-a' A = ab = bVd'-b' d= v..=~ b b Dado S= 11.414 TRIANGULO ACUTANGULO Dado (a + b + c) b) (S c) V S (S • a) (S Bh A = AREA.--.- ' TRIANGULO = Vb' + c' TRAPEZOIDE 1 A = AREA A = (H + h) a + bh + cH 2 b=Va'-e' RECTANGULO - e=Va'-b 130 - - 131 - . a A =-2- L ---~--.--. ( a.-..AREAS Y DIMENSIONES DE FIGURAS PLANAS. A t: b= ~ a be TRAP~CIO r~. i '''-'-Q' 'b I· A = AREA. (a +b+ = Vd' - = ~a OBTUSANGULO A= V S (S A A a) (S - b) (S - A = AREA A = ab PAkA" tLOGRAMO = AREA (a + b) 2 h "< . b' c) c) )2 a=~-.414 x s = 1.-~--.. S= I"~ A a' = T b' 2b c' )' ..-+~ a' A:: ~ Va' _ ( c' TRIANGULO A = AREAT =A .7071 d = d VA VA ="2 A= b V. SUPERFICIES Y VOLUMEN DE S6L1DOS: CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD A = AREA A= I"~ A = AREA..

866 X R I A = AREA.1416 t = 0. L=1. z =~.378 X R2= 3.736 x R' = 3. .707 x L L=1.577 xL. = 180 - J.= C.732 x R.963 x r A·= 3.851 xL.414x CUADRADO R=2x.633 x . = 3.~ V o:78S4 133 - = 0.828 R' = 3..289 x L L = 3. A=1.128 \ A Longitud del arco correspondiente 01 cingulo de centro de 1 = 0.5 x L R = 0.2832.453x.868 x R. OCTAGONO • POLIGO NO REGULAR CrRCULO A = -AREA.688 x L R=1.564 V-_'.' = 3.155x..433 x L'= r = 0.464 x R=s=1.866 X s = 0.765 A = AREA del circulo crrcunscrrto del circulo inscrito x 5' = 2.924 X R x R = 0.1416 d .464 x r -----------~--~~~~~~~~~~~ HlP! Al. .----5-' 4 .307 1.2 A= _n~' = R = 0. r = 0.2~32 = ~ .LA SUMA DE LOS TRES ANGULOS ES IGUAL A 180 Y CADA UNO EQUIVALE A 60 0 0 A = AREA R = 1. TRIANGULO EQUILATERO L = 1.207 0.7854 d' C = 2:-:.nox PENTAGONO ------------------.082 x r x 5 = 0.314 r X5 1.152 )( L. 6.828 x r n = NUMERO DE LADOS (1 1.192 x r' r = 0.176x r = 0.299 x R'= 5. A= 0.ur~u L = 0.2 A = 2. L = 0. L2 R= T VR' . = 1.038 X F6RMULAS R = 0.828 1.008727 d -- - 132- .598 X R2 A = 3.371 x r R A R 5 Radio Radio 4.634 x L' ~ 2. n A = L2 = 2 R' = 4 x .--+----~------------------- \ /----5-' ' = .': = r t: 1. = 6.598 x s' = 2.~ \I" + . C = ClRCUNFERENCIA A =.2 d = 3~14'-6. R' 4' S=2 V R' - ----- r A = 2.

/ .. = ANGULO DEL SEGMENTO .ab=3.' '" p>.3562d' = 3 x AREA DEL CiRCULO GENERATRIZ = 0..01745" >= 57."PERIj().b) ~CD-ij Y c=2yh(2r-h) r= SEGMENTO CIRCULAR C • A='j. siendo A = 3..A = AREA.: - :~'v c .7854(D + d) (D a y X la base = ANGULO DEL SECTOR.- 01 . A:':' X X (0 . r') EI area de la parabola los dos tercios del Y la altura A= 'I.1 'I I i p A -. Xy a r') = 3.1.1416(R' - es equrvolente rectdnqulo.008727>. LONGITUD DE ClCLOIDE = 0..--- A~r.r' . + 4h' !* A =-2---- t= 0. f = LONGITUD DEL ARCO . \/". A = ~(R'-r')= 360 r.~ ) h=r-'j. "A ".1416ab FORMU'LAS APROXIMADAS DEL PERIMETRO "y'2(w+b') . r= 2A -(-= 57.7854(D' .(rf-c(r-h)) .= 8h I.296( --11..OO87h(R' .(R' - A = AREA. = ANGULO DEL SECTOR (=_!_~ 7.Y4r'-c'. LONGITUD DEL ARCO 7.4248r' = = 2. P = PERIM~TR.01745" = ~ r A =2 57. A = AREA. x 3.AREA.14~~= 180 1 0.00218>(D' -d') CICLOIDE - f 135 - = 8r = 4 x d - 134- .. = AREA.296{ . " -- Q ~ b HIP log ( : + . A = AREA A = .1416(R + r) (R - r) = d) A = AREA = 0.d') = = 0.1( : .296t SECTOR CIRCULAR A rt = 0.r') = SECTOR DE CORONA CIRCULAR = ____:::__ (D'-d')= 4 X 360 A = 3rtr' = 9. ib: // j_.

S = AREA LATERAL.v = VOLUMEN A = AREA DE LA BASE MENOR A = AREA DE LA BASE MAYOR $= Vv V = VOLUMEN PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA V = ~(A.1416dh A = AREA TOTAL DEL CILINDRO = = SUPERFICIE LATERAL MAs LA SUPERFICIE DE LAS BASES CILINDRO A = 6. nemos: base es un poligono regular «S» 10 longitud del lcdc: y R = radio r = radio del drculo inscircunscrito. A = AREA DE LA BASE Las f6rmulas para determinar perpendicular las drees de las bases estan Indicadas en las poginas onteriores.) + h.2832rh = 3.1416d('j. te- Silo cntc. V = 1.) PIRAMIDE 136 -. h X AREA DE LA BASE de «n» lados.2832r(r + h) = 3. V = '(.5708d(h. PORCION DE ClLlNDRO S = 3. = 1.) + h. S = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL CILINDRO V = 3. .) + h. d + h) v = VOLUMEN.+A.1416r'h = O.1416r(h.3927d'(h.5708r'(h.+ ~ CUBO v = VOLUMEN V = VOLUMEN V=axbxc C =(ib v V = (2a CUNA + c)bh 6 PARALELEPiPEDO v = VOLUMEN.7854d'h S = 6. «h» se PRISMA entlende Q 10 base V = VOLUMEN. 137 - V = VOLUMEN = O. del circulo + h.

V = VOLUMEN V = 1.5236 h( 3~.57085(D 5 A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE V = VOLUMEN :~. = 0.= -6. : \ + d) + h' v = 0.1416ht(d + t) = = 1.1416" A = 6.5664" = ].0472h(R' + Rr + r') = = 0. . _416'~ 13 = 1 . V = VOLUMEN 2.6204VV ' = VOLUMEN. ABC) r ± b longilud de areo ABC) h ESFERA A = AREA 0 SUPERFICIE v 4wr' .".1416h( ~. ~ = ARE~ DE L~ SUPERFICIE C6NIC~. segun que el areQ de IQ base sec mayor 0 menor que IQ mltcd del cireulo.1416ht(2r 3.= 4.d' = -3. V r= .1416.rh -}) = 3. V = (2/.1416h'(' = l. r= + h') s= ~= .1416(.1 /. ZONA ESF£RICA - = 2. - =Va' + h' \. v = ~..1416d' PORCION DE CILINDRO r±b USQr mas 0 menos.1416h(R' = 3.h = 6.·h V = -3= 2.1888r' = 0. -8h-ESF~RICA A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE LATERAL DEL TROZO DE CONO.1416ht(R r') AREA TOTAL DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA Y CONICA = A.h = 3. ~ h).1416ht(D - V = 3.1416ht(2R t) = 3. a3 ± S = (ad S = AREA LATERAL h b X AREA. 2h h) CILINDRO HUECO = 3.C>-472...5236d' ± bx A = 4w.1416.'rw V~ = 0. ( A = 3.v= VOLUMEN.'h A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA v = VOLUMEN V= = 0 . + ~) ~= 3.2618d'h = 1.5708ds SEGMENTO ESF£RICO 3.0944"h.7854h(D'-d') = 3.rr:': V"TTn' C 2Vh(2' = C' +.1812. V r' CONO + h' = 3. - VOLUMEN. + ]~" + A h') CONO TRUNCADO A= a = R-r.2618h(D' + Dd + d') 3.5708ht(D + d) V= + r) SECTOR ESF£RICU + t) t) C) +T C = 2V h(2..d' = 12.1416 x 5(R + r) = 1.' = .1832rh =V(R-r)' 138 - 139- .

. A = AREA d3) = 0. cuando b = e V = 4.5708h(R' + r') CUNA ESF~RICA 41tr2 = 0.478Rr +re V = -3- X abc = 4.. PARABOLOIDE lV (~ P=8i1 + d2 p'r .1888 ab' y A = = .psI BARRIL v = l/lI7th(201 + cP) .8696Dd \<.262h(201 + IP) Si los areos curvados son de parabola.d') v - = 0.3927h(D' + d') V = VOLUMEN V = -3-(R3 (03 +re - . = 0. A = .) = 4.'Rr = = En una elipsoide 0 esferoide de revoluei6n. Dd +'/.2 +re x b I/a' + b2 V = VOLUMEN Sl los lados circulo.. V eurvados = '/21tr'h = 0.'Dd = 9.209h(2D' + - 140- 141 - .3927d"h A = AREA. V = VOLUMEN =4 A TORO 1t' X Dd' = 2.0116"r' ...:'Rr' = 19. O.739Rr' = ~ ~m I A = AREA..5236(0' d3) V = 2.4674Dd' 39.0349ar' SEGMENTO PARABOLOIDE r') = - = B h(D' + d') = 0.1888(R3 - 6X ESFERA HUECA V = VOLUMEN.1888abe = 4.. 1t h(R' + r') = 1. APROXIMADO son areos de ELiPSOIDE V = VOLUMEN...A = AREA DE LA SUPERFICIE ESF~RICA ~= ANGULO DE CENTRO EN GRADOS V = VOLUMEN V = 360 a A = 360 V = VOLUMEN V= " x -3X +re.

h(A. 4(3r -h) .2(0 + b + c) Q=3 TRIANGULO h jJtffi Solido a PIRAMIDE_--== CONO SEGMENTO ESF~RICO S6UDO 3(2r-h)' b = h(4r-h) 4(3r -h) .:.h APROXIMADA 0= .r ~+bx~e~'~ 2 PIRAMIDE TRUNCADA A. P+Q' - 1042- - 143- . PERIMETRO d_ h(b + c) .1") SECTOR ESF~RICO S6UDO a= ... _. '/. x A._ I I . r$ Supcrficie c6nica a = A. --------~----PARALELOGRAMO PERIMETRO Y AREA TRIANGULO = I Ih.(2r-h) PARABOLOIDE S6UDO 0 = '/"h .------ 3(R r) CONO TRUNCADO + V-W!.197 r sen 7 ARCO CIRCULAR SECTOR CIRCULAR It a= CUNA + 2 Rr + 3r') 4(R' + Rr + r') Superficie c6nica 0= S6UDO h(R + 2r) + cos 7)r = .11 b=U= • r'c =)1\= 2rc ~ 8xlxh = 38. = Base menor A. ~ . !d .h Para media esfera 0 = b = "I.--- ARCO CIRCULAR a = 'I.P+Q Q X 0. 4(A.ll. _'-----.~ ~ h(b + c) 2(2b + c) b_ - DOS CUERPOS S6UDOS _ PX 0 c. = Base mayor EI centro de grovedad es 10 intersecci6n de las diagonales rXc ~ ~~~h~ Siendo A = Area del segmento SEGMENTO CIRCULAR 0= + 21/A.'/)j:1 .. + 3A.) h(R' MITAD DE ESFERAHUECA 0= 3(R' -r) 8(R".) + VA. + A. ih C CENTROS DE GRAVEDAD " I \. X A.

h 1 \'lb - i'~ a= = Px 2b = T P col x CASQUETE Y ZONA ESF~RICA '/16 X 3.2832 x R. = Radio de la rosca.2832 x r Para movimiento F=Q x + (" X opuesto _!_ R !_ R a Q: X COMPLEMENTO A X B x C c = O. q.1416 x h Porci6n de superficie cilindrica 0= II. b='/.6. b o~.2832 x r - I" X I" X DIFERENCIAL ~~(~~i6n..--'''-----_-" F6RMULA ESTIMANDO EL COEFICIENTE en direcci6n X (" X P DE FRICCI6N: X a = 3 h. MITAD DE PARABOLA ~ ..1416r. x 3.75n b = '/'2 x 3.3h.__---.1416 X R3 _ r" r) 2R p=2xFxR Con (ricci6n. P = 2Q x Ig (a. I" III Z . 3n Para movimiento a Q: r P r P F = Q x P .2832 6....2832 x R x F. + (/») . Q = 6. 10 .2832 X 6. 5 b =-8AREA Porci6n de cilindro s6lido: a = "/16 X 3.. P + 6..x3. FRICCI6N: PARABOLA a = _21!_ 5 AREA Cilindro de bases paralelas F6RMULA SIN ESTIMAR LA F=Q x P 6. = Brazo de Palanca.. H'-h' b = '/" x 3.1416xh ~/~_ Porci6n de elltndro hueco R'-r' P = 2Q xi1= F x R = T(R-r) Q F = P(R P = 2Q x 19 ~ h 1 .TORNILLO AREA Y POLEA DIFERENCIAL Q R r P F = Carga.1416 r..1416 x H' _h3 1+4- R-r -145 - Coeficiente de (ricci6n: fL = Ig. = Paso de la rosca. d = O. = Fuerza aplicada en el extremo de la pa/anca.

. PX r F = -R- t P x aP FxL p =Jf._-=r x r.:. Pxa+P'xb+P"xc I~ i:t=:r' :r= F F 1= F-P =-P- Fxl L de ramales 0 partes del cable (n.- FxL n = Nomero F= Pxsec> 2 f'=2xFxcosx • I 8 Pxa L=FT=-F-' PX/. n._.. Pxa+P'xb+P"xc :r F=_!_XP n -146 - - 1-47- ._. C Y 0 son los diametros p"mit.:. FxR r=-p- FxL=Pxl. PXr R=-F-. = -1=-. =-F-' Pxl Pxl F=-L-. B.) 'I I r. etc. P = ..:...-.-.:.PALANCAS TIPOS DE PALANCAS Pxl F=-LP=. =P+T = -P-- x.:.. F x }' = P x a + P' x b + P" xc.:. = RX R. Fxa ...L = P+ F RUEOAS F r V POLEAS F x R = P x r.. X r. 1= P-F I'~F=-: = se~x 'F I p I \ Fx L= P x I r: F = ..x R. x r.. ... . FxRxR.. Fx a Fx L f' Pxa L= P-F rL p Q ~1 FxL P=--IFxL =-P- ~ p FxR P =-r-. P=--.xR.. .vos de las ruedas. F ~ P A.-L-' Fxa Pxl . F P x r X r....

N = Num. -1048- .1416 =~ Dp = De N +2• primi- y. engranando los unos con los otros. sino que subslste sobre 105 trazos.1416 Paso.r . que tenemos una ruedo dentado ique Modulo le corresponderc ! Formula que mide =- Numero de dlentes. de ejes perpendiculares: III. el cilindro liso en realldad desaparece. 105 engranajes pueden estar aslmllados a dos cillndros 11101 correspondlentes a los Didmetros prlmltlvos. --"-0---. Engronojes helicoldales a eJes perpendiculares. Q medird el paso sobre el Didmetro prlmttivo.149- . Como ya se dijc. = 15. la manera mds simple estd caraderlzada por el paso. Ejemplo' Paso del Modulo num. de dientes : M =~ N + 2' ~t10 mill- Op _ Oldmetro prlmilivo. arrollada depende-d del numero de dtentes del engranaje EI Didmetro pr-imitive desarrollado es igual 01 paso.P xN :-: = 3. I Esta es la norma fundamental de todo engranaje y se Ie denomlna cfrculo primitivo. y 10 longilud del Didmetro prtmittvo des. Engronajes de cadena. .708 5 x J. EI paso circunferencial este dodo.tes: Op = M X N. se puede imaginor el mon'aje de dos cilindros frotendc uno sobre el ofro (figura 1). slendo tan simple 10 regia que no consiste en mas que el paso contiene una.CALCULO DE ENGRANAJES INTRODUCCI6N Uno de los mas importantes ELEMENTAL en las mdquinas es el medios de movimiento sistema de engronojes. Fig. estos se clasifican como sigue: Destinados a transmitir mevrmtentc de ejes parole los: I. es Igual a . por ejemp!o. M = Modulo no sera nunca un nutompoco . ENGRANAJES RECTOS este paralelo. tres. prtmtuvo.. 105 multiples de :-: en del sistema de Modulo etc. Engranajes c6nicos. 5 a Los formulas generales M del M6dulo = P J. P x N P = Paso circunferencial. Tornillo 5ln~fin y su rueda. N = II. ---a2 son: 410 = Modulo 5 PASO CIRCUNFERENCIAL Los engranajes 'pueden tener Infinidad de tamaftos. ~ De = Didmetro exterior. tenemos que un engranaje tiene 10 mflimetros de paso. se proveen las superficies en contacto de dientes.1416. Con este sistema los deslizamlentos son l6gicos.- P X N . del M6dulo multiplicado por ). cunferencrcl. l Numero de dientes. y para evitar esto. por tanto. 10 ventaja de este sistema reside en que el Dicimetro tivo y Didmetrc exterior son siempre numercs enteros. este inconque para un juego es fraccionaria. 5. M _ M6c1ulo. 10 rotaci6n Para transmitir un movimiento circular continuo de un eje Q M6oULO Se senoia que para todo cdlculo de Dicrnetro primitivo M6dulo. correspondiendo 5 mtlimetros 01 espesor del dtente y 5 milimetros 01 espcc!o entre dos dientes. el Didmetro prtmittvo ventente es particularmente molesto porque Hevc consigo de engranajes 10 cote de distcncic entre ejes y dtdmetros Para veneer esta dificultad se toma como paso Circular lugar de tomar numeros enteros. este sera medido en el Dicrnetro primitivc. EI Diumetro . La formula para determlnar e! Didmetro del circulo prlmltlvo es: M6c1ulomuillplicado por el •• mero de dle. Engronojes helicoidales ejes paralelos. pero no es Diometro primitivo esl. N Ejemplo: Supongomos metros y tiene 80 dientes. por tonto. y. Y u. Destlnados fransmltlr movimlento IV. el M6dulo mere entero. veces el numero trensmfnde por uno de ellos pondrd en movlmiento circular continuo al otro. etrc que M = intervendrci el factor P J. como yo se dijo.. siendo este igual 01 paso dividtdo por ). V. se mide el Dicimetro exterior y este se divide por el numerc de dientes que tenga el engranaje. en sentldo inverso del primero.1416. ddndosele el nombre de paso c. y se preclsa definlr una unldad de medlda. una parte de cada diente se establece al Interior del cillndro 1150. aumentando dos dientes. dos. VI. y ~ste Ie determlna por la dlstancia de un punto de un dlente a otro correspondlente al dlente slgulen".1416. multtphccdo per el nGmero de dientes. Engranajes rectos 0 cilindricos. este circulo es el punto de partida para el cdlculo de engranajes. por consiguiente. He cqul una formula sencilla para encontrar el Modulo de un engranaJe.. Silo adherencia de los dos cilindros es suflcjente. Si se toma para el paso un numero enter-c.1416. y la otra al exterior.

5 x P.73 mm 0. R = Radio del pie del diente. ~. DIAMETRO De e = 0.26 mm -e c ~ c -. A = Dp + dp 22' =N + n xM Americano Standard 4 0. que en 1899 cpltcc este sistema a dtverscs organismos de mcqutncs .. furrrlu!{(s En funci6n de las dtsnntes exigencias de 10 construcclon moderna de mdqut nos y elementos de trcccion. L = Modulo.. equivalente 01 Modulo 6."1963 0.35 h = 2. marcando sus normas de una manera distinta a Fellows. -----T- INTERIOR peimitivo."0893 = 2. per tanto vamos a comparar los distintos ststemqs tomando por referencia el Dtcmetrcl Pitch num. y se generchzc muy lentamente. las diferentes partes de p.lacionada con las alturas de 10cabeza y del pie del diente."0893 = 2.26 mm 2Qo 2O" DIFERENTES los cuales vamos a detallar. y uno de los que primero se ccnecte fue el diente «Stub ». traducido 01 espcjicl «diente sin punta».10 mitad de 10 sumo de los Didmetros pr-imitives. ·ii r--e 0'0 a. = Dp (2 x I). c = 0. La Common de Normchzacion Alemana (DIN) adopta el sistema de diente «Stub» conservando las alturas normales del diente : tcmbten 10 American Standard en su norma tiene uno ligera venecten. Modulo. P = Paso circunferencial. siguio cnclcgo procedimiento de dentado."1075 = 2."3927 0. Este Dldmetro este compuesto del Didmetro primitivo. = L = Altura de 10 cabeza del diente.'1<111<1 In los Dtcmetrcs de un engranaje."2355 0. fue precise estudiar engranajes de elevadas condiciones de reststenctc. menos dos veces = Drdmetrc interior. PITCH 4 e L / h Diferenclc en altura con el diente normal 0. su resultado fue excelente. Esta innovcclon se debe a 10 coso americana Fellows Shaper Co."200 0. FORMAS DE LOS DIENTES Aparte del sistema de dentado yo descrtto."3927 0. Dimensiones en pulgadas 151 - - 150- . sino que los dtentes estdn tombren relacionados con el . Posteriormente 10 coso R. .5 x P EXTERIOR Dp. R = OJ x M6dulo (mciximo)."250 0. Nuttall Co. Nuttall 0."250 0."4318 = Drstenc!c entre ejes. P=c +e = 3. es igual 01 Didmetro D. y veamosen que conststen esos diferencias."3927 0. CENTROS SISTEMA Dtemetrcl 10 altura del pie del diente. / = 1. "'" 200 DISTANCIA Esta dutcnc!c A ENTRE EJES 0 DE DOS RUEDAS Fellows 5'" 4 0.167 x Modulo.j."450 0. a partir (claro estci) del circulo prtrnitivc.' 'i' . segun veremos despues.1416 X Modulo. ('qura 2.DIMENSIONES DE LOS DIENTES EN FUNCI6N DEL M6DULO EI M6dulo no solo sirve para caracterizar rlwnk vc dc nonuon . existen otros perfiles de drentes. De = Dp + 2M. D. encontrando su lugar preferente en 10 industria del cutomovil y mdqumcs-herrcmtentcs."200 0. o M6dulo multiplicado por el numero de dientes mas des. = Espesor del diente. De = M x (N DIAMETRO 01 + 2).167 x Modulo. = Espacio entre dientes."450 es igual a . modificando los angulos de presion. il = Altura total del diente. mas des veces et = Dicimetro exterior. Altura del pie del diente. ambos casas muestran una diverse opinion re. cdvirttendo antes que respecto 10 cingulo de presion existe una completa conformidad.

de diente «Stub» 2()O de dngulo emclecdasuntverque en casi todas en concreto Frances).Referente a los corocteristicos fundomentoles que deben conocerse sobre estes sistemas son los siguientes: Norma Fellows.5708 = Oiametral Pitch = 0. Norma reolizodo sfendo C. que los el en cuento de Didmetro primitivo +( 2 x De"nominodor ~iometrol Pitch )" Hosto presi6n.H16 exterior = Numero de dientes Oiometrol Pitch + 1.1416" Numerc de dientes Americana de Pubrt- Standard A. -151- -153 - .8 = Oiometrol Pitch Pitch 0.1416 Paso circunferenciol Norma American = Diometrol Pilch _ - Oiametro primitivo x 3.25046X Paso.5 x Paso. oqui 10 que se refiere hocer para de los diversos puede por el a 10 forma comisiones si bien y conviene a pesor 0 presente que estos son los normos de normolizaci6n nada es digno 10 mecdnico. Paso Diometrol Pilch = 3. A.5729 x Paso" 3.250 x Paso cf rcunferenciul.H16 Paso circunferenciol = Oiometrol Pitch Diente normal en un pin6n de 10 dientes.!. M.3183 X Paso. [Ccmrte 20 0 • de Ncrrnchzcctcn e! cuol Formulas un perfil de diente que 10 empleo el angulo Altura de presi6n de 10 cobezo yo 10 industria cuyo fundomento Altura de 10 cabezo del diente = 0. M. salmente.75 x M6dulo.inodores el Diometrol Pitch que servird para determinor los alturas de los dientes Formulas: Didmetro primitivo Dldmetro = Ncmero de dientes Diometrol Pitch Numero de dientes X Paso 3. Altura de 10 cabeza del diente = Denominodor Nuttal Diometral Pitch los nociones supere trobojo odopt6 vlene trobojon normolizor mejore mencionorse. de tenerse frcncesc. (Ascctccton cantes de Engranojes) Formulas: Altura de 10 cobezo del diente 0.1"'16 Neme-c de dientes = Oiametro primitivODiametro primitivo x 3.. M6dulo. G. DE l()O DE IS· Drcmetrcl Pitch = Numero de dientes Die metro prtmitivo «STUB» " COMPARADO EL DIENTE NORMAL 3. los numerodores representon 01 Diemetre! Pitch por el que se determino el Didmetro prirnitivo.300 x Paso ctrcunferenctcl. N. y los deno.95 FORMA DEL DIENTE CON. Altura del pie del diente = Diometrol Altura "total del diente = Diome~~~1 Pitch = 0. X Altura del pie del diente = 0.6 Dtumetro prtrnnivo Dicimetro Numerc = Numerodor exterior = de dientes Diometral Pitch Espesor del diente en el Didmetro primitivo 1. Altura del pie del dtente Dtdmetro primitivo = 0. 0. = Numero de dientes Dtcmetrcl Pitch del diente = 0.1416 Numero de dientes .

PRECISION Dimension a calcular Dlente «Stub» en un pift6n de 10 dientes. puede observarse que el DI6metro primitivo se encuentra en 10 pre. Se clasifican en tres grados: Clase A.7766 x Circular Pitch.. nada se hizo en materia de engranajes can las caracteristicas del diente tan originales como este sistema Bostock y Bramley. con una velocidad peri(erica que exceda con una velocidad peri(erica de 230 corrientes. -- 2. apreci6ndose la enorme ventaja sobre todo otro sistema 0 norma de dtente. con una veiocidad Clase 8.ametrai Pitch 2.i-=-a=m=et.. engranajes de 600 metros por minute. diente normal de 15· y 2()O y el sistema de que se trata.5 x circular Pitch. t-----.155- 0.7162 X Circular Pitch ----Circular Pitch. ----~--- Clase B.+4 DiQmetral Pitch ~ X Espesor del diente en el Did1. indicaremos un procedimienfo que revoluciona fodo 10 hasta ahora de uso normal. 1.. xi midad del pie del diente en el pin6n. 0. en el mayor deseo de dar a conocer todos los tipos de engranajes extstentes. puede verse la zona de rodadura y desIizamiento. ~/a~e C: Tlpe comerctql para engranajes pef'lfef'lca In(erior a 360 metros por minute. las cuales muestran dlversas comparaciones relacionadas con la cremallera.5708 metro prtmuivo.5 x CIrcular Pitch..25 X Otro perfil de diente que alcanza una gran aceptaci6n.aVi~ci~n.p. cajas redueteres para turbinal de vapor en -154 - L Espesor del dtente en el Did1. y en la casi terminaci6n de 10 cabeza del diente en la rueda y cremallera. 0.ente. cuya aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes reductores de velocldad.--h0. D. y sv usc mas generaiizado es engranajes helicoidales con ejes parolelos. 0. Alta close. 'D"ia"'m=etCCroco. es el «British Standard».:r=a"l P"it"c"-h --------_ ~ _ Altura del pie del diente. Finalmente. . se trata de un perfil de diente de inmejorable resultado. 'D'. Tembten Conocido el Diametral Pitch Conocido el circular Pitch. y ctrcs cpltcccrones especiaJes. utilizdndose mucho.3183 x Circular Pitch. Altura total del d. Las f6rmulas para este sistema de engranajes son las siguientes: Clase A.-CLASE COMERCIAL 0. este perfil tiene un 6ngulo de 2()O y su aplicaci6n principal es: engranajes de tracclbn.]979 0. muy especialmente utllizados en la propulsi6n de buques accionados por turbinas de vapor. pero muy aplicado: este es el sistema Bostock y Bramley. . -_ 0. Precision.3183 x Circular Pitch Altura del pie del diente Altura total del dtente. para engranajes a 900 metros por minuto. por tanto. Sus caracteristicas son notables.25 DiametraTPTich ~ ."583 circular Pitch.5708 metro prtmittvo ----oiQmetrOl Pitch ..-- Altura de 10 cabeza del diente. como podro observarse en los graficos que se publican en la coleccl6n de datos sobre engranajes de este hbrc. que trate de cumplir la aplicaCi6n especial aSignada a ~ste. muy poco conocido.-ALTA CLASE C.itc--c.

o» 1I0rlllai ell el perfil de los d. Para engranajes helicoidales Q unQ seccion en dngulo recto - el perfil del con IQ helice.nones. diente aplicado Seccion normal de los ihentes 157cnqronando.Alta close.ente para cremallera y ruedas. Secc.Trazado "British Standard" para el perfil del diente en la cremallera y fresas para tallar este sistema. . Close B. Multlpllcar los valores dados por el paso.entes para p. Engranajes Bostock & Bramley SecC/on normal en el perfil del d. 156- .

. 0 4) e: -0 -0 ... e: 4) -0 -0 -0 e~ .. 4) L- -:J e: 0 e: o M -0 e: 4) M 4) -0 '0 '. -0 -0 " L. 4) e In o u '" ....159- . 0 In O~ '" " N L..~~. 4) e: 4) o L. e: e: '0 Ie: ·u 0 C"'I 4) a: e -0 Lee 0- E E L- UZ -158 - 0 0 .....::to 4) II e EoE :::l 4) 4) U £%: :::l ......... 4) 4) In e: 4) ....--! 0 4) i I u --_ e: 4) >-Z E e LCO -0 g 4) 4) >...~ ...In -- ~~ -- . U o e: CO 0 4) ..~ E L- .. 4) 0 r----..... -- 4) -0 e: e .....

---------,
o .... C
v
V .... C
VI

I
,0 0-'

E

o
VI

N V

:::J -0 -0

o ...
o

v\

-0

;I=>

c

o
CO
\1

o

0::

o II

-0 V. :::J 0::

o

V .... C

VI

v
-0

o

"'" II
-0
IC C

VlOVlC'lCO'-DVI"'C'lC'I-C'lOOCOCO C'lC'IC'IC'I---_-'-D--'-D-VlO

°

VI

~~6~~~~~~~~6~~~~
C'lC'IC'I---------

o,

"..,NNNM-----------

---------------'
160 161-

eI)

~I~
10:

Formulas para enqr cncjes sequn norm as Inglese y cmerrccnc. en Iunc.on del diornetrul PITCH Y circular PITCH Diamelral, PITCH. nombre bc]o e! que se comprende e! no mero de dientes per pul9o~a Ingleso en el dtdmetro prtrrunvo. Ejemp!o: A uno rueda de 84 dtentes que mid a 14 p~Jg~dQS de dtdmetro prtmtttvc Ie corresponde 6 dientes per pulgoda; por constqutente. el diametral PITCH es = 6. Circular PITCH, se. comprende el paso circular del diente en medida Inglese sabre el circulo prrmit t'vo. PITCH, troducido 01 espcfiol = PASO.

0 el)
~

Formulas segun

efdicmetrn!

PITCH

I eII
0.. 0

Formulas segun Para obtener Circular

el circular PITCH Formula

Para obtener Dtcmetrct

Formula

a..
C ~

."

W

PITCH P
Circular

P=

N

0

PITCH P'
Dicmetrcl

3.1416 P' = -P3.1416

:;
."

'0 Qj

> t=
~ ~

E
>..

PITCH P'
Numero de dientes

3.1416 P' = --PN=P x0

.

PITCH P
Numero de dtentes

P=

-p-,-

.!:! a:: .~ ..

.r:.

N PITCH OIAMETER o
Me" 0"

N=OxP-2 0=0-25

N N 25 P PITCH OIAMETER
(Dremeteo primitlvo)

N=

3.1416 x 0 P' N x P' 3.1416(N + 2) x_F" 3.1416

a..
~

:;
u

0
~

.£ 0 a;

.. ...= 'u
E 'jE

a

g

M

[Didmetro

primitivo)

0
Dlemetro

o
0= O=~ W=

=p~ 0+

0= 0= 0

0
Didmetro

U

~ I-

.. .... Ea
'ti
Qj <: ':::>

.!:! .~

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del dienfe

EXTERIOR 0
Altura total del diente

0+25

W
Altura de 10 cabeza

2.157 P

W
Altura de la ccbeze

W = 0.6866 x P' P' 3.1416 P'

E a

5

1 5 = pT= 1.5708
p

5
Espesor del diente

5=

'"

..

til

----NNNN~~~"'~~m~o

"

.~~ ----- -~ ------~ ~~~~~~ ~~
-."2 -

Espesor del diente

T
Distancia entre centros

T
Dtstenete entre centros

T='2

C= C=~

N+ n 2P 2 -

C

C=

C 163 -

(N + n) x P' 6.2832

Detalles para el uso del calibre especial para medir dientes de eflgranajes

Calibre especial para medir dientes de engranaje

TABLA PARA EL CALCULO DE VALORES PARA FIJAR LAS DIMENSIONES EN EL CALIBRE
Numero

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun et sistema de Modulo ab bo

Ncmerc

d.
dientes

Para engranojes rectos segon el sistema de MOdulo ab

Numerc

d.
dientes

Para engranajes rectos segun el sistema de Modulo ab

-

be

~
1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.571

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17

18

1.062 1.056 1.051 1.047 1.044 1.041 1.038 1.036 1.034

1.564 1.565 1.566 1.567 1.567 1.568 1.568 1.568 1.569

zs:
24

19 20 21 22

25 26 27

1.032 1.031 1.029 1.028 1.027 1.026 1.025 1.024 1.023

1.569 1.569 1.569 1.569 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570 1.570

28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39 40-42 43-44 45-00

1.022 1.021 1.020 1.019 1.018 1.017 1.016 1.015 1.014

Los vclores de esto tobla son para hater 10 correcci6n por el numero de drentes. hasta 45. siguiE:ndo 10 diferencic entre 10 cuerda y el orco; Q portir de 45 dientes. esto diferencte es instqniflccnte, y. por tanto, dentro de 10 mas extqente tolerancio. Para determtnc r los vclores de fljccion en el calibre (altura de 10 cebezo. ab, y espesor, be) cuondo los ruedos se odopten 01 sistema de Modulo, los vclores ab y be se multiplicon por el Modulo con que se t-ete de construir el enqrcnc]e, EJEMPLO: Determinar 10 fqcctcn del calibre para medir los dientes de una rueda de 25 dientes tallada con el Modulo 5. ab altura de la cabeza del diente : la tabla indica 1.025 x 5 = 5.125. be = espesor del diente en el circulo primitivo; 10 tabla indica 1.570 x 5 7850 N

P
M Dp

A B C D

Altura

normal.

Altu ra corregida. Correccion. Espesor efectivo.

Nurnero de dientes. Paso Modulo. Didmetrc primitive. Espcc!c entre dientes. Cuerda. Flecha del areo. Altura del diente a partir del dicimetro primitivo = M.

FORMULAS
90 N Dp

x sens
cos ") 2

Dp (1 ab = L be = 5. ab

+

F.

Pure

dentaduras

tntertores.

L-

F.

-lM-

-

165 -

La medicion de ruedas y pinones helicoidales
En los mecanismos de precisi6n se hace necescrtc un riguroso control de dtdmetros en zonas de ccntacto en los floncos de los dientes. ~sto puede rechzone, a folta de operates especioles, (on un senctllo procedimiento, y por media dl -",,_r,.,('nl(' '(''1'''''' -to+otto ,., , .....,d,",,'lr'nn
\(>

Mum. de dientes 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

Dlentes pares. Factor F. Angulo de presi6n 14'/,· 12,415 14.436 16.454 18.468 20.482 22.493 24.502 26.512 28.520 30.526 32.532 34.536 36.542 38.547 2()O 12.413 12.428 16.+40 18,450 20.458 22.465 24,470 26.475 28.481 30.484 32.487 34.491 36.494 38.496 25· 12,431 14.+42 16.450 18.458 20.463 22.468 24.472 26.475 28.479 30.482 32.484

Num.
de dientes 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 53 M6dulo 6 6.5 7 8 9 10 11

Dientes tmpc res. Factor F r-_~~gulo 14f
I /~ ...

~

de pres~~_... __ 2()O 11.258 13.302 15.335 17.359 19.378 21.394 23.406 25.417 27.427 29.435 31.+42 33.+49 35.454 37.460 39.463 41.467 43.472 45.475 55,486 Modulo 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 25· 11.277 13.318 15.347 17,368 19.384 21.398 23.409 25.419 27.427 29.433 31,439 33.+44 35.+48 37.453 39.455 41.458 43.463 45.465 55.474 Fodor K 1.954 1.814 1.696 1.587 1.411 1,270 1.155 1.058 1.016

34.486
36.488 38.489

I,,_,',

i--'I"I''1

'

\..1 ~1~lt.:!I'U

vvu

'I",'\U

JulidL

.....vd c opo r ur sc scqun

40.553
42.557 +4.561 54.576

40.499
42.502 +4.503 54.510

40.491
42.492 +4.493 54.498

el Modulo 0 Drcmetrcl Pitch Ingles. Deben prepororse dos bur-res (on ones discos esfencos que puedon svstttu.r las bolos, y cuyo detolle se indica en el dfbu]o. los did metros mas convententes se determmaran por lo!. sigulentes for-mules
Q

40
42 52

11.256 13.307 15.348 17.376 19.400 21.420 23.437 25.452 27.464 29.476 31.485 33.495 35.503 37.511 39.516 41.523 43.529 45.534 55.554 Fodor K 4,233 3.906 3.628 3.175 2.822 2.540 2.309 2.117

PARA
Drcmetro

[l

SISTEMA DE MODULO = ---KPITCH
=

en mm. de los rodtltos esfertcos

1150

M6dulo x 25,4 1 1.25 1.5 1.75

Factor K 25.400 20.320 16.933 14.514 12.700 11.289 10.160 9.230

M6dulo 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.5 5 5.5

Factor K 8.466 7.815 7.257 6.773 6.350 5.6+4 5.080 4.619

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL
Dscmetro en pulqadcs de los rodillos esferrcos

1.750 Diamefra!

EI factor K sera et que perfenezca 01 modulo que se uti lice sequn tabla Despues se precede a determiner 10 dimension D sobre rodi!los esfertcos. cuyo formula es:

2
2.25 2.5 2.75

PARA

EL SISTEMA
D en mm.
=

DE MODULO
-KF x 25.4

PARA EL SISTEMA DIAMETRAL PITCH
D en pulgadas

12

24
25

= --~-~metre! Die

ADVERTENCIA
Para espescres

IMPORTANTE

EI factor F sera el que pertenezca. en functon de numero de dientes y ongulo de presion sequn tabla. EJEMPlOS: Pinon de 26 dtentes. Modulo 5. Angulo de presion. 14 Peeler F = 28.520 Faclor K = 5,080 La conversion del modulo y diametral M = Modulo M= es 10 siguienfe DP Drcrnetrc!
I .,'

y alturas en los dientes

de las ruedas helicoidoles, en 10 correcci6n de ajuste del calibre, deben tomarse los volores a. b, c. por el numero de dientes ficticio NF. segun 10f6rmula: NF = Num. de dientes
COSl~

El USC DEL CALIBRE ESPECIAl. PARA MEDIR DIENTES DE ENGRANAJE

=

Pitch

-i5P166 -

25,4

DP = _2,S,~
M normal.

Angulo de 10 hehce 167-

Todos los cdlcutos pr ecedentes se refieren a modulo y diametral

MEDICION POR

DE LA Ot.NTAUUKA U~ U" ~"UftAI"'''''''1;. MEDIO DE UN CALIBRE CORRIENTE

Tabla funcion

mdtccdore del numero

del numcro de dientes 2()O EJEMPLO

de espccrcs del engranaje PARA

compt cndtdos en 10 medrdc

K en

y cingulo de presion.
SU 45

usa
Ndm. PRESION 22· 30' DE 18 27 36 45 54 63 81 ENGRANAJE 12 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 = = = = = = = = 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 12 15 22 30 37 44 52 59 = = = = = = = = 14 21 29 35 43 51 58 65 C. 25·
M6dIJlo. Pow Espccto entre d,ente, E,pt',or del dienle. Profundidaddel dienle

Angu 10 de presion. NUMERO DE ESPACIOS

Ndm.

de dientes. DE

de espectcs.

C

=4

Dimensiones del diente en los pasos normales del modulo
~m·! ",
»

ANGULO 14" 30' 17· NUMERO 12 26 18 51 63 76 88 = = = = = = = 25 37 50 62 75 87 tOO 12 22 33 43 54 65 75 86 DE

20DIENTES 12 = 19 = 28 = 37 = 46 = 55 = 64=72 73 =

1 3,1<4 1,57 2,17

1,25 3,93 1,97 2,71

1.5 4,71 2,36 3.25

t,75 5.5 2.]5 3,79 6.28 3,14 4,33

1,l5 7,01 3.54 4,87

l,5 7.B5 3,93 5,42

C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1,75 8,64 4,32 5."

J,2S 9,42 4,71 6.5 10,21 5,11 7.04

= 21 = 32 = 42 = 53 = -64 = 74 = 85 = 96 C

MOdulo. Peso .. EspaCio entre dientes. Espesor del dienle. Profundidaddel d'enle.

mm
" »
»

, ,

1,5 11 5.5 7.58

3,75 11,78 5." 8,13

12,56 6.29 8,67

4,lS 13,35 6.68 9,21

14,13 7.07 9.75

....

4,75 14,92 7.46 10,29

5,25 15,70 7.86 10.83 16,4' '.25 11,]8

5,5 17,28

....

5.75 18.06 9,03 12.46

11,92

M
It

= Modulo_
de dientes Formula K~ general

= Espccios.

N ::::;:Ncm.

del engranaje. en radianes. para cualquier N

1 = Angulo de presion

,,=
cingulo

Y = Num. Angulo

de espacios

MOdulo Peso ..

18,84

6,15 19,64 9.82 13,>4

6,5

7,5 21,99 11 15.17

20.42 10,21 14,08

de presion.

hpaCioenlredientes », 9.43 Espt'Klrdeldie,nle »I Profundioad del dreete. » 13

n.56
11,78 16.25

25.13 12,57 17,32

28,27 14,14 19,5

1t 31.42 15,71 21,67

11 34.56 17.28 23,83

11 37,7 18,85 26

de presion: --" : X N)] 1)1
MOdulo Pesc. , Espocioentredienles hpes~rdel diente Profundidad deJd,ente 13 «l.84 20,42 28,17

MI1I'(Y +~.
Formula

) co. «+ paro

cos «(190:

,.
43,98 21,99 30,33

15 47,12 23,56 32,S

SO.27 25,13 3U7

..

17 53.41 26.70 )6,83

11 56,55 28,27 19

59.69 29,85 41,17

"

62,83 31,42 43.ll

'"

11 65,97 32,98 45,S

n
69,12 34,56 47,67

14" 30' simpltflccdc

K

= M 1(3.04280 X Y) + 1.5218 + (0.00514
Formula paro 15 simplificada:
D

K.~

M 1(3.03455 X Y) + 1.5177 + (0.00594 X N)]
Formula para 20" simplificada:

M6dulo POKl_. hpesor del dienle » Profundidod deldiente.

15 78,54 39,27 53,9

11 87,96

30 94,25 47.12 ".7

n

100,53 50.26

K~

M 1(2.952 X Y) + 1.476 + (0.014 X N)]
168-

60.'

43,98

..

l5 109,96 5",98 75,5

11 109,38 59,69 '1.9

125,66 62,83

..

50 157,08 78,54 107,8

".3

169 -

Tallado de ruedas reetas con dentado evolvente
JUEGO DE FRESAS
pora M6dulo 1· 10 5 para rued as de 26- 3~ dientes 6 » 35- 54 » 7 » SS-1H» 8 » 135-cremallera 8 fralO. por juego, utilizoda. N.- 1 para ruedas de 12 - 13 dtentes N.· »2 » 14 -16» » »3 » 17 - 20» » » -4 » 21 - 2S» » N.» » »
15 fr..... por juego, utilizada. 1 para ruedas de 12 dientes 1 II. » 13» 1 » 14» 2'/. » 15-16» »3 » 17-18» » 3'/, »~ » » 19-20» 21-22»

Resistencia del diente en los engranajes
EI diente de un engranoJe trcbaja por reststence a 10 flexion, debe ser calculado en
0

'I

como

un solido

encostrado c sfue r z c cntculo soportara

10 base, soportondo
de 10 cabeza el por tanto. se si un solo teoria diente esta
no

en 10 extremidad cargo; rd como

el esfuerzo

tangencial. sobre por Inde nos

poro M6dulo 11 y mayores N." 411'1. para ruedas de 23- 25 dientes » S· » 26- 29 » » 5 lIt » 3()" 34 »
»6 » 6 'I. »7 » 7'/, »

La mds notable Mr. Wilfred veshgcdc los datos para
LeWIS,

en Prlcdelfia. para

materia fue dodo a conocer el 15 de octubre de 1892. y todo cuanto se resolver los cdlculos en los casos cornentes tanto,

»
» »

35- ~1 35- S~ 55- 79 BO-1H»

» » »

y rncdrficado. este basado en los prtnclptos LEWIS. A continuccion se don
mas elementales los de altos estudros de prcyeccion y rendinuentcs rno xtmcs superior de 10 tectuco : por que esftmcmos suficrentes :

enqrcncjes. dejando aquellos
hmrtoremos

Num. 8, para ruedas de 135 dientes hasta cremallera

que trabajan a estas formulas

en el grado
generales,

FRESAS PARA «DIAMETRAL

PITCH»
0

DESIGNACION

FORMULAS tangenciol paro e!

Si el calculo para engronojes se efectue segun Diametral numerc de (resas por juego es como sigue:

Circular

Pitch. el
Presion diente V Velocidad
0

esfuerzo perifertca

8 fresas por juego. utilizadas para Diametral Pit"", 16·1' /. N.o 1 para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N.O 5 para rued as de 21·25 dientes »2 » SS-IH dtentes »6 » 17-20 »
»3 »~ » » 35- S~

en Kg.
0

p=

.~~ V

lineal en el diepor sea

26- H

» »

»7 »8

»»

1+16 12-13
I

» »

metro p rimtttvo gundo

en

metros

v « ~~~=

60

--P--

7S

X

F

15 fresas por juego, utilizadas pa~a Diametral

Pitch 2 It .. 1
M

Fuerza en C. V. (caballos transmitir. MOdulo. Espesor del diente del diente. del diente. de reststenc,c de seguridad
prtmitrvo

de vapor)

Nem. 1r para ruedas de 135 dientes a cremallera N,o 11/. para ruedas de 80-13-4 dientes para ruedas de 21-25 dientes N."S
» » 2

2'/. »3

» » »

~

3

'I.

~·I.

» » » » » »

55- 79 ~2- S~ 35- ~1 30- H 26- 29 23- 2S

»

»
» » »

» » » » »

5'/, 6 6'/, 7 8

»
ulfimas

» 7 'I.

» » » » » » porque

19-20 17·18 15-16

en 10 roiz. M=\~ de 10 seccion coeficiente de F= minute. p -~

» »

_H

Altura Ancho

14 13 12

»
» » »

w
C Dp N
i=

Momento rectangular. Carga
Didmetro

(ve c se tabla

VCX132
de volores C)

0

Se advierte de M6dulo.

que las dos tablos marcan

se dan can

a conecer a

en America

trcbc]o por flexion

en Kg. mm-. (en metros).

xV

(U. S. A.) e Inglaterra

las fresas

numero~

10 inverse del sistema

=

Ncmerc

de revotuctones por

-

170-

-171

50 % Acero al niquel: 14 -17 24 . 1.42 5-6 10 16 3 Bronce fosforoso Duraluminio.5 5.5 .9 1 pldstlccs. . fenolita.5% 24 .25 3.15 .5 .27 NI = 3.5 Valores C.5 1. Modulo PC mm. y estdn comprendidos entre 70 a 80 de la resistencia a la trcccion. etc.40 .4 0.235 x M - 172- 173 - .7 0.25 % C = 0.25 2.75 % .6 6 en adelante 3 . X rnrn- Tratamiento termico de ruedas dentadas con dientes cementados (Vcleder o inclusive para rued as con dientes rectificados) 18 a 19 Kgs.5 . Materias 1 1.0.25 . Acero al carbon~: C = 0.2 0.10 moldecdo.2.25 .75 2 . Ni = 1 % Ni = 1.1.2.3 0. Acero Cr = 0.45 Cr = 0. rnrn- 4-5 9 .5 0.6 0.4 4.3.8 0. 1.5 3. Cuproaluminio Aluminio.75 al cromo niquel: 27 .75 Del modulo 0.75 .31 PC = Profundidad de penetrncron de la cernentccton que deben tener los dientes M = Modulo_ Modulo PC mm.3 % se opliccrd la siguiente FORMULA Aprox.3.28 31 .Resistencia del diente en los engranajes Tabla para valores (C) coeficiente de tr obojo a la flexion en la raiz del pie de los diente s MATERIALES Fundiclon Acero C= Kgs. basados en los limites de elcsncrdcd de los diversos materiales a ernplear. __ Limite eldstlco C 2 PC FORMULA MX n 2 - x 15 100 = 0.0.

_D_.059 + 0.015 (!jxcentricidod CD Suma Error de division de des flancos de drentes. __ .en'. E.012 a 0.-.006 I De 0.14 -0.020 a 0. del diente 01 QguJero.. derechc 0 Izquierdo.-C"~-.-:: ~l''.012 0.O~ Mayordel0 De 0.cos De 0..004 I a (). mdximo sobre el flanco del diente.:~ LA i De 0.014 a 0.0_a_ir-a_O..025 De 0.25 a 5 -0. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras frlsadas 0 rectificadas CLASE ALTA PRECISION TOLERANCIA DE51GNACION EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 1a~ Sumo Error de division..ooa 0.10: 0. (!) 0..008 a 0. respectc De 0. __0~.030 0.014 MODULO 3.050 0. de dos floncos de dtentes.020 EN LA DISTANCIA Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR ENTRE DE51GNACION 1a3 Didmetro exterior 15 A.21 + O.010 De 0. TOLERANCIA ® Pcrcleusrnc del d..025 a 0. ><.008 a 0.ooa 0.008 De 0._'_0 ~ __ ~ __ fA\ Error maximo sobre e! flonco \:!J del drente.14 -0.15 -O.012 O:~ Engranajes cilindricos.010 De 0.a~n~a~le~s' Holgura entre dte nte s :~~ 'S_'_A_.060 +-_~-+_a I.010 PerpendicuJaridad de Ie cora del diente respectc 01 ogujero.---a I ~ ~.005 De 0. EJES 0. b .030 EJES Mayor de 10 De 0.12 0.015 0.03 a O.-.15 -0.010 De 0.oa -r=-~~~'~~~~~~De 0.008 0.025 Mds de 10 -0.003 a 0.0011) .020 5.o!S a 0.01 5 a 0.".020 CD ® ® Parolelismo Excentricidod maximo entre e! por d ~~~~~e_e~n~9~.032 -----------Duto oc a ISA -~. E· a.012 0..010 7 a 10 De 0.020 De 0.5 a 10 -0.05 o.-----.03 7 a 10 De 0.06 De O.5 a 10 Mos de 10 -015 -024~ 1 Drc metr o e xte rro r ISA b II ('nlr~-~ - ":"4 .Y DIAMETRO EXTERIOR DESIGNACION __ .006 o. .02 a 0.e _~.010 ~.+ 0050 .26 + 0.20 + O.003 0.005 a 0.~7 + 0. de-echo 0 izquier do.5 a 7 De a 0.020 I Q) o. maxima entre el par de engranajes..010 a oms. : ~ f 9 0061 ItO 075 .075 0.~__ 01 oguJero TOLERANCIA respecto l__:_?._~__ oc-~OD~~ 1 '. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE PRECISION TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION EN LA DENTADURA -r-----.020 De 0.-----------f-------. CD ®Error Holguro entre dientes 15 A.002 Q 0._'2_ 0.010 a 0.5 a 7 De 0.02a +0. Drstcnctc entre ejes 15 A.05 a 0. -0.3 2) a 5 Q ~ EN DISTANCIA ENTRE ~ __ 5. De 0. 9.2~ + O.Engranajes cillndricos.061 0.032 a 0.03a + 0. 0 )32 - 174- 17:..05 De 0.003 De 0.005 0. I I •• 014 021 n 020 ~ 015 f-~~r)]q+.005 a o.03 De 0.OB a 0.

. p 1. Error del maximo CD @ 0.33 -0. (Mini mo. exterior Q -11.28 0.) X M - L = M.04 + 0.5 Q 10 Mayor de 10 D.. _ N + n 2 --2= ~.01 Q 0.1 ----.37 Altura del pie del diente.. M Dp De D._ N e = T=M x x 2. TOLERANCIA EN LA h = Altura L = Altura DISTANCIA EXTERIOR ENTRE EJES total del diente.04 0. O.O~ Q 0.015 ® Paralelismo diente 01 cqujero.13 0.08 0. = Diornetro exterior. A = Distancia entre ejes o centres.27 -0.03 Q 0.O. 0. Y DIAMETRO DESIGNACION MODULO 3 Q 5 3.167. = Espacio entre dientes.5 Q 10 Mcisde10 -0. 176 -- 2' P = M x 1.03 Q D.12 + 0. = Espesor del diente. + 2).05 M = ~= P = M x .07 Q O. 0.5708. el par D.015 D. = Didrnetro prirrntivo. de la cabeza del diente.) - . de dos Ilcncos de maxima entre dientes.15 D. DESIGNACION P = Paso.10 + 0. 0. = Diornetro interior. respecto 0. c= -. Dp D.05 Q 0.34 Dtstcnctc entre eje s IS A.0.167).06 0.05 Q 0.03 + 0. ~..06 + 0. D -10 + 0.Q2 De 0.Q2 Excentricidad de engranoles Holgura entre dientes I SA.e. h =M A = Dp = M x N.. tolerancias de fabricacion para dentaduras fresadas 0 rectificadas CLASE CORRIENTE TOLERANCIA DESIGNACION 3 Q FORMULAS GENERALES para engranajes rectos segun el sistema normal de Modulo EN LA DENTADURA MODULO 5 5.167 Di = Dp - (2M x 1. -177 R = 0..015 Q 0. derecho del el flanco izquterdo. De = M x (N ~.1 D. t=Mxl.16 0. -0. ( e = Modulo. R = Radio del pie del diente. 0. D-11.Engranajes cilindricos.01 D. + dfl.3 x M (Maximo.20 D.5708. f= Drc me tro IS A. 0.06 Q 0.Q3 CD @ Suma Error de division. sabre 0 dtente.27 ~0.

........... C Q) Q) Q. Q) Q) II> e "'0 0 II> E 0 0 Z to:: !...() :J "'0 Q) Q.. N 0 -0 t)......... 0 Q) Q) II> LI"'I c .. e Q) Q) E 0 !... :J "'0 0 . II> 0 e 0 Q) II> N :J "'0 "'0 0 0 0 "'0 Q) 0 0~ "'0 0 !.. 0 0 "'0 I"'l Q) 0 N Q) :J "'0 -1'3 e e 0 U t).. Ie Q..... e Q) 0 -178 179 . II> c 0 .... Q) E !. 0 . "'0 0~ 0 0 .() Q) !."'0 00 0 e0 0 ec !. !.

h = Altura normal del diente en 10fresa en funci6ndel ANGULOS DE PRESION MAS e = 0.96592 x DP r).= M x N. el trazado N = Numero de dientes FORMULAS x DP. = 0. de 23 a 25 dlentes 17 'I. = 0. = 0. 6 0 ~= 1 Minimo.96815 x DP 0. L = Ccbezc del diente = Modulo.22 x DP 75~ R. a 20-..33 X DP = 20" CT = 0. de fradel e = Espesor del diente. M ~ Modulo.= R. de 10 rueda. USUALES Para Para Pcrc '1 = 15" '.22 x DP ~~ = R. = 0. x DP = CT '. DATOS PARA DESTALONADO RI R:!R3= Radios para diente.5)( P (Holguro ancho H. -180 - Para complementos usar f6rmulas generales. » 10 a 13 » 25·. » 18a22 » 20 a 22·. e= -y-' P = Paso. c = Espacio CT = Dtcmetrc zado. A = 0 x 3.CONSTRUCCION para talla de engranajes DE FRESAS TIPO SIMPLE segun el sistema de Modulo TRAZADO DE LOS DIENTES para engranajes con menos de 30 dientes H = 3. = 140 I/~ » CT = 0.2140 x DP R.33 x DP I ~ Ruedas " » » » con mas de 25 dlentes 14 J I. N = Nemerc de dientes r=0.. M = M6<lulo. a 20-. entre dtentes. = 0.1416'=-N=r'f+i. n = Ncmerc de dientes cortontes de 10fresa. = CT = 0. M= Ii: P DP 3.321 x DP Cos. Radios de trazado = Rl~Rs.ralados de los dientes vf:anse las f6rmulas generales.068 x DP r = 0.1416 X T9 ~. c DE DP=Mx neutral.6 x M. n T= h +1 MOdulo. = 0. R.3xM. = 0. 10° Mdxlmo Angulo de incidencio.5 x P = DP x Sen = 0. I dientes.93969 x DP R.1416. DP. = 0. de presi6n. paso DESIGNACION '/ = Angulo de presion. II = N. ~= Angulo de flanco. P=Mx 3.07 x DP 75· R. » 14 a 17 » 22 '. DP '1 != Pie del diente. monos do 10 dlentes 25 a 28". r = Radio de pie del diente. . = Angulo de complemento.= Para . -181 - . del circulo DT ) Circulo de trazado de los DT= K K = Coseno del dnqulc = Drcmetro prlminvo.3 x M (MoxilT)o) 75· R.07 x DP R. ~ .

2 x t. DE N+2' PT = Paso del tornillo. N == Numero de dientes. Aquina automAticas de talla continua por el procedimiento de generaci6n . DP R =----s' 'X Angulo en el flanco del diente.H16. ~ == Angulo de complemento.5 x P.H16 x cotg v. FORMULAS P 3. CT = 0. \ Dtente normal = 14 I. = 20". » reforzado = 20:'.96592 x DP.. = Angulo total entre flancos.334 x M.5 x P. Para comptementol usar formulas generates.... r = Radio del pie del dtente. que sera el paso. i. dp = Dldmetro prtmttlvo. Fresas para tallar engranajes ractas y helicoidalas sobra .. = 141/1°.". c -' Espocio entre dientes.H16' M= DESIGNACION OP FORMULAS P= M x 3. -182 - SP = Paso de 10 espiral NO = Numero de dientes -t)x x 2 x t9 :. normal = 29°. e = Espesor c = Espuctc del diente. <= = 0..96815 x DP. T= (PT x 4cotg:> ~= I " \ Diente =I » r = 0. PR = Paso real 0 CT ~ Di6metro del clrculc de trazado. T = Aneho en el fondo del drente y uncho de 10 punta de 10 cuchillc para roscar. Para = 15·~ 11= 7S-. DESIGNACION M = M6dulo.. Cos. = Angulo de presi6n. h = Altura total del diente. 0 de /0 == DI6metro prrmtttvc. ~ngu'o de inclina- ci6n del dienfe o de la he/ice. Para. R = Radio para trazado del di~nte. h = 2. Ho'gura neutra.93969 x DP. x DP = CT.1'-:4"1-. R = 0. SP = dp x 3.05 x P. Para :r. ~ = 70". CT = 0. • =-= Espesor del diente.H16 =---. PR M Seno 1. DP= M x N. de = Didmetro exterior. M= M6dulo. P ~ Paso.H16. cos para roscar en el torno.on '('01 0 por el paso normal del M6dulo. de corte. de = dp + 2 x t.1iIJ.dp " 7. t = 1. R = Radio en 10cabeza del diente. ~ = 751/. PR = M x 3. • = 0.167 x M. = Angulo de inclinccion del filete hellce.6. de X 3 NO = ----v>T' J=h 183- J = Aneho del diente cortonte. = ---"'d"p--C:x~3". normal del modulo.Trazado de los dientes para engranajes con mas de 30 diente. t'i reforzado = 40". I = Alturas de 10 ccbezc y pie del diente (en este coso ambos iguoles). P DP M= 3. - + 3 mm. dp = de . 2. entre dientes. I Secc.3 x M (Maximo)..r-= 'l. de 10 fresc.-. . PT = ~. CT = 0.

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA
TlPO A DES'GNAC'ON TlPO 8 M = Modulo.

TORNILLO SIN-FIN Y SU RUEDA

P

=

Paso.
primitivo. exterior.

DP = Dtemetrc DE 01

=

TT-=.l' '
i

··ff !L;

.t~
~
.. ..J ....
Secc.on del

Didmetrc

T ~I ~
.

02 = Dremetrc mayor

Fie

y

scbre

or15105. entre ejes

j_L.::~::

, ._l

~.
fdetc segun cjc

E = Di5lancia de to rueda A = Ancho r

Y

sin-fin.

de to rueda. de 10 cebeze. pertfe-

FORMULAS

=

Radio

R = Concavidad rica.
:X

---------------1
DESIGNACION
M = Modulo. n

p M = 3.1416;
Paso para

P=M
el torno

X

3.1416.
entrada

s; el tornillo
0

= Angulo

de las caras. de dientes. de 10 ccbezc

N = Namere L = Altura

trene mas de un filete = P x n. de filetes
0

= Numero

entradas.

del diente. = Altura diente. FORMULAS T'PO A h = Altura diente. M_-P-_~ e = Espesor del diente entre dientes. M_ total del FORMULAS T'PO 8 de! pie del

P = Paso lineal.
rt

Tg' --_P-= = .~_. dp x 3.1416 dp
0

= Angulo de inclinacion 10 heltce. exterior. primitivo.

del tilete

d

de dp 2M dp 2L dp = de - 2M = de - 2L. d= de -2h; h = 2.167

=

+

=

+

de = Didmetro dp = Didmetro

L=M; e=2'

P

x M. 1_1.167xM.
p

(=2'

P
),1416

3.H16

N' x M.

c = Espacio

-1'1'
X M.

DP

d lR F

= Dldmetrc 01 fondo del htlo. = longitud = Extremos
de 10 parte sin rosca. roscada.

DE _ (N
DP=NxM.

+ 2) + +

1-----------1
NOTA. Se recomienda de ser la m4s rueda rests-

DE - (N
DP=NxM. D2

+ 2)
Rx x y R
P

~~ Hlete normnl f e 1//. = :~ Hlete reforzado 20°. = ~ Filete para pasos largos

30".

T
del fllete.

01

=

DE

(O..4775 x P), para
sin-fin y doble. de filete

tornillo simple

et
tipo

empleo A. por

=

2(

'l(

cos

1-) +
filete.

h = Altura
DE.

total del filete. de 10 cabeza

=

(P x cotq :' 4 -

(I

Ix

2

• x 'g e·

l = Altura

LR =
P x (4,5

tente. zecten.

y

sencillc

su meccnrse

A = 2.38 simple

01
A

=

DE
triple

(0.3183 x Pl. para

+ +

6 mm .. para

l = Al'uro
e = Espesor e = Espacio ~= Angulo T

del pre del filete. del fllete. entre filetes. del filete.

+ .~~e

di~~tes ~~~}.

y
P

doble

F = P; Nota. torntllos

R = 0.05 x P
Como norma Sin-fin de: actual' en los

y cu6druple.

En las para mara como dientes una

relaciones rueda

ta-

:Ie

2,38 X P simple

+

6 m m.

e l tornillo segun

sin-fin de 1-2-3-"

A

=
=

2.15 triple

5 mm .. para

cuedruple.

y
x

doble.

en el flanco

A=2.1S
triple R = 0.5 r=

P+
dp P.

5
M.

sea el nome-

R

0.5 x

dp -

M.

mm .. para

rc de flletes.

y

= Ancho en el fondo del filete y ancho de Ftlete simple y doble. ~ = 29". Ftlete triple y cucidruple, A = 40". 10 punta de 10 cuchilla para roscar.
del filete. flancos. = Angulo total entre

cu6druple.

x

R = Radio en 10 cebezc E
=

0.25 x

DP

+
2

dp

,;j

Filetes para pasos largos. ~ = 60°. En algunos casos tam bien se uti/iza 40° para. filete simple y doble.

-

184-

- 185-

Tornillo sin-fin y su rueda Relaciones que existen en diversos casos
1.' s: el nurnero de filetes y revoluciones por minuto de un tornillo sin-fin son conocidos, asi como el numero de dientes de la rueda. Se determina el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda por medio de la formula: Revoluciones N. de revoluciones N.' de la rueda

3.'

Velocidad

de ruedcs a tornillo

sin-fin compuestas.

DATOS PARA EL CALCULO
C = Tornillo sin-fin motriz con filete simple, girando a 1600 revoluciones. E = Tornillo ble filete. sin-fin a do-

D = Rueda de 80 dientes. F = Rueda de 40 dientes. Determinar el nurnero de revoluciones de la rueda F.

=,

del sin-fin

X N.' de filetes

EJEMPLO:

de dientes de la rueda

Tornillo sin-fin A tiene doble filete y gira a 240 revoluciones, la rueda B tiene 80 dientes, el nurnero de revoluciones de esta rueda sera igual

1600 X (1 X 2)
80 x40

1 revolucl6n. el nurnero de revoel producto del nupor el producto del

240 x2 --8-0-

= 6 revoluciones.

2.' Calcular el nurnero de dientes de una rueda a tornillo sin-fin para una velocidad determinada, conocidos el ruimero de filetes del tornillo sin-fin, y el nurnero de revoluciones por minuto del tornillo y la rueda.

La operaci6n consiste en multiplicar luciones del tornillo sin-fin motriz por mero de filetes de los tornillos, y dividir nurnero de dientes de las ruedas. 4.' puestas. Se opera del modo siguiente: Velocidad de un tornillo sin-fin

con las ruedas com-

FORMULA:

N.' de dientes de la rueda = del tornillo X N.' de filetes

N.' de revoluciones

EJEMPLO:
Si los tornillos nes del sin-fin sin-fin

EJEMPLO:
EI tornillo sin-fin A es de triple filete ygira a 360 revoluciones, la rueda B debe girar a 10 revoluciones, el nurnero de dientes sera:

40 dientes, y la rued a P 20 dientes, el nurnero
motriz

C y E tienen doble filete, la rueda D de revolucioC sera igual al resultado de

--1-0-

360 X

3 -

= 108 dientes.

FxD
CX

E= 2X2
-

20x40

= 200 revoluciones. 187-

186-

Empujes axiales (P) de tornillos sin-fin y sus ruedas girando en diversos sentidos
Sin-fin tr obojondo vobre

Fresa sin-fin para tallar unicamente ruedas a tornillo sin-fin

10 rueda.

at-a
h'l 'I:'

-~ .4 <D .
I

'WON

DOC D"""

"CON OC '"

OESIGNACION

FORMULAS P = M x 3.1416.
exterior del tornillo del paso. sin-

p~
p~ p-

~p

P = Paso. M= M6dulo. de = Di6metro exterior. dp = Di6metro primitivo. h = Altura del diente.
L = Altura bezc.

P M = 3.1416:
de

= Dia.metro
fin

+

1/10

,=

que cor responde Q 10 coy en 10 frese (S Q 10 teveesc. que corresponde 01 pie,

dp = de - 2(. h=2.167xM: L=M. e=·T:
h , Dtente ;3 Diente
0=

(=1.167xM: P R=O.05xP.
14

Altura

Sin-fin

trobojondo

debcjo

de 10 rueda

en

10

Irese es

y

c=T:

Q

10 inverSQ.

e c

= Espesor del dlente. = Espocio entre dientes.
de! diente.

J

+

3 mm. 0 filete normal
0

1//.
20".

R = Radio de 10 cebeze

I

filete reforzado

Diente para posos largos 30°.
~= Como norma actual:

J = Ancho del diente cortante. ~= Angulo en el flanco del diente. 3 = Angulo total entre flancos.
IX

Filete simple

0

doble 29".
D ,

Filete simple reforzado 4O Filete para posos largos 60".

= Angulo

de inclinaci6n

del fllete

o de la helice.
T

= Ancho en el fondo
ancho de 10_punta para roscar.

del diente y de 10 cuchilla de corte. de la Ire'sc.
0

Para filete \ T g , = __ P_ = ~. _ simple I dp x • dp Para mas de\ T9 7. =~. un filete I dp x r. SP = dp x 3.1416 X cotg x . de x 3 NO = ~ (aprox.).

SP = Paso de la espiral NO = Numerc de dientes n = Numerc de filetes milimetrica.

entredns.

, = Divisi6n Sin-fin con ftletes roscados a izquierda. Sin-fin. con ftletes roscados a derecha.

T= (

pxcotg~

4

- 188-

Nota.-Terminada de tal',ar la espiral de corte SP en 10 Iresc. hacer una plantilla del perfil del filete por 10 secci6n perpendicular a la helice. esta plantilla serviro para desto\onor.

-189 -

ENGRANAJES HELICOIDALES

Diagrama para calcular el numere de la Fresa para tallar ruedas helicoidales
GRADOS DEL ANGULO
5

AXIAL
)0 )5.-40

DE LOS-DIENTES
45 50 55 60 65

DE LA RUEDA
70 75 80 8~ 90

m

10

15

20 25

M _ Modulo nor mol 0 real. Ma = M6dulo del paso ctrcunferencrol

oparente.

1:1 15,_ 20 25

III
j:-

N ::0::. Numero de dientes. NF = Numero de dlentes fkncte para eleqrr 10 fresa (si se tollo en fresadora
universal).

Op = DI<imetro prlmitivo. De = DI<imetro exterior. h = Allura del dlenle. P = Paso de le helice.

Pr = Paso real 0 normal. Pa = Paso aparente.

~ !:::::: r>
k"

~

.......1:;::::: ~

I--a.; j;:1'

t-

v r- rV

~

I/:r> V

f7

J

~ ...
II<

)0 )5

J......- V

V~ 1/ II?'

II

~
/_

I

:I 40

FORMULAS
Ma=~=EE... P Pr Pr
0='057.=

De N
X

= Dp
N-~ -

+ 2M.
Ma'
X

cos x
Dp

3.1416
N'
X

=
Dp

Pa

X

cos

x

=
X

3.1416
7:.

M.

h= NF=_N_=

2.167
:x

M.
Dp
X

M= Ma

cos
N

=

N

X

Ma

=

3.1416'

X

Pa

cosa
X

M
X

cosl

7.

... ... ... IZ ... Q ...
0( Q III Q

~5 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
0<

__.

V

V II I II I II
II
I

Vi

7

P

= Dp

3.1416

.colg •.

o II<

Para engranajes helicoidales a ejes paralelos, se recomiendan los ongulos siguientes: at = 10- para ruedas de pequeflo velocidad; x = 30- para rued as de elevada velocldad; at = "So para ruedas de gran velocidad.
Angulo usual para engfanojes ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motrlz helicoidales con ejes perpendiculares. ANGULO Relaci6n Rueda motriz DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

... ~

:I Z

90 95

-

I(tv

~h

I..

f-..
)

Z~

t--J I

1.....-'

00
05 10 15 20 25 )0

DE LA HELICE Rueda receptora

I

b \.

ivb

,-'Ll>

",)

1 1 1 1 1

:1 : 1.5 :2 : 2.5 :3

~5' 56-19' 63' 26' 68'12' 71'34'

~5' 33' 41' 26'34' 21'48' 18- 26'

1 1 1 1

: 3.5 :~ : ~.5 :5

7~' 03' 75' 58' 77- 28' 78- ~1'

15' 57' 14'02' 12- 32' 11-19'

I V

V

"

EJEMPLO.· Determinar por el diagrama el nlj· mero de 10' fresa que se necesita para taUar una ruede helicoidal de 52 dientes con un angulo axial de 38 grados. Seguir las fJechas del ejemplo y su concurrencia determina el numerc de la fresa. que en este coso es 10 numero 7. -191 -

I

-190-

ANaULO
DE LAS

P _ PaSO de 10 hellce.
OP _ Dldmetro Cotangente
11_

prlmitivo. OP P
X

Calculo de engranajes helicoidales en casos diversos
x cotangente p ). Grados

HEUCES
p Grados

).'4'6·

Paso de 10 hellee p Grad,os

"" OP X ),1416 p Grados

Ruedas hellcoldales con dlametros Iguales y numero de dlenies dlstlnto, dngulo de los eJes 90".
p Grados

DP
0.01 0.02 0,03 0.0< 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.10

del

dngulo 8')0<" 8')0 3S' 82'27' 8')0 16' 89" 5' 88- 5<' 88- <3' 88- 12' 88'21' sa" 11' il8'0'

DP
0.<6 M8 O.SO C.52 O.S< 0,56 0,58 0.60 0,62 0.6< 0.66 0.68 0.70 O,H 0.76 0.78 O.SO 0.82 0.8< 0.86 0.88

del

dngulo 81' <0'

DP
1.75 1.SO 1.85 1.95 2.00 2.05

del

dngulo 60-5<'

DP
3.85

del

cingula

DP
12.SO 13.00 13.SO '4.00

del

6.ngulo ,4" 7' 13'38' 13' 8' 12')9' n"1)' 11' 50' 11"27' 10--46' 10- 28' 10- 5' 9-5<'

a>o 79-

soso-

8,·19'
58' 36' 14' 53'

013'

3.90

39-'.'
38-53' 38-31' 38'10' 37' <8' 37' 2S' 37' 7' 36"48' 36' 27' 36' 8' 35'30' 3<'''-

1.90

O.O~

0.11
0.12 0.13 0,14 0.15 0,16 0,17 0.18 0,19 0.20

78- 50' 78-29' 78' S'

79-11'

'9-32'

2,10
2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2,)5 2.<0 2 •• 2.SO 2.55 2.60

87-4"
87'38' 87" 27' 87'16' 87' 5' 86' 5<' 86- 43' 86'12' 86'21' 86"11' 86' 0'

n·,,7'
n'26'

o.n

0,21

o.n 0.23 0.24 0.25 0,26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.12 0.33 0.3" 0.35 0.36 0,37 0.38 0.39 0,"0 0."2 0 .....

85-"9'
85'38' 85'27' 85'16' 85' 5' 8<'S<' 84' "3' 8<'12' 84'21' &4' 10' 8<' 0' 83' "9" 83'38' 83'27' 83'16' 83' 5' 82- 5.. , 82' "3' 82'22' 82'. 2'

0.90
0.92 0,9" 0.96 0,98 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1,30 1,35 1.<0 1,"5 1.50 1.55 1.60 1,65 1,70

75· l' 40" 74·20' 7"· 0'

n- 5' 76"_+4' 76'23' 75' 3' 75" 4)' 75'n'

59-12' 58' 52' 5&11' 57-31' 56' 53' 56'15' 55'37' 55' 0' S4" 24' 53' <8' 53'12' 52'37' 52' 3' 51'30' 56' .. 9-

3.95 <.00

",05 ".10
4,15 4.20 <.25 <.30 <.<0 <.60 <.SO 5.00 5.25 5.50 5.75 6.00 6.25 6.SO 6,75 7.00 7.25 7.SO 7,75 8.00 8.25 8.50 8.75 9.00 9.25 9.SO 9,75 10,00 10.25 10,50 10,75 11,OJ 11.25 11,50 11,75 12.00

'4.50

U

n-12'

12' 8' 30- 5<'

2,65

7"·

7), <0'

2.70 2.75 2.SO 2.85

52' ..,. 22'
..,- 39' 48-16'

soso- 23'

2"+4'

15.00 15,50 16,00 16,50 17.00 17.SO 18.00 19,00 20.00 n.so 25.00

Como orlentacl6n para su celcu!e, se indican estas sencillas reglas: Angulo de los dlentes de una rueda == cr. Angulo de los dlentes de otra rueda = Ut· en los cuales pondremos como norma: = Rueda de menor nemerc de dlentes. Cl'1 = Rueda de mayor numerc de dlentes.
FORMULA

11- 6'

Tg IX

9-23'
8'56' 8' 0' 7'10' 6" 33' 5'59' 5'12' 5" 7'

2.90

47· .7' 47"'17'
<6'<8 046°19" "5' SO' "5'23' ..... 56' "'28' i4' 0' "3'l6' "3' iCY "2'44' "2-20' "1' 57' "1'32' "1' 7'

n'<O'
71'12'

7)'20' 7)' 0'

no 21'
700 ..3'
69- 55' 6" 8' 68- 20' 67'32' 66'046' 66' 0' 65'15' 6<' 3G' 63· .. i' 63' 0' 62'18' 61' 36'

2,95 3.00 3.05 3,10 3,15 3.20 3.25 3.30 3.35 3.<0 3 ... 5 3.SO 3.55 3.60 3.65 3.70 3.75 3.SO

25·04" 25' 0' 24"10' 23"26' 22· .. • 22' <. 21'26' 200 51' 200 17' 1""5' 1"15' 18' "7' 18'20' 17' 53' 17'27' 17' 2' 16'39' 16'16' 15'55' ,15-36' 15'17' 104' 58' 104',,0'

26-""

28'<0' 27'38'

27.50

•. EJemplo: Calcular los dngulos de los dlentes de dos ruedas con 12 y 24 dientes, M6dulo 5, ejes a 90-. Didmetros prlmltlvos Iguales. Rueda 12dlenles Tg.

= -I = 90--

Relacl6n dL.los numeros de r. p. m. 'Relacl6~ de los dlometros prlmitivos .

30.00 12.50 35.00

.

)T,50

=

c;) =
-1-

2. (Ver lablas delangenles.)

<0.00

45,00
SO.OO 55.00 60.00 70.00 SO.OO 90.00 100,00 110,00 120.00 130.00 1<0.00 1SO.OO 160.00 170.00 180.00 190.00 200.00

..OOH'

.. 00 21' 39' 58' 3" 35'

o-w

<. 0' 3-36' 3'17' 3' 0' 2'3'" 2'15' 2' 0' t- <8' 1 39' 1'30' t- 23' 1'17' 1'12' t- 7' t- 3' 1- 0' 00 57'
0

"-2"

..• ..7'

Rueda 24 dlentes .1 = 90- - IS. Por tcnte, lendremos: Rueda de 12 clTentes63' 26' dngulo. Rueda de 24 dlentes 26' ]4' dngulo. la relacl6n del numero de r. p. m. de 10 prlmera rueda a 10 segundo. senS la 24 inversa de la de los nemeres de dlentes. 0 sea 12' Las demos caracteristlcas se calculO'f\1npor las f6rmulas generales. ~ Ruedas hellcoidales. con numere de dientes y dldmetros dlstlntos, dngulo de los ejes 90-. Calcular los dngulos de los dientes de dos ruedas de 30 y 36 dlentes, siendo 10 10 relacl6n del diametro de la prlmera a 10 segundo de 8 y el angulo de los ejes 90". 36 T Relad6n de los numeros de r. p. m. 9 Cl = Relacl6n de los did metros primltlvos (V~se lablas d. langentes.)
01:1=90--«;

Esta tabla simplifica la epereeten para eneentrer el valor en grados del dngulo de la hflice, pun basta dlvidlr el paso de la hfllce entre el dldmefro primitlvo y buscar en la tabla una eenndad igual al ceetente hallado. de la eual se leere el numerc de grados. EJEMPlO: Paso de la hehee: 800 mm, 800 Didmetro primitivo SO mm. = 16 11' 6'.

=

so-

=

4=56-19'; -193 -

4,=33-41'.

-192

-

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE RUEDAS HELICOIDALES CON EJES PERPENDICULARES

DE GIRO

CENTRADO

DE UNA

RUEDA

~D\,--~?J
R"edas lalladas o mono derecho.

t~ t~
~/,--tPRuedas lallodas a mano izquierda.

con la fresa en una maquina fresadora

DETALLE PARA APRECIAR EL SENTIDO DE GIRO DE LAS RUED~S A TORNILLO SIN-FIN

off

~J.~+))Ruedas lallados a mono izquierdo. Cuando dos ruedas helicoidales con ejes porolelos engranon enlre s], deben lallarse uno
0

Ruedas lalladas o mano derecho.

Derecha.

la

Izquierda.

derecha

y olra a la izquierdo.

-

194-

.

195 -

...Nm = H._- sene' . = " x DP.. _ -....° La dentadura helicoidal rior a 10 pii\6n.:. P = DP x rr X cotg :r.>~'''~ .. ~r : ~I reducirse Para 2()O Nm = 17. Para evttcr un pirl6n qUE' 10 mterferencre en 10 tollo de debe conserver su altura nor- mal en los dlentes sigulente Nm f6rmuia: y fallado con fresc sin-fin Diente con interferencio.. resulta pore 15 Nm ~ 25 Y para rL"------=-'~..:... interferenctc. por tanto... marrodO fNID0D9I Ampliacion del angulo de presion..c...Nm = 30.1 ~I dQ Ia he"C9 __ .___... el angulo efectivo para las co rccteristicas del engranaje es el correspondiente 01 dldmetro prtrnmvo. Paro 15. Ampliaci6n = X DP --rg. cos> 7 Dlstancia entre ejes de los ruedas = DP+ dp -~2-~' 196- -197 - . minimo de dientes admisible para un engranaje con dentadura recta.. C1 = Angulo de presion de 10 fresa." 2.. corresponderd al didmetro exterior de la rueda.tomar por las huellas marcadas en el popel e! angulo de 10 heltce.. venflccdo esta operaci6n se pasara !a rueda sobre un popel blanco y dejurd marcado en el mismo las huelles del dlente. esto es. del dnqulc de presion en los engranajes helic~idales: Nuevo velor Tang =~ cos ': (conocida). AOgyb .~JtJAJt"'. y solamente se nota la interferencia que determina la f6rmula 01 numerc =( y se adara que Nm pertenece y Paso de la hehce --+2 cos :r.Observacio!. Se poede tom bien hallar e! M6dulo normal tomando como referencre 10 altura total del diente y comprobando despues el espesor «e» fljando el calibre especial para dientes con 10 altura L = M6dulo normal.. se procederd a realizar el trazado para determinar el valor del cingulo P'l grados segun los datos siguientes: en una sccevecrcn que se produce en el pie del dlente.. Reducci6n de la altura del diente (Dentadura «Stub»]. Nm =-. P .~' Tg.!__.. con 10 cue! 20.!es que deben seguirse para evitar la interferencia en los dientes Interierencia consiste se nembre a 10 figura que toman los dlentes 01 ser tallodos. AI . lALLA DE ENGRANAJES CALCULO PARA RUEDAS HELICOIDALES cuando' se trata de tomar datos de una rueda como mUlstra 0 en estado deteriorada y que se Para determinar el angulo de los dlentes de uno rueda helicoidal cuando se dispone de muestra 0 modele. 10 cual permltird hcllur correctamente su dngulo. debiendo considerarse como epereeten previa. 1. con 10 cuol se cbtrene el Diente 51 bien en 10 prdcttcc puede sin .. que el valor de ~ es Igual al ang·Jlo de mchncctcn del diente en el rueda helicoidal. Sustituir 10 dentadura recta per 10 hehcotdu! permite reducir Nm x el numero rnlntmc de dientes de un cuando el numero de dientes es infeCOS'I ~:. wando tolla con frese sin-fin por el procedimiento de generaci6n y en dentaduras rectcs. . minimo que pue- de se-re. teenco. F6rmulas auxiliares M6dulo normal M para comprobaci6n: ).~ Para obtener el perfil del diente sin mterferenctc fcrrnes 1.!!. N DE = (~+ ccs 1"t « 2) M.. 0 se puede proceder de Ires 1--__ ~"-~4.=. DP = N x ~. DE 3. a 516 el numer c 0 -i~ resultado.. tendremos como volor teortcc 10 = Nurnero de dientes de tallarse. bastara el entintar ligeramente las cabezas de los dientes en su periferia utilizando un tcrmp6n de los empleados para sellos.

180" N Dp = A sen ~ C Di = Dp-d. TIPO DOBLE De = Dicimetro exterior. =-N--.. sen x T ang ~ = ----. Di = Dicimetro interior. .. P = Distancia entre centros de los rod i II os = Paso de 10 cadena. III (I) .---- C Cl c . N = Nurnero de dientes. 180" ... (I) c E (I) U .. Di = Dicimetro interior. e .RUEDAS Y PINONES DE CADENA TIPO SIMPLE De = Dicimetro exterior. N = Nurnero de dientes. Dp = Dicimetro primitivo.:::: (I) o e (I) . Dp = Dicimetro primitivo. A 198- + cos z w c - 199- .. Di = Dp-d.. FORMULAS De~=Dp+d. A = Distancia entre centros de los rodillos. d = Dicimetro de los rodillos..---.B.. P Dp = sen 7. III FORMULAS De = Dp + d.. B = Distancia entre ejes de los agujeros en el eslcbon de union.

De 2c.= AT= VN' 1. . de n+(2xCos)~)' _ FORMULAS De (=O.. NI = Nurner o de die nte s ImaglnurlO para ele qrr con que debe tallorse este Jue90 de engranajes. n.) + dp.[ 90 + n' .707xL. = Paso..) "iii "IiIlUlioUIGI ". t I I ENGRANAJES Y NUMERO CONICOS CON EJES A 900 DE DIENTES IGUALES ~I -8i I .Angulo de espesor = AT = Angulo de talla.) IoUIl lilli. It· _l__0/ d' DESIGNACION M = Modulo. - 200- -.41422 Tg Ii = N 10 fresa RUEDA PINON M p dp de = = Modulo. at = Angulo de talla. Didmetro prtmttrvo. at = VN' l~ - + '. De = Didrnetr c exterior. Dp = Didmetro pnnunvo. N Dp Tg = J[ = nx -.1 . P M=-::-=N= Dp De N+(lxCo". P = Paso.. =~ = n M.. N = Numer c de dientes 71 ~.2_ Sen N 0 Tg"=N=OP· T x Cos . 9 g! = 2 90 7 =.~1 - _ 7.41422M T Dp . EI 6ngulo del pie _.'.) FORMULAS M = !_ dp Dp = N x M.41xN.~ = Angulo del prrrrutrvo. = Didmetro exterior.201 - ..se cclculd per 10 tabla flnal de esto seccton. n = Numero de dientes. T 9 '. de = (2M n=crp-' 2. 1. '~l = Angulo de 10 cobezc del diente. I.x tg 8. ~~ Angulo de 10 cabeza del diente.. = Angulo del primitivo.'· -"{t.:~ Angulo del pie. '. .707xDp F = (3. De = (2M x Cos ") + Dp. :1 = Angulo del pie.) IoU"'IoU. 7. 1. J = J x· c NI=1. del diente.Lllyl allalli. n dp x Sen n 0 c-F -- Y=0. = '" = Angulo de espesor del drente.'~. = .

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