ERIE CANAL HARBOR PROJECT

BUFFALO, NEW YORK

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M A RC H 2 0 0 4
Flynn Battaglia Architects, P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc Baer & Associates

Cover and inside leaf View of proposed Commercial Slip and proposed Bow String Bridge from Steamship Hotel Ruins Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

ERIE CANAL HARBOR PROJECT
BUFFALO, NEW YORK

DRAFT MASTER PLAN

Project Sponsors Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Empire State Development Corporation (ESDC) Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA) County of Erie City of Buffalo Buffalo Sewer Authority U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

M A RC H 2 0 0 4
Flynn Battaglia Architects, P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc Baer & Associates

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many people and organizations were central to the development of this Master Plan. Special thanks are extended to the following people for their involvement and support as this Master Plan unfolded.

City of Buffalo:
Anthony Masiello, Mayor Joseph N. Giambra, Commissioner, Department of Public Works Daniel E. Kreuz, P.E., City Engineer David Stebbins, Waterfront Projects Coordinator

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation:
Gerald Mikol, Regional Director, Region 9 Gerard Palumbo, Regional Water Engineer, Region 9

New York State Department of Transportation:
Gary V. Gottlieb, P.E., Acting Planning & Program Manager

Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park:
Col. Patrick Cunningham, Executive Director

New York State Transportation Authority:
Donald Hutton, Director, Dept of Operations-Executive Staff Paul F. Parker, P.E. Construction Supervisor - Buffalo Division

Buffalo Place:
Michael Schmand, Executive Director

Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority:
Vito Sportelli, Manager, Capital Grants John Mecca, Senior Grants Specialist

Buffalo Sewer Authority:
Anthony Hazan, General Manager Frank DiMascio, P.E., Principal Sanitary Engineer

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.:
John Hubert, P.E., Project Manager Paul J. Tronolone, P.P., AICP, Advisor

Congressman Quinn's Office:
Jack Quinn, U.S. House of Representatives, District 27 Ron Hayes, Director, Community Development

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers:
Christine M. Brayman, Chief, Planning Branch Michael C. Smith, Project Manager Thomas C. Switala, Chief, Regulatory Branch

County of Erie:
Joel A. Giambra, County Executive Laurence Rubin, Commissioner, Department of Environment & Planning Andrew Eszak, Deputy Comissioner, Department of Environment & Planning

United States Coast Guard:
Paul M. Gugg, Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Office

Federal Transit Administration:
Letitia A. Thompson, Regional Administrator Anthony G. Carr, Deputy Regional Administrator Nancy Danzig, Community Planner Irwin B. Kessman, Director, Office of Program Development Larry Penner, Director, Office of Operations and Project Management

DESIGN TEAM
Flynn Battaglia Architects, PC Peter T. Flynn, AIA, Principal-in-Charge/Project Director Sarah Reid, AIA, Project Manager David I. Carli, AIA, Architect Blythe T. Merrill, Preservation Planner Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, PC Kim Mathews, ASLA, Principal/Project Director Runit Chhaya, Project Manager/Project Designer Denise Hoffman, Landscape Architect Joanne Davis Rose, Landscape Designer John Milner Associates, Inc. Peter Benton, AIA, Prinicipal/Project Manager Matthew Roberson, Project Planner Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc. Keith Helmetag, Principal/Project Manager Baer & Associates Richard Baer, Chairman Kevin M. Mahoney, Vice President

View of proposed Naval Museum from the Crossroads Plaza near Scott Street Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

The Commercial Slip Bridge, circa 1870

Source: Collection of Buffalo and Erie County Public Library

Erie Canal - one of the greatest interim waterways

Source: Collection of Henry Baxter

Canal District

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction Overall Vision, Goals, and Objectives Site Opportunities and Constraints Heritage Planning
Historic Significance Historic Preservation Approach Guiding Principles Interpretive Structure

9 10 12 13

Preferred Alternative
Site and Programmatic Elements Significance, Interpretation, and Historic Preservation Harbor Circulation Buildings Development Parcels Open Space Hamburg Drain Interpretation

15

Source: Buffalo and Erie County Public Library

Commercial Slip, 1914

Source: Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Erie Canal Collection

Appendix (available under separate cover)
• • • • •

Heritage Planning Public Comment Forms (distributed at public meetings) Meeting Notes on Buffalo and Erie County Military and Naval Park Urban Design Guidelines Budget Detail

Urban Connections Project Approach
Project Leadership and Sponsorship

28 30 33 39

Alternative Concept Plans
Review and Evaluation

Additional Resources (available for viewing at ESDC)
• Photo Book • Erie Canal Harbor Project - Hamburg Drain - Pre-Preliminary Design Report (October 2003;

Plan Implementation
Phase One Elements Phase Two Elements Later Phases Roles and Responsibilities Project Budget

prepared by R&D for ESDC)
• Inner Harbor Development Project - Feasibility Study - Draft Report - Relocation of the Hamburg • • • • •

Drain (June 25, 2001; prepared by PB for ESDC) Combined Sewer Overflow Study - Draft Long Term Control Plan - South Central District (December 6, 2002; prepared by URS for BSA) Hamburg Drain CSO and Buffalo Inner Harbor - Water and Sediment Quality - A Preliminary Assessment (January 2003; prepared by URS for ESDC) Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS), Erie Canal Harbor Project Phase I Construction Documents SEIS Process and Schedule

Conclusion

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Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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View of proposed Central Wharf from Buffalo River Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

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INTRODUCTION
Like many American cities, Buffalo's waterfront was significant to its historic development and has an important story to tell. This Master Plan for the Erie Canal Harbor brings renewed energy and attention to the waterfront as the place of the city's birth and as the historic western terminus of the Erie Canal, one of our country's greatest engineering achievements. Public appreciation for preservation and Buffalo heritage as well as a commitment by Project sponsors to focus future development for this site around heritage elements directed this planning and design process. The Master Plan's evolution stems from a 1999 Plan for the site, managed by ESDC and financed by a combination of federal, state, and local transportation funds administered by FTA, NFTA, NYSTA, Erie County, City of Buffalo, and the Buffalo Sewer Authority. This Plan was intended to facilitate both on-site and surrounding development activities by making infrastructure investments to improve multi-modal access connections (i.e. transit, marine, vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle facilities) to and along the water's edge. A portion of this Plan has already been completed in accordance with a June 2002 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), involving relocation of three Naval vessel exhibits to a new basin within Veterans Park, as well as an overall landscape design program for that park (referred to as Phase One of the Project). The overall intent of the 1999 Plan has not changed. This effort is focused on achieving these goals in the context of better interpreting the site's rich history and importance to the development of the region and the nation as a whole. Additional public funds were programmed to overcome certain major site constraints that impeded undertaking such a program in 1999. Public involvement was critical to this and has resulted in a revised Master Plan that significantly reflects the aspirations of Buffalo's citizenry. Through almost universal public sentiment, Buffalo's Erie Canal era became the focus of the Master Plan and the resulting shared vision for Buffalo's waterfront. Throughout the design process, hundreds of participants attended public meetings and design sessions and nearly 200 written comments and evaluation sheets were received from different organizations and Buffalo citizens. These comments were critical to the design effort and informed the design team throughout the creation of this Master Plan.
Public Workshop Photograph: Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.

The Master Plan is organized to first highlight the components and layout of the Preferred Alternative. This design was developed by the design team after numerous meetings with heritage-related interest groups, sponsoring organizations, the public, and careful review and consideration of the comments received and heard at these meetings. A deliberate process helped to define and determine the final preferred outcome. This document outlines this process, the issues that influenced the design process and discusses the steps taken to arrive at the Preferred Alternative. Specific steps are outlined that discuss the implementation of the Preferred Alternative as recommended in the Master Plan. A separate Appendix includes more-detailed documents that were critical to the overall design and planning process. While many of these documents are referred to within the body of the Master Plan, the full text of these materials is provided in the Master Plan Appendix along with the additional resources listed. The Appendix is available to the public, interest groups, and scholars for viewing at ESDC.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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OVERALL VISION, GOALS & OBJECTIVES
The following vision, goals, and objectives take into account the specific directives the team developed in relationship to historic preservation and interpretation which served to guide the Master Planning effort.

VISION
Erie Canal Harbor will be a dynamic year-round site that celebrates Buffalo's local history and role in our nation's growth and development. Erie Canal Harbor will be a central feature in the city of Buffalo. Through the quality of its design and execution, it will occupy a place of pride among the city's collection of world-class architecture and parks, commercial neighborhood centers, and recreational areas. This site will be a central location for learning about and experiencing the city's history, character, and significance. Erie Canal Harbor will serve as a hub of activity, with a wide range of uses including interpretive activities, recreational uses, and festival gatherings that will ensure its active use by residents and visitors alike. While embracing the city's past, the Erie Canal Harbor will symbolize Buffalo's future as a thriving and vital community. This vision is consistent with the vision expressed in the Queen City Hub (Buffalo's Downtown Master Plan) It is one of five Strategic Investment Areas for Downtown.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Specific goals and objectives informed the creation of this Master Plan. Many of the goals and objectives were derived from the 1999 Plan. They were amended as a result of a June 2002 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that placed an increased emphasis on incorporating historic interpretation into site planning and development. As a result of this MOU and subsequent public input, the following list of refined goals and objectives was established. Heritage Preservation and Interpretation Goals • Fully incorporate the importance of this site to Buffalo and the nation's growth and development, including its importance related to commerce, transportation, and immigration, by developing and implementing an appropriate interpretive theme, including plans and exhibits. • Develop a navigable commercial slip within the boundaries of the original, historically significant Commercial Slip. • Incorporate the historic street patterns of the site into the new development. • Develop a new wharf and pedestrian esplanade that evokes the historical attributes of the original Central Wharf on the site of the original Central Wharf running from the east side of the re-watered Commercial Slip to the new South Basin. • Re-image and re-design the proposed new Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Museum so that it is more sensitive to its context in an historic site. • Make preliminary recommendations regarding the appropriate location and role of an Erie Canal Heritage museum. Activity and Land Use Goals • Establish a public space for community interaction. • Create a variety of maritime activities. • Prioritize water-related activities at the water's edge. • Encourage year-round use. • Encourage an appreciation for Buffalo history and heritage to maximize heritage tourism through preservation and interpretation of historic site elements including the Commercial Slip, historic building foundations, the Central Wharf, and street patterns including the Commercial Slip, historic building foundations, the Central Wharf, and street patterns. • Encourage immediate and long-term use Economic Development Goals • Create opportunities for inviting and authentic activities. • Create a western destination for the Erie Canalway Recreation Corridor and National Heritage Corridor. • Support regional goals of developing cultural and heritage tourism industry and regional visitor attraction. • Enhance and support existing uses, e.g. Marine Drive Apartments, HSBC Arena, Waterfront Village, Erie Basin, and the Cobblestone District. • Encourage development opportunity of surrounding areas and downtown. • Encourage community-scale economic opportunities. • Encourage small-and large-scale development. Public Access and Transportation Goals • Provide year-round public access. • Promote inter-modal circulation and connectivity. • Establish unrestricted access to the water. • Establish a continuous waterfront esplanade. • Integrate existing city-wide planning efforts • Orient transit stations towards the waterfront. • Enhance maritime access to the land. • Enhance visual access to the water. • Enhance connections to downtown. • Preserve the potential for a future bridge to the Outer Harbor.. • Enhance Greenway Trail access. • Provide site access for Great Lakes passenger cruise ships. These refined goals and objectives provided a road map for each element incorporated into the Preferred Alternative site design. Throughout the planning and design process, each element incorporated into the final design was measured against these requirements.

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View of proposed Prime Street from South Basin looking towards Commercial Bridge Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C. Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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SITE OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS
As the western terminus of the Erie Canal and the site of the birth of the City, the 10.9-acre Erie Canal Harbor site presents unparalleled potential for historic interpretation and economic development. The site also includes other key opportunities for a broad diversity of year-round activities and transportation connections.

OPPORTUNTIES
The roughly triangular shaped site is centrally located at the foot of Buffalo's Main Street, offering immediate access to the light rail transit system (LRRT) and a future connection to the planned Buffalo Intermodal Transportation Center (BITC). The 19,000 seat HSBC Arena, the area's premier indoor sports stadium; the Memorial Auditorium, a 400,000+ gross s.f. facility slated for redevelopment; a new parking garage, initially designed to accommodate approximately 875 cars and to be shared with the Marine Drive Apartment complex, is scheduled for completion in 2006; the historic DL&W Terminal, part of a larger 8.1-acre site also under consideration for redevelopment; the recently completed Wilkinson Plaza and river's edge promenade; and the Webster Block, a key development opportunity are all within a ¼-mile radius of the site. The Cobblestone District, a locally designated historic district recalling Buffalo's maritimerelated industry, is located just east of the HSBC Arena. This historic district, in addition to the existing and proposed developments adjacent to the site, will support and enhance the goals of the Master Plan by providing key destinations and year-round usage. Veterans Park, a new two-acre landscaped park with a 1,000-foot-length waterfront esplanade and a promenade of monuments in honor of war veterans known as Hero's Walk, is located immediately to the west of the site. The park and esplanade (Phase One of the Master Plan) offer a direct connection to the Buffalo Riverwalk and the Erie Basin Marina, located just west of the park. The Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Museum, a recognized tourist attraction in the area, will be relocated on the site. The Museum's three naval vessels, the USS Little Rock, The USS Sullivans (National Register of Historic Places) and the USS Croaker submarine are moored in a new Naval Basin, alongside the Veterans Park esplanade. 12
ERIE CANAL HARBOR PROJECT

The site's most important feature is its waterfront location on the Buffalo River and Inner Harbor, which provides a unique opportunity for modern maritime access (recreational and commercial boating, visiting ships, and cruise ship docking) at the site of Buffalo's historic canal district. The site's river frontage is approximately 1,300 linear feet, or a total of 2,300 linear feet when combined with the Veterans Park esplanade. A rich trove of archeological remnants from Buffalo's past exists just below the surface of the site. Many of the most significant areas have been investigated by the Project archeologists, documented and the negative impacts mitigated. The design and construction of new features will require continued care, documentation and protection so that the history of the site will be available to future generations.

CONSTRAINTS
As in most Master Planning efforts, issues of infrastructure, circulation, and phasing present some of the key site development constraints. At the Erie Canal Harbor site, there will also be critically important issues related to the recovery, protection, and preservation of historic fabric. This will include fabric which is already documented and that which may be discovered during construction phases. Additional site constraints are summarized below: • The re-engineering of the Hamburg Drain, an underground combined sewer overflow (CSO) conduit with an opening size of 16 feet wide and 13 feet high, is a major item impacting budget, phasing, and site configuration. Water quality issues that must be addressed include floatables and dissolved oxygen. During construction, the operation of the Hamburg Drain must be maintained • The Buffalo Skyway (NYS Route 5) traverses the existing site 100 feet above street level. Eight supporting piers (castDRAFT MASTER PLAN BUFFALO NEW YORK

in-place concrete on steel sheet piles) are located on the site and will require perimeter access of 15-feet for regular maintenance. The pier locations impact the configuration of development parcels and site circulation. NYSDOT guidelines for construction within the Skyway footprint must also be followed. • The Buffalo Skyway (NYS Route 5) transverses the existing site 100 feet above street level. Eight supporting piers (castin-place concrete on steel sheet piles) are located on the site and will require perimeter access of 15-feet for regular maintenance. The pier locations impact the configuration of development parcels and site circulation. NYSDOT guidelines for construction within the Skyway footprint must also be followed. • The Kelly Island Sewer Pump Station, a sewerage lift station, owned and operated by the Buffalo Sewer Authority, will remain on the site and is serviced daily. Currently the pump station is not ventilated adequately and discharges an unpleasant odor that periodically permeates the southern end of the site. • Weather at the site is both an opportunity and a constraint. Buffalo's beautiful, long summer days are a well-known attraction, bringing families to the waterfront edges. The winter months offer their own beauty, but can be extreme in temperature and winds. Design measures must take Buffalo's weather into account -providing protection from the hot sun during summer months and from cold wind and snow during winter months.

Site conditions - 2003 Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Lloyd Street Cobbles & Steamship Hotel Ruins - 2003 Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Buffalo Skyway - 2003 Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Veterans Park - 2003 Photograph: Max Donoso

HERITAGE PLANNING
Public interest in the Erie Canal provided the impetus for this revised Master Plan. First and foremost, the heritage of the site informed the design process and the development of a Preferred Plan oriented around the Erie Canal era. Particular care was taken to develop a strategy that would respect the history of the site and relate it to the public in a meaningful and exciting manner.

HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Construction of the Erie Canal in 1825 established an all-water passage from the Great Lakes through Buffalo to the port of New York City and the world, transforming Buffalo from a frontier village into a thriving commercial and industrial metropolis. At the canal's western terminus, Buffalo grew as the portal of transshipment to and from the American Midwest, transferring goods and passengers between canal boats and lake ships. At the eastern end New York grew to become the continent's financial and commercial center. On opening day, then Governor DeWitt Clinton collected water at the confluence of the Buffalo River and Commercial Slip (a feeder canal connecting the Erie Canal with the Buffalo Harbor) that he later poured into New York Harbor in the famous "Wedding of the Water's" ceremony. Buffalo grew as the portal of transshipment to and from the American Midwest, transferring goods and passengers between canal boats and lake ships. For most of the 1800s, Buffalo's canal district stood at the center of the city's growth and development, the fulcrum between canal and lake. Commercial Slip and Central Wharf were key locations within the canal district. Influenced by the flow of goods, people, and ideas, a port culture emerged among the Slips, wharves, grain elevators, warehouses, businesses, saloons, shops, residences, and hotels of the canal district. This port culture was instrumental in shaping the character of Buffalo. In the late nineteenth century, railroads became increasingly dominant, supplanting the canal in their economic importance to the city.

HISTORIC PRESERVATION APPROACH
Erie Canal Harbor and the development that follows will be an interpretive landscape that conveys the historical significance of the canal district and provides an impression of its physical character. To the extent possible, surviving historic fabric will be preserved and, where appropriate, will be incorporated into the new urban infrastructure. New construction will be evocative of the historic canal district but will not presume to recreate it. The interpretive landscape will convey the dynamic nature of the canal district, simultaneously presenting its many facets and changes over time. All work will be in conformance with The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES
• Authentic historic resources and features will be preserved to the maximum extent possible. • The history and significance of the canal district will be interpreted in a lively and engaging manner that is conveyed in large measure through the character and experience of the place. • New buildings and site features will be designed and constructed in a manner that is sympathetic to the historic character of the site and integral to the interpretive program. • The development of Erie Canal Harbor will be guided by the input of residents, community groups, nonprofit organizations, private enterprise, public officials, and government staff. The interpretive program for the site will: • Provide visitors to the site with an understanding of the historical significance of the canal district and the changes that occurred within the district in commerce, use, technologies, lifestyles, culture, folkways, and human relationships. • Be integrated into the overall site development, intertwining interpretive and educational uses with commercial, entertainment, and recreational uses. • Be designed to appeal to a wide cross section of people, employing a variety of viewpoints and perspectives. The enhancement of historic resources will: • Preserve and enhance the surviving historic resources and features of the site. • Develop new uses and structures for the site that respect the historic character of the site and are sympathetic to contemporary resource preservation and interpretation. • Be designed to support the interpretation of the site.

INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURE
The following themes will shape the development of interpretation of the site. A complete discussion of the proposed interpretive structure for Erie Canal Harbor can be found in an appendix to the master plan. • Commercial Slip: Portal to the World As the western terminus of the Erie Canal, a world of people, goods, ideas, and attitudes passed through the canal district. • Transportation and Transshipment Connected to Lake Erie, an extensive network of canals, slips, railroad lines, and highways developed, fostering the growth of Buffalo as a gateway for commerce and an industrial powerhouse. The canal district stood at the hub of these transcontinental shipping routes. • A Center for Trade and Commerce Much of the trading and deal making that made transcontinental shipping and the growth of Buffalo possible took place in the buildings of Central Wharf and the canal district. • Cultural Crossroads - From the entrepreneurs and heads of industry to the hotel keepers, dock workers, and canal men, the canal district served as a crossroads of cultural, economic, and ethnic diversity. • Life on the Waterfront - Life on the waterfront was a sensational experience of sights, sounds, smells, people, cultures, and activities. • The Dynamic Canal District - From early settlement to the present, the landscape of the district has been marked by an incessant need to build, rebuild, modify, alter, improve, and adapt.

Ellicott's 1804 map of the village of Buffalo, shows a tightly parceled community focused on the natural harbor formed by the mouth of the Buffalo River. This harbor later became the terminus of the Erie Canal. Source: Municipality of Buffalo, New York :a history, 1720-1923.

A hand-painted photograph that was used for a postcard provides a view up Main Street from a location near the steamboat landing. The buildings on the right are on the Long Wharf. Source: Western New York Heritage Magazine

Thirty years after the canal was constructed Buffalo was growing into a small metropolis with the canal as its lifeline. Main Street is to the right, and Central Wharf stretches along the river to the left. Image: Source: National Archives of Canada, Illustration by John William Hill, C-046096

By the early 1900s, many of the earlier buildings of Central Wharf were demolished and replaced with railroad-related structures Source: Library of Congress

"Commercial Street at the Terminus of the Erie Canal" (painting by Robert Averil, ASMA, 2002) depicts an animated scene at the head of Commercial Slip where it met the Erie Canal. The Coit and Union Blocks are shown at the far left. Painting: Robert Averill, ASMA

This bird’s eye view shows the waterfront shortly before railroads were constructed across the site, eventually changing the use of the waterfront and the entire city economy. Source: Library of Congress

The canal district has, for most of its history, been a place of intense activity. "The Central Wharf, 1858" (painting by Robert Averill, ASMA) depicts the competition for space between freight and passenger vessels, and the transition from sail power to steam Painting: Collection of Robert Averill, ASMA

In this hand-painted photograph that was used for a postcard, a throng of people await to embark for a lake cruise. Main Street is at the right, and the railroad buildings along the former Central Wharf border the river. The photograph was possibly taken from another cruise ship docked at Long Wharf. Source: Western New York Heritage Magazine Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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Preferred Master Plan Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

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PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE
The design team developed the Preferred Alternative with consideration for the importance of the historic location of the site, responsiveness to program requirements and public comments, as well as the need to develop a renewed focus for the vitality and dynamic energy evident in the original Buffalo Harbor and adjacent commercial areas. Many program elements from the three alternative designs were incorporated into one final design alternative that reflects public input and sponsor requirements. The following site and programmatic elements make up the Preferred Alternative site design.

SITE AND PROGRAMMATIC ELEMENTS

Naval Museum - A key design element for establishing the site plan Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Programmatic Elements Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Site and programmatic elements include both historic and newly planned elements. As per the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties care has been taken to incorporate as much historic fabric as possible, including canal stones, historic streets, and building foundation ruins. Prerequisite program elements from the initial Project including the Commercial Slip and Central Wharf will be interpreted in such a manner as to evoke the Erie Canal era and experience.

Additional elements will be added to the site as new construction, including the South Basin and a new museum building for the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park. The Cruise Ship Administration Building will be built when additional funds are made available. Each of these new elements will be designed in such a way as to add to the overall character and feel of the Erie Canal Harbor site.

Prime Street - A key design element for establishing the site plan Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Historic Streets/Circulation - A key design element for establishing the site plan Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C. Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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SIGNIFICANCE, INTERPRETATION, AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Interpretation Erie Canal Harbor is intended to be a place where people will come to experience the history and heritage of Buffalo and the Erie Canal. The site will serve as a hub, linking to other interpretive venues within the city. A substantial amount of research will need to be undertaken in support of the development of interpretation. A primary goal is that Erie Canal Harbor becomes a gateway to the future Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor. Interpretation at Erie Canal Harbor will be conveyed in four primary ways as outlined below. Preservation of Historic Fabric In several key areas where remnant historic fabric from the canal district has been found, it will be exposed and preserved. Access to remnant historic fabric will provide visitors a tangible experience with and relationship to real structures and materials from the past. The ruin of the former Steamship Hotel is the primary feature that will be exposed, preserved, and interpreted. The proximity of the ruin to the towpath of Commercial Slip, historic Lloyd Street and the remnant of historic paving at Lloyd Street provides a rich spatial relationship that will be used to interpretively link the canal and the Slip with uses in adjacent buildings and the activity in the streets of the canal district. At Commercial Slip and historic Hanover and Perry Streets, remnant historic fabric has been found that will be incorporated into new construction evoking the character of those historic resources. Remaining stones from the Slip will be incorporated into the new stone walls of the reconstructed Slip and will be distinguishable from the newer contemporary materials. Remnant paving stones from historic Hanover and Perry Streets will be reset in the reconstruction of those historic streets. Other opportunities to reuse historic fabric that is uncovered will be assessed during the design of Erie Canal Harbor. Where it is not necessary, possible, or desirable to expose other historic fabric that may remain at the site, that fabric will be preserved underground as much as possible as archeological resources. Commercial Slip The re-watered Commercial Slip will be a centerpiece of the Project's historic interpretation program, given its importance as the location of the original western terminus of the Erie Canal system. The Slip itself will be fully navigable-designed to accommodate commercial canal boats, future water taxi service, as well as transient mooring for private recreational boats. The newly constructed Commercial Slip will be designed to evoke the character of the historic Commercial Slip and will be sited on a portion of the south end of the historic Slip. Stones from the walls of the historic Slip will be salvaged and incorporated into the walls of the new Slip in their approximate original locations. Additional new construction will use historically appropriate materials but will be differentiated from the authentic historic fabric. The appropriate alignment and width of the Slip will be based upon an engineering survey prepared in 1910. Stone and stabilized earth towpaths will be constructed along each side of the Slip based upon information provided in the survey, historic photographs, and recent archeological investigations. The Slip will extend inland from the river to the vicinity of Scott Street where a pedestrian plaza will be constructed, cantilevering over the head of the Slip and giving the impression that the Slip continues north beyond the street. Interpretation will focus on the theme Commercial Slip: Portal to the World. In the full Master Plan, interpretive exhibits will include a historic or reconstructed canal boat loaded with inland goods

This stereo-scope view of the mouth of Commercial Slip shows a heavily laden canal boat beginning its journey east. The Coit-McCutcheon Block is on the right with its wooden boardwalk and stone canal walls below Source: Collection of Henry Baxter

Surviving historic fabric, such as Llyod Street will be preserved and, where feasible, incorporated into new construction. Courtesy: John Milner Associates, Inc.

This view shows the plate-girder railroad bridge across the Commercial Slip with a lattice-truss bridge for vehicles behind. The former Steamship Hotel is on the left. At right, a wooden boardwalk stands over the stone towpath. Source: Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Erie Canal Collection

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Commercial Slip Bridge A new pedestrian bridge over Commercial Slip will be constructed, linking Commercial and Prime Streets. In its design and location, the new bridge and its stone abutments will evoke the appearance and character of the historic bowstring arch-truss bridge as evident in photographs and drawings from the 1870s. Interpretation focusing on the theme Cultural Crossroads will be incorporated into the design of the bridge. The remnants of the existing concrete railroad abutments will be documented and removed.

Union Block On the west side of Commercial Slip, the historic footprint of the Union Block will be marked with an interpretive lawn sloping from Commercial Street toward the Slip. If possible, the remnants of the building's historic walls will be made visible at grade, either by exposing the tops of the remaining walls or by installation of new stone markers along the alignment of the walls. Archeological remains will be preserved below grade. Interpretation of the Union Block will be installed and focus on the theme Cultural Crossroads. In the future, possible additional interpretive elements will explain how the building was used and constructed.

This contemporary painting depicts the northern elevation of the Union Block building. Painting: Raymond Massey

The new bowstring arch truss bridge carrying Prime Street over Commercial Slip will recall the appearance of the historic bridge that stood in that location. These bridges were important, character-defining features of the historic canal district. The Union Block and the adjacent stone towpath are visible on the left. Source: Buffalo and Erie County Public Library

Ruins of the Steamship Hotel The historic brick masonry walls of the former Steamship Hotel will be exposed to view and preserved. An engaging interpretive experience will be offered in an outdoor-museum setting within the spaces created by the walls of the ruin. The masonry walls of the ruin will be stabilized and conserved in an appropriate manner for their long-term preservation. A walking surface of stabilized earth will be provided at the former basement level of the building. Access from the ruins to the towpath along the Slip will be provided. An earthen berm will be built adjacent to a section of the ruins and will be planted with earthen grasses. This berm slopes up from the basement level to Lloyd Street. The ruins will be accessed by a stairway at the intersection of Lloyd and Scott Streets and a ramp from the intersection of Lloyd and Prime Streets. Interpretative elements will be installed and will focus upon the themes Life on the Waterfront and The Dynamic Canal District.

Coit-McCutcheon Block South of the Union Block site, the new Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park will be constructed in the footprint of a portion of the historic Coit-McCutcheon Block. The historic facades of the building along Commercial Slip and the bridge extension of Prime Street will be recalled using new masonry construction and punched window openings. The museum facades facing Commercial Street will have a contemporary treatment. Interpretive billboards as visible in photographs from the World War I period may be used to enliven the façade and announce the military theme of the museum.

As shown in this 1923 image of the Coit-McCutcheon Block, billboards and painted advertisements were placed on many buildings in the canal district. New billboards, replicating historic versions, will be installed to help evoke the character of the district. Source: Collection of Ronald R. Dukarm

Surviving remnants of the foundation walls of the Steamship Hotel were uncovered during archeological investigations. The collection of ruins will be used to create a unique interpretive experience Photograph: John Milner Associates, Inc. The Coit-McCutcheon Block stood at the mouth of Commercial Slip. This 1922 image provides useful information about the construction of this portion of the canal walls. Source: Collection of Ronald R. Dukarm Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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Central Wharf The historic Central Wharf is located in a key location on the site where land, canal, and lake traffic converged. It is important that the sense of place that existed at this site be re-established in this Project. As such, historic Central Wharf will be represented through a variety of paving materials and constructed site features. A new wooden boardwalk will recall the historic character and location of the wood wharf. The corner where Central Wharf and Commercial Slip meet is a significant interpretive location. This corner is visible in several historic photographs, apparently dating from the 1870s. A goal of the Master Plan design is to re-create the feel of the canal district as strongly as possible in this area. An objective at this location is to provide low-level access for pedestrians and shore access for recreational boat users. A second objective at the Central Wharf location is to accommodate visiting tall sailing ships. Several alternatives are being evaluated to meet these objectives. One involves the use of floating docks in front of the existing bulkhead. Another alternative involves lowering the existing bulkhead to about four feet above mean lake level. This would require removal of most or all of the existing concrete railroad structure. A retaining wall would be provided inland of the lowered bulkhead to prevent inland flooding. As the design of Phase Two and future phases evolves, a third alternative might be possible. This alternative would allow a portion of the bulkhead to be cut away to develop interpretive exhibits such as the cutaway lake freighter. Under any of these alternatives, new anchorage for the existing bulkhead wall would likely be required and the outer face of the bulkhead or retaining wall would receive historic treatment. As noted previously, Lloyd Street will be extended to meet the wooden wharf at this location. A new structure will be created to evoke the 1870s building that existed on

this corner. The structure may be an open pavilion with interpretive elements, though a small, fully enclosed museum is envisioned over the long term. Interpretation will focus on the themes Transshipment and Transportation, Center of Trade and Commerce, and Cultural Crossroads. On the east side of Lloyd Street, the fullscaled brick facade of the Union Steamship building will be re-created, providing enclosure to the Lloyd Street/Central Wharf intersection. A two-story balcony structure is proposed for construction along a portion of the wharf, recalling the historic balconies of the buildings that were located there. The balcony structure will include some sort of transparent panels that will provide opportunity for interpretation, visibility to the water, and serve as a windbreak. A low, open, shed roof over the west end of the wharf will link the balcony structure with the end of the Union Steamship facade and the pavilion/museum noted above. Such a shed structure is visible in a number of historic photographs and will provide shade and a location for interpretive elements and other public gatherings. Between Central Wharf and Prime Street, the locations of historic buildings will be indicated through paving materials, changes in grade, and other site features. The east face of the Union Steamship facade will serve as a backdrop for a concert stage. The location of historic Prime Slip will be marked with a water feature, a shallow pool that will be appropriate for model boats during the summer and skating during the winter. Other three-dimensional site features may be constructed as well, such as additional ghosting and interpretive elements.

Prime Slip The historic location of Prime Slip between Scott and Prime Streets will be revealed through construction of a pedestrian walk and bikeway between the development parcels. Unlike the historic streets, Prime Slip will not be paved with cobbles. Low vegetation, artwork, and interpretive elements will be used to enliven the walkway and suggest the water of the historic Slip.

This view provides some of the best evidence for designing the pavilion, the canopy structure, and the balcony structure to evoke the character of the corner between Commercial Slip and Central Wharf. Source: Collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library

This view shows the central portion of Central Wharf. The continuous balcony structure from Prime Slip to Main Street dominated the waterfront facade of the wharf. Source: Western New York Heritage Magazine

Prime Slip, identified on the 1872 map as "Terra Firma," was open for a short time before it was refilled. Source: Western New York Heritage Magazine

This detail of the Central Wharf balcony, located to the west of the Hazard Block, conveys the character and use of the structure. Source: Collection of Harvey Holzworth

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HARBOR
South Basin The proposed South Basin will provide mooring for commercial tour vessels such as the Miss Buffalo II and the Niagara Clipper. Other vessels that will be potentially moored in the South Basin include: the Edward M. Cotter, a historic fire boat operated by the City of Buffalo Fire Department; the Excalibur, a not-for-profit boat that provides water access for disadvantaged and disabled individuals; and an Erie County Sheriff Boat. Like other locations along the water's edge at the Project site, walkways (roughly 3- 4 feet above mean lake level) will be provided for pedestrian access to the water and to ease shore access for transient boaters using this Basin. A fixed pier planned to segregate the South Basin into two parts will have a similar elevation to the pedestrian access walkways. The South Basin will be designed and built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The walls will be constructed using steel sheet pile with a concrete cap.

South Basin Model: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

View of proposed Prime Slip Greenway Trail from Scott Street Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Birds eye view of South Basin Environs Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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CIRCULATION
Circulation The Preferred Alternative is organized around themes of transportation, past and present. The site's rich history of transshipment, from the canal period to the railroad era, is layered on the riverfront's present-day circulation fabric. These elements include: the NFTA's Light Rail Rapid Transit system on Main Street, bus service on Scott Street and other streets in the area, vehicular traffic along Scott and Main Streets and Marine Drive, as well as pedestrian and bicycle access via the Greenway and Industrial Heritage Trails and maritime access along the waterfront edge. Passing above the site is the Buffalo Skyway, a high level bridge carrying NYS Route 5. Five historic streets (Commercial, Lloyd, Hanover, Prime, and Perry Streets) will be rebuilt utilizing sandstone sidewalks and curbs, and restored/replicated cobblestone routes. A new one-way vehicular loop along Hanover-Prime-and a Prime Street extension will afford vehicular access to Central Wharf and the South Basin. Lloyd and Commercial Streets will become pedestrian rights-of-ways, with Commercial Street also providing emergency and service access to the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park. At Lloyd Street, the historic remnant of cobble paving will be preserved and exposed to view and expanded through the use of interpretive elements. New cobblestone paving and sandstone sidewalks will complete the missing portions of the street from Scott Street to Central Wharf for contemporary use. At Hanover and Perry Streets, significant original sections of historic paving appear to remain below contemporary grade. In the Preferred Alternative, the historic grade will be re-established. Historic stone pavers will be lifted and reset on a contemporary base, allowing for the installation of below ground utilities. A new Prime Street will also be constructed at historic grade, linking the bridge across Commercial Slip on the west with Main Street on the east. The canal-era width of Prime Street will be used (before widening for the railroad), creating a tighter, more intimate street design and enlarged development area. A single railroad line will be laid along the cobble paving of Prime Street in the alignment of the first railroad tracks installed on the site in the 1880s. Other interpretation will 20
ERIE CANAL HARBOR PROJECT

Historically the canal district was a gritty, industrial and commercial area. Images such as this historic photograph of the eastern end of Prime Street provide evidence that informs the possible design of new infrastructure and interpretive elements. Source: Collection of Ronald R. Dukarm

This view from 1922 of Commercial Street, looking north, provides additional evidence of the historic character of the canal district. The Coit-McCutcheon Block stands at right with the lattice-truss bridge for Lake Street spanning the Commercial Slip in the background Source: Collection of Ronald R. Dukarm

focus on the themes Transportation and Transshipment and The Dynamic Canal District. West of Commercial Slip, a portion of a new Commercial Street will be reconstructed using historically appropriate materials linking Scott Street, the Commercial Slip Bridge, Veterans Park, and the waterfront Esplanade. The east side of the street will follow its historic alignment, though the street width of the new Commercial Street will be narrower. The Skyway footprint, associated with a line of large supporting piers that cuts through the entire site on a diagonal, is planned as a transitional area designed to provide an open-space plaza and service access for adjacent development parcels, with 15 foot NYSDOT maintenance easements preserved at each pier location. Parcels adjacent to the transitional area may be utilized by a single owner who would need to refer to the full design guidelines and details to understand how to best use them. Pedestrians will arrive at the Erie Canal Harbor at two primary locations along Scott Street: via the light rail system and bus at the Main Street Transit Plaza and from adjacent parking areas near Crossroads Plaza at Commercial Street. The Transit Plaza will serve as an intermodal hub, providing a gateway to the site at the head of historic Hanover Street. This space will welcome travelers arriving by local bus, from the Erie Canal Harbor and Special Events Stations (light rail), through vehicular drop-off, and in the future via intercity rail from the planned Buffalo Intermodal Transportation Center and by foot from Main Street and points east. Crossroads Plaza is conveniently situated at the entrance to the new Buffalo and Erie County Naval and
DRAFT MASTER PLAN BUFFALO NEW YORK

Military Park, across from a planned 875 car parking structure. Crossroads Plaza is located next to on-street handicappedaccessible parking and will provide direct views across Commercial Slip to the Lloyd Street preservation area. Bicycle access into the site is made available from Scott Street down an alignment interpreting the historic location of the historic Prime Slip, an earlier feeder canal that once crossed the site. The center bike lane is separated from pedestrian ways by planted medians. Bicycle storage will be located on site. The bike trail continues through the site along Prime Street, joining Buffalo's Greenway Trail to the east. The Erie Canal Harbor will be the hub of a regional waterfront trail system that will extend upriver along the Buffalo River and to and along Lake Erie (as well as the Riverwalk extending along the Niagara River). A continuous waterfront esplanade begins at Veterans Park and travels north on Commercial Street where it crosses the bowstring bridge over the Commercial Slip. At historic Lloyd Street, pedestrians can turn south to the wooden wharf along the historic alignment of Central Wharf. This upper level access continues around the South Basin where it joins the riverfront esplanade at the cruise ship docking area. At this point the esplanade is reconstructed around the southernmost Skyway pier, providing the opportunity for a continuous waterfront walkway to Wilkinson Plaza and the historic DL&W Terminal building. Pedestrian access is also provided at water level. Permanent tow-paths along the Commercial Slip, floating docks at Central Wharf, and basin walkways are provided at elevation 575, approximately three feet above the current mean lake level (572).

Existing Circulation Diagram Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Proposed Connection Diagram Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

BUILDINGS
Museums While the interpretive landscape is a central concept of Erie Canal Harbor, the development of housed museum experiences is also encouraged and expected. Four museum concepts are currently proposed as possible venues in the Master Plan. Others may be possible and may be considered over time. The Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Museum is planned in the next phase of design and the Commercial Slip Pavilion is the next highest priority in relation to the overall Plans for interpretation. The schedule for these other museums is subject to site location and funding availability. Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park: A new facility for the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Museum is included in the Phase Two of implementation of Erie Canal Harbor and will be located in a portion of the footprint of the former Coit-McCutcheon Block on the west side of Commercial Slip. The Naval Museum is discussed in more detail in other portions of this Master Plan. The museum, including Veterans Park, is an integral part of the overall Project and of the anticipated visitor experience of the site. The quality of exterior and interior exhibits at the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Museum should be of the highest quality consistent with other exhibits at Erie Canal Harbor. To the maximum extent possible, the character and presentation of interpretation on both sides of Commercial Slip should be integrated and coordinated. Commercial Slip Pavilion: A new structure is proposed for construction at the southwest corner of Prime and Lloyd Streets. This structure will feature sheltered exhibits focusing upon the relationship and interplay between Commercial Slip and Central Wharf, focusing on the themes, Commercial Slip: Portal to the World, Transshipment and Transportation, and Center of Trade and Commerce. Located at the vital corner connecting the slip to Central Wharf, it will be the central focus of interpretation at Erie Canal Harbor. The Commercial Slip Pavilion will be located on the footprint of a building that existed in this location during the canal era,
Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

prior to the 1880s. It is visible in several historic photographs from that period. The design of the structure will evoke the character of that building, though it is not expected to replicate it exactly. It will be connected to the Union Steamship façade and ghosted balcony of Central Wharf with a low shed that is also visible in the historic photographs. Erie Canalway Visitors Center: A visitors' center and museum has been proposed on the site by both heritage interest groups and the public. The Master Plan supports this development and can accommodate it. This visitors' center is proposed in conjunction with the site's role in relationship to the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor. The visitors' center will serve as a visitor contact point, providing information and facilities including a theater, gift shop and toilet rooms. Interpretively, it will provide a broad overview of the history and significance of the Erie Canal and the canal district. An exact location has not been chosen but several parcels on the site are potentially suitable and have a prominent location, adequate size, adjacency to historic areas and infrastructure to support such a center. D L & W Museum: The Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society has proposed a major new museum on Buffalo history. The preferred site is the upper level of the existing DL&W Terminal adjacent to the east of the Erie Canal site. The site would be an excellent venue for a museum thematically and physically consistent with the Erie Canal Harbor Master Plan. It could further enrich the tourism and heritage objectives of the downtown waterfront and canal district. The Master Plan proposes a strong pedestrian link between the two sites, along the river walk and along Main Street. Interpretation between the two sites should be closely linked, with Erie Canal Harbor focusing upon the canal and canal district, and the larger DL&W museum expanding upon larger and broader themes of Buffalo and western New York heritage.

Evocative New Construction New construction will provide interpretation of the historic canal district in two ways. First, new features that are constructed will accurately mark the location of lost historic features throughout the site. The new Commercial Slip, historic roads, Central Wharf, Naval Museum, development parcels, and other features to be constructed will mark the locations of their historic predecessors. Additional research needs to be undertaken during the design phase of the Project to accurately confirm the locations of many of the historic features. Second, new features will evoke the character of the historic canal district through the use of historically appropriate materials. These materials range from the stones to be used in the construction of new Commercial Slip; to the pavers, curbs, and sidewalks to be used in the construction of new roads; to the bricks to be used in the construction of new buildings such as the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park and the buildings in the development parcels. Site furnishings (railings, benches, light fixtures,

bollards, poles, etc.) will be designed with inspiration from the site features visible in historic photographs and drawings. New buildings and site features such as the ghosted balcony at Central Wharf will be contemporary in design but will evoke the character of the canal district that they are intended to help interpret. Erie Canal Harbor will not be an exact recreation of the historic canal district. Because of the lack of detailed original construction information and the dynamic nature of the district, with a great deal of change over time, an accurate re-creation of the district is not possible. Rather, Erie Canal Harbor will be an interpretive landscape that helps visitors understand the history and character of the canal district and its significance to the city and the nation.

New streetscape elements and construction can provide interpretation and evoke the historic character of the site. The redevelopment of the Fulton Ferry Landing in Brooklyn, New York, provides an example. Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

New construction in the development parcels is intended to evoke the density of the historic buildings such as these along Prime Street. This photograph is from the railroad era, after Prime Street was widened. The buildings to the right, however, appear to remain from Central Wharf. Source: Ronald R. Dukarm from the Collection of Syracuse University

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Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park The Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park includes two new structures and an outdoor Exhibit Yard that will replace the existing Museum located approximately in the center of the Project Site. These buildings are referred to as the Main Museum and the Yard building. The new 9,000-square-foot, two-story masonry Main building located on the CoitMcCutcheon Block recalls the size, massing, materials, and fenestration of previous canal structures at this location, and contributes to the desired ambience of density and proximity to the Commercial Slip. A separate exhibit structure across historic Commercial Street of approximately 4,200 square feet provides more exhibit space in a simple hangar-like structure within the Exhibit Yard. This Yard building is envisioned as a high-roofed, metal structure, with electrical systems. It may be used to exhibit large vehicles and equipment or temporary exhibits. The Main Museum building will contain all the public and support functions of the Museum as well as accommodate exhibits at the upper level. It will be linked by an open bridge across Commercial Street to a mezzanine level of the Yard building. The Yard building will have large sliding doors facing both Commercial Street and the Exhibit Yard that can be opened to allow events to spill into the surrounding area, especially Commercial Street.

The recommended design approach for the Museum structures is to enhance and contribute to the historic interpretation of architectural elements along the Commercial Slip. The Museum will feature a historic look on the three facades that will be adjacent to the Commercial Slip, and will utilize brick and/or other masonry materials. Where appropriate and practical, the exterior walls of the new building should delineate the historic location of the walls of the CoitMcCutcheon Block structures, and the incorporation of archeological remnants should be considered where possible. Facades adjacent to, and across from, Commercial Street will be of a more contemporary look and utilize glass and other materials to display and advertise the exhibits. The New Museum will contain flexible and enlarged exhibit space. The New Museum contains two levels of services. The Main building will include heating, electrical, air conditioning, and other code required services. The Yard building will include electrical for lighting and power as well as other code required services. The Museum contains approximately 35% more space than the existing Museum building and incorporates the Gift Shop and Cafe within a single structure. Additional outdoor space along the recently completed Esplanade directly adjacent to Veterans Park has been incorporated into the proposed new outdoor Exhibit Yard, bringing the total area to approximately one-half acre.

View of proposed Naval Museum from Crossroads Plaza near Scott Street Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Cruise Ship Administration Building The Master Plan recommends a Cruise Ship Administration Building located in the southeastern corner of the Project site, east of the South Basin. It will be built in a future phase of the project. This location is well suited to provide a high bulkhead height and length for the ships (reported between approximately 125' and 480') in a manner that avoids obstruction of the festival site area and South Basin, and is convenient to vehicular circulation. It is anticipated that an Administration Building will be required to meet Homeland Security needs and it could potentially house the office(s) of a commercial cruise line and support spaces (toilet rooms, queuing and waiting areas, etc.) for passengers. Cruise ship passengers and/or goods from Canada will require inspection and processing from a number of United States Government agencies, including the Customs Service and Immigration and Naturalization Service. Conceptually, these functions can be housed in an administration facility with the others listed above. The issues of separation of civilian and Government operational and programmatic requirements must be considered in greater detail during subsequent design phases when funds become available.

Building Program (gross sf) Main Building Yard Building Buildings Total Site Program Veterans Park w/o esplanade Esplanade including Vet. Mem. New Veterans Park Total New Yard New Museum site footprint New Yard and building sub-total Total Site Program Area

9,000 sf 4,200 sf 13,200 sf

77,725 sf 22,500 sf 100,225 sf (2.3 acres) 19,000 sf (includes building footprin) 9,550 sf (includes Commercial Street) 28,550 sf 128,775 sf (3.0 acres)

Pre-schematic concept plan of Naval Museum Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects , P. C.

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Development Parcels The identification of approximately 225,000+ sq. ft of predominantly commercial development space is a programmatic requirement of the Master Plan. In the Preferred Alternative, seven development sites have been identified (see the chart to the right). While these parcels are treated as green space in Phase Two of the Master Plan, Urban Design Guidelines (see Appendix) have been developed to provide direction on the treatment of these parcels as they mature into fully developed sites. Development parcels ranging in size from 3,880 square feet to 29,045 square feet will accommodate a variety of mixed use developments that will complement the Erie Canal Harbor. Such uses as museum facilities, restaurants, clothing stores, bike and boat rentals, boutique shops, offices, confectioners and some upper level housing will add to the character and vitality of the Erie Canal Harbor. It is anticipated that the ground floor uses will be commercial and the upper floors would allow more private uses such as office and residential. In addition, to complement the service requirements of the Skyway, a limited amount of open space is required as part of the Plan. While potential uses are many, the siting and design of new development will be important and must adhere to the Urban Design Guidelines that will be incorporated into Buffalo's Waterfront Urban Renewal Plan. The buildings on the development parcels located throughout the site should evoke the character of the historic buildings of the canal district through the scale, massing, and materials of the new construction. Two- and four-story mixed-use buildings with façade widths similar to those of the Canal period are strongly encouraged throughout the site in order to create a lively and pedestrian friendly environment. Development is required to follow the "build to" lines that follow the footprint of the historic street pattern, except allowances for recessed, courtyard entries and service drives (see Urban Design Guidelines). Along historic streets, building facades will be required to

use historically complementary colored masonry and/or stone. Building designs should evoke but not replicate historic buildings. The Master Plan design encourages the recall of historic elements and archeological iconography including building thresholds, party walls, street signs, building names and historic building footprints. Historic elements and events can be marked using either historic or contemporary materials in paving or wall patterns. Facades that are not facing historic streets, such as along Scott Street and around skyway piers, will also be of masonry, but can have a more contemporary design. It is likely that archeological remains exist in areas of the development parcels that were not disturbed by construction of the Skyway. These remains are likely to include intact historic fabric particularly around building foundations that adjoined historic streets (e.g. builders trenches), as well as former privies. These may also include the basement walls and floors of buildings that once existed here, as well as construction debris from the demolition and infill of the buildings. These archeological resources should be preserved when new work is undertaken within the development parcels. As part of the consultation process with the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, a preservation and monitoring protocol for archeological resources will be prepared prior to undertaking new construction work within the development parcels. The theme, Dynamic Canal District, should be incorporated into the design of new buildings. This can be accomplished through the use of architectural motif or styles, authentic materials, and interpretive elements

A summary of bulk regulations for each parcel is as follows:
Parcel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total: Bldg. Footprint 3,880 sf 15,365 sf 9,408 sf 7,630 sf 29,045 sf 11,026 sf 5,653 sf 82,007 sf Max. Stories 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Min. Stories 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Max Height 60' 60' 60' 60' 60' 60' 60' Stepback @ Cornice 1:1 none 1:1 none 1:1 None 1:1 Max. FAR 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 Max. Dev. Area 10,670 sf 42,250 sf 25,900 sf 21,000 sf 80,000 sf 30,300 sf 15,500 sf 225,620 sf Encouraged Use Comm./Instit./housing Comm./Instit./housing Comm./Instit./housing Commercial/housing Comm./Instit./housing Commercial/housing Commercial/housing Open Space Under skyway 400 1,540 1,000 760 2,900 1,100 570 8,270

Special development and design considerations as specified in the Urban Design Guidelines are required for those parcels located underneath the Skyway. These involve additional regulations requiring consultation and approval from the New York State Department of Transportation regarding proposed land uses, clearances, building size, and other development features that could affect regular maintenance and access requirements for the Buffalo Skyway.

S-1 S-2 S-3 Total:

7,210 sf 4,238 sf 12,383 sf 23,831 sf

3 3 3

2 2 2

45’ 45’ 45’

1.75 1.75 1.75

12,618 sf 7,417 sf 21,670 sf 41,705 sf

720 420 1,240 2,380

Skyway Transitional Space & Development Parcels Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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OPEN SPACE ELEMENTS
Historic interpretation at the site recalls commercial and transshipment themes of the canal and railroad eras. The Preferred Plan is configured to reveal the alignment and texture of built spaces - building footprints and facades, cobble paved streets, cut-stone sidewalks, and wooden decking at the Central Wharf. Due to the nature of the site's historic "hardscape", shade and wind protection, important factors in the success of any open space, will be provided through architectural elements rather than natural features. Streetscapes Streetscape construction and site amenities such as lighting and railings will be patterned after, be sympathetic to, or have incorporated within, specific evocative historic elements that are evident in historic photographs of the street fabric once present at the site. Original cobbles found on-site will be reset where feasible, in their original location at historic grade. The street paving will be completed using additional cobbles salvaged from Buffalo's waterfront district and from other areas of the City where possible. New stone curbs will be set and new cut stone sidewalks will be constructed along each historic street. The City of Buffalo Department of Public Works will maintain streets and walkways established within public rights-of-way. All other areas will be managed under a maintenance agreement with a local organization such as Buffalo Place. Green Spaces Green spaces on the site are limited to open lawns and the planted medians along the Prime Slip bikeway. These linear beds are envisioned as seasonal landscapes utilizing hardy shrubs and ornamental grasses. Gently sloping lawns will be provided at the Union Block interpretive site overlooking the Commercial Slip, as a backdrop to the Steamship Hotel ruins, and as a sloping overlook at the South Basin. Street trees are provided along Main Street and are used as buffer elements at the fenced pump station and at the cruise ship parking lot. Development parcels also require consideration of open and green space in their design (See Urban Design Guidelines in the Appendix).

HAMBURG DRAIN
The Hamburg Drain is a combined sewer overflow (CSO) drain that passes through the historic right-of-way of the Commercial Slip with an outfall on the Buffalo River. The terminal section of the Hamburg Drain was constructed within the Commercial Slip in 1927 prior to the Slip being filled. Reestablishment of a navigable Commercial Slip requires removal of the portion of the Hamburg Drain that exists within the Project limits. A feasibility study was conducted in 2001 to evaluate relocation options for the Hamburg Drain. Numerous alternatives were identified and evaluated, ultimately refined to two that were further evaluated under this Project. The first alternative involves termination of the drain at the head of the Commercial Slip. Water quality issues associated with CSO in the Slip after storm events are addressed through the pumping of aerated water into the Slip. In addition, control of floatable materials is to be handled by a collection system within the remaining drain section. It will be housed within a subsurface structure located at the head of the Slip along Scott Street. The second alternative involves the relocation of the drain to the east to a new outfall in the vicinity of the Central Wharf. This alternative is significantly more costly, and given the size of the drain, impacts areas of archaeological resources to be used in the historic interpretation program. Because of these limitations, the alternative involving termination of the Hamburg Drain is recommended in the Plan pending regulatory approval and the environmental review process. An on-going maintenance program for the Slip will also be necessary, similar to other marina facilities along the river and lakefront, to remove floatables that enter the slip from the Buffalo River and in the event that some floatable materials escape the planned collection system. The proposed approach under the recommended alternative addresses water quality issues as they relate to the Commercial Slip and the adjacent project area. Regulatory requirements associated with the Hamburg Drain and numerous other CSO's along the Buffalo River are being addressed through BSA's Long Term Control Plan, which is still under development. Several stages of improvements are proposed under that plan. Some specific improvements under the plan include floatables control, volume reduction, and storage.

View of proposed Prime Street from South Basin looking towards Commercial Slip Bridge Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Alternative One - Recirculation - RECOMMENDED Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

New Prime Street would include stone side walks, cobble streets, granite curb and embedded railroad to evoke the historic character of site. Above is a historic street in Scotland Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Alternative Two - Re-location - NOT RECOMMENDED Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Model showing the proposed Ghosted Structure Model: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

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INTERPRETATION
Interpretive Exhibits Interpretive exhibits will be incorporated into the landscape of Erie Canal Harbor throughout the site. Exhibits will be representational and experiential to the maximum extent possible. That is, representational features such as replica canal boats, bronze figures, loaded handcarts, found objects, structures, and other exhibits will be favored over informational signage. Exhibits will be tangible and touchable. Their mere presence will enliven the landscape and provide immediate visual communication. Waysides and interpretive signage, addressing topics such as the Underground Railroad, will provide a rich complement to the representational exhibits. Interpretive items will be woven into the fabric of new construction. Bronze medallions, wood planks, railings, brick walls, the ghosted structure, and other designed items will provide opportunities to design interpretive messages, images, and information directly into the fabric of new construction on the site. Above all, the interpretive experience at Erie Canal Harbor must be of high quality. The visitor experience must be visceral, immediate, powerful, and fun. The design and execution must live up to the high standards of architecture, art, and landscape design in Buffalo.
Exhibits, such as this system of signs, markers, and brochures for downtown Manhattan, provide direct interpretation for visitors. Photograph: Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc.

Archeological Resources During the course of the Erie Canal Harbor Project, several archeological investigations have been undertaken, including several large excavation blocks taken in the vicinity of the former Coit Block/McCutcheon Building; in areas of former buildings along Lloyd Street; and in the vicinity of the former location of the Prime Slip. In addition, other excavations have been undertaken to help inform this Master Plan and site design process, including a full excavation of the both the western and eastern edges of the Commercial Slip to identifying the extent of stone wall remnants that still exist, as well as undertaking a series of units to identify the nature, extent, and condition of former Medina Sandstone paved streets (commonly referred to as cobblestone) to identify the potential for reconstruction/reuse as part of the system of pedestrian and vehicular routes. These investigations have yielded a number of archeological features associated with the site's former urban fabric that has been incorporated into the interpretative program of the Master Plan, as well as a vast amount of artifacts that have been curated for inclusion in the University of Buffalo's (UB's) repository in the Department of Anthropology. It is anticipated that UB will establish a local repository for these artifacts, and those recovered at the HSBC Arena site, at a location in the Niagara Insulations Building in the Cobblestone Historic District. The features, artifacts, analysis, and conclusions/recommendation associated with all of the prior investigations conducted are documented in the Phase II/Phase III Investigation and Data Recovery Report for the Erie Canal Harbor Project, prepared by Panamerican Consultants. Based upon this report, it is anticipated that the long-term management of archeological resources (both those already uncovered and potential resources that would be uncovered in subsequent phases of the Project) will be conducted via a Programmatic Agreement (PA) among the agencies responsible for implementation the current and future phases of the project. The PA will set the protocol for future investigations; monitoring; curation of artifacts; and if necessary, mitigation of resources on or eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

A survey of the site undertaken in 1910 is overlain with the areas where archeological evidence has been found. Compared to the dense construction that formerly occupied the site, a small portion of the archeological record has survived. Source: City Survey Office, City of Buffalo

New streetscape elements can provide interpretation and evoke the historic character of the site. The redevelopment of the Fulton Ferry Landing in Brooklyn, New York, provides an example. Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C

During the 1940s almost all of the canal district buildings were demolished resulting from the construction of the Memorial Auditorium and later the skyway. Source: Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Fitzgerald Collection

Preservation of of ruin at Pointe-a-calliere in Montreal Photograph: Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc.

With the construction of the Buffalo & Erie County Naval and Military Park and its parking lot, a new era began for the former canal district. By the 1990s, plans to move the museum and redevelop the site were underway Source: Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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Interpretive Concepts Inspiration for new interpretive elements came from historic documentation and photographs of the canal district and contemporary examples of engaging interpretation. The following vignettes are representative of a series of interpretive devices developed by the Design Team. These and other yet to be developed devices are recommended in designing the site interpretation.

Crossroads Adventure: Meet at Buffalo’s Commercial Slip & Central Wharf Intersection Illustrations: Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc.

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Interpretive Recommendations The following sketches reveal how historic themes and events can inspire interpretive elements to be installed on the site. Each element is designed to convey the historic character of the site and encourage visitors to explore the history of the canal district

Crossroads Adventure: Meet at Buffalo’s Commercial Slip & Central Wharf Intersection Illustrations: Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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URBAN CONNECTIONS
The Erie Canal Harbor is located at the base of Buffalo's Main Street and offers immediate connections to downtown and to the nearby Cobblestone Preservation District. The site offers significant opportunities to draw people from downtown to the Canal district as well as connect visitors to the site back to downtown and other locations in Buffalo and beyond.

CONNECTION TO CITY AND DOWNTOWN
One of the main objectives in developing the Erie Canal Harbor is to create a vibrant site that is tied into the city and downtown. A key component of the Erie Canal Harbor Project is its ability to enhance and facilitate public access to the waterfront via existing modes of transportation. Recently, the Auditorium stop on the LRRT was renamed the Erie Canal Harbor stop providing a better link to the Erie Canal Harbor site. With the Cobblestone District adjacent to this site, links must be made to this neighborhood so that the vitality of the Erie Canal Harbor site extends out to the Cobblestone district. Discussions remain underway regarding the development of the Memorial Auditorium. Formal and informal connections with the Erie Canal Harbor site will allow for shared synergy. Every effort should be made to make thematic links and easy physical access between the two sites a priority.

CONNECTION TO OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
The Erie Canal Harbor must take advantage of the surrounding area context, including the HSBC Arena, the HSBC Atrium Building, and the proposed parking lot just northwest of the site. Employees of area businesses offer an immediate constituency to this site and should be encouraged to visit and enjoy the Erie Canal Harbor via access and amenities on the site (i.e., food vendors, noon time or after work concerts and events).
Diagram showing proposed Urban Connections Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

regarding siting, massing, and materials used in the design of new buildings. The Urban Design Guidelines provide a useful tool for the design of parcels located within the Erie Canal Harbor site, in addition to their incorporation into the Urban Renewal laws of the city. The Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society is exploring the feasibility of renovating the upper level of NFTA's DL&W Terminal (which lies immediately to the southeast of the Erie Canal Harbor site) as a possible satellite site that would focus on the broader themes of Buffalo and WNY history. Should this Project proceed, strong thematic connections and a clear physical link between the two sites should be established.

New development should be designed in such a way that it supports the thematic structure and the goals and objectives of the Erie Canal Harbor Project. Urban Design Guidelines for new development on the Erie Canal Harbor site (included in the Appendix to this document) have been prepared that provide recommendations

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Preferred Master Plan Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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PROJECT APPROACH
The approach used to develop this Master Plan was conducted in the context of an overall Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement process. The process was initiated in May 2003 with a public scoping meeting that solicited public and agency comments on the broad scope of issues related to redesign of the Master Plan. The purpose of this approach was to add heritage interpretation and an understanding of available historic fabric and archeological resources to achieve the overall goals of the project. This was followed by the Master Planning effort itself. This involved data collection, historic research, and site analyses; formulating a series of reasonable conceptual site alternatives; evaluation of these alternatives against criteria based upon the refined Project goals and objectives; and formulation of a Preferred Alternative. The Preferred Alternative grew out of the components of the conceptual alternatives that best met the performance criteria. At key milestones in this process, opportunities for public involvement and input were provided. This included meetings and work sessions with key interest groups as well as design workshops with the general public. Three meetings with heritage-related interest groups took place between May and September of 2003. The workshops established heritage related goals and objectives, determined the period of significance and identified potential site themes. Following each of theses meetings, workshops were held with the general public in May, September and November that touched on the heritage aspects of the Plan but focused primarily on the opportunities and constraints of the entire site. In addition, several coordination meetings were held with regulatory agencies and sponsors of other public infrastructure projects in the vicinity of the Project site to ensure reasonableness/continuity with proposals being considered at the Erie Canal Harbor.

Bird’s eye view of Improved Project Area Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

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PROJECT LEADERSHIP AND SPONSORSHIP
Throughout the development of this Master Plan, many agencies played critical roles in providing sponsorship and leadership for this effort. Some organizations provided overall support, while other entities were directly involved in the unfolding of this Plan and will continue to play essential roles in its implementation. These include the following: • FTA, the federal lead agency, has been responsible for the provision of federal transit funding to implement planned multi-modal infrastructure improvements. • ESDC, a state funding sponsor and the New York State lead agency on the Project, has served as the overall manager for the planning phase and will continue to manage the Phase II design/construction of the infrastructure improvements proposed under the Master Plan. • NFTA, in its role as the designated local recipient of federal transit funds, has provided oversight related to the administration of FTA funds used on the Project and to provide input to the relationship of the Master Plan to the Authority's existing bus and rail facilities. • NYSTA, a principal funding sponsor, has participated in providing oversight of the Project's relationship to the overall New York State Canal System. • City of Buffalo, a funding sponsor and the owner of lands comprising the Project site, has been responsible for review and adoption of regulations that will guide future development on the site. It has coordination of every aspect of the Master Plan, given that they will be ultimate owner of most of the infrastructure improvements. • Buffalo Sewer Authority, a funding sponsor, is the owner/administrator of storm-water and wastewater sewer facilities in the City. It has participated in planning, analysis, and design activities related to the implications of reconfiguring the Hamburg Drain to implement the reconstruction of the Commercial Slip. • Erie County, a funding sponsor supporting the regional implications, has participated in all aspects of the Plan, specifically through the Department of Environment and Planning. • Erie County Industrial Development Agency, which hosts the operation of the City's Waterfront Development Coordinator's office. • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a sponsor that is funding and constructing the South Basin.

View of proposed Commercial Slip and proposed Bow String Bridge from Steamship Hotel Ruins Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Program and Site Operations A. Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park Presently the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park draws people to the Erie Canal Harbor and provides visual and programmatic purpose to the Erie Canal Harbor site. Once the Museum relocates to its expanded site, it will play an even more critical role in how people make use of this area. To enhance its current visitation and to take advantage of the cross over with the Erie Canal Harbor the Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park needs to evaluate its current exhibition Plans with an eye toward enhancing the visitor experience and broadening their audience. B. Buffalo Place As the maintenance and program manager of the Main Street Pedestrian Mall and as the organizer of the "Thursdays in the Square" concert series Buffalo Place has expressed interest in playing a similar role in overseeing similar aspects of this site by managing public gatherings at the site including festivals and concerts. Similar to its role as manager of the Main Street

Pedestrian Mall, Buffalo Place may be responsible for maintaining the landside of the site, including snow and garbage removal as well as grass cutting. A management plan is forthcoming which will identify operating expenses for the site, roles and responsibilities, as well as a funding source. C. City of Buffalo The City of Buffalo (or its designate) will be responsible for marine facilities on the site including administration of commercial boat use and visiting recreational users; regular maintenance and debris removal in the Commercial Slip, South Basin and along the water's edge; general upkeep of signage and other marine facilities; and seasonal installation/removal of the Central Wharf floating dock. D.Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society The Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society (BECHS) has expressed interest in being the local interpretive entity to

conceptualize and organize content for ongoing heritage interpretation activities on the Erie Canal Harbor site. In addition, BECHS would like to be designated as the lead agency to develop and manage the Erie Canal Interpretive Center for Buffalo that has been proposed by the Federal Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor Commission. BECHS is ideally positioned to assume these roles. BECHS offers knowledge and experience with historic artifacts and interpretation and would be a logical entity to oversee the ongoing interpretation of the site.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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ALTERNATIVE CONCEPT PLAN
As part of the Master Plan process, three full build out design alternatives were created that reflected input from the general public and heritage-related interest groups. The three alternatives share common elements required by the refined goals and objectives. The common elements include the Central Wharf, Commercial Slip, South Basin, Naval and Military Museum, historic street pattern, Hamburg Drain, circulation system, cruise ship docking, development parcels, transit plaza, historic/archeological interpretive elements, and boat access. However, each of the three alternatives has particular characteristics that makes each unique.
Phase Two - Alternative One Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C. Alternative One Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Phase Two - Alternative Two Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Alternative Two Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Phase Two - Alternative Three Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Alternative Three Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

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ALTERNATE ONE
• Covers a broad period of significance early 19th century through early 20th century railroad era. • Site surface is primarily hardscape with trees along outer street edge only and around development parcels six and seven. • Vehicular circulation occurs one-way off of Scott Street via Hanover, Prime and Perry Streets to Main Street. Prime Street is wide as in railroad era with multiple railroad tracks. Limited access on Commercial Street and a portion of Prime Street. • Use of two railroad era bridges (lattice truss and box truss). • Commercial Slip is re-watered with towpath and wood wharf north of bridge and contemporary elevation and cutdown bulkhead with wood wharf south of bridges. • Steamship Hotel ruins are conserved with paving and stabilized earth used as basement surfaces. Access via ramp at north end and stairs at south end. • Naval Museum building (s) located on canal at Union and McCutcheon blocks with second floor exhibit space bridging between McCutcheon and Union Blocks and over the bridge ramp. • Central Wharf interpreted with 2-story ghosted structure; low building at west end. West face to have a cut-down bulkhead to accommodate recreational boaters. • Lloyd Street remnant preserved and Lloyd Street extended onto wharf and out to Scott Street (same throughout all alternatives). • South Basin constructed at east end of Central Wharf in reduced size and relocated position to create historic wharf and to allow for cruise ships at south end of site. • Seven development parcels pulled back from the street edge, and laid out per original parcels with building façade locations demarcated. Access to skyway piers occurs via paved brick alleyways. • Cruise ship docking site and Administration building at east end of site (same throughout all alternatives). • Interpretive elements incorporated into design including bridges, Central Wharf, Steamship Hotel and Prime Street. 33

Concept Master Plan - Alternative One Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

ALTERNATE TWO
• Covers a broad period of significance early 19th century through 20th century railroad era. • Creates a somewhat more park-like feel trees on perimeter, portion of Prime Street has raised planting beds, and east side of Central Wharf has sloping lawn with trees. • Vehicular access occurs via one way new vehicular road, Prime and Perry Streets to Main Street. • Use of bridge same as Alternative One. • Commercial Slip is re-watered with towpath and wood wharf north of bridge, south of bridge has cut-down bulkhead on east side and contemporary elevation on west side of Slip with concrete paving on both. • Steamship Hotel ruins conserved with combination paving and green landscaped areas, access to basement via stairs at north end and ramp at south end • Naval Museum located along canal on McCutcheon Block with a second building located to the west with a connecting bridge between. • Central Wharf same as Alternative One, plus Prime Slip recalled as water feature and sloping lawn with trees facing the South Basin. • South Basin (same as Alternative One). • Eight development parcels same as Alternative One except where new vehicular road is introduced. Access to skyway piers via paved concrete access area ways. • Interpretive elements incorporated into design including bridges, Central Wharf, Steamship Hotel and Prime Street.

Concept Master Plan - Alternative Two Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

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ALTERNATE THREE
• Narrow period of significance - focused on 19th century Canal Era with early railroad references in Prime Street. • Most park-like feel with softscape parkway under skyway including trees and sculpture park. Sloping lawn with trees on east side and festival garden with trees on west side at Central Wharf and adjacent to South Basin. • Vehicular access off of Scott Street to Main Street as in Alternative One with narrower Prime Street. Limited access on Commercial Street and the remainder of Prime Street. • Single Bow Truss bridge recalling original Whipple Truss over Commercial Slip. • Commercial Slip is re-watered with towpath north of bridge on east and west sides of Slip, with earth finishes south of the bridge; bulkheads are cut-down with concrete and wood wharf finishes. • Steamship Hotel ruins treatment and access same as Alternative Two with stabilized earth and sloped lawn infill on a portion of area. • Naval Museum located on CoitMcCutcheon Block as single three story building with a single story open-pavilion in the yard area. • Central Wharf softscape and hardscape plaza without 2-story ghosted structure or Prime Slip water feature. • South Basin constructed as per Alternative One and Two, with the additional feature of viewing steps added to the east face of the bulkhead. • Seven development parcels laid out adjacent to historic street pattern and with layouts loosely based on footprint of original parcels. Access to skyway piers via parkway under skyway, service road for emergency service access placed on Prime Slip route. • Interpretive elements incorporated into design including bridges, Central Wharf, Steamship Hotel and Prime Street.

Concept Master Plan - Alternative Three Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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REVIEW AND EVALUATION
Once the three design alternatives were presented to the public, a matrix was developed to evaluate the three alternatives with regards to public and interest group comments and in relationship to fulfilling the Project goals and objectives. Based on the outcomes of this evaluation tool, the Preferred Alternative presented earlier in the Master Plan was designed as a hybrid of those elements from each of the three alternative Plans that were favored by the public and Project sponsors and deemed to fulfill the design objectives by the design team. This Alternative Evaluation Matrix was developed to evaluate the key components of each Alternative Plan against the goals and objectives of the Master Plan. The goals and objectives included for the Heritage Interpretation section are new to this design effort and indicate the new emphasis on history as an overall objective of this Master Plan. Each Alternative was ranked against detailed evaluation criteria to determine the Alternative that best met the overall goals and objectives for the future development of the Erie Canal Harbor site. Many of the objectives were predetermined by the last Master Planning effort and were stipulated as requirements for the final Master Plan Alternative. As a result there is very little difference between the three Alternatives as reflected in the Matrix on Page 37. Each element of the Plan was reviewed according to the following Matrix ranking. The shaded areas represent those program elements that have the highest ranking based on the stated evaluation criteria. As represented in the Matrix on the next page, positive outcomes were found in all three Alternatives, although the majority can be found in Alternative 3. Using this Matrix as a guide, the design team developed a hybrid Preferred Alternative that took these findings into account.

Design Evaluation of Three Naval Museum Alternatives Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Design Evaluation of Three Prime Street Alternatives Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Design Evaluation of Three Vehicular Access Alternatives Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

Public Workshop Photograph: Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.

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Alternative Evaluation Matrix Prepared by: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C..

KEY: + X 0

Very Good Good Poor

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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Preferred Master Plan - Phase Two Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

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PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
PHASE ONE ELEMENTS
The redevelopment of the Erie Canal Harbor into a new harbor with waterside and landside components was an outgrowth of the Inner Harbor Development Project Master Plan completed in 1999. Those elements completed during Phase One include: • Relocation and rehabilitation of the three naval vessels to a new excavated Naval Basin west of their original location. • Relocation of memorials to a new Veterans Park. • Enhancement and expansion of existing esplanade facilities to create a continuous walkway along the water's edge. • Pedestrian connections from the waterfront esplanade to the proposed Phase Two Commercial Slip and to Scott Street. • Force Main relocation. Historic Streets • Street sections rebuilt at historic grade. • Lloyd, Perry and Hanover Streets for pedestrian and limited access vehicle use only. • Prime Slip and Prime Street as contemporary materials with a new street extending Prime Street in the southwest corner of site for vehicular use. • A portion of Prime Street will be re-built in cobblestone following the early 19th century narrow footprint. • Commercial Street to be re-built and reopened as a cobblestone street. Central Wharf • Hardscape with interpretive elements integrated into the paving. • Interpretive exhibit/structure to establish sense of place and for weather protection. • Site for a sheltered pavilion. • Festival site. • Floating steel framed wooden surfaced dock adjacent to original bulkhead. • Wooden wharf at upper level with steps down to floating steel framed wooden surfaced dock. Buffalo and Erie County Naval and Military Park • Two buildings with walkway over Commercial Street. • Buildings sited to have immediate connection and open access to Exhibit Yard. • Exhibit building in the yard will allow for flexible expanded exhibition space that will open out to Naval Yard. Open Space • Transitional greenway with pedestrian and service access under skyway. • Development Parcels defined by historic building footprints and treated as landscaped space. • Crossroads Plaza north of Naval Yard at Commercial Street. • Intermodal Transit Plaza at Main and Scott Streets. South Basin • Sloped lawn on east side of basin. • Pedestrian walkway around basin edge.

LATER PHASES
With the understanding that it may be years before the Erie Canal Harbor is developed to its full potential, the Master Plan provides a clear direction for the eventual development and build out of the 10.9 acre site. The full build out of the site will be dependent upon the economic well being of Buffalo and the identification of additional funds as well as developers who might be interested in developing one or more of the development parcels. Later phases include further site interpretation; upgrading of materials to reflect the historic significance of the site; additional progress on the site including the development of identified parcels; and the construction of a Cruise Ship Administration Building.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
ESDC has acted as the overall Project manager - and will remain in this capacity being responsible for the design and implementation of this Plan through Phase Two with a completion date set for 2007. Beyond the completion of Phase Two, the City of Buffalo will become the primary party responsible for the implementation of this Master Plan and the future build-out of this site. This will be regulated through the adoption of an Urban Renewal Plan Amendment embodying the currently programmed and planned infrastructure improvements, as well as land use, urban design, and architectural standards included in this Master Plan. In effect, upon adoption of this amendment, the components of this Master Plan will have the full force and effect of law. As future development proposals evolve for the full build-out of the Master Plan, many agencies/entities will be involved in review, administration, and potential funding of such improvements, including the following: • City of Buffalo, which will be the ultimate owner of most of the infrastructure improvements (with the exception of the Hamburg Drain), will continue to be responsible for administration and maintenance of the harbor facilities, as well as be the approving authority for private development upon the designated development parcels, through site plan approval by the City Planning Board and the Common Council, as well as potential review by the Buffalo Preservation Board depending upon the nature of a development proposal; • Buffalo Urban Renewal Agency, in their role as administrators of land within designated urban renewal areas, will be responsible for developer designation and further enforcement of approved design standards embodied with the Urban Renewal Plan Amendment for the site; • Buffalo Sewer Authority, the ultimate owner of the Hamburg Drain facility, will be responsible for maintenance and floatable debris removal within the Drain itself, via a planned containment structure at the head of the Commercial Slip; • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, in addition to undertaking final design and construction of the South Basin, will be responsible for permitting all marinerelated facilities under Section 10 of the Harbors and Rivers Act as well as continued control/maintenance of the Buffalo River channel and along the bulkhead adjacent to the Esplanade, the Commercial Slip, and the South Basin, in their role of protecting and maintaining safe navigation in the federally-designated Buffalo Harbor; • New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, under their powers under Section 401 of the US Clean Waters Act, will be responsible for review and issuance of Water Quality Certification for the Project, including plans to reconfigure the Hamburg Drain; • ESDC, as the State of New York's primary economic development agency, will continue to be involved in economic development activities at the site in terms of administration of its ongoing programs of development incentives for private development (e.g., Empire Zone Program); • Erie County, as regional partner in heritage tourism and development will continue to be involved in overall development of the site through the Department of Environment and Planning; • Erie County Industrial Development Agency; as part of the region's economic development team, will assist with project coordination and potential business assistance incentives for future development at the project site. • Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor Commission is currently in the process of developing a coordinated management plan for the entire Erie Canalway Corridor (extending from Albany to Buffalo). This entity will be involved in ongoing administration, marketing, and future development at the site. The Erie Canal Harbor is considered among candidate sites for one of the Erie Canal Interpretative Centers.

Phase One - Completed 2003 Illustration: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P. C.

PHASE TWO ELEMENTS
Phase Two of the Preferred Master Plan is designed so as to provide the basic infrastructure for the full Master Plan with a priority of finished projects at the water's edge. As in all phases, the design allows for incremental development. As additional funds are identified the site will be further enhanced as per the design vocabulary established in the Master Plan including historic finishes and interpretation. Commercial Slip • A re-watered navigable Commercial Slip in alignment with original Commercial Slip. • A towpath/walkway on the west and east sides of the Commercial Slip. • Construction of a bowstring truss bridge. • Commercial Street reconstructed and made available for service and emergency access. • Steamship Hotel and Lloyd Street ruins uncovered and preserved as an archeological site with a combination hard and grass surface. • Site of the former Union Block as an interpreted site with a grassy, sloped lawn.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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View of proposed Prime Slip from Scott Street Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

View of proposed Naval Museum from Crossroads Plaza near Scott Street Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

View of proposed Prime Street from South Basin looking towards Commercial Slip Bridge Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

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PROJECT BUDGET
The Project budget for the Erie Canal Harbor was established in 1997 at $27 million. This budget was increased to $46 million in June of 2002. The sources of funds for the project are as follows: New York State Thruway Authority Federal Transportation Administration State of New York County of Erie City of Buffalo Buffalo Sewer Authority US Army Corps of Engineers Total $11,700,000 14,323,832 10,000,000 6,000,000 300,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 _________ $46,323,832 The design team prepared three alternative plans as presented earlier in this document. Although the cost for each of the alternatives differed somewhat due to individual design elements such as the amount of paving, landscape and type of bridge used over the Slip, all the plans were generally in the same order of magnitude in cost. Because of this and the fact that the Preferred Master Plan was most likely to be a hybrid of elements from each of the alternatives, cost was not used as one of the variables in choosing between the alternatives. After the Preferred Alternative was designed, a detailed budget including labor and material estimates was developed for the total build out of the Plan. In addition a Phase Two scope of work was developed for the work that could be accomplished with the monies available in Phase Two up to this point. The full text of the budgets for the Preferred Master Plan and Phase Two of that Plan is available in the appendix of the Master Plan (available through ESDC). The summary of the budget line items for the full build out of the Preferred Master Plan is as follows: Master Plan Budget Summary The Project team was directed to prepare a Master Plan that included the addition of the heritage theme including restored historic elements and interpretive exhibits, and the use of the funds was structured as follows: Phase I completed projects 2003:: Naval Basin Naval Vessels Veterans Park Naval Museum Force Main Relocation Phase II Proposed Projects 2004 - 2007: Commercial Slip Hamburg Drain (Alt. 2) Public Open Space Infrastructure Central Wharf Bulkhead South Basin and Pier Soil and Sludge Disposal Soft Costs Contingency Total Initial Budget Phase I Naval Ship Basin Naval Vessels Veteran's Park Force Main Relocation $8,020,000 2,120,000 2,020,000 540,000 Preferred Master Plan $8,020,000 2,120,000 2,020,000 540,000 Difference 0 0 0 0 Comments Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed In order to develop a plan to stay within the budget for Phase Two of the Project, the scope of the Preferred Master Plan was reduced by deferring a number of the Projects to later phasing strategy. In developing the phasing strategy, priority was given to establishing the basic infrastructure of the site with emphasis on the water's edge. The Sponsors and the design team hope additional funding can be identified to fully develop more of the Preferred Plan during the design phase of the Project. If this is not possible, then some of these Projects can be completed in future phases. Out of necessity a number of the most significant aesthetic and interpretive elements have been deferred in favor of necessary infrastructure such as the Commercial Slip, the Hamburg Drain and the South Basin. In order for the Project to have the maximum economic, cultural, and visual impact, the design team strongly encourages the project sponsors to implement the majority of the plan elements as soon as additional funds become available. This strategy will maintain momentum allowing project goals to be realized more quickly. The scope of Phase II as developed to date includes significant deferrals in three areas including Public Open Space, Historic Interpretation and Cruise Ship Infrastructure. Additional funding and alternative approaches are being pursued in a number of other program categories including City of Buffalo ROW Paving, Waterway Infrastructure, Utilities and Soil and Sludge Disposal. The specifics of the scope of these items are identified in the budget for Phase II, which appears in the appendix. The categories and costs of deferred items are as follows: Deferred Projects Open Space Infrastructure Site Utilities Site Prep/Earthwork Paving and Surfacing Site Improvements Subtotal Interpretive Elements Cruise Ship Infrastructure Miscellaneous Items Alternative Funding: City of Buffalo ROW Soil & Sludge Disposal Total

$ 8,020,000 $ 2,120,000 $ 2,020,000 $ 3,000,000 $ 540,000

$ 3,733,000 $ 3,497,000 $ 5,425,000 $ 300,000 $ 2,700,000 $ 656,000

$12,712,832 $ 1,600,000 $46,323,832

Phase II Naval Museum 3,000,000 Commercial Slip 3,733,000 Hamburg Drain 3,497,000 Public Open Space 5,425,000 Infrastructure Site Utilities* Paving and Surfacing* Site Prep/Earthwork* Site Improvements* Pump Station Ventilation* Interpretive Elements 0 Central Wharf Bulkhead 300,000 South Basin & Pier 2,700,000 Cruise Ship Facilities 0 Soil & Sludge Disposal 656,000 Soft Costs 12,712,832 Construction Contingency 1,600,000 Subtotal City of Buffalo ROW Paving/Utilities Totals 46,323,832 1,200,000

3,000,000 3,865,000 3,497,000 11,126,000 1,710,00 2,707,00 731,000 5,920,000 58,000 3,279,000 620,000 2,023,000 1,925,000 2,114,000 12,712,832 1,600,000

0 $132,000 0 5,701,000

Allowance Estimate Estimate Estimate

956,000 20,000 929,000 3,680,000 $5,585,000 2,854,000 1,925,000 316,000

3,279,000 320,000 (677,000) 1,925,000 1,458,000 0 0

Estimate Estimate Estimate Estimate Allowance Fixed Fixed

3,553,000 1,458,000 $15,691,000

58,461,832 12,138,000 4,753,000 3,553,000

Investigations are ongoing to reduce the cost of the soil disposal fees. There is also ongoing investigation into additional sources of funding for a number of areas including federal funding for the Historic Streets, and reimbursement for work on the Hamburg Drain and the Commercial Slip bulkhead wall.

$47,523,832

$63,214,832 $15,691,000

* Subtotals for Public Open Space Infrastructure

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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Source: Collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library

Source: Collection of the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society

Photograph: Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects, P.C.

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ERIE CANAL HARBOR PROJECT

DRAFT MASTER PLAN

BUFFALO NEW YORK

CONCLUSION
The Erie Canal Harbor site provides an unprecedented opportunity for Buffalo to celebrate the birth of this great city and its role as the western terminus of the Erie Canal. By focusing on the Canal Era, this site, like no other site in the City, commands attention and allows for the celebration of Buffalo's waterfront. Public sentiment helped to focus attention on the history of this site and has driven all design solutions presented in this Master Plan. This Master Plan provides clear direction on how this site should be interpreted and treated. While allowing for incremental development, the individual site solutions stand independently. The Master Plan offers specific guidance and an overall strategy regarding the development of the Erie Canal Harbor as a vital hub of activity that embraces Buffalo's history and leads it into the future.

Illustration: Flynn Battaglia Architects, P. C.

Flynn Battaglia Architects P.C. Mathews Nielsen Landscape Architects P.C. John Milner Associates, Inc. Chermayeff & Geismar, Inc, Baer & Associates

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