¯§„wZi kni

Lv‡j` mvjvn&DwÏb

cÖKvkbxt
kvKviv eyKwWmwUªweDkb †m›Uvi
M/2, cÖMwZ ¯^iYx
myev¯‘ bRi f¨vjx kwcs gj
kvnRv`cyi, Myjkvb, XvKv -1212
†dvbt 8858158, 8899277
†gvevBjt 01552-634814
ISBN-978-984-33-3026-9
MÖš’ ¯^ËvaxKvixt
Lv‡j` mvjvn&DwÏb
01778223755
g~j¨ t 180.00 UvKv
2|

DrmM©
Rsjx e‡j WvKZvg
hv‡K
†mB bvRgyb bvnvi
Avi
iwÄZv Uà †K...

3|

f‚wgKv ..................................................................................................8
K„ZÁZv .............................................................................................. 10
‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh© .............................................................................. 12
cy‡iv‡bv w`‡bi K_v ................................................................................ 14
cy‡iv‡bv †m w`‡bi ¯§„wZ ........................................................................... 16
kn‡ii †MvovcËb.................................................................................. 17
kn‡ii µgweKvk .................................................................................. 18
ivRivox‡Z †ijI‡qi cÖmvi I kn‡ii †Mvov cËb .......................................... 29
Avgvi ¯‹zj¸‡jv ..................................................................................... 56
eyeyi KjKvZv hvÎv................................................................................. 60
cÖ_g KjKvZv hvÎv ................................................................................ 63
j²x‡Kv‡ji ivRv .................................................................................. 64
¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vjb ................................................................................... 67
wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ¯§„wZ.............................................................................. 70
¯§„wZ‡Z Av‡Mi w`‡bi C` ........................................................................ 72
c~e©cyi“l†mw`b †_‡K AvR ........................................................................ 80
‡mB mg‡qi ¯^v¯’¨ †mevq wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb huviv............................................ 100
cÙvi Bwjk........................................................................................ 104
cÖLg hy‡Mi K¨v‡giv .............................................................................. 107
c`eª‡R wek¦ågY ................................................................................. 110

4|

QvcvLvbv ........................................................................................... 111
wek¦hy×, `ywf©¶, cvwK¯—vb cÖwZôv .............................................................. 112
fvlv Av‡›`jb, ¯^vaxbZv hy× ................................................................... 112
nvwZi g„Zy¨ I mrKvi ............................................................................ 115
wewoi KvwiKi .................................................................................... 115
Avgv‡`i eocyj .................................................................................. 118
BUvwjqvb †nv‡Uj K_v .......................................................................... 123
Gang of forty ................................................................................ 126
DRY ICE AND CARBONC GAS FACTORY ............................. 127
wgwj Zzwg Kvi? ................................................................................... 129
w_‡qUvi / hvÎv ................................................................................... 131
wew”Qbœ wKQy hv Av‡Rv gb‡K †`vjv †`q...................................................... 133
wUwe W³vi ......................................................................................... 139
gb¥_ †mb, e„›`veb P›`ª `vm, †Mvwe›` jvwnwo Avi my‡eva wmK`vi...................... 142
Òwbf„Z gayi fvebvi Aem‡i ................................................................... 147
cy‡iv‡bv w`‡bi ¯§„wZiv Rgvq fxiÓ ........................................................... 147
ÑÑÑÑÑÑRIni jvj †b‡ni“ .................................................................... 147
wewPÎ me m½xiv Avgvi ......................................................................... 151
wmwKi evRvi ...................................................................................... 152
BqvKze †nv‡mb .................................................................................... 154

5|

Rjc‡o cvZvb‡o ................................................................................ 155
Kg‡iW Avï fiØvR ............................................................................. 156
gvóvi gkvB mgi wms............................................................................ 164
‡Q‡j‡ejvq †Nvovq Pov......................................................................... 168
evOjvi ¸Y bv ¸Yx AvRgLvb.................................................................. 172
Av°vm Avjx wgqv ................................................................................ 174
Awbj mvay (Awbj Kzgvi Ki) .................................................................. 178
bvbv evoxi ¯§„wZ ................................................................................. 179
AwZ_x cvwLiv..................................................................................... 182
gÊjcvovi j¤^y‡gvnb ............................................................................ 182
Lyiig / Avwbm .................................................................................... 183
AvM&by Avgvi `v`vevey ........................................................................... 185
XvKvi eÜz .......................................................................................... 186
Kvkx Luv Ii‡d †Mvjvg cxi †PŠayix ........................................................... 187
Avgvi bvbx ........................................................................................ 188
fv`y wgqv (kixd †gvt byi“j nK).............................................................. 189
‡QvU ‡ev‡bi g„Zz¨NÈv ........................................................................... 195
Avt nvwjg wek¦vm................................................................................. 196
gM, nvg©v`, wdwi½x, cZz©MxR Rj`my¨ ......................................................... 200
WvKvZ .............................................................................................. 204

6|

‡V½v‡i .......................................................................................... 204
wbwk KzUz¤^ ...................................................................................... 205
VMx/ duvmy‡o/AviZzjyKi/ZšÍKv‡ji“ ........................................................ 205
eMx© ......................................................................................... 207
Elementary Road .......................................................................... 208
‡gv³vi wb‡qvM.................................................................................... 209
ivRevox A‡ji K_¨ fvlv .................................................................... 209
QÙbvg...................................................................................... 210

7|

f‚wgKv
Avgvi evev, huvi mšÍvb wn‡m‡e Zuvi †jLv eB‡qi f~wgKv †jLvi my‡hvM
Avgvi Rxe‡bi Ab¨Zg cÖvwß | mšÍvb wn‡m‡e Zuvi ˆewPÎgq Rxe‡bi AvgivI
Askx`vi | evev KLbI wjL‡eb Zv ‡jLv ïiæ Kivi AvM ch©šÍ evevi gZ
Avgv‡`iI aviYv wQjbv | evev wjL‡j fvj Ki‡eb Zv Abyaveb Kiv m‡ËI
Zu‡K wjL‡Z DrmvwnZ Kiv †miKg fv‡e n‡q I‡Vwb Zvi Kg©e¨¯ÍZvi Kvi‡b
| GLb g‡b n‡”Q Av‡iv Av‡MB ZvwM` †`Iqv cÖ‡qvRb wQj |
Avgvi evev wn‡m‡e bq, e¨w³ wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Ki‡j Zui Rxeb
¯^Zš¿ I ˆewPÎgq | Avi `kR‡bi †P‡q GKUz Avjv`v | Avgv‡`i †Q‡j
†ejvq hLb Avi `kUv cwiev‡ii wcZv-cyÎ m¤úK© wQj `~i‡Z¡i ZLbB
mgv‡Ri D‡ëv †kªv‡Z evev Avgv‡`i wQ‡jb eÜzi gZ | Rxe‡b eû NvZ
cÖwZNvZ Zuv‡K AwZµg Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q | KLbI RxweKvi ZvMx‡` KLbI
KZ©‡e¨i LvwZ‡i| Z‡e KLIB Av`k©P¨yZ nIqv Zuvi Rxe‡bi jÿ¨ wQj bv ev
Avgv‡`i‡KI wkÿv †`bwb|
‡Ljvayjv, bvUK, mvs¯‹…wZK A½b †_‡K mvgvwRK Kg©Kv‡Û wQj Zvi
mve©ÿwbK wePib | cÖwZwU welq AšÍ©`„wó w`‡q we‡ePbvi wQj wePÿbZv |
ZvB AwZ mvavib Rxeb Rvcb K‡iI n‡Z †c‡i‡Qb mK‡jK wcÖqfvRb |
cÖwZôvwbK †jLvcov Aí _vK‡jI BwZnvm, mvwnZ¨, Bs‡iRx I
eZ©gvb we‡k¦I †h‡Kvb NUbvq _vK‡Zb up to date | †QvU †ejv ‡_‡KB
evev‡K eB co‡Z †`‡L AvmwQ | Zuvi eB‡qi †hvMvb`vZvI wQ‡jb A‡b‡K |
†`vKv‡b e‡mB eB c‡o †dj‡Zb hv Awg †Póv K‡i †`‡LwQ gbms‡hvM
iÿvKiv KZ KwVb | †`vKv‡biB GK ‡Kv‡b e‡m g~j¨evb M‡elYvag©x
HwZnvwmK Z_¨ m¤^wjZ †jLvUv †klI K‡i ‡d‡jøb | Z‡e Avgvi g‡Z GUv
†kl bq KviY Av‡iv eû welq Av‡Q hv wZwb B‡”Q K‡iB AšÍ©f~³ K‡ibwb
mgq ¯^íZv I Avgv‡`i cÖKvk Kievi ZvwM` †_‡K |
Avgvi wek¦vm Zuvi †jLv Avgv‡`i cieZ©x cÖR‡b¥i Kv‡Q Zvi
mgmvgwqK ¯^”Q wPÎ Zy‡j ai‡e | GUv †hgb ïay BwZnvm †hgb ejv hv‡ebv,
†Zgwb cy‡ivcywi AvZœRxebxI bq | GwU GKwU mg‡qi µgweKvkgvb
mvgvRxK wkwÿZ mgvR, eÜzgnj Ges µgweKvkgvb †ijwfwËK Av_©bxwZi
wPÎ | GKB mv‡_ M‡o IVv Rbc` hv Kv‡ji Ave‡Z© nviv‡Z e‡m‡Q Zvi
HwZn¨ | eBUv Zv iÿvKivi ¶z`ª c`‡ÿc ev m~Pbv ejv hvq |
8|

‡h‡nZz evev AwZ mvavib gvbyl †Kvb cÖwZwóZ †jLK bb | Zuvi
†jLvi gva¨‡g cvVK‡K ev¯Í‡ei KvQvKvwQ bv wb‡q †h‡Z cvi‡jI G‡Kev‡i
A‡evaMg¨ bq | eis Avgvi Kv‡Q mvwn‡Z¨i KgwZ Av‡Q e‡jI g‡b nqwb |
wKQzUv cvwievwiK cwigÛ‡j †jLv e‡j A‡bK K_v e¨w³MZ e‡j
g‡b n‡Z cv‡i Z‡e †jL‡Ki cvwievwiK cwi‡ekI M‡íi gZB wewPÎ |
cwi‡k‡l Avwg Avgvi evev m¤ú©‡K Ges Zvi †jLvi Ic‡i `yÕGKUv
K_v ej‡Z †c‡i mšÍvb wn‡m‡e Me© †eva KiwQ | Zuvi †mevq Rxeb w`‡q
w`‡jI hv Kg n‡q hvq |
Lv‡j` nvmvb (iÄb)
†g, 2011

9|

Lv‡j` mvjn&DwÏb Rb¥:-22†k †m‡Þ¤^i 1937 Qwe: 2011 mv‡ji

K„ZÁZv
Avwg cÖwZwôZ †Kvb †jLK bB | AbyR cÖwZg cÖ‡dmi gwZqi
ingvb Avgvq GKUv eB †`b hv Avgvi cig kª×vfvRb wkÿ‡Ki kZel©
Av‡Mi ¯§„wZPvib | hvuiv Zuvi Kzkxje AvR Zu‡`i lôZg Aat¯Íb cyiæl Pj‡Q
| Avi †`k wefvR‡b wQbœ m~Î | GB wQbœ m~Î a‡i AvR‡Ki MÖš’b mwZ¨ `yiƒn
10 |

| Avi m¨v‡ii mgq Kv‡ji GKgvÎ RxweZ QvÎ m¤¢eZt Avwg Qvov Av‡Q
g‡b nq bv |
mg‡q nvj †Q‡o w`‡qwQ | mvnm hywM‡q cwibwZi w`‡K GwM‡q
w`‡q‡Qb †`evûwZ PµeË©x |
wewÿß Avevmf~gx BDwbqb cwil` Øviv cwiPvwjZ (1923 mv‡ji
†deªæqvix gvm †_‡K ivRevox wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi cÖwZôv ) †hLv‡b
Pibvivqbcyi †_‡K AvmviI iv¯Ív †bB |
1760 mv‡j emwZ KvRxKv›`vq _vK‡jI †Kvb wkÿvjq M‡o I‡Vwb
| G‡nb ivRevoxi MV‡b 1870 `k‡K PivÂj †_‡K M‡ni †gvjøv cwievi,
gvwbK wg¯¿x cwievi Avi wbevib PµeË©x cwieviivB cw_K…r |
Avgvi †jLv mvwn‡Z¨i wePv‡i KLbB Drivqbv | wKQy BwZnv‡mi
Dcv`vb nqZ cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i |
GRb¨ evey gwjøK, Zznxbyi ingvb, dRjyj nK †PŠayix, wPË iÄb
¸n, Avt Mdzi Lvb, gKmy`yj ‡gv‡gb gÄy fvB, Avgvbyjøv, †gvn‡Zmvg Dj
Kwig, mvBdzj nK, ïkxj Kg©Kvi, †LvKb gvngy`, †bnvj Avng`, w`jxc
Ki, Aa¨vcK kwdDwÏb Pzbœy, †PŠayix gvnveyeyj nK I Avgvi cwiev‡ii
m`m¨ivB K…wZ‡Ë¡i `vwe`vi |
K¤ú¨yUvi K‡¤úvR K‡i‡Qb Lv‡j` nvmvb, gKeyj †nv‡mb Amxg ˆah©¨
wb‡q | evbvb †`‡L w`‡q‡Qb kZ Kv‡Ri gv‡SI †mœnv¯ú` †Mvjvg m‡ivqvi I
Lv‡j` nvmvb | we¯§„Z Av‡iv kZ bvg i‡q †Mj Aby³ | ïay gvÎ K…ZÁZv
Rvwb‡q hv †kl nevi bq |
huv‡`i me©vwaK HKvwšÍKZvq Avi Z¨v‡M GB kn‡ii DrKl©Zv
Zuv‡`i K_vB Avgvi †jLvq Abycw¯’Z | Zuv‡`i Kg©cwiwai LÛvskI mshy³
Ki‡Z †M‡j Avgvi RxeÏkvq nq‡Zv GB †jLvUv Av‡jvi gyL †`L‡e bv,
Nwbó R‡b‡`i m‡½ AvgviI GB Avk¼v |
wØZxq ¯§„wZ‡Z Avgvi kª×vN© n‡e Zuv‡`i wb‡qB |
Lv‡j` mvjvn& DwÏb
†g,2011

11 |

‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh©
ivRevoxi ivRv m~h©Kzgvi Bbw÷wUDk‡bi cÖwZôv mgqKvj
†_‡K QvÎ, Avi cwi‡k‡l cÖavb wk¶K wnmv‡e cÖvq Aa©kZvãxKvj
m¤ú„³ †_‡K whwb QvÎ , AwffveK mevi kª×v AR©b K‡i‡Qb, Avgvi
cig kª×vfvRb †mB ‰Î‡jvK¨bv_ fÆvPv‡h©i AvZ¥Rxebx ÒAvgvi
¯§„wZK_vÓ PwU eBUvi cÖ_g cvZvi QweUv wPb‡Z Lye GKUv †eM †c‡Z
nqwb| hw`I Zuvi mv‡_ Avgvi †kl †`Lv 1947 mv‡j we`vq w`‡b, wVK
64 eQi Av‡M, Avi ZLb Zuvi eqm 72 eQi| eB‡Z Qvcv‡bv QweUv
Zuvi 92 eQi eq‡mi cÖwZK…wZ| ZeyI Zuvi weL¨vZ j¤^v Kv‡bi cÖvš—
†hUv me mgq †`vj †LZ, Qwe‡Z Avi ¯§„wZ‡Z Av‡Rv †mUvB cÖKU|
Avgv‡`i wbPz K¬v‡m wZwb Avm‡Zb bv e‡U Z‡e eviv›`vq cv¤úmyÕi gP&
gP& AvIqvR ï‡b wk¶K, QvÎ mevB ZU¯’ n‡q †hZvg|
‡eu‡U Lv‡Uv ivkfvix gvbylUv AvZ¥K_vq KweZvi g‡Zv K‡iB Zuvi
mgqKv‡ji huv‡`i K_v wjwce× K‡i‡Qb AvR Zuv‡`i A‡b‡KiB cÂg
Aat¯—b cyi“l Pj‡Q| fviZ wefvR‡b ¯’vei wP‡ýi m~θ‡jv wQbœ n‡q
†M‡Q| ‡fŠMwjK weeZ©‡bI A‡bK ¯’vcbv wbwðý| GZØm‡Z¡I Avwg
gvbwmK GKUv ZvwM` †eva Kijvg m¨v‡ii ¯§„wZK_vi m~Î a‡i
AvR‡Ki cÖR‡b¥i GKUv MÖš’b †hvM Kivi |
m¨v‡ii Rb¥ 1875 mv‡j KvjyLvwj MÖv‡g J.L No-257 bs `v‡M †hUv
cyivZb KvjyLvwj †ij †÷kb †_‡K `yB gvBj Dˇi eZ©gv‡b cÙv M‡f©
(eZ©gvb †ij †÷kb iZbw`qv J.L No-269 bs `v‡M)|
1885 mv‡j †evqvwjqv ¯‹zj †_‡K wbgœ cÖvBgvix I 1888 mv‡j lô
†kªYx cvk K‡ib| KvQvKvwQ dwi`cyi †Rjv ¯‹zj (1840) I KzgviLvwj
nvB¯‹zj (1856) Qvov H mg‡q GZ`v‡j †Kvb Bs‡iRx ¯‹zj bv _vKvq
GK eQi covïbv ¯’wMZ ivL‡Z eva¨ nb| †Mvqvj›` nvB¯‹zj cÙvi
fv½‡b ivRevox D‡V G‡j wZwb cvk¦©eZx© †ebxbMi MÖv‡g m¤úKx©Z gvgv
kkxf~lY PµeËx©i Avkª‡q †_‡K 1889 mv‡j ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi ¸nivq
cwiPvwjZ ¯‹z‡j fwZ© nb| †ebxbMi †_‡K ivRevox Avmvi AvovAvwo
12 |

†Kvb iv¯—v wQj bv| m~ZvMv½ ‡Lqv cvi n‡q †Rjv †ev‡W©i †Lvqv euvav‡bv
Elementary Road a‡i †Mv`vievRvi Avmv †hZ, †mLvb †_‡K ¯‹z‡j
Avm‡Z †gvU mv‡o wZb gvBj, Ab¨ c_Uv gv‡S m~ZvMv‡½i †mªvZ
wWw½‡q †ijiv¯—v a‡i|
Avkªq`vZv cwiev‡ii mncvwV m`m¨ AK¯§vr K‡jivq gviv †M‡j G
evox‡Z Zuvi Dcw¯’wZ mevi weo¤^bvi KviY eyS‡Z †c‡i GLv‡b _vKvUv
wZwb `ywe©mn †eva K‡ib| Gmg‡q †hw`b m~ZvMv‡½i cÖej †mªv‡Z wZwb
†ijc‡_ DV‡Z wM‡q †f‡m wM‡qwQ‡jb †mw`bB wZwb wk¶vi cvU PzwK‡q
evox P‡j hvb| AvR †hLv‡b †Mvqvj›` nvB¯‹z‡ji Ae¯’vb IB mg‡q
ILv‡b iRbx iv‡qi gvwjKvbvq GKUv AvevwmK †nv‡Uj wQj| †mLv‡bi
AvevmI Zuvi wcZvi g„Zz¨‡Z Pz¨Z nevi Avk¼v †`Lv †`q| ivRvi
¯‹z‡ji ‡nW cwÊZ kªxcwZ Kve¨Zx_© gnvkq ivRv m~h©Kzgvi ¸nivq‡K
m¨v‡ii `yie¯’vi wek` Rvbv‡j ivRv Zuv‡K wbR cÖvmv‡` Avkªq †`b|
Avi †mw`b †_‡KB wZwb ivR cwiev‡ii GK wek¦¯— m`m¨ n‡q hvb|
ivRvi g„Zz¨i ci DB‡j †`Lv hvq ivRv ˆÎ‡jvK¨bv_ fÆvPvh©‡K m¤úwËi
mwjwmUi g‡bvbxZ K‡i †M‡Qb hv wZwb Avg„Zy¨ wek¦¯—Zvi mv‡_B cvjb
K‡i †M‡Qb|
‰Î‡jvK¨ m¨vi 1894 mv‡j G›UªvÝ cÖ_g wefv‡M cvk K‡ib| 1900
mv‡j Bs‡iRx‡Z Gg,G cix¶v †`evi †kl w`‡b Amy¯’Zvi Rb¨ mgvß
Ki‡Z cv‡ib bvB| GLv‡bB Zuvi wk¶v Rxe‡bi †kl|
gvwmK 250 UvKv †eZ‡bi miKvix PvKixi wbðqZv †c‡qI wZwb ivRv
m~h©¨Kzgvi ¸iniv‡qi Av‡`‡k 1900 L„óv‡ãi 2iv wW‡m¤^i ivRv
m~h©¨Kygvi Bbw÷wUDk‡bi mnKvix cÖavb wk¶K wnmv‡e 50 UvKv
†eZ‡b †hvM`vb K‡ib| 1906 mv‡j cÖavb wk¶K wnmv‡e DbœxZ n‡q
1947 mv‡ji gvP© gvm ch©š— D³ c‡` envj _v‡Kb| 1948 mvj n‡Z
1958 mvj ch©š— wbR MÖvg iZbw`qv ¯‹z‡j cÖavb wk¶K wnmv‡e
wk¶v`vb K‡ib| 1958 mv‡j fvi‡Z †M‡j ivbvNvU Kzcvm© K¨v¤ú ¯‹z‡j
6 gvm wk¶KZv K‡ib| gv‡S 1919 mv‡ji 6B Rvbyqvix †_‡K 5 eQi
6 gvm cvKkx ¯‹z‡j cÖavb wk¶K wnmv‡e †hvM †`b, cvKkxi BwÄwbqi
eÜzei †hv‡M›`ªbv_ `vm¸‡ßi Aby‡iv‡a| me©‡gvU Zuvi wk¶KZv Rxeb
58 eQ‡ii|
13 |

ivRevox‡Z Rxe‡bi my`xN© GB mgq Kv‡j m¨vi cÖvq mg¯— RbwnZKi
Kg©Kv‡ÊB RwoZ †_‡K‡Qb| miKvix Abvivix g¨vwR‡÷ªU, nvmcvZv‡ji
†m‡µUvix, wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi †Pqvig¨vb, †Rj cwi`k©K, †jvKvj
†ev‡W©i †Pqvig¨vb Avi ivRvi m¤úwËi mwjwmUi| G QvovI wgjb msN
bv‡g K¬ve MVb K‡i i“Mx †mev, k¥kvbhvÎv, cÖf„wZ RbwnZKi K‡g©
wb‡qvwRZ †_‡K‡Qb|
m¨v‡ii g„Zz¨ ZvwiL Rvbv hvq bv| Z‡e wZwb 1970 mvj ch©š— KjKvZv
eivnbM‡i ¯^xq evmfe‡b evm Ki‡Zb| †m wnmv‡e Zuvi aivav‡g
RxerKvj 95 GiI †ekx|

cy‡iv‡bv w`‡bi K_v
g„Z‡`i eqm ev‡o bv| hLb ¯§iY Kwi †mB mg‡qi gyLUv
‡f‡m I‡V| AvR 60/65 eQi ci †eu‡P _vK‡j eq‡mi mv‡_ Zvj
†i‡L †Pnvivq cwieZ©b Avm‡Zv| Avgvi GB eq‡m †evaKwi AZx‡Zi
¯§„wZ †ivg¯’b Ki‡ZB fvj jv‡M| wPš—v Aš—©g~Lx nq| fy‡j fiv
ˆK‡kvi, †hŠeb | hvi ms‡kva‡bi m¤¢vebv bvB| bZzb K‡i ïi“ Kivi
AvkvI bvB| Zvi Kv‡Q ¯§„wZ Qvov gayi K‡i fveevi wKBev _v‡K|
A_P †m mg‡qi w`b¸‡jvI †Zv Lye gayi wQj bv| Avm‡j AvR
e¨_©ZvI i‡Oi gvayix wgwk‡q AvZ¥Z…wß cvIqvi †Póv gvÎ|
Rb¥B e„_v G msÁv †hgb mevi GKiKg bq, mv_©KZvI †h wK‡m ZvI
†Zv gZvš—‡i wef³| `Êgy‡Êi KZ©v nIqv, bv AvZ¥xKcxob mvabvq
wjß? fvj gvbyl †m‡R _vKvi †fZ‡iI †Zv GKUv †gvn KvR K‡i|
†KD g›` KvR K‡i KZUv cxwoZ nq gbyl¨‡Z¡i gvcKvwV wK †mUvB?
AM¯—hvÎvi c~e©evZ©v cvB gv‡S gv‡S| gvbwmK cÖ¯‘wZ wK Av‡Q?
Avgv‡`i GB †QvÆ gd¯^j kn‡i †hLv‡b †Lvqv Qov‡bv AvwÏKv‡ji
†Rjv kn‡ii ms‡hvM Qvov euvKx me gvwUi, †gvl Avi Mi“i Mvoxi
PvKvq ¶Zwe¶Z| AvR Avgvi GB Qwe¸‡jvB fv‡m g‡b|
14 |

‡i‡ji Kj¨v‡b M‡o IVv kni †hUv †KD ej‡Zv Djyqvo Pi| GKmgq
b`xwe‡aŠZ Pvlvev‡`i Z„bf~wg| emwZ Qov‡bv wQUv‡bv| cv‡ki gvwU
†K‡U iv¯—v Avi emwZ M‡o IVv| Lvj bvjvq gkvi esk we¯—vi|
g¨v‡jwiqv N‡i N‡i| cÖwZeQi K‡jiv, emš—, gnvgvix| KvjvR¡i Avi
†ewi‡ewi| PvKzixqv‡`i cvwbk‡g›U †m›Uvi| KzBwbb bv nq ¯’vbxq
Kweiv‡Ri cuvPb| Pvgov cPv MÜ Avi h¶vwZ‡Zv| ZLbKvi mg‡q R¡i
n‡j mvey Avi evwj© Qvov wbi¤^y Dcevm| R¡i †Q‡o †M‡j †hw`b fvZ
cv‡ev Zvi Kíbv Ki‡ZI wR‡e cvwb G‡m †h‡Zv| gv‡K KZB bv
Ave`vi a‡iwQ, wK wK w`‡q †L‡Z cve Zvi wdwiw¯— KZevi ï‡bI Avk
†g‡Uwb| ZvRv gv¸‡ii †Svj, cy‡iv‡bv Pv‡ji mi“ fvZ| Avn&|
g¨v‡jwiqv wK e¯‘ hvi nqwb Zv‡K †evSv‡bv hv‡e bv| Kuvcywb w`‡q R¡i
Avm‡Q| evoxi me †jc Kuv_v w`‡q Dc‡i †P‡c a‡iI Kuvcywb _v‡g bv,
kxZ hvq bv| Avevi Qv‡o, Avevi Av‡m| `yM©Ühy³ cuvPb †L‡Z gv‡qi
KZB bv mva¨ mvab| gy‡L cvb wPwe‡q †iwW, †jey cvZv N‡l bv‡Ki
WMvq a‡i Av‡Q †KD| Ab¨ nv‡Z Kweiv‡Ri gvÎv AuvKv †evZj †_‡K
Xvjv nvd †Mjvm †mB gvj| Avav N›Uv gvwbK †mvbv GKmgq ‰ah©¨ nviv
gv‡qi Kvbœvq nv K‡i †djZvg| XK K‡i wM‡j †dj‡ZB †c‡Ui
bvwofywo cvwK‡q DV‡Zv GK‡ejv R¡i bv G‡jB gv‡qi gy‡L nvwmi
†iLv| Kvj‡Ki w`bUvI cvi n‡j Z‡eB ciï †mB Kvw•LZ ZvRv
gv¸‡ii †Svj| cÂvk lvU eQi †cwi‡q Avmv †mme wK AvR dzwU‡q
†Zvjv m¤¢e Kvwji AvuP‡o?
K¬vm †m‡f‡b (ZLbKvi w`‡bi †dvi&_ K¬vm) cvV¨eB‡q ÔcvV‡Ki g„Zz¨Õ
GKUv Mí †bnvZ cix¶vi cÖ‡qvR‡b c‡owQjvg| fvjI jv‡Mwb gg©I
eywSwb| AvR cyi‡bv w`‡bi fvjjvMv †Zgb GKUv eB †c‡q KZbv
AvMÖn wb‡q cvZv D‡ë †nuvPU †Ljvg AvwgI| gjvU †Zv †mUvB †`LwQ|
GK`v bexb †hŠe‡b †hK_v g‡g© my‡Li gZ e¨v_vq UbUb K‡i D‡VwQj
eyKUv, AvR Zv cvb‡m jvM‡Q †Kb? cvV‡Ki g„Zz¨ n‡q‡Q? ZLb ¯^cœ
wQj, m¤¢vebvI wQj| AvR Ac~Y©Zv †hgb Av‡Q m¤¢vebv †Zgwb i“×|
ÓRwo‡q †M‡Q mi“ †gvUv `ywU Zv‡i,
ü`q exbv wVK my‡i ZvB evR‡Q bv‡i|
mnmª eÜb gv‡S jwfe gyw³i ¯^v`|
15 |

GB fvj| †mB fvj|
†nvKbv ¶zbœ wKQy Zey †mB fvj| ZvB fvj|Ó

cy‡iv‡bv †m w`‡bi ¯§„wZ
‡Q‡j‡ejvq eÜz‡`i g‡a¨ wb‡Riv f½x ev Af¨vm cÖPwjZ
Ki‡Zv eûw`‡bi A`‡k©‡bI Zv †h we¯§„Z nq bv †Zgb GKUv NUbv
cÖZ¨¶ Kivi †mŠfvM¨ Avgvi n‡qwQj|
1947 mv‡j GK eÜz fviZ P‡j hvq Aci eÜz 1972 mv‡j cy‡ivcywi
AÜ| AÜ Mbx wgqv `uvwo‡q Av‡Q c‡_i av‡i| cyivZb eÜz wef~wZ
†cvÏvi cÖvq wZwik eQi c‡i cvQv w`‡q cvQvq ¸‡Zv w`‡jb| AÜ Mbx
wgqv _g‡K wM‡q ciÿ‡bB ej‡jb †K ‡i fy‡Z bvwK‡i? `yR‡b MjvMwj
Rwo‡q ey‡K ey‡K| Avgv‡`i AvÇvLvbv Kvjyi Pv‡qi †`vKvb| evev
gvwjK e‡U Dwb Icvi evsjvi gvbyl| wgó fvlx| wKš‘ ey‡K †k‡ji
g‡Zv †euav K_vI ej‡Zb wgwó K‡i| †hgb AvdZve euvwK †L‡q eû
w`b †kva †`q bv| Zv‡K ej‡jb AvdZve mv‡ne Avgvi UvKvUv wK
†g‡iB w`‡jb? Avgv‡K GKw`b †XvKvi gyû‡Z© ej‡jb RMjyj mv‡ne
Av‡Mi UvKvUv bv nq _vK Gevi †_‡K bM`B Lv‡eb| euvKx Avi
evov‡eb bv| Zey eo fvB‡qi cÖwZ Avgv‡`i kª×v wQj Ab¨ Kvi‡Y|
Ibvi †`‡k †_‡K Avmv eÜzwU Zvjv Pvwei †gKvi, Ab¨ nKvi‡`i g‡Zv
nuvK w`‡q Rvbvb w`‡Z nq bv| †gvUv Zv‡ii g‡a¨ wU‡bi PvKwZ dz‡Uv
K‡i fiv †mUv bvov †c‡jB Sb Sb kã ï‡bB †evSv †hZ Zvjv Pvwei
†gKvi P‡j‡Q| Ng©v³ †`‡n cÖvqB Avm‡Zb †iv‡` †Z‡Z cy‡o| eo
fvB †Kvb evK¨ D”PviY bv K‡i †mvRv Pz‡jvi cv‡o wM‡q `yB Kvc Pv
wb‡R evbv‡Zb Ges wbtk‡ã GKUv wb‡R Avi GKUv eÜzi nv‡Z awi‡q
w`‡Zb| evK¨vjvc †Zgb Ki‡Z †`wLwb| ivZ n‡q †M‡jI hLb
Avgv‡`i AvÇv fv‡½ bv ZLb ej‡Zb Avcbviv GLb DVyb Kvjyi eÇ
Nyg †c‡q‡Q| Avgiv mPwKZ n‡q `yKvc Pv Avi djm wZbUv Kvc
16 |

AW©vi w`‡j Kvjy cÖvqB ej‡Zv Pz‡jv wb‡f †M‡Q| Avgiv bv‡Qvoev›`v,
Lvwj †Vv½v †R¡‡j `y‡Uv Pv `vI evev GLywb P‡j hve|
mKv‡j `ya Rvj w`‡q Kvjy mi wcwi‡P †i‡L w`Z Avjv`v K‡i| eo
fvB Kvjy‡K evB‡i cvVv‡Z PvB‡Zb †m mgq| ÓKvjy Pv cvZv dzwi‡q
†M‡Q wb‡q G‡mvÓ| Kvjy †h‡Z Pvq bv e‡j- Óbv Pj‡e hv Av‡QÓ|
ÓZvn‡j we¯‹zU G‡b ivL| L‡Ïi Avm‡eÓ| eva¨ n‡q Kvjy evB‡i hvq|
GB duv‡K eo fvB mi †L‡q †d‡jb we¯‹z‡Ui ¸‡ov wQwU‡q wPwb w`‡q|
wd‡i G‡m Kvjy mi †Luv‡R| Óevev mi KBÓ, evevi Reve Óweµx n‡q
†M‡QÓ| Kvjy Wªqvi Ly‡j e‡j Ócqmv †Kv_vqÓ? ev‡ci Reve- ÓeuvKx
†L‡q‡QÓ| Avgiv Dc‡fvM KiZvg| eo fvB‡K m¤§vbI KiZvg|

kn‡ii †MvovcËb
1871 mv‡j Djyqvi Pi wØLwÛZ K‡i †i‡ji AMÖhvÎv|
‡Mvqvj‡›` †cŠQy‡j ivRevox kn‡ii emwZi we¯—vi ïi“ n‡q hvq |
¯’vbxq weIkvjx e¨vw³iv RbM‡Yi myweav‡_© †hgb mgvR †mev gyjK
cÖwZôvb M‡o †Zv‡jb †Zgwb e¨emv evwY‡R¨I bZyb aviv ms‡hvRb
K‡ib|
cÙvi gv‡Qi fvÛvi KjKvZvq †cÖi‡bi myweav‡_© cÖ_‡gB M‡o I‡V
eidKj| fvM¨Kz‡ji Rwg`v‡ii RvgvB gb¥_ ‡mb cÖwZôv K‡ib
Goalundo lce Association bv‡g GKUv eo AvKv‡ii, cuvPzwoqvi
Rwg`vi m‡iv‡R›`ª bv_ mvnv cÖwZôv K‡ib cÙv AvBm d¨v±ix|
cuvPzwoqvi ØvwiKv bv_ mvnv I Rvwgbx Kzgvi ivq, cÖkvš— PµeËx© M‡o
†Zv‡jb Fish merchant association bv‡gi Pvi GK‡iiI †ekx
RvqMv wb‡q wekvjGKUv, †hv‡Mb Kweiv‡Ri RvqMv wK‡b MwVZ nq
Dry Ice & Carbonic Gas Factory †gvKviig †PŠayix Avi
G‡mg Avjx wek¦vm Av‡iv GKUv MVb K‡ib| fviZ B‡jKwUªK
mvc­vB‡qi cv‡k cvkvcvwk `y‡Uv BgviZ MVb K‡i wngvjq wd«wRs bv‡g
GKUv Kj cÖwZwôZ nq weRq cvj I wR‡Zb gvjvKv‡ii gvwjKvbvq|
17 |

cuvPzwoqvi Avi GK Rwg`vi g`b Kzgvi kvnvi fMœxcwZ Rvwgbx iÄb
mvnv wmwKi evRv‡i fviZ B‡jKwUªK mvc­vB, bv‡g we`¨yr Drcv`b I
weZib †K›`ª ¯’vcb K‡i Kzcxi kni Av‡jvwKZ K‡ib|
wejvwZ Kvco eR©b K‡i †`kx Kvc‡oi Kj evmv‡bvi D‡Ï¨vM
†bb j¶x‡Kv‡ji ivRv wbR Rwg`vixi RvqMv m~h¨©bM‡i GUvi ¯’vb
wbe©vwPZ nq |
e¨vsK e¨emv‡ZI G wM‡q Av‡mb A‡b‡K | j¶x †Kvj †jvb
Awdm , cvBIwbqi e¨vsK, e¸ov wmwU e¨vsK, `vm e¨vsK, fviZxq
†m›Uªvj e¨vsK BZ¨vw`| †gvUvi Mvox G‡b kn‡ii †KŠwjbZ¨ Avbqb
K‡ib cÖ_g wbevib PµeËx©, c‡i gyKzw›`qv cuvPzwoqvi Rwg`vi
m‡iv‡R›`ª bv_ mvnv|
‡cŠi cyKziUvi gv‡S cvKv Kz‡qv †_‡K cv‡¯úi mvnv‡h¨ DPz GKUv
U¨vs‡K Zz‡j kn‡i cvbxq Rj mieivn †K›`ª M‡ob ¯’vbxq weIkvjxiv |
ZLb wUDe I‡qj nv‡Z †Mvbv `y GKUv evox‡Z | wgw¯¿I m‡eab
bxjgwb Pibvivqb cy‡ii kªxai nvj`vi |
Mg †clvB Kj emvb cÖ_g Fish merchant association
eidK‡j Avi evRv‡i Rvýex KzÛy| †mŠwLbZvi Av‡iK avc MÖv‡gv‡dvb
Av‡bb †ek K‡qKRb dKiDwÏb mv‡ne Bgvb Avjx MvW© nweei ingvb
Avgvi evev Av‡iv K‡qK Ni|
e›`yKI wQj dKi“wÏb mv‡ne, m‡š—vl Kzgvi, Gbv‡qZ cxi
†Pvayix Avgv‡`i evox ,Av‡iv K‡hKUv| mvB‡KjUvI G‡m †M‡Q
†ekZ‡e bx‡iv` fvRb, Gbv‡qZ cxi †PŠayix, evgb`vm ¸nivq, ivav
ej­vf mvnv, Avgv‡`i GKUv, GUvB g‡b Av‡Q| mvB‡Kj †gKvi Kvby
VvKzi Avi Avãym mvgv` gÛj k‡eab| gv‡qi Kv‡Q ï‡bwQ KvRywoqv
†Zj K‡ji gvwjK GKUv w`qvkjvB‡qi †QvU d¨v±ix w`‡qwQ‡jb|
kn‡ii µgweKvk
1871 mv‡ji 1jv Rvbyqvix ivRevox kni MV‡bi †h cÖ`xc
R¡‡j I‡V Zvi mj‡Z cvKv‡bvi ïi“ 1865 mvj wK ZviI Av‡M †_‡K|
18 |

hLb KjKvZv †_‡K †Mvqvj›` ch©š— †ijc_ 1862 mv‡j RMwZ ch©š—
G‡m hvq| j¶ †KvwU NbdzU gvwU fivU K‡i wbgœ mgZj f~gx‡Z MVb
ïi“ n‡q hvq †ijiv¯—v, †jv‡Kv‡mW, kvw›Us BqvW© Avi Avevm¯’vb|
PivÂj Avi my`~i Ewol¨v †_‡K nvRvi nvRvi kªwgK cwievi cwiRb
mn G‡m hvq| †mB mv‡_ Av‡m BgviZ, eªxR, KvjfvU©, emZevwUi
cÖ‡qvR‡b B‡Ui fvUvi dvqvig¨vb| †h KvRUvq ¯’vbxqiv †Zgb cvi`kx©
wQ‡jb bv ev ms¯‹vi e‡k Abxnv †cvlY Ki‡Zb| kn‡ii Pig DrKl©Zv
†c‡Z ïi“ K‡i 1887 mv‡j cÙv b`xi fv½‡b †Mvqvj›` gnKzgv kni
wejxb n‡q cÖkvmwbK wefvM ¯’vbvš—wiZ n‡q ivRevox P‡j G‡j| GB
mg¯— ¯’vcbv †h AÂjUvq MwVZ, Zvi Kv‡Q wc‡V M‡o I‡V Avgjv,
gyrmyÏx, eyw×Rxex, DwKj, †gv³vi, ¯‹zj wk¶K, wkw¶Z mgv‡Ri
Avevm| we¯—xY© GjvKv ïaygvÎ Rwg`v‡ii bRivbvq mnR
jf¨ nIqvq ZrKv‡ji cÖwZwU emZevwU wekvj GjvKv Ry‡oB
MwVZ| ewa©òz GB me cwievi Av‡mb LvbLvbvcyi, cuvPzwiqv, Av¤^vwoqv
Pi, evbxen Avi †Mvqvj‡›`i myax mgvR †_‡K|
e¨emvqxivI GwM‡q Av‡mb evRvi cÖwZôvq| KjKvZvi ¯^cœcyix nv‡Zi
gy‡Vvq G‡m hvq| wewfbœ †ckvRxex gvby‡li Kg©ms¯’vb Avi A_©‰bwZK
cÖe„w× mvgvwRKZvqI AvaywbKZvi Qvc †d‡j|
Kwo †Ljv, jy‡Wv, evNe›`x, †lvjNywU, `uvwoqvevÜv, †Mvj­vQzU,
nv-Wy-Wy, Wvs¸wj, gv‡e©j, jvwUg, †Nvo †`Šo, kvBj evox (nwKi MÖvg¨
ms¯‹iY), ˆkj Wye (muvZvi w`‡q †Pvi cywjk †Ljv) BZ¨vw` Avw` †Ljvi
¯’vb `Lj Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡i, dzUej, fwjej, e¨vWwg›Ub, †`Šo, D”Pjç,
†cvjfë, `xN© jç, mvB‡Kj Pvjbv (`ª“Z I gš’i) iwk UvbvUvwb
BZ¨vw`|
cvovq cvovq K¬ve, jvB‡eªix cÖwZôvi wnwoK c‡o hvq| e„×
e‡qmxivI Suy‡K c‡ob Zvm cvkv †Q‡o `k©‡Ki f~wgKvqB ïay bq
c„ô‡cvlKZvi nvZ evwo‡q bexb‡`i DrmvwnZ Ki‡Z| weËkvjx mgvR
cwZiv mvaviY cvVvMvi, †Ljvi gvV, bvU¨gÂ, kn‡ii cvbxq Rj
mieivn e¨e¯’v BZ¨vw` mvgvwRK Kg©Kv‡Ê wb‡R‡`i m¤ú„³ K‡ib|
miKvix Kg©KZ©vivI mvavi‡Yi GB me Kg©Kv‡Ê mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZvq
19 |

kixK n‡q‡Qb| Zr Kvjxb Gm.wW.I mv‡ne Zuvi †Nvovi Av¯—vejUvq
Avgv‡`i ÒWvqgÊ e‡qR K¬veÓ Uv cÖwZôvi AbygwZ w`‡qwQ‡jb|
‡ijI Zvi wbR D‡`¨v‡M M‡o †Zv‡j ¯‹zj, cvVvMvi, K¬veNi,
nvmcvZvj, wkïcvK©, †Uwbm †Ljvi gvV, bvU¨ gÂ, dzUej gvV|
µxovwe`‡`i PvKwii my‡hvM w`‡q µxov I mvs¯‹…wZK A½‡b
c„ô‡cvlKZvi `„óvš— ¯’vcb K‡i|
‡Ljvayjvq wb‡ew`Z cÖvY GB me gvby‡li gv‡S Av‡Rv ¯§iYxq n‡q
Av‡Qb wW.Gg.Gb Bmjvg, beK…ò PµeËx©, AgjK…ò PµeËx©, Kzgv‡ik
PµeËx©, †Mvwe›` jvwnwo, ev`kv ‡PŠayix, cjvb miKvi, cwigj gyLvRx©,
nvweeyi ingvb, KvRx †n`v‡qZ †nv‡mb, bvwRi †nv‡mb †PŠayix,
Avn‡g`y¾vgvb Kzbœy wgqv, BqvKze †nv‡mb, Wvt G.†K.Gg AvmRv`,
nvi“bi iwk`, Lv‡j` mvjvn& DwÏb Av‡iv nvwi‡q hvIqv A‡b‡K|
dzUej jxM †Ljvq Ask wb‡q‡Q wbqwgZ- UvDb K¬ve, †ijI‡q
Bbw÷wUDU, KvjyLvjx-iZbw`qv, †Mvqvj›` nvB¯‹zj, Avi.Gm.†K
Bbw÷wUDkb, B÷vY© K¬ve (RwU‡jk¦i jvwnwo), wf‡±vwiqv †g‡gvwiqvj
(cjvb miKvi), cwigj K¬ve, wK‡kvi msN, eivU GBP.Gg K¬ve (wn›`ygymwjg) cieZx©Kv‡j cvuPzwiqv †R.wm. K¬ve I eivU Gd.wm. K¬ve|
e‡qR †¯úvwU©s K¬ve cÖwZôv K‡ib Avwgb wbg©j gyLvR©xi cyÎ cwigj
gyLvRx©| wZwb fvi‡Z cvwo w`‡j cwiPvjbvi `vwqZ¡ †bb KvRx †n`v‡qZ
†nv‡mb| †Mvqvj›` †_‡K Avm‡Zv †Mv‡ìb GBP.wm. K¬ve| cieZx©Kv‡j
BqvKze †nv‡m‡bi cwiPvjbvq hy³ nq Avj †njvj, cÖkvmb wefvM †_‡K
Gg. I. K¬ve Avi Wvt AvmRv` mv‡n‡ei ZË¡veav‡b ÔivRevox e­yRÕ,
1962 mvj †_‡K ivRevox K‡jR Ask wb‡Z ïi“ K‡i|
dzUej †L‡jvqvi wQj A¸YwZ| Gu‡`i †KD †KD wKse`wš—i
g‡Zv ¯§iYxq n‡q Av‡Qb Av‡Rv| evey evgb`vm ¸n ivq, beK…ò
PµeË©x, AgjK…ò PµeË©x, Kzgv‡ik PµeË©x, Avãyj Rwjj wgqv,
Avãyj gv‡R` †gvj­v, bx‡iv` fvRb, ‰mq` gvneye Avjx, ˆmq`
†gvkvid Avjx, b~i †nv‡mb †mvbv fvB‡qi KY©vi wKK †eu‡K wM‡q †Mv‡j
XyK‡Zv, †Uv‡Kvb †nW w`‡q cÖwZwU ej Rv‡j †XvKv‡Zb| Civil
20 |

Supply Controller ‡eviv mv‡ne †Mv‡j †Lj‡Zb| S.M. Roy
wQ‡jb School Inspector. weï `vm, RwU‡jk¦i jvwnwo, cwigj
`vm, D.M.N Islam ‡i‡ji †MvjKxcvi AvjxgywÏb‡K GKgvÎ
Grass Cutting ej †g‡iB civwRZ Kiv m¤¢e wQj| Avãyj mvËvi,
Avãym mvgv`, Avãyi iv¾vK, (Avãym mvgv` †Ljvi Kjv‡KŠkj iß
K‡ib cve©Zx ‡cvÏv‡ii KvQ †_‡K, wZwb XvKvi gv‡VI e¨vK fwj †g‡i
bvg K‡iwQ‡jb) GKivgyj nK, BmivDj nK, mvweŸi, Lwjj Luvb, mgi
ivq, Kvjxc`, Ag~j¨, nweei ingvb Gi fvB Rwjjyi ingvb, †gvt
BmvnvK (Arabian Horse), Avãym †mvenvb, i“¯—g Avjx, Ave`vi,
ax‡ik m¨vbvj (cv †f‡½ hvq eiv‡U¨ KPv Avey‡ji mv‡_ msN‡l©),
iweDj Avjg †evjb (hvi †Ljv †`‡L dwi`cy‡ii Gm.wc cywj‡k
PvKixi Avgš¿Y Rvbvb), †evj‡bi eo fvBI fvj †L‡jvqvo wQj (¯‹z‡j
UviRv‡bi gnov w`‡Z wM‡q `~N©Ubvq gviv hvb), mvB`yi ingvb iwdK,
KvRx Gbvgyj Kwei (†MvjKxcvi, j¤^v Pz‡j GKUv SuvwK w`‡q †PvL gyL
†Xu‡K ej ai‡Zv) fevbxcy‡ii Gbv‡qZ gIjv (bvK †f‡½ hvq) H fvB
Kv‡`i †bIqvR Pzbœy, wbwLj K…ò bvM, Gg,G,‡gv‡gb ev”Pz, AvjvDwÏb,
RyjwdKvi, Gbv‡qZ Avjx, †LvKv, gnv¸i“ Avãyj gwR` wgqv, KvwË©K,
hZxb Kg©Kvi, cuvPzwiqvi AvgRv`, e„nËi dwi`cyi †Rjvi †kªô
ga¨gv‡Vi †L‡jvqvi, wmwÏK, †LvKb, †`eeªZ fÆvPvh©, dRjyi ingvb,
Rqbvj, Aveyj, hZxb †cvÏvi, AvKivgy¾vgvb ev”Pz, AvKivgy¾vgvb
iÄy †PŠayix, Iqv‡n`y¾vgvb †ivKb †PŠayix, bvwRi †nv‡mb †PŠayix, †MŠi,
Avãyj AvwRR, KzwUgwb, bvi“, Kz`iZ Avjx, wjqvKZ, Rvnv½xi
(†Mvqvj›`), Gbv‡qZzi ingvb gbv (ej wiwmwfsG †miv), Gbv‡qZ
Kwig †LvKv, gvngy` †gvm‡jn& DwÏb (Pakistan National Team
G wm‡j± n‡qwQ‡jb West Pakistan G eû Tournament G †L‡j
c`KcÖvß), †j`y (V.M. Club I KjKvZvq East Bengal G
†L‡j‡Qb), gÄyi †gvi‡k` ev`kv, bxjy, weRq Kzgvi `vm (fvRbPvjv),
†LvKv (`v`kx), wbgvB †Nvl (jwZd †cÖ‡mi wcQ‡bi evox), m‡š—vl
Kzgvi Telegraph Master, H cyÎ i“ey (g‡b n‡Zv e‡j wVKvbv wj‡L
cvm w`‡q Szu‡K w¯’i n‡q †`L‡Zv ejUv wVK RvqMvq †cŠQv‡jv
wKbv),KvRx gbmyi, ˆPZb¨ mvnv, Awgq ¸n, KvwË©K †Nvl, KvwË©K mvnv,
21 |

†eby, m‡Z¨b P‡Ævcva¨vq, M‡bk PµeËx©, ivavKvš—, wbg©j Kzgvi mvnv,
eKz †PŠayix, wni“ †PŠayix, e`i“¾vgvb †PŠayix, gvneye, iex›`ªbv_ ivq,
†Mvjvg gIjv, Lwjjyi ingvb, †`‡e›`ªbv_ wms (Goal Keeper),
DwKj †hv‡Mk `Ë, wkey P¨vUvRx©, H fvB ˆk‡jk P¨vUvRx©, exiej
(jvwd‡q †Rvov cv‡q wKK Ki‡Zb), †Mvqvj‡›`i AvBbyÏxb (`yigyR
L¨vZ), †Mvcvj kg©v bv‡gi †L‡jvqvo AeavwiZ †Mv‡ji mU wb‡R bv
†g‡i Agj K…ò PµeË©xi cv‡q †V‡j w`‡Zb Òevey ejÓ e‡j, Avi
wQ‡jb †gvUKv gwb Kvwnjx, ÒGB hw` Kvwnj nq Zvn‡j Avgiv‡Zv
bvBÓ L¨Z n‡q| Av‡iv hviv we¯§„Z n‡q‡Qb †m msL¨vI Kg bq|
m‡e©v”P `¶Zvq †Ljv cwiPvjbv K‡i‡Qb nweei ingvb, Bwb
QvovI wQ‡jb beK…ò PµeË©x, AgjK…ò PµeËx©, Gg,G †g‡gb, Avãyj
Rwjj wgqv, DMN Islam, ‰mq` †gvkvid Avjx, Avgjv †kªYxi
GKRb wQ‡jb whwb †Ljv ïi“i Av‡M †L‡jvqvo‡`i mZK© K‡i w`‡Zb
ÒW¨vkv †Wkx Ki‡eb bvÓ e‡j| IFA cvk †hv‡Mk P›`ª KzÊy enicy‡ii
n‡jI cvwievwiK Kvi‡Y GLv‡bB _vK‡Zb| GKUv †Ljvq Zuvi wm×vš—
†g‡b wb‡Z bv †c‡i e‡qR K¬v‡ei GK mg_©K gvS gv‡V wM‡q QvZv
w`‡q Zuv‡K AvNvZ K‡ib| Zuvi †cvkv‡Ki ˆewkó¨ wQj, wZwb Kov i‡Oi
c¨v›U mvU© Avi meyR i“gvj e¨envi Ki‡Zb| Zuvi AvZ¥nb‡bi msev`
†c‡q mevi gZB AvwgI gg©vnZ n‡qwQ| Avgiv cwiwPZ wQjvg, Avi
f`ª gvbyl wnmv‡eB †`‡LwQ Zuv‡K|
‡Kvb †Kvb we‡kl w`‡b cÖxwZ g¨v‡Pi Av‡qvRb n‡Zv|
evgb`vm ¸nivq ¯^iwPZ c¨v‡ivwW †M‡q aviv eY©bv w`‡Zb‡gvUKv gvneye
ej wb‡q †`q QzU
wc‡Q wc‡Q †Qv‡U
nvi“b †i.........
Kuv‡` dRjy †gv³vi
Kuv‡` mve †i÷vi
Avi kx‡Zi w`‡b
Kuv‡` †fvgov cuvVv........BZ¨vw`|
22 |

Ggwb GK cÖxwZ †Ljvq †idvix n‡q G‡jb `yBRb| wPi iwmK
kvgmy¾vgvb †PŠayix ev`kv fvB, whwb wewPÎvbyôv‡b fvwUqvjx, D”Pv½,
KvIqvjx, MRj wewfbœ my‡i ÒwK Kwiwj weòzwcqv wbgvB Puv`‡i we`vq
w`qvÓ †M‡q †kªvZv‡`i †c‡U wLj awi‡q‡Qb| AvÇvq, gv‡V me©ÎB
gvwZ‡q ivL‡Zb wb‡R GZUzKz bv †n‡m| eiv‡Ui wkw¶Z ewשòz
cwiev‡ii mš—vb| jvB‡eªix Avi QvcvLvbv QvovI ivRbxwZ‡Z hy³
wQ‡jb| 1972 mv‡j e½eÜzi wekvj Rbmfvq wZwbB mfvcwZZ¡
K‡ib| Zv wZwb †eviLvq Ave„Z c`©bkxb gwnjvi †e‡k G‡jb gv‡V|
Ab¨Rb ivgeªþ Ki †g`eûj D‡`vg Mv‡q, bxj is †g‡L, †gvnb euvkx
nv‡Z, evnb †gv‡li wc‡V P‡o| evm Ki‡Zb Ò‡eovWv½v K‡jR ÷ªx‡UÓ
(3bs) †h bvgUv wZwb †mu‡U ‡i‡LwQ‡jb cÖ‡ek gy‡L| PvKix Ki‡Zb
Central Co-Operative Bank G| Avw` evm gyjNi, evwNqv MÖvg
†Q‡o c~e© cyi“‡li AvMgb, PvKix m~‡Î|
Kwji †Kó Avi Aš—tcyievwmbx c`©vq Ave„Zv| wm×v‡š— wØgZ
cÖwZc‡`| GKRb‡Zv gvS gv‡VB dvDj a‡i †cbvwë w`‡q em‡jb|
Ggwb nvm¨i‡m wbg©j Avb›` Dc‡fvM KiZvg mevB|
‡i‡ji DuPz c‡` ‡ekxifvM wQ‡jb mv‡ne| Zuv‡`i Drmvn †Uwbm
†Ljvq| DuPz ‡e`xUvq wQj `k©K‡`i emvi e¨e¯’v| UvDb K¬v‡eiI GKUv
MÖvm †KvU wQj, †cv÷ AwdmUvi mvg‡b| †L‡jvqvi wQ‡jb Mr.
Pistanjee, Mr. Sckot, B.M.Cox, T.P. Das, D.M.N.
Islam, M.A. Momen, bx‡iv` fvRb, Kzgv‡ik PµeËx©, AgjK…ò
PµeZx©, Avãyj Iqv‡R` †PŠayix, KvRx †n`v‡qZ †nv‡mb, Avt Rwjj
wgqv, Avãyi iv¾vK, Rxeb Lvb|
wµ‡KU †Ljvq GKUv Db¥v`bv m„wó nq 1960 Gi `k‡K|
dzUe‡ji gZB GiI RbwcÖqZv e„w× cvq| mg„× n‡q D‡V hLb RvZxq
ch©v‡q cÖwZfvai †L‡jvqvo D‡V Av‡m| Ab¨vb¨ †Rjv `j Avgwš¿Z n‡q
GLv‡b Ask wb‡q‡Q| AvgivI cvebv, Kzwóqv, dwi`cyi, gv¸iv,
†g‡nicyi wM‡q mybvg Kywo‡qwQ| Avt Mvd&dvi nvRx, Kvjxc` PµeË©x
Kgj K…ò PµeË©x, †gvdv°vi Avng` wgjb, wnmvg DwÏb, Avmjvg,
mMxi, †mwjg Avn‡g` ¯^cb, Kwei Avn‡g`, bvwRi †nv‡mb †PŠayix,
bbx †Mvcvj e‡›`vcva¨vq, wngv`ªx PµeË©x, gÄyi †gvi‡k` ev`kv, wgby,
23 |

Zcb bvM, G,wU,Gg,G iDd, iÄy †PŠayix, wchyl e‡›`vcva¨vq, gvbm
e‡›`vcva¨vq, †UvKb, Gm,Gg KvBqyg, wbg©j Kzgvi mvnv, Bgvgyj Kwig
RwK, GRvRyj Kwig, kv‡n`, wgby, g›Uz gxi, gybœv, we, Gg, K· Giv
mevB DuPz gv‡bi †L‡jvqvo| ZvwiK AvwRR RvZxq ch©v‡q Avgv‡`i
Me©| †gvdv°vi †nv‡mb evejy Abya© AvVv‡iv XvKv wefv‡Mi †L‡jvqvo|
†mŠif, i“‡ej, Zi“Y AvR‡Ki m¤¢vebv|
Av¤úvqvi wnmv‡e we,Gg, K·, bbx †Mvcvj e‡›`vcva¨vq,
myfvl wms I Lv‡j` mvjvDwÏb `vqxZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Zb me©`v| Wvt
G,†K,Gg AvmRv‡`i c„ô‡cvlKZvq Gi weKvk, Dbœqb e‡j­ fyj n‡e
bv|
kixiPPv© Abykxjb K‡i fevbxcy‡ii Kv‡`i †bIqvR Pzbœy fvB
Avi g„av mv‡n‡ei evoxi cv‡ki Zvivc` KzÊy e¨vqvgexi L¨vZ nb|
mvB‡Kj Pvjbvq eiv‡Ui Aveyj eivei Av‡M _vK‡Zv, µxov cÖwZ‡hvMx
Kv‡`i †bIqvR Pzbœyi cÖvBR e‡q wb‡Z mvnvh¨Kvixi cÖ‡qvRb ci‡Zv|
cieZx©Kv‡j gvn&gy` †gvm‡jn& DwÏb Gi D”P j‡ç Avš—t¯‹zj
cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq cuvPdzU mv‡o bq Bw †iKW© AvRI A¶zbœ Av‡Q|
cvkv †LjvUv wejyß nevi cÖv°v‡j Nbk¨vg `‡Ëi `vjv‡bi
eviv›`vq ey‡ov‡`i fxo †`Lv †hZ| NywU Ny‡jv †QvU GKUv Av‡cj
wØLwÊZ Ki‡j †hgbUv †`Lvq QKUv jyWyi gZB| †PŠ‡KvYv †Lvc
Iqvjv, dzUKzwi ‡`Iqv `yB Bw j¤^v wZbUv nv‡oi ‡XMv jyWyi gZ K‡i
K‡P ev‡iv e‡j †g‡Sq Quy‡o b¤^i ¸‡Y Pvj †`Iqv n‡Zv|
`vevi †KvU Kvc‡oi ˆZix, NywUi AvK…wZ AvR‡Ki gZ wewfbœ
bq, ïay AvKv‡i Zdvr| we¯§„Z `vev Avevi cÖvY wd‡i cvq| Kg‡iW
Avï fiØvR evey †Rj †_‡K Qvov †c‡q 1956 mv‡j GLv‡b G‡j †`Lv
†Mj eq¯‹ cÖvq mevB †LjvUv Av‡M †_‡KB Rvb‡Zb| bZzb †L‡jvqvoI
hy³ n‡jv| Uzb©v‡g›UI ïi“ n‡jv| Avï evey LyeB DuPz gv‡bi †L‡jvqvo|
gvÎ GKeviB Zuv‡K nvwi‡q Avwg P¨vw¤úqb n‡qwQ| Zuvi 30 eQi †Rj
Rxe‡bi PP©v Avi Avgvi eqm ZLb 19 cvi nq wb|
d¬vW jvB‡U e¨vWwg›Ub Avgv‡`i cÖ‡PóvqB cÖ_g ïi“ nq
†ijI‡q K¬v‡ei c~Y© mn‡hvwMZvq| Avgv‡`i †ek KÕRb †L‡jvqvo
KzgviLvjx, Kzwóqv, PzqvWv½v, cvebv, dwi`cyi †_‡K cyi¯‹vi wQwb‡q
24 |

G‡b‡Q| mvB`yi ingvb iwdK, iweDj Avjg, AvKivgy¾vgvb ev”Pz,
wbwLj K…ò bvM, wbg©j Kzgvi mvnv, Gm.Gg.KvBqyg, mywebq Kzgvi cvj,
AvZvDj, †gv¯—dv, dRjyi ingvb, bRi“j Bmjvg, Rvnv½xi, wkey,
†Mvjvg gIjv, wbwk_ Kzgvi fvRb, Lv‡j` mvjvDwÏb,gvngy` †gvm‡jn&
DwÏb QvovI A‡b‡KB wQ‡jb wbqwgZ †L‡jvqvo| cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq
cwiPvjb `vqxZ¡ me©`vB ‡c‡q‡Qb Lv‡j` mvjvn& DwÏb|
fwjej †ivRB †Ljv n‡Zv †i‡ji gv‡V| ˆmq` gvneye Avjx, ‰mq`
†gvkvid Avjx wQ‡jb wbqwgZ|
mvs¯‹…wZ A½‡b cÖwZfvai wkíxi mgv‡ek N‡U GLv‡b| evgb`vm
¸niv‡qi bvg me©v‡MÖB ¯§iY Ki‡Z nq| wZwb me©¸‡Y ¸Yvwš^Z|
GKvav‡i gÂvwf‡bZv, MvqK, MxwZKvi, myimªóv| Zvi RjZi½
†iKW©K…Z evRbv AvRI fvi‡Zi †iwWI‡Z evRv‡bv nq| wZwb cÖvq me
ev`¨hš¿B evRv‡Z cvi‡Zb| Zuvi wkl¨v AvKZvix evby b„‡Z¨ c~e©-cvwK¯—
vb P¨vw¤úqb nb| Aci wkl¨v Ki“Yv PµeË©x D”Pv½ m½x‡Z weL¨vZ
n‡q‡Qb| Kb¨v w`ßx ivbx ¸n ivq b„‡Z¨ I Mv‡b weL¨vZ wQ‡jb
ZrKv‡j| Rbvev kvnxb~i †eMg cwc ivRevox w¯’Z n‡q †iwWI-wUwf‡Z
wbqwgZ Ask wb‡q‡Qb| wZwbI 1965 mv‡j b„‡Z¨ c~e©-cvwK¯—vb
P¨vw¤úqb n‡q‡Qb| †eovWv½vq †iLv †evm wQ‡jb KjKvZv †iwWI
wkíx| wZwgi b›`x, Avwe`v LvZzb, Av‡bvqvi DwÏb Lvb AvRI
L¨vwZgvb| i“¯—g Avjx †iwWI‡ZI †M‡q‡Qb |
ÓI‡i I KvRjv w`Nxi Rj
ZzB Avgvi Kv‡b Kv‡b ejÓ
Avi,
ÓAvgvi kv¤úvb hvÎx bv jq
fv½v Avgvi ZixÓ
†M‡q g gvwZ‡q ivL‡Zb| cyjK †PŠayix MxUvi ev`K eZ©gv‡b
†iwWI‡Z hš¿ M½x‡Zi cwiPvjK wnmv‡e Kg©iZ| Avng` †gviZvRv
NASA weÁvbx, Avwgbyj Bmjvg PZz wgqv, eo †LvKv Avwd«Kv cÖevmx
Guiv MRj MvB‡Zb| Qvqv ivbx Kg©Kvi I W. dKxi kwn`yj Bmjvg
mygb iex›`ª fviZxi wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K m‡e©v”P wWMÖx cÖvß n‡q Avgv‡`i
GB A½b mg„× K‡i‡Qb| dKxi Rv‡n`yj Bmjvg, Rvnv½xi bMi wek¦
25 |

we`¨vjq †_‡K bvU‡K m‡e©v”P wWMÖx cÖvß n‡q‡Qb| ZrKv‡ji MvqK
Av‡iv wQ‡jb dRjyi ingvb, wbwLj K…ò bvM, Lmi“ (AKvj cÖqvZ)
Lyiig, ggZv m¨vbvj, Rvgvj nvwee nveyi MvIqv ‡gvt iwdi wnw›`
Mv‡bi Zzjbv wQjbv , Pzbœy fvBI fv‡jvB MvB‡Zb|
ev`¨hš¿ wkíx †mZv‡i mv‡n` Avjx gxi, RjZi½ I †mZv‡i iZb bvM,
Zejvq †j`y `vm, cieË©xKv‡j cÖYe miKvi, myeªZ PµeË©x|
g‡Â euvkx‡Z myi Zzj‡Zb ax‡i›`ªbv_ cvj| GKUv ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© `j wb‡q
Avm‡Zb `v`kx †_‡K g‡bvR Kzgvi gRyg`vi, Avãyi iwng †gvj­v GB
MÖ“‡ci m`m¨|
Avgv‡`i GB †QvÆ kniUvq `y‡Uv ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© bvU¨g‡Âi Ae¯’vb †_‡KB
GB A½‡b Avgv‡`i PP©vi e¨vcKZv aviYv Kiv hvq| cÖvq cwiev‡iB
†KD bv †KD m¤ú„³ wQ‡jb| n‡j Dc‡P cov `k©‡Ki mgvMg n‡Zv|
cvwievwiKfv‡e Avgv‡`i evox‡ZI †ev‡biv eviv›`vq †÷R mvwR‡q
Awfbq K‡i‡Q evÜex‡`i wb‡q, D‡Vv‡b `k©K‡`i emvi e¨e¯’v K‡i|
Awfbq KzkjZvq me©v‡MÖ †h bvgwU †f‡m I‡V wZwb †`‡eb wmsn, Zuvi
ÒivZKvbvÓ Avi ÒwmivR-D`-‡`ŠjvqÓ Ô†Mvjvg †nv‡mbÕ Kvbœv Avi
nvwmi AmvaviY wecixZ gywL PwiÎ wPÎY| Zuvi mg‡MvÎxq
†mŠix›`ª‡gvnb ¸nivq, nweei ingvb, Ab½ PµeË©x, BqvKze †nv‡mb,
b~i †nv‡mb, evgb`vm ¸nivq, ev`kv †PŠayix, †`eeªZ fÆvPvh©, PZz
wgqv, Agj K…ò PµeË©x, G,wU,Gg, Avt ie, G,wU,Gg, Avt iDd
ivRv, G,‡K,Gg, Avt iv¾vK, G,wU,Gg, iwdK DwÏb, AvKei †nv‡mb,
Gg,G, †gv‡gb, †Mvjvg cxi †PŠayix, Kvjx ksKi ‰gÎ, Avt Rwjj
wgqv, †j`y `vm, ibwRZ mvnv, AvZvDj Kwig, dwi`, †mŠ‡gb cvj,
†gvZvnvi, Avt nK, Avgvb Avjx, myfvl wmsn, Lv‡j` mvjvDwÏb we¯§„Z
n‡q hvIqv Av‡iv A‡b‡KB| cieË©x Kv‡ji AvKivg †nv‡mb, Avwgbyj
Bmjvg, gvby, ev‡iK gÊj, gbmyi Avng` g›Uy, mvgmywÏb, Avt nvwKg
nvq`vi, mvgv`, dRjyj nK, nvmy, mvgmywÏb UMi, evejy †gvj­v,
B`wim, UzUzj, gwb g„av, UzUzj g„av, AvKv Giv mK‡jB DPz ¯—‡ii
Awf‡bZv wQ‡jb| weij cÖwZfvi AwaKvix wQ‡jb G,wU,Gg, iDd
ivRv, GKvav‡i bvU¨Kvi, cwiPvjK, Awfbq QvovI †Ljvayjv, muvZvi,
gyw³hy‡×i AwabvqK cÖwZwU †¶‡ÎB wQj Zvi ivRvi gZB c`PviYv|
26 |

NUbveûj Zvi Rxe‡b evj¨ eÜz wnmv‡e AvgviI m¤ú„³Zv wQj|
Avgv‡K †Zv †m cvwL cov‡bv cwo‡q bvqK evwb‡qB †Q‡o‡Q| cicv‡i
Zvi hvÎvI ivRvi gZB, cÖ_g miKvix m¤§vbbv †c‡q 13B gvP© 2001
mv‡j|
hvÎvq evsjvi weL¨vZ cuvPzwiqvi cÖZvc `Ë UMi, Avi cvebvi
M‡Rb `Ë cÖwZfvai| ivRevoxi mv‡_ G‡`i m¤ú„³Zv me mgqB
wQj| ¯’vbxq wkíx †ek K‡qKRb hvÎvq †hvM †`b †ckv`vi wnmv‡e|
ivRv, myfvl wmsn, Avãyj nK, B`wim, iex mvnv, gyQv †Nvl, w`jxc
†Nvl, w`jxc mvnv, we‡bv` P›`ª P~Y©Kvi Ab¨Zg| ZLbKvi w`‡b
mvaviYZ †cŠivwbK Avi †`kvZ¡‡evaK bvUKB †ekx g¯’ n‡Zv| m‡Li
w_‡qUv‡i bvixi cÖ‡ekvwaKvi wQj bv| cÖZvckvjx mgvRcwZ, gvbx, ¸Yx
A‡b‡KB †Muvd Kvwg‡q g‡Â †b‡g‡Qb| ciw`b NiYx gn‡j Gi mim
Av‡jvPbv, nvmvnvwm, Kvjx ksKi ˆgÎ, †j`y `vm, iYwRZ mvnv,
we‡bv`cy‡ii †MvumvB †Muvd Kvgv‡bvi `‡ji m`m¨ wQ‡jb|
Avgiv cÖ_g †g‡q wkíx cvB Avï‡Zvl PµeËx©i Kb¨v mܨv Avi
SY©v‡K| Avïevey DW&‡nW cvewjK jvB‡eªixi jvB‡eªixqvb| Avgiv
ZR©gv K‡i IUvi bvg w`‡qwQjvg ÒKvôgyÊy cvVvMviÓ Avï eveyi
gv_vqI †Kvb Pzj wQj bv| gy³ g‡bi gvbyl, RvZcvZ wePvi bv K‡i
mK‡ji k¥kvb eÜz n‡Zb| Avw`evm gvwbKMÄ †_‡K G‡m m¾bKv›`vi
†kl cÖv‡š— PZivi we‡ji Mv †N‡l 5 weNvi Dci AvavcvKv my›`i GKUv
evox‡Z evm Ki‡Zb| jvB‡eªixi eB‡Z cÖvqB Zuvi UvK wb‡q gš—e¨
cvIqv †hZ, Zv wZwb nvwmgy‡LB MÖnY Ki‡Zb| Zuvi †kªôZ¡ wQj
Awek¦vm¨ †L‡Z cvi‡Zb| 5 †mi im‡Mvj­v, GK fuvo `B ‰eV‡K Lvevi
ci †L‡q ZvK jvwM‡q w`‡q‡Qb Agj K…ò PµeËx©i we‡q‡Z| LMTi
PgPg Avi c_ cv‡ki wbgKcviv `y‡UvB mgvb MÖnYxq wQj Zuvi Kv‡Q|
KjKvZvi wm‡bgvq ‡b‡g‡Qb we‡bv`cyi wbevmx Rx‡Zb †m‡bi Kb¨v
myeªZv †mb| we‡q nq DËg Kzgv‡ii fvB Zi“Y Kzgv‡ii mv‡_| ï‡bwQ
gwjbv ‡`ex wQ‡jb Avgv‡`i R.S.K. Institution Gi m¨vi Pvi“P›`ª
PµeË©xi †evb| XvKvq †ivwRbv, B‡jviv, cÖwZwôZ bvwqKv| cwiPvjK
n‡q‡Qb †gvZvnvi DwÏb, Z`xq åvZv †gv¯—vwdRyi ingvb evey Avi Kjv
Kzkjx Avãyj nK wQ‡jb Avgv‡`i GLv‡bi|
27 |

Avgiv Me© Ki‡Z cvwi LvbLvbvcy‡ii weRb fÆvPvh©‡K wb‡q| gv·Zv
cuvP gvB‡ji dvivK|(Ògv‡S ïay GKUv gv‡Vi dvuK Zv‡`i e‡bi A‡bK
gay gvwQ †gv‡`i e‡b euv‡a gayi PvKÓ-iex›`ªbv_)| wk¶K wcZv w¶‡iv`
wenvixi Av`k©evw`Zv, msMxZ Avi mvwnZ¨ †cÖ‡gi Qvc weRb fÆvPv‡h©i
Dci h‡_ó cÖfve †d‡j (1930 mv‡j KjKvZvq Avï‡Zvl K‡jR I
wicb K‡j‡Ri wk¶vKvjxb mg‡q)| wZwb mvg¨ev‡` DØy× n‡q
KwgDwb÷ cvwU©‡Z †hvM †`b mve©¶wYK Kgx© wnmv‡e| jeb mZ¨vMÖn I
fviZ Qvo Av‡›`vj‡b mwµq Ask †bb| †¯‹P Gu‡K Avi wdPvi wj‡L
Av‡›`vj‡b kixK _vK‡Zb| fviZxq MYbvU¨ cÖwZôv †c‡j bvUK
wjL‡Z ïi“ K‡ib| GKvav‡i bvU¨Kvi, myiKvi, Awf‡bZv, MvqK
wnmv‡e mycÖwZwôZ nb| Zuvi cÖ_g bvUK ÒAv¸bÓ g¯’ nq 1943
mv‡j| `yfx©‡¶i cUf~wg‡Z †jLv ÔbevbœÕ bvU‡K Zuvi g‡Â Avwef©ve,
¯^iwPZ ÔgiYPuv`Õ bvU‡K ceb evD‡ji f~wgKvq Awfbq I Mvb †M‡q
L¨vwZgvb nb| mvsmvwiK cÖ‡qvR‡bB wZwb Gmgq †ev¤^vB cvwo w`‡q
wm‡bgvi mv‡_ hy³ nb| †mLv‡b wPÎbvU¨ I Awfbq K‡ib †ek KwU
Qwe‡Z| bvwMb wm‡bgvi Mvb ZLb mevi gy‡L| evsjvq wd‡i †j‡Lb
ÔKj¼Õ, Ô†MvÎvš—iÕ, ÔQvqvc_Õ, Ôgv÷vi gkvBÕ, Ôag©‡MvjvÕ, ÔRb‡bZvÕ,
ÔnuvmLvwji nuvmÕ, ÔK…òc¶Õ, ÔAvR emš—Õ, Ô¯^Y©KzÊÕ, Ô‡mvbvi evsjvÕ,
ÔP‡jv mvM‡iÕ, ÔwZZvm GKwU b`xi bvgÕ, ÔmyeY©‡iLvÕ, Ôc`vwZKÕ I
ÔivR‡`ªvnÕ| wm‡bgvq Awfbq K‡i‡Qb ¯^iwPZ Kvwnbx Ôevox †_‡K
cvwj‡qÕ, Ô‡g‡N XvKv ZvivÕ, ÔZ_vwcÕ, ÔmyeY©‡iLvÕ, Ôc`vwZKÕ, Ô¯^cœ
wb‡qÕ, Ôhyw³ Z‡°v M‡àvÕ, Ômv‡o PzqvËiÕ, Ôemy cwieviÕ, ÔZ…òvÕ, ÔWv³vi
eveyÕ BZ¨vw`| g‡Â Awfbq K‡i‡Qb- ÔbevbœÕ, ÔgivPuv`Õ, Ô‡`exMR©bÕ,
ÔKj¼Õ, Ô‡MvÎvš—iÕ, ÔQvqvc_Õ, Ôgv÷vi gkvBÕ, Ôag©‡MvjvÕ, ÔRb‡bZvÕ,
ÔnvumLvwji nvmÕ, ÔK…òc¶Õ, ÔAvR emš—Õ, Ô¯^Y©KzÊÕ, Ô‡mvbvi evsjvÕ,
ÔP‡jv mvM‡iÕ, ÔwZZvm GKwU b`xi bvgÕ BZ¨vw`|
weRb fÆvPv‡h©i Rb¥ 1915 mv‡ji 17B RyjvB, g„Zz¨ 1978 mv‡ji
19†k Rvbyqvix| we‡q K‡ib 1943 mv‡j cÖMwZkxj †jwLKv gnv‡k¦Zv
†`ex‡K| fviZ miKvi Zuv‡K m¤§vbbv †`b ivR¨ GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi I
KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K gvbcÎ I cyi¯‹vi w`‡q| Avgiv Zuv‡K
wb‡qI Me© Ki‡Z cvwi| wZwb Avgv‡`i †jvK|
28 |

ivRivox‡Z †ijI‡qi cÖmvi I kn‡ii †Mvov cËb
1860 Gi `k‡Ki †klfvM| wmcvnx wec­ex‡`i wbg©~j mgvß|
†kl mgªvU evnv`yi kvnRvdi ev`kv ûgvqy‡bi mgvwa‡Z a„Z| mne›`x
cyÎØq wmsnvm‡bi DIivwaKvix wcZvi mvg‡bB wbnZ | evg©vq mgªv‡Ui
wbe©vmb ce©I m¤úbœ| mgMÖ fviZ KivqË¡ hv wbR †`‡ki PvB‡Z cÂvk
¸Y eo| A‡Xj m¤ú‡` mg„×| we‡k¦i wewfbœ A‡jI Ggwb Dcwb‡ek
Bs‡iR‡`i KivqË | Bsj¨v‡Ûk¦‡ii iv‡R¨ ZLb m~h© A¯— hvq bv|
wekvj GB mvgªv‡R¨i Pvwn`v †gvZv‡eK gv‡ji †RvMvb w`‡Z wejv‡Zi
KviLvbv ¸‡jv m¤cÖmvwiZ K‡iI wgUv‡Z cvi‡Q bv| bZzb bZzb Kj
KviLvbv µ‡gB cÖwZôv cv‡Q Av‡iv e¨vcK nv‡i Drcv`‡bi j‡¶¨, Avi
†m¸‡jv mPj ivL‡Z PvB KuvPvgv‡ji wbiew”Qbœ cÖevn hv †mB me
Dcwb‡ek¸‡jv †_‡KB Avm‡e †µZviB wba©vwiZ g~‡j¨| Avi cÖ¯—yZK…Z
mvgMÖx †mB Dcwb‡e‡kB wewµ n‡e we‡µZviB wba©vwiZ g~‡j¨| G Rb¨
†m †`‡ki wkí cÖwZôvb aŸsm Ki‡Z †h‡Kvb cš’v Aej¤^b Kiv Ges
wejv‡Zi Pvwn`v g‡Zv KuvPvgvj Drcv`‡b eva¨ Kiv, Avi †m `vwqZ¡
Dcwb‡ek cwiPvjK gÊjxi †h‡Kvb cš’v Aej¤^‡b XvjvI ¶gZv
cÖ`vb| wek¦L¨vZ gmwjb wkí †kvbv hvq wkíxi Av½yj †K‡U w`‡q aŸsm
Kiv n‡q‡Q| Lv`¨ Drcv`b e¨vnZ K‡i wejv‡Zi Kvco K‡ji Rb¨
bxj Pvl G‡Zv e„w× cvq hvi KzwV evwoi wPý evsjvi cÖvh cÖwZwU MÖv‡g
Av‡Rv we`¨gvb| Avi GKv‡Ri mnvqK G‡`‡kiB A_©jfx †LZve
cÖZ¨vkx huviv k¨vgvPv` Pvey‡K ¶Z we¶Z Pvlxi AvZ©bv‡`I we›`ygvÎ
wePwjZ nbwb| A‡bK †LZve avix cieZ©x Kv‡j †LZve cÖZ¨vL¨vb
K‡i‡Qb mZ¨ wKš‘ GKRb‡KB Rvwb whwb eo jv‡Ui cÖkskv cÎ I
MÖnb K‡ib wb GB e‡j †h- GUv †`Lv‡j evRv‡i webv cqmvq hw` Pvj
AvbvR bv cvIqv hvq Z‡e GUv Avgvi wK Kv‡R Avm‡e, wZwb
kªxkirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Ii‡d `v`v VvKyi| Jcb¨vwmK kir P›`ª
29 |

P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi mgmvgwqK| Avi `yR‡bi †jLvB KvM‡R Qvcv n‡Zv| †K
†KvbUvi †jLK †evSv †hZ bv †m Rb¨ †`e`v‡mi †jLK kªx kirP›`ª
P‡Ævcva¨vq weåvwš— `~ixKiYv‡_© Le‡ii KvM‡R weÁwß w`‡qwQ‡jb|
A`¨ nB‡Z Avwg kªx nxb nBjvg|
Gi ci †_‡K wZwb Zuvi †jLvq †jL‡Ki bv‡g kªxnxb kir P›`ª
P‡Ævcva¨vqB wj‡L‡Qb| `v`vVvKz‡ii Rxeb e„Ëv‡š—i Dci GKUv
wm‡bgvI n‡q‡Q KjKvZvq| wZwb KjKvZv †iwWI †m›Uvi cÖwZôvjMœ
†_‡K cÂf~‡Zi Avm‡ii GK fyZ wQ‡jb| ex‡i›`ª K…ò f`ª Qvov Ab¨
wZb f~‡Zi bvg we¯§„Z n‡qwQ| whwb wei“cv¶ QÙbv‡g wek¦iƒc `k©b
wj‡L‡Qb| Ggb wK kªx Rjai †mb GKmg‡qi fviZel© gvwmK c‡Îi
m¤úv`K 2/12/1884 jW© wic‡bi we`vq Dcj‡ÿ KvOvj nwiYv_
(1833-1896) wjwLZ wicb cÖkw¯Í †cvov`n †ij †÷k‡b cvV K‡i
ivq evnv`yi Dcvwa cvb | Avgv‡`i cvUI GK‡PwUqv fv‡e P‡j †hZ
wejv‡Z| Avi Avgv‡`i mvM‡ii jebUvI Drcv`b Kivi AwaKvi
nvwi‡qwQjvg Avgiv|
KuvPvgvj hZwkNÖ †cuŠQv‡e wejv‡Zi KjKviLvbv¸‡jv Z‡Zv mPj n‡e|
GiB †cÖw¶‡Z A‡bK mgq gvjUvbv RvnvR¸‡jv aviY ¶gZvi PvB‡Z
Kg IRb wb‡qB iIbv w`‡Z eva¨ n‡Zv| RvnvR nvjKv nIqvq mvM‡ii
†XD‡Z D_vj cv_vj UvjgvUvj †ivwjs wcwPs| †mRb¨ IBme Rvnv‡R
jeY †evSvB w`‡q Rvnv‡R IR‡bi fvimvg¨Zv i¶v Kiv n‡Zv|
wjfvicyj e›`i †_‡K Gme jeY Avbv n‡Zv e‡j Avgv‡`i †`‡k GB
jeY‡K ejv n‡Zv wjfvicyj më | ¸`vgRvZ Kiv Avi cwienb
Amyweavi Kvi‡Y G¸‡jv mvMi cv‡i Db¥y³ ¯’v‡bB Wvw¤ús K‡i ‡i‡L
ga¨¯^Ë¡‡fvMx G‡`kxq ekse` m„wói j‡¶¨ Lye m¯—vq G¸‡jv Zv‡`i
nv‡Z †`Iqv n‡Zv| GB e¨emvqxiv gv‡Sg‡a¨ K…wÎg msKU m„wó K‡i
Pov `v‡g evRv‡i weµx K‡i wecyj cwigvb m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix n‡q‡Qb|
Rwg`vix wK‡b‡Qb| †LZve cÖvß n‡q‡Qb| Bs‡iRivI PvBwQj Ggb
GKUv †kªYx G‡`‡k m„wó Ki‡Z hviv iv‡R¨i †h‡Kvb †QvULvU cÖwZev`x
KÉ AsKz‡iB wb‡Riv `gb Kivi ¶gZv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| 1857
mv‡ji cybive„wËi m~Pbv `vbv euvavi Av‡MB webvm| ¯’vbxq gRyZ`vi
30 |

cvU e¨emvqxiv b`x Zx‡i eo eo ¸`v‡g cvU gRyZ K‡i KjKvZv
e›`‡i b`xc‡_ cvVv‡Zv| Avgv‡`i GB A‡ji wNIi Puv` AvMiIqvjv
GB †kªYxi GK e¨emvqx wQ‡jb| hvi e¨emv †K›`ª GKmgq wNIi
evRvi 6bs †Mvqvj›` NvU bv‡g w¯’wZ jvf K‡i|
biwms`xi AviI GKRb Ggb e¨emvqx whwb b„wmsn †`‡ei `iev‡i
cÖv_©bv Rvbv‡Zb Zvi cvU †hb wejvZMvgx RvnvR †Q‡o hvevi Av‡MB
e›`‡i †cuŠ‡Q hvq| hv GK mgq mZ¨ n‡q‡Q| Avi ZviB Aat¯—b cÂg
cyi“l Kv‡bvqvi jvj †kV ‡ijI‡qi †Rbv‡ij g¨v‡bRvi c` AjK…Z
K‡i‡Qb GKmgq | e‡bvqvix jvj, ebexi jvj, wewiw jvj, bv‡mvqvi
jvj ZrcyÎ GB Kv‡bvqvi jvj †kV|
Bs‡iRiv wek¦ Ry‡o hZ Dcwb‡ek KivqË¡ K‡i‡Q Zvi cwiPvjbv `vwqZ¡
wekvj `¶ †jvKej M‡o IVvi ch©¨vß mgq bv _vKvq wkw¶Z,
Aa©wkw¶Z, gvwR©Z, AgvwR©Z, evQwePvi Kivi dzimr cvq bvB| mv`v
Pvgov n‡jB cÖkvmwbK eo KZ©v nevi Øvi Db¥y³ Zvi| emwZ Movi
j¶¨ wb‡q A‡bK Dcwb‡e‡k K‡q`x‡`iI Mvi`gy³ K‡i cvwV‡q †`Iqv
n‡q‡Q| wefvMxq eo KZ©v whwb 1/2 Ask 1/4 As‡ki wظb Ges .5 †h
.25 Gi wظb AsK m~‡Îi G avibvI Zv‡`i wQj bv|
wejv‡Zi hye m¤cÖ`vq ¯^cœ †`L‡Zv fvi‡Z Avmevi| GLv‡b evZv‡m
UvKv I‡o| `yÕ`k eQi Mi‡gi GB cvÊe ewR©Z †`‡k KvwU‡q A‡Xj
m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix n‡q euvKx RxebUv ivRvi nv‡j KvUvevi| GLv‡bI
Zviv ivRvi nv‡jB w`b KvUv‡Zv| wekvj evs‡jv Avi ekse` AmsL¨
`vm`vmx cwie„Z n‡q| MÖx‡®§i `ve`vn †_‡K i¶v †c‡Z miKvix
cÖkvm‡bi `ßi wb‡q ¯’vbvš—wiZ n‡q †hZ ˆkjvevm ˆbwbZvj, wmgjv,
gvix, `vwR©wjs, †Kv‡qUvq| GQvov Kv‡jv Pvgov VvÊv weavq MÊvq MÊvq
Kv‡jv Pvgovi `vmx| ¯’vbxq PvgPv †kªYx Gme †RvMvb w`‡qI A‡Xj
m¤ú` Kvwg‡q‡Q|
GB mg‡q wejv‡Z Zv‡`i wkí weKv‡ki Av‡iv GKUv my‡hvM †c‡q hvb
Zviv| ev¯úkw³ PvwjZ †i‡ji BwÄb| 1763 mv‡j †Rgm IqvU
†KUwji dzUš— cvwbi ev‡¯úi av°vq XvKbv †X‡j Dc‡i DV‡Z †`‡L
GB ev¯ú kw³‡K Av‡iv †Kvb Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hvq wK bv fve‡Z fve‡Z
ev¯ú kw³ PvwjZ BwÄb ˆZix K‡i †d‡jb| †mUv wKš‘ †ij BwÄb bq|
31 |

1769 mv‡j wb‡Kvjvm †Rv‡md KvMbU bv‡g divwm †gKvwbK d«v‡Ý
cÖ_g wóg BwÄb ˆZix K‡ib| †mUvI †ij BwÄb bq| 1783 mv‡j Avi
GKRb divwm bvweK gvKzBm wW RyIµq cvj‡Zvjv Rvnv‡R ev¯ú
PvwjZ BwÄb ms‡hvRb K‡ib| 1786 mv‡j BDwjqvg gviWm Ges
1797 mv‡j wiPvW© †Uªwfw_K wóg Bvćbi g‡Wj ˆZix K‡ib| wKš‘
G¸‡jv moK c‡_ Pjvi Dc‡hvMx K‡i| 1800 Lªxóv‡ã Av‡gwiKvb
ievU© dzjUb cy‡ivcywi ev¯ú PvwjZ wógvi ˆZix K‡ib|
1804 mv‡j Bsj¨v‡Ûi wiPvW© †Uªwfw_K †i‡ji Dci w`‡q Pjvi Rb¨
óxg BwÄb ˆZix K‡i 1812 mv‡j Bsj¨v‡Ûi g¨v_ygy‡i `uvZ Iqvjv †ij
jvB‡bi Dci LuvRKvUv PvKvi wóg BwÄb Pvjvb| cwiPvjb Amyweavi
Kvi‡Y GUv Dc‡hvwMZv cvq bv| RR© óx‡dbmb 1814 mv‡j †i‡ji
Rb¨ wóg BwÄb Dbœqb K‡ib Ges 1825 mv‡ji 27†k †m‡Þ¤^i wb‡Ri
ˆZix i‡KU bvgxq BwÄbwU N›Uvq 16 gvBj †e‡M Pvwj‡q `ª“Z gvjvgvj
cwien‡bi Dc‡hvwMZv cÖgvb Ki‡jb| GB MvoxUv Pjvi mgq †Nvo
mIqvi Bwćbi Av‡M Av‡M wPrKvi K‡i mZK© K‡iwQj m‡i hvI m‡i
hvI †ijMvox Avm‡Q|
AwaK…Z Dcwb‡ek¸‡jvq ¯^í mg‡q gvjvgvj mgy`ª e›`‡i cwien‡bi
cÖ‡qvRb Dcjwä K‡i fvi‡ZI Gi cÖwZôvi D‡ÏvM †bqv nq|
evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk e¨emv evwbR¨ †K›`ª b`x‡Kw›`ªK| †bŠKv Qvov
`~ieZ©x †Kv_vI cwien‡bi †Kvb e¨e¯’v wQj bv| Lvj bvjvq moK c_
evavcÖvß n‡Zv| †mRb¨ †ij †Kv¤úvwb b`x ms‡hv‡Mi Dci cÖvavb¨
†`q| cÖZ¨š— AÂj †_‡K mgy`ª e›`iB g~j Mš—e¨ nIqvq †ev¤^vB‡qi
†cvix e›`i †_‡K _v‡b ch©š— 21 gvBj c_ w`‡qB ïi“ nq fvi‡Z
†i‡ji c`hvÎv 1853 mv‡ji 16B GwcÖj kwbevi| cix¶vg~jK GB
m~Pbvi mvd‡j¨ gvÎ 17 eQ‡iB mvov fviZ Ry‡o Gi we¯—vi N‡U
Awek¦vm¨ `ª“ZZvi mv‡_| G‡`‡ki ¯^v‡_© bq evwYwR¨K `„wó‡KvY †_‡K
GB hvÎvi¤¢| hZ`~i Kg mg‡q Gi cÖwZôv cvIqvi j¶¨ wb‡q miKvix
GKK ZË¡veav‡b `vwqZ¡ bv †i‡L wewfbœ evwYwR¨K cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡K wb`„ó
GjvKv fvM K‡i GKm‡½ KvR ïi“ Kiv nq| Avi GB †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jvI
wKš‘ H †`kxqB|
‡hgbt A.B.R Avmvg †e½j †ijI‡q
32 |

B.D.R †e½j Wyqvm© †ijI‡q
B.N.W.R †e½j b_© I‡qóvb© †ijI‡q
B.N.R †e½j bvMcyi †ijI‡q
S.S.R mviv wmivRMÄ †ijI‡q
A.N.R Avãyjcyi beveMÄ †ijI‡q
B.B. & C.I.R †ev‡¤^ e‡iv`v GÛ †m›Uªvj BwÛqvb †ijI‡q
O.T.R AvD_ wÎûZ †ijI‡q
J.J.R h‡kvi wSbvB`n †ijI‡q
GBmKj †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv eivÏK…Z wbR wbR GjvKvq ¯’vbxq cÖfvekvjx
†jvK‡`i mveK›Uªv± †`q| KviY fvi‡Zi Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ mgvR ZLb
weavb w`‡qwQj †ijMvwo‡Z Po‡j cÖvqwðË Ki‡Z n‡e| †KD ej‡jb
AwMœPvwjZ hvbevn‡b Avqy¶q nq BZ¨vw`| wejv‡ZI cÖ_g w`‡K
AwfRvZ m¤cÖ`vq Bwćbi weKU kã Avi Kv‡jv †auvqv cwi‡ek webó
Kivi ARynv‡Z Gi we‡ivwaZv K‡iwQj|
G‡`kxq wVKv`viMY †h ïaygvÎ †ij ¯’vcbvi Kv‡RB wb‡qvwRZ n‡jb
ZvB bq b·v Abyhvqx Rwg AwaMÖnY Ges Gi Rb¨ evoxNi MvQcvjvi
¶wZc~i‡Yi g~j¨ wba©vib I cÖ`v‡bi `vwqZ¡I Zv‡`i †`Iqv nq|
GZ`msµvš— A‡bK weeiY cvIqv hvq| mvavib Kjv Mv‡Qi g~j¨
wba©vwiZ nq `k UvKv (1870 `k‡K UvKvi g~j¨gvb mn‡RB Aby‡gq
PvD‡ji `vg ZLb 3/4 UvKv gb) hyw³ †`Lv‡bv nq KjvMv‡Qi evKj
c~Rvq Kv‡R jv‡M| cvZvq Lv`¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv nq| †_vo †gvPv
BZ¨vw` Lv`¨ wnmv‡e fvj ZiKvix, Kjv AwZ Dcv‡`q dj Kv‡RB Gi
g~j¨ GUvB b¨vqm½Z| wRIj MvQI `vgx KviY GUv Rwgi †eov
†`Iqvi Kv‡R jv‡M| G †hb Ôf~‡Zi ev‡ci kªv×Õ| nvwW©Ä weªR (mvov
cyj) †ij PjvP‡ji Rb¨ Ly‡j †`Iqv nq 01/01/1915 mv‡j|
ZrKvjxb fvBm iq AvbyôvwbK fv‡e Gi D‡Øvab K‡ib 04/03/1915
mv‡j| Zvi bvgvbymv‡iB Gi bvgKiY n‡q‡Q| 5940 dzU `xN© GB
†mZz wbg©v‡b 24 nvRvi kªwgK wb‡qvwRZ n‡qwQj| e¨q n‡qwQj 4
†KvwU 74 j¶ UvKv| 1910 mv‡j nvwW©Ä †mZzi wbg©vY KvR ïi“ nq|
360 dzU `xN© 15wU ¯ú¨vb cÖwZwUi IRb 1250 Ub| 2 †KvwU 60 j¶
NbdzU cv_i Avi †jvnvi wiwcU e¨eüZ nq 17 j¶| wbg©vY PjvKvjxb
33 |

mg‡q i‡U hvq †mZzi MvVyi i¶v Kiv hv‡”Q bv| w`‡b hZUv Muv_ybx
†`Iqv n‡”Q iv‡Z b`x M‡f© wewjb n‡q hvq| G †hb Av‡jŠwKK †Kvb
kw³ M½vi eÜb mn¨ Ki‡Z bvivR| GKkZ GKUv biejx bv w`‡j
A`„k¨ GB gnvkw³‡K kvš— Kiv m¤¢e n‡e bv| Avi GB ms¯‹vi
cÖwZôvi j‡¶¨ `yÕPviUv biejx †`IqvI wewPÎ wKQy bq| H mgq †_‡K
GZ`‡j †Q‡j aivi NUbv Ges iUbv `yB-B e¨vcK †kvbv †M‡Q|
mvovcy‡ji biejxi †LvivK ev wenvi A‡ji †Kvwjqvixi kªwgK ev Pv
evMv‡bi `vm ev Avmv‡gi R½j †_‡K KvV msMÖn ev cv_‡ii cvnvo
†f‡½ wec` m¼zj Kv‡Ri kªwgK †hvMv‡bi `vjvj †kªYx †gvUv UvKvi
†jv‡f G‡`kxq‡`i cªjyä K‡i wb‡q †hZ wbtm‡›`‡n| ¯^bvgab¨ Kwe
bx‡i›`ªbv_ PµeZ©xi VvKzi `vi †QvU fvB wK‡kvi eq‡m nvwi‡q hvq
M½vi avi †_‡K| gy‡½i Mvgx gvjevnx †bŠKvq Zv‡K †kl †`Lv
wM‡qwQj| Avgvi PvPvi †QvU †Q‡jUvI wb‡LuvR nq| w`b †k‡l K‡qK
gvBj `~‡i GK AvacvMjv †jv‡Ki †Svjv †_‡K Zv‡K D×vi Kiv nq|
wenv‡ii †Kvwjqvix Avi Avmv‡gi Pv evMvb ev cv_‡ii cvnvo `yM©g
Gme A‡j GKevi XyK‡j Avi kZ †PóvqI †ewo‡q Avmvi Dcvq
_vK‡Zv bv| RbemwZnxb Gme A‡ji `yÕ`k gvBj GjvKv GB
`vjvjivB cvnvivq iZ _vK‡Zv| Kqjv Lwbi Af¨š—‡i AvR‡Ki g‡Zv
gy³ evqyi cÖev‡ni ev `yN©Ubvq D×v‡ii †Zgb DbœZ e¨e¯’v wQj bv|
`yN©Ubv AvRI N‡U ZLbI N‡UwQj wKš‘ evB‡ii RMZ †m †LuvR
cvqwb| D×v‡ii nv½vgvi †P‡q Pvcv †`IqvB mnRZi †hLv‡b cÖwZev`x
Kɯ^i ¯—ä AvR‡Ki GB 2010 mv‡ji GwcÖ‡j ivwkqvi mvB‡eixqv
A‡ji Kqjv Lwbi f~M‡f© †h we‡ùviY n‡qwQj| †`‡ki gvby‡li
Kv‡Q Zv Zvr¶wYK cÖKvk Kiv nqwb| Rvg©vwbi wei“‡× weRq Drm‡e
fvUv covi m¤¢vebvq|
Pv evMv‡bi Kzjxiv‡Zv mviv w`bgv‡bi kª‡g fvZ Lvevi g‡Zv gRywiI
cvqwb| Ly` fvRv Avi jeb Pv †L‡q w`‡bi ïi“, mܨvq †PvjvB
†`vKv‡b wbt†kl n‡q Szcwo‡Z c‡o _vKv| hyeZx Kzjx †g‡q eo
mv‡n‡ei †fv‡Mi mvgMÖx| †g‡qi B¾Z nvbxi cÖwZev‡`i Rev‡e wcZv
Pvey‡K RR©wiZ n‡q †kl Avkªq †c‡q‡Q cvMjv Mvi‡`| nvRvi eQ‡ii
j¶ j¶ eM©dzU KvV †K‡U †i‡ji w¯­cvi, mv‡n‡ei Avmevec‡Îi
34 |

†hvMvbI w`‡q‡Q GBme `v‡mivB, wnsmª Rš‘i mv‡_ jovB K‡i, †c‡U
wM‡q A_ev wcô n‡q, `~M©g cv_‡ii cvnvo †K‡U GivB †hvMvb w`‡q‡Q
†KvwU †KvwU NbdzU cv_i| a‡i wb‡q eva¨ Kiv n‡q‡Q Gme `vm‡`i|
wec` m¼zj Gme Kv‡R †¯^”Qvq kªwgK cvIqv Am¤¢e| †ij c‡_ wewQ‡q
†`Iqv cv_‡ii UzK‡iv cvnvo †f‡½ wb‡q Avmv Pzwi hvIqv duv‡` cov
Gme gvby‡li kª‡gB AvR‡Ki †ij|
cÖ_‡g KjKvZv †_‡K XvKvi ms‡hvM my›`ieb n‡q †h cÖ¯—ve n‡qwQj Zv
my›`ie‡bi KvV msMÖn mnRZi Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨B Avi bZzb GKUv mgy`ª
e›`i cvIqvi myweav gv_vq †i‡LB| Avi XvKvi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi
cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv w`j c~e©v‡j 1857 mv‡ji NUbvi cybive„wË NU‡j ¯^í
mg‡q evwnbx †cÖi‡bi K_v gv_vq †i‡L| cÙv †mZzI n‡q †hZ wKš‘
†Luvov hyw³ w`‡q evavi m„wó K‡i óxgvi †Kv¤úvbx¸‡jv| Zv‡`i
GK‡PwUqv e¨emv ¶wZMÖ¯’ nevi Avk¼vq| bB‡j mvov cyj wbg©v‡b
†hLvb e¨q n‡q‡Q 5 †KvwU UvKv †m‡¶‡Î gvÎ 18 j¶ UvKv e¨‡q
a‡jk¦ix cyj eÜ n‡Zv bv| †hgbUv AvRI NU‡Q †i‡ji Dbœq‡bi
cÖ‡Póvq moK cwienb ms¯’v¸‡jvi AbxnvRwbZ Kvi‡Y| `vm msMÖn I
†cÖi‡Y DrmvwnZ Kivi j‡¶¨ †ij KZ…©c¶ Pv evMvb I Avmv‡gi R½‡j
kªwgK cwien‡b †Kvb fvov wbZ bv| 1884-85 mv‡j ïaygvÎ †i‡ji
GKUv †mKkb KvDwbqv aojvq Avq `vuovq 1,56,755/= UvKv ïaygvÎ
hvÎx enb K‡i| Gi GK PZz_©vsk webv fvovi hvÎx Pv evMv‡bi kªwgK
G ‡_‡KB Abygvb Kiv hvq GKgvÎ Avmvg A‡jB K‡Zv kªwgK Gw`K
†_‡K †M‡Q (B¯úv‡Zi c_)|
1960/65 mv‡j Avgv‡`i †`‡k WAPDA cvwb wefvM‡K †k¦Zn¯—x
ejv n‡Zv| †i‡ji m~Pbvj‡MœI IUv †hb Ôf~‡Zi ev‡ci kªv×Õ| Avgv‡`i
ivRevox A‡ji †ek wKQy wVKv`vi wQ‡jb huviv †ijc_ ˆZix QvovI
BU fvUv w`‡qI cÖfyZ A‡_©i gvwjK n‡q Rwg`vix wK‡b‡Qb ¯’vei
A¯’vei wekvj m¤úwËi gvwjK n‡q‡Qb| mvMiKuv`xi ¯^bvgab¨ M‡Rb
`‡Ëi wcZv †Mvwe›` `Ë, wcZvgn ¸i“PiY `Ë Rwg`vix wK‡b
wejvmeûj Rxeb hvcb K‡i‡Qb|
mvMiKuv`x‡Z wekvj cÖvmv` ˆZix K‡ib emev‡mi Rb¨| (M‡Rb `Ë
ivRevox Avm‡j em‡Zb wbiÄb †cÖ‡m cwicvwU †cvlvK mw¾Z| fivU
35 |

Mjv| mviv evsjvq Zvi Awfbq L¨vwZ wQj| wb‡RB GKUv hvÎv `j
MVb K‡ib|
ivRevoxi wbeviY PµeZ©x cwievi PjvP‡ji Dc‡hvMx iv¯—v bv _vKv
¯^‡Z¡I ïaygvÎ AvwfRvZ¨ cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ †gvUiMvox wK‡b Avb‡jb|
†hUv gyL _ye‡o c‡o wM‡q †kl Aewa (eZ©gv‡b wm½vi †Kv¤úvbxi)
MvQZjvq Avkªq †cj fv½yix bv nIqv Aewa|

`v`kxi mwjgy¾vgvb †PŠayix UvKv w`‡q bv‡gi †k‡l †PŠayix hy³ Kivi
AwaKvi †c‡jb ¯^‡`k AvMÖvmx weRvZxq‡`i KvQ †_‡K| w`Mš— Qvwo‡q
avwb Rwg, cvKv NvUjv euvav‡bv cyKzi hvi †`Iqvj †b‡g G‡m‡Q
M„wnbx‡`i muvZvi ‡`qvi g‡Zv †PŠnwÏ cyKz‡ii gvS eivei| cvKv
ˆeVKLvbv I gmwR`| wbR e¨‡q evoxi cv‡k †ij †÷kb emv‡jb g~j
`v`kx Rskb †ókb †_‡K 600 MR cy‡e | ‡`eMÖv‡gi bxjgwb m`©v‡ii
Aat¯—b cyi“l ewmi †PŠayix gv‡Vi gv‡S ÔMvRxÕ wógvi c¨vUv‡b©i evox
Ki‡jb †hUv el©vKv‡j fvmgvb ÔMvRxÕ wógvi e‡jB g‡b n‡Zv|
mvgmyj nK mv‡ne †Zv ïay †gg we‡q K‡i G‡bB ¶vš— n‡jb bv GKevi
GKUv Av¯— D‡ovRvnv‡R/G¨v‡iv‡c­‡b G‡m bvg‡jb PZivi we‡j| †mUv
Pi Kv`vq AvU‡K D‡ë †Mj gyL _ye‡o| LÊ LÊ K‡i mov‡Z n‡jv
†mUv| GZme Ôf~‡Zi ev‡ci kªv×Õ QvovI Aek¨ Zuviv mK‡jB
RbwnZKi me Kv‡RB m¤ú„³ †_‡K wb‡R‡`i Ae¯’vb M‡o‡Qb mgv‡Ri
cÖ_g mvwi‡Z|
my›`ieb n‡q XvKv †i‡ji cÖ¯—ve bvKP n‡q †M‡j 1855 mv‡j `y‡Uv cÖ¯—
ve ivLv nq| cÖ_gUv KwjKvZv †_‡K h‡kvni n‡q dwi`cyi ILvb †_‡K
XvKv| wØZxqUv KwjKvZv †_‡K †Mvqvj›`, †mLv‡b †_‡K XvKv| GUvi
¯^c‡¶ hyw³ wQj, †Mvqvj›` A‡bK Av‡M †_‡KB †bŠe›`i wnmv‡e
cÖwZwôZ| †mLv‡b †KvU© KvPvix, miKvix Aby`vb cÖvß ¯‹zj, wkw¶Z
ivR‰bwZK mgvR m‡PZb cwigÊj M‡o D‡VwQj| eªvþ mgv‡RiI
cÖmvi nq GLv‡b| Kw_Z Av‡Q dwi`cy‡ii Kv‡j±i GLv‡b G‡mwQ‡jb
36 |

fvi‡Zi †kl mgªvU evnv`yi kvn Rvdi‡K wbe©vm‡bi mgq Zuvi
†bŠen‡ii Z`viwKi Rb¨ miKvix Av‡`kcÖvß n‡q|
XvKv †_‡K AvwiPv ch©š— †ij emv‡bvi RwicI mgvß n‡qwQj †hUv
†Mvqvj‡›`i DËi eivei| GB †ijc‡_i cÖ¯—veUvB MÖnY Kiv nq|
GBRb¨ Gi ev¯—evq‡bi KvRI `ª“ZB ïi“ n‡q hvq| gvÎ mvZ eQ‡iB
1862 mv‡ji 15B b‡f¤^i KwjKvZv †_‡K ivbvNvU n‡q RMwZ ch©š—
†ijjvBb PjvP‡ji Rb¨ Ly‡j †`Iqv nq| hw`I Mvox RMwZ ch©š— bv
G‡m †cvov`n Rskb n‡q †fovgvivi MovB b`xi cv‡o wM‡q hvZvqvZ
Ki‡Z _v‡K| MovB †mZz ZLbI ˆZix nqwb| †dix PjvP‡ji gva¨‡g
Icv‡ii wgUvi‡MR jvB‡bi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM i¶v Kiv n‡Z _v‡K|
GB mg‡q R.S.N wifvi óxg †bwf‡Mkb I I.G.S.N BwÛqvb
†Rbv‡ij óxg †bwf‡Mkb †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ cvivcv‡ii Rb¨ Pzw³ K‡i|
GB me †Kv¤úvbxi mvov cyj ˆZix n‡j †Mvqvj‡›` Zv‡`i RvnvR¸‡jv
G‡b bvivqbMÄ I Puv`cy‡ii mv‡_ hvÎx I gvjvgvj cwien‡b Kv‡R
jvMvq|
Gw`‡K RMwZ †_‡K Kzwóqv 16B †deª“qvix 1864 mv‡j Ges MovB
†mZz wbg©vb m¤úbœ n‡j 1867 mv‡j †i‡ji hvÎv ïi“ †Mvqvj‡›`i
D‡Ï‡k¨| hw`I GBmg¯— c_Uv Rwic Ges cwiKíbv Abyhvqx
GKmv‡_B wVKv`v‡iiv Avcbvcb eivÏK…Z KvR BwZg‡a¨B †kl K‡i
†d‡jb| evavMÖ¯’ †hUv n‡q‡Q †mUv b`x ev Lv‡ji Dci †mZz wbg©v‡b
wej¤^ nevi Kvi‡Y| MovB †mZz wbg©vY bv nIqv ch©š— Gcv‡ii eªxR
¸‡jvi Rb¨- MvW©vi, †ij jvBb ev fvix miÄvg Avbv m¤¢e nq wb|
P›`bv b`xi Dci †mZz ˆZix n‡Z †`ix nIqvq cvskv †÷k‡bi wKQyUv
cwðg †_‡K mvBW jvBb ewm‡q b`xi mv‡_ ms‡hvM NUv‡bv nq| †mUv
we‡ePbvq Avb‡j bvivqbM‡Äi mv‡_ †i‡ji †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖ_g NvU
cvskv| cvskv †÷k‡bi cv‡k Bwćb cvwb mieivn Kivi Rb¨ GKUv
ev¯ú PvwjZ BwÄb ewm‡q cvk¦©eZ©x cyKzi †_‡K cvwb U¨v‡¼ †Zvjv
n‡Zv| GB U¨v¼Uvi avib ¶gZv wQj 15988 M¨vjb| †hgbUv RMwZ
†÷k‡bI emv‡bv n‡qwQj|
R.S.N Ges I.G.S.N †Kv¤úvbxi †h mg¯— wógvi bvivqbM‡Äi mv‡_
ms‡hv‡Mi Kv‡R wjß wQj †m¸‡jvi bvg (a) GHAZI (b)
37 |

OSTRICH (c) PENGUIN (d) KIWI (e) FLEMIN GO
(f) MAHSUD (g) TERN (h) AJAX
cÖvq †ekxi fvMB cvwLi bv‡g bvg| GB RvnvR¸‡jvi g‡a¨ me‡P‡q
aviY ¶gZv I AvqZ‡b eo GHAZI | Avi me‡P‡q `ª“Z MwZ‡Z
Pj‡Zv OSTRICH|GQvovI R.S.N Ges I.G.S.N †Kv¤úvbxi
¯’vbxq G‡R›U whwb Bs‡iR n‡Zb Zvi emev‡mi Rb¨ wQj my`„k¨ d¬vU
CURLEW| fviZxq‡`i GB c‡` wb‡qvM †`Iqv nq A‡bK c‡i|
¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vj‡bi mgq wgt G¨vwjb bv‡gi GK mv‡ne Lyb nb
(Hector Bolitho) Av‡iv GKRb Avµg‡bi wkKvi nb fviZxq
Aat¯—b Kg©Pvixi mv‡_ Am`vPvi‡bi Kvi‡Y| Pibvivqbcyi wbevmx
†gvt BmgvBj Øviv whwb Wvt ewmi DwÏb mv‡n‡ei fvB‡cv (Test of
time) mv‡ne †`Š‡o cvjvq| AviI GKRb `v‡ivMv Lyb nq| nZ¨vKvix
†ivwnbx eo–qv whwb AvïfiØvR evey hLb dwi`cyi †R‡j wQ‡jb cv‡ki
†k‡j _vK‡Zb| Zuvi duvwm dwi`cy‡ii †R‡j Kvh©Ki nq| (Av‡iv
GKRb `v‡ivMv Aat¯—b wmcvB Øviv wbnZ nq †mvbvKv›`i NvU _vKvi
mgq| †mUv Aek¨ e¨w³MZ Kvi‡b) Lybxi bvg Aveyj †nv‡mb
K‡bóej|
P›`bv b`xi cyj cyY©Zv †c‡j cvskvi mvBW jvBb eÜ K‡i w`‡q
nv‡ovqvi Dci w`‡q †mvRv P‡j Av‡m †ejMvwQ ivRevox ch©š— †Zgb
eo evav bv _vKv m‡Z¡I †ejMvwQ †_‡K †i‡ji b`x ms‡hvM bZzb mvBW
jvB‡bi gva¨‡g avIqvcvov NvU ch©š— Av‡m| (Lye m¤¢eZt m~ZvMv½ Gi
cyjUv ZLbI †kl nqwb)| avIqvcvov Nv‡Ui b`xi fv½‡b †i‡ji
GKUv BwÄb Zwj‡q hvq RbkÖ“wZ Av‡Q ¸o †evSvB GKUv gnvRwb
†bŠKv GB Wyeš— Bwćbi av°vq Wy‡e †M‡j Wyeyix bvwg‡q Gi cÖgvb
cvIqv hvq| Avi MvjM‡í hviv Zwj‡q hvIqv BwÄbUvi ûBm&j Mfxi
iv‡Z wbR Kv‡b ï‡b‡Qb, Ggb M‡ív ï‡b †n‡m Dwo‡q w`Z bv
†mªvZviv, jw¾Z n‡Zv bv e³vI|
P›`bv cyj cvi n‡q †ij mg‡iLvq †mvRv †ejMvwQ Av‡m nv‡ovqvi
Dci w`‡q| KvjyLvwj †÷kb ZLb cÖwZôv nqwb| iZbw`qv KvjyLvjx
†÷kb ¯’vwcZ nq 1898 mv‡j nv‡ovqv cÙvi fv½‡b wewjb nevi ci
ZLb iZbw`qvq KvjyLvjx †÷k‡b †ij Av‡m P›`bv cyj †_‡K `w¶‡Y
38 |

wKQyUv euvK wb‡q Avi †mLvb ‡_‡K †ejMvwQ Av‡m Dˇi wKQyUv euvK
wb‡q| KvjyLvwj Rskb †÷k‡b iƒcvš—wiZ nq 1jv Rvbyqvix 1932
mv‡j gayLvjx ch©š— †ij cÖwZôv †c‡j| ‡ejMvwQ †_‡K ivRevox|
gv‡Si m~h©¨bMi †÷kb c‡i cÖwZôv cvq †hUv ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi ¸n iv‡qi
¯§„wZ‡Z| Avgv‡`i GB kn‡ii †ij †÷kbUvi bvg ivRevox ivLv nq|
_vbv, gnKzgv mn mg¯— cÖkvmwbK Kvh©µg P‡j †Mvqvj›` bv‡g|
‡ij †÷k‡bi bvgKiY wb‡q cÖwZôv j‡Mœ j²x‡Kv‡ji ivRvi `vex I
evbxen Rwg`vi‡`i weZK© Zz‡½ D‡VwQj| †÷kb GjvKvUv e¯‘Z
GZ`A‡ji meUvB evYxen Rwg`vi‡`i Rwg`vixi Ask wQj| Zuv‡`i
eskai DשZb Avi Aat¯—b A‡b‡KB Bs‡iR miKv‡ii D”P Avm‡b
AwawôZ wQ‡jb| wk¶vqI H es‡ki A‡b‡KB fvi‡Zi wewfbœ A‡j
cÖwm× wQ‡jb| wke k¼i gRyg`vi‡K 1803 mv‡j Mfb©i †Rbv‡ij
KZ…©K bv‡Uv‡ii ivbxi mieivnKvi wnmv‡e wb‡qvM †`Iqv nq| evYxen
A‡j Ibv‡`i evoxUv‡KI ¯’vbxq Awaevmxiv ivRevox ej‡Zv| evYxen
Rwg`vi‡`i Dcvwa gRyg`vi, ivRv bq| †Zgb j²x‡Kv‡ji ivRv
m~h©¨Kzgvi‡`iI Dcvwa ¸n ivq, ivRv bq| GUv m‡›`nvZxZ fv‡e
cÖgvwbZ j¶x‡Kvj ivRv‡`i bv‡g †ij †ók‡bi bvgKiY ivRevox
nqwb| ˆÎ‡jvK¨bv_ fÆvPvh©¨ wj‡L‡Qb m~h©¨bMi †ókb ivRvi ¯§„wZ‡Z
c‡i cÖwZôv cvq| RbkÖ“wZ Av‡Q ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi KL‡bv ivRevox
†÷kb †_‡K †i‡j P‡obwb| nvwZ‡Z P‡o m~h©bMi wM‡q †Uªb ai‡Zb|
hw`I m~ZvMvO cvo n‡Zb wK fv‡e Zvi D‡j­L bvB| ˆÎ‡jvK¨bv_
fÆvPv‡h©i †jLv m~h©bMi †ij †÷kb ivRvi ¯§„wZ‡Z c‡i cÖwZôv cvq|
aviYv Kiv hvq ivRv ZLb MZ n‡q‡Qb|
ivRevox ¯’vbwUi bvg 1500 kZ‡KI cÖPwjZ wQj| m¾bKv›`v bvgUvI
†K`vi ivq cÖ`Ë| Aek¨ Gi BwZe„‡Ë Avb›` bv_ iv‡qi dwi`cy‡ii
BwZnvm eY©bvq g~j wel‡qi mv‡_ wgj _vK‡jI bv‡g wKwÂZ cv_©K¨
†`Lv hvq| mgv‡R D”P¯’vb eªvþb bv ˆe`¨ GB weZ‡K© eªvþb‡K D”P
Avmb †`Iqvq ˆe`¨ eskxq †K`vi iv‡qi gš¿x kªxgš— weiƒc nb Ges
me©`vB g‡b g‡b †K`vi iv‡qi Awbô Kvgbv Ki‡Zb| †mvbvi Muv‡qi
ivRv Ckv Luv wgÎ †K`vi iv‡qi evj weaev Kb¨ †mvbvgwb‡K †`‡L
AvK…ó nb Ges †K`vi iv‡qi Kv‡Q †mvbvgwbi cvwY cÖv_©bv K‡ib| Ckv
39 |

Luvi avibv weaev †g‡q‡K Zvi g‡Zv civµvš— Ges wgÎ fvevcbœ ivRvi
nv‡Z †mvc`© Ki‡Z †K`vi iv‡qi AvcwË n‡e bv| wKš‘ †K`vi ivq
AZ¨š— iƒô n‡q Ckv Luvi ivR¨ Avµgb K‡ib| gš¿x kªxgš— ivRcÖmv‡`
wd‡i ivbx‡K D‡ëv msev` †`b Ckv Luv ivRcÖvmv` Avµgb K‡i †mvbv
gwb‡K MÖv‡mi D‡Ï‡k¨ Avm‡Q| †K`vi ivq e›`x| D‡Ïk¨ †mvbvgwb,
Kv‡RB Zv‡K Zvi k¦ïi evox P›`ªØx‡c cvwV‡q †`IqvB g½j| cÖavbgš¿x
iNyb›`b Gi we‡ivwaZv Ki‡jI ivbx †g‡qi g½j wPš—vq ivRx nb Avi
kªxg‡š—i Kv‡QB †m `vwqZ¡ †`b| kªxgš— Ckv Luvi ivR¨ †mvbvi Muv‡q
†mvbvgwb‡K wb‡q Ckv Luvi nv‡Z †mvc`© K‡ib|
‡K`vi iv‡qi ivR¨ mxgv hw`I m›`xc ch©š— we¯Z…Z wQj wKš‘ ‡mUv
cZ©yMxR Rj`my¨ MÄvwjk cÖavb NvwU K‡i wewfbœ A‡j jyUZivR
Pvjv‡Zv| †K`vi ivq Zvi mvnvh¨ Qvov gM`my¨ `g‡b Amg_© _vKvq
MÄvwj‡mi †`ŠivZ¡ mn¨ Ki‡Zb| cieZ©xKv‡j cZ©yMxR Rj`my¨ m›`xc
†_‡K weZvwiZ n‡q fviZ gnvmvM‡ii w`‡K Mgb K‡i| †mLv‡b GKUv
Øxc `Lj K‡i w`wj bvg †`q| Gi Av‡M Ckv Luvi mv‡_ GKZve× n‡q
1602 mv‡j †K`vi ivq †gvMj AvwacZ¨ A¯^xKvi Ki‡j gvb wms
†K`vi ivq‡K civ¯— K‡ib| wKš‘ Zvi ivR¨ †K‡o †bb bvB| †K`vi
iv‡qi GK Kb¨v‡K MÖnY K‡ib|
Ckv Luvi mv‡_ gZvš—‡ii ci 1603 mv‡j †K`vi ivq GKvB Avevi
†gvMj ek¨Zv A¯^xKvi Kivq †mbvcwZ wKjgK AvnZ Ae¯’vq †K`vi
ivq‡K e›`x K‡i gvbwmsGi mgx‡c nvwRi Kivi c~‡e©B †K`vi iv‡qi
g„Zz¨ nq|
wØZxq gZ †hUv cÖ‡dmiÕm Kv‡i›U A¨v‡dqvm© A¨vjevg 37/1 evsjv
evRvi XvKv †_‡K cÖKvkK I cwiPvjK †gvt Rwmg DwÏb ms¯‹iY
2001 msL¨vq cvIqv hvq|
Avwd«Kv gnv‡`k †_‡K 1200 gvBj cwð‡g †m›U †n‡jbv Øx‡c
cZz©MxRiv cÖ_g cÖavb NvwU ¯’vcb K‡i Ges DËgvkv Aš—ixc n‡q
fvi‡Z Av‡m| m›`xc AÂjUv wb‡R `L‡j wb‡q GZ`‡j jyUZivR
Pvjv‡Z _v‡K| †gvMjivR †bŠhy‡× cvi`k©x bv nIqvq G‡`i `gb Kiv
m¤¢e nq bv| cZ©yMxR Rj`my¨ cÖavb †Zvwg‡Mv Kvf©vj‡nv dwi`cy‡ii
ivRv †K`vi bv_ ivq †PŠayixi Kb¨v AÄwjKv ivq †PŠayix‡K jyÉb K‡i
40 |

m›`x‡c wb‡q hvq Ges †mLv‡bB ivR¨ cÖwZôv K‡i| A‡bK evOvjx hyeK
GB `my¨‡`i mv‡_ †hvM w`‡qwQj bvix †fvM, g`¨cvb Avi m¤ú‡`i
†jv‡f| Avgv‡`i GB A‡j cZ©yMxR nvbv`vi‡`i Kvh©µg GB m›`xc
†_‡KB cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv| †gvMj my‡e`vi Bmjvg Luv GB cZ©yMxR
`my¨‡`i m›`xc †_‡K weZvwoZ K‡ib| Kvf©vj‡nv AÄwjKv †PŠayix‡K
†bŠ †mbvcwZ Avwj, my‡ik Avi †Mvwe›` G‡`i m‡½ g~j †K›`ª †m›U
†n‡jbvq cvwV‡q w`‡q B‡›`v‡bkxqvi wZgy‡i Av¯—vbv Mv‡o Ges wb‡R‡K
mgªvU †NvlYv K‡i iv‡R¨i bvg †`q w`wj|
AÄwjKvi wb‡`©‡k Avwj Avi my‡ik cZ©yMv‡ji ivRavbx wjmeb iIbv
n‡q jÊb hvq| Zviv †bŠ †mbvcwZ jW© †bjmb‡K †¯úbxq Avg©vWv
aŸs‡m mvnvh¨ K‡i| Bs‡iRiv G‡`i K_v KL‡bv cÖKvk bv Ki‡jI
m¤cÖwZ myBwWk M‡elK †ivbvì †mbmb †m›U †n‡jbvi Dci M‡elYv
K‡i GB Z_¨ †ei K‡i‡Qb| Bs‡iRiv DËgvkv Aš—ixc n‡q fvi‡Z
Avmvi c_ †R‡b wb‡q Avwj‡K wbôzi fv‡e nZ¨v K‡i|
‡K`vi ivq †PŠayixi Aat¯—b cyi“q ¯^vaxb fvi‡Zi †Rbv‡ij Rqš— ivq
†PŠayix cZ~©MxR‡`i †kl Dcwb‡ek †Mvqv gy³ K‡ib| †K`vi iv‡qi
Aci GK kvLv nhiZ Lvb Rvnvb Avjxi Kv‡Q Bmjvg MÖnY K‡ib Ges
Rvnvb †PŠayix bv‡g L¨vZ nb|
‡K`vi ivq †PŠayix Zvi Kb¨v‡K nvwi‡q ivRavbxi GK As‡ki bvg †`q
mRbKuv`v, bvgUv Av‡Rv Av‡Q|
‡m›U †n‡jbvi Awaevmxiv wgkª i‡³i, evOvjx, AvwdKvb I Bs‡iR|
evOvwjiv GLb Avi evsjvq K_v e‡j bv|
ivRevox †_‡K cÖ_g NvUjvBb P‡j hvq `v`kx gvRv‡ii Mv †Nu‡l
DovKv›`v n‡q ‡Mvqvj›` †R.Gj. 12bs `v‡M cqjv Rvbyqvix 1871
mv‡j| GKUv eo †mZy cvi n‡q (cuvP MvW©vi wewkó ¯’vbxq fvlvq
MvVyix) Avi GUvB g~j †Mvqvj›` NvU hvi m~ÎcvZ nq 01/01/1871
mv‡j GB RvqMvUvi bvgB †Mvqvj›`| `vM bs †R.Gj. 12| †hUvi
GKUv MvVyi Av‡Rv wU‡K Av‡Q| GB ¯’vbUv cÙv hgybvi m½g¯’‡j|
GLvb w`‡qB Avmv‡g †bŠc‡_ gvjvgvj wb‡q RvnvR †bŠKv PjvPj
Ki‡Zv| óxgv‡ii R¡vjvbx Kqjvi wekvj fvÊvi GLv‡b M‡o I‡V
41 |

jvj‡Mvjv ch©š— we¯Z…Z n‡q, gvwU Lyuo‡j †Kv_vI †Kv_vI Av‡Rv Kqjv
cvIqv hvq|
cÙvi MfxiZv I †mªv‡Zi MwZ‡eM KíbvZxZ| MfxiZvi cwigvc
cvIqv †hZ Bwjk aivi Rv‡ji iwki gvc †_‡K| †Kv_vI †Kv_vI 150
dz‡UiI †ekx| cÖej †mªvZ DwR‡q RvnvR A‡bK mgq G¸‡Z cvi‡Zv
bv| ZLb GB RvnvR¸‡jv GLv‡bB †bv½i K‡i A‡c¶v Ki‡Z eva¨
n‡Zv| †ij cÖwZôviI Av‡M 1869 mv‡j dwi`cy‡ii Kv‡j±i wj‡L hvb
†h QqLvbv RvnvR cÙv hgybvi ms‡hvM †f` K‡i AMÖmi n‡Z bv cvivq
†Mvqvj‡›` ‡bv½i K‡i _vK‡Z eva¨ nq| (Avb›` bv_ ivq) ‡ZIZv
ivRvi evoxUv ‡Mvqvj›` †_‡K mg‡iLvq Dˇi, aviYv Kiv hvq XvKv
†_‡K AvwiPvi †ij emv‡bvi †h Rwic nq Zvi Ae¯’vb Gw`KUv‡ZB
n‡e| ‡Mvqvj›` ‡R.Gj. 12 `v‡M cÖ_g †ij †cŠu‡Q hvq cqjv Rvbyqvix
1871 mv‡j| GLv‡b Nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb 1887 mvj ch©š—| b`x fv½b ïi“
n‡j Kzk©vnvUv Avi Zvi Av‡kcv‡k Ae¯’vb wb‡qI wUK‡Z bv †c‡i NvU
P‡j Av‡m ivRevox †jv‡Kv †m‡Wi cvk w`‡q †mvbvKv›`i n‡q `yBUv
eo †mZz cvi n‡q `~M©vcyi| †mZz `yBUvi GKUvi fMœve‡kl GLbI †`Lv
hvq| Ab¨Uvi BU †f‡½ Ly‡j †bevi mgq ¯’vbxq GKRb Pvcv c‡o gviv
hvq| `~M©vcy‡ii Nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb 1898 mvj ch©š—|
me‡P‡q we¯§qKi w`K n‡”Q †ij m¤ú‡K© whwbB wjLyb `~M©vcyi NvUGi
AvMgb, Ae¯’vb Kvj GgbwK bvgUviI D‡j­L cvIqv hvq bv| GLv‡b
NvU G‡mwQj GUv mZ¨ | 01/01/1871 mv‡j †Mvqvj›` bv‡gi
RvqMv‡ZB †Mvqvj‡›`i cÖ_g cÖwZôv| 1888 mv‡j fv½‡b RvqMvUv
wejxb n‡j NvU `~M©vcyi Av‡m| hw`I cuvPzwiqv ch©š— jvBb hvq
01/04/1890 Avi `v`kx Rskb wnmv‡e gh©v`v cvq wKš‘ 1898 mvj
Gi Av‡M cuvPzwiqv n‡q NvU jvBb cÖwZwôZ nqwb| wbqwgZ cuvPzwiqv
w`‡q Mvoxi hvZvqvZ _vK‡j †Uó Ae UvBg-ZwgRDwÏb Lv‡bi †jLvq
cvIqv hvq 1890 mv‡ji wKQy c‡i wKš‘ 1898 Gi Av‡M †Kbbv
1898 mv‡ji 26†k A‡±vei LvbLvbvcyi ch©š— †ij e‡m †M‡Q|
Ibv‡`i ILvb ‡_‡K †ijMvox ‡`Lvi Rb¨ †nu‡U eû †jvK Avm‡Zv |
Kv‡RB aviYv Kiv hvq cuvPzwiqv n‡q NvU jvBb 26/10/1898 nIqvB
42 |

m¤¢e| 1888 †_‡K 1898 ch©š— Nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb `~M©vcyi| †hw`b †_‡K
cuvPzwiqv n‡q Nv‡Ui cÖwZôv †mw`b †_‡KB `~M©vcy‡ii mgvwß|
1887 mv‡j †Mvqvj‡›` Ae¯’vbiZ ¯‹zj †hUv (ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi
wWwcAvB.wmG gvwU©b mv‡n‡ei Aby‡iv‡a wKQyw`b cwiPvjbvi fvi †bb)
miKvix `ßi Lvbv BZ¨vw` ivRevox P‡j Av‡m e‡U Z‡e bvg c~e©er
†Mvqvj›`B †_‡K hvq| Avgiv †Mvqvj›` gnvKzgvi ivRevox †nW
†KvqvU©v‡ii evwm›`v nB| cÖv_wgK Ae¯’vq cÖkvm‡bi me wefv‡Mi
`ßiMy‡jv cvKv Kiv m¤¢e nq bvB| †mRb¨ cyivZb gy‡Ýd †KvU© wewìs
Gi ¯’vcbv Kvj 1926 wQj| †Zgwb mve wWwfkbvj Awdmvi †Mvqvj›`
1910 mv‡ji wmj †gvn‡ii GKUv bgybv Avgvi msMÖ‡n Av‡Q †hUv
Abygvb Kiv hvq GmwWI Awdm D‡Øvab mgq Kv‡ji| GB BgviZUv
AvR‡Ki wW.wm Awdm Ae¯’v‡b wQj| GB bZzb Bgvi‡Zi wfwË
MVbKv‡j cyivZb wewìsUvi Mfx‡i GKUv cvKv ¯’vcbvi wPý cvIqv
hvq †hUv cy‡ivcywi DrcvUb m¤¢e nq bvB| †KŠZ~n‡ji m„wó Ki‡jI
Kv‡iv g‡bv‡hvM Kv‡owb|
1898 mv‡j `~M©vcyi †_‡K NvU cuvPzwiqv n‡q P‡j hvq wewfbœ RvqMvq
c~e©g~Lx †cvov evRvi, †ZbvcPv wNIi evRvi 6bs NvU, Rvgvjcyi,
Kb©‡mvbv hvi Avmj bvg Pi K‡iv‡bkb BZ¨vw`| 1898 mv‡j GKUv
kvLv jvBbI †ei Kiv nq †hUv DRvbP‡i hvq eZ©gv‡b †hUv †Mvqvj›`
evRvi bv‡g cwiwPZ|
AviI GKUv kvLv jvBb nq dwKivev` ch©š— hw`I †mLv‡b NvU hvq
bvB| w`bvK †mvnvbx Kwei Zuvi c~e©evsjv ‡ijI‡qi BwZnv‡m wj‡L‡Qb
01/04/1890 mv‡j cuvPzwiqv ch©š— jvB‡bi D‡Øvab Ges cuvPzwiqv †_‡K
NvU jvBb 26/10/1898 ZvwiL| 20/10/1898 Zvwi‡L cuvPzwiqv
†_‡K wkeivgcyi †ij Pvjy nq Rskb bvgUv LvbLvbvcyi ch©š— †ij
m¤cÖmvwiZ nevi Kvi‡Y| †hgb RMwZ ch©š— †ij m¤cÖmvwiZ nevi
Kvi‡Y †cvov`n‡K Rskb D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q| †ijMvox ZLbI wbqwgZ
RMwZ Avm‡Zv bv| †Zgwb cuvPzwiqv †_‡K LvbLvbvcyi ch©š— †ij
cÖwZôvi Rb¨ miÄvgevnx Mvox cuvPzwiqv †hZ †mUv †`L‡Z G‡m
ZwgRwÏb Lvb mv‡ne ¯­xcvi wcQ‡j c‡o wM‡q AvnZ nb Avi †mUv
LvbLvbvcyi ch©š— †ij jvBb m¤cÖmvwiZ nw”Qj ZLb| Zvi Rb¥ 1889
43 |

mv‡j Kv‡RB G NUbv 1890 Gi ci I 1898 Gi Av‡M| †Mvqvj›`
Avmvi j¶¨ wb‡qB †i‡ji hvÎv Kv‡RB Mš—‡e¨ bv †cuŠQv‡bv ch©š— bvg
e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| †hgb-cvskv NvU I avIqvcvov NvU cvqwb|
Avi †Mvqvj›` bv‡gi RvqMvUv `v`kx w`‡qB †R.Gj.12bs `v‡M hvi
mwVK ZvwiL bv cvIqvq w`bvK †mvnvbx Kwei mv‡eK †Mvqvj›` `v`kx
w`‡q wj‡L‡Qb| ZvwiLUv wQj 01/01/1871| `v`kx Rskb nq
cuvPzwoqv ch©šÍ †ij jvBb m¤cÖmvixZ n‡j | hw`I NvU jvBb ZLbI
cuvPzwoqv n‡q cÖwZwôZ nqwb | ‰Î‡jvK¨bv_ m¨v‡ii ¯§„wZK_vI Gi
mg_©b cvIqv hvq| 1898 mv‡j †ij †Mvqvj›` ch©š— bZzb kvLv jvBb
cÖwZôvi mgq Zuvi eni KvjyLvjxi evoxi wVK ga¨w`‡q hvq †mRb¨
Zuviv bZzb Avevm iZbw`qvq M‡o †Zv‡jb|
GLb Avgiv GKUv wm×v‡š— Avm‡Z cvwi 1867 mv‡j MovB †mZz wbg©vb
n‡j cvskvi P›`bv †mZz cÖwZôv bv nIqvq Aš—Z 1869 mvj ch©š —
mvBW jvBb w`‡q b`x ms‡hvM gva¨‡g óxgvi †hv‡M XvKvi mv‡_
†hvMv‡hvM i¶v Kiv nq| P›`bv eªxR cÖwZôv †c‡j †ejMvwQ w`‡q mvBW
jvBb avIqvcvov Nv‡U Ges 01/01/1871 mv‡j /`v`kx w`‡q g~j
†Mvqvj‡›` ms‡hvM c~Y©Zv cvq Ges GB j¶¨ wb‡qB †i‡ji AvMgb|
†Mvqvj›` eû c~e© †_‡KB eo b`x e›`i miKvix †KvU© KvPvix ¯‹zj Avi
gnKzgvi gh©v`v †c‡q‡Q| 1872 mv‡j dwi`cyi †Rjvi Av`gïgvix‡Z
†Mvqvj›` gnvKzgv D‡j­L Ges †Mvqvj›`, †ejMvwQ, cvskv _vbvi D‡j­L
Av‡Q| 1888 mv‡j b`x fv½‡b †Mvqvj›` b`x M‡f© wejxb n‡j NvU
P‡j Av‡m ivRevox †jv‡Kv‡kW n‡q `yBUv eªxR cvi n‡q `~M©vcyi| †hUv
1898 mv‡j wejxb n‡q NvU P‡j hvq cuvPzwiqv w`‡q 26/10/1898
mv‡j †ZbvcPv DRvbPi wNIi evRvi| Pi Kv‡iv‡bkb, Rvgvjcyi,
BZ¨vw` RvqMvq| miKvix fv‡e †ij ev wógvi wU‡K‡U †Mvqvj›` †jLv
_vK‡jI ¯’vbxq‡`i Kv‡Q ¯’vbxq bv‡gB GB NvU¸‡jv cwiwPwZ cvq|
wØZxq wek¦hy× PjvKvjxb mg‡q Nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb Avevi DovKv›`vq 1948
mv‡j XvKv hvevi c‡_ ewQiDwÏb †PŠayixi MvRx wógv‡ii m`„k evoxi
cvk w`‡q †ij P‡o †MwQ| †mmgq NvU †ZbvcPv A‡j| 1950 Gi
c‡i Avevi Av‡m †mvbvKv›`i| GLvb ‡_‡K P‡j hvq DRvbPi evey
cvov n‡q Ges eZ©gv‡b ¯’vqxZ¡ jvf K‡i‡Q †`ŠjZw`qvq|
44 |

‡Mvqvj›` bv‡gi m~ÎcvZ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq bv| ˆÎ‡jvK¨ m¨vi evsjvq
wj‡L‡Qb †Mvqvjb›` Bs‡iRx‡Z †Mvqvj¨v‡Ûv| Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡Z
cZ©yMxR Rj`my¨‡`i wePiY †¶Î wQj GB AÂjUv| I‡`i fvlvq GUvi
A_© gRv`vi Lvev‡ii ¯’vb| Avevi Avie mvM‡i cZz©MxR‡`i Dcwb‡ek
†Mvqv hvi mv‡_ GB bv‡gi mvgÄm¨Zv Av‡Q| Gi †cQ‡bI hyw³ Av‡Q
Avgiv †`‡LwQ ivRevoxi wgwócwÆi 20Uv wgwói †`vKvb Ges GZ`
A‡ji evwm›`v‡`i `y‡ai †hvMvb b`xi Icvi †_‡KB Avm‡Zv Avi Zv
LyeB DrK…ógv‡bi Avi †Mvgvsk‡Zv cZz©wMR‡`i wcÖq Lv`¨|
1871 mv‡jB †ij Zvi cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ ¯’vqx Ae¯’v‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv
†eva K‡i Ges ivRevox‡KB GRb¨ †e‡Q †bq| 12wU wefvM Ges Gi
Aax‡b A‡bK Dc-wefvM mn 877Rb ¯’vqx Kg©Pvix wb‡q 312 GKi
RvqMv cÖv_wgK fv‡e AwaMÖnY K‡i KvVv‡gv ˆZix Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡i hv
Av‡iv m¤cÖmvwiZ nq ciZ©xKv‡j Avi Gw`bUv †_‡KB ivRevoxi ïi“|
‡i‡ji mKj wefv‡Mi Awa‡b wKQy kvLv wefvMI wQj| A‡bK mgq
mvgwqK wbhyw³ w`‡q †jvK cyiY Kiv n‡Zv|
(1) wmwfj BwÄwbqvwis wefvM, whwb G·BGb mg¯— wefv‡MiB
Lei`vix Kivi AwaKvix
(2) wPwKrmv wefvM| GKRb Wv³vi I mnKvix whwb `yN©UbvRwbZ
AvnZ‡`i wPwKrmv I webvg~‡j¨ Jla weZi‡bi `vwq‡Z¡ wbhy³
_vK‡Zb|
(3) wcWve­yDAvB cvg©v‡b›U I‡q B݇c±i whwb †ijc_ myMg ivLvi
`vwq‡Z¡ _vK‡Zb|
(4) AvBWve­yD B݇c±i Ae IqvK©mc| whwb mg¯— AeKvVv‡gv, iv¯—
vNvU, weªR, KvjfvU© Ges NvU fv½b †iv‡a e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi `vwq‡Z¡
_vK‡Zb|
(5) K¨v‡iR wefvM| G‡`i `vwqZ¡ gvjMvox c¨v‡mÄvi eMx PjvP‡ji
Dc‡hvMx ivLvi `vwq‡Z¡|
(6) †jv‡Kv wefvM| Bwćbi hveZxq i¶Yv‡e¶‡bi `vwq‡Z¡|
(7) Kgvwk©qvj wefv‡Mi `vwq‡Z¡, gvjvgvj eywKs, wU‡KU weµq, MvW©
wUwUB Uª‡fwjs wU‡KU G·vwgbvi, wUwm wU‡KU Kv‡j±i, †ókb
gvóvi BZ¨vw`|
45 |

(8) m¨vwbUvix wefvM, †Wvg, †g_i, Svo–`vi †ij GjvKvi LvbvL‡›`
gkv wbab I Mvoxi Toilet cwi¯‹vi BZ¨vw` cwi”QbœZvi
`vwq‡Z¡|
(9) wbivcËv wefvM| me©cÖKvi gvjvgvj cvnvov QvovI cÖwZwU †UÖ‡b
cvnvovq wbhy³ _vK‡Zv †mRb¨ Avjv`v GKUv Kvgiv eivÏ †`qv
n‡Zv| Bqv‡W© IqvM‡bi mve©¶wYK cvnviv|
(10) wmMb¨vj wefvM| †UªwjMÖv‡di U‡i U°vi gva¨‡g ev †Uwj‡dv‡b
cÖavb Awdm cvKkxi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ges †mB †gvZv‡eK †ókb
gv÷vi‡K AewnZ KiY|
(11) †c K¬vK©| gvwmK †eZb cÖ`vb BZ¨vw`|
(12) Rwg AwaMÖnY I LvRbv Av`vq BZ¨vw`|
(13) cÖwZwU eMxi wb‡P PvKvi k¨vd‡Ui mv‡_ cywj jvwM‡q †Rbv‡iUi
†_‡K we`y¨r Drcv`b Ges e¨vUvix PvR© mn Av‡jvi me© DcKiY
i¶bv‡e¶Y BZ¨vw`|
‡ij Zvi 877 Rb ¯’vqx Kg©Pvix 312 GKi RvqMv wb‡q Avi AmsL¨
A¯’vqx Kg©Pvix wb‡q c`Pvibvq gyLwiZ nq ivRevox evRvi Avi
emwZ|
1875 mv‡ji Av‡M ZLbI emwZ ¯’vcb K‡ibwb Av¤^vwoqvi Pi †_‡K
AvMZ M‡ni †gvj­v, wKby wgw¯¿ Avi wbevib PµeZ©x ewa©òz GB wZb
cwievi GivB ivRevox cÖwZôvi cw_K…Z ejv hvq| †KvU© KvPvix, _vbv
wenxb, wew¶ß KvRxKv›`v m¾bKv›`v `w¶Y fevbxcyi Avi Dˇi
j²x‡Kvj ayw I fvRb cwievi we‡bv`cy‡i GB wQj †ij c~e©ivRevoxi
wPÎ|
‡h PZivi wej w`‡q cÙvi Dc‡P cov †mªvZaviv cÖevwnZ n‡Zv ZviB
eyK wP‡o †ij c~e©Mvgx n‡q Djyqvi Pi (DjyLvMovi Pi) cÖwZôv †cj
†jv‡Kv‡mW AÂj Avi Kz‡gvicvov †hUv NbemwZc~Y© †eovWv½vq i“cvš—
i| Kz‡gvicvovi Aw¯—‡Z¡i wPÎ Av‡Rv GZ`‡j gvwU Lbb Kv‡j
†cvovgvwUi ˆZRmc‡Îi fv½v Ask ¯‘cvKv‡i cvIqv hvq| eZ©gvb 2bs
†ij‡MU n‡q evRv‡i hvevi †mvRv †h c_Uv †M‡Q Zvi cÖwZôv A‡bK
c‡i| mxgve× GB wQj Avw` ivRevox|
46 |

‡i‡ji wewfbœ †kªYx‡Z wef³ Awdmvi‡`i Rb¨ my`„k¨ †`vZjv evs‡jv
3/4 weNv RvqMv wb‡q Avi evey †kªYxi Rb¨ Q‡bi evox| Z…Zxq †kªYxi
Rb¨ †QvU †QvU Rvbvjv Iqvjv `yB Kvgiv wewkó Pvi cwiev‡ii GK‡Î
avKvi cvKv †mW| Awdmvi Avi evey‡`i evoxi mvg‡b h‡_ó RvqMvq,
evMvb cwiPh©vi Rb¨ 10/12Rb gRyi me©`vB †mevq wb‡qvwRZ|
Avevmb e¨e¯’vq †bwUf Avi kvmK †Pv‡L Av½yj w`‡q †evSv‡Z n‡Zv
bv| A¯’vqx Kg©Pvix‡`i †Kvb Avevm‡bi e¨e¯’v wQj bv| eo mv‡ne‡`i
evs‡jvq †meK‡`i †`vZjvq IVvi Rb¨ Avjv`v †cuPv‡bv wmwoi e¨e¯’v|
c`gh©v`v Abyhvqx Zuv‡`i †¯úkvj ‡mjyb Kvi m`vB cÖ¯‘Z _vK‡Zv
c­vUd‡g©i 2bs Avi 3bs †i‡ji gv‡S †mjyb Bqv‡W©| KvQvKvwQ
ch©‡e¶‡bi Rb¨ _vK‡Zv gvbyl †Vjv Uªjx|
evey I mv‡ne‡`i Rb¨ M‡o I‡V †Uwbm MÖvDÛ, K¬ve Ni, wPj‡Wªb cvK©
(†hUv eZ©gv‡b †ió nvDR), dzUej gvV, w_‡qUvi nj, jvB‡eªix, ¯‹zj
†i‡ji cvVkvjv, wPwKrmvi Rb¨ nvmcvZvj| we‡bv`‡bi Rb¨ GKevi
wgbv evRvi †¯úkvj †UªbI G‡mwQj| Av‡jv Sjg‡j †`vKv‡b _‡i _‡i
mvRv‡bv †jvfbxq †Ljbv BZ¨vw` DrmyK gvby‡li †gjv 5bs †ij
jvB‡bi duvKvUvq|
‡i‡ji nvmcvZvjUv c~Y©Zv cvq 1936 mv‡j| wc¯—vÄx mv‡ne whwb
1922/23 Gi mgq G·BGb wQ‡jb| Zuvi ¯¿x Amy¯’¨ n‡j cvewjK
nvmcvZv‡j wPwKrmvaxb Ae¯’vq gviv hvb| †mLv‡b Avjv`v wd‡gj
IqvW© bv _vKvq wZwb wbR e¨v‡q GKUv wd‡gj IqvW© cÖwZôv K‡i †`b|
g„Z ¯¿xi KeiUv Av‡Rv cvewjK jvB‡eªixi cwð‡g †`Lv hvq| ILv‡b
cÖwZ mܨvq evwZ R¡vjv‡bv n‡Zv| wZwb wQ‡jb ¯’vbxq evM`x †g‡q|
mv‡ne P‡jhvevi mgq ¯¿xi gv‡qi Rb¨ gvwmK gv‡mvnvivi e¨e¯’v K‡i
hvb| mv‡n‡ei m‡½ Avgvi evevi mym¤úK© wQj Ges wZwbB Avgvi
evev‡K †i‡ji PvKzix‡Z envj K‡ib| Avgv‡`i evox‡Z Zvi GK cy‡Îi
Qwe wQj †hUv 1971 mv‡j cy‡o hvq|
R‡b¥i gyû‡Z© AvRv‡bi aŸwb Kv‡b †M‡Q bv †Uª‡bi euvwk ej‡Z cvi‡ev
bv Z‡e óªxg BwÄb¸‡jv Mvwo wb‡q c­vUdg© Qvovi ci wVK evoxi mvg‡b
G‡m Kvb dvUv‡bv †fuv evRv‡Zv| MvW© cÖZz¨Ë‡i meyR cZvKv Dwo‡q
Reve w`‡Zb| Avevi †Uªb †ók‡b †fuovi mgqI WªvBfvi †fuv evRv‡Zv
47 |

†mUv mvg‡bi †MUg¨vb‡K mZK© Kivi Rb¨| mvivw`b ivZ Pj‡Zv
†Kv_v †Kv_v †_‡K AvMZ gvj †evSvB Mvoxi Mš—‡e¨i jvB‡b evQvB
K‡i mvRv‡bv ce©, †KvbUv †Kv_vq hv‡e b¤^i Abyhvqx| 22 PvKvi
wekvj BwÄb GKmv‡_ 50/60Uv gvjMvox wb‡q Avm‡Zv| cÖwZwU Mvoxi
avib ¶gZv †QvU Pvi PvKvi IqvMb 22Ub Avi 8 PvKvi ¸‡jv 44 Ub
av°v w`‡q †Q‡W w`‡j J jvB‡b `uvwo‡q _vKv Mvoxi mv‡_ av°v †j‡M
‡h kã n‡Zv Abf¨¯— Kv‡b AvZ¥xq †KD G‡j iv‡Z AvuZ‡K DV‡Zv|
Av‡M Aek¨ G SÅvU Avgv‡`i †cvnv‡Z n‡Zv bv| ZLb kvw›Us n‡Zv
†jv‡Kv‡k‡Wi me© `w¶‡b †h DPy wXwei g‡Zv P‡j †M‡Q wejUvi cvo
†N‡l †mLvb †_‡K Av‡¯— av°v w`‡jB Mwo‡q Mwo‡q P‡j Avm‡Zv
gvjMvwo¸‡jv| IUv‡K nv¤ú mvw›Us ejv n‡Zv| GB c×wZUv †Kb eÜ
n‡q †Mj ejv hvq bv| gvj fwZ© Mvwo¸‡jv hviv evQvB K‡i wewfbœ
jvB‡b muvRv‡Zv Zv‡`i c`ex mv›Uvi| ci¯úi ûK w`‡q AvUKv‡bv
Mvoxi ûK Lyj‡Zv Avi ILvb †_‡K nvgv w`‡q †ewo‡q Avm‡Zv cªvq
Pjš— Ae¯’vq| w`‡b nv‡Zi Bmvivq iv‡Z evwZi wewfbœ Av‡›`vjb K‡i|
WªvBfvi †mBgZ G¸‡Zv ev wcQv‡Zv|
ûK Lyj‡Z Amyweav n‡j WªvBfvi‡K ej‡Zv ûK e¨vK gv‡b mvgvb¨ GKUz
GwM‡q `vI| I‡`i gy‡L D”PvwiZ n‡Zv ûc‡eK| wmivR cvMjv
ûc‡eK ej‡j cÖ_‡g `yÕPvievi ej‡Zv †¶wc bv †¶wc bv| Zvici
Dj½ n‡q †`Lv‡Zv| evRv‡i `yóz †jv‡Ki Afve bvB I‡K GKUv wewo
w`‡q wkwL‡q w`Z gvb¨ei KvD‡K ûc‡eK †`Lv‡Z| µ‡g GUv Ggb
ch©v‡q †cuŠQv‡jv †h cÖkvmb †_‡K Av‡`k w`‡q ûc‡eK Gi Dci
wb‡lavÁv Rvix Ki‡Z nq|
1950 Gi `k‡K Le‡ii KvM‡Ri G‡R›U wQ†jb cuvPzwiqvi wbevib
PµeËx©| Nwo a‡i wVK ev‡ivUvq XvKv †g‡j †Mvqvj‡›`i D‡Ï‡k¨ ‡Q‡o
†hZ | QywU‡Z evev evox G‡j Avgvi wWDwU wQj QvZv gv_vq †i‡ji
av‡i `uvwo‡q _vKv| MvW© f¨vb †_‡K myy‡Zvq gywo‡q wbevib KvKv Qyu‡o
†d‡j w`‡Zb †÷Umg¨vb KvM‡Ri evwÛjUv ZLb Gfv‡eB KvMR wewj
n‡Zv |
MvoxUv P‡j †M‡j †ij jvB‡bi wKQyUv Ask duvK n‡q †hZ LUvs LUvs
K‡i| cv‡ki Zv‡ii mvwi †_‡K GKUv `y‡Uv ZviI muvr K‡i m‡o †hZ
48 |

Avi wmMb¨vj ‡mvRv n‡q †hZ |GUv †Kweb g¨v‡bi KvimwR eySZvg|
cye cÖv‡š—i †KwebUv evmvi mvg‡bB| `ycy‡i mevB wekªvgiZ| Avgvi
Dci bRi`vixI wkw_j| GB Aem‡i GKw`b P‡j †Mjvg †Kwe‡b |
cÖ_gw`bUv‡ZB wØav †K‡U †Mj †Kweb g¨v‡bi mü`q e¨venv‡i |
wbqwgZ hvZvqv‡Z mL¨Zvi g‡Zv n‡q hvq| wZwbB Avgv‡K Mvox †Q‡o
hvIqv, Avmv, †Kvb wjfvi Uvb‡j †Kvb jvB‡bi c‡q›U †mU n‡e
†kLvb| hw` cye©w`K †_‡K Mvox Av‡m Z‡e ASM Rvbv‡eb cwðg
cabinman ‡K cye© w`‡Ki wjfvi jK †Lvjvi Rb¨| cwðg cabin
IUv Ly‡j w`‡j †hgb cye© Gi wjfvi Ly‡j hv‡e †Zgwb cwð‡gi w`‡Ki
wjfvi jK n‡q hv‡e | gv‡b cwð‡g †_‡K Avi †Kvb Mvox Avmvi
AbygwZ cv‡ebv| cœvUd‡g© cuvPUv jvBb _vK‡jI PviUv hvÎx IVvbvgvi
e¨venvi Kiv hvq| GRb¨ cabin N‡i GKUv Kuv‡Pi ev‡· ˆe`y¨wZK
PviUv wmMb¨vj Av‡Q| ASM †hUvq †h b¤^‡ii wmMb¨vj WvDb Ki‡eb
†mUv hZ¶b bv c­vUd‡g© Mvox Bb Ki‡Q ZZ¶b H Ae¯’vqB _vK‡e|
gv‡S `yN©Ubv NU‡j Kv‡iv ‡`vl Kv‡iv Dci Pvcv‡bvi Dcvq bvB| †i‡j
†c­‡Ui mv‡_I jK Av‡Q Zvjv Pvwei g‡Zv 1bs jvB‡bi Mvoxi Rb¨
c‡q›U wVK n‡j Z‡eB 1bs wmMb¨vj WvDb n‡e| Ab¨Uv Uvbv hvq bv|
wbtw”Q`ª wbivcËvi e¨ve¯’v| †mRb¨ KLbI GLv‡b Head on
collision n‡ebv| ASM Av‡Mi †h †÷kb †_‡K MvoxUv Avm‡Q
†mLv‡b GB mg¯— KvR mgvav nevi ci GKUv mynP wUc‡j ILv‡b
iw¶Z wm›`yK †_‡K GKUv b¤^i jvMv‡bv †Mvj­v †ewo‡q Avm‡e| BwÄb
WªvBfv‡ii Kv‡Q iw¶Z GKUv eo wis †qi c‡K‡U IUv AvU‡K wbR
†ndvR‡Z ivL‡eb| MvoxUv hw` _ªy cvk nq Zvn‡j Pjš— Ae¯’vq cÖwZwU
†÷kb †_‡K WªvBfvi †K †mLv‡b& †Mvj­v wb‡Z n‡e Avi Av‡Mi †Mvj­v
n¯—vš—i Ki‡Z n‡e| GUvB WªvBfv‡ii QvocÎ GwM‡q hvIqvi|
Nb Kzqvkvq WªvBfvi wmMb¨v‡ji meyR ev jvj evwZ †`L‡Z e¨v_© n‡Z
cv‡i †mRb¨ ASM Lvjvmx w`‡q Fog signal outer signal Gi
ILv‡b 10 dzU Aš—i Aš—i †mU Kivi e¨e¯’v †b‡eb| †Rvi kã K‡i
I¸‡jv dv‡U| 1Uv dvU‡j Mvox Avi G¸‡e bv| Lvjvmxi Kv‡Q wjwLZ
ASM Gi QvocÎ †c‡j Z‡eB †m G¸‡e| mwZ¨ †i‡ji cÖwZôv j‡Mœ
†h evDj †M‡qwQ‡jb ÔBs‡iR‡`i eyw× fvix b`xi Dci Lv¤^v †M‡o
49 |

Pvjvq †ijMvoxÕ| ‡Kwe‡bi cv‡kB Carrege KviLvbv GLv‡b cÖwZwU
eMx mPj ivLvi `vwq‡Z¡ whwb _v‡Kb wZwb Head train examiner|
ZrKv‡j Mvoxi PvKvi k¨vd‡U ej weqvwis Gi e¨envi wQj bv| wmmvi
Aa©P›`ªvK…wZ cv‡Zi Dci eMxi †Pwmm emv‡bv _vK‡Zv| GB wmmvi
cvZ wcw”Qj ivLvi Rb¨ ILv‡b GKUv e· ewm‡q †Z‡j †fRv SzU f‡i
†`Iqv n‡Zv| cieZ©x ‡Zj †`evi w`‡bi ZvwiL wj‡L| cÖwZwU Mvoxi
wbP w`‡q cvBc emv‡bv Av‡Q Avi †mUv cÖwZwU eMxi mv‡_ ms‡hv‡MiI
e¨e¯’v Av‡Q| hvi Af¨vš—‡i evZvm gy³ Ki‡j Mvoxi †eªK AvjMv n‡q
hvq| Avi †mUv Bwćbi †gvUi w`‡q cv¤ú K‡i evZvm †ei Kiv nq|
cwigv‡ci wgUv‡i Zvi msL¨v MvW© Ges WªvBfvi †`‡L wbi“cb Ki‡Z
cv‡ib Mvoxi PvKv AvjMv n‡q‡Q wKbv|
hw` †Kv_vI wjK _v‡K Avi Kvw•LZ msL¨v bv I‡V WªvBfvi `y‡Uv †QvU
†QvU Avi GKUv j¤^v euvkxi †fuv evRv‡j wUG·Avi G‡m Gwel‡qi
cix¶v Avi e¨e¯’v †b‡eb| wUG·Avi Aek¨ Av‡MB eMx¸‡jvi
Dc‡hvMxZv b¤^i wj‡L ASM -†K †`‡eb| MvW© GB b¤^i wgwj‡q
eMx¸‡jvi `vwqZ¡ †b‡eb| GB K¨v‡iR Awdm wQj wcw”P‡`i †MvjPv°v
Pvjv‡bvi †hvMvb `vZv| †mRb¨ wcw”P‡`i Avbv‡Mvbv GLv‡b †j‡MB
_vK‡Zv| Gi ci P.W.I wefvM| †ij jvB‡bi i¶bv‡e¶‡bi fvi
GB wefv‡Mi Dci| gvbyl †Vjv Uªjxi Dci †e cvZv wekvj mv`v is
Gi QvZv APWI LvZv Kjg wb‡q †ewo‡q co‡Zb| †Kv_vI w¯­cvi
†_‡K wcb AvjMv n‡q‡Q wKbv| cv_i m‡o wM‡q jvBb †`‡e †M‡Q
wKbv me cv‡ki †Uwj‡dvb ‡cv÷-G gvBj I LywU b¤^i wj‡L Aat¯—
b‡`i wb‡`©k †`‡eb| gv‡S g‡a¨ †b‡g eªW‡M‡Ri gvc 5©-6© © wVK Av‡Q
wKbv †jvnvi †¯‹j ewm‡q †`‡L wb‡Zb| ciw`b AmsL¨ A¯’vqx kªwgK
MuvBwZ kvej wb‡q †mB me ¯’v‡b †givg‡Zi Kv‡R †j‡M †hZ| †Kv_vI
†nuBI †nuBI jvBbUv mg ‡iLvq Avb‡Q †Kv_vI wXj n‡q hvIqv wcb
bZzb K‡i jvMv‡”Q| GB me A¯’vqx kªwgK A`¶ Ges MÖvg †_‡K
AvMZ mnR mij gvbyl Kv‡R bvg †jLv‡Z UzcvBm M”Qv w`‡Zb|
evRv‡ii †`vKvbxivI euvwK LvZvq my` mn GKUz †ekxB wj‡L ivL‡Zb|
mviv gv‡mi gvqbv †bevi mgqI Av`ve AviR Ki‡Z n‡Zv evey‡`i,
U¨v‡Ûj‡K ai‡j mv‡n‡ei evs‡jvq evMvb cwiPh©vi KvR †c‡jB Giv
50 |

e‡Z© †h‡Zv| AvB.I.Wve­yB wefv‡MI A¯’vqx kªwg‡Ki cÖ‡qvRb n‡Zv|
†ewki fvM Q‡bi QvDwb Ni| †m¸‡jv AninB cvëv‡Z n‡Zv|
el©vKv‡j eªxR¸‡jv ûgKxi gy‡L co‡j cvBwjs BZ¨vw` GB AwdmUvq
me©`vB Qb euv‡ki gRyZ _vKZ wekvj| Avgv‡`i †Ljvi gv‡Vi cwiwai
wPý †`evi Pzb †hvMvb w`‡Z Gbviv KL‡bv Awbnv cÖKvk K‡ib bvB|
‡jv‡Kv wefvM| †i‡ji cÖvY| †i‡ji †h wekvj Kg©KvÛ Zvi cÖvb¯ú›`b
GB †jv‡Kv‡mW| `~i `~ivš— †_‡K BwÄb¸‡jv GLv‡b G‡m X‡j co‡Zv
eqjvi Lvwj K‡i mg¯— Rjš— Kqjv †S‡o †d‡j w`‡q|
ev¯ú eqjv‡i hv R‡g _vK‡Zv †mdwU evj¦ ¯^qswµq QvovI Avi GKUv
_vK‡Zv †hUv nvZj Nywi‡q meUv †ei K‡i †dj‡Zv weKU k‡ã hv `yB
gvBj `~i †_‡KI †kvbv ‡hZ| UzwKUvwK †givg‡Zi cÖ‡qvR‡b GKUv
KviLvbvI wQj| eqjvi VvÛv n‡ZI mgq jvM‡Zv `y&ÕPvi w`b|
eqjv‡ii dvqvi eªxK †givgZ Ki‡Z Kzcx †R¡‡j Xy‡K co‡Zv Lvjvmx|
wkD‡i IVvi g‡Zv e¨cviUv| Kx fq¼i Avi K‡Vvi kªg w`‡q Lvjvmxiv
K‡jvbx‡Z †Zj †fRv SzU wb‡q wdi‡Zv R¡vjvbxi Rb¨| Aek¨ †cvov
KqjvI óvd‡`i mevB †c‡Zb| Bwćbi †cvov Kqjv msMÖn Kiv n‡Zv
wVKv wnmv‡e| wZb wUb msMÖnKvix †cZ GK wUb| Aek¨ wnmv‡ei
†ni‡di K‡i ï‡bwQ jv‡LvcwZ n‡q †M‡Qb †KD †KD| Kv‡jv i‡Oi
BwÄb¸‡jvI PKP‡K Kv‡jv| †Kvb †KvbUvq wcZ‡ji Puv` Zviv,
†KvbUvq WªBfv‡ii bvg †jLv| †h hZUv cv‡ib mvRv‡Z †Póv Ki‡Zb|
Kg©‡¶‡Î hvevi cÖ¯‘wZi Av‡M †µ‡b Kqjv †evSvB Kiv n‡Zv| w`b
ivZ KZ‡h e¨¯—Zv| óxg BwÄb Pvwj‡q cv‡ki cyKi †_‡K DPy
U¨vOKUvq cvwb IVv‡bv n‡Zv PweŸk N›Uv| BwÄb ewM QvovI mg¯— †ij
emwZ GjvKvq hvi cÖevn me©`vB| GKevi cv¤ú BwÄbUv weM‡o †M‡j
BwÄb †_‡K cvBc ms‡hvM w`‡q ev®ú wb‡Z †`‡LwQ cv¤úUv Pvjy
Ki‡Z|
1947 mv‡j c‡i Kqjvi NvUwZ †`Lv †`q| ZLb Lwo R¡vwj‡q wKQyw`b
BwÄb Pvjy ivLv n‡Zv| cieZ©x Kv‡j b¨vc_v †Z‡ji U¨vsK ewm‡q
cÖwZwU BwÄb †Zj Rvwj‡q ev¯ú Drcv`b K‡i P‡j‡Q wKQyw`b| Zvi
ci AvR‡Ki Bwćbi AvMgb nIqvq Kqjvi BwÄb evwZj n‡q hvq|
ï‡bwQ wbjv‡g I¸‡jv wewµ K‡i †`Iqv n‡q‡Q|
51 |

Aviv‡gi PvKwi wiwjd †Uª‡bi| K‡e jvBbPz¨Z n‡e †mw`b WvK co‡e|
†jv‡Kv‡mW †_‡K j¤^v †fuv GKbvMv‡o evR‡j ZwoNwo mg‡eZ n‡Zb|
wiwjd †Uª‡b _vKv LvIqv mn ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© ejv hvq †QvULvU GKUv
KviLvbv| hvÎxevnx †Uªb †Mvqvj‡›` †cuŠQy‡j Lvwj Mvox wb‡q Avmv n‡Zv
ivRevox| †avjvB Bqv‡W© †nvmcvBc †Q‡o †fZi evwni WjvB gjvB
K‡i cwi¯‹vi K‡i Avevi hvÎx en‡bi Dc‡hvMx K‡i cvVv‡bv n‡Zv
†Mvqvj‡›`| GRb¨ †Mvqvj‡›` hvZvqvZ Avgv‡`i cÖvq me mgqB m¤¢e
wQj| wkwj¸wo, fvwUqvcvov, dwi`cyi me wgwj‡q †avjvB BqvW©Uv
miMig _vK‡Zv me©`v | Avi.Gm.†K. ¯‹z‡ji mvg‡bB GUvi Ae¯’vb|
wUwd‡b Avav‡cvov wmMv‡iU Kzwo‡q Avgiv K‡qKRb P‡j †hZvg WªvB
AvBm KviLvbvi R½‡j| ‡i‡ji evwZ¸‡jv nv‡Z Szwj‡q †bevi n¨v‡Ûj
QvovI cv‡k Avi GKUv n¨v‡Ûj wQj| jvj meyR KuvP Nywi‡q Av‡jvi
is cwieZ©b K‡i ms‡KZ †`evi e¨e¯’v, †hUv evey †kªYx Qvov ivwbs óvd
mK‡ji Rb¨B eivÏ wQj| BwÄb I †ek K‡qK g‡W‡ji| nvév Kv‡R
e¨eûZ n‡Zv PX 10 PvKvi GKUz fvix 12 PvKv¸‡jv dwi`cyi
fvwUqvcvov ev †jvKvj †Uª‡bi Rb¨ HPS Model ‡gBj †Uªb Uvb‡Zv
SB 16 PvKvi hvi MwZ‡eM lvU gvBj N›Uvq| ‡nfx †jv‡Wi Rb¨ wQj
HB Model 22 PvKvi †hUvi MwZ‡eM Kge‡U wKš‘ 50/60Uv 22
U‡bi gvj fwZ© Mvox †U‡b Avb‡Zv Abvqv‡m|
‡i‡ji RbwcÖqZv e„w×i j‡¶¨ Kg©Pvix‡`i h‡_ó my‡hvM myweav †`Iqv
n‡Zv| m¯—v g~‡j¨ †ikb †hLv‡b Pvj, Wvj, AvUv, gq`v, mvevb, wN,
Avjy, †cqvR, ïK‡bv gwiP, †mvWv cvIqv †hZ| R¡vjvbx KvV Avi
Ava‡cvov Kqjv QvovI wWDwU †Wªm, webv fvovq hvZvqv‡Zi cvk
AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb‡`i wZb fv‡Mi GK fvM g~‡j¨ hvZvqvZ QvovI cvovZz‡Zv
fvB wnmv‡e Mvoxi wU.wU webv wU‡K‡Ui hvÎx‡KI †Q‡o w`‡Zv|
†cvl¨‡`i PvKzixi AMÖvwaKvi BZ¨vw`| †mRb¨ †ij cÖwZôvq cÖvq mevB
¯^vMZ Rvwb‡q‡Qb|
eZ©gvb evRvi GjvKvUv †i‡ji Kj¨v‡bB cÖwZôv cvq| 1870 `k‡K
PZivi DËi cvoUv Djyqvi Pi ev DjyLvMovi Pi cwðg cvoUv Kz‡gvo
cvov bv‡gB cwiwPZ wQj e‡j hvbv hvq| ch©vß duvKv RvqMv cvIqvq
¸”QvKv‡i wewfbœ e¨emv cÖwZôvb¸‡jv M‡o I‡V| emwZI ZvB|
52 |

wgwócwÆ, †NvlcwÆ, bvwcZcwÆ, cvjcwÆ, nvj`vi cvov, †cqv`v cvov,
Mv‡ovqvb cwÆ, †nv‡Uj cwÆ, Lwjdv cwÆ, Kvco cwÆ, SvjvB cwÆ,
evZvmv ev gqiv cwÆ, gv‡ovqvix cwÆ, Kvgvi cwÆ, †g_i cwÆ I †i‡ji
AvMg‡bi c‡i ¯’vwcZ nq | †Zgwb DwKj cvov, Lªxóvbcvov, `vmcvov,
†gvj­v cvov, gÛj cvov 1871 mv‡ji c‡i ¯’vcbv cvq|
1960 mv‡ji w`‡K cÙvi fv½‡b PZivi wej GjvKvq †h Pocvov M‡o
I‡V cÖvq /kZ cwiev‡ii GgbUv ¸”QvKv‡i emwZ Movi GLb Avi
my‡hvM †bB| ‡ij c~e© ivRevox BDwbqb cwil` Øviv cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv|
1923 mv‡j wgDwbwmc¨vwjwU cÖwZôv nq| cvk©eZ©x Pibvivqbcyi A‡j
hveviI †Kvb iv¯—v wQj bv| 1872 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix gv‡mi 15 Zvwi‡L
dwi`cyi †Rjvi c~Y©v½ Av`gïgvix nq G‡Z †Mvqvj›` gnvKzgvi wZbUv
_vbvi D‡j­L Av‡Q, †Mvqvj›`, †ejMvwQ I cvskv | evwjqvKvw›` A‡j
hvZvqv‡Zi Rb¨ ev`kvnx Avg‡ji cë‡bi iv¯—v ev †dix‡g‡›Ui iv¯—v
†hUv b`xi Aci cv‡oi evwm›`viv e¨envi Ki‡Zb|
evYxen ZLb Nb emwZc~Y© Ges wk¶v ms¯‹…wZ‡Z DbœZ wQj| †hLv‡b
ïay gvÎ eªvþb cwiev‡ii msL¨vB wQj mvZkZ Ges Ab¨vb¨ `yB nvRvi
cwievi| Bs‡iR miKv‡ii mv‡_I evYxe‡ni Rwg`vi‡`i mL¨Zv wQj|
1855 mv‡j miKvi evYxe‡n wgDwbwmc¨vwjwU MV‡bi †bvwUk
w`‡qwQ‡jb †jvK msL¨vi Avwa‡¶¨| cieZ©xKv‡j ivRevox kn‡ii iƒc
†bIqvq evYxe‡ni ewa©Ây A‡bK cwievi ivRevox P‡j Av‡m| †KvU©
KvPvix ¯’vwcZ nIqvq wk¶v e¨e¯’v Avi KjKvZvi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM
mnRZi nIqvq GB me cwievi my`„k¨ evoxNi wbg©vb K‡i GKUv
cwiÛj M‡o †Zv‡jb|
Aek¨ KvRxKv›`vi emwZi BwZnvm 1760 mv‡jiI c~‡e©i cvIqv hvq
ILvbKvi gmwR`Uvi BwZe„Ë †_‡K| †gvNj ev`kvi †mbvcwZ
†Lv`v`v` Lvb Av‡mb PZivi wej A‡ji cZz©MxR `g‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨|
ZvivB GB gmwR` cÖwZôv K‡ib Ges wKQy wb¯‹i Rwg `vb K‡i i“gx
es‡ki nv‡Z GUvi i¶Yv‡e¶‡bi fvi w`‡q hvb|
Avgv‡`i knivÂjUv †h wbgœ-mgZj f~wg wQj Zvi ¯^v¶i i‡q‡Q cÖwZwU
¯’vcbvi cv‡kB MZ©K‡i gvwU DVv‡bvi| evRvi fvRbPvjv cyKzi, KvRxi
¯‹z‡ji cyKzi, AvKzqvi cyKzi cvIqvi nvD‡Ri cyKzi †MvWvD‡bi cyKzi,
53 |

†i‡ji w`Nx GgbZ‡iv kZ kZ †Wvev mviv eQi cvwb Avi KPzix cvbvq
fiv gkvi eskwe¯—v‡ii AbyK’j| g¨v‡jwiqv N‡i N‡i| cÖwZeQi
K‡jiv, emš—, †ewi‡ewi †ivM| Zey ewnivMZ‡`i ØvivB f‡i‡Mj
kniUv| g¨v‡jwiqvi Amya KzBwbb GgbwK †cvó Awdm †_‡KI wewj
Kiv n‡Zv| Avi wQj ¯’vbxq KweivR‡`i ˆZix cuvPb †mUv †hgb we¯^v`
†Zgwb `~M©Ühy³| gv‡S g‡a¨ †i‡ji m¨vwbUvix wefvM †_‡K cyKz‡i †Zj
wQUv‡bv n‡Zv| Zv‡Z †Zgb Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b †`Lv †hZ bv| Avgiv
m¨vi ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPv‡h©i ¯§„wZK_vq GZ`msµvš— mZ¨ GKUv
NUbvi D‡j­L †_‡K Gi e¨cKZv Ges †`ke¨vcx AL¨vwZ Rvb‡Z cvwi|
†Mvcvj P›`ª ivq bv‡gi GK †ij Kg©Pvixi exbv bv‡gi †g‡qUv
bvivqbM‡Ä kxZvj¶vi cvwbi ¸‡b µ‡g †gvUv n‡Z _v‡K| 15 eQi
eq‡mB Zv‡K wMbœx VvKzivbxi g‡Zv †`Lv‡Zv| we‡qi cvÎ †Kvbµ‡gB
cvIqv hvq bv| †k‡l Zv‡K †ivMv cvZjv Mo‡bi w¯­g evbv‡bvi Rb¨
g¨v‡jwiqvi Avw`evm ivRevox cvVv‡bv nq| wKQyw`b ci kvwš—cyi
wbevmx GK e‡ii wcZv Av‡mb Ges †`Lv gvÎB webv c‡b †g‡qUv‡K
cyÎea~ K‡i †bb| g¨v‡jwiqvi m~ÎcvZ †ij c‡_i cv‡ki gvwU †K‡U DPz
Kivi Kvi‡Y LvbvL‡›`i m„wó Avi gkvi Rb¥ †_‡K G‡`‡k cÖ_g
m~ÎcvZ ea©gvb A‡j gnvgvix AvKv‡i| †mRb¨ mv‡neiv G‡K ea©gvb
wdfvi ej‡Zv| KvjvR¡i †ewi‡ewi QvovI K‡jivq MÖvg DRvi n‡q †hZ
wdeQi, MÖvg †Q‡o gvbyl `‡j `‡j Ab¨Î P‡j †hZ| †cQ‡b wd‡i
ZvKv‡Zv bv| K‡jivi †`ex Ijv wewe‡K †VKv‡bvi Rb¨ MÖv‡gi c‡_
c‡_ jvj cZvKv †M‡o ivL‡Zv jvwVi WMvq| KvD‡K Avq e‡j WvK‡Zv
bv| Avq ï‡b Ijv wewe hw` P‡j Av‡m GB f‡q| iUbvI Kg wQj bv|
ivZ we‡i‡Z Ijv wewe jvj †c‡o mv`v kvwo c‡o Ny‡i †eovq c‡_
c‡_| cÖZ¨¶`k©xi eY©bvq Av‡iv fxwZcÖ` n‡q †hZ cwi‡ek|
GZ`m‡Z¡I †`Lvhvq gvQ, `ya ch©vßZvi Kvi‡Y ewnivMZivB GLv‡b
evm M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb| ZvQvovI GZ`‡ji †jv‡Kiv kvwš—wcÖq| RvwZMZ
m¤ú„wZ KL‡bv bó nqwb| mnev¯’v‡bi A‡bK `„óvš— hv Av‡Rv A¶zb|
œ
evevi eÜz evÜe †ewkifvM wn›`y wQ‡jb| Avgv‡`i evox‡Z †mRb¨ gvsm
cÖvq wbwl× wQj| Avwg G‡ZB Af¨¯— n‡q hvB Ges mvwË¡K Avnvix n‡q
cwo|
54 |

‡i‡ji ïi“‡Z wefvMxq cÖavb cÖvqB wQ‡jb mv‡ne| GgbwK †gBj
†Uª‡bi WªvBfviI Bs‡iR wQ‡jb| Zv‡`i emev‡mi evs‡jv¸‡jv
RgKv‡jv| mvg‡bi evMv‡b bvbv i‡Oi dz‡ji mgv‡ivn evwo‡q Zzj‡Zv
kZ¸‡b| †i‡ji w`wNUvi cv‡k †Rvov ZvjMvQ| ï‡bwQ †i‡ji GK
Wv³v‡ii `yB †g‡q cyKziUvi ILv‡b Wy‡e gviv hvq| Zv‡`i ILv‡bB
mgvwnZ K‡i ZvjMvQ `y‡Uv jvMv‡bv nq| Mv‡q Mv‡q jvMv‡bv hvi
cÖwZdjb cyKziUvq mwZ¨ †`Lvi g‡Zv †mŠ›`h©¨ wb‡q `uvwo‡q wQj|
†iwjs †Niv gm„b c_Uvq we‡K‡j mv‡ne †gg‡`i cvqPvix Avi ev”Pv‡`i
UªvBmvB‡Kj| cwð‡g w`KUv K…òPzov Mv‡Q jv‡j jvj| g‡b c‡o wK
Kv‡iv?
‡i‡ji kvi`xq c~RvUvB wQj me‡P‡q RgKv‡jv| welR©‡bi iv‡Z
†Z‡ji Wªvg ci¯úi †Rvov jvwM‡q wekvj †fjv| mvivivZ Mvb evRbv
`yBcv‡o gvby‡li Xj|
AvR cy‡iv †ij GjvKvUvB n‡q †M‡Q wNwÄ| hÎZÎ †bvsiv ew¯—
ivZvivwZ MwR‡q D‡V‡Q hÎZÎ KviLvbv, Pv‡qi †`vKvb| †jv‡Kv‡k‡W
†hLv‡b 24 N›Uv 3 wmd‡U Kg©gyLi wQj| AvR Zv †kvbv hvq
†bkv‡Lvi‡`i wgjb †¶Î| cy‡iv BqvW©Uv f‡i _vK‡Zv gvj fwZ© mvwi
mvwi IqvM‡b mvivivZ evQvB n‡Zv Zv‡`i Mš—e¨ AvR weivbf~wg|
K…òPzovi mvwi †mUv AvR bvg †c‡q‡Q dzjZjv wKš‘ dzjMvQ Avi †bB|
`v`kx gvRv‡ii cvk w`‡q DovKv›`v cvo n‡q †R.Gj. 12 †Mvqvj›`
hvi ïi“ 01/01/1871 mv‡j 1888 mvj ch©š— NvU ILv‡b Ae¯’vb K‡i
GKUz m‡o b‡o| GjvKvUv wewjb n‡q †M‡j NvU P‡j Av‡m `~M©vcyi|
¯’vbxq‡`i Kv‡Q `~M©vcyi NvU bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡jI †i‡ji wU‡KU Ges
ewnivMZ mevi Kv‡Q NvU †h A‡jB _vKzK †mUv‡K †Mvqvj›`B ejv
n‡Zv| eZ©gv‡b †hUv †Mvqvj›` evRvi bv‡g cÖwZôv IUv DRvbPi
†gŠRv| †R.Gj. 44 nvDwj KvDwUj GB bv‡g Ges †R.Gj 46 `v‡M
GB `~M©vcy‡i Nv‡Ui Ae¯’vb †kl nq †hw`b †_‡K cuvPzwiqv n‡q NvU
jvBb cÖwZôv cvq 1898 mv‡ji 26†k A‡±vei ch©š—| hLb NvU P‡j
hvq cuvPzwiqv n‡q| hw`I cuvPzwiqv‡K ZLb Rskb ejv n‡q‡Q †mUv
LvbLvbvcyi ch©š— jvBb evmv‡bvi Rb¨| gvjvgvj †bIqvi cÖ‡qvR‡b
‡ZbvcPv, wNIi evRvi BZ¨vw` wewfbœ RvqMvq| †Kv_vI w¯’wZ bv †c‡q
55 |

Avi GKUv kvLv jvBb mshy³ Kiv nq| dwKivev` ch©š—I jvBb
emv‡bv nq hw`I †mLv‡b †ijMvox hvqwb †ij †h mKj Rwg AwaMÖnY
K‡i Zvi mwVK weeiY cvIqv hvq bv| Z‡e Kzk©vnvUvq 76 GKi,
DRvbP‡i 64 GKi, †ZbvcPvq 56 GKi QvovI few`qv, †Usivgviv,
j¶xcyi, cybvBi, jvj‡Mvjv BZ¨vw` RvqMv †i‡ji RvqMv Av‡Q|
Avgv‡`i G‡`‡k †ij µ‡gB wewjb n‡q hv‡”Q| j¶‡KvwU UvKvi
m¤ú` †e`Lj I webó n‡q †M‡jI jvfRbK GB cªwZôvb euvPv‡bvi
†Kvb D‡`¨vM wb‡Z †`Lv hv‡”Q bv| A_P cvk¦©eZ©x ivóª fviZ µ‡gB
GUv‡K AvaywbKvqb I m¤cÖmvib K‡i P‡j‡Q| 2008 mv‡ji
cÖwZ‡e`‡b †hUv w`j­x †ij †ók‡b me©mvavi‡bi ÁvZv‡_© Uv½v‡bv Av‡Q
Rvbv hvq fvi‡Z †i‡ji BwZe„wË|
fviZxq †i‡ji eqm 146 ermi| eZ©gv‡b cÖwZw`b hvÎx enb 11
wgwjqb|
Bwćbi msL¨v 6957wU|
c¨v‡mÄvi †KvP msL¨v 33849wU|
‡ókb msL¨v 6984wU
‡ijc_ 62724 wKt wgt
GUv µ‡gB we¯Z…Z n‡”Q| 2010 mv‡j cÖwZw`b hvÎx msL¨v 20
wgwjqb|

Avgvi ¯‹zj¸‡jv
wk¶KgÛjxi mybvg we‡ePbvq G‡bB Avgv‡K †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹zj
†_‡K e`jx K‡i Avi.Gm.†K.BwbwówUDk‡b fwZ© Kiv nq 4_© †kªYx‡Z|
K¬v‡m Avwg GKvB †b‡o| cyivZbiv Pzc‡m hvIqv bZzb QvÎ †c‡j hv
K‡i _v‡K Zvi e¨Z¨q Avgvi †ejvqI nqwb| Zey ¯‹zjUv‡K Avwg
fvj‡e‡m †djjvg| Avi Zv †`eeªZ fÆvPv‡h©i (bxjy evey) AvKl©‡b
cÖavbZt| my›`i K‡i cov‡Zb, K¬vm N›Uv co‡j GKUv Q‡›`i cZb
e‡jB g‡b n‡Zv| M‡íi AvmiI emv‡Zb| wec­ex `‡ji mevB Avgvi
56 |

Kv‡Q wn‡iv Ggb avibv g‡b †Mu‡_ †M‡Q ZLb| AvR ‡hgb †R‡ji
Zvjv fvs‡ev, AgyK fvB‡K Avb‡ev †¯­vMvb †kvbv hvq H
mgq mncvVx‡`i Kv‡Q ï‡bwQ wZwbI †R‡ji Miv` †f‡½ †ewo‡q
G‡m‡Qb| Zuvi ¯^v¯’¨ †mŠ›`h© †`‡L Avgvi e×gyj avibv nq mwZ¨B wZwb
Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡ji Rvbvjvi g‡Zv †gvUv Miv` †f‡½ †ewo‡q G‡m‡Qb|
†KvU© †_‡K Qvov cvq ev Rvwgb nq G avibv Avgvi wQj bv ZLb|
we`¨vmvM‡ii gvZ…fw³, †gav Gme gv-evevi Kv‡Q ï‡b wkï g‡b
e¨v_vZzi n‡q †MwQ| Bwb ZuviB bvZwbi †Q‡j fvj bv †e‡m cvwi?
(we`¨vmvM‡ii Z…Zxq Kb¨v we‡bvw`bxi M‡f©i mimxevjv Ibvi gvZv)
Avgvi we¯§q mg¯— ü`q Ry‡o| ïay Ibv‡K mœvb K‡i †divi c‡_ †k­vK
cvV Ki‡Z Ki‡Z evox‡Z XyK‡Zb †mUv †`Lvi Rb¨B ¯‹z‡ji Zvjv
†LvjviI A‡bK Av‡M wM‡q nvwRi nZvg Avi wmwoi Dci e‡m
_vKZvg| nq‡Zv g‡bi fvlv Avgvi †Pv‡L wZwb co‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb|
Avgv‡KI fvjevm‡Zb| Zuvi mvB‡K‡ji mvg‡b evwm‡q wb‡q †M‡Qb
evg©v †diZ ¯^Rb †_‡K wew”Qbœ ev”Pv‡`i GwZgLvbvq ¶zw`iv‡gi
g„Zz¨evwl©Kx cvjb Abyôv‡b| †m †mŠfvM¨ Avwg Qvov Avi Kv‡iv nqwb|
Av‡iv Rvbvjvg Ibvi wcZv †hv‡M›`ª bv_ fÆvPvh© Avi KvKv D‡c›`ª bv_
fÆvPvh© (whwb fvj MvB‡q) GuivI Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡ji wk¶K| w؇Rb evey,
kZxl P›`ª `vm, e¼z evey Giv mevB VvÛv gvbyl, wkey evey Avm‡Zb aywÂi
Iw`K †_‡K, cov‡Zb AsK|
Zuvi †e‡Zi evwi †_‡K †invB †cjvg Avgv‡`i K¬v‡m b~i KzZze Avjg
†PŠayix †LvKv fwZ© nevi ci| †LvKv Zvi AweKj g„Z †QvU fvB‡qi
g‡Zv †`L‡Z| kZ Aciv‡aI wZwb Aš—Zt Avgv‡`i K¬v‡mi KvD‡KB
gvi‡Zb bv Avi| nvdc¨v›U c‡o ¯‹z‡j †hZvg †mRb¨ †gŠjfx ewmi
DwÏb mv‡ne K¬v‡m XyK‡Z w`‡Zb bv| eva¨ n‡q Avwg bit bivt gyL¯’
K‡iwQ wbZ¨vb›` PµeZ©x eªZPvix eveyi Kv‡Q| mg‡i›`ª bv_ wms (mgi
wms) †K †c‡qwQ wK bv g‡b c‡o bv ˆk‡jk KzÛyI ZvB| bbx eveyi K_v
fyjevi bq| Lv‡Uvgv‡Uv evsjvi Bs‡iRx Uªvb‡k­kb ai‡Zb gy‡L gy‡L
†hUvq Verb, Tens, Pronoun wg‡k _vK‡Zv| GKUv jvB‡bi K_v
57 |

Av‡Rv g‡b Av‡Q| Bs‡iRx‡Z e‡jv Ôivg LvjyB jBqv evRv‡i
hvB‡ZwQj bvÕ| cix¶vi Av‡M Bgc‡U©›U, †fwi ‡fwi Bgc‡U©›U Rvb‡Z
PvB‡j gjvU Avi †k‡li cvZv †`wL‡q w`‡Zb †c‡U wPgwU mn‡hv‡M|
GwK †fvjv hvq? mncvwV `y GKRb hviv †eu‡P AvwQ mevB cvwicvwk©K
mvgvwRK Ae¯’vq Lvc LvIqv‡Z cvwi bv| Amnvq †eva K‡i wee‡i
AvZ¥¯’ n‡q †mB me
wk¶K‡`i kª×vf‡i ¯§iY Kwi| huviv wb‡Riv wQ‡jb Av`k©evb Avgv‡`i
wk¶vI w`‡q‡Qb ˆbwZKZvi| ‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh© †nW gvóvi| Zuvi
RvgvB ˆk‡j›`ª bv_ P‡Ævcva¨vqI Avgv‡`i wk¶K wQ‡jb| ‰Î‡jvK¨
bv_ m¨vi Aemi w`‡j †nW n‡q Av‡mb †Mv`vi evRv‡ii Rbve iIkb
Avjx Luv mv‡ne| ‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ m¨vi GB ¯‹z‡jB covïbv K‡i‡Qb|
ZLb cÖavb wk¶K wQ‡jb ewikv‡ji we.Avi.†mb| Avi wQ‡jb †`‡eb
wms Gi wcZv `~M©v bv_ wms| cieZ©x Kv‡j Avwg XvKv P‡j hvIqvq
bZzb‡`i Kv‡iv m‡½ Avgvi cwiP‡qi †mŠfvM¨ nqwb| ‡Mvqvj›` nvB
¯‹z‡j Avwg gvÎ GK eQiB wQjvg| wk‡e›`ª my›`i fÆvPvh© †nW gvóvi
weRq Kzgvi AvPvh©, g‡bv‡gvnb j¯‹i, wegj P›`ª cvj few`qv †_‡K
Avm‡Zb Bs‡iRx m¨vi bvgUv ¯§i‡Y Av‡m bv|
jvB‡eªix‡Z b›`evey em‡Zb| gv_vi Dci †`Iqv‡j cÖwZôvZv wMwiRv
k¼i gRyg`v‡ii wekvj †cBw›Us Avi cv‡k K…wZwe`¨ Qv·`i ZvwjKv|
ï‡bwQ 1920 `k‡K †nW gvóvi wQ‡jb Kzgyw`bx Mv½yjx| wK †Mvqvj›`
nvB, wK Avi.Gm.†K. BwbwówUDkb 2q †kªYx †kl K‡i †ekxi fvM
QvÎB Avm‡Zv
evRv‡ii cvVkvjv †_‡K| wc‡V †eZ fv½vi †iKW© m„wó K‡i| Avgvi
ïi“Uv †i‡ji cvVkvjvq hvi cÖwZôvKvj 1930 `k‡K| Zvici UvDb
g³‡e hvi cÖwZôv nq 1928 mv‡j| †mRb¨ c~e© mncvVx GKRb‡KI
Avwg Avi.Gm.†K.BwbwówUDk‡b cvBwb| ¯‹zjUv †h‡Kvb c‡_ †M‡j cve
ZvI Rvwb bv| †ij †ók‡bi Icv‡k GUzKzB RvbZvg| c‡_ GKUv
†Q‡j‡K Avgvi Bs‡iRx eBUvi gjvU Zvi Kuv‡a †`‡L wcQy wcQy GwM‡q
GK mgq †cŠ‡Q †Mjvg| †m ARq| wdm gv‡P©›U G‡mvwm‡qkb eid
58 |

K‡ji g¨v‡bRvi cÖkvš— PµeZ©xi †Q‡j| 11Uv fvB mevi bv‡gi
Av`¨v¶i ÔAÕ w`‡q| GKmv‡_ hvB, wdwiI `yR‡b wg‡j|
evRv‡ii cvVkvjvi g~j bvg Ôjvj Puv` we`¨vjqÕ jvj Puv` mvnv gÛj
hvi cÖwZôvZv| cÖ_g †nW gvóvi k¨vgjvj evey wØZxq wk‡eb evey, Z„Zxq
†gvwnbx evey,PZz_ ©my‡ib eveywhwb wk‡eb eveyi †cvl¨ cyÎ| Avi. Gm.
†K. BwbwówUDkbUvi cv‡kB GK e„×v gwnjv ev”Pv‡`i A¶iÁvb w`‡Zb
†mUv‡K Avgiv eywoi cvVkvjv ejZvg| KvRxKv›`vi emwZ A‡bK Av‡M
†_‡K we`¨gvb| wKš‘ †mLv‡b †Kvb wk¶vjq M‡o I‡Vwb|
wmwjgcyi BDwbq‡b GKUv cÖvBgvix ¯‹zj wQj| †mUvi g~j KvVv‡gv b`xi
fv½‡b wejxb n‡q‡Q| †mUvi QvÎ wQ‡jb ïKzi Avjx wgqv g³e ¯‹z‡ji
†Kivbx| whwb ivRevox‡Z mvK©vm cvwU©i cÖwZôvZv| A_©‰bwZK mgm¨v
mgvav‡bi Dcvq wnmv‡e wZwb G c_ †e‡Q †bb|
‡Q‡j‡ejv †_‡KB Wvbwc‡U cÖK…wZi wQ‡jb| †jLvcov wmwjgcyi cvk
K‡i GwM‡q‡Q g‡b nq bv| ¯^ivR `‡ji GKUv cwÎKv Qvcv n‡Zv ÔevYx
†cÖmÕ †_‡K cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii ‡Kvcvb‡j covi Avk¼vq fviZ
wefvR‡bi ïi“‡ZB g~j gvwjK cvk¦©eZ©x wnivjvj Kweiv‡Ri wR¤§vq
m¤úwËi `vwqZ¡ w`‡q fviZ cvwo †`b|
Kuvmv wcZj e¨emvqx gxi mv‡n‡ei Kv‡Q m¤úwË weµq K‡i †M‡Qb GB
`vex wb‡q `L‡ji †Póv Ki‡j KweivR nxivjvj KZ…©K evavcÖvß n‡q
ïKzi Avjx wgqv‡K e¨emvqxK fvMx`vi Kivi cÖjyä K‡i `Lj †bevi
`vwqZ¡ †`b| ïKzi Avjx mv‡ne evYx †cÖ‡mi mg¯— gvjvgvj mwi‡q
ivZvivwZ GKUv wewoi KviLvbvi iƒc w`‡q †d‡jb| mKv‡j †`Lv hvq
mvwo mvwo KvwiKi wewo euva‡Q †`vKvb moMig|
‡kl‡gl gxi mv‡n‡ei RvgvB †gvRvnvi DwÏb wgqv GLv‡b cÖwZwôZ nb
Avi ïKzi Avjx mv‡ne ev` c‡ob| DwKj Avn¤§` Avjx g„av mv‡ne‡K
a‡i wZwb UvDb g³‡e †Kivbxi PvKzix cvb e‡U, wnmv‡e Mowgj nIqvq
wnmve cyb© Kivi k‡Z© PvKzix envj ivLv nq| GB `vqfvi Avi
mvsmvwiK cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡Z wZwb hLb ch©`y¯—| †m mgq iv¯—vi cv‡k
Rv`yi †Ljv †`wL‡q gRgv K‡i cqmv msMÖn Ki‡Z †`‡Lb GKw`b|
59 |

GUvB Zuv‡K Rv`yi †Ljv †`wL‡q DcvR©‡bi c_ mnRZi fve‡Z D×z×
K‡i| Avi µ‡g we`¨vUv AvqZ¡ K‡i MÖv‡g MÖv‡g †gjvq nv‡U wZwb †Ljv
†`Lv‡Z _v‡Kb| wKQy kvixwiK KmiZ hy³ Ki‡j GUv mvK©v‡mi iƒc
†`Iqv †h‡Z cv‡i gv_vq wb‡q ¯’vbxq wKQy Drmnx hyeK msMwVZ K‡i
cÖwk¶b †`b Avi µ‡g µ‡g GUv c~Y©v½ mvK©vm cvwU©i iƒc †bq| †Ljv
†`Lv‡Zb GK PvKvi mvB‡Kj Pvjbv Zv‡ii Dci| wÎdjv ek©v, bi
iv¶m, fv‡ivËjb, d¬vBs evi BZ¨vw`| ‡mB mv‡_ Rv`y| eq‡mi fv‡i
mevi bvg ¯§iY Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| ïay Qwgi WªvBfvi| Avdmvi DwÏb
Av‡c (†h 1971 mv‡j wenvix‡`i Øviv wbnZ nq) M‡bk, †eovW½vi
†m‡K›`vi, Aveyj, K`g Avjx, j¶x‡Kv‡ji ‡ZvZjv evey we‡bv`cy‡ii
†evinvb, †fRv‡j Zv‡ni Avjx d‡Ki , Bqv` Avjx, gwZqvi, mg‡mi
†gKvi Qvov|
kn‡i wk¶vi mv‡_ mswk­ó eB‡qi jvB‡eªix| †gvnb jvB‡eªix‡Z eQ‡ii
ïi“‡Z wngwmg gvwjK Avi mn‡hvwM ïkxj Kg©Kvi| evÜe jvB‡eªix‡Z
ïayB LvZv †cwÝj, Kvwji ewo, †`vqvZ Avi ivevi, e­wUs †ccvi| Sb©v
Kj‡gi cÖPjb nqwb| cix¶vi mgq ‡`vqv‡Z eo †evZj †_‡K †X‡j
†`Iqv n‡Zv ¯‹yj Zid †_‡K| ‡k‡li w`‡b meUv mevi wc‡V wbt†kl
K‡i †div|
evYx †cÖm‡Zv wQjB ivRevox †cªmUv wQj Abykxjb `‡ji
mwµq m`m¨ Kvjy gRyg`v‡ii whwb †`‡eb wms‡qi Avg evMv‡b
†g‡q‡`i jvwV †Ljv kixi PP©v Kiv‡Zb myfv‡mi †g‡Wj ey‡K Szwj‡q|
‡`k ZLb ¯^‡`kxi †Rvqv‡i fvm‡Q| ¯^‡`kx e¨vsK, ¯^‡`kx Kvco Kj,
ivRevox †cÖ‡mi mvg‡b M‡o DV‡jv ÔRqwn›` †KwebÕ Pv‡qi †`vKvb|
†mUv me©`vB Lχii aywZ cvÄvex cov gvby‡l miMig _vK‡Zv| wbiÄb
†cÖ‡m evNv evNv gvby‡li AvÇv, ZvKv‡ZI fq| eiv‡Ui ev`kv †PŠa~ix
ÔAvgv‡`i †cÖmÕ emv‡jb Rwjj Wv³vi mv‡n‡ei evoxi mvg‡b| Zv
†mUvi eqmI‡Zv Kg n‡jv bv|

eyeyi KjKvZv hvÎv
60 |

eyey we‡qi ci KjKvZv hv‡”Q| Avwg Avi nvmby †÷k‡b †MwQ
we`vq Rvbv‡Z| B‡Ui UyK‡iv w`‡q eyeyi Rvbvjvi wb‡P AvuK †K‡U
w`jvg| Avevi †Zv Avm‡e GB MvoxUv wd‡i|
eyey Lye Av`‡iB eo n‡q‡Q| gv‡qi Av‡Mi `y‡Uv ev”Pv‡K AuvZz‡iB
†cu‡Pv cvuwP‡Z †g‡i †d‡j‡Q| jvj bxj eY© dz‡U D‡V wQj bvwK I‡`i
gyLgʇj | ZLbKvi w`‡b cÖm~wZ gv‡qiv bv †c‡q‡Q hZœ bv †c‡q‡Q
cywó | ¯^^vgxivI gv †ev‡b‡`i B”Qvi wei“‡× wKQy fve‡Z cvi‡Zv bv|
me‡P‡q A¯^v¯’¨Ki ¯’v‡bB me©‡kªó Rxe Avm‡Zv RM‡Z| wn›`y‡`i †Zv
Av‡iv QyrgvM©| D‡Vv‡bi †Kvbvq bZzb GK Lycwo| ‰Î‡jvK¨ m¨v‡ii
†jLvq Ibvi evox‡ZB Ggb GK Szcwo hLb †i‡ji BwÄwbqvi wbR
nv‡Z `v w`‡q fycvwZZ K‡ib m¨vi e‡jwQ‡jb IUv‡Zv Avev‡iv h_v¯’v‡b
DwÌZ n‡e| Ny‡Ui †auvqvq Av”Qbœ| gy³ evqyi Afv‡e †cu‡Pv‡`i
Avwe©fve| wkï g„Zz¨ AvavAvwa| AvgivI Qq fvB Qq ‡evb njvg e‡U|
wUKjvg `yB fvB Pvi †evb|
Av`‡iB eo n‡q D‡VwQj eyey| bv`ym by`ym dm©v †MvjMvj †Pnviv wb‡q|
we‡qi eqm bv n‡ZB m¤^Ü Av‡m| evev ivRx nb bv|
Avgvi dzcv wQ‡jb h‡kv‡ii bvgx gvbyl| †hgb A_©weË †Zgwb
cÖwZcwË| wZwb AvZ¥xq‡`i Av‡iv wbweo Kivi Rb¨ wb‡R‡`i gv‡S
we‡q †`evi c¶cvwZ wQ‡jb Ges eivei Zv K‡i‡Qb| wZwb G‡jb cvÎ
wcZv mn| KvKZvjxq fv‡e evevi c~e©cwiwPZ GK f`ª‡jvK GK cvÎ
wb‡q G‡m nvwRi †mw`bB| cv‡Îi †PvLUv GKUz U¨viv, †VvUUvI GKUz
euvKv RM‡Z GK †evb Qvov †KD bvB| KjKvZvq PvKzix K‡ib Ges
†g‡m _v‡Kb| wk¶vq KjKvZv BDwbf©vwmwU †_‡K wZbwU †mvbvi
†g‡Wj †c‡q‡Qb|
Avgvi dzcv ¶zbœ g‡b eûw`b wew”Qbœ _vK‡jb|
Avgv‡`i eyey AvR P‡j hv‡”Q ¯^vgxi mv‡_ KjKvZvq| `yjvfvB‡qi
evox wRqvMÄ| gywk©`vev` †Rjvq| LyeB Ae¯’vcbœ cwievi| wcZv-gvZv
†Q‡j‡ejvq gviv hvIqvq `v`vi Kv‡Q †_‡K eo nb|
e„× `v`vi avibv Ibvi g„Zz¨i ci mnvq m¤ú` †_‡K wkï †`ŠwnÎ ewÂZ
n‡Z cv‡i| †mRb¨ K‡Vvi Kó mwnòz K‡i eo K‡i †Zv‡jb| hÏyi“Y
`yjvfvB m¤ú‡`i cÖwZ ev †fvM wejvwmZvi cÖwZ wb¯ú„n _vK‡Z Af¨¯’
61 |

n‡q hvb| cieZ©xKv‡j †`‡LwQ eo PvKzixqv n‡qI mvavib Rxeb hvcb
Ki‡Z, Awdm wcIb‡KI Pv evwb‡q wbR nv‡Z Pv‡qi KvcUv Zz‡j
w`‡Z|
eyey wVK D‡ëv cwi‡e‡k gvbyl| wbR nv‡Z wKQy Kivq Af¨¯’ wQj bv|
mvB‡Kj Pvwj‡q †eovZ Lvwj| eyey wM‡q co‡jv Zvi DÏvg Rxeb †_‡K
KjKvZvi e× MÊx‡Z| †hUv gvwb‡q †bIqv Zvi KóKi nq| Bwb‡q
wewb‡q wg_¨v Awf‡hvM w`‡q gv‡qi Kv‡Q wPwV Avm‡Zv|
GKevi ivRevox G‡b Avi eyey‡K cvVv‡bv nq bv| wKQy w`b wew”Qbœ
_vKvi ci Gi Aemvb †ek Avb‡›`i mv‡_B nq|
eyeyi cÖ_g m¯—vb jvBjxi Rb¥ nq ivRevox| Avwg Avi †gS ‡evb nvmby
†fv‡i Nyg †f‡½B GKUv †QvU ev”Pv †c‡q gnvLywk| ev”PvUvI nv‡Zi
Qvqv w`‡q Avuavi Ki‡j †PvL wcU wcU K‡i| nvZ miv‡jB †PvL eÜ|
gRvi †Ljv|
ivRevox †_‡K KjKvZv hvevi c‡_ ev”PvUvi VvÊvq wbD‡gvwbqv n‡q
hvq| †mLv‡b †`Lvïbv Kivi †KD bvB| †mRb¨ ivRevox wb‡q Avmv
nq| †fZ‡i †c‡K ev”PvUvi Rxeb mskq †`Lv †`q| GLv‡b Wvt
†hv‡Mk evey Acv‡ikb K‡i cuyR †ei K‡i †`b Avgv‡`i evox‡ZB Ges
Awek¦vm¨ fv‡eB jvBjx †eu‡P hvq|
1947 mv‡j fviZ wefvR‡b evev Ges `yjvfvB XvKvq P‡j Av‡mb| eyey
e„nËi cwi‡e‡k G‡m bvbv mvgvwRK I ivRbxwZi mv‡_ hy³ nb| nK
fvmvbxi wgwUs-G Avgv‡`i cwiev‡ii †g‡qiv cëb gq`v‡bI nvwRi
n‡Zv eyeyi ZvwM‡`|
eyey gwnjv ms¯’v ÔAvcIqvÕ mn-mfv‡bÎx wnmv‡e eû †Q‡j‡K wewfbœ
K‡j‡R fwZ© nIqvi my‡hvM K‡i †`b| eLv‡U †Q‡jiv Zvi GjvKvUv
Gwo‡q Pj‡Zv|
KjvevMv‡b evox K‡i P‡j Av‡mb AvwRgcyi †_‡K| Avgiv †M‡j
ILv‡bB _vKZvg| †divi mgq iv¯—vq `uvwo‡q GK`„wó‡Z †P‡q
_vK‡Zb| eva¨ n‡qB Avevi wd‡i wM‡q bZzb K‡i we`vq wb‡Z n‡Zv|
Avgvi †Q‡j‡`i `yB nvZw`‡q ey‡K Rwo‡q ai‡Zv| †fv‡i Nyg fv½vi
Av‡MB weµgcyi wgwói †`vKvb †_‡K c‡ivUv wgwó G‡b bv¯—v †iwW K‡i
62 |

ivL‡Zv| GKevi Wv‡ji eov Lye fvj ejvq wZb †ejvB Avgvi Rb¨
eov LvIqvi e¨e¯’v K‡i|
wb‡R †Kvbw`b KvR K‡i bvB| KvcoUvI ev_i“‡gB c‡o _vK‡Zv
hZ¶Y bv Kv‡Ri †g‡qUv ay‡q ïKv‡Z †`‡e| Avwg Zvi †mev Ki‡Z
cvwi bvB| Z‡e g‡b g‡b Avkv KiZvg eyeyi Kvco ay‡q †`evi|
‡k‡li w`‡K bvbv †ivM e¨wa‡Z kh¨vkvqx| nVvr †mw`b †fv‡i D‡V
Avgvi gbUv fqvbK DZjv n‡q DV‡jv eyeyi Rb¨| b~ix‡K †dv‡b †W‡K
ej­vg- ZzB GLywb eyeyi evox hv, Avgvi n‡q eyeyi GKUv Kvco ay‡q
w`we, Avgvi gbUv †Kgb Ki‡Q nq‡Zv G my‡hvM ZzBI Avi cvwe bv|
†dvbUv ivL‡ZB Avevi †e‡R DV‡jv, iÄb Rvbv‡jv eyey GB LvwbK
Av‡MB P‡j †M‡Q| Kv‡Qi gvby‡liv wK Gfv‡eB Rvbvb w`‡q hvq?
myKwi‡K †hw`b †g‡i †d‡j nvmbyI bvwK †mw`b `ycyi †iv‡` MÖxb‡ivW
†_‡K eyeyi ILv‡b Qy‡U G‡m‡Q| wmuwoi †iwjs AvuK‡o a‡i a‡i Dc‡i
DV‡Q †`‡ni ej nvwi‡q|

cÖ_g KjKvZv hvÎv
‡mUv 1945 mvj n‡e| evev KjKvZv _vK‡jI Avgv‡`i
†mLv‡b hvIqv nqwb| ï‡bwQ KjKvZv Lye eo kni| cqmv _vK‡j
ev‡Ni `yaI †g‡j| GZw`b ci PjwQ| †g‡Rv‡evb m‡½ Av‡Q| Avb›`
Avi D‡ËRbvq mvivUv c_ Rvbvjvi av‡i e‡m| cyj KqUv †ci“‡jv Avi
†UwjMÖv‡di Lv¤^vi b¤^i Avi gvBj ¸bwQ| wkqvj`n †_‡K ivRevox
147 gvBj †jLv djKUv G‡Kev‡i ivRevox †ók‡bi cv‡k| µ‡g K‡g
Avm‡Q| MovB cyjUv cvi nj| Kx cÖPÛ †mªvZ eB‡Q| ZvKv‡Z I fq
fq jv‡M| we‡K‡ji Av‡MB †cuŠ‡Q †Mjvg wkqvj`n| c­vUdg© †_‡K
†ewo‡q Avi GK ‡ij Mvox, iv¯—vq P‡j| Uªvg MvwoUv †mvRv Avgv‡`i
eivei Avm‡Q| †`Šo w`‡q m‡i †h‡Z PvBjvg `yjvfvB nvZ a‡i
†dj‡jb| mv`v Kvco cov †jvKUv nv‡Zi bvbv f½x Ki‡Q DPz
†ew`Uvi Dci `uvwo‡q, ‡m ‡h _vgv Avi Qvovi KZ©v, eywSwb| `y‡Uv eMx
63 |

†Rvov jvMv‡bv| mvg‡biUvi emjvg mevB| †Kvb fxo bvB| Lvwj wmU
c‡o Av‡Q| Avgvi cv‡kB GK †gg G‡m em‡jv| G‡Zv Kv‡Q Mv‡q
Mv‡q †Vm w`‡q †Kvb †gg Avgv‡`i cv‡k em‡Z cv‡i Avgvi avibvI
wQj bv| mwZ¨ eo kni| iv¯—vi cv‡k cvBc w`‡q cvwb †ei n‡”Q|
`yÕ‡ejvB bvwK iv¯—v †avqv nq| wPwoqvLvbv, B‡Wb Mv‡W©b, cyiex n‡j
wm‡bgv| Avi Iqv‡Qj †gvj­vi †`vKvb| gvby‡li Wvgx cyZzj, ¯‹vU©cov
nuvm‡Q| GKRb‡K †`Ljvg †g‡qUvi _yZbx‡Z nvZ w`‡q Av`i Ki‡Z|
Kx wfo| me cvIqv hvq| cvK© mvK©v‡mi gv‡V cvovi †Q‡j‡`i mv‡_
†`Šo Suvc K‡iwQ| me‡P‡q fvj Nvm KvUv †gwkb| PvKv Nyi‡Q Avi
Nvm¸‡jv KzwU KzwU n‡q †K‡U co‡Q | †Nvovi Lvevi I¸‡jv| ZLb
KjKvZvq †Nvov Mvox Pj‡Zv Lye| GK Avbvq bvb i“wU cy‡ivUv †c‡U
AvuU‡Zv bv|
j²x‡Kv‡ji ivRv
beve AvjxeÏ©xi LuvÕi Kg©Pvix wQ‡jb| Kvq¯’ ¸n eskxq|
Rwg`vixi LvRbv Av`v‡qi j‡¶ GLv‡b Av‡mb|
1|
cÖfyivg ¸n ivq
2|
ZrcyÎ †MŠix cÖmv` ¸n ivq
3|
ZrcyÎ wek¦ w`Mx›`ª cÖmv` ¸n ivq
4|
`ËK cyÎ m~h©¨ Kzgvi ¸n ivq
5|
cÖ_g `ËK cyÎ b‡i›`ª bv_ ¸n ivq
6|
wØZxq `ËK cyÎ †mŠwi›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq
7|
ZrcieZ©x mgx‡i›`ª bv_ ¸n ivq †eex I Ab¨vb¨
ivRv m~h©¨ Kzgvi ¸n iv‡qi ˆcwÎK evox eoPi †ebxbMi| wek¦ w`Mx›`ª
cÖmv` iv‡qi g„Zz¨i ci Zuv‡K `ËK †bIqv nq| ivbx †÷‡Ui g¨v‡bRvi
I †jvK-j¯‹i cvjKx mn Ibvi eo fvB kkx f~lY `vm‡K c~e© wm×vš—
Abyhvqx wb‡Z Av‡mb| A›`ign‡j hLb kkx f~lY `vm‡K ivR‡e‡k
mw¾Z Kiv nw”Qj †KŠZ~nje‡k †QvU fvB ivRv m~h©¨ Kzgvi ¸n ivq
cvjKx‡Z D‡V e‡m| kkx f~lY `vm ivR‡e‡k cvjKx‡Z Av‡ivnb
64 |

Ki‡Z †M‡j m~h©¨ wKQy‡ZB cvjKx n‡Z bv‡gb bv| AMZ¨v †÷‡Ui
g¨v‡bRvi †enviv‡`i ûKzg †`b GB Ae¯’vqB ivRv m~h©¨ Kzgvi ¸n
ivq‡KB wb‡q Pj| Avgv‡`i ivRv Avgiv †c‡q †MwQ| m~h©¨ Kzgvi
ga¨g åvZv, †QvU fvB‡qi bvg wbZ¨vb›` `vm|
ivRv m~h©¨ Kzgvi ¸n ivq cÖ_g weevn K‡ib ewikvj Mvfv wbevmx
DgvPiY †Nvl `w¯—`v‡ii Kb¨v ¶x‡iv` evwmbx‡K| Ibvi mv‡_ ivRv `yB
k¨vjK‡KI m‡½ wb‡q Av‡mb| gwZjvj †Nvl `w¯—`vi (Gi cyÎ wkíx
Kvjx wK¼i †Nvl `w¯—`vi) I nxivjvj †Nvl `w¯—`vi‡K|
cyÎ mš—vbvw` bv nIqvq ivbxi Aby‡iv‡a ivRv wØZxq weevn K‡ib
few`qv wbevmx KzPwenv‡ii †gv³vi Afq PiY gRyg`v‡ii Kb¨v kir
my›`ix‡K|
Kv‡iv mš—vbvw` bv nIqvq cy‡Îwó hÁxi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| evRx
†cvov‡bv, hvÎv, Mvb BZ¨vw` weivU Av‡qvRb nq| Avb›` Drm‡ei Rb¨
ewn©evUx‡Z c¨v‡Ûj g mvRv‡bvi mgq cÖ_g c‡¶i k¨vjK nxivjvj
c¨v‡Ê‡ji Dc‡i D‡V †givc euvavi mgq wb‡P c‡o hvq I cÖvY nvivq|
ivRv Drm‡ei Avbymw½K Kvh©vw` wbivb‡›`i mv‡_ cvjb K‡ib| wZwb
G‡Zv gg©vnZ n‡qwQ‡jb †h GLv‡bi evm DwV‡q KjKvZvq emevm
Ki‡Z _v‡Kb|
cÖ_g `ËK cyÎwU‡KI wZwb KjKvZvq wb‡q †M‡jb| †g‡UªvcwjUb
K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹z‡j K¬v‡m b‡i›`ª eivei cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi Ki‡Zv| ivRv
Av‡iv GKUv eo AvNvZ †c‡jb AcªZ¨vwkZ| b‡i›`ª K‡jivq Avµvš—
n‡q nVvr gviv hvb|
ivRv ci ci `y‡Uv eo AvNvZ †c‡q †f‡½ c‡ob| G mg‡q wZwb
ZrKvjxb lvU nvRvi UvKv e¨‡q cyixav‡g mgy`ª Zx‡i cÖvmv` wbg©vY K‡i
ILv‡b emevm Ki‡Z _v‡Kb| GB cÖmv`wUi bvgI wbR cy‡Îi bv‡gi
¯§„wZ i¶v‡_© b‡i›`ª KzwUi iv‡Lb| (cieZ©x Kv‡j bvg cvwë‡q
wf‡±vwiqv K¬ve ivLv nq ivRvi g„Zz¨i ci)|
G mgq `yB ivbxi wcovwcwo‡Z wZwb wØZxq `ËK MÖnY K‡ib †mŠ‡i›`ª
†gvnb ¸n ivq‡K Ges fye‡bk¦‡i Avi GKwU evox wbg©vY K‡ib| GKwU
wke gw›`i cÖwZôvi B”Qv Zuvi wQj hv wZwb c~iY K‡i †h‡Z cv‡ibwb|
65 |

ivRvi g„Zz¨i ci cyix fye‡bk¦i I KjKvZvi Hk¦h©¨ cÖ_g c‡¶i k¨vjK
gwZjvj †Nvl `w¯—`vi I wØZxq c‡¶i k¨vjK Aw¤^Kv PiY gRyg`vi
Gi ZË¡eav‡b Ges ivRevox A‡ji mg¯— m¤ú‡`i `vwqZ¡ †mŠ‡i›`ª
†gvnb ¸n iv‡qi ZË¡veav‡b P‡j hvq|
Rxe‡bi †kl cÖv‡š— G‡m Kzgvi †mŠwi›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq wbg©g AvNvZ
cvb| 1971 mv‡ji 30†k GwcÖj cvK Avwg© Awdmvi Zuv‡K †W‡K wb‡q
hLb Rxe‡bi wbðqZv †`b I gh©v`vi mv‡_ Avjvc KiwQ‡jb †mB
gyû‡Z© wenvixiv Zuvi ivRevoxUv jyÚb K‡i Ges GK cy·K †`vZjv
†_‡K †d‡j w`‡q nZ¨v K‡i| cieZ©xKv‡j wZwb gv‡ivqvix cwƇZ
GKUv evox wK‡b emevm Ki‡Z _v‡Kb|
wZwb LyeB DPzg‡bi gvbyl wQ‡jb| Mjvi ¯^i ivRvi g‡ZvB wQj|
cwicvwU, AvwfRvZ¨ dz‡U DV‡Zv Zuvi ivRvmyjf AvPvi AvPi‡Y|
Bs‡iR‡`i KvQ ‡_‡K ivRv Dcvwa bv †c‡jI wZwb ivRvB wQ‡jb|
Kzgvi †mŠix›`ª †gvn‡bi we‡q nq enigcy‡ii Rwg`vi †hv‡Mk P›`ª
†m‡bi Kb¨vi mv‡_| we‡q‡Z Kvwkg evRv‡ii gnvivRv gbx›`ª P›`ª b›`x
Dcw¯’Z wQ‡jb|
cieZ©xKv‡j wZwb Av‡iv GKUv we‡q K‡iwQ‡jb KjKvZvq wPwKrmvaxb
_vKvi mgq cwiPq Rvbv hvq bvB| ï‡bwQ wZwb nvmcvZv‡ji †mweKv
wQ‡jb|
ivRvi evoxi mv‡_ GLvbKvi mvavi‡bi m¤úK© AvZ¥xK| mvg‡b
eUZjvq cÖwZ eQi ˆekvL gv‡mi kwb g½jev‡i gvm e¨vcx Ôeywoi †gjvÕ
em‡Zv| AvuPvi, Kvmb, gvwUi cvwZj GUvi Rb¨ evoxi eD-wSiv
mviveQi A‡c¶vq _vK‡Zv| †gjvUvi bvg hZUzKz ï‡bwQ eUZjvq GK
eywo evm Ki‡Zv Szcwo †eu‡a| ZviB ¯§„wZ‡Z eywoi †gjv bv‡g IUv
cwiwPwZ cvq|
ivRevox‡Z ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi j²x bv‡gi nvZx‡Z P‡o Avm‡Zb|
GKmgq ivRcÖvmv‡`i A›`ign‡ji cyKzi †_‡K jy°vwqZ m¤ú`fwZ©
wm›`yKUv DVv‡bvi Rb¨ nvZxUv‡K e¨envi Kiv nq| wKš‘ m¤¢e nq bv|
Gi ci nvZxUv Amy¯’ n‡q gviv hvq|
Kzgvi †mŠix›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq‡K †`‡LwQ Ôc`vÕ bv‡gi †cqv`v QvZv a‡i
evRv‡i wb‡q Avm‡Z| GLb †m GjvKvUv m¤ú~Y© wejxb n‡q †M‡Q|
66 |

Kzgvi †mŠix›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq KjKvZvq ÔAÜ« BbwmD‡iÝ †Kv¤úvbxÕi
eªv Awdm †Lv‡jb GK mg‡qi mncvVx ˆk‡j›`ª bv_ PÆcva¨v‡qi mv‡_
Ôivq GÛ P¨vUvR©xÕ bv‡g| ˆk‡j›`ª bv_ bvg cÖZ¨vnvi K‡i RSK
Institution Asstt. Head wnmv‡e †hvM`vb K‡ib|
m~h©¨bMi †ij †óªk‡bi cv‡k †`kx Kvco Kj emv‡bvi Rb¨ wZwb wbR
Rwg‡Z D‡`¨vM †bb| †kqviI evRv‡i Qv‡ob| hw`I †kl Aewa IUv
Avi cÖwZôv cvqwb| ïay bvg me©¯^ GKUv mvBb‡evW© eûKvj ch©š—
Szj‡Z †`Lv †hZ|
ivRv m~h©¨ Kzgv‡ii cÖ_g c‡¶i k¨vjK gwZjvj †Nvl `w¯—`vi ivRvi
g„Zz¨i ci m¤úwËi fvM `vex K‡i Kzgvi †mŠix›`ª †gvnb ¸n iv‡qi
wei“‡× gvgjv K‡ib| GKKvjxb `k nvRvi UvKv w`‡q gvgjv wb¯úwË
Kiv nq|
gwZjvj †kl eq‡m cvMj n‡q ewikv‡j wbR wfUvq gviv hvb|

¯^‡`kx Av‡›`vjb
1942 mvj n‡e nq‡Zv| †`‡eb wms Gi †cv‡ov wf‡Uq cvMj
gv Qvov †KD _v‡K bv| evMv‡bi dj g~‡ji AvKl©‡Y mgq †c‡jB
ILv‡b nvwRi nZvg| evMv‡bi duvKv RvqMvUvq †Q‡j-‡g‡qiv jvwV
†Ljv, c¨v‡iW Abykxjb K‡i| ‡g‡q‡`i kvwo cvRvgvi g‡Zv K‡i civ
ey‡K myfvl †ev‡mi †g‡Wj AvuUv †mdwUwcb w`‡q| fvj jvM‡Zv whwb
cwiPvjK| ey‡K AvuUv †g‡WjUvi mv‡_ †Pnviv ûeû wg‡j hvq| (Kvjy
gRyg`vi) UvDb g³‡e K¬vm Iqv‡bi QvÎ| gv‡S gv‡S nB nB K‡i
Avgv‡`i ¯‹zj †_‡K Kviv †hb wgwQj wb‡q kvwgj K‡i w`Z Av‡M †_‡K
Avbv †g‡q‡`i ¯‹z‡ji QvÎx‡`i mv‡_| ‡¯­vMvb GKUv g‡b Av‡QÔAvmv‡gi Ks‡MÖmx ¸Ûvgx Pj‡e bv Pj‡e bvÕ| Avmv‡g Ks‡MÖm Kx
¸Ûvgx Ki‡jv Rvwb bv| Rvbvi `iKviI bvB| ¯‹zj †h QywU GUvB †Zv
gRvi| Ggwb wgwQ‡j GKw`b cv‡ki GK †g‡qi gv_vi mv‡_ †VvKvVywK
†j‡M hvq| e×g~j avibv GK †VvKvq ‡g‡qUvi gv_vq Pzj MRv‡e Avi
67 |

Avgvi gv_vq wks| _g‡K `uvwo‡q fwel¨Z `yM©wZi cwigvc KiwQ|
gyû‡Z© gb w¯’i K‡i Qy‡U wM‡q †g‡qUvi gv_vq GK ¸‡Zv w`‡q w`jvg |
wVK †mB wKbv mwVK ej‡Z cvi‡ev bv | Z‡e ¯^w¯— †cjvg| Rgv‡qZ
njvg me A‡bK c_ Ny‡i Wvbjc n‡ji mvg‡b| Kv‡K †hb jvj
`vjv‡b wb‡q ‡Mj| jvj`vjvb wK Avwg Rvwbbv| mncvwVivI †KD
ej‡Z cvi‡jvbv| †ij †MUUvi cv‡kB my‡ib mvnv, weRq mvnv‡`i eo
†`vKvb| M`xi Dci †¯^Z cv_‡ii myfvl †ev‡mi Ave¶ g~wZ© | mI`v
Ki‡Z G‡m †gvwnZ n‡q †P‡q _vKZvg | †Pv‡L Pkgv, gv_vq †ZiQv
K‡i MwÜ Uzcx (IUvi bvg myfvl Uzcx n‡jB fvj n‡Zv) Avi Uzcx Qvov
myfvl‡K Avgvi †gv‡UB fvj jvM‡Zv bv| UvKgv_vi myfvm ZLb
mvavi‡bi KvZv‡i †b‡g ‡hZ| MvÜx Uzcx evbv‡bv Lye †mvRv | gv_vi
gv‡ci †Kvj evwj‡ki †Lvj fvR K‡qKUv Ki‡jB nj| cvRvgvi GK
Ask †K‡U AvwgI GKUv evox‡ZB coZvg gv‡S g‡a¨| ivRevox‡Z
mwµq Av‡›`vj‡b huvivB _vKzb Bs‡i‡Ri cZb mK‡jB PvB‡Zb|
ïaygvÎ Awnsm Av‡›`vj‡b fviZ‡K ¯^wabZv w`‡q Bs‡iRiv
cvjv‡Zv GUv Avgvi g‡b nq bv | PÆMÖ‡gi m~h©¨‡mb gv÷vi`vi
A¯¿vMvi jyÚb, cªxwZjZv Iqv‡`Ïv‡ii Bs‡iR K¬ve Avµgb XvKvi
†jvg¨b nZ¨v, †Lv` KjKvZvq bv‡Ki WMvq ev`j, webq, w`‡b‡ki
ivBUvm© wewìs‡q cÖKvk¨ w`ev‡jv‡K Awfhvb, †gw`bxcy‡i ÿyw`iv‡gi
‡evgv nvgjv QvovI †Mvqvj‡›` †ivwnbx eo–qv KZ…K wgt G¨‡jb nZ¨v,
Avgv‡`i Avï fiØvR KZ…K Bs‡i‡Ri `vjvj Kvwjc` nZ¨v QvovI
wecøex m`m¨ bb Ggb A‡bK †hgb Ave`yjøv bv‡gi Avmvgx KZ…K
KjKvZv †KvU© cÖv½‡bB RR© bg©vb nZ¨v Avi 190 eQ‡ii BwZnvm gvÎ
GKRbB eojvU jW© †g‡qv Av›`vgv‡b mvavib K‡q`x wmqvi Avjx
KZ…K wbnZ nIqvi NUbv ¸‡jvI Zv‡`i Rxe‡bi wbivcËv wb‡q fvwe‡q
Zz‡jwQj | ¯^vaxbZvKvgx GBme wecøex Kg©KvÛ fvi‡Zi ¯^vaxbZv
ZivwbœZ K‡iwQj m‡›`n bvB |
Avevi Bs‡iR weZvo‡b fviZxq A‡b‡KB GKgZ wQ‡jbbv
†mUvI mZ¨ | ¯^vwabZvKvgx wecøex m`m¨‡`i `y¯‹…wZKvix AvL¨v w`‡q
K‡Vvi n‡¯Í G‡`i `g‡bi civgk© w`‡q‡Qb Ggb bwR‡iiI Afve bvB
| 1931 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix msL¨v gvwmK ÕfviZel©Õ m¤úv`Kxq
68 |

†jLvn‡q‡Q, Õc‡iv‡jv‡K webq emyÕ wk‡ivbv‡g | ÓKwjKvZv ivBUvm©
wewìs Gi fqven I †kvPbxq ˆecøexK Kv‡Ûi Ab¨Zg AbyôvZv Ges
XvKvi †jvg¨v‡bi nZ¨Kvix ewjqv webq emy MZ 13B wW‡m¤^i KwjKvZv
†gwWK¨j K‡j‡R †`nZ¨vM K‡ib | GBmKj wecøex Kv‡R †h †`‡ki
we‡kl ÿwZ nB‡Z‡Q GK_v ejvB evûj¨ |
H GKB msL¨vq, ÓMvÜxev` wbcvZ hvDKÓ wkibv‡g †jLv
n‡q‡Q, Ówgt MvÜx ewjqv †h e¨vw³wU AvR meigwZ Avkª‡g Kviviæ×
nBqv Av‡Q Zvnvi (Zuvnvi bq) Ges Zvnvi AbyPie‡M©i ev‡R fÛvgxi
Dˇi gv‡S gv‡S e„wUk miKvi kvšÍbvc~Y© Kiæbvi Avk¦vmevbx
fviZemx‡K ïbvB‡Z‡Qb | Zvnv‡Z GBmg¯Í MvÜxi AbyPi‡`i g‡a¨
GKUv †jvf †`Lv w`qv‡Q Ges Zvnv‡`i avibv nBqv‡Q †h e„wUk
miKvi‡K fq †`LvBqv Zvnviv Zvnv‡`i evmbv gZ Bs‡iR AwaK…Z
fviZel©‡K Avevi wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ fvM ev‡Uvqviv Kwiqv jB‡e |
e¨vcvi GZ`~i MovBZbv hw` fviZ Mf‡g©›U cÖ_g cÖ_g
AbyK¤úvi `„wó‡Z GB mg¯Í wecøex‡`i AMÖn¨ bv Kwiqv K‡Vvi n‡¯Í
`gb Kwi‡Zb | Dnvi Z_vKw_Z †bZv‡`i wbe©vmb †`Iqv DwPr wQj |
MvÜx †hw`b AvBb f½ Kwievi `¤¢ cÖKvk K‡ib †mw`bB Zv‡K
Kviviæ× Kiv DwPr wQj |
mvgvb¨ wKQz AwaKvi cvB‡jB fviZxq wecøexiv Zvnvi mvnv‡h¨
AwaKvi `vex Kwi‡e | Ab¨vq †jvfxi `vexi mxgv bvB Ó|
GLv‡b †ek eo GKUv msMVb wQj ¯^‡`kx‡`i| AvÇv
LvbvUvi bvgB wQj Rq wn›` †Kweb| m„q©¨bM‡i myfvm KUb wgj †`kx
Kvco Kj ˆZixi mg¯— Av‡qvRb n‡q wQj | evRv‡i †kqviI cÖvq
mevB †K‡bb| BgviZ ‰Zixi Rb¨ B‡Ui fvUvi SBOSE †jLv BUI
cÖ¯—Z nq| c‡i Aek¨ †ij †ókbUvi Kv‡R jvMvbv nq| `v‡mi
Wv½x‡Z Lvw` Kvc†oi ZuvZ e‡m, †`kx gvwjKvbvq e¨vsKI A‡bK¸wj
cªwZôv cvq | gymjgvb m¤cÖ`vqI †h G Kg©KvÊ mwµq fywgKv
wb‡q‡Qb †mUv Rvbv hvq Tamijuddin khan mv‡n‡ei AvZ¥K_v
The Test of Time eB‡Z | Pibvivqbcyi wbevmx Wt ewmi DwÏb
mv‡n‡ii fvB‡qi †Q‡j BmgvBj †Mvqvj‡›` ÷xgvi †Kv¤úvbxi eo
69 |

mv‡ne wb¤§c`¯’ evOvjx Kg©Pvixi mv‡_ i“p e¨envi Kivq Zv‡K wcUzwb
†`b Ges mv‡ne cvwj‡q AvZ¥i¶v K‡i|
Avï fiØvR eveyi AvZ¥K_vqI Rvbv hvq †ivwnbx eo–qv bv‡gi
GKRb †Mvqvj‡›` GK `v‡ivMv‡K nZ¨v K‡ib Ges dwi`cyi †R‡jB
Zuvi duvmx Kvh©Ki nq| hw`I †ivwnbx eo–qvi cyY© cwiPq Rvbv hvq bv
bvgUzKz Qvov|
Hector Bolitho-i †jLv BwZnvm wfwËK wRbœvi Rxebx‡ZI
Rvb‡Z cvwi †Mvqvj‡›` wgt Gwjb bv‡g GKRb Bs‡iR wbnZ nq hw`I
AvZZvqxi bvg cvIqv hvq bvB|
Avgvi ˆkk‡ei g‡b wek¦hy× †gv‡UB fxwZcÖ` g‡b nqwb| Rvcvbxiv
Avgv‡`i KPzKvUv Ki‡e ZvI g‡b nqwb| `ywf©‡¶i ¯§„wZ gvby‡li
K¼vjmvi †`n †`‡L g‡b wKQyUv Kó †c‡qwQ e‡U| wKš‘ †Zgb ¯’vqx
cÖfve †d‡jwb g‡b| eis myfvl wRZ‡j Avgiv mevB fvj _vK‡ev
GUvB Kvgbv K‡iwQ wek¦vmI K‡iwQ|
Avgvi Rb¥Kvj †_‡K wesk kZvwãi K‡qKwU NUbv cÖZ¨¶
Kivi ‡mŠfvM¨ Avgvi n‡q‡Q, G‡Z Avwg Me©‡eva Kwi| mgv‡Ri
cwieZ©b, gvbwmKZvi e`‡j hvIqv A‡bK wKQyi cÖZ¨¶ mv¶x n‡Z
†c‡i wb‡R‡K ‡mŠfvM¨evbB ej‡ev| wek¦hy×, `ywf©¶, fvi‡Zi wefvRb,
evnvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vjb, 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZv hy×| GKRxe‡b GwK
Kg Rvbv? Kg cvIqv? wekvj GB BwZnvm mg„× mg‡qi mv‡_ cwiwPZ
n‡Z †c‡iwQ GB Avgvi Me©|
wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ¯§„wZ
Avgv‡`i evoxUv †ij iv¯—vi av‡i| gv‡S cvKv iv¯—v| 1943
mvj| hy× Pj‡Q evg©vd«‡›U| ˆmb¨ †evSvB n‡q †¯úkvj †Uªb
†Mvqvj‡›`i w`‡K hvq| †ivR 1Uv `y‡Uv| jvjgy‡Lv Avevi †Nvi
K…òeY©| c‡_i cv‡k †KŠZ~njx ev”Pv‡`i †`L‡j we¯‹yU BZ¨vw` Quy‡o
†`q | Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q hvIqv evib wQj| eviv›`vq e‡m †hUzKz †`Lv hvq
†`wL| ivRevox UvDb K¬ve gq`v‡b †Mviv ‰mb¨‡`i weivU Av¯—vbv |
70 |

iv¯—vi `yB cv‡k Mfxi MZ© K‡i †UªÂ KvUv| wb‡P ZvKv‡ZI fq
Ki‡Zv| `yÕGKevi †b‡g †`‡LwQ `geÜ nevi Dcµg n‡Zv f‡q|
cvoUv †f‡½ c‡i eywSev| we‡K‡ji w`‡K GKmv‡_ A‡bK †c­b cye©
†_‡K cwð‡g †ek DuPz w`‡q D‡o †Mj| mevB ej‡jv Rvcvbx †c­b
hv‡”Q KjKvZvq †evgv †dj‡Z| Avgiv mevB Lykx njvg gvi“K e¨vUv
Bs‡iR‡`i| myfvm emy †`k †_‡K Bs‡iR Zvov‡e| ivRv n‡e, exi
bvqK †m| gKeyj gvóvi mv‡ne hLb Zvi cvwj‡q hvevi weeiY Mí
Ki‡Zb wK K‡i cywj‡ki †PvL duvwK w`‡q ei‡di cvnvo wWw½‡q
Kvejx‡`i †`‡k P‡j †Mj| ï‡b ï‡b Avk †g‡U bv ‡ivgv jv‡M|
Avgiv e¨½ Qov ejZvg †Kviv‡mmv‡i Mvgv cvavbx
†evg †d‡j‡Q Rvcvbx
†ev‡gi wfZi †KD‡U mvc
wewUk e‡j evc‡i evc|
†ev‡gi wfZi MÜ
†`vKvb cvU eÜ|
myfvl †ev‡mi QweIqvjv UvKv evRv‡i †ewo‡q †Mj wewfbœ i‡Oi| †Kvb
Uv cvuPÕk †KvbUv nvRvi †KvbUv GKÕk| `vg GK Avbv `yÕAvbv, myfvl
ivRv n‡j Pj‡e evRv‡i|
nv‡U evRv‡i we¯—i wewµ n‡jv| Avgiv eo‡jvK n‡q hve|
Kzjcx gvjvB bv †L‡q `yÕPviUv wK‡bwQI †mB †jv‡f| gv evev gvóvi
mv‡neiv meviB wcÖq myfvl †evm| GKUv Db¥v`bv me©Î| Bs‡iR
nUvI| Iiv nvi“K|
GKw`b †i‡ji gvVUvq GKUv †c­b †f‡½ co‡jv †`Š‡o Kv‡Q
†Mjvg| cÖ_gUvq †ek Kv‡QB †h‡Z †c‡iwQjvg| cywjk G‡m mwi‡q
†`q| ïbjvg jvjgy‡Lv cvBjUUv g‡iwb| †Kb †h †hv‡Mk Wv³vi evey
euvPv‡jb e¨vUv‡K| ‰mb¨ fwZ© ‡Uªb Gevi D‡ëv gy‡Lv cye †_‡K cwð†g|
eySjvg †eUviv cvjv‡”Q|
Kv‡jv‡`i Mvox †`wLwb| g‡b nq Rvcvbx‡`i †Mvjvi †LvivK
†RvMvb w`‡q Giv m‡i Avm‡Q| Z‡e msL¨vq Lye Kg| cÖvq A‡a©K|
`jQyU GK ‰mb¨‡K †`Ljvg jvBb w`‡q †nu‡U Avm‡Z| Avi †`Ljvg
71 |

kZkZ K¼vjmvi gvbyl cv‡q †n‡U Avm‡Q| `‡j `‡j weivgnxb| Giv
fviZxq, evg©vq _vK‡Zv| LvIqv bvB, kªvš—, K¬vš—, k­_ Pjvi MwZ|
†Mvqvj›` ZLb KvQvKvwQ n‡e (c‡i ï‡bwQ DovKv›`v)| ILv‡b
j½iLvbv †Lvjv n‡q‡Q| ¯’vbxq Ges ivRevoxi eo †jvK‡`i
mnvqZvq| AbvnviwK¬ó A‡b‡K bvwK ILv‡b ‡MªvMÖv‡m †L‡q ILv‡bB
X‡j c‡i‡Q| nvwi‡q hvIqvi ev”Pv‡`i Rb¨ GLv‡b `y‡Uv GwZgLvbv
†Lvjv n‡q‡Q| gv-evev †_‡K wQU‡K †Kv_vq †K †Kvb nw`m bvB|
Avgvi gv AR cvovMuv‡qi gvbyl n‡jI `ywbqvi nvj nwKK‡Zi Lei
ivL‡Zv| eyw×I wKQy wQj| Mnbvi gvqv †hgb Av‡MI mvsmvwiK
cÖ‡qvR‡b AKvZ‡i Z¨vM K‡i‡Q GeviI me †e‡P Pvj wK‡b N‡ii
†g‡S‡Z cyu‡Z ivL‡jv| Avi mwZ¨ G‡jv †mB `ywf©¶| iv¯—v Nv‡U nvRvi
nvRvi Lvevi cÖZ¨vkx gvbyl| eRiv RvZxq Pv‡ji †`vKv‡b nvZvnvwZ|
jvR j¾v Z¨vM K‡i †g‡qivI †ewo‡q c‡o‡Q c‡_ | evevi Kv‡Q
ïbZvg KjKvZvi K_v| KvM‡R QweI †`LwQ | Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi
weL¨vZ QweUvI †`‡LwQ| ‡Pv‡LI †`‡LwQ|
gv fvZ ivbœvi mgq wKQy Pvj I cÖPzi cvwb w`‡q iuva‡Zv †hUv
c‡_ `uvwo‡q w`‡ZI †ek †eM †c‡Z n‡Zv| †hw`b evevi _vjvq GKRb
e‡m c‡o †mw`‡bi ci †_‡K †Mvc‡b `iRv Gu‡U fvZ †LZvg Avgiv|

¯§„wZ‡Z Av‡Mi w`‡bi C`
GLb †hUv C`Mv‡ni gq`vb IUv wQj Avi.Gm.†K.
BwbwówUDkb Gi †Ljvi gvV| KvM‡R Kj‡g bv _vK‡jI ‡ij
KË…c‡¶i c~b© m¤§wZ wb‡q ¯’vqx †Mvj †cv÷ wbg©vb Avi evrmwiK
µxovbyóvb eivei IB LvbUv‡ZB nZ| Avi mvavi‡bi Kv‡Q Avi Gm
†K ¯‹z‡ji gvV e‡jB GUv cwiwPwZ cvq|
AvR †mUv we¯§„Z n‡q †M‡Q Town club Gi gv‡Vi g‡ZvB| †hLv‡b
dyUej QvovI Tenis †KvU wQj| Avi wbqwgZ cwiPh¨©vI nZ| wejywßi
ïi“ wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i mgq †Mviv ‰mb¨‡`i K¨v¤ú, Zvici wekvj PvKvi
72 |

UªvKUi G‡j GUvi Dc‡hvMxZvi cÖ`k©bx †`Lv‡Z wM‡q cy‡iv gvVUv P‡l
†djv nq| Avi AvR‡Zv Office Avi evs‡jvq cy‡ivUvB wejyß|
C‡`i cÖavb RvgvhvZ n‡Zv Iqv‡R`b †bQv †gvm‡jg ‡evwW©sUvi mvg‡b
eo †Rvi 150 × 150dzU g‡Zv GK dvwj RvqMvUv‡Z hvi Pvi cv‡k 10
dzU PIov Lvj †ewóZ| gvS eivei DIi `w¶b cvKv BgviZ w`‡h `yB
fv‡M wef³| Kv‡Vi cyjUv cvi n‡qB ILv‡b hvevi e¨e¯’v, Avi H GK
wPj‡Z RvqMv Uv‡ZB gymj­x‡`i m¼zjvb n‡q †hZ|
GB RvqMvUv Avi BgviZUv c`gw`i Rwg`vi Kb¨v wbtmš—vb
giûgv Iqv‡R`b †bQvi ¯§„wZ i¶v‡_© Zuvi ¯^vgx ˆmq` kvgmyj û`v
B.L. KZ…K cÖwZwôZ nq gyjZ t wk¶vbyivMx gymjgvb Qv·`i Avevmb
mgm¨vi mgvavb K‡í 1915 mv‡j | cieËx© Kv‡j National Bank
Avi Av`k© gwnjv K‡j‡Ri cÖwZôvq gyj BgviZUv wejyß Ges Lvj
fivU n‡q K‡j‡Ri myPvi“i“‡c m¼zjvb n‡q †M‡Q |
gymjgvb‡`i C` eQ‡i `yBUv, GKUv igRvb †k‡l bZzb Puv‡`i
ïi“‡Z Ab¨Uv †Kvievbx wRjnR gv‡mi 10 Zvwi‡L, †evRvi †k‡li
C`UvB we‡kl Lywki Av‡gR e‡q Avb‡Zv| mKvj †_‡KB me evox‡ZB
GKUv mvR mvR ie c‡o †hZ| jvj i‡Oi jvBdeq mvevb w`‡q
evev‡K †`LZvg A‡bK¶b a‡i †dbvq XvKv c‡o _vK‡Z| Zvici
†Pv¯— cvRvgv †Mvovjx‡Z †cvó KvW© AvU‡K †U‡b †U‡b Dc‡i DVv‡bvi
KmiZ Ki‡Z, AvPKvb Zvi Dci Avevi †evZvgnxb DwKj‡`i MvD‡bi
g‡Zv †PvMv| Zv ‡mUv †h FZz‡ZB †nvK| gv_vq Kv‡jv †fj‡f‡Ui DPz
Uzwc †mUv †Mvj GKUv KvM‡Ri ev‡· Avjgvixi GKUv †Kvb `Lj K‡i
_vK‡Zv mvivUv eQi|
ev·Uv Lyj‡j b¨vc _vwj‡bi M‡Ü NiUv f‡i †hZ| †Pv‡L m~igv Avi
Kv‡b AvZi‡fRv Zy‡jv| nvZ a‡i AvwgI †cŠ‡Q †hZvg Avi cÖ_ g
mvwi‡Z emvi my‡hvMI †cZvg| mevi †ekfylv cÖvq GKB iKg ïay
Kv‡iv Kv‡iv gv_vq SywUIqvjv jvj‡dR|
bvgv‡Ri wbav©wiZ mgq GKUv wQj wbðq, Z‡e †mUv wKfv‡e
cÖPvi †cZ Rvwbbv Avi †mUv †h Lyi ¸i“Ë¡ w`‡q mevB cvjb Ki‡Zb
g‡b nq bv| gvb¨ei mevi Dcw¯’wZ wbwðZ n‡Z Dcw¯’wZi gv‡S mÜvb
Avi c‡_i cv‡b DrmyK `„wó| dKiDwÏb KvKv ( cÖv³b †Pqvig¨vb
73 |

wgDwbwm c¨vwjwU) Avm‡Zb e›`yK wb‡q| †gvUv gywU Dcw¯’wZ wbwðZ
n‡j Avãyj Rwjj wgqvi evoxi DPz Avg MvQUvi gMWvj j¶¨ K‡i
GKUv ¸wj Quyo‡Zb GUvB Last signal Gi `ywgwbU ci Bgv‡gi Bkviv
†c‡j wØZxq †`Io Ges bvgvR ïi“| gvB‡Ki cÖPjb ZLbI ïi“ nqwb
gvB‡Ki cÖPjb nq 1954 mv‡j| gymwjg jxM, hy³ d«‡›Ui wei“‡×
wbe©vP‡bi cÖPvivwfhv‡b GKUv gvBK †`q Avi †mUv †Mvhvj‡›`i
b„i“jnK ‡gvj­v e¨venvi Ki‡Zb| wbe©vP‡b fivWyex n‡j Dwb IUv Avi
cvwU©‡K †diZ †`bbv| UzKUvK †givgwZ iß K‡i wZwb byi“ gvBK
wnmv‡e cwiwPwZ cvb| (gv‡ovqvox cwƇZ GKUv Ni wb‡q e¨vemv
Pvjv‡Zb| †Mvqvj‡›`i b~ivj cvMj Zvi mvM‡i` wkl¨ wQj| XvKv
†_‡K Avmvi c‡_ Zivi NvU †bŠKvq cvo n‡Z wM‡q wZwb Wy‡e gviv
hvb|) cÖwZ KvZv‡i †gv³v`x wb‡qvM †`Iqv n‡Zv huviv Bgv‡gi i“Kz
†mR`vi ms‡KZ D”P¯^‡i Rvbvb w`‡Zb|
bvgvR †k‡l †KvjvKzwj Avi K`geywQi cvjv| mevi mv‡_
mevi †Pbv, A‡Pbv| Avgv‡`i cÖvwß A‡Xj cqmv mevi KvQ †_‡KB|
†divi c‡_ Kv‡iv bv Kv‡iv evox _vg‡ZB n‡Zv| g‡b c‡i Ggwb GK
evox‡Z Avgv‡`i LuvwU MvIqv wN‡q fvRv c‡ivUv Avi gyiMxi †Mv¯—
cwi‡ekb Kiv n‡q‡Q| `yB nvZ w`‡q c‡ivUv wQuo‡Z †M‡j evevi
Bkvivq Zvi g‡Zv K‡i ga¨gv, ZR©bx Avi e„×v½yjx w`‡q wKQy‡ZB Avwg
iß Ki‡Z cvijvg bv †mUv|
c‡K‡U A‡Xj cqmv, evox wd‡iB Avwg Avi K¨vejv (Avgvbyj­v) P‡j
†hZvg nvivb wgqvi cv‡bi †`vKv‡b|
wekvj ‡m¸b MvQ Zjvq euv‡ki guvvPv (eË©gv‡b Press club
Uvi DI‡i) _‡i _‡i mvRv‡bv †mvWv IqvUvi Avi cvKv Rvg i‡Oi cvwb
fiv VIMTO- ‡evZj| I¸‡jv Avm‡Zv KjKvZv †_‡K |
†evZj¸‡jvi AvK…wZ A™¢yZ, gy‡Li Kv‡Q †fZi w`KUvq ivev‡ii GKUv
wis, †mLv‡b †fZi †_‡K AvU‡K Av‡Q Kuv‡Pi GKUv gv‡e©j M¨v‡mi
Pv‡c, evg nv‡Zi ey‡ov Av½yj fuvR K‡i gyLUvq ‡i‡L Av½yjfuvR K‡i
gywóe× Wvb nvZ w`‡q nvZzwoi g‡Zv AvNvZ Ki‡j †duvm K‡i kã Zz‡j
gv‡e©jUv wb‡P †b‡g gyLUv Ly‡j †hZ e‡U Z‡e Zjvq bv c‡o Mjvi
Kv‡Q Pvcv bvjvUvq wM‡q w¯’Z nZ | †evZjUv Dcyi Ki‡j Avevi
74 |

gv‡e©jUv wd‡i G‡m gyLUv AvU‡K bv †d‡j ‡mRb¨ I Lv‡b `y‡Uv evB‡i
†_‡K †Uvm LvIqv wXwe‡Z AvU‡K _vK‡Zv | ‡mvWv IqvUvi †cU duvcv
e` nRg BZ¨vw` Dcm‡M© Wv³viiv weavb w`‡Zb| AwfRvZ †kªbxi
e¨vw³iv †mvgi‡mi mv‡_ wgwk‡qI cvb Ki‡Zb| Avevi ï‡bwQ
KjKvZvi `v½vi mgq GB †evZj †ek K‡i SuvwK‡q cÖwZc‡¶i w`‡K
Quy‡o †`Iqv n‡Zv †evgvi weKí wnmv‡e | weKU k‡ã †d‡U wM‡q Kuv‡Pi
UzK‡iv Qwo‡q co‡Zv PZzw`©‡K| A‡bK c‡i Avgv‡`i GLv‡b Lwjj Lvb
bv‡gi cvÄvexGK f`ª‡jvK mgi wms PË¡‡i †mvWv IqvUvi ˆZixi
d¨v±ix ¯’vcb K‡ib| wZwb LyiB DPz gv‡bi Foolball player wQ‡jb
AviRailway Team Gi wbqwgZ †Lj‡Zb|
‡Zv †mB nvivb wgqvi †`vKv‡bi cvKv Rvg i‡Oi cvbxq
VIMTO-wQj Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q AvKl©bxq hvi ¯^v` wb‡Z wM‡q wRe avi
n‡q †hZ| me Svj Svj jvM‡Zv Zey IUvi iO Avi eyoeywo †Zvjv cvwb
†L‡Z c‡K‡Ui PviAvbv LiP Ki‡Z wcQcv †nvZvg bv| Zvici Gc_
Ic_ mvivw`b AKvib nvUvnvwU, †Nviv‡div D‡Ïk¨nxb| bZyb Ry‡Zvq
cv‡qi †dvmKv ïay GKv AvgviB bq|
mvivUv igRvb gvm Pj‡Zv evox evox †hŠ_ fv‡e nv‡Z ˆZix
†mgvB evbv‡bvi Drme| †g‡q eD wSiv M‡í nvwm‡Z fwi‡q Zzj‡Zb
evoxUv| †KD GKv mi“ Pv‡ji g‡Zv wcwo‡Z Wjv w`‡q Wvjvq fi‡Qb
†hUvq mvnvh¨Kvixi cÖ‡qvRb n‡Zv bv|
wKš‘ †hUv DPz †_‡K gq`vi `jv `yB nv‡Zi Wjvq m~‡Zvi g‡Zv
Sz‡j co‡Zv wb‡Pi Wvjv ev Kz‡jv‡Z b·vKvi mvRv‡Z mvnvh¨Kvixi
cÖ‡qvRb n‡Zv, †mUvq whwb hZ mi“ evbv‡Z cvi‡Zb Z‡Zv K`i Zuvi|
Avgiv ev”Pviv gnvDrmv‡n Wvjv †iv‡` w`‡Z †`ŠovZvg| †KD †KD
QvZv gv_vq cvUKvwV wb‡q KvK Zvov‡Z Vvq e‡m| w`bv‡š— †KD †KD
Aby‡hvM wb‡q wdi‡Zb Amgvß Wvjv wb‡q Kvj Avmevi A½xKvi K‡i|
wcZ‡ji nvZj Iqvjv GKUv †QvU †mgvB Kj cvVv‡jb evev KjKvZv
†_‡K hvi PvKwZ e`‡j mi“ †gvUv †mgvB evbv‡bv †hZ| G‡Z fxo
Av‡iv evo‡jv| gv †ev‡biv wnsmv †k‡Lwb ZvB †KD wegyL n‡q wd‡i
†M‡Qb g‡b c‡o bv| †mB †Ku‡Pvi g‡Zv †mgvBI LuvwU MvIqv wN Avi
mvMiKv›`xi `y‡a ivbœv †m ¯^v` Av‡Rv wR‡f| Avi Avm‡Zv bvbvevox
75 |

†_‡K cvKv Pvj Kzg‡ov| PvK PvK K‡i wm× K‡i wPwbi i‡m †fRv‡bv
†gviveŸv C‡`i Av‡MB Avgvi †`Šov‡Z¥ jywK‡qI gv i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡Zv
bv|
mvZv‡ki igRv‡bi †g‡n`x jvMv‡bv †m GK Gjvnx e¨vcvi
‡g‡nw` cvZvi mÜv‡b P‡j †hZvg gb¥_ †m‡bi evMv‡b| bKkv`v‡ii
dzimZ bvB| †KD `yB nv‡Z jvwM‡q Vvq e‡m| †KD Avj‡Mv‡Q GK
nvZ w`‡q UywKUvwK KvR mvi‡Q|
Avwg wnsmy‡UB wQjvg e‡U| we‡klZt †QvU †evbUv Rb¥ wb‡j
gv‡qi †Kv‡ji Askx n‡jv e‡j Av‡µvkUv Ii DciB †ekx Avgvi|
GK w`b Lv‡`i cv‡k `uvwo‡q fvB †ev‡b KB gv‡Qi †jR SvcUv‡bv
†`LwQ| w`jvg av°v| Zwj‡qI †Mj| c_Pvix GKRb fvwM¨m †`‡L
†d‡jwQj bvn‡j †mw`bB Ii n‡q †hZ | Iiv C‡` ‡KvZ©v, cvqRvgv,
m¨v‡Ûj, Iobv, Pzwo †bj cvwjk Av‡iv KZ wK cvq| Avgvi gvÎ wZb
c`| evowZ cÖvc¨ Avgvi b¨vh¨ `vwe | gv‡qi Av‡M cyÎ mš—vb GKUvI
†U‡Kwb | fvjevmv fi K‡i‡Q `ye©jZvq| nvi Zvi GKUvB| wRZ
Avgvi me©Î | PvIqv †hgb jvMvgnxb cvIqvI †Zgwb Aš—nxb| evev
PvKix m~‡Î KjKvZvq QywU QvUvh evox G‡j kvš— †Q‡ji g‡ZvB
wbwe©ev‡` Av‡`k cvjb Kwi Avi w`b ¸wb QywU dz‡ivevi|
HKv‡j †iwW‡gW Kvc‡oi †`vKvb wQjbv GLv‡b| mevB Øvi¯’ Lwjdvi
Kv‡Q| bvgKiv Lwjdv c‡bi w`b Av‡M †_‡KB AW©vi †bIqv eÜ K‡i
w`‡q‡Qb, A‡bK †ZvqvR K‡iB Zv‡`i Kv‡Q GKUv AW©vi MQv‡Z
cvo‡j ab¨ n‡q †h‡Zb Late comer iv| cvÄvex ˆZix‡Z weL¨vZ
wQ‡jb `v‡mi Wv½xi Rbve ingZ Avjx, Kz`iZ Dj­v,Avãyj Rwjj|
cvÄvexi wWRvB‡bI wewfbœZv| †ZovMjv †hUvi Mjvq †evZv‡gi e`‡j
_vK‡Zv Kvejx gUi AvK„wZi Kvc‡oi ej hv †`vj †L‡Zv ey‡Ki
†KvbvUvq| nvB Kjvi, Kwj­`vi †Xvjv nvZv Pzwo nvZv |
‡mŠwLb wKQy e¨vw³ Avevi †gwk‡bi †mjvB co‡Zb bv| Zuv‡`i
cvÄvexnv‡Z †mjvB | gyRyixI PZz©¸Y| GUvc‡o M‡e©i mv‡_B Pj‡Zb
Zuviv| Avi †h ey‡ovUv Bqv †gvUv Kvu‡Pi Pkgv c‡o GKg‡b †mjvB
K‡i P‡j‡Q wbLuyZ Zuvi nv‡Zi KvR, widz Ki‡Zb, †evSvB †hZbv
†Kv_vq †mB †du‡m hvIqv RvqMvUv| †KD †KD Mx‡j Kiv cvÄvex
76 |

co‡Zb †hUv e¨vqmva¨ Avi GKeviB cov Pj‡Zv †mUv| Lye †mŠwLb
Qvov mvavi‡bi bvMv‡ji evB‡i| we‡kl cÖwkw¶Z KvwiMi Qvov mvavib
jÛªx‡Z GUv Ki‡ZI cvi‡Zv bv| gyiMxi Mx‡j AvK…wZi GKai‡bi
d‡ji wePx w`‡q Kiv n‡Zv KzwPUv Avi GRb¨B GUvi GB bvgKib|
Avi we‡kl †h cvÄvex co‡Zb Ab½ VvKzi (†`‡e›`ª weRq PµeËx© )
†ZgbUv Ibvi Av‡M †hgb †KD c‡ob wb †Zgwb Zuvi g„Z¨i ci AvRI
†KD c‡ob bv| Lyi m¤¢eZt wZwb KjKvZvq Zvi fwMœcwZ e½evmx
K‡j‡Ri Aa¨¶ Rx‡Z›`ª bv_ PµeËx©i evmvq covïbv Ki‡Z wM‡q
UvwjM‡Äi wm‡bgv cvovq my¨U c¨v›U c‡o †Nviv †div ïi“ K‡ib Avi
GK `vjv‡ji mv‡_ fve K‡i m¤¢eZt mywUs‡qI Ask †bb| Z‡e eBUv
wiwjR n‡j cwiev‡ii mevB †`L‡Z wM‡q c`v©q Ibv‡K †`Lv qvq bv|
`vjvj‡K cvKovI Ki‡j Reve cvb- m¤¢eZ t GwWwUs‡q ev` c‡o‡Q|
cwð‡g e‡½i wewkó mvwnZ¨K Ibvi fvM‡b Kwe bx‡i›`ªbv_ PµeËx©i
fvlvq G ‡Kgb bvqK †h GwWwUs‡qB ev` c‡o hvq| covkybvi †P‡q
Qv‡` Nywo Iov‡bv Avi cv‡ki evoxi my›`ix †g‡qUv‡K wXj †ue‡a †cÖg
cÎ †jLv‡ZB Zuvi KjKvZvi evm †Q‡o wd‡i Avm‡Z nq| Zuvi weL¨vZ
cvÄvexi c¨vUvb©Uv m¤¢et ILvbKviB AR©b| ivRevox‡ZI wZwb g‡Â
Awfbq Ki‡Zb|
Uvbv Uvbv †Pv‡L †mvbvi d«‡gi Pkgv, †Muvd Avi cvÄvex QvovI
AgvwqK e¨venv‡i wZwb mevi Kv‡Q AvKl©bxq wQ‡jb I bvi w`w`i we‡q
nh dwi`cy‡ii Pv`ªv MÖv‡g wkw¶Z, AwfRvZ cwiev‡i| w`w`i KjKvZvi
msmvi Rxeb ïi“ nq ¯^vgx we‡eKvb‡›`i gvZvi ‡mœn”Qvqvq | Ab½
VvKzi gviv qvb ivRevoxi Av‡iv `yB e¨w³Z¡ evey evgb `vm ¸nvivq I
e¨vemvqx weï`v‡mi g‡ZvB dwi`cyi †_‡K †U‡¤úv P‡o Avm‡Z wM‡q
evu‡ki Mvoxi mv‡_ av°v †L‡q | ¤§„wZ n‡q Av‡Q Zuvi weL¨vZ cvÄvex|
‡mjvB †gwk‡b ZLb AvR‡Ki g‡Zv `ª“Z Avi mvg‡b GwM‡q †mjvB
n‡Zv bv| Wvb †_‡K euv‡q †hRb¨ wiler wilson ‡Kv¤úvbxi GB
†gwkb¸‡jv‡K ¯’vbxq fvlvq eMv †gwkb ej‡Zv| Avm‡Zv Av‡gwiKv
†_‡K, Zvi ci G‡jv puff †gwkb | GKmgq Avwg Singer†Kv¤úvbxi
¯’vbxqAgent wQjvg ZLb ï‡bwQ puff †gwk‡bi mg¯— ¯^Ë¡ wK‡b wb‡q
KviLvbv †f‡½ †d‡j GK‡PwUqv wek¦ eRvi `L‡j †bq Singer|
77 |

‡g‡q‡`i d«K, KvwgR, NwU nvZv e­vDR GB wQj PjwZ| cyi“l‡`iI
dzj mv‡U©i nvZvq wZbUv wUc †evZvg Avi mvKv©‡mi gvóvi †L‡jvqv‡oi
g‡Zv KzwP †`Iqv, cvk c‡KU eyK c‡KU QvovI Kv‡iv Kv‡iv Nwo
c‡KU _vK‡Zv †QvU dz‡Uv Iqvjv | gvLb Wv³vi evey UvKv AvU fuvR
K‡i ILv‡bB XyKv‡Zb|
LwjdvcwÆi bv‡gi m~ÎcvZ ILv‡b mvwi mvwi Lwjdvi †`vKvb
†_‡KB| cvKv wekvj Bu`vivi cv‡k Avãyj Avjx mv‡n‡ei Kvco
†`vKvb | cÖwZwU †`vKv‡bB mevB Kg©e¨v¯—, †KD `y‡j `y‡j †evZv‡gi
NvU †mjvB Ki‡Q| †KDev Mjvq wd‡Z Szwj‡q Kvco KvUvq iZ
Avgv‡`i Uv KvUv nj wKbv †ivRB evB‡i †_‡K DuwKSywK †`B | bZzb
Rvgv evB‡i †eiB KiZvg bv|cv‡Q cy‡iv‡bv n‡q hvq | C‡`i w`b
mKv‡jI †`Lv †hZ `wR©i †`vKvb †_‡K m`¨ mgvß KvcoUv wb‡q wcZv
Qy‡U P‡j‡Q evox gy‡Lv| ev”Pvi gy‡L nvwm †dvUv‡Z wcZvi AvKyjZv|
Avi fxo †j‡M †hZ bvwcZ cwƇZ (Avgiv mgxn K‡i kxj gkvB ev
civgvwbK ejZvg)| mvi †eu‡a mvg‡bi †K‡ivwmb Kv‡Vi evK‡m
evwm‡q `yB nvUzi †KuwP K‡j gv_vUv AvU‡K cÖ_‡gB gv_vi A‡a©K eivie
†Mvj GKUv jvBb Kiv n‡Zv KuvwP w`‡q Gi ci Pj‡Zv wbP †_‡K Dc‡i
¶zi Avi KuvwPiKmiZ | †fvuZv ¶yi gv‡S g‡a¨ GZ `ªZZvi mv‡_
nv‡Zi Zvjy‡Z didi K‡i gm„b K‡i wbZ wkD‡i IVvi g‡Zv †m `„k¨,
GKUy †ni †di n‡jB Zvjy `y duvK | wKš—ybv Zv NU‡Zvbv| wekvj eU
MvQUvi Zjvq Avevi GKRb em‡Zb Kcv‡j gnvivbx wf‡±vwiqvi gv_v
Iqvjv i“‡cvi UvKv †mu‡U | gv‡S gv‡SB wZwb Rq gv wf‡±vixqv e‡j
û¼vi Qvo‡Zb| Ic‡ii Mv‡Qi Wv‡j weÁvcb, avb †¶‡Zi cUfywg‡Z
Pvlx gv_vj gv_vq Pv Lv‡”Q wb‡P †jLv MÖx®§i w`‡b Mig Pv , †evSv hvq
ZLb I Pv‡qi cÖmvi GZUv we¯Z…wZ jvf K‡iwb| wekvj PvKvq wd‡Z
ebeb K‡i Nyi‡Q cv_i| avi n‡”Q ¶zi KvuwP , Av¸‡bi dyjwK QyU‡Q
wKš‘ nvZ cyo‡Qbv| AevK KvÛ|
bimy›`i c_ Pj‡Z †`Lv †hZ †QvU GKUv ev· nv‡Z, UvBb g³‡ei
mvg‡b eUZjvq whwb em‡Zb Zvi Avevi ev· Qvov e¯—vq e‡m cÖvq
gy‡Li Dci G‡m co‡Zv Zvi ¯^vm cÖ¯^vm | Avgv‡`i wQj euvav gyKz›`
KvKv| eû e¨eüZ mv`v Pv`iUv Mjvq Gu‡U wMÆ w`‡q †mB †KwP K‡j |
78 |

cÖvb I ôvMZ | bovPov Ki‡jB eKybx| Avgv‡`i GLv‡b GB bimy›`i
†Mvwôi AvMgb I cÖwZôv †bvqvLvwj †_‡K, `jcwZ wewcb kxj, iRbx
kxj, fvlvb kxj, gwbkxj, ivgK„òkxj , Avi n‡i K…ò kx‡ji,
mn‡hvMxZvq|
GK †`k nIqvq †ev¤^vB‡Z Puv` †`Lv †M‡jI GLv‡b ciw`b C` Avi
†m msev` Avgiv †cZvg cÖkvmwbK `dZi †_‡K †UwjMÖv‡di gva¨‡g|
Radio ev Ab¨ †Kvb gva¨g wQjbv| 29 †k egRv‡b †i‡ji Ifvi
eªxRUvq kZ kZ †jvK cwðg gy‡Lv ZvwK‡q | hw` GKUv †ivRv †evbvm
cvIqv hvq| Avi hLb mwZ¨ mwZ¨ ‡i‡ji nvmcvZv‡ji mvg‡b †Rvov
Zvj MvQ`y‡Uvi duv‡K Puv‡`i dvwj †`Lv †`Lv w`Z, †m †h wK Dj­vm
mevi| bviv‡q ZKwei aŸwb w`‡K w`‡K , Rvbvb w`‡q †hZ C‡`i
mIMvZ| AvR Avi nqbv †i‡ji eªxRUvh †mB JrmyK¨ wb‡q RbZvi
fxo|
C‡`i †kl mI`v AvZi Avi Uzwc| c‡_i cv‡k _‡i _‡i mvRv‡bv iwOb
KvM‡Ri Uzwc ev”Pv‡`i| AvZi Iqvjv nv‡Zi D‡ëv w`‡K wQwc QyuB‡q
†µZv‡K M‡Üi †KŠwjbZ¨ †`Lv‡Z e¨v¯— |
Mi“ †Kvievbx Rwg`vi †`i GjvKvq wbwl× wQj | Avgv‡`i kn‡i
†Kvievbx †`Iqv n‡Zv cxi Zjvi R½‡j, Ggb wK eo gmwR‡`i
Ii‡mi Mi“I ILv‡b RevB w`‡q †Mv¯— e‡q Avbv n‡Zv| cÖKv‡k¨
†Kvievwb †`b M‡ni †gvj­v 1886mv‡j | D‡ËRbvKi cwiw¯’wZi D™¢e
nh | Av‡MB †mRb¨ wZwb PivÂj †_‡K jvwVqvj G‡b cÖ¯—Z _v‡Kb|
kn‡i GUvB cÖKv‡k¨ †Kvievbx ejv hvq| G m¤úwK©Z GKUv gRvi Rb
kªwZ Av‡Q| wmwjgcyi MÖv‡gi g‡hR DwÏb gÛ‡ji wcZv P‡i †Kvievbx
†`b | ivRvi Kv‡Q msev` Av‡m wZwb †cqv`v cvwV‡q ‡W‡K wb‡q
e‡jb, Zzwg‡Zv Rvb Avgvi Rwg‡Z †Mv nZ¨v wbwl× | g‡qR DwÏb
mv‡n‡ei wcZv e‡jb , ûRyi Avgv‡`i a‡g©i A½ GUv, Aciva ¶gv
Ki“b| ivRv m~h¨© Kzgvi Kzwo UvKv Rwigvbv avq©¨ Ki‡j wZwb Pwj­k
UvKv w`‡q cÖv_©bv Rvbv‡jb ûRyi , Avwg Avi GKUv †Kvievbx †`e GB
Zvi Rwigvbvi A_©| ivRv Gi ci †Kvievbx `vZvi bq, whwb Awf‡qvM
wb‡q Avm‡eb Zvi Rwigvbv w`‡Z n‡e GgbUv digvb Rvix K‡ib |
79 |

Avi Gi ci †_‡KB cÖKv‡k¨ bv n‡jI †hŠ_ fv‡e cÖfvekvjx e¨vw³‡`i
evox‡Z †Kvievbx GLv‡b Pvjy n‡q hvq|
KvRxKv›`vq gmwR` M‡o I‡V bevex Avg‡j Rj`my¨ `g‡b AvMZ †mbv
evwnbx Øviv 1760 mv‡j| jv‡LovR m¤úwË Avi gymjgv‡b i“gx es‡ki
nv‡Z Gi i¶bv †e¶‡bi fviw`‡h hvIqvq GLv‡b Rwg`vixi KZ…Ë¡
wQjbv| ‡mRb¨ GLv‡b †Kvievbx cÖPwjZ Av‡M †_‡KB| Avi ivRevox
kn‡i gymjgvb emwZi m~ÎcvZ GLv‡bB|
†kl cwi‡”Q‡`i Ask we‡k‡li Z_¨ w`‡h `v‡mi Wv½xi Rbve ingZ
Avjx K…ZÁZvq Ave× K‡i‡Qb|
c~e©cyi“l†mw`b †_‡K AvR
ZrKvjxb b`xqv †Rjvi gv_vfv½v b`xi Zx‡i KvRxcyi MÖv‡g
Avgvi `v`vi wcZv Kzb Kzb Avjx †mL evm Ki‡Zb| Zuvi c~e©cyi“l
m¤ú‡K© wewfbœZv _vK‡jI GKUv wel‡q mevB GKgZ †h wZwb GZ`
A‡ji Avw`evmx bb| ˆRbcyi wbevmx Ges †mbvcwZ Kzuqvi wms Gi
ˆmb¨ evwnbxi m`m¨ wQ‡jb| †Kvb GK hy‡× civRq wbwðZ †R‡b
cvwj‡q GB GjvKvq Avkªq †bb| wZwb AZ¨š— mycyi“l wQ‡jb| GUvi
mZ¨Zv cvIqv hvq Avgv‡`i eskavivi huviv †hLv‡b Av‡Qb cuvP cyi“l
c‡iI †Pnvivi mv`„k¨ †hgb- AvRvby jw¤^Z nvZ, jvj †PvL Ges
¯’vbxq‡`i †P‡q j¤^v Ges ¯^Zš¿ ¯^fv‡ei| †Kvb †Kvb kvLvi m`m¨iv
A`¨vewa wnw›` evsjv wgwj‡q wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ K_v e‡j|
ZLbKvi w`‡b Rwgi †Kbv †ePvi cÖPjb wQj bv| Rwg`v‡ii m¤úwË
LvRbv w`‡q †h‡Kvb cwigvb RvqMv e¨env‡ii evav wQj bv| Kzb Kzb
Avjx †m‡Li wcZv mvavib KzwUi wbg©vY K‡i wbevm M‡o †Zv‡jb
GKvKx| b`x‡Z mªvb Ki‡Z Avmv GK wn›`y weaev gwnjv Zuvi †mŠ›`‡h©
AvK…ó n‡q, mgv‡Ri Pig we‡ivwaZv D‡c¶v K‡i ci¯úi we‡q K‡ib|
GB `yBR‡bi Ji‡kB Avgvi `v`vi wcZv KzbKzb Avjx †k‡Li Rb¥|
m¤¢eZ mgv‡R cwZZ nIqvq Kzb Kzb Avjx †m‡Li †Kvb AvZ¥xqZvi
m~Î H A‡j cvIqv hvq bv| Kzb Kzb Avjx †kL Gi Pvi cyÎ| Avgvi
80 |

`v`v ˆR¨ô evei Avjx †mL, wØZxq evey †mL, Z…Zxq Kvjy †mL I
me©Kwbô ¸j †gvnv¤§` †mL|
Z…Zxq cyÎ Kvjy †mL †mB mg‡q e›`y‡Ki AwaKvix wQ‡jb weavq avibv
nq wZwb Bs‡iR‡`i ekse` †KD n‡eb| Zuvi cyÎ gwRi“wÏb †mLI
e›`yK ivLvi AbygwZ cvb I wKse`wš—i g‡Zv Zuvi wkKvi Kvwnbx Av‡Rv
†jvK gy‡L cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| eo ai‡bi wkKvi Ki‡jB Avgv‡`i GLv‡b
Zvi bgybv cvwV‡q w`‡Zb ev‡Ni `uvZ¸‡jv Avgv‡`i †Q‡j‡ejvq †Ljvi
miÄvg wQj| Rxe‡b GKeviB Zuvi j¶¨åó nq I wZwb wbnZ nb|
wØZxq cyÎ evey †mL evg›`x A‡j bZzb wbevm M‡o P‡j Av‡mb| Zuvi
cÖ_g cyÎ †Lv`v e‡·i cyÎ Lwjj DwÏb †m‡Li eskaiMY eZ©gv‡b
wk¶vq I m¤ú‡` we‡k¦i wewfbœ A‡j Qwo‡q †M‡Q PZz_© ¸j †gvnv¤§`
†mL e¨emvqxK m¤ú‡K© M‡o IVv eÜzi Aby‡iv‡a †evqvjgvix w¯’Z nb|
‰Rô¨ cyÎ evei Avjx †mL Avgvi `v`v ivRevox P‡j Av‡mb 1920
mv‡ji wKQz Av‡M| cwiev‡ii m`m¨ msL¨v e„w× Avi KvRxcyi A‡j
Pvlvev` Qvov e¨emv ev Av‡qi Ab¨ †Kvb my‡hvM bv _vKvq cwiev‡ii
wbR wbR myweav g‡Zv RvqMvq bZzb K‡i emevm ïi“ K‡ib| KvRxcy‡i
†_‡K hvb Z…Zxq cyÎ gwRi“wχbi eska‡iiv I Avgvi GK dzcy †mZviv
evby| Avgvi gv‡qi we‡qi ciI ILv‡b hvZvqvZ eRvq _v‡K| †hUv
µ‡g ¶xY n‡Z n‡Z AvR Avi †bB ej‡jB P‡j|
KvRxcyi A‡ji †jv‡Kiv mvavibZ bgª I wgófvlx| GB gvwR©Z I
ï× bgªZvq Avgvi evevi ˆkke †K‡U‡Q e‡jB Avgiv XvKv _vKvKvjxb
mgq 1947-55 hLb avbgwÊ GjvKvq Rwgi `vg cÖwZweNv 100 UvKv|
evev‡K GKUv RvqMv wK‡b evm Kivi K_v ejvq Reve w`‡q‡QbGLv‡b evm Kiv P‡j bv, GLvbKvi †jv‡Kiv K_vq K_vq nvjv e‡j|
Akvjxb K_v ejv ev †kvbvq Af¨¯’ n‡Z cv‡ibwb e‡jB ¯’vbxq Kv‡iv
mv‡_B mL¨Zv M‡o I‡Vwb| bxj‡¶‡Z _vKvi mgq Awdm QywUi c‡i
P‡j †h‡Zb ¯‹z‡ji mncvVx Rbve Avãyj AvwR‡Ri evmvq| whwb ZLb
XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q AsK cov‡Zb miKvix cÖkvmwbK PvKzix B¯—dv w`‡q
G‡m| wekvj gvVUvi eo eo Nv‡mi gv‡S cv‡q Pjv c_ nvwZicy‡j
†hLvbUvq Dwb evm Ki‡Zb| wgUvi‡M‡Ri †Ljbvi g‡Zv Mvwo¸‡jv
cyjUvi wbPz w`‡q cy‡iv gvVUv †Ni w`‡q DËi †_‡K †gwW‡Kj K‡jRUvi
81 |

†cQb w`‡q P‡j †hZ dzjevoxqv †ók‡b| †Q‡j‡ejvq `yR‡b GK mv‡_
wZb gvBj Povi evjyi DËß c‡_ L‡oi m¨v‡Êj evwb‡q cv‡q †eu‡a
`~‡ii wkKvicyi ¯‹z‡j †h‡Zb| covi eB‡qi Afve wgwU‡q‡Qb
mncvwV‡`i KvQ †_‡K|
`yÕRbB KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K cÖ_g wefv‡M 1918 mv‡j cvk
K‡ib| H A‡j †Kvb gymjgvb †Q‡j Ggb fvj fv‡e cvk Kivq
RbMY ¯^Ztù~Z© fv‡e Ibv‡`i Kuv‡a wb‡q wgwQj †ei K‡i| evevi
g‡Zv Aw_©K m¼U bv _vKvq Avt AvwRR mv‡ne D”PZi wk¶vi my‡hvM
†c‡q‡Qb| evev Zv cvbwb|
wkï eq‡m evev‡K gv`ªvmvq co‡Z †`Iqv nq| Pvi eQi ci G‡m
†`‡Lb †Ljvi mvw_iv BsivRx‡Z K_v ejv wk‡L‡Q| GUv Zvi g‡b Lye
cxov †`q| wbR wcZvi AbvMÖ‡n PvPv‡K wM‡q Ave`vi a‡ib Bs‡iRx
¯‹z‡j covi Rb¨| PvPv eva¨ n‡q wkKvicyi ¯‹z‡j Mixe QvÎe„wË gvwmK
GK UvKvi A‡a©K nvd wd« Kiv‡Z m¶g nb PZz_© †kªYx‡Z| GB AvU
Avbv gvwmK H PvPvB w`‡Zb| ci eQi †_‡K Avi †mUv w`‡Z nq bvB|
†gav I QvÎ wnmv‡e eivei cyi®K…Z n‡q‡Qb| Path to Rome
BwZnv‡mi †miv QvÎ wnmv‡e Bs‡iRx eBUv cvb lô †kªYx‡Z m‡e©v”P
b¤^i cvIqvq|
mgm¨v †`Lv w`j G›Uªvm cvk Kivi ci| †Pbv Rvbv Ggb †KDB RM‡Z
bvB whwb mvnv‡h¨i nvZ evwo‡q †`b| ZeyI evev Awbwð‡Zi c‡_
ivRkvnx P‡j hvb| eû K‡ó GK `v‡ivMvi evmvq `yBUv †Q‡j cwo‡q
K‡j‡R fwZ© nb| LvIqv _vKvI ILv‡bB| eQi †`‡oK c‡iB f`ª‡jvK
e`jx n‡q Ab¨Î P‡j hvb| evev ZLb ag©vš—wiZ n‡q covi e¨e¯’v
Ki‡eb w¯’i K‡ib| H A‡j ZLb cv`ªx mv‡neiv ag©vš—wiZ‡`i me
ai‡bi mvnvh¨ w`Z| gb w¯’i K‡i| evev wbR wcZv gvZvi Kv‡Q we`vq
wb‡Z Av‡mb| †Mvcb iv‡Lb g~j D‡Ïk¨ Zey †mUv †Mvcb _v‡Kwb Ges
evev AvUKv c‡ob|
RxweKvi mÜv‡b `v`v ivRevox P‡j Av‡mb Avgvi GK dzcy †Rv‡e`v
†eM‡gi ¯^vgxi civg‡k©| wKQyw`b †mLv‡b AvkªqI †`b wZwb| we‡q
w`‡q †Q‡j‡K msmvi Kivi B”Qvq åvZv ¸j †gvnv¤§‡`i Kv‡Q cvÎxi
mÜvb Ki‡Z Aby‡iva K‡ib| `v`v ¸j †gvnv¤§‡`i GK eÜz whwb my›`i
82 |

cuyw_ cvV Ki‡Zb Avgvi gv‡qi gvgv| †hLv‡b gv cÖvqB em‡Zb wM‡q|
Zuv‡K `v`v Aby‡iva Kivq Avgvi bvbv Zvi GB wk¶vbyivMx GKgvÎ
†g‡q‡K wkw¶Z †Q‡ji mv‡_ we‡q w`‡Z ivRx nb Ges evevi covi
LiPI enb Ki‡eb GgbUv ¯^xKvi K‡ib| ZeyI evev we‡q‡Z ivRx nb
bvB| wKš‘ covi my‡hvM cvIqv hv‡e †mRb¨ ¯^xKvi K‡ib| gv‡S
cvwj‡q hveviI †Póv K‡i wedj nb| †g‡q †`Lvi cÖ‡qvRbI †eva
K‡ib bvB|
evev dwi`cyi K‡j‡R fwZ© nb| †m mg‡q dwi`cyi ev †evqvjgvix
hvevi GKgvÎ Dcvq Mi“i Mvox ev cv‡q nuvUv| bvbv‡K wZwik gvBj
c_ Gfv‡e G‡mB †g‡q‡K †Pv‡Li †`Lv †`‡L ‡h‡Z n‡Zv| `v`x dzcy
hviv wQ‡jb cy‡iv‡bv †mB GKB gvbwmKZvq g¾vMZ- evoxi eD
†m‡Zv G‡m‡Q mK‡ji me Pvwn`v cyi‡Yi Rb¨| Zvi ev Zvi cwiev‡ii
¯’vb mggh©v`vi KLbB bq| †Kv_vI †Kv_vI †`LvI Ki‡Z †`Iqv n‡Zv
bv|
bvbvi GKgvÎ mš—vb †h `y‡a fv‡Z jvwjZ n‡q‡Q wcZ…M„‡n, Zvi
fv‡M¨I Gi Ab¨_v nqwb| hw`I gv cwikªgx, ¯^v¯’¨eZx Avi my›`ixI
wQ‡jb| bvbv GKevi G‡m †mw`bB wd‡i †h‡Z eva¨ n‡jb AK¤§v
†g‡qi wdwiw¯— ï‡b| g‡bvKó Ges GZUv c_ Mi“ Mvoxi SuvKzwb‡Z
wZwb evox wd‡i Amy¯’ n‡q c‡ob| evevi covi LiP Pvjv‡bvi mvg_©I
Zvi _v‡K bv| gv‡qi `yM©wZ ZLb Pi‡g| †cU f‡i wbR nv‡Z ivbœvi
LveviI Zvi fv‡M¨ †Rv‡Uwb| bbw`bx ivq evwNbx| GUv cÖev` bq,
mZ¨|
‡eKvi evev c~e© cwiwP‡Zi m~Î a‡i †i‡ji wbe©vnx cÖ‡KŠkjx (XEN)
wc¯—vbRxi mv‡_ †`Lv K‡ib| H mv‡ne AZ¨š— fvj gvbyl wQ‡jb|
evev‡K †i‡j G.wc.Wve­yD.AvB. (A.P.W.I) wnmv‡e PvKzixi mycvwik
K‡i RvgbMi cvwV‡q †`b|
mviv fvi‡Zi †hLv‡b †hLv‡b bZzb †ijc_ ïi“ n‡”Q †mLv‡b
evev A‡bK †Kv¤úvbx‡Z PvKzix K‡ib Ges A‡Xj A_© m¤ú‡`i gvwjK
nb| †QvU fvB‡K A¨vjywgwbqvg ˆZRmc‡Îi †`vKvb QvovI wejvwmZvi
ZrKvjxb me DcKiY AvqË K‡ib| mvB‡Kj, Nwo, MÖv‡gv‡dvb,
e›`yK| Rwg wR‡iZI Kg bq| Avgv‡`i cwievi Pj‡Zv `v`xi ûKzg
83 |

g‡Zv| Avgvi gv I PvwP huvZvK‡j wcó| PvPvi ¯^fve evevi wecixZ|
euvwk evRv‡bv, Zvm †Ljv †Q‡o †`vKv‡b emvUv Zvi Kv‡Q AvKl©Yxq wQj
bv| AwP‡iB M‡bk Dëv‡jv| `vw` A_©Kwo wbR †ndvR‡Z wb‡q PvPvi
mv‡_ mevi K_v ejv e‡Üi ûKzg †`b| †hUv Agvb¨ Kivi mvnm K‡iv
wQj bv| gv e¨w³MZ fv‡e PvPv‡K wKQy UvKv avi wnmv‡e w`‡qwQ‡jb|
UvKvUv †P‡q GKUv wPiKzU wj‡L PvPvi fv‡Zi _vjvq Pvcv w`‡q iv‡Lb|
PvPv evevi Kv‡Q gv‡qi †jLvcov Rvbvi msev` Rvbv‡j evev gnvLykx|
Rev‡e KvMR Kjg I wPwV †j‡Lb gvi Kv‡Q| GUvB evevi cÖ_g †jLv
gv‡qi Kv‡Q| Gevi wec` Av‡iv evo‡jv| †Q‡j †jLvcovi Rb¨ cvMj,
†eŠ †jLvcov Rvbv †g‡q, wPwV †`q, Reve Av‡m| †Q‡j‡K‡Zv Avi e‡k
ivLv hv‡e bv| †Q‡jUvI †eqvov ai‡bi e`ivMx KLb wKgZ K‡i e‡m
ejv hvq bv| `v`x PvPv‡K wb‡q †`‡ki evox P‡j †M‡jb| Mnbv, UvKv,
†mvbvi †gvni wgwj‡q GKUv eo †cvUjv Mw”QZ iv‡Lb evg›`xi `v`v
†Lv`ve‡·i cyÎea~i Kv‡Q| wZwb GL‡bv †eu‡P Av‡Qb| Avwg Avgv‡`i
cwiev‡ii fv½‡bi BwZnvm Rvb‡Z wM‡q Ibvi Kv‡Q GUv ïb‡Z cvB|
Avgvi PvPv fvj e¨emvqx Ges GB m¤ú` ZviB Av‡qi GK_v ejvq
wZwb Rvbvb- Òbv †Zvgvi PvPv euvkx evRv‡bv Avi Zvm †Ljv K‡iB mgq
KvUv‡Z fvjevm‡ZbÓ| G‡Zv cwigvb m¤ú` †Kv_vq †c‡jb Gi Reve
Zuvi Rvbv bvB e‡jb| Avgv‡`i es‡ki ZrKvjxb RxweZ e„×vi eZ©gvb
eqm 90 Gi Dci| XvKvq Zuvi cyÎ mwn`y‡ji evmvq ZLb _vK‡Zb|
gv BwZg‡a¨ cv‡ki evmvUv wK‡b bZzb msmvi ïi“ K‡ib| G mgq evev
†ewi‡ewi †iv‡M Avµvš— nb| Wv³v‡ii civgk© g‡Zv cyY© wekªv‡gi Rb¨
†`‡ki evox P‡j hvb| G mg‡q cvk¦©eZ©x b`x‡Z gvQ a‡i KvUv‡jb
K‡qK gvm| †m miÄvg wekvj cwigvb hv Avwg †`‡LwQ| Gi ci
ivRevox P‡j Av‡mb Ges †i‡ji PvKzix‡ZI B¯—dv †`b| PvKzix †bb
ivRevox wgDwbwmc¨vwjwU‡Z| B‡Zvg‡a¨ gv‡qi cÖ_g Kb¨v ÔUzbxÕ gviv
hvq Avi GK cyÎ †c‡U _vK‡ZB| ZviI `yB eQi ci eyeyi Rb¥|
Gici Av‡iv `yRb AvuZzi N‡i jvj bxj is e`‡j gviv †Mj| 1935
mv‡j nvmby 1937 mv‡j Avwg, 1939 mv‡j Rvnvbviv Gi gv‡S GK
†Q‡j‡KI †cu‡Pvq †g‡i †dj‡jv| Zvi ci 1943 mv‡j myKwi †QvU
fvBUv †eu‡P †Mj| 1945 mv‡j byixI wUK‡jv, Avgiv Qq fvB Qq †evb
84 |

wUKjvg `yB fvB Pvi †evb| †m wnmv‡e gv‡qi we‡q 1921/22 mv‡ji
w`‡K n‡e|
eyey LyeB cÖPz‡h©¨ Ges Av`‡i cÖwZcvwjZ| evev Zvi mg¯— Ave`viB
c~iY K‡i‡Qb| ZLbKvi w`‡b cÖmywZ Kb¨v cÖme Ki‡j cwiev‡ii mevi
gyL Òkw³ †kj ey‡K covi mgq j¶‡Yi gy‡Li fve hZUv Lvivc
n‡qwQj Zvi †P‡qI g›` †`Lv‡ZvÓ | bv Avgvi evev †g‡q ev ‡Q‡j‡K
c„_K fv‡e †`‡Lb wb| wk¶vi cÖwZ evevi fvjevmv KZ wekvj wQj †m
cwiPq cvIqv hvq eyeyi we‡q‡Z| †mUv 1941-42 mvj n‡e| Avgvi
h‡kv‡ii dzcv nvRx Avãyj Kwig| whwb LyeB abvX¨ I weL¨vZ e¨w³|
KjKvZvq e¨emv ‡K›`ª QvovI wbR¯^ evm K‡qKUv PjvPj Ki‡Zv
h‡kvi †_‡K PzqvWv½v ch©š—| †m mg‡q KjKvZv n‡q †i‡j h‡kvi ev
Lyjbv †h‡Z n‡Zv| wbR¯^ †gvUi Mvox‡Z PjvPj Ki‡Zb| wZwb eyeyi
we‡qi Rb¨ GK cv·K wcZv mn wb‡q G‡m‡Qb| KvKZvjxq fv‡e
†mw`bB KjKvZvq evevi c~e© cwiwPZ eÜz GK cvÎ G‡b‡Qb| hvi is
Kv‡jv, †PvLUv U¨viv Avi †VvUUvI GKUz euvKv| wÎmsmv‡i GK †evb
Qvov †KD bvB| KjKvZvq †g‡m †_‡K PvKzix K‡ib| gywk©`vev‡`i
enigcyi †_‡K cix¶v w`‡q KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K wZbUv †mvbvi
†g‡Wj †c‡q‡Qb, †gavex Qv·`i ZvwjKvq hv Av‡Rv ¯‹z‡j wjwLZ
Av‡Q| evev mevB‡K Amš‘ó K‡i Zvi AwZ Av`‡ii my›`ix †g‡qUv‡K
GB †Q‡ji nv‡Z mgc©b K‡ib| Avi †mUv wZwb †h fyj K‡ibwb †mUv
cieZ©x Kv‡j cÖgvwbZ n‡q‡Q| `yjvfvB wkï eq‡mB wcZ…gvZ…nxb n‡q
e„× `v`vi ZË¡veav‡b gvbyl nb| Zvi `v`vi avibv n‡qwQj Giv
mvevjK nIqv ch©š— wZwb nq‡Zv Avi euvP‡eb bv| †mRb¨ wekvj
m¤ú‡`i gvwjK n‡qI ¯^xq bvwZ‡K K…”QZvi mv‡_ Kó mwnòz K‡i eo
K‡i †Zv‡jb| hvi djkÖ“wZ‡Z †`Lv hvq `yjvfvB Lye wbin¼vix
mv`vwm‡a Rxeb hvcb K‡i‡Qb| Awdm wcIb‡KI wbR nv‡Z Pv evwb‡q
LvB‡q‡Qb wbR nv‡Z cwi‡ekb K‡i| eyey wbR wcZ…M„‡n me mgq †`Šo
Suvc mvB‡Kj Pvjbv, †Ljvayjvq mgq KvwU‡q‡Q| wb‡Ri Pvjbvi Rb¨
GKUv †bŠKvI wQj Zvi| KjKvZvi e× MwʇZ gvwb‡q Pj‡Z Zvi
A‡bK mgq †j‡MwQj| wg_¨v Awf‡hvM evwb‡q wPwV w`Z gv‡qi Kv‡Q|
wewfbœ wbh©vZ‡bi eY©bv K‡i| gv‡qi gb †g‡qi Rb¨ e¨vKzj| GKevi
85 |

evox G‡b Avi cvVv‡bv nq bv| Avgiv mevB eo n‡q ey‡SwQ eyey †h
K‡ói eY©bv wj‡L gv‡K fywj‡qwQj `yjvfvB †mUv KLbB Ki‡Z cv‡ib
bv| eyeyi †mB mg‡qi kvwo Kvco¸‡jvi `vg †KvbUviB GKk UvKvi
Kg bq| wb‡R †Kvb w`b wb‡Ri Kvco ay‡q †`‡Lbwb| Avwg KjKvZvq
†M‡j fvB‡K †`‡LwQ msmv‡ii KvR Ki‡Z|
`yjvfvB evev‡K GKiKg †Rvi K‡iB KjKvZvq wb‡q hvb Ges
Auditor wnmv‡e wmwfj mvc­vB‡Z PvKzix cvB‡q †`b| Avgv‡`i
msmv‡i Avevi bZz‡bi nvIqv jv‡M| †mUv 1942/43 mvj n‡e|
wek¦hy× Avi gnv`ywf©‡¶i cy‡iv mgqKvjUvB evev KjKvZv, Avgiv
gv‡qi ZË¡veav‡b | MÖv‡gi †g‡q n‡jI gv‡qi `yi`wk©Zvq Avgiv GB
So SvcUv †_‡K wbivc` wQjvg| GRb¨ gv AvfiYnxb nb| †m fvÊvi
Av‡iv ¶xY n‡q hvq cieZ©x bvbv `~we©cv‡K| evox‡ZB Avgvi cÖ_g cvV
gv‡qi nv‡Z, †i‡ji cvVkvjvq ‡jLv cov wKQyw`b| Zvici g³‡e K¬vm
Iqvb| _ªx‡Z fwZ© nB †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡j| ci ermi ivRv m~h©¨Kzgvi
BwbwówUDk‡b| Avgvi K¬v‡k AvwgB GKgvÎ gymjgvb, †b‡o bv‡gi
gvnvZ¡¨ ILv‡bB Rvbjvg| m¨vi‡`i cÖvq mevB Avm‡jB Lye fvj
wQ‡jb, Zvi g‡a¨ ‡`eeªZ fÆvPvh© bxjy evey Avgvi me‡P‡q wcÖq |
D‡cb evey K¬v‡m XyK‡j my›`i cwigj bm¨xi M‡Ü f‡i †hZ NiUv; wZwb
fvj MvqK wQ‡jb| fq †cZvg bbx evey‡K| gy‡L gy‡L LUg‡U evsjv
e‡j Bs‡iRx‡Z Uªvb‡¯­U Ki‡Z ej‡Zb| Zvi †Ubm, fve© Avi bvDb
ï× bv n‡j †c‡U wPgwU|
GKw`b ai‡jb †hUv Av‡Rv g‡b Av‡Q, Ôivg LvjyB jBqv evRv‡i
hvB‡ZwQj bvÕ| fvejvg LvjyB Gi Bs‡iRx bv Rvbvq †invB cvIqv
hv‡e| bv Zv n‡jv bv, e‡j­b- LvjyB‡qi Bs‡iRx bv Rvb‡j ¶wZ bvB,
LvjyBB e‡jv|
wØZxq ¯—‡ii QvÎ wnmv‡e Kv‡iv bRi Kvwo bvB mZ¨, wKš‘ bxjy evey
whwb we`¨vmvMi gnvk‡qi bvZwbi †Q‡j| ¯^‡`kx Ki‡Zb, ‡R‡j
†M‡Qb, huvi gyw³‡Z Avgiv ejZvg wZwb †R‡ji †jvnvi Mov` †f‡½
G‡m‡Qb Ges wek¦vm KiZvg mwZ¨B wZwb Avgv‡`i ¯‹z‡ji Rvbvjvi
†gvUv wk‡Ki g‡Zv †R‡ji wkK †f‡½B †ewo‡q G‡m‡Qb| K¬v‡m Mí
ej‡Zb my›`i K‡i| Zuvi wcZv-gvZv‡K †`wLbvB| wcZv Avgv‡`i
86 |

¯‹z‡ji Gwmm‡U›U †nW gvóvi †hv‡M›`ª bv_ fÆvPvh©¨ Avwg fwZ© nevi
wKQyw`b Av‡MB MZ n‡q‡Qb| `vn evoxi mvg‡bi wekvj bvi‡Kj
MvQUvi wb‡P †`Iqv nq hvi wPý H MvQUvq eûw`b ch©š— wQj| gvZv
Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvM‡ii †`ŠwnÎx mimxevjv Av‡MB gviv †M‡Qb `yB cyÎ
†i‡L| bxjy evey ZLbI we‡q K‡ibwb| †QvU fvB wkey `v`v †iu‡a
w`‡Zb| Avwg m¨v‡ii AeZ©gv‡b evox‡Z Xy‡K mnR mij wkey `v`v‡K
DZ¨³ KiZvg| bxjy evey Qv·`i KL‡bv ˆ`wnK kvw¯— w`‡Zb bv|
GKevi Avwg wbD †dm‡Kv‡Z cqmv w`‡q evMvWyjx †Lj‡Z ‡M‡j
BqvKze wgqv Ibvi Kv‡Q e‡j †`b| Dwb ciw`b K¬v‡m bvg D”PviY bv
K‡i Qv·`i e‡jb †Zvgiv wK Rvb †Zvgv‡`i K¬v‡mi GK †Q‡j Ryqv
†L‡j? Avgv‡K mevi Kv‡Q †nq K‡ibwb| †Zgwb DwKj wPË iÄb ¸n
iv‡Zi Avuav‡i wewo Uvb‡Z Uvb‡Z evox wdiwQj bxjy evey mvgbv mvgwb
G‡m UP© jvBU †g‡i wPˇK †`‡Lb gy‡L wewo Uvbv Ae¯’vq| ciw`b
K¬v‡m bvg D‡j­L bv K‡i mevB‡K e‡jb †Zvgv‡`i wK †KD wewo LvI?
†Zvgv‡`i K¬v‡mi GKRb wKš‘ Lvq| e¨vm G ch©š—B| fvj Awf‡bZv
wQ‡jb| wmiv‡Ri f~wgKvq †`‡LwQ| dzUejI †Lj‡Zb| Avgv‡K †mB
mg‡q evg©v †diZ †Lvqv hvIqv ev”Pv‡`i wkï m`‡b mvB‡K‡j ewm‡q
wb‡q Av‡mb knx` ¶zw`iv‡gi g„Zz¨ evwl©Kx Abyôv‡b| Avwg Av‡Rv GUv
M‡e©i mv‡_ ¯§iY Kwi| †h †mŠfvM¨ Avwg Qvov †Kvb Qv‡Îi fv‡M¨B
†Rv‡Uwb|
‡nW m¨vi wQ‡jb ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh©¨| whwb Avgv‡`i K¬v‡m KL‡bv
Av‡mbwb| wKš‘ eviv›`vq Ibvi Ry‡Zvi k‡ã QvÎ wk¶K ZU¯’ n‡q
†h‡Zb| Ibvi we`vq w`‡bi QweUvq Avwg wØZxq mvwo‡Z| †hUv Avgvi
mncvwV i_xb ˆgÎ KjKvZvq bxjy m¨v‡ii evmvq Uv½v‡bv wQj e‡j
Avgv‡K A‡bK c‡i Rvbvq GUvI Avgvi M‡e©i|
fviZ fvM n‡jv| Avgiv GBme wk¶K‡`i nvivjvg| QvÎ hviv G‡jv
cÖ_‡gB wewo LvIqvUv wk‡L †djjvg| K¬vm duvwK †`IqvI hy³ n‡jv|
†MvovcËbUv †cv³ n‡qwQj e‡j †U‡bUz‡b cvk K‡i †Mjvg Aóg
†kªYx| Ab¨ wel‡q cwÊZ n‡q †MwQ|
evev evrmwiK wi‡cvU© †`‡L XvKvq wb‡q †M‡jb| I‡qó GÊ nvB ¯‹z‡j
beg ‡kªYx‡Z fwZ© n‡ZI †eM †c‡Z n‡jv bv| eQi Lv‡bK fvjB
87 |

wQjvg| Zvici wk¶v wegyL wKQy eÜz RyU‡jv fvM¨µ‡gB| Avi †mUvB
Avgvi Ges cwiev‡ii mevi eoB AvNvZ, Avgvi Øviv N‡U hvq| Avwg
cov †Q‡o †`B| Pz‡j †Uwi †K‡U AvÇv †g‡i †eovB| AwbðqZvi
g‡a¨ _vKvi †P‡q Avevi ivRevox wd‡i hvIqvB evev w¯’i Ki‡jb
PvKzixi †gqv` †kl n‡j Avgiv P‡j Gjvg|
Lye wkï Kvj †_‡KB †`‡LwQ gv Avgv‡`i msmvi mPj ivLvi Rb¨
D`qv¯— cwikªg K‡i †h‡Zb| evox‡Z gywo †f‡R †gvqv K‡i ivL‡Zv
eivÏ GKUv `y‡Uv nv‡Z awi‡q co‡Z ewm‡q P‡j †h‡Zv Ab¨ Kv‡R|
Rwgi avb G‡j KvR †e‡o †h‡Zv| wm× †`Iqv ïKv‡bv Avi †XuwK‡Z
Pvj evbv‡bv| k‡Li e‡m bq, gv‡qi Kv‡Ri fvMx n‡ev GB gb wb‡q
AvwgI IB eq‡m †XuwK‡Z cvo †`Iqv, RuvZv Nywi‡q Mg †clv, PvwK‡Z
Wvj evbv‡bv, Kz‡qv †_‡K cvwb Zz‡j †`Iqv mg¯— Kv‡R mvnvh¨
KiZvg| ïay Avwg bB †m mgq Avwg Avi nvmbyB GKUz Kv‡Ri †hvM¨
n‡qwQ| fvB‡evb evRviI KiZvg cvjv K‡i|
me Kv‡Ri †k‡l gv‡qi †L‡Z †L‡Z we‡Kj| evev evox G‡j †`LZvg
evev †Kvb KvR Ki‡Zv bv| msmv‡ii `y‡Uv KvR Ki‡Z wM‡q wecixZ
dj nevi ci †_‡K bvwK Zvi GB Abxnv| Gi GKUv gvi Kv‡Q †kvbv
Ab¨Uv Avgvi Dci w`‡q N‡U‡Q| Lwo dvo‡Z wM‡q Ry‡Zv `yB LÊ, cv
†eu‡P hvq| wØZxqUv Avwg GKUv cuywZ bv‡Ki GKwQ‡`ª XywK‡q †dwj|
wKQy‡ZB hLb †ei Kiv †Mj bv evevi gv_vq eyw× Avm‡jv Ab¨ dy‡Uv
w`‡q cv¤ú Ki‡j evZv‡mi av°vq cyuw_Uv †ewo‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i|
mvB‡K‡ji cv¤úvi w`‡q Ab¨ dz‡Uv w`‡q Lye K‡i cv¤ú Ki‡jb|
†ewo‡q G‡jv wVKB Z‡e cywZ bq ZvRv i³ bvK gyL w`‡q| nvmcvZv‡j
†bIqv n‡jv wKš‘ euvPvi Avk¦vm cvIqv †Mj bv| GKgvÎ †Q‡j Avwg
ZLb| evev wa°vi kyb‡Z kyb‡Z H‡h Pzc‡m ‡M‡jb Avi Ic‡_
†Kvbw`b G‡jb bv| gv‡qi GKvi Kuv‡aB me †evSv †P‡c em‡jv|
gv‡qi cÖwZ ggZvi Rb¥ bvwK Avgvi Av‡iv Av‡M †_‡K| iv‡Z gv Dcyi
n‡q hLb Avgv‡K wc‡Vi Dci Pwo‡q w`Z Avwg c¨v‡iW Ki‡Z Ki‡Z
gv‡K ejZvg gv Avwg eo n‡q `yBUv we‡q Ki‡ev| GKRb fvZ iuva‡e
Ab¨Rb †Zvgvi Mv wU‡c †`‡e| GB PvIqvUv †h gv‡qi Rxe‡biB wØZxq
ms¯‹iY †evSvi eqm Avgvi nqwb| 1955 mv‡j XvKv †_‡K wd‡i G‡m
88 |

ivRevoxi Rxeb ïi“ Ki‡Z gv cÖ_‡gB GKUv fv‡Zi †nv‡Uj K‡i
evev‡K ewm‡q †`b| ivbœv evox‡ZB nq| Zv‡ZI me fvB‡evb‡`i
covïbvq ms¼zjvb nq bv| †nv‡U‡ji AwewµZ j¨vRv gv_v evox‡Z
Avgiv LvB| †`Lv ‡Mj †eKvi n‡qI †ivR gvQ fvZ Avgv‡`i RyU‡Q|
Avwg m‡qU †j`v‡ii Ry‡Zv Avi K‡W©i c¨v›U c‡o AvÇvq hvB| †Zgwb
Pj‡ZvI nqZ| wKš‘ GKw`b evev‡K †`Ljvg †nv‡U‡ji GK L‡Ï‡ii
Gu‡Uv _vjv ay‡q Lvevi w`‡Z| Avwg _g‡K `uvovjvg| A‡b¨i `„wó w`‡q
wb‡R‡K we‡k­lY Kijvg| GB e„× †jvKUv GKw`b wkw¶Z mgv‡Ri
GKRb m`m¨ wQj| nvw›Us my¨U c‡o wkKv‡i †ei“Z| fvi‡Zi mg¯—
AÂj Ny‡i‡Q ïay åg‡Yi †bkvq, PvKzix‡ZI EשZb Kg©KZ©vi wcÖq
fvRb wQ‡jb Bs‡iRx‡Z `¶ nIqvq| †m GKUv Z…Zxq †kªYxi †nv‡Uj
w`‡q Z‡ZvwaK wbæ L‡Ï‡ii Gu‡Uv _vjv ay‡q w`‡”Q| Zvi †Q‡jUv my›`i
†m‡R¸‡R AvÇvq Pj‡jv| Avwg evox wd‡i Gjvg| mvU© c¨v›U Ly‡j
wbtk‡ã P‡j Gjvg evevi Kv‡Q| Avgvi beR‡b¥i m~ÎcvZ †mw`b
†_‡K| m‡Zi †cwi‡q †M‡jI Avgvi †Pnvivi †`v‡l 14/15 g‡Zv
jvM‡Zv| †Pbv Rvbv meviB Øvi¯’ nB Av‡qi †Kvb c_ cvB‡q †`evi
Av‡e`b wb‡q| Ae‡k‡l †cjvg Kzwóqvq GK †`vKv‡bi wcw”Pi KvR|
LvIqv LiP ev‡` gvm gvBbv wÎk UvKv| wZb gvm †mLv‡b wQjvg|
†`vKv‡bi †kv‡K‡mi Dci c‡o hvevi f‡q Nygv‡Z cviZvg bv, Icvi
evsjvi gvbyl ivbœvq Avuk‡U MÜ| Zey Avwg wcQ cv njvg bv| QywU wb‡q
evox G‡mwQ| msmv‡ii †Kvb mvnvh¨ Avwg Ki‡Z cvwiwb| GKw`b
Wv³vi Rwjj fvB ej‡jb †ikb wWjvikxc hw` Ki‡Z PvI †Póv Ki‡Z
cvwi, Z‡e LyeB wiw¯‹ KvR, GK cv †R‡j GKUz boPo n‡jB| Avwg
ZLb Av¸‡b Suvc w`‡ZI cÖ¯‘Z| Ibvi mv‡_ †Mjvg dzW K‡›Uªvjvi
mv‡n‡ei `iev‡i| wZwb cÖ_g K_vwU e‡j­b | Zzwg ¯‹z‡j fwZ© nI
wM‡q| hZ`yi m¤¢e Ki“Y gy‡L Ibv‡K Avgvi Ae¯’vi K_v RvbvjvgwZwb AvMvgx Kvj `iLv¯— wb‡q Avm‡Z e‡j­b| ciw`b Avgvi wbhyw³
n‡q †Mj| †`vKvb Pvjv‡bvi UvKv‡Zv bvB| Avevi Wvt Rwjj fvBGi
Øvi¯’ njvg| wZwb bvivb`vi (Kzgv‡ik PµeË©xi) Kv‡Q e„Ëvš— Rvbv‡j
wZwb Avgv‡K †`vKvb cwiPvjbvi A_© †`b| Avgvi wWjvikxc Rxeb
†ZwÎk eQi| wWjvi wnmv‡e mdj Avi mybv‡gi AwaKvix| †mRb¨
89 |

Awd‡m Avgvi GKUv B‡gR M‡o I‡V| mK‡jB Avgv‡K mvnvh¨
mn‡hvwMZv w`‡q‡Qb †Kvb †Kvb Awdmv‡ii mv‡_ m¤úK© eÜy‡Z¡i ch©v‡q
†M‡Q|
Avgvi †QvU †evbUv fvj QvÎx| I‡K D”PZi wk¶vi my‡hvM w`‡Z XvKvi
B‡W‡b fwZ© K‡i w`jvg| Zvi †nv‡ój LiP gvwmK lvU UvKvi †hvMvb
†`Iqv Avgv‡`i Rb¨ cÖvbvš— n‡jI Avgiv mevB GB Kó fvM K‡i
wb‡qwQ| evevi ‡h ¯^cœ Zv c~iY Ki‡ZB Avgiv cÖwZÁve× n‡qwQjvg|
Aciƒc †mŠ›`h¨© Avi cÖwZfv`xß Aeqe wb‡q QywU‡Z evox G‡m‡Q|
mvavib cwiev‡ii †g‡q n‡jI †m ivRevoxi †miv my›`ix| 1958 mv‡j
B‡Wb my›`ix L¨vZ| ZvQvov †evbUv, Avgvi wcZvi †h ¯^cœ Avwg †f‡½
w`‡qwQ, Zv ev¯—eZvq iƒc ‡`evi †hvM¨Zg| Avwg Zv‡K we‡q ‡`evi
wPš—vB Kwi bv | me©¯—‡ii mg¯— gvby‡li Aby‡iv‡aI Avwg AUj †Kvb
fv‡eB Avgv‡K cÖjyä Kiv †Mj bv| Zey †kl Aewa n‡q †Mj |
1960 mv‡j †ik‡bi e¨emvq g›`v †`Lv †`Iqvq Avwg †`vKvbUv A‡b¨i
†ndvR‡Z †i‡L P‡j †Mjvg h‡kvi| Avgvi dzcv‡Zv fvB‡qi cwiwPZ
GK wVKv`v‡ii KvR †`Lv‡kvbvi Rb¨ PvKzix †cjvg| Gqvi‡cvU©Uv
e„wUk Avg‡ji 1500 wWMÖx evjy cv_i Avi cxP wgwk‡q XvjvB| gv‡S
g‡a¨ cxP †gkv‡bv cv_i `yÕGKUv †d‡U wM‡q Mv‡q G‡m jvM‡j VvÊv bv
nIqv ch©š— IUv IVv‡bv †hZ bv| cuvP nvRvi dzU j¤^v DËi †_‡K
`w¶‡Y ivbI‡q hvi Av‡kcv‡k A‡bKUv duvKv| Qvqv`vi †Kvb MvQ
†bB| mvivw`bgvb †iv‡` cy‡o iv‡Z wU‡bi Szcwo‡Z VvÊv nvIqvq R‡g
†hZvg| KvRUv †kl n‡jv wZb gv‡mB| gvwjK, bZzb GKUv KvR †c‡q
XvKv †M‡jb Avgv‡`i †ndvR‡Z †Kv`vj †ejPv †i‡L c‡bi w`‡bi
Rb¨| gvm P‡j hvq Ibvi †divi †Kvb j¶Y bvB| Lvev‡ii cqmvI
GKw`b †kl n‡q †Mj| †ivRv AvwQ Avwg Avi Avgvi mnKg©x `yB Rb|
BdZv‡ii cqmv wQj bv| c‡_i cv‡ki Mv‡Qi wb‡P c‡o _vKv eiB
w`‡q BdZvi n‡jv e‡U iv‡Zi Lvevi wQj bv| mnKg©x `yRb Avgv‡K
LyeB fvjevm‡Zv| Avgvi ARv‡š—B Zviv wZb gvBj `~‡i kn‡i Avgvi
dzcvZ fvB‡K me Rvbv‡j †mÕiv‡ZB fvB Avgv‡K Zvi evmvq wb‡q
Av‡mb| mnKg©x `yRb‡K AwbwðZ Ae¯’vq †d‡j cvwj‡q Avm‡Z
Avgvi j¾v Avi Aciva‡eva n‡qwQj| wKš‘ DcvqI wQj bv| Avwg
90 |

fvB‡K Avgvi Gfv‡e AvmvUv wVK n‡”Q wK bv ejvq fvB †mUv
†evSvcov Ki‡eb Avk¦vm †`b| fvB wQ‡jb h‡kvi †cŠimfvi
‡Pqvig¨vb I cÖ_g †kªYxi wVKv`vi| Zvi euva ˆZixi KvR Pj‡Q †bvbv
A‡j| Avgv‡K †mLv‡bB cvwV‡q †`b| Avwg GZ wew”Qbœ GjvKv Av‡M
KL‡bv †`wLwb| b`xi `yB cvo †eu‡a †bvbv cvwb †_‡K dm‡ji gvV
D×vi Kiv n‡”Q| fvUvq cvwb †b‡g †M‡j e‡bi Wvjcvjv wewQ‡q Zvi
Dci Kv`v gvwUi Pvc †`Iqv| †Rvqv‡i IUv Wy‡e †hZ Avevi fvUvq Ii
Dci Wvjcvjv w`‡q gvwUi Pvc emv‡bv| GB fv‡e µ‡g †Rvqv‡ii
D”PZvi †P‡q gvwUUv †R‡M DV‡j GUv ¯’vqxZ¡ †c‡Z †c‡Z GwM‡q
hvIqv|
gvB‡ji ci gvBj GB we¯—xb© AÂjUv †Rvqvi fvUvi †Ljv| cvwZ eb
Qvov wKQyB Drcbœ nq bv gv‡V| k³ †Kvb Ae¯’vb ˆZix bv nIqvq big
Kv`v gvwU‡ZB `uvwo‡q _vK‡Z n‡Zv, bq‡Zv †bŠKvq|
cÖ_g w`bB av°v †Ljvg b`x‡Z mœvb Ki‡Z wM‡q| cv‡o †_‡K mevB
GK mv‡_ wPrKvi Avi Bkvivq nZf¤^ Avwg ZwoNwo DV‡ZB mevB
Rvbv‡jv Avgvi fvM¨ fvj GLbI nvZ cv Av¯— wb‡q cv‡o DV‡Z
†c‡iwQ| ÔKvgUÕ bv‡gi GK ai‡bi gvQ †hUv nvO‡ii evgb ms¯‹iY|
my‡hvM †c‡jB †h‡Kvb A½ aviv‡jv `uvZ ewm‡q wb‡g‡lB †K‡U wb‡q
hvq| KuvKov ai‡Z wM‡q Ggb cv †K‡U †bIqv A‡bK gvbyl Avwg
†`‡LwQ| †e‡Lqv‡j KLb †Rvqv‡i Zvi nvUz ch©š— cvwb‡Z Wy‡e †M‡Q
†Ui cvqwb|
Water in every where, but not a drop to drink. cvwb‡Z
evm, me©Î cvwb, wKš‘ LvIqvi GK we›`yI bq| Kv‡RB Kv‡R †ei“‡j
12 N›Uvi cvwb mv‡_ wb‡qB †h‡Z nq| Avi †mUv mnRjf¨I bq|
Avgvi evmv¯’v‡bi wUDeI‡qjUvq †bŠKv †evSvB †g‡q cyi“l Avm‡Zv
`~i-`yivš— †_‡K|
GZ`‡Â‡ji evwm›`viv †hgb Mixe †Zgwb mij| kn‡ii g‡Zv
c¨vPv‡jv fvebv Giv ZLb fve‡Zv bv| Ô†cv`Õ RvwZ hv‡`i RxweKv gvQ
wkKvi| Zv‡`i cvovq KZ ‡h mgv`i wQj Avgvi| eo‡`i co‡b
†jswU †QvUiv Kv‡jv Kv‡jv †bs‡Uv| Zey G‡`i mvnP‡h© Avgvi gb f‡i
‡hZ|
91 |

Avgvi eqm 23 eQi| bexb †hŠeb| ‡jvKvjq †_‡K eû`~‡i GKvKx
wbtm½ Rxeb| Zey †mLv‡bB Avgvi Rxe‡bi me‡P‡q my‡Li w`b¸‡jv
†K‡U‡Q| Avwg cÖK…wZi GK`g Kv‡Q †_‡K AvZ¥¯’ n‡qwQ ü`‡qi
Abyf~wZ w`‡q| †cÖ‡gi KweZv Avgvq †cÖg wkLv‡jv ILv‡bB| Avgvi
PvwiwÎK cwieZ©b Avm‡jv| Avwg bZzb Avwg n‡q `y‡Uv eQi ILv‡b
KvwU‡q wd‡i Gjvg| cÂvk eQi Av‡Mi K_v me ¯§iY Ki‡Z cvwibv|
Avevi KLbI me K_v GKmv‡_ †R‡M I‡V ZLb Avi Avjv`v K‡i
fve‡Z cvwibv|
Avwg ILv‡b ïay MÖvgevmx‡`i wcªq wQjvg Zv bq| WAPDAÕi mg¯—
Dci IqvjvivI Avgv‡K fvj †R‡b‡Qb| A‡b‡Ki mv‡_ eÜyZ¡ Lye
MfxiZiB n‡q‡Q| GKevi GK Executive†K wek¦vmB Kiv‡Z Avgvi
†ek †eM †c‡Z n‡q‡Q †h Avwg gvBbvfy³ Kg©Pvix gvÎ| Dwb Avgv‡K
eûfv‡e e‡j‡Qb †hb Avwg wb‡R wVKv`vi fy³ nB| me ai‡bi
mvnv‡h¨i Avk¦vmI w`‡q‡Qb| Avwg Zuv‡K e‡jwQ Avwg Kc`©Knxb,
Avgvi wb‡R †_‡K wVKv`vix bvg Aš—fy©³ Kivi cqmvI bvB| Avgvi
GK_v ï‡b Ibvi e¨vw_Z gyLUv Av‡Rv Avgvi †Pv‡L fv‡m| gvV ch©v‡qi
Kgx©‡`i Kv‡iv †eqvB Kv‡iv I¯—v` Kv‡iv fvqivfvB| Avwg †h gvqbv
†cZvg meUvB evox‡Z cvVvZvg| wewo LiP evRv‡ii ev‡RU †_‡K
Pj‡Zv| Avi †Kvb LiP Kivi my‡hvM ILv‡b wQj bv| mvU© c¨v›U Avgvi
dzcvZ fvB†qi KvQ ‡_‡K †cZvg bZzb cyivZb wgwj‡q| fvB‡qi
†g‡qUv covi eB‡qi †RvMvb w`Z| Avi wQj Avgvi †gS ‡ev‡bi
†nv‡ó‡ji evÜexiv| †gS ‡evb nvmby ZLb miKvix PvKyix wb‡q
msmv‡ii nvj a‡i‡Q| hviv Avgv‡K bv †`‡LI Avgvi K¨v‡givq †Zvjv
Qwe †`‡L wbqwgZ wPwV Av`vb cÖ`vb Ki‡Zv| IivI †KD †QvU †evb,
†KD fvmyi cvwZ‡q‡Q| IB A‡j eQ‡i GKvwaK wPwV GK bv‡g
Avmvi BwZnvm bvB| Avgvi bv‡g cÖwZw`b Pvi cuvPUv wPwV Avm‡Zv|
wZb gvBj `~i †_‡K †hUv wb‡q Avm‡Zv Avgvi ivbœvi wcw”PUv| bq‡Zv
nv‡Ui w`‡b GKmv‡_ `k ev‡ivUv| †cvó gvóvi Avgv‡K †`Lvi eû
Aby‡iva Kivq GKevi Avwg †MwQ| Ibvi evox‡ZB GKN‡i Awdm,
Avgv‡K †c‡q Avi Qvo‡Z Pvb bv| wPwV cvIqv‡ZB Avwg cÖwm× n‡q
†Mjvg| IB †`‡k nv‡Ui w`‡b mg¯— Muv‡qi gvbyl †bŠKvq nvwRi nq
92 |

`yi`yivš— †_‡K| Mfxi ivZ ch©š— evRvi P‡j Kve©vBW M¨v‡mi Av‡jvq|
wPwV wewj, †avcv, bvwcZ we‡qi NUKvjx me IB nv‡Ui w`‡b| †bŠKvi
gvwS Ômb¨vm †cv`Õ Avi gvwU KvUvi kªwgK ‡ki Avjx MvRx Avgvi
cÖv‡bi mLv I‡`i †Q‡o Avm‡Z Avgvi Kó n‡q‡Q| ‡bvbv cwb‡Z
Avgvi Avgvkq ¯’vqx evmv euva‡jv| wUK‡Z cvijvg bv| evox G‡m
Avevi †ik‡bi e¨vemv| Avq evov‡bvi Rb¨ wm½vi †Kv¤úvbxi G‡RÝx
wbjvg| Avgvi Rxeb Ab¨ w`‡K ‡gvo wbj| †Ljva~jv AvÇv bvUK
mewKQy‡Z Rwo‡q cwiwPwZ †cjvg|
†Q‡j‡ejvq cvV¨ eB Avgv‡K AvKl©b bv Ki‡jI evevi wekvj msMªn
†_‡K Zv Avwg wKQy ey‡S wKQy bv ey‡S c‡o †d‡jwQ| wb‡RI eB
wKbZvg me wgwj‡q fvj GKUv jvB‡eªixi g‡Zv n‡qwQj|
Qwe †Zvjvi kL‡Zv †mB †Q‡j‡ejv ‡_‡K| 1960 mv‡jB cuvPkZ UvKv
w`‡q YEASICA-D wK‡bwQ| IUv Avgvi GK I¯—v` eÜz Avng`
†gv¯—vdv (cÖ‡R± wW‡i±i †Nvovkvj cvIqvi c­v›U) nvwi‡q †dj‡j) †m
MINOLTA-SRI wK‡b ‡`q| GLv‡b Qwe wcÖ›U Kivi Kivi my‡hvM
wQj bv| wbR evox‡Z e¨e¯’v Kijvg| GUv Avgv‡K Av‡iv cwiwPwZi
Øvi Ly‡j †`q| bvU‡Ki bvqK nevi m~Î a‡i cwiwa Av‡iv we¯Z…Z nq|
Avgvi †Q‡j‡ejvi eÜz ivRv w_‡qUvi Aš—cÖvY| †hgb Awf‡bZv ‡Zgwb
cwiPvjb `¶Zv| ‡m me wel‡qB ivRv wQj| Gme weij cÖwZfvi
eÜy‡`i m¤ú‡K© wj‡L cÖKvk Kivi †hvM¨Zv Avgvi bvB| ‡hgb bv‡g †m
ivRv me© wel‡qB †m ivRv wQj| g„Zy¨I Zvi ivRvmyjf miKvix m¤§vb
wb‡q|
1962 mv‡j Avgvi GK gvÎ †QvU fvBUv Avgvi B”Qvi wei“‡×B cvK
†bfx‡Z fwZ© n‡q KivPx P‡j hvq| ‡m †Ljva~jvq ILv‡b LyeB bvg
K‡i| cvwK¯—vb b¨vkbvj wU‡gi †MvjwKcvi wnmv‡e g‡bvwbZ nq| nvB
Rv‡¤ú Zvi ¯‹z‡ji †iKW© AvRI A¶ybœ Av‡Q| †Kvb cÖwk¶b bv wb‡qB
†m †mUv AvqZ¡ K‡iwQj| cvwK¯—v‡bi cÖwZwU KvM‡R Qwe mn Lei
_vK‡Zv Ii †hw`b †Ljv _vK‡Zv| cvwK¯—v‡bi cÖvq cÖwZwU kn‡iB †m
†L‡j‡Q | cÖwk¶b wb‡q‡Q gvixi cvnvo †Nov gv‡V| miKvix m‡e©v”P
93 |

cÖav‡bi ¯^v¶wiZ mvwU©wd‡KU GLbI mh‡Zœ †i‡LwQ| †bwf‡ZI fvj
‡cvó wQj| wKš‘ wK ‡h n‡jv cvwj‡q P‡j G‡jv 1968 mv‡j| ¯^vaxbZv
hy‡×I ïi“ †_‡K hy³ n‡qwQj wKš—y `yfvM©¨ †m ¯^xK…wZUzKzI †cj bv|
†k‡l wg_¨v Awf‡hvM wb‡q wbg©g fv‡e †m wbnZ n‡jv|
Avgvi fvB‡qi g„Zy¨ †h AvNvZ Avgvi ü`‡q †j‡M‡Q Zv
Av‡Rv `M`‡M ZvRv ¶Z| Avgvi mv_xiv mn †KD we‡qi e܇b Ave×
n‡Z PvBZvg bv| Avwg bv PvB‡jI NU‡Ki Avbv‡Mvbv evox‡Z| †Q‡j
fvj Avq K‡i| wkw¶Z mgv‡R Pjv ejv| evev †eKvi †Kvb KvR bvB|
Kv‡RB w`bivZ ¸Ryi ¸Ryi Avi †nv‡m‡bi wgwó| Avwg wei³ n‡jI
wKQy ej‡Z cvwiwb| GKevi‡Zv Kzwóqvq †Mjvg mviv gv‡mi Avq LiP
K‡i †g‡q †`L‡Z | †`LvI nj| GK AvZœxq Av‡Qb Avgv‡`i, Zvi
evox †eov‡Z wM‡q ïwb †g‡qUvi bvwK Av‡M we‡q n‡qwQj| Avwg‡Zv
ILvb †_‡K P‡j Gjvg| wKš‘ †gvUv `uvI gvivi †jv‡f NUK †g‡q
c‡¶i bvbv †jvfbxq Advi wb‡q evevi mv‡_ AvVvi g‡Zv †j‡M iBj
Avgvi A‡MvP‡i| Rvwbbv evev duv‡` cv w`‡q †Kvb K_v w`‡qwQ‡jb
wKbv| ïµev‡i Avgiv eÜzevÜe cÖvqB Kzwóqv †hZvg gwb©s †kv‡Z
Bs‡iRx gvi`v½v eB †`L‡Z | †mw`bI hv‡ev| iv‡Z gv ej‡jv ILv‡b
Av‡iKwU †g‡qi †LuvR †c‡qwQ| Avmvi mgq †`‡L Avwmm| †ók‡b
†Pbv ‡jvK _vK‡e, gv †h Av‡MB †jvK cvwV‡q †ók‡b _vK‡Z e‡j‡Q
RvbZvg bv| Avwg nu¨v, bv wKQyB ejjvg bv| wVKvbv Rvbvi AvMÖnI
cÖKvk Kijvg bv| †KvU© †ók‡b †b‡g †Kvb †Pbv †jvK bv †`‡L GKUz
gb¶zbœB njvg| AcgvwbZI †eva Kijvg| wm‡bgvi ZLbI mgq
Av‡Q| fvejvg b`xi cvo w`‡q †n‡U †n‡U iKmx n‡j †cuŠQv‡j wKQyUv
mgq KvU‡e, †mw`‡KB hvw”Q| wKQyUv `~‡i †MwQ| `y‡Uv evoxi Mwji
Avovj †_‡K GK †jvK Bkvivq Avgv‡K WvK‡Q| Avwg‡Zv cÖvq nvZ
DwV‡qwQ gvi‡Z| e¨vUv Avgvi‡Zv Gc‡_ Avmvi K_vB bv| bgª Mjvq
†m Uvb‡Z Uvb‡Z IB evoxUvi GKUv N‡i wb‡q ejj- Avcwb GLv‡b
Avm‡eb Av‡Mi †`Lv †g‡q c¶ wK K‡i †R‡b †d‡j‡Q| mvivivZ GB
evox cvnvov w`‡q Rvbvb w`‡q‡Q †Q‡ji evc Zv‡`i K_v w`‡q‡Q
GLv‡b G‡j nvBR¨vK K‡i Avgiv GB †Q‡ji mv‡_B we‡q †`e| Avgvi
An¼v‡i GUv eo AvNvZ| Avgvi B”Qvi wei“‡× evevI wKQy Kiv‡Z
94 |

cv‡iwb| Avi Giv e‡j wK? gv_vq i³ P‡o †Mj| evoxi KZ©v e„×
nvRx gvbyl Ibv‡K Avgvi wk¶v, Avq, msmv‡ii `vqfvi me Rvwb‡q
ejjvg hw` †hvM¨ we‡ePbv K‡ib ZvivZvwi ej‡eb wm‡bgv ïi“ n‡q
hv‡e †`ix n‡j| Dwb wm‡bgv †`Lv †gv‡UB cQ›` K‡ib bv RvbZvg bv|
†Pv‡L cjKnxb †P‡q f`ª‡jvK ej‡jb ïay nv‡Z wK we‡q nq? wKQy
wK‡b wb‡q G‡mv| c‡K‡U gvÎ wZwik UvKv m¤^j| Zvq ïµevi †`vKvb
cvU †Lvjv ‡bB| AvUvk UvKvq kvwo †cjvg GKUvKv ev‡iv Avbvq
e­vDR|
we‡q n‡q †Mj| †Kgb †Pnviv eqmUvB ev KZ wKQyB Rvwb bv| ev”Pz
Avi †evjb wQj mv‡_| Iiv wd‡i Avm‡e| †g‡qUv †h G‡Kev‡iB
ev”Pv| †`Lv K‡i ej­vg Zzwg †Zvgvi gv evevi Kv‡Q †kvb hw` Ibviv
cwiwPZ nevi my‡hvM †`b Zvn‡j Avwg _vK‡Z cvwi| bB‡j I‡`i mv‡_
P‡j hve| ev”Pv eqm Acwic° gb wK eyS‡jv Rvwb bv| Nvo †b‡o
m¤§wZ Rvbvj| ev”Pz, †evjb‡K we`vq Rvbvjvg|
Lye †fv‡i cÖ¯‘wZ wbw”Q wd‡i Avmvi| †`ix bvB Mvoxi | ivbœv N‡ii
bv¯—vi Av‡qvR‡b mgq e‡q †M‡j †dj Ki‡ev| Xy‡K cijvg ivbœv N‡i|
wcwo †U‡b wb‡q †g‡S‡Z e‡m †Mjvg| mevB AcÖ¯‘Z| ejjvg Ò†`‡Lb
evox‡ZI Avgvi LvIqvUv ivbœv N‡iB Ggwb wcwo‡Z e‡m| Avcvbviv
GKUz ZvovZvwo †`b| †Uªb †dj Ki‡j Avgvi Amyweav n‡e|Ó mevB‡K
Av¯^¯’ Kijvg Ges m¤¢eZt mevi Avcb njvg ZLb †_‡KB| Avgv‡`i
`v¤úZ¨ Rxeb LyeB msw¶ß| 1967 †kl fvM †_‡K 1976 Gi ga¨
gvm| 8 eQ‡ii cvwievwiK Kvi‡b †h kvwš— webó n‡q‡Q Zvi cÖfve
Avgv‡`i DciI c‡o‡Q| evevi g„Zz¨, fvB‡qi g„Zz¨, `y‡Uv eQ‡i Avgiv
K_vI †ewk ewj bvB| ¯^vaxbZvvi 1 eQi †`Šov‡`Šwo‡Z †M‡Q| cy‡o
hvIqv Nievox ¸Qv‡ZB †Mj KZw`b| Avwg †h †f‡e †i‡LwQjvg me
wg‡U †M‡j I‡K †mB †h gv‡qi eÂbvi BwZe„Ë Zvi cybive„wË †mUv
Avi n‡e bv| †m mgq †cjvg KB| GKw`‡b GKUv evBk eQ‡ii R¨vš—
†g‡q Gfv‡e gi‡Z cv‡i bv| cªkœwe× Avwg k¦ïi evox mevi Kv‡Q
KZ‡h wb‡P †b‡g †Mjvg †mUv Avwg eywS| Zey Zuviv fvj gvbyl Avgv‡K
A`¨ewa Avcb e‡jB Rv‡bb| ‡mB †h †Q‡j †ejvq gv‡qi wc‡V P‡o
gvRvi e¨v_v gv‡mR K‡i w`‡Z w`‡Z e‡jwQjvg gv Avwg `y‡Uv we‡q
95 |

Ki‡ev GKRb fvZ iuva‡e Avi GKRb gvRv wU‡c †`‡e| Avwg †cwUi
gvQ Lve bv, †eŠ‡K †L‡Z †`e| mªóv cÖ_gUv gÄyi Ki‡jv †klUv ev`
w`‡q| cÖ_gRb †h mwZ¨B Avgvi gv‡K ivbœv N‡ii MÛx gy³ K‡iwQj|
wØZxq Rb gv‡qi A_e© nevi c‡iB Zvi AvMgb| †kl w`b¸‡jv gvi
Ávbnxb Ae¯’vq †K‡U‡Q| †ckvq †mweKv wQj ZvB cÖ_gv‡a©i wØZxq
Ask me©vs‡k mZ¨ nj|
†h `yRb bvix Avgvi Rxe‡b eD cwiP‡q G‡jv Zvi cÖ_g Rb cÖvPz‡h©i
gv‡S fiv msmv‡ii Askx n‡q| wØZxq Avgvi Pig wech©q Avi me
nviv‡bvi mgh| GKRb gv,evev, fvB †evb‡`i me cvIqvi `vex
wgUv‡Z| Ab¨Rb me nvwi‡q †QvU wZbUv ev”Pvi e¨_v `yi Kivi `vwqZ¡
wb‡q|
cÖ_gUv fv‡M¨i wkKvi n‡q ¸i“R‡bi Av‡`‡k, wØZxqRb
†¯^”Qvq ag©, evev, gv, fvB †evb Z¨vM K‡i| `yR‡biB wgj GK
RvqMvq, Avgv‡`i †mevq wb‡R‡K DrmM©, Avi cvIqvi LvZ kyb¨Zvq|
†kl chv©‡q G‡m Avwg A`„óev`x n‡Z cvi‡jI wnmve wgjv‡Z cviwQ
bv| GwK †mB wbav©wiZ MÛx hv †cwi‡q hvIqv hvq bv ? PvwiwÎK ˆewkó
m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v n‡jI `yR‡bi K‡g©i aviv GK| GKR‡bi cÖKvk Ab¨
R‡bi †_‡K wfbœ| fvB †evb gv evev †jvKRb wb‡q †h msmvi †mLv‡b
†h D”QjZv kvwš—i AvenvIqv m„wó K‡i cÖ_g R‡bi ZvB wQj| mevB‡K
gvwZ‡q ivL‡Zv| cvov cªwZ‡ekx cwiwPZ AcwiwPZ mevi m‡½ †gkvi,
Avcb K‡i †bevi Avjv`v GKUv ¯^fve Ii g¾vq wQj| `ycy‡ii w`‡K
evox Gjvg †Z‡Zcy‡o, ej­ ÔGK e„× †jvK G‡mwQj hv‡e ivRkvnx Mvox
cv‡”Q bv †ók‡b Av‡QÕ| Avwg cvËv w`jvg bv| †L‡q †`‡q ï‡qwQ
Avevi Kv‡bi Kv‡Q N¨vb N¨vb| eva¨ n‡q †ók‡b †Mjvg ILv‡b ey‡ov
`vwo hv‡KB †`wL wRÁvmv Kwi, Ae‡k‡l GK ey‡ov †cjvg m‡½ ¯¿x,
†g‡q| AvwZw_‡qZvq Zviv Pvi w`b wdi‡Z cv‡iwb| ‰n û‡j­vo,
wcKwbK, wm‡bgv Zvi Rb¨ †QvU eo DuPz wbPz †f` †m Ki‡Zv bv|
Avgvi †ev‡bivI ˆn û‡jøvo Ki‡Zv evÜex‡`i wb‡q I G‡m †mUv cÖvq
wbqwgZ n‡q hvq AvR wcKwbK Kvj wm‡bgv | †c‡U Qq gv‡mi ev”Pv
Zey Pjø wmjvB`‡n hLb PovB‡Kvj †_‡K nuvUv c_ Qvov hvIqv †hZ bv
| cov cokxivI ev` †hZ bv | GKvZ¥ n‡q †gkvi `¶Zv wQj Zvi
96 |

Pwi‡Î| Avi me‡”‡h †ekx wQj AwZw_ †mev| ci‡K LvIqv‡Z †m
me‡P‡q fvjevm‡Zv| Avgvi cwiwPZ QvovI ¯^í cwiwPZ ev †gv‡UB
cwiwPZ bq Ggb gvby‡li cÖwZI Zvi Avc¨vqb, AvjvcPvwiZvi Zyjbv
†Kv_vI †`wLwb Ges †mUv cªKv‡ki †Kvb cÖ‡PóvI Zvi wQj bv| wbt¯^v_©
fv‡e †m ‡hKv‡iv Rb¨, `yt¯’ gvby‡li Rb¨ †mev K‡i‡Q, ‡hUv M‡íi
gv‡Zv †kvbv‡e| †`‡k Lv`¨fve, ¯^vgx Zvov‡bv wZb wcw”P wb‡q c‡_,
evox wb‡q G‡jv, _vK‡jv Zviv Avg„Zz¨| cÖvq kZ eQ‡ii e„×v Avgvi
bvbx| Zv‡K wb‡R nv‡Z †Mvmj Kwi‡q w`‡Z †`‡LwQ †hUv Zvi †g‡q
Avgvi gv‡qi `vwqZ¡ wQj| h¶v i“Mx, fvj Lvevi `iKvi `y‡ai †RvMvb
wQj| e„× GK gvbyl msmvi †_‡K `y‡i
evm, †iu‡a Lvq, †ivR `ycy‡i wcw”P w`‡q ZiKvix cvVv‡Zv| dwKi,
GKUv Kyôi“Mx `y‡Uv nvZ bvB, e‡m wbR nv‡Z LvB‡q w`Z| eÜyiv Ii
¯^fve Rvb‡Zv| mgq Amgq ivZweiv‡Z DZ¨v³ K‡i gRv jyU‡Zv|
GKevi bvUK †k‡l Kzkxje 42Rb ivZ `y‡Uvq G‡m nvwRi| fvwe
Lvevi `vI| Avwg evox †Q‡o cvjvjvg bv e‡U I N‡i NvcwU †g‡i
_vKjvg| wK ivua‡jv wK LvIqv‡jv IB Rv‡b| iv‡Z mevi LvIqv n‡j
†eu‡P hvIqv i“wU wb‡q †ei n‡Zv wd«‡m‡ji †ikb †`vKv‡b A‡c¶iZ
ev”P‡`i w`‡Z| I GKevi ev‡ci evox †_‡K †QvU fvB‡qi mv‡_ †Uª‡b
Avm‡Q| Ggb GKRb hvi mv‡_ Avgvi m‡½ Zvi m¤úK© kµzZvch©v‡q,
‡QvU fvBUvi Kv‡Q †mUv Rvb‡Z †c‡i Zv‡K †W‡K cv‡k emv‡jv|
ci¯ú‡ii cwiPq bvB| Aí eqmx †g‡q †h‡P Avjvc K‡i GUv †mUvi
ci Avgv‡`i evox AvR we‡K‡j Av‡mb `vIqvZ _vK‡jv| K_v Av`vq
K‡i †m hLb evoxi wVKvbv wb‡q ivRx nq bv, Ii wcovwcwo‡Z K_v
w`j Avm‡e| evox G‡m Avgv‡K bv¯—v wgwó Lvev‡ii weivU wdwiw¯—|
we‡K‡j †m G‡m nvwRi GgbZ‡iv KZ †h Kvwnbx †kl Kiv hv‡e bv|
†QvU fvB ¯^vax‡bi ci g¯—vb n‡q †Mj| ïay UvKv PvB, Zvi †hvMvb
w`‡qI Kzjv‡Z cv‡i bv| nv‡Zi evjv Ly‡j wbj ‡Rvi K‡i| Rvb‡Z
cvwi Ii g„Zz¨i ci| evevi †kl w`b¸‡jvq weQvbv Ni bó K‡i
†dj‡Zv| †Kvb PvKi bq wb‡R w`‡bi ci w`b GKvB K‡i‡Q| Ii

97 |

cÖwZ mnvbyfywZkxj n‡q †hw`b Avwg wKQyUv fvM wbjvg †mw`bB evev
gviv hvq|
g„Zy¨c_hvÎx evev mvivivZ K_v ej‡Z PvBZ m½ w`Z †m Xyj‡Z Xyj‡Z|
Avgiv nvmZvg| Avgv‡`i‡K evev WvK‡Zv bv| Av‡Rv wn›`y hviv Zvi
bvg ïb‡j `y‡Uv nvZ Kcv‡j †VKvq| Avgvi †QvU fvB cvwj‡q G‡jv
cvwK¯—vb †_‡K 1968 mv‡j| wKš—y wgwjUvix AvB‡b KvwVb kvw¯—‡hvM¨|
†mRb¨ jywK‡q _vK‡Zv| GKUv hyeK †Q‡j Zvi jywK‡q _vKvi Rxeb
Avwg †g‡b wb‡Z cvwi bvB| evi evi ZvwM` w`Zvg †gwW‡Kj w`‡q
PvKyix‡Z wd‡i hvevi Rb¨| Avgvi gv, Ab¨vb¨ivI GRb¨ Avgvi wei“c
nq| µ‡g Avgvi fvBUvI †f‡e wbj Avwg I‡K Avgvi e¨vemv evox
N‡ii Askx`vi bv ivLvi Rb¨B I‡K mov‡Z Pvw”Q| `yiZ¡ kΓZvi
ch©v‡q †Mj ‡`k ¯^vax‡bi c‡i| H mgq †bwf-‡Z ‡hvM`vb Ki‡j †m
A‡bK
eo n‡Z cvi‡Zv| †m Dc‡`k †KDB w`j bv| PvKzix w`j †Mvqvj›`
†U·UvBj wg‡j| ¯’vbxq kµzZvq Rwo‡q co‡jv ILv‡b| Avgvi ¯¿x
Zv‡K LyeB fvjevm‡Zv| me Ave`vi Zvi wgwU‡q‡Q| gv ZLb cvMj
cÖvq| GLv‡b gb em‡Zv bv Zvi| †Mj h‡kvi †QvU †g‡qi evox|
ev_i“‡g c‡o wM‡q KwUi nvo †f‡½ kh¨vkvqx| I‡K cvVvjvg hLb
Avgvi †Q‡j‡`i cix¶v Pj‡Q| GK weaev e„×v c½y mš—vb nviv mevi
Av‡M †mUv Avgvi we‡ePbvq| I †Mj Ges †mI ev_i“‡g AvQvo †Lj|
mvivw`b fvj, Ilya Wv³vi meB G‡m‡Q| mܨvi ci nvmcvZv‡j †MwQ
mKv‡j G¨v¤y^‡jÝ eyK Ki‡Z, †ók‡b †cuŠ‡Q †`‡e| So e„wó‡Z AvUUvi
ci evmvq G‡m I‡K †`‡L Avgvi eyKUv nVvr Q¨vr K‡i DV‡jv| G‡Zv
d¨vKv‡m i³ k~b¨ jvM‡Q| Mv‡qi Kvco Nv‡g †fRv| Lvevi PvB‡j
niwj· w`jvg| Zvi ciB Ávb nvov‡jv| bZzb Wv³vi G‡jv Ges
You are too late ej‡jb| †kl †Póv GKUv Bb‡RKkb Avi
G¨vge­y‡qÝ Avmvi Av‡MB †m P‡j †Mj| Avgv‡`i `v¤úZ¨ Rxeb LyeB
msw¶ß| hy‡×i mgqUv ïay †`Šov‡`Šwo| ¯^vaxbZvi mgq evox cywo‡q
†`q †mRb¨ fvov evox| Avi †cvov wU‡bi Qvcov| evox Kivi RvqMv
5Uv wKb‡jI msmvi †f‡½ P‡j hvevi K_v †Kvb w`b e‡j bvB| wVK
hLb Zvi myL Avmvi mgq ZLbB Zvi cÖZ¨veZ©b| hZ mn‡R K_v¸‡jv
98 |

wjLwQ cÖKvk cv‡”Qbv Zv‡Z Avgvi AbyfywZi K_v| ciw`b jvk wb‡q
Ii gv evevi Kv‡Q w`jvg| Avgvi †Q‡j eo Avi †g‡RvUv A‡c¶vq
Av‡Q gv Avmvi Rb¨| Avwg Avgvi Awfe¨w³ †Kvb fv‡eB cÖKvk Ki‡Z
cviwQ bv| She lived for us, she died for us GUvB Ii Rb¨
Avgvi †kl K_v| wØZxq we‡q gvbyl Ki‡Z cv‡i GUv Avgvi fvebvi
AZxZ| eD †Zv GKeviB nq| ‡QvU wZbUv ev”Pv Avi c½y gv wb‡q
Avwg chy¨©`¯—| I‡`i ivbœv, LvIhv‡bv, ¯‹y‡j cvVv‡bv, Kvco KvPv Ges
iv‡Z GK weQvbvq †kvqv| Lv‡U PviRb AvuU‡Zv bv| cÖvq e‡mB
KvU‡Zv| Ggwb mgqUv Wvt †gv¯—dv Avi Wvt jwZd Zv‡`i cÖ¨vKwUªm
†kl K‡i Avgvi ILv‡b Avm‡Zv †ivR iv‡Z| jwZd Mvb MvBZ gRvi
gRvi MíI ej‡Zv| GgbUvB †ivR Avgiv GK mv‡_ nZvg ZLb|
†gv¯—dv `i`x gb wb‡qB me mgq Avgv‡K ej‡Zv iwÄZv‡K we‡qi
K_v| Avwg mvq w`Zvg bv| wKš— µ‡gB eyS‡Z cvijvg nqZ Avwg
AcÖwKZ¯’ n‡q hve| iwÄZv ZLb e`jx n‡q P‡j †M‡Q cvKkx| †m
LyeB M¤¢xi cÖK…wZi Ges wbR Rxeb m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb|
PvKix Rxe‡b cwi”Qbœ Pwi‡Îi mybvg mK‡j kª×vi AvKl©b Ki‡Zv| gv
evev fvB †evb mK‡ji `vq Zvi Kvu‡a| ag©I Avgv‡`i Avjv`v| Wvt
†gv¯—vdv Zvi Kv‡R cvKkx hv‡e| Avgvi Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z PvBj Ges
Aby‡iva Ki‡jv iwÄZv‡K AvnŸvb Kivi Rb¨| Avwg A‡bK †f‡e gZ
w`jvg Ges †m Avm‡jv| gv-evev, fvB-†evb ag© Z¨vM K‡i| †LmviZ
w`‡Z n‡q‡Q Zv‡K A‡bK| Avgvi †Q‡jiv Avkªq †c‡jv| †¯­n w`‡q
I†`i AvR‡Ki ch¨©v‡q Avbv‡jv, Avgvi Avw_©K Ae¯’v Z‡Zvw`‡b wb‡P
†b‡g †M‡Q| msmv‡ii `vqI Gi Kuv‡a Awdm Kiv †_‡K meB †m
K‡i‡Q| AvR Zvi †mB †`n †f‡½ †M‡Q eq‡mi fv‡i| abm¤§` I
mš—vb‡`i Rb¨ wbt‡kl K‡i‡Q| `yB Rb ¯¿x Avgvi Rxe‡b ïay Avgv‡`i
Rb¨B G‡m‡Q| Avwg G‡`i Kv‡iv †Kvb B”QviB cyib Ki‡Z cvwi bvB
| PvKix‡Z †hgb †m wQj Dutyful| gvZ„nxb wZb wkïi Rb¨ me
Z¨vM KivUvI Zvi wWDwUi A½ wnmv‡e †m wb‡q‡Q| bB‡j Avgvi gv‡S
Ggb wKQy‡Zv †bB hv w`‡q GKRb‡K me©¯^ Z¨vM Kivq DØy× Ki‡Z
cvwi| Av‡M †hgb cvwiwb eZ©gv‡bI Avwg e¨_©| Wy‡e hvIqv m~‡h©i
99 |

†kv‡K Avuavi iv‡Zi wgwUwgwU Zvivi †mŠ›`h©¨ Avwg D‡c¶v KiwQ
eZ©gv‡bi|
Óiv‡Î hw` m~h©¨ †kv‡K
S‡i AkÖæaviv
m~h©¨ bvwn †d‡i
ïay e¨v_© nq ZvivÓ
iex›`ªbv_ |
‡mB mg‡qi ¯^v¯’¨ †mevq wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb huviv
1942 mv‡ji wgÎ kw³i †h D‡ovRvnvRUv †i‡ji gv‡V ûgwo †L‡q
co‡jv Zvi PvjK‡K my¯’¨ K‡i †Zv‡jb Wvt †hv‡Mk P›`ª †Nvl| evoxUv
eZ©gv‡b †K.†K.Gm. Gi Awdm| wZwb Gj.Gg.Gd cvk n‡jI kj¨
we`¨vq LyeB cvi`k©x wQ‡jb| wbD‡gvwbqv †c‡K wM‡q Avgvi †ev‡bi
ev”Pv †g‡qUvi eyKUv †Xv‡ji AvK…wZi n‡q †Mj| wZwb evwo‡ZB
KjvcvZvq ïB‡q wc‡Vi †Kvbv †K‡U GK evjwZ cuyR †ei K‡i w`‡jb|
Zuvi ‡mev Avi wPwKrmv‡ZB †m fvj n‡q I‡V|
Zvivc` Wv³vi wQ‡jb Gg.we.we.Gm. †ekx †ivMx GKev‡i †`L‡Zb
bv| e„Ëvš— ï‡b 10 wgwbU wSg †g‡i _vK‡Zb Zvi ci weavb wjL‡Zb|
em‡Zb gyw³‡hv×v gv‡K©‡Ui mvg‡b cwðg w`KUvq| evox kªxcyi Wvt
AvmRv` mv‡ne †hUvi eZ©gvb gvwjK| wVK ZviB D‡ëv w`‡K Wv³vi
evMPxi wWm‡cbmvix| †hUvq c‡i Wv³vi †nv‡mb em‡Zb| ev‡iv`v
dv‡g©mx‡Z em‡Zb Wv³vi cÖg_ bv_ ivq| Zuvi LyeB bvg WvK wQj
wPwKrmK wnmv‡e| Zuvi GK †Q‡j Avgvi mncvwV Avi.Gm.†K.
BwbwówUDk‡b gvÎ 12 N›Uvi R¡‡i gviv hvq AKv‡j| Avi ZviB D‡ëv
w`‡K Wv³vi f³iÄb (Wvt gv‡jK †hLv‡b cÖKwUm Ki‡Zb) hvi g‡Âi
Awf‡bZv wnmv‡e myL¨vwZ wQj| K…òbM‡i wM‡q w¯’wZ nb| mZ¨wRr
iv‡qi Acyi msmv‡i K‡b c‡¶i GKUv f~wgKvq Awfbq K‡i‡Qb|
we‡bv`cy‡ii mÄxe cv‡ji eo †Q‡j cÖdzj­ Kzgvi cv‡ji †`vKvbUv wQj
gymwjg wMwb nvD‡mi mvg‡b †gvoUvq| Zuvi †QvU fvB wegj cvj
weGmwm wUPvi wQ‡jb †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡ji| Av‡iv wQ‡jb GKmg‡qi
100 |

wgwjUvix Wv³vi M‡bk em‡Zb cvU evRvi| wgwjUvix cÖZ¨vMZ miKvix
nvmcvZv‡j wQ‡jb Captain ‡nv‡mb whwb Lye `ªZ j‡q K_v ej‡Zb|
Captain kvnveyÏxb Wv³vi I hy× †diZ h¶v nvmcvZv‡ji Wv³vi |
Ab¨vb¨ huviv G¨v‡jvc¨vw_K wPwKrmK wQ‡jb Wv³vi gvLb jvj mvnv
wWMÖxavix bv n‡jI nvZhk wQj Avi AgvwqK e¨venv‡ii Rb¨ Mixe
i“Mx‡`i gv‡S RbwcÖq wQ‡jb| wZwb mgq Amg‡q me©`vB i“Mxi Wv‡K
mvov w`‡Zb| Ibvi fvB fevbx k¼i mvnv gyjZt Wv³vi wQ‡jb Zuvi
Av‡M| Ab¨ GK fvB cÙv eid K‡ji g¨v‡bRvi wQ‡jb| Avi wZwb
BsivRx‡Z GKRb cwÊZ e¨vw³Z¡ ejv hvq| Gi c‡i G‡jb mvB‡Kj
‡gKvi Kvby VvKz‡ii N‡i †i‡ji PvKix †_‡K Aemi wb‡q Wv³vi
mvg`vbx| GUv A‡bK c‡ii K_v| Av‡iv wQ‡jb Wv³vi †nv‡mb,
Wv³vi †K`vi bv_, Wv³vi kZxl P›`ª Wv³vi D‡c›`ªbv_ `vm whwb ¯¿x
†iv‡Mi wPwKrmK| Avi wQ‡jb mvov RvMv‡bv †nvwgI c¨vw_
J.N.Guha B.A. LLB ZrKv‡j Zuvi wfwRU wbavwiZ 20/= UvKv|
KjKvZvi AvBb e¨emv cwiZ¨vM K‡i †nvwgIc¨v_x wPwKrmvq ïi“
K‡ib| (evoxUv K‡jR cvovi bRi“j MvW© mv‡n‡ei) wZwb fvi‡Zi
BwZnvm L¨vZ m‡ivwRbx bvBWyi gvgv m¤úwK©Z wQ‡jb| m‡ivwRbx bvBWy
ivRevox‡ZI G‡m‡Qb gvgv evox‡Z| wZwb AZ¨š— my›`ix wQ‡jb| Avi
Hector Bolitho i †jLv Oxford †cÖm †_‡K QvcvI cÖKvwkZ
wRbœvi Rxebx MÖ‡š’i 27 cvZvq wjwLZ Av‡Q m‡ivRbx bvBoy wRbœvi
†cÖ‡g c‡owQ‡jb| mvov bv †c‡q e¨v_v fiv ü`‡q KweZv wjL‡jb|
In the noontide hours
O Love, secure and storng
I need thee not.....
But in the desolate hour of midnight,
When as ecstasy of starry silance sleep
On the still monuntains
And the soundless deeps,
And my soul hunger for thy voice.
†nvwgI c¨v_ Wv³vi Av‡iv wQ‡jb Rx‡Z›`ª bv_ wms Kg‡iW mgi wms
Gi fvB| Avi Wv³vi wcÖq †Mvcvj ivq|
101 |

†nvwKwg wPwKrmvq iZ wQ‡jb Pibvivqb cy‡ii Avey bv‡mi †gvnv¤§`
Avjx Lvub| Zuvi cwiev‡i GKiv‡Z `y‡h©vM †b‡g Av‡m| K‡jivq 4 Rb
m`m¨ gvivhvb †nwKg mv‡ne mn| ¯¿x Db¥v` n‡q †i‡j KvUv c‡o
g„Zz¨eib K‡ib| Zvui GK cyÎ †gvt byi †gv¯—dv gqgbwmsn †_‡K
Rvgv‡Z Djv cvk K‡i †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡ji †gŠjfx m¨vi wQ‡jb|
†nwKg mv‡ne em‡Zb g‡qR DÏxb gÛj mv‡n‡ei RvqMvq|
KweivR wQ‡jb A‡bK Zb¥‡a¨ KweivR cÖdzj­ Kzgvi †flRiZœ , †Mvcvj
P›`ª `vm ¸ß I †hvMx›`ª bv_ miKvi cÖavb, †k‡lv³ `yÕR‡bi g‡a¨ Ø›Ø
wKi“c nvm¨Ki ch©v‡qi Zvi mim eb©bv Avgvi m¨vi ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_
fÆvPv‡h©i ¤§„wZK_vq Avjv`v GKUv cwi‡”Q‡`i mvivsk GiƒcÒivRevoxi `yB Kweiv‡Ri g‡a¨ UvM
Ae Iqvi †Mvcvj P›`ª `vm¸ß ebvg †hvMx›`ª bv_ miKvi| ewikvj
†Rjvi ˆMjv MÖvg †_‡K G‡jb †MvcvjP›`ª `vm ¸ß KweivRx Kivi
D‡Ïk¨ wb‡q| wQwjgcy‡ii `vm Rwg`vi evey‡`i mv‡_ Avgvi Lye
ü`¨Zv wQj| †Mvcv‡ji evox Kivi Rb¨ Rwg wb‡q w`jvg Zvu‡`i KvQ
†_‡K| ‡Mvcvj ms¯‹…ZÁ bv n‡jI Avhy‡e©`xq Jla cÖ¯‘Z cÖYvjx fvjB
AvqZ¡¡ K‡iwQ‡jb, Zvui e¨enviI Lye AgvwqK ZÏi“b 2/4 eQ‡ii
g‡a¨ cmviI R‡g DV‡jv, Gi 4/5 eQi c‡i G‡jb XvKv †_‡K Avi
GKRb KweivR †hvMx›`ª bv_ miKvi WªvB AvBm d¨v±ixi wekvj GjvKv
Ry‡o Zuvi evoxUv| XvKvi GK bgv©j ¯‹z‡ji †nW cwÛZ wQ‡jb|
Avhy‡e©` kv¯¿ iß K‡i KweivRx Avi¤¢ K‡ib| ZLb †Mvcvj Kweiv‡Ri
Lye bvg| fvRb, †cvÏvi, abx gnvRb cwiev‡ii wPwKrmv K‡ib|
AvqI fvj| wKQyw`b ci †hvMxb KweivR hvb cvjKx P‡o i“Mx evox|
†Mvcv‡ji cvéx‡Zv wQjB Gevi aij †Nvov †iv‡M| wKb‡jb †Nvov,
ivL‡jb mwnm| mymw¾Z †Nvovq P‡o hvb i“Mx †`L‡Z| BwZg‡a¨
†hvMx›`ª KweivRI cmvi Rwg‡q †d‡j‡Qb| wZwb G‡K wkw¶Z Z`ycwi
M¤¢xi, evPvjZv bvB| dwi`cy‡ii RMeÜy cÖfyi cÖavb wkl¨| GRb¨
Av‡iv Zuvi bvg WvK Qwo‡q co‡jv| `yB Kweiv‡Ri cvj­v Pj‡Z jvM‡jv
ixwZgZ| RjK‡ii bv‡qe Kvjx Kzgvi `vm †Mvcv‡ji cÖwZcwË mn¨
Ki‡Z cvi‡Zb bv, hw`I `yRbB ewikv‡ji gvbyl|
102 |

AvÇvLvbvq Kvjx evey ˆÎ‡jvK¨ m¨vi‡K e‡jb gvóvi gkvB Avgv‡`i
ms‡Ni bvg K‡i †Mvcv‡ji KvQ ‡_‡K `kUv UvKv Avb‡Z cv‡ib?
ms‡Ni bv‡g †Kb Kvq`vq †d‡j 50/= UvKvI Avb‡Z cvwi| †Mvcv‡ji
Kv‡Q wM‡q m¨vi M¤¢©xi gy‡L e‡j­b, ÒKweivR, †hv‡M‡bi †Zv BbKvg
U¨v· n‡q †Mj, †Zvgvi n‡jv bv, G‡Z cÖgvb nq †Zvgvi †P‡q
†hv‡M‡bi Avq †ekx| welqUv †ivMx gn‡j RvbvRvwb n‡j †Zvgvi wKQy
Amyweavi K_v|
†Mvcvj m¨v‡ii nvZ †P‡c a‡i Abyb‡qi my‡i ej‡jb, hvb gvóvi gkvB
GLwb e¨e¯’v Ki“b hv‡Z Ii †P‡q Avgvi U¨v· Aš—Z 5/= UvKv †ekx
nq| Zvn‡j `vI wKQy, I‡`i nv‡Z wKQy ¸u‡R bv w`‡j‡Zv cvËvB †`‡e
bv| AvcvZZ `k UvKv `vI| †Mvcvj Zr¶bvr 10/= UvKv w`‡q
ej‡jb, UvKvi Rb¨ wPš—v Ki‡eb bv †`L‡eb KvRUv †hb nq| Avcwb
Qvov wec‡` †KBev mvnvh¨ Kivi Av‡Q GLv‡b| ‰Î‡jvK¨ m¨vi UvKvUv
Kvjx eveyi nv‡Z G‡b †`b| †Mvcv‡ji 10/= UvKv M”Pv †Mj G‡ZB
Kvjx eveyi Avb›`|
ivRvi evev Wv³vi Avãyi ingvb mv‡n‡ei wWm‡cbmvix‡Z me©`vB eq¯‹
¸i“Rb‡`i mgv‡ek| Av‡jvP¨ welq †ekxi fvM be¨ ivRbxwZK‡`i
gyÊycvZ| Avovj †_‡K Avgiv †m me K_v AweKj wb‡R‡`i AvÇvq
cwi‡ekb K‡i gRv KiZvg| ILv‡b Avj‡evjvq û‡Kv Pj‡Zv| Mdzi
†gvj­v mv‡n‡ei gyLUv wKwÄr euvKv Kj‡K †_‡K wewo aiv‡Z wM‡q
dyuw`‡”Qb e‡U wKš‘ evZvm †eu‡K hv‡”Q wewo Avi a‡i bv| Gi gv‡SI
wZwb AvIqvgx †`vl Luy‡R cvb| Ggb‡Z‡iv KZ wK|
Gi ci miKvix PvKyix †_‡K Aemi wb‡q G‡jb Wv³vi AvRvnvi
DvwÏb Avn¤§`| wekvj evoxUv wQj evbx mvb¨v‡ji| mvg‡b SvDMvQ
m`vB †kuv †kuv kã Zz‡j fq aiv‡Zv g‡b| kxZ M„‡¯§ QvZv Avi bv‡K
i“gvj| wZwb g„Zz¨i Av‡M GKUv `vZe¨ wPwKrmvjq cÖwZôv K‡i hvb
hvi e¨qfvi Zvi m¤úwË †_‡KB e¨wqZ nq|
Wv³vi Rwjjyi ingvb fvRb Pvjvi| wbt¯^v_© KvÛvix AvIqvgxjx‡Mi|
whwb GB ivRbxwZ‡Z Rwo‡q LM F †Kvm©UvI mgvß Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb|
wPwKrmvq nvZhk wQj wKš‘ gb emv‡Z cv‡ibwb| wZwb Avi ev`kv
†PŠayixi Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡qB AvR‡Ki AvIqvgx jx‡Mi RbwcªqZvi ïi“|
103 |

cvskvi weL¨vZ KvRx es‡ki mš—vb Wv³vi G.†K.Gg. AvmRv`,
GgweweGm, ivRevox G‡m KvRx †nv`v‡hZ †nv‡m‡bi ejq †f‡½
wb‡Ri cÖvavb¨ cÖwZóv Ki‡Z wM‡q wPwKrmv †mevi †P‡q ivRbxwZ‡Z
Rwo‡q c‡ob| wewfbœ msMVb M‡o Zz‡j hyemgv‡R GKUv Av‡jvob
†Zv‡jb| †iwRóªxK…Z K¬ve MVb K‡i miKvi †_‡K evwl©K `k nvRvi
UvKv Aby`vb wba©vwiZ K‡i †Ljvayjvq cÖvbmÂvi K‡i‡Qb| K¬v‡ei
m`m¨‡`i w`‡q iv¯—v ‰Zwi Kwi‡q‡Qb|
So SÄvq †¯^”Qv‡meK `j wb‡q GwM‡q †M‡Qb| wPwKrmK wnmv‡e wZwb
Aek¨B Abb¨ wQ‡jb wKš— H GK †iv‡MB ZuviI ˆefe Av‡mwb| †Pbv
Rvbv wdm w`‡Z †M‡j ixwZgZ †i‡M †h‡Zb| Avqye Lv‡bi ÔZgNvB
†L`gZÕ †LZve †c‡q‡Qb| Avevi nu¨v, bv †fv‡U bv †fvU w`‡q‡Qb|
†LZveI cÖZ¨vLvb K‡i‡Qb GKmgq| gyw³hy‡× cÖ_g †_‡KB Ask
wb‡q‡Qb Avi †m ¯^xK…wZ †c‡qB miKvix gh©v`v †c‡q mgvwnZ
n‡q‡Qb|
Wv³vi †Mvjvg †gv¯—vdv GgweweGm G‡jb 70 `k‡K Aa©kZvwã a‡iv
a‡iv n‡jI g‡b nq GB †Zv †mw`‡bi K_v| gyw³hy‡× Zvi mn‡hvMxZvi
wek` wZwb Rvbvb bv| Z‡e Avgiv Rvwb nvmcvZv‡ji miKvix Jla
wZwb gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mieivn K‡i‡Qb XvjvI fv‡e|
Avgv‡`i kn‡i bexb, cÖexb wPwKrmvi mv‡_ RwoZ meviB GKUv
†mevg~jK gvbwmKZv wb‡q mgv‡R Ae`vb †i‡L‡Qb| ˆefe Zuv‡`i
Kv‡iviB gyL¨ Kvg¨ wQj bv| †mB wePv‡i Avgiv ivRevoxevmx mevB
fvM¨evb e‡U|

cÙvi Bwjk
cÙvq kZ kZ †bŠKv gvQ aivq w`evivZ wb‡qvwRZ _vK‡Zv | w`‡bi
Av‡jvq iO †ei‡Oi Zvwj hy³ cvj Zz‡j †hgb b`xi †mŠ›`h¨©, iv‡Z
†Zgwb b`x‡Z nvRvi nvRvi Kzcxi Av‡jvi cÖwZdjb| ivRevox kn‡ii
cvuPUv eid Kj w`b ivZ Rvwg‡qI ei‡di †RvMvb w`‡Z wngwkg †LZ
| †Zgb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z jeb w`‡q Kv‡b¯—viv wUb fË©x K‡i ivLv nZ|
104 |

je‡biI NvUwZ n‡Zv , gvwU Pvcv †`Iqv Qvov ZLb Dcvq _vK‡Zv bv|
†Q‡j †ejvq evRvi Kiv Avgvi wWDwUi AsM, gv‡Qi Kvb‡Kv Dwë‡q
jvj UKU‡K bv n‡j †m †R‡jUvi Wvjvi gvQ c‡oB _vK‡Zv| †cU DPuy
wWg fwZ© gvQ Lwi` Kiv gvi wb‡la wQj| eo mo 1Uv gv‡Qi `vg `yB
†_‡K wZb Avbv| †KvjKvZvq Pvjvb †hZ †h gvQ Zvi Mvox fvov I
eid LiPv ev‡`I ‰eVKLvbv gv‡K©‡U Qq cqmv †mi `‡i Bwjk weµx
nZ| cÙvi MfxiZv ZLb †Kvb‡Kvb Lv‡b 100†_‡K 150 dzU| GUv
gvcv †hZ Bwjk aiv Rv‡ji `woi gvc †_‡K| GUvi bvg wQj dzUvbxi
`wo| QvZv dzUv‡bvi †_‡K GB k‡ãi DrcwË, QvZv †hgb †Lvjv Avi
eÜ Kiv nq Bwjk aivi RvjI †Zgbx gyL †Lvjv Avi eÜ| Bwjk
KLbB R‡ji Dci fv‡m bv | gvwU AvuK‡o †kªv‡Zi wecwo‡Z I‡`i
hZvqvZ | Wv½vq Zzj‡j 2/3 wgwb‡Ui †ekx euv‡Pbv| Bwjk aivi Rvj
A‡bKUv wSbyK AvK…wZi , `y‡Uv gyL duvK K‡i wb‡Pi As‡k fvov †eu‡a
bvwg‡q fvwU gy‡Lv †bŠKv †f‡m †h‡Z †h‡Z †fZ‡i gvQ XyK‡j †m
Av‡jvob nv‡Zi myZvq AbyfyZ n‡Zv ZLb dzUvbxi `woUv †U‡b Rvj
Dc‡i IVv‡Z n‡Zv, wSby‡Ki gyLUv eÜ n‡q †hZ ZLb, fvwU †_‡K
Avevi cvj Zz‡j DwR‡q hvIqv KvwqK kªg †Zgb jv‡Mbv| †h Kvi‡b
nvj`vi †kªbx QvovI Av‡k cv‡ki MÖvg¨ hye‡Kiv †bŠKv wb‡q †ewo‡q
co‡Zv iv‡Z, AvÇv,Mí, Avq wZbUvB cÖvwß , ciw`b avgv, Kjv cvZvq
mvwomvwo evRv‡i| iƒcvi g‡Zv PKP‡K is | `vg hvB cvKbv †Kb
GUv Dcwi Avq e‡jB Muv‡hi gvby‡liv jvf †jvKmvb wePvi Ki‡Zv bv|
gv‡Qi AcPq e‡jI fve‡Zv bv| Bwjk‡Zv Mix‡ei Lv`¨ ejv hvq|
†Zj jv‡Mbv mewRI bv n‡j P‡j, ïay njy` KuvPv gwi‡Pi †Sv‡j †gvUv
AvD‡mi jvj Pv‡ji fvZ ‡g‡L hviv †bŠKvq †L‡q‡Q AvRI Zviv
fyj‡Z cv‡iwb †m ¯^v`|
Avi ZvB‡Zv ‰Î‡jvK¨bv_ m¨vi mvov ¯‹y‡ji AwfÁZvq ‰Rb ag©evj¤^x
B›`ªPuv` hLb wRÁvmv K‡ib ÓAv”Qv nvcbviv gQwj Lvb †K‡bvÓ ?
Rev‡e ej‡Z †c‡i‡Qb ÓAvcbv‡`i `yf©vM¨, gvovevi †`‡ki wbP w`‡q
cÙv cÖevwnZ nq bvB, nB‡j wK nBZ ejv hvqbvÓ | gvQe›`i m~Î a‡i
†Mvqvj‡›` wekvj evRvi, wewfbœ e¨vemvqx Zuv‡`i cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡R
wb‡qvwRZ kZ kZ Kzjx, Zv‡`i cwievi | ÷xgvi Nv‡Ui Kzjxiv
105 |

bvivqbMÄ, Pvu`cyi †_‡K AvMZ ÷xgvi Nv‡U †fovi Av‡MB mvwie×
fv‡e e‡m _vK‡Zv, Lvwj nv‡Zi c¨v‡mÄvi †b‡g †M‡j ûogyo K‡i Iiv
÷xgv‡i wM‡q †evSv Iqvjv c¨v‡mÄvi cvKovI Ki‡Zv| Gmg‡q k„•Ljv
i¶vi Rb¨ I‡`i m`©vi †ePvj Kzjx‡`i Qwo w`‡q hÎhÎ AvNvZ
Ki‡Zv| evû‡Z †cZ‡ji b¤^i †jLv PvKwZi b¤^i †`‡L gvjvgvj w`‡q
w`b | †Kvb ZQi“‡ci Avk¼v †bB | †ij Mvox‡Z gvj Ges Avcbvi
RvqMv †i‡L A‡c¶vq _vK‡e| Avevi KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ †Uªb XvKv
†gj, wPUvMvs †g‡ji hvÎx‡`i ÷xgv‡ii †W‡K RvqMv K‡i gvjgvj
mvwR‡q A‡c¶vq _vK‡Zv| †Rvo Ryjyg bq mvgvb¨ eKwkk †c‡jB
mš‘ó |
Avmvg A‡ji gvjvgvj Pvjv‡bi ÷xgvi ¸‡jv ZLb †Mvqvj›`
n‡qB †hZ , ‡mªv‡Zi cÖejZvq DwR‡q hvIqv A‡bK mgqB e¨nZ nZ|
ZLb RvnvR¸‡jv GLv‡bB A‡c¶v Ki‡Zv| 1869 mv‡j dwi`cy‡ii
Kv‡jKUi wi‡cvU© wj‡L hvb †h Qq Lvbv ÷xgvi cÙv hgybvii ms‡hvM
†f` K‡i AMÖmi n‡Z bv cvovq †Mvqvj‡›` b½i K‡i _vK‡Z eva¨ nq
| G‡Z †evSv hvq †i‡ji AvMg‡bi (1871) cye© †_‡KB †Mvqvj›`
b`x e›`i wnmv‡e cÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj |
‡R‡j m¤cÖ`vq wewfbœ AvKvi I bv‡gi Rvj e¨venvi Ki‡Zv|
Avi Zvi LvRbvi nviI wewfbœ wQj| mvov eªxR †_‡K Pvu`cyi ch¨©š—
†ZIZvi ivRv Ges cvebvi Rwg`vi m‡š—vl Kzgvi m¨vbvj Gi AvIZv
fy³| Gbviv Av°vm wgqvi `v`vi bv‡g wcZ‡ji cv‡Z `yB Avbv AvU
cvB e¨vcvix kwiK wnmv‡e wj‡L †`b| hvi e‡j hLb cye©cvwK¯—v‡b
Rwg`vix cÖ_v wejyß nq ZrKv‡j jv‡nv‡i Av°vm wgqv c‡¶ ivq cvb|
hw`I cieËx© Kv‡j miKvi †_‡K wZwb ¶wZcyib cvb bvB| Z‡e 1970
`k‡KI Kg©Pvix Øviv wZwb LvRbv Av`vq K‡i‡Qb|
LvRbvi nvi 1947 mv‡ji Av‡M eZi wnmv‡e †bIqv n‡Zv
¯’vqx nvj`vi m¤cÖ`v‡qi KvQ ‡_‡K| A¯’vqx grm¨ wkKvix wfbœ nv‡i
w`Z, nvj`vi m¤cÖ`vq †cŠl gv‡m gvQ ai‡Zv bv| el©v eZi Avlvp,
kªveb Ges fv`ª | Avwk¦‡b eZi Avwk¦b, KvwZ©K I AMÖnvqb| †Pv‡Z
eZi ïi“ n‡Zv t- gvN, dvêb. ˆPÎ, ˆekvL I ‰Rô¨| LvRbvi nvi
†Pv‡Z eZ‡i †eo ev Qvw` †Kvbv Rv‡ji 1 Rvj cÖwZ 1UvKv| Ab¨vb¨
106 |

eZ‡i 2Rvj 1UvKv 10 Avbv wnmv‡e| Avwk¦b eZ‡i mvaiYZt cvZb
euva, ‡eo Lov I eywURvj e¨eüZ n‡Zv| Ab¨vb¨ mgq mvs‡j evDjx,
Uzbx †eo, RMZ‡eo, Qvw`Rvj Ges †KvbvRvj w`‡q gQ aiv n‡Zv|
cv½vk gv‡Qi SuvK AvU‡K ivLvi Rb¨ kZ kZ gb Pvj e¯—v mn b`x‡Z
Wywe‡q †`Iqv n‡Zv | Lvev‡ii †jv‡f cv½vk gvQ SuvK a‡i †mB
GjvKv‡ZB †_‡K †h‡Zv| cÖ‡qvRb g‡Zv mg‡q I¸‡jv aiv n‡Zv ev‡i
ev‡i | gnvR‡bi M`x N‡ii mvg‡b ¯‘cxK…Z cv½v‡ki cvnvo|
Icv‡i me Avov‡j c‡o †hZ| i“B, KvZ‡ji AvKvi IRb
Awek¦vm¨| ‰Î‡jvK¨ m¨v‡ii †g‡qi we‡q‡Z Rjvi bv‡qi, †`ogb
IR‡bi `yBUv i“B I AvwkUv eo Bwjk eihvÎx‡`i Avc¨vq‡bi Rb¨
Dcnvi cvwV‡qwQ‡jb|
Bwjk mvM‡ii gvQ| wWg Qvo‡Z DwR‡q P‡j Av‡m Suv‡K
Suv‡K| †mB mv‡_ Avm‡Zv kïK, wWMevRx †L‡q k¦vm wb‡q avIqv
Ki‡Zv gv‡Q‡`i wcQy wcQy| cÙvi †kªv‡Zi cÖLiZv ¯^P‡¶ GKw`b †`wLwkKj w`‡q euvav RvnvR eo ÎKUv MvQ wkKo mn Dc‡o gvS b`x‡Z
wQU‡K †Mj|
cvo fv½vi mgq KZ‡jvK Zwj‡q hvq| GKevi RvnvR KvZ
n‡q eû‡jvK b`x‡Z wQU‡K c‡o, gv †kl gyn~‡Z© †Kv‡ji ev”PvwU‡K
cwiZ¨vM K‡iI euvP‡Z cv‡iwb G Avgvi ¯^P‡¶ †`Lv|

cÖLg hy‡Mi K¨v‡giv
‡ij †÷k‡bi cv‡k duvKv PË¡iUvq we¯—i gvbyl fxo K‡i
`uvwo‡q | KbyD‡qi duvK M‡j Xy‡K †Mjvg| Uz‡ji Dci k³ n‡q e‡m
Av‡Q GKRb, ¯’xi cjKnxb| gy‡LvgwL GKUv ev‡· Kv‡jv Kvc‡o
†`‡ni A‡a©KUv gywo w`‡q GKRb ûgwo †L‡q i‡q‡Q| GKmgq Ngv©³
†`‡n mv`v Kv‡jv Qvcgviv KvMR nv‡Z †ewo‡h G‡jv †jvKUv Kv‡jv
107 |

Kvc‡oi †fZi †_‡K| IUv †h wK wKQyB †evSv †Mjbv ïay mv`v Kv‡jv
Qvc Qvov| IUvi Dci AvuwKeywK K‡i ev·Uvi mvg‡b AvU‡K, gv_vUv
Avevi A`„k¨ n‡jv Kv‡jv KvcoUvq | cÖwZ¶vi cvjv GKmgq †kl
n‡jv gv_vUv GeviI GKUv KvMR nv‡Z †ei“j| cwi¯‹vi †`Lv hv‡”Q
wmU‡K a‡i Uz‡j e‡m _vKv †jvKUvB‡Zv AweKj| wcQ‡b DovRvnvR
DPz `vjv‡bi mvwoi Dci w`‡h D‡o hv‡”Q| Sibv eB‡Q cv‡ki
cvnvoUvq| Qwe †Zvjvi cÖ_g ¯^‡cœi exR Gw`b †_‡K| 1950 mv‡j
XvKvq KODAK ev· K¨v‡giv †hUvi Kuv‡Pi Dci cÖwZ”Qwe †`‡L
†evZvg wUc‡jB 120 †mjyj‡q‡Wi Film G Nagative Avi Studio
†Z print Kwi‡h Qwe ‡Zvjv mnR n‡q †Mj| nvZ cvK‡Z jvMjvg
†ev‡b‡`i ¯‹y‡j picnic G Avi eywo M½vq GK Avbv N›Uvq wWw½ fvov
K‡i|
evwZKUv Avgvq Ggb †c‡q e‡m †h LyeB K‡ó wm‡ó cuvPk
UvKv w`‡q 1956 mv‡jGKUv Yeasica-D wK‡b †dwj| ‡mUvi †evZvg
wUc w`‡jB Qwe nq bv| †KivgwZ jv‡M | †dvKvm wVK Ki‡Z nq †jÝ
Av¸ wcQy K‡i, sutter speed Avi G¨vcviPvi wQ`ªUvi mwVK gv‡c
QvovI film Gi Mv‡q †h Av‡jvi ms‡e`bkxj cÖ‡jc _v‡K ZviI
mvgÄm¨Zv we‡ePbvq bv Avb‡j Qwe cÖvY cv‡ebv| G‡Zv me wkL‡ev
†Kv_vh ivRevox‡Z‡Zv I¯—v` bvB | evsjv †Kvb eBI cvIqv †Mj bv|
Qwe fiv BsivRxi eBUv eva¨ n‡qB A‡bK `vg w`‡q wKb‡Z n‡jv|
GKQwe wewfbœ Av‡jvq , Avi IB sutter speed G¨vcviPvi
wVK K‡i note Ki‡Z jvMjvg| ivRevox studio nqwb| Faridpur
†_‡K print K‡i G†b Rersult †`‡L eyS‡Z wkLjvg| G‡Z mgq
Avi A‡_©i AcPq | eBUv Abymib K‡i print, Develop wkLjvg
e‡U wKš— Enlarger wKb‡Z cvijvg bv| nv‡Z evbv‡bvi †Póv K‡iI
†kl Ki‡Z cvwiwb|
gvby‡li cÖwZK…wZi †P‡q ˆbmMx©K Qwe Zzj‡ZB Avgvi cQ›`|
GKUv mvavib jZvI we‡kl Av½x‡K †Kgb gyZ© n‡q I‡V Avgvi
Gw`KUvqB g‡bi mv”Q›`| †ek wQjvg GUv wb‡q |
108 |

Avgv‡`i Gang of fortyÕi wmwbqi m`m¨ Pzbœy m`¨ we‡h
K‡i Honeymoon G hv‡e | Camera Uv wPUvMvs G nvwi‡q †dj­|
†m ZLb †Nvovkvj power plant Gi project Director Avi K‡b
cieË©x Kv‡ji gš¿x Rvnvbviv †eMg| Zv Avgv‡K IUvi e`‡j wK‡b w`j
Minolta SRI. Rvcvb ZLb SLR camera m`¨ evRv‡i †Q‡o‡Q|
Zv †mUvI Avgvi †QvUfvB Karachi †d‡j G‡jv cvwj‡q Avmvi
mgq|
eÜzei †kL KvBqyg (e½eÜz es‡ki mš—vb) hvi AvZ¥v cy‡iv
eyKUvq a‡ibv e‡jB meŸvB Rvwb| †m Dcnvi w`‡jv `y‡Uv GKmv‡_ |
hvi GKUvI AvR Avi mwµq †bB|
n¨v, Avgvi Qwei fvÊvi Aek¨B wekvj wQj| wKQy hvi †hUv
g‡b a‡i‡Q wb‡q‡Q | wKQy 1971 mv‡j evoxi mv‡_ QvB nq|
Avgvi †Zvjv Qwei †ev×v wQ‡jb Kzgv‡ik PµeËx©, ev”Pz gvóvi,
BhvKze †nv‡mb| Dc‡`k, mgv‡jvPbv Avi Drmvn w`‡q‡Qb| Qwei bvg
KibI A‡b‡K K‡i w`‡q Avgvq K…ZÁZvq †eu‡a‡Qb|
Z‡e ivRevox‡Z K¨v‡giv e¨venv‡ii K…wZZ¡ AvwgB cÖ_g, `vex
Ki‡Z cvwi bv, GgbwK Z…ZxqI bB| Avw`¨Kv‡ji ev· K¨v‡givi
cÖ_g e¨vemvqxK wfwI‡Z e¨venvi K‡ib Ab½ PµeË©xi VvKzi`vi †QvU
fvB jvj wenvix PµeZ©x| whwb fvB †_‡K c„_K n‡q evs‡jv c¨vUv‡b©i
evox K‡i evm Ki‡Zb eZ©gvb Stadium GjvKvq Avi mܨvi ci
gvZvj n‡h fvB‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ BsivRx‡Z Mvwj w`‡Zb Kv‡b Av½yj †`evi
g‡Zv K‡i (evoxUvi eZ©gvb gvwjK DwKj Avt Iqv‡R` Uy)| ZviB
mgmvgwqK wQ‡jb fvRbPvjvi b‡ib wgÎ| jvj wenvixi ci Zuvi cyÎ
bxj wenvix PµeËx© Avi Zvici Ag~j¨ cvj| L¨vZbvgv †jLK cwigj
†Mv¯^vgx wZwbI fevbxcy‡ii evwm›`v Avi Photographer wQ‡jb|
Guiv mK‡jB evox‡ZB studio †Z KvR Ki‡Zb| Pibvivqb cy‡ii
wmivR wgqv †i‡ji Icv‡i ejvKv studio cÖwZôv Ki‡j mnR n‡q hvq
Qwe †Zvjv| GLb colourlabI cÖwZôv ‡c‡q‡Q| Z‡e Avgvi mg‡h
XvKvqI iwOb Qwe †Zvjvi e¨ve¯’v wQj bv| Film cvIqv †hZ Z‡e
Prnit K‡i KivPx †_‡K ZvivB G‡b w`‡Zb | AvR‡Zv filmB
109 |

jv‡Mbv| bvB Sutter Speed Avi Aperture Gi evjvB| †mw`b
Avi AvR KZ Aíw`‡b KZ wekvj cwieË©b |

c`eª‡R wek¦ågY
‡Q‡j †ejv ‡_‡KB Avgvbyj­v Avi Avwg me Kv‡R AKv‡R
GK‡Î _vKZvg| c‡i RyU‡jv kvwš— `vm| PvwiwÎK ˆewkó Abyhvqx Avwg
gvb&‡K njvg, Avgvbyj­v K¨vejv Avi kvwš— nj fRv G bv‡gB ci¯úi‡K
m‡¤^vab KiZvg| hZ`yyi g‡b Av‡m K¬vm dvB‡fi QvÎ Avgiv, MÖx‡¯§i
QywU Pj‡Q| †ivR `ycy‡i LvIqv `vIqv †m‡i K¨vejv Avi Avwg I‡`i
GKUv Mv‡Q P‡o eB c‡o bv nq Mí K‡i KvUvB we‡Kj bv nIqv ch©š—
| Gmg‡q igvbv_ wek¦vm Gi †jLv c`eª‡R wek¦ ågb bv‡g GKUv eB
c‡o AvgivI DØy× njvg wek¦ åg‡b †ei“‡Z| Avgvi hyw³ AKvU¨ |
Rb¥vjvg GB RM‡Z A_P cvnvo †`wL bvB, mvMi †`wL bvB, gi“f~wg
†`wL bvB| ZvQvov we‡`‡k †eov‡j A‡Pbv †e`yBb ivI mvnv‡h¨i nvZ
evwo‡q †`q †m‡Zv eBUv‡ZB cÖgvb Av‡Q, wek¦ †`Lvi Av‡M wb‡R‡`i
†`kUv‡Zv †`Lv `iKvi| ¯^‡`kxi mv‡_ †`Lv n‡j hw` wR¾vmv K‡i
ÓgvBRw` wP‡bb wbwnÓ? wK Reve †`e| me©v‡MÖ wbR †`k †`wL| g¨vc
Ly‡j meUv P°i †`evi mnRZg c‡_i QKI ‰Zix nj| ïay wf¶ve„wËi
Dci wbf©i bv K‡i wbR¯^ GKUv dvÛ _vKv DwPr | Avwg †f‡e wP‡š—
c¯’vI ‡ei K‡i †dj­vg | evoxi wKQy wKQy wRwbm Pzwi K‡i UvKv
†RvMvo Ki‡Z n‡e| fvovi N‡i †K‡ivwmb †Z‡ji wUb fwZ©, `yPvi
†evZj Pzwi Ki‡j aiv covi fq †bB| gv‡qi ivbœvi mgq wc‡Vi Dci
Mjv †eo w`‡q †`vj †L‡Z †L‡Z AvuPj Ly‡j wKQy wKQy wb‡ZI kyi“ K‡i
w`jvg| K¨vejv cÖ_g w`bB †cZ‡ji e`bv Pzwi K‡i‡Q| K_v wQj `vgx
wKQy mov‡j K‡qKw`b jywK‡q ivL‡ev †LuvRvLuywR K‡i bv †c‡q fy‡j
†M‡j IUv wewµ n‡e| K¨vejv †mw`bB †M‡Q e`bv †eP‡Z evRv‡i|
†`vKvb`vi wRÁvmv Kivq e‡j‡Q evox‡Z Pvj bvB gv GUv †e‡P Pvj
wKb‡Z cvwV‡q‡Q| ‡`vKvb`vi †Pbv gvbyl | Ii evc‡K Lei w`‡q
110 |

wRÁvmv K‡i‡Q Avcbvi evox‡Z bvwK Pvj ‡bB †Q‡j w`‡h e`bv †eP‡Z
cvwV‡q‡Qb| (AvR‡Ki †`vKvbx n‡j jv‡fi K_vB fve‡Zv | bvn‡j
†eovi UzK‡iv wUb mvB‡K‡ji NÈvi evwU G‡Zv †h †Lvqv hvq †K‡b
Kviv?) h‡nvK Avwg evox wQjvg bv wd‡i G‡m ïb‡Z cvw”Q Ii Kvbœv
Avi wcUzbxi mv‡_ Ii ev‡ci ZR©b MR©b| m‡i civi Av‡MB aiv
†Ljvg| fvj gvby‡li g‡Zv gyL K‡iI †invB †cjvg bv| GUv †h
AvgviB civgk© Zv duvm K‡i w`‡q‡Q| cwiYvg GKB| c`eª‡R wek¦
åg‡Yi msK‡íi GLv‡b Acg„Zz¨| Ggb Z‡iv D™¢U fvebv Avgvi
gv_vq cÖvqB P°i w`Z | ev”Pviv mevB Avgiv Pv°v PvjvZvg| eyw×
w`jvg kn‡ii Awj Mwj‡Z †Zv A‡bK Pvjvjvg| Pj Gevi Pvjv‡Z
Pvjv‡Z dwi`cyi hve| mvM‡i`ivI mevB GKgZ| †Lvqvi iv¯—v Mi“
Avi †g‡li Mvwoi PvKvq ¶Z we¶Z| Lye m¤¢e Avjvw`cyi †gvo wb‡qI
gvBj Lv‡bK †MwQ| cv Avi P‡jbv| Avevi wdiwZ c‡_ †gvo Ny‡i
Avmvi †P‡q †mvRv mywR c_ ai‡j nqZ c_ A‡bK K‡g hv‡e| G‡Zv
mnR hyw³ Avgvi | bv‡gv mevB gv‡Vi Avj a‡i wKQyUv G‡mB wekvj
GK we‡ji cv‡o| wej Ny‡i hvevi c_ bvB †divi I kw³ bvB| `vI
muvZvi| kvcjvi d‡ji wewP †cU cy‡i †L‡q cv‡o hLb Gjvg mUvb
ï‡q c‡owQ mevB| we‡Kj cvi nq| Uj‡Z Uj‡Z †jv‡Kv †m‡Wi
†Mvi¯—v‡b IVvi my‡hvM †cjvg| aviv‡jv Nv‡mi AvNv‡Z cv ¶Z we¶Z
| evox‡Z †LuvRvLyuwR KvbœvKvwU | Pig †avjvB nj fvZ cvevi Av‡MB|
evev KjKvZvq , Avgvi w`b Kv‡U e‡b ev`v‡o Mve Avi †cqviv Mv‡Q|

QvcvLvbv
QvcvLvbv, jvB‡eªix, Jl‡ai †`vKvb Av‡Mi w`‡b Ggb e¨emvi
mv‡_ RwoZ Zuviv mevB mvgvwRK gh©¨v`v Ges wk¶vq DbœZ wQ‡jb|
we`¨R‡biv Gme †`vKv‡bB AvÇvq em‡Zb | Pj‡Zv A‡bK ivZ
Aewa|
111 |

wbiÄb †cÖm m`i iv¯—vq. †gwk‡bi wewPÎ AvIqvR †PvL Uv‡b, c¨v‡Wj
Ki‡j PvKv †Nv‡i, `yBUv †ivjvi A¶i ¸‡jvi Dci Kvwj eywj‡q hvq|
ey‡ov gvbylUv GK nv‡Z KvMR emv‡”Q Ab¨ nv‡Z Qvcv KvMR †ei
Ki‡Q Zv‡j Zv‡j| GB eywS Pvcv Lvq nvZUv , hZB DrKÉvq wknwiZ
nB ey‡ov mgq g‡ZvB KvMRUv †ei Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q|
ivRevox †cÖmUvq †XvKvi mvnm nqwb | IUv GKUz Avov‡j ,ï‡bwQ
gvwjK wQ‡jb Kvjy gRyg`vi , whwb Abykxjb `‡ji m`m¨| ‡ij
†÷k‡bi av‡i evbx †cÖm †hLvb †_‡K ¯^ivR `‡ji gyLcvÎ KvMR †ei
n‡Zv, c‡i G‡jb eiv‡Ui ev`kv †PŠayix, Avgv‡`i †cÖm cÖ_g ïi“ nq
Wvt Rwj‡ji evmvq| jvB‡eªixUv mgi wms PZ¡‡i| ev`kv fvB‡qi Szwj
fwZ© †KŠZzK| Ibvi Rxe‡bi mv_©KZv RvwZi wcZv †kL gwRei
ingv‡bi wekvj mfvq †Rjv AvI qvgx jx‡Mi mfvcwZ wnmv‡e wZwbB
IB mfvi mfvcwZZ¡ K‡ib|

wek¦hy×, `ywf©¶, cvwK¯—vb cÖwZôv
fvlv Av‡›`jb, ¯^vaxbZv hy×
‡ij jvB‡bi mgvš—ivj c_Uvi av‡iB Avgv‡`i evoxUv| †Uª‡bi
hvÎx ¯úóB †`Lv hvh| wek¦hy× ïi“ n‡q †M‡Q| evg©vd«‡›U AvRv` wn›`
†dŠR Avi Rvcvbx wgÎ evwnbx †Mviv‡`i †KvYVvmv Ki‡Q| †ivRB
GKUv `y‡Uv ‰mb¨ †evSvB Mvox evg©vi c‡_ †hZ| †KvbUvq ïayB jvj
gy‡Lv †KvbUvq Kv‡jv bx‡MÖv| bx‡MÖv¸‡jv Rvcvbx †Mvjvi †LvivK nevi
Rb¨B m¤¢eZt †Kbbv I‡`i AvPvi AvPiY †`‡L g‡b n‡Zv bv e›`yK
Pvjbv `~‡i _vK ev †Kvb ¯^vfvweK Ávb eyyw× Av‡Q| jvj gy‡Lv
cwiPvjK WvÊv w`‡q †e`g cÖnvi K‡i k„•Ljv eRvq ivLvi †Póv
Ki‡Zv| Zv m‡Ë¡I KLbI Pjš— Mvox †_‡K jwd‡q co‡Zv bq‡Zv iv¯—
vi cv‡ki Wve Mv‡Q eyU cv‡q DVvi †Póv Ki‡Zv| jvjgy‡Lviv c_ cv‡k
ev”Pv‡`i w`‡K we¯‹y‡Ui c¨v‡KU wK¤^v Lvev‡ii wUb Quy‡o w`Z|
112 |

ivRevox UvDb K¬v‡ei gvVUv GZ`A‡ji NuvwU| bZzb fwZ© nIqv
m`m¨‡`i ivB‡dj Pvjbv wk¶vi e¨e¯’v Pvu`gvixi gv‡V (PZivi we‡j
gv‡Si wXweUvq) | w`b ivZ cUcU kã| c‡i Avgiv ¸wji wkkv
ILv‡b Kywo‡qwQ| GLb Puv`gvixi gvVUvB we¯§„Z n‡q †M‡Q (GK mgq
WvKvZ, Rj`my¨‡`i AvÇvLvbv wQj GjvKvUv)| iv¯—vi cv‡k †Uª‡Âi
MZ© me©Î| gv‡qi Kv‡Q ï‡b ï‡b Bs‡i‡Ri civRq Avi myfv‡li ivRv
nIqv †Mu‡_ †M‡Q g‡b|
Rvcvbx wegvb¸‡jv `j †eu‡a KjKvZvq †evgv †dj‡Z †hZ| g‡b g‡b
fveZvg gvi“K e¨vUv‡`i| wLw`icy‡i †evgvq †ek ¶wZ n‡q‡Q evevi
KvQ †_‡K ïbjvg|
GKw`b we‡K‡j GKUv e„wUk ‡c­b †i‡ji gv‡V G‡m co‡jv|
AvnZ cvBjU †hv‡Mk Wv³v‡ii wPwKrmvq †kl †gk †eu‡P ‡Mj| hy×
‡k‡l ‰mb¨evnx Mvox †diZ G‡m‡Q A‡bK Kg| Kv‡jv‡`i wdi‡Z
†`‡LwQ g‡b c‡o bv| m¤¢eZt I‡`i Rvcvbx‡`i e›`y‡Ki †LvivK
evwb‡q Giv cvjv‡jv| evg©vi fviZxqiv †L‡q bv ‡L‡q nvUv c‡_ `‡j
`‡j Avm‡Z jvM‡jv Avgv‡`iB evoxi mvg‡b w`‡q|
†Mvqvj‡›` ZLb j½iLvbv †Lvjv n‡jv ¯’vbxq‡`i mnvqZvq| ïbZvg bv
LvIqv †jvK¸‡jv †MÖvMÖv‡m wLPzwi wM‡j ILv‡bB A‡b‡K X‡j co‡Zv|
gv-evev †_‡K wew”Qbœ ev”Pv‡`i †`Lfv‡ji Rb¨ ivRevox‡Z `y‡Uv
GwZgLvbv cÖwZôv n‡jv|
¯’vbxq `qv`ª gvbyl G¸‡jv †`Lfvj Ki‡Zb| GKUv Mvjm© ¯‹y‡ji cy‡e
Ckvb KzwUi, Ab¨Uv e„›`veb `v‡mi evox cÖavb iv¯—vq| GUv A‡bKw`b
we`¨gvb wQj|
†ij †M‡Ui cv‡k my‡ib mvnv, weRq mvnvi †`vKvb| `yB RbB myfvl
f³| M`xi Dci myfv‡li Ave¶ †k¦Z cv_‡ii g~wZ©| wK ‡h fvj
jvM‡Zv|
Gi ci †a‡q G‡jv 1350 mv‡ji gnv`ywf©¶| Avgvi gv hw`I ARcvov
Mvu‡qi gvbyl wK K‡i Zvi avibv n‡jv Rvwb bv Mv‡qi Mqbv †eu‡P 5
UvKv g‡bi Pvj Pwj­k UvKv K‡i wK‡b eo eo gvwUi gUKv f‡i †g‡S
Luy‡o cuy‡Z ivL‡jv|
113 |

Abvnvix gvby‡li Xj iv¯—vq| KPz MvQI wbt‡kwlZ ivuavi mgq cvwb
†ekx w`‡q d¨bUv wejv‡bv n‡Zv| `iRvq wLj Gu‡U fvZ †LZvg|
`ywf©‡¶i fqvenZv †evSvi my‡hvM Avgv‡`i nqwb| evB‡i hvIqvI
evib wQj|
hy× †k‡l KjKvZv †_‡K wk‡L Gjvg| nvZ‡g wewo gy‡g cvb jo‡K
†j‡½ cvwK¯—vb| 1947Õi cvwKš—vb †NvlYv Avgiv wekvj cÖvwß wn‡m‡e
gnv Drm‡ei mv‡_ cvjb Kijvg| ‡gv‡o †gv‡o †MU †`e`vi“ cvZvq
QvIqv| gymjgvb Avgiv wbR¯^ †`k †cjvg|
evevi PvKix XvKvq| wRbœv mv‡n‡ei wgwUs †im‡Kvm© gq`v‡b Ibvi
†NvlYv ï‡b evev gg©vnZ Urdu, Urdu will be the state
language of Pakistan wgwUs Z¨vM K‡ib Av‡iv A‡b‡Ki g‡ZvB|
1952 mv‡j XvKvq West end high school class IX QvÎ Avwg|
Z‡e fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b mwµq †Kvb f~wgKv Avgvi wQj bv| ïay wgwQ‡j
Ask †bIqv Qvov| 21Gi ciw`bI XvKv DZß wQj Zv m‡Ë¡I ea¨
¯’vbUv †`L‡Z †MwQ|
A¯’vqx wgbvi ˆZix n‡qwQj wKbv Rvwb bv Z‡e Qwo‡q wQwU‡q A‡bK BU
c‡o _vK‡Z †`wL| m¤¢eZt i‡³i `vMI|
ciw`b ¯‹zj †_‡KB wgwQj ‡ei nq| wi·v PjvPj eÜ K‡i †`B Avgiv
GUzKz g‡b c‡o|
Avgv‡`i gnj­vi gwgb fvB K‡j‡Ri QvÎ| Zvi covi †Uwe‡j †jLv
IB mg‡qB †`‡LwQ- ÒBwZnvm wj‡L ivL i³v³ 21†k †deª“vqvix|Ó
cieZ©xKv‡j mwZ¨ 21†k †deª“qvix BwZnvm n‡jv mv‡ai cvwK¯—v‡b
cÖ_g i³v³ ¯§„wZ wb‡q|
1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy×| †mw`b Avgiv ivRevoxevmx mK‡jB
Db¥v` n‡q †MwQjvg| AvaywbK gvibv¯¿ mw¾Z GKUv evwnbxi wei“‡×
nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl †KD ïaygvÎ miwK ej­g †KD ev PvKz wb‡q
†Mvqvj‡›` †MwQ cvK†mbv‡`i cv‡o bvg‡Z ‡`e bv cÖwZÁv wb‡q GLbI
fve‡Z †M‡j wknwiZ nB †mw`b Iiv bvg‡j wbi¯¿ KZ gvby‡liB bv
†`n fyjywÚZ n‡Zv|
21†k GwcÖj Gi ci KLb †Kv_vq †Kgb K‡i w`b †M‡Q, †mUv Rxeb
g„Zy¨i KZ KvQvKvwQ, ejv hvq bv| ¯¿x-cyÎ QvovI gv-evev, cjvZK
114 |

fvB‡evb, Avgiv cuvP cyi“l msL¨q 40 Rb| †m Aa¨vq ev½jvi me
cwiev‡ii GKB|
nvwZi g„Zy¨ I mrKvi
ng`gcyi cwÊZ esk Rwg`vi | nvZx P‡o hvZvqvZ Ki‡Zb |
ivRevoxi c_ †gv‡li Mvoxi PvKvq ¶Zwe¶Z, eZ©gvb T&T Office
Gi mvg‡b nvwZUv wcQ‡j c‡o Ges gviv hvq | g„Z nvwZUv‡K my`~i
ng`gcyi †bevi †Kvb myivnv Kiv hvqbv| m¤¢eI wQj bv| IUv‡K
ILv‡bB gvwUPvcv †`evi wm×vš— †bIqv nq| wKš‘ Rwg`vi Zvi ivRv‡K
(nvwZUvi bvg) A‡b¨i Rwg‡Z Pvcv w`‡Z bvivR| cvk©eZ©x Rwg`vi
kÖxk PµeZ©x g~j¨ bv wb‡q Rwg w`‡Z PvB‡jI †b‡eb bv| eû †`b
`iev‡ii ci c_ cv‡k© bvggvÎ g~‡j¨ Rwg`vi kªxk PµeZx© wKQyUv
RvqMv †`b| Ges †mLv‡bB ivRv‡K gvwU Pvcv †`Iqv nq|
wewoi KvwiKi
mncvwV evmy Avgv‡K Uvb‡Z Uvb‡Z wb‡q ‡Mj nv‡Ui gv‡S |
†Mvj n‡q wN‡i Av&‡Q A‡bK †jvK| nvi‡gvwbqvg Mjvq Szwj‡q MvB‡Q
GKRb, G‡bwQ fvB gnvexi wewo †L‡Z fyj bv| Avi gv‡Si duvKvUvq
Avgv‡`iB mncvwV my‡ib kvwo c‡o KvRj †g‡L bvP‡Q gvRv `ywj‡q
`ywj‡q | avgv fËx© wewo †_‡K gy‡Vv gy‡Vv nwijyU wQUv‡”Q GKRb Avi
ûygwo †L‡q co‡Q nvUz‡iiv | G‡Zv cÖ‡Póv m‡Ë¡I wKš‘ gnvexi wewo,
†gv³vi †gvj­vi wewo, mvnvi wewo ‡Lvi‡k` Avi kZx‡li wewoi e¨yn
†f` Ki‡Z cvi‡jv bv| G‡`i wewoi bvwK ¯^v`B Avjv`v|
fi‡Zi †UÛy cvZv Avi iscy‡ii ZvgvK, ZvB w`‡qB †Zv mevB
evbv‡”Q, Z‡e ? Gi ¸ß enm¨ bvwK †h gvÎvi Zv‡c wewo m¨vKv nq
Zvi Dci wbfikxj | ayw MÖvg A‡bK Av‡M †_‡KB mg„× Avi Nb
emwZcyY© | wmwjgcyi cÙvi fv½‡b wejxb n‡q †M‡j Rb msL¨v e„w×
115 |

‡c‡q emwZ Av‡iv we¯Z…Z nq| evwm›`v‡`i ˆewkó¨ ci¯ú‡ii
GKZve×Zv , Wvb wc‡U wKQy hyeK wQjbv Zv bq | Z‡e aywÂi evwm›`v
ïb‡j †ekx NvUv‡Z mvnm Ki‡Zv bv †KD|
Avgv‡`i evRv‡ii †K›`ª ¯’†j gv‡ovqvix cvÆ| e¨emvqx GB
†Mvôx ¸”QvKv‡i GLv‡b evm Ki‡Zv †fZi evox‡Z cwievi Avi evB‡i
e¨emv †K›`ª w`‡q| e¨emvi A½ wnmv‡e PvD‡j KuvKo wgkv‡Z ev‡a bv,
wKš‘ mKv‡j KvK bv LvB‡h cªvZtivk Ki‡e bv| ‰Rb ag© g‡Z AvZœviv
Kv‡Ki iƒc a‡i c„w_ex‡Z †Nv‡ib , KvK‡K †L‡Z w`‡j Zv‡`i AvZœv
kvwšÍ cvq ; c~b¨ nq | wekvj eUMvQUvq ZvB Kv‡K‡`i fxo †j‡MB
_vK‡Zv | I‡`i Av‡iv GKUv Av¯—vbv wQj cÙv eid K‡ji eU MvQUv|
wkKo evKo ‡cuwP‡q mvc †Lv‡ci Av¯—vbv|
GKw`b †fvi †ejv †`Lv †Mj GB MvQUv Kv‡K †Q‡q †M‡Q , Av‡iv
Avm‡Q †Kv_v †Kv_v †_‡K| wekvj Rgv‡hZ | gv‡S gv‡S GKUz AvaUz
b‡o m‡o em‡Q e‡U wKš— hv evqm Kz‡ji ¯^fve wei“× †KD kã Ki‡Q
bv| GKUv duvKv Wv‡j Nvo¸u‡R e‡m Av‡Q GKvKx GKRb Avi wVK
Zvi wb‡PB c‡o Av‡Q g„Z GKUv Qvbv gvwU‡Z | GKmgq mvivUv MvQ
Kv‡K f‡i †Mj| †KD †ekx Mv PzjKv‡jv bv †VvU w`‡q | wKQy
ms‡K‡Zi AvfvmI cvIqv †Mjbv|
gv_v †nU K‡i e‡m _vKv KvKUvi gv_vq †VvKi w`‡q wd‡i †h‡Z
_vK‡jv G‡K G‡K | IUv †Kvb cÖwZ‡ivaI Ki‡Qbv| bxi‡eB m‡q
hv‡”Q| GiKgUv Pj‡ZB _vK‡jv| GKmgq KvKUv Wvj AvuK‡o _vKvi
mvg_© nvwi‡q Uj‡Z Uj‡Z c‡o †Mj| †mLv‡bI †m wb¯—vi †cjbv|
GKmgq wb_i n‡q †Mj Zvi †`nUv| Zv GB KvK Avgv‡`i GLv‡bi
PjwZ fvlvq KvB‡q| mvavibZ t PjwZ fvlvq g~j K_vi weK„wZ iƒcB
†ekx _v‡K| †mRb¨ Avgv‡`i Pi K‡iv‡bkb gy‡L gy‡L Pi Kb¨v †mvbv
n‡q‡Q| gyiMxi dvg© m`¨ n‡q hv‡”Q gyiMwi dvivg| Avgv‡`i gy‡L
KvB‡h ‡kl †gl Kuv‡q¨ Avi gv‡ovqvix cwÆUvI n‡q †Mj Kuv‡q¨ cwÆ|
kn‡ii GKgvÎ wÎZj eoxUvI GLv‡b | hvi gvwjK wQ‡jb ivgw`qvi
bIqvcvov MvÖ‡gi evwm›`v| fviZ fvM n‡jP‡j hvb Avi be×x†c w¯’Z
n‡q‡Qb| †hUvq Kvejx Iqvjviv my‡`i e¨vemvi NvwU Ki‡j Kvejx
wewÛs wnmv‡e wbwðý bv nIqv ch©š— bvgUv envj _v‡K| RivRxY© GUvi
116 |

Dci Zjvq hLb m½xZ we`¨vjh HKZvb †_‡K Zejvi agvag
AvIqvR Avm‡Zv ZU¯’ _vKZvg a‡m co‡jv eywS| Kv‡Vi wmwoUvi `y
GKUv avc L‡m covh Dc‡i DV‡Z mvK©v‡mi g‡Zv KmiZ Ki‡Z
n‡Zv| GZ`m‡Ë¡I ILv‡b D‡VwQ GKevi †hw`b ewikvj †_‡K AvMZ
ibRb bv‡gi GKUv L„óvb †Q‡ji †envjv ev`b mܨvi Av‡qvRb nq |
LyeB Dc‡fvM¨ n‡qwQj `yN›Uvi †mB mܨvUv| gv‡ovqvox m¤cÖ`v‡qi
Avi GK we‡klZt †`Iqvjxi iv‡Z Ryqv †Ljv| †RZvi Rb¨ bq, †n‡i
hvevi cÖwZ‡hvMxZv| †h hZ nvi‡e AvMvgxw`‡b Zvi †mŠfv‡M¨i Øvi ZZ
Db¥y³| mevB nvi‡Z Pvq| wbR m¤cÖ`v‡hi g‡a¨B mxgve× GB
†Lvjvq Ask wbZ cwiev‡ii †Q‡j, †g‡q, ey‡ov ev”Pv mevB|
‡hv‡M›`ª bv_ AvMo Iqvjv wZbUv weivUvK…wZi wmwÜ hvuo G‡b †Q‡o
w`‡jb a‡g©i bv‡g | gyjZt DbœZ cÖRvwZi Mi“i esk e„w×i D‡Ïk¨
wb‡q | †ivR wN‡q fvRv jyPx Avi jvÇy †L‡q Giv †ewo‡q co‡Zv ‰M
†Miv‡gi c‡_ ivRKxq Pv‡j c‡_i cv‡ki jvDMvQ , kv‡Ki evMvb
DRvi Ki‡Z Ki‡Z| evav †c‡j iv‡Z wVK ILv‡bB G‡m mvevo K‡i
w`Z me| ayw MÖv†g †ekwKQy jvD‡qi WMv Avi evMvb mvd n‡Z
_vK‡jv| AZxó n‡q GKiv‡Z I‡`i †Mv`vUv‡K †K ev Kviv Mv‡qe K‡i
w`j| i³ gvsm †Kvb wPý cvIqv †Mjbv| AvÁvZ n‡q iBj Av‡Rv
†mB †bc‡_¨i bvq‡Kiv| kn‡i D‡ËRbv Qwo‡q co‡jv e‡U, Z‡e aywÂ
MÖv‡gi bvg ï‡b ¸R ¸R dzm dz‡mi g‡a¨B Gi cwimgvwß N‡U| aywÂ
MÖvg †_‡KB Avm‡Zv AmsL¨ wewoi KvwiKi hviv cÖvqkt hyev| Zv‡j
Zv‡j `y‡j `y‡j KvR Avi nvm¨ imvZ¥K gvZv‡bv cwi‡ek| GK nvRvi
wewo euva‡j gRyix GKUvKv | evowZ GB Avq cwiev‡i h‡_ó mnvqK|
Avq Avi AvÇvq AvK…ó n‡q A‡b‡KB GUv †ckv wnmv‡e MÖnb K‡i|
mevB cÖvYeš— Avi Mvj M‡íi Szwo †evSvB| we‡K‡j KvR †k‡l
cwicvwU | Bw¯¿ Kiv kvU© ‡hUv ‡mB mvZ mKv‡j Sywj‡q ivL‡Zv û‡K |
Mjvq, Nv‡o cyi“ K‡i jvMv‡bv cvDWvi| Kv‡iv Kv‡iv c‡K‡U KoK‡o
bZyb GK UvKv ev cvuP UvKvi †bv‡Ui wSwjK †`Lv hv‡”Q| IUvKvUv
†`Lv‡bvi Rb¨| Li‡Pi UvKv cvk c‡K‡U| `j a‡i wm‡bgvq | e‡qR
†¯úvwUs Gi †Ljv _vK‡j †mw`b `ycy‡ii ci †_‡K evRvi Lvwj |
KjKvZv †_‡K weL¨vZ me †L‡jvqvo G‡b GB K¬ve A‡bKevi ivRevox
117 |

gvwZ‡q‡Q| †c­qviivI AvkvZxZ Avc¨vqb, A_© Avi L.M.T.PgPg
GK nuvwo K‡i Dcnvi †c‡q wdi‡Zv, Avi AvMvgx‡Z Avmevi Rb¨
AnŸv‡bi A‡c¶vq _vK‡Zv, GB e‡qR †¤úvwU©s K¬v‡ei KY©avi wQ‡jb
KvRx ‡n`v‡qZ †nv‡mb Avcvgi Rb mvavi‡bi wcÖq wnw` fvB | (evivš—
‡i Zuvi we‡l‡q ¯^Zš¿ fv‡e wel` †jLvi Avkv ivwL) wZwb ayw MÖv‡gi
evwm›`v nIqvh i‡qR K¬v‡ei mg_©‡Ki msL¨v A¸bwZ| mg_©K †`i
K¬ve Abyhvqx ARv‡š—B gv‡Vi ¯’vb wef³x n‡q †M‡Q| DIi cye© w`KUvq
e‡qR| DIi cwðg †ijI‡q , `w¶b cwðg †KvbUvq R.S.K, `w¶b
cye© w`KUv Goalubndo High school Avi Lvjcv‡oi iv¯—vi
cy‡ivUvB UvDb K¬v‡ei| †mLvb †_‡KI wbR `‡ji †L‡jvhvo †`i
Drmvn cÖ`vb Avi wec‡¶i cÖwZ wei“c evK¨evb †Quvov n‡Zv Kv‡b
Av½yj †`evi g‡Zv| †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡ji GKUv e`f¨vm wQj †Mvj
†L‡q †kva †`evi m¤¢vebv bv _vK‡j wcb w`‡q ej dz‡Uv K‡i †`Iqv |
†Ljv fÛyj| nviwR‡Zi wm×vš— KwgwUi | ¯‹z‡ji wec‡¶ †M‡j
D‡IwRZ Qv·`i mshZ ivL‡Zv ev”Py gvóvi, Gg,G, †gv‡gb| Zvi
cÖfve Qv·`i gv‡S mxgvnxb| m‡e©v”P m¤§vbRbK Aa¨vq Zvi GB
wk¶KZvi mgq KvjUv| Mvb, Ave„wZ, Awfbq, †Ljv GgbwK †m
bvP‡ZI cvi‡Zv dwi`cyi, Kzwóqv, Lyjbv, wm‡jU, wPUvMvs , evRkvnx
K‡j‡R c‡o Ges bv c‡o GK mgq B.A cvk K‡i hvq| gvóvi n‡q
myaxR‡bi wcÖh cvÎ Avi Qv·`i gbRq Ki‡Z mg_© n‡jv| g‡i †Mj
ZvovZvwo Avwg Avi †LvKv ‡eu‡P _vK‡ZB|

Avgv‡`i eocyj
‡Mvj PË¡iUvi cv‡k `uvwo‡qI GLb Avi Vvni Kiv hvqbv
†`e`vi“ MvQUvi mwVK Ae¯’vbUv, Avi wVK †KvbLvbUv w`‡qB ev e‡q
†hZ Ôm~ZvMv½, ÔevM`xcvovÕ, Avi dBiWv½vi gvV fvwm‡q †a‡q Avmv
cÙvi Rj| bv Z‡e meUv bq| fevbxcy‡ii gv‡V G‡m `y‡Uv fvM n‡q
118 |

†hZ| Zvi GKUv †i‡ji gv‡Vi cvk w`‡q Wvbjc n‡ji Kvjfv‡U©|
Avi eo AskUvB Avm‡Zv eocy‡j| `y‡Uv aviviB Mš—e¨ GK| PZivi
wej|
el©vi evbfvmv w`b ¸‡jvq wcw”P, hyev mevi †gjv e‡m †hZ
GB eocy‡j| `vcv`vwc, û‡ovûwo †m `ycyi Mwo‡q †hZ QzwUi w`‡b|
wVK cv‡oi DciB DPz GKUv †`e`vi“ MvQ| gMWv‡j D‡V Suvwc‡q cov
ey‡Ki cvUv jv‡M| †Zv ZvI wQj †ek KÕR‡bi| Avgiv †hZvg DRv‡b
nwiZjvi A‡c¶vK…Z wbPz eUMvQUvq| ILvb †_‡K jvd w`‡q cv‡o
DV‡Z DV‡Z eocyj G‡m †hZ| gv_vi Pzj, m`¨ MwR‡q IVv †Muv‡di
†iLv †Mi“qv iO Avi †PvL n‡Zv i³Rev|
eocyj e‡j­ g‡b n‡Zv cv‡i †QvU cyj I nq‡Zv wQj| welqUv
†Zgb bq| kn‡i cyj GKUvB †QvU eo wgwj‡q Avgv‡`i GB eocyj
m‡eab bxjgwb| Avi Lvj bvjvi ms‡hvM c‡_i wb‡P KvjfvU© A_ev
Kv‡Vi cyj bq‡Zv euv‡ki muv‡Kv| †i‡ji wQj Kv‡Vi cyj cuvPUv| GKUv
†i‡ji gv‡Vi `w¶b cwðg cÖv‡š—, GKUv eo iv¯—v †_‡K †i‡ji
cÖ‡KŠkjxi Kvh©¨vj‡q †h‡Z, GKUv †Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡ji mvg‡b †i‡ji
gv‡V †h‡Z GKUv gy³g‡Âi †cQb w`‡q eo iv¯—vq DV‡Z Ab¨Uv wbD
K‡jvbxi cÖ‡ek gy‡L| Gi †KvbvUvB g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©b Ki‡Z cv‡iwb
eocy‡ji g‡Zv|
eocyj †_‡K †Kvb euvK bv wb‡q eo iv¯—vUv †mvRv G‡m
†V‡K‡Q †ij‡M‡U Avi c‡_i cv‡ki †gvUv †gvUv ‡m¸b Mv‡Qi mvwi hvi
¸wo `yR‡bI †eo cvIqv †hZbv, I‡`iB GK hgR fvB evgb n‡q
wU‡K Av‡Q Av‡Rv Dw`Pxi cvkUvq , avibv Kiv hvq c‡_i eqm A‡bK
Av‡Mi Avi RvqMvUv emwZnxb wQj| cÖavb moK bq| eo iv¯—v e‡jB
cwiwPwZ wQj GUvi| n‡Z cv‡i †mRb¨B cyjUvi GB bvg|
AvR‡Ki mePvB‡Z Kzjxb GjvKvUv hLb wQj emwZwenxb
ZLb KvRxKv›`vi KvRxivB wQ‡jb wk¶vq Avi AwfRv‡Z¨ D¾j| Avg
119 |

mvavi‡bi mv‡_ Zuviv Mv euvwP‡q Pj‡Zb| †h Kvi‡b bevMZ †Kvb
cwievi ILv‡b evmv euva‡Z cv‡iwb| GjvKvUv bev‡ei `vbK…Z wb¯‹i
f~wg| ¯’vbxq Rwg`v‡ii AvIZvgy³| ZrKv‡ji evwm›`vivB Av‡Rv
Av‡Qb| Zuviv ej‡Zb ÔKvRxi cyjÕ|
µ‡g Gw`KUvq emwZ M‡o I‡V †KvU© KvPvixi mv‡_ m¤ú„³
wkw¶Z GK Rb †Mvwôi| Zv G‡KK cwievi `y, Pvi ev `k weNv RvqMv
wb‡q| w_Zz n‡q e‡mB GB ewnivMZ evwm›`viv mnve¯’v‡bi GK
AwfRvZ mgvR M‡o †Zv‡jb| Avi GB cwigÛ‡jB Le© n‡q hvq
KvRx‡`i cÖvavb¨| †m Kvi‡bI n‡Z cv‡i ÔKvRxicyjÕ bv‡gi wejywß|
†gvUvgywU GUvB eocy‡ji BwZe„Ë|
G‡Zv †Mj wejyß n‡q hvIqv eocy‡ji K_v| ey‡R †Mj KZ
cyKzi ? wn‡me †bIqv hvK †Kv_vq †Kv_vq wQj cyKzi ¸‡jv| Avi
AvqZbB ev KZ wQj G‡KKUvi|
01|
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120 |

Aveyj †nv‡mb cv‡Uvqvixi evoxi `w¶‡b 500 ©  200 ©
AvUvk K‡jvbxi mvg‡b 500 ©  200 ©
Wvqv‡ewUK nvmcvZv‡ji wcQ‡b 500 ©  200 ©
KvRx †n`v‡qZ †nv‡m‡bi gq`vi wg‡j 300 ©  150 ©
weRq cv‡ji evox 200 ©  150 ©
bx‡iv` fvR‡bi evoxi c~e©w`‡K 300 ©  200 ©
cix mvnv‡`i evox 150 ©  150 ©
mÄxe cv‡ji evox 150 ©  150 ©
AvKzqvi cyKzi 500 ©  200 ©
cvIqvi nvD‡mi cyKzi 300 ©  200 ©
gvLb Wv³v‡ii evox 150 ©  100 ©
dzW ‡MvWvD‡bi mvg‡b 400 ©  400 ©
wbD K‡jvbxi gv‡S 500 ©  200 ©
wbD K‡jvbx hvevi c‡_ 200 ©  100 ©
fvRb Pvjvi cyKzi 500 ©  200 ©

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121 |

K‡jR cvovq weï`v‡mi cyKzi 150 ©  150 ©
L„óvb wgkb nvD‡mi cyKzi 150 ©  100 ©
L„óvb wgkb nvD‡mi cyKzi 50 ©  60 ©
K‡j‡Ri cyKzi 500 ©  200 ©
Qvqv w`w`gwbi 200 ©  150 ©
nvIqvB eid K‡j `yBUv 100 ©  100 ©
dzW Awd‡m 150 ©  100 ©
Wvt Bqvwnqv mv‡n‡ei evox 400 ©  200 ©
‡Mvi¯’v‡b 150 ©  200 ©
eRjyi ingvb mv‡n‡ei evox 2Uv 500 ©  150 ©
/ 100 ©  100 ©
Kzgv‡ik PµeËx©i evox 300  200 ©
‡ówWqv‡gi Dˇi 500 ©  200 ©
Ab½ VvKz‡ii evox 300 ©  200 ©
kªxk PµeËxi evox 400 ©  200 ©
Aveyj †nv‡mb K‡j‡Ri cv‡k 500 ©  150 ©
nvRx mvgmyj nK †PŠayixi evox 150 ©  150 ©
gb¥_ †m‡bi eid K‡j 300 ©  150 ©
dKDwÏb mv‡n‡ei evox 150 ©  150 ©
H Dˇii eid K‡j 400 ©  200 ©
cywjk mycv‡ii evs‡jvi wc‡Q 200 ©  100 ©
‡Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹z‡j 500 ©  200 ©
Avng` Avjx g„avi 500 ©  150 ©
iwngy‡bœQv gv`ªvmvi c~‡e© 300 ©  150 ©
wgRvbyi ingvb `v‡ivMvi 500 ©  150 ©
Mvj©m ¯‹z‡ji mvg‡b 400 ©  150 ©
Wvt AvRvnvi DwÏb Avng` 150 ©  150 ©
Wvt AvRvnvi DwÏb Avng` 100 ©  100 ©
evei Avjx wgqvi evox 200 ©  150 ©
mv‡ivqviRvb †PŠayixi evoxi c~‡e© 150 ©  150 ©
igRvb Avjx wcI‡bi evox 100 ©  100 ©

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58|

Avt Mdzi †gvj­vi evox 300 ©  150 ©
KvRx Aveyj Avjvi evox 150 ©  150 ©
‡cŠi cyKzi 500 ©  250 ©
‡jv‡Kv †k‡Wi wÎfyRvK…wZ 500 ©  200 ©
h¶v nvmcvZv‡ji cv‡k †bKei Mv‡W©i 500 ©  300 ©
‡Lv`v eK‡mi cyKzi 500 ©  200 ©
ivRvi evoxi A›`i gn‡j 150 ©  100 ©
eywoi eUZjvq 500 ©  200 ©
ivRvi evoxi Dˇi 500 ©  200 ©
‡ók‡bi cv‡k †ijcyKzi 800 ©  150 ©
evRv‡ii cvVkvjvi wk¶K wk‡e›`ª bv_ gÛj wbR kª‡g GKUv
cyKzi Lbb K‡ib bx‡iv` fvR‡bi evoxi Dˇi 100 
© 100 ©
‡jK cvovi `y‡Uv cÖwZwU 1000©  200©
KvRx mv‡n‡ei BU fvUvq 500 ©  200 ©

G‡Zv¸‡jv cyKz‡ii Ae¯’vb Kg‡ekx GK gvBj cwiwa g‡a¨|
wUDe I‡qj IB mg‡q N‡i N‡i wQjbv| cvbxq Rj wnmv‡eI Gi
A‡bK ¸‡jv e¨veüZ n‡Zv| A‡bK ¸‡jv‡Z Kvco KvPv wbwl× wQj|
¯^ËvwaKvixMb gvQ cyl‡Zb| †mŠwLb wkKvix‡`i Avgš¿b Rvbv‡Zb|
eo gvQUv aiv co‡j gyL Avuavi Ki‡Zb bv| eis cyKz‡i eo gvQ Av‡Q
iUbvq k­vNv †eva Ki‡Zb| AvZ¥xq KzUzg G‡j eo gvQUv a‡i
Avc¨vq‡bi e¨e¯’v wb‡Zb| eÜz evÜe‡`i evox DcnviI cvVv‡Zb|
‡mŠwLb grm wkKvixI wQ‡jb †ek KÔRb| Pv‡i gvQ Avbvi
wewfbœ †KŠkj Zuviv Rvb‡Zb| cïi cPv bvwo fywo| im‡Mvj­vi Mv`,
wewfbœ MÜhy³ gkjv mn‡hv‡M|
G‡Zv †Mj cyKz‡ii K_v| Lvbv L›` †Wvev Avi bvjv A¸bwZ|
cÖwZwU evox‡Z GK ev GKvwaK| wf‡U euvavi cÖ‡qvR‡bB m„wó| Avi
Zv‡Z UvwK, †Usiv wMR wMR Ki‡Zv| Avgv‡`i evoxi wcQ‡bi Lv`Uvq
122 |

KB‡qi ev_vb| Nb wewói w`‡b Kvb‡Kv w`‡q †nu‡U Iiv c‡_ D‡V
Avm‡Zv Svu‡K Suv‡K| †kvj ¸‡jv nvRvi Lv‡bK †cvbv wb‡q w_i n‡q
`uvwo‡q, bU bob Pob|
eo iv¯—vi `ycv‡k mgvš—ivj `y‡Uv bvjv wM‡q wg‡k‡Q eo cy‡j|
†cvó AwdmUvi mvg‡b w`‡q Av‡iv GKUv cv‡q Pjv c_ ‡cŠi cyKzi Uvi
†`qvj †N‡l wg‡jwQj SvDZjv, _vbvq hvevi c‡_| gv‡S GKUv ¯­yBm
†MU, cyKz‡ii AwZwi³ Rj †ei Kiv ev XyKv‡bvi cÖ‡qvR‡b Ly‡j †`Iqv
n‡Zv †mUv|
c_ cv‡ki bvjv ¸‡jvq ivevbx †c‡Z ivL‡Zb A‡b‡K| f‡i
†hZ meKUvB| †i‡ji w`NxUvq Avgiv aiZvg ïayB cyuwU| wcc‡oi wWg
Av`vi w`‡q|
AvR KUv cyKzi wU‡K Av‡Q ejv gyw¯‹j| AwP‡iB me‡h wejyß
n‡e m‡›`n †bB| cyKzi wejyß| wejyß eo cyjI| Zey bvgUv Av‡Rv
D”PvwiZ nq †U‡¤úv Pvj‡Ki gy‡L| Avi Avgv‡`i g‡b|

BUvwjqvb †nv‡Uj K_v
evoxi cv‡k BUvwjqvb †nv‡Uj| Aejyß Gme †nv‡U‡ji
evwjk¸‡jv KfviQvov, eûRb e¨eüZ †Zj wPUwP‡U| B‡Ui g‡Zv k³
e‡jB GB bvgKiY| wPrKvZ †nv‡U‡ji bvg I ï‡bwQ| XvjvI Z³v
cvZv weQvbv| Mv‡q Mv jvwM‡q ï‡Z nq| wPr n‡q ï‡Z RvqMv †ekx
jv‡M, fvovI †ekx, Pvi Avbv| Kvr n‡q ï‡j fvov `yB Avbv| G wb‡q
gRvi Mí Av‡Q| `yB Avbv wgwU‡q †evW©vi Kvr n‡q †kv‡e, Mfxi iv‡Z
123 |

Nyg †f‡½ ‡`‡L †KvbUv‡Z GK †jvK KvMR Kjg wb‡q e‡m AvuK
Kl‡Q| Bwb avibv Ki‡jb nq‡Zv e¨emvqx †Kvb †evW©vi w`‡bi jvf
†jvKm‡bi wnmve Kl‡Q|
mKv‡j we`vq †bevi mgq g¨‡bRvi GK UvKvi PvR© `vex Ki‡jb|
†evW©vi e‡jb Avwg‡Zv `yB Avbvi Kvr †kvqv ï‡qwQ| g¨v‡bRvi
Rvbv‡jb Ny‡gi gv‡S Avcwb wZbevi wPr n‡q‡Qb| Avgvi †jvK wnmve
Uz‡K †i‡L‡Q iv‡Z †Kvbvq e‡m _vKv †jvKUv Avm‡j †evW©vi‡`i wPr
Kv‡Zi wnkve UzKwQj| bvBU wWDwU Zvi| Avm‡j GUv MíB| Zey
GgbZi †nv‡Uj m¯—vq _vKv LvIqv A‡bK wQj|
Avgv‡`i evoxi cv‡k Ggwb GK †nv‡Uj| †mLv‡b cÖwZw`b bZyb bZzb
†jv‡Ki AvMgb wbM©gb| ZvweR we‡µZv, nKvi, ¯^cœcÖ`Ë me©‡iv‡Mi
g‡nŠla, gvqvgqx KvRj †Pv‡L jvMv‡j ¯¿xi ¯^vgx ek©xfyZ n‡e| cyi“l
jvMv‡j KvswLZ Kb¨v cvMjcviv n‡q Qy‡&U Avm‡e, BZ¨vw`| KZ wewPÎ
†ckvi gvbyl Avi KZ my›`i Zv‡`i evPbf½x Aem‡i ci¯úi Mí|
cuyw_ cvV|
Avwg GK †Kv‡Y wM‡q emZvg, I‡`i Mí ï‡b †ivgvwÂZ nZvg- †Kvb
nvwi‡q hvIqv †Q‡jUv eûKvj c‡i evox G‡m‡Q GKKuvwo UvKv wb‡q|
gv †Ku‡` ‡Ku‡` AÜ cÖvq †Q‡jUv KvgvL¨v †`‡k †hLv‡b ïay †g‡q‡`i
ivRZ¡ cyi“l‡K wKQy K‡i †L‡Z nq bv| V¨vs‡qi Dci V¨vs Zz‡j Lvq
Avi Nygvq ivRvi nv‡j wQj †Q‡jUv| eD A‡bK UvKv-cqmv w`‡q
gv‡qi mv‡_ †`Lv Ki‡Z cvwV‡q‡Q| ‡Q‡jUv bvwK e³viB Muv‡qi †Q‡j
Kv‡RB Awek¦v‡mi wKQy bvB| mZ¨vmZ¨ we‡ePbvi eqmI Avgvi ZLb
nqwb| ¯^”Q Kuv‡Pi g‡Zv GKRb GKUv e¯‘z †Svjv †_‡K †ei K‡i
†`Lv‡jv IUv‡K bvwK ÔAveÕ e‡j| †g‡Ni g‡Zv AvKvk w`‡q D‡o hvq|
cvnvwoqv †jv‡Kiv jvwVi AvNvZ w`‡q Wvbv †f‡½ evRv‡i †eP‡Z
Av‡b| †KD wb‡Ri K_v e‡j| ev‡iv eQi eq‡m evox †_‡K
fvM¨v‡š^k‡b †ewo‡q AvR wek weNv Rwgi gvwjK| jv‡LvcwZ nevi
A‡jŠwKK Kvwnbx me|
Zv‡Qi e¨vcvix GLv‡bi ¯’vqx †evW©vi | euvK wb‡h †ivR †fvi †ejv
†ewo‡q †hZ| MÖv‡g Ny‡i Ny‡i c‚i‡bv wkwk †evZj wK‡b Avb‡Zv|
Lv‡`i cvwb‡Z †evZj ¸‡jv ay‡q Dcyi K‡i mvwi mvwi cvwb Sov‡Zv|
124 |

GKw`b mwZ¨ †m jv‡LvcwZ n‡jv| AvR ivRevoxi me‡P‡q eo
†`vKvbUv Zvi|
Avgvi Av‡iv GKUv Av¯—vbv wQj cvjwKi †enviv‡`i ILv‡b| Aem‡i
Zviv `wo cvKv‡Zv. Rvj eyb‡Zv, Avi bq‡Zv cyuw_ cvV| L‡oi Dci
P‡Ui Av”Qv`b| ï‡q _vKZvg IUvi Dci| Mvb ïbZvg, cyuw_ cvV,
†mUv we‡kl †jvK Qvov cvi‡Zv bv, cyuw_i cvZv Iëv‡bvi mgqI Av‡Mi
cqv‡ii †ik Ggb †U‡b wb‡q †hZ myi K‡i †h †evSvB †hZ bv Q‡›`iI
cZb n‡Zv bv|
Avi wQj †nv‡mb Kvbvi Pv‡qi †`vKvb| †jLvcov Rvb‡Zv bv| euvwK
L‡Ïi AMwbZ †i‡ji ÷vd| LvZvq wewfbœ wPý Gu‡K gv‡mi †k‡l
mevB‡K eywS‡q w`Z K‡e KqUv Pv, jvwV we¯‹zU †L‡q‡Q| 0 gv‡b- Pv,
- gv‡b jvwV we¯‹zU, + †hvM wPý `y‡ai gvjvB| †m LyeB my›`i †ij
BwÄb AvuK‡Z cvi‡Zv, Avgvi AvKl©Y wQj †mUv cvIqv| wVK WªvBfvi
`uvwo‡q, †auvqv Do‡Q Kv‡jv Kv‡jv, me ûeyû| †Kv_vq ‡Mj Giv?
fve‡j AvRI gbUv Ub Ub K‡i I‡V G‡`i Rb¨!
g³e ¯‹z‡ji QywU n‡j evox G‡m evevi nvZ NwoUv wb‡q P‡j †hZvg
Lv‡Ui Zjvq| †cQ‡bi Wvjv Ly‡j †`L‡Z gRv jvM‡Zv| LuvR KvUv
PvKvUv GKevi Gw`‡K cvK w`‡q Avevi D‡ëv w`‡K| †LuvPvLuywP Ki‡Z
wM‡q †kl Aewa IUv Avgvi nv‡ZB weKj n‡jv|
K‡ji Mv‡bi †iK‡W©i fvÛvi wQj cÖPzi| ïi“ KiZvg, Ò‡Lv‡jv †Lv‡jv
Øvi ivwL‡qv bv Avi evwn‡i Avgvq `uvwo‡qÓ- K_v bq, m¤¢eZt myiUvi
Rb¨B IUvB Avgvi wcÖq Mvb wQj| ZrKv‡ji me MvqK‡`i MvbB
Avgv‡`i wQj| KwgK †iKW© ÔebMuv‡q †Uªb e`‡j eD nviv‡bvÕ ÔAvRKv
nB‡ev †gvi weqv, KvjKv AvBgy eD jBqvÕ BZ¨vw` me bvg g‡b bvB|
eB covi †Nvov †iv‡MiI m~ÎcvZ nq G mg‡qB| ARmª eB Avi
cwÎKvi µg Abymv‡i Pvgovq euvav‡bv| eQ‡ii Avi gvwj‡Ki bvg
†Luv`vB Kiv _v‡K _v‡K mvRv‡bv| †fZ‡ii Qwe †`L‡Z wM‡q `yÕPvi
jvBb cov †_‡KB †bkv ai‡jv| hLb eywS bv wKQyB ZLb c‡o †d‡jwQ
Ujó‡qi Ô‡cvovRwgÕ gvneyeyj Avj‡gi Ôcëb Rxe‡bi ¯§„wZÕ †hUv
AvKwl©Z nB m¤úv`‡Ki gš—‡e¨| wZwb ‡jL‡Ki nv‡Zi †jLv †`‡L
AvK…ó n‡qwQ‡jb GB gš—‡e¨| Avi c‡owQ Ô‡gv‡g‡bi Revbe›`xiÕ
125 |

mgv‡jvPbv Avi cvëv Reve hv eQi Lv‡bK Pjvi ci m¤úv`K Avi
Qvcv‡eb bv †NvlYv w`‡q‡Qb| GKc¶ Ôb~ixÕ GUzKzB g‡b Av‡Q|
bRi“‡ji i“evBqv‡Zi LÊ Abyev` †mUvi nw`m Avi cvBwb nvRvi
†LuvR K‡iI| †KD ej‡ZI cv‡i bv bRi“j GiKg wj‡LwQ‡jb wKbv|
Rvi cwiev‡ii †kl Qwe hv‡`i mevB‡KB †g‡i †d‡j Kgy¨wbóiv †`‡L,
Lye Kó ‡j‡MwQj| ivmcywUb mvay wel †L‡qI g‡i bv| wn‡iv| covi
†bkv Ggb †c‡q em‡jv ïay cvV¨eB Qvov|
eqm n‡jv, we‡q n‡jv, eD cv‡k, nv‡Z eB| Av‡jvq Nygy‡Z cv‡i bv,
eB w`‡q Avovj Kwi| Ny‡i ï‡Z ej‡j eB wb‡q cvk wdwi| wLUwgwU
ev‡a| eB n‡q hvq mZxb| †k‡l †Q‡oB w`jvg cov|
Gang of forty
Avgv‡`i Gang of forty i m`m¨iv cÖvqkt auvauv Avi
†nuqvjxc~Y© K_v ejZvg ci¯úi| ¯’vbxq ¸i“Rb Kv‡iv gy`ªv‡`vl ev
bvU‡Ki WvqjM ev Dcb¨v‡mi csw³ wgwk‡q|
‡KD †bkvq Abxnv cÖKvk Ki‡j ejZvg Ô‡bvbv a‡i hv‡e †hÕ,(mv‡ne
wewe †Mvjv‡gi WvqjM) †Kvb Av‡jvPbvq GKUz is wgkv‡j †cQb †_‡K
Mdzi †gvj­vi †¯úkvj Kvkx, e¨vm †m Pzc K‡i †hZ| wb‡la ¯^‡Z¡I
†KD †KvbKvR K‡i e¨_© n‡j ejZvg- ZLwb ej­yg †Qwom‡b †cwj‡q
hv‡e| n‡jv‡Zv? GUv, Kvjy kvwjK cvwL a‡i jvjyi nv‡Z w`‡q e‡jwQj
†Qwom‡b †cwj‡q hv‡e| wKš‘ IUv I‡o wKbv jvjy cix¶v Ki‡Z †M‡Q,
†mB †_‡K Pvjy|
ivRevox weL¨vZ K…cY Ô‡Kó eÜz AwaKvixÕ Ibv‡K †`L‡j ev
bvg wb‡j †mw`b Zvi fv‡M¨ †gvd‡Z LvIqv RyU‡e bv GB hyw³‡Z
Avgiv Ibvi bvg Bs‡iRx‡Z D”PviY KiZvg Black Friend owner
e‡j| Ibvi GKUv NUbv- el©vKvj, iv¯—vi cv‡ki Lv‡j gvQ ai‡Z
†c‡Z ivLv ivevbx Zzj‡Z †b‡g‡Qb| aywZi †KuvP‡i KuvPv UvKvUv Wy‡e
†M‡Q| cvM‡ji g‡Zv Wy‡e Wy‡e Luy‡R †eov‡”Qb| Ibvi ¯¿x †k‡l evox
126 |

†_‡K GKUv KuvPv UvKv G‡b `yÕPvi Wye w`‡q hw` bv †c‡q †h‡Zb
†mw`bB Zuvi weaev nevi fq wQj|
Avi GKevi †gv³vi mZxl wmK`v‡ii mv‡_ fvi‡Z hv‡”Qb| cvm‡cvU©
ZLbI Pvjy nqwb wKš‘ UvKv-cqmv †bqvq evav wQj| Aek¨ Kvóg
nvD‡R Rgv w`‡q †divi mgq w¯­c †`Lv‡j †diZ cvIqv †hZ| Dwb
GKkZ UvKvi cuvPUv †bvU g¨v‡P f‡i gvRvq ¸u‡R hv‡”Qb| nvwi‡q
hvIqvi f‡q wKQy¶b ci ci aywZ‡Z GKUv K‡i c¨vP w`‡”Qb| aywZ
nvUz a‡iv a‡iv| Kvóg Awdmvi G‡j c‡K‡U nvZ w`‡q e‡j­b †bB m¨vi
GB †`‡Lb| Kvóg‡Zv ey‡S †d‡j‡Q- `v`v Avcbvi †Kvg‡i wK †`wL|
wKQy bv m¨vi wKQy bv| †k‡l UvbvUvwb, Dwb aiv co‡jb| Ibvi ZLb
†kl Ae¯’v| Kvóg gRv †c‡q Av‡iv fq †`Lv‡”Q, UvKv ev‡Rqvß n‡e,
gvgjv n‡e BZ¨vw`| AwaKvix gkvq ZLb mZxl wkK`vi gkvB‡K
†`wL‡q ej‡jb- m¨vi Ii Kv‡QI Av‡Q m¨vi Ry‡Zvi wfZ‡i|
mZxl wkK`v‡ii f„Z¨ GKRb †mI Avgv‡`i `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡Zv
evRv‡i Avmvi mgq †Kvg‡i, c‡K‡U wewfbœ RvqMvq wfbœ wfbœ m`vB‡qi
UvKv Muy‡R wb‡q †ei“‡Zv| KL‡bv gv‡Qi UvKv gwi‡Pi †`vKv‡b w`‡q
†d‡j­ Avevi †mUv †diZ w`‡q gwi‡Pi †_vK †hLv‡b †mLvb †_‡K `vg
†`‡e| Gi Ab¨_v n‡e bv|

DRY ICE AND CARBONC GAS FACTORY

Avgv‡`i kn‡ii cwðg cÖv‡š— †ijc_ msjMœ cÖvq kZ weNv
RvqMv Ry‡o GKUv KviLvbv M‡o I‡V 1944 mv‡ji w`‡K| jvj i‡Oi
mv‡n‡ei cv_©K¨ Avgvi Kv‡Q †evaMg¨ bq ZLb| c‡i †R‡bwQ Rvg©vb
†`‡ki mv‡neUv Avgv‡`i ivRvi kµy| e›`x K‡i wb‡q †Mj †m Rb¨B|
Mí ïbjvg nvZNwo gy‡Li Kv‡Q wb‡q wK ‡hb ejwQj| cywjk m‡›`n
K‡i Kv‡Q †M‡j AvQ‡o †f‡½ †d‡j NwoUv| IUv w`‡q bvwK Rvgv©bx‡Z
Lei cvVvw”Qj Bs‡iR‡`i wei“‡× †h me Z_¨ †m †RvMvo Ki‡Zv| GK
127 |

K_vq ¸ßPi wQj †m| Avgvi wek¦vm nqwb| Z‡e Zvi Avi †LuvR cvIqv
hvq bv Ges KviLvbvUv cwiZ¨v³ c‡o _v‡K|
wekvjvK…wZi wZbUv †Pvs KwcKj w`‡q Kqjv fwZ© Kiv n‡”Q | mvBW
jvB‡b mvwimvwi Kqjv fwZ© gvjMvox Kzwjiv Lvjvm K‡i‡Q| mv‡ne
†Pqv‡i e‡m Z`viwK Ki‡Qb| AevK njvg Lywo‡q nuvU‡Z ‡`‡L|&
mv‡neiv j¨vsov nq? Zvn‡j †Zv wf¶ve„wËUvB Zvi †ckv nIqv DwPr
wQj| Zv‡Zv bq G‡Zv KwirZKg©v †jvK| c‡i GUv j¨vsov mv‡n‡ei
eid Kj bv‡gB cwiwPZ nq| GLv‡b bvwK ïK‡bv eid ‰Zix n‡e|
†mUv Av‡iv we¯§qKi cvwb bq evZvm †_‡K eid Zv¾e e¨vcvi|
mv‡n‡ei evox, wbR¯^ IqvK©kc ¯^qsm¤ú~Y©| †i‡ji †MU, †MUg¨v‡bi
¸gvwU Ni cvKv c_, cwiPvjbvi Kg©x me c‡o iBj|
IB RvqMvUv GK bvgKiv †hvMx›`ª bv_ miKvi Kweiv‡Ri evwo wQj|
wZwb XvKvq †Kvb ¯‹z‡ji wk¶KZv Ki‡Zb| Avqy‡e©` kv¯¿ cvV K‡i
KweivRx ïi“ K‡ib Ges GLv‡b P‡j Av‡mb| Bwb cvjKx‡Z P‡o
i“Mx evox †h‡Zb| mv‡ne wK‡b wb‡qwQ‡jb| AvMvQvq Av‡¯— Av‡¯—
R½j n‡q c‡i Avgv‡`i wUwd‡b wewo LvIqvi †ek wbivc` Av¯—vbv
n‡q I‡V| fviZ wefv‡Mi ci cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii m¤úwË|
i¶Yv‡e¶‡bi Rb¨ †jvK wb‡qvM †`Iqv n‡Zv| Guiv wb‡R‡`i
BwÄwbqvi wnmv‡e cwiPq w`‡Zb| wKš‘ KL‡bv KviLvbv Pvjy Kivi
D‡`¨vM wb‡q‡Qb †`wLwb| ˆmq` LvgviI GKevi `vwqZ¡ cvq| 1965
mv‡ji w`‡K Gm.BD. Lvb bv‡g cvK †bfx †_‡K GKRb Av‡mb (Avg
eveyi wcZv) wZwb GUv Pvjy K‡iwQ‡jb| Aek¨ 1960 `k‡KI
K‡qKw`‡bi Rb¨ cix¶vg~jK fv‡e Pvjy n‡qwQj| WªvB AvBm Avgiv
†`Ljvg| evZv‡m wgwj‡q hvq| nv‡Z ivL‡j Zvjy‡Z †dvmKv c‡o|
Gm.BD. Lvb cwiKíbv K‡iwQ‡jb ILv‡b †Kvì †óv‡iR ˆZix Kivi|
KvwiMwi †Kvb µzwUi Kvi‡Y ‡mUv mdj nq bv| cieZ©xKv‡j mvavib
eid ˆZix K‡ib| †mUvI wKQyw`b Pjvi ci eÜ n‡q hvq| Gm.BD.
Lvb wgïK wQ‡jb| ivRevox wkï cvK© cÖwZôvi mgq Zuvi cÖwZôvb
†_‡K mg¯— †Ljvi miÄvg mieivn K‡ib| (†hUv eZ©gv‡b Awdmvm©
K¬ve) miKvi GB cÖwZôvbUv wewµ K‡i †`q| †µZv †gwkbcÎ Ly‡j
†bevi mgq cÖwZev` mfv nq e‡U wKš‘ mve©RbxbZvq i“c cvq bv|
128 |

wPËiÄb ¸n GKv †PuPv‡jv mfvq| ivRevoxi ¯§„wZ wPý wnmv‡e i¶v
Kivi Av‡e`b ivL‡jb| wKš‘ KvKm¨ cwi‡e`bv| j¶x‡Kv‡ji ivRvi
evoxi g‡ZvB GUv wewjb n‡q †Mj Avgv‡`iB †Pv‡Li mvg‡b|
wgwj Zzwg Kvi?
mvjUv g‡b bvB| n‡Z cv‡i 1956| †ik‡bi †`vKvb PvjvB
kwd Avi Avwg| Kvbv kwd (G bvgUvI Avgvi ‡`Iqv) †evKv †evKv|
fvRv gvQ D‡ë †L‡Z Rv‡b bv| hLb ZLb g‡bi Svj Svwo|
†Q‡j‡ejvq duv‡` cov e‡Ki Kv‡Q DuwKSuywK w`w”Qj, †VvKi †g‡i Kvbv
K‡i w`‡q‡Q| evB‡i †_‡K †`L‡j ‡evSv hvq bv| Zey Avgvi †`Iqv
bv‡gB weL¨vZ eÜzgn‡j| AvÇvi GKcv‡k c‡o _v‡K| Kv‡iv bRi
Kv‡i bv †Zgb| ¸i“Z¡I cvq bv ejvi| wKš‘ gv‡S gv‡S Ggb †dvob
Kv‡U Ges †mUv Ggb jvMmB †h Avgiv D‡ØwjZ n‡q hvB| Avi ZvB
I‡K GKcv‡k emvi RvqMv K‡i †`B| GKevi bvU‡Ki ïi“‡Z Avwg
Avi Avgvi bvwqKv †gKAvc wbw”Q cvkvcvwk e‡m| †gKvAvcg¨vb
cvDWvi, c‡gUg Avi KvRj w`‡q †g‡qUv‡K AvaywbK evbv‡”Q| Kvbv
mvg‡b G‡m cjKnxb ZvwK‡q i‡q‡Q| wRÁvmv Kijvg wK †`LwQm?
Zwor Reve ÔIi, †`LwQ, †kl Aewa wK `uvovqÕ| †g‡qUv Kv‡jv|
jvMmB †dvob| bvwqKv †i‡M Us| Avgiv gyPwK nuvmwQ|
‡ivR we‡K‡j †`vKvb eÜ K‡i GKmv‡_ wdwi| evmvq nvZ gyL cwi¯‹vi
K‡i AvÇvi nvwRiv w`‡Z Av‡MB P‡j hvB| I GKUz †`ix K‡iB
Av‡m| kvjv wX‡j †Zv? ‡`wii mgqUv Kw`b a‡i GKUz †ewkB wb‡”Q|
Avgvi †Kgb †hb m‡›`n nj g‡b| kvjv Avgvi †evb‡`i Kv‡iv mv‡_
jvBb Ki‡jv bv †Zv? ci w`b AvÇvq wM‡q Avevi wd‡iwQ Z`‡š—|
evox G‡m †`wL Avgvi †ev‡bi Kv‡Q co‡Z Av‡m cv‡ki evoxi GK
†g‡q Zvi mv‡_ Mí Ki‡Q| ZLb Zz‡½ Avgvi wePib| Ggb GKUv
mvavib †g‡q GZw`b a‡i hvIqv Avmv Ki‡Q g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †`wLIwb|
Kvbv‡K Ii mv‡_ Mí Ki‡Z †`‡L GKUy wnsmv n‡jv ˆewK| kvjv Kvbv
Wy‡e Wy‡e Rj LvI? Avi IB †g‡qUvi cÖwZ n‡jv ivM| Avwg †nb wn‡iv
129 |

_vK‡Z wØZxq mvwi‡Z e‡m _vKv Kvbv Avgv‡K wWw½‡q †Mj? ZLb
wm‡bgv n‡j evB‡i gvB‡K Mvb evR‡Zv eB ïi“i Av‡M| evR‡Q †ngš—
gy‡Lvcva¨v‡qi Ôe‡m AvwQ c_ †P‡q dv¸‡bi Mvb †M‡qÕ †g‡qUv eB
†Kv‡j †i‡L GKg‡b ïb‡Q| Avgvi Dcw¯’wZI Ii g‡bv‡hvM Kvo‡jv
bv| Avgvi †evb ejj- GB MvbUv wgwji Lye cQ›`| MvbUv Av‡M
A‡bK ï‡bwQ †Zgb fvj jv‡Mwb| wX‡g Zvj| Avgvi Rxeb †m mgq
`ª“Zj‡q Pj‡Q| Ime c¨vbc¨vbvbx `vM Kv‡U bv| †mw`b GKUz
g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q ïbjvg| K_v¸‡jv fvjB‡Zv? e‡m AvwQ c_ †P‡q
dv¸‡bi Mvb †M‡q| i“wP Av‡Q‡Zv †g‡qUvi| GKw`b †`Ljvg m~wP
KvR Ki‡Q †g‡qUv| Av‡Mi w`‡b †Mvjvc dzj AvuKv, g‡b †iL BZ¨vw`
†jLv i“gvj †`‡LwQ Kv‡iv Kv‡iv c‡K‡U| Ime Avgvi Lye GKUv
myi“wPi cwiPvqK g‡b nqwb KL‡bv| ZeyI KvQvKvwQ †Nlvi Rb¨B
ej­vg- evn& Zzwg‡Zv my›`i nv‡Zi KvR wk‡LQ, Avgvq GKUv i“gvj K‡i
†`‡e? wVK Av‡Q iwOb my‡Zv G‡b †`‡eb, †`e K‡i| †mw`bB evRv‡i
†MwQ fvj AvwÏi Kvco K‡qK i‡Oi wWGgwm we‡`kx my‡Zv wKbjvg|
Avgvi †Kbv n‡q †M‡j kvjv KvbvI †`wL wVK IB wRwbm¸‡jvB
wKb‡Q| wK‡i ZzB my‡Zv w`‡q wK Kiwe? wgwj Avgv‡K wKb‡Z e‡j‡Q
GKUv i“gvj K‡i †`‡e| KLb ejj? †Zv‡K ejvi ci| †Kvb duv‡K
ej‡jv, eûw`b‡Zv †Pv‡L †Pv‡LB ivwL| †Kgb †hb cu¨vP †L‡q hv‡”Q|
i“gvj ˆZix ce© Pj‡Q| IUv Kvi G wb‡q Avgiv `yR‡bB Avkvev`x|
dy‡U DV‡Q †Kvbvq jvj UzKUz‡K †Mvjv‡ci cuvcwo| w`b K‡qK c‡iB
iv‡Z evox wd‡i gv_vq eRªvNvZ| gv GKUv Amgvß i“gvj †`wL‡q
ej‡jv- wgwji evev G‡m‡Qb I‡K evox wb‡q hvevi Rb¨ mKv‡ji
Mvox‡Z| GB i“gvjUv Avgv‡K w`‡q ej‡jv LvjvAv¤§v GUv Avcbv‡K
w`jvg| †mB iv‡Z QyUjvg Kvbvi evox| mge¨_x `yRb| kµzZv f~‡j
†MwQ| n¨uv‡i Kvbv †kl †`LvI n‡e bv‡i? eyw× AvUjvg AvR †_‡K
gwb©s IqvK© ïi“ Ki‡ev| gy³ evqy †meb ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ DcKvix| evox‡Z
iv‡ZB mevi Kv‡b †cuŠ‡Q w`‡Z n‡e| Avi ‡fv‡i D‡V †ij iv¯—vq Unj
gvi‡ev| `yi †_‡K †`Ljvg ev‡ci †cQ‡b axi MwZ‡Z GwM‡q Avm‡Q|
cuvRi fv‡½wb| wKš‘ wK GK k~Y¨Zv Avgv‡`i †P‡c _vK‡Zv we‡Kj
n‡jB| 45 eQi ci| Nywg‡q AvwQ| mKv‡ji is a‡iwb| evB‡ii N‡i
130 |

A‡bK Kv”Pv ev”Pvi AvIqvR †kvbv hv‡”Q| ibR‡bi gv Avgv‡K
WvK‡Q| GK gwnjv Avgvi mv‡_ †`Lv Ki‡Z Pvq|
cÖvq e„×v wPb‡Z cvijvg bv| Dwb e‡j­b A‡bK w`b Av‡M Avwg GLv‡b
Avgvi PvPvi evmvq †_‡K coZvg †mB evmvUv †`L‡Z G‡mwQ| hve
dwi`cyi| †Kvb evox‡Z Avcbvi PvPv _vK‡Zb? IB †m gvLb Wv³vi
mv‡n‡ei evoxi cv‡k ‡Kvbvi evoxUvq| †UvKb‡`i evox? Avgvi
wRÁvmv| Av”Qv †UvK‡bi GK †evb wQj wgwj bvg †m †Kv_vq _v‡K
Rv‡bb? AvwgB †mB wgwj|
Avgv‡`i GKvš— wKQy K_v _v‡K hv AcÖKvk¨ ivL‡Z PvB| fvj g›` me
wgwj‡qB Avwg| Avgv‡K‡Zv A‡b‡KB cQ›` K‡i bv| †m `vqfvi
A‡b¨i Dci Pvwc‡q AvZ¥cÖmv` jvf Ki‡ev GUv wK duvwK n‡e bv? mZ¨
¯^xKvi Kivi mrmvnm bv _vK‡j †ivR bvgPv †jLv †_‡K weiZ _vKvB
fvj| Avgvi hZ`yi g‡b c‡o ¯‹z‡ji ïi“ †i‡ji cvVkvjvq| ÔAÕ ÔAvÕ
†mB ¯—‡i mncvwV †g‡qUv‡K Avgvi fvj jvM‡Zv ZLb eqm KZ? †g‡i
†K‡U cuvP| B‡”Q n‡Zv cv‡k cv‡k _vKvi, †Ljvi| †hgb j‡RÝ †L‡Z
fvj jv‡M †Zgwb e¨vcvi| Gi A_© wewfbœ R‡bi Kv‡Q wfbœZi n‡q‡Q|
eÜziv e‡j‡Q Avwg jy”Pv n‡qB R‡b¥wQ|
‡hŠe‡b ˆ`wnK e¨vcviUv Avgvi Kv‡Q fvjevmvi cwimgvwß e‡jB wek¦v m
K‡iwQ| bvUK, †Ljvayjv, mvgvwRK Kg©Kv‡Ûi mv‡_ †_‡K A‡bK bvixi
ms¯ú‡k© G‡mI A‡b‡Ki Kv‡QB wbivm³ gvbyl †_‡K †MwQ| G‡Z jvf
n‡q‡Q `v`v ev bvbx n‡qI Avgiv mnR n‡Z †c‡iwQ| nvm‡Z nvm‡ZB
ej‡Z †c‡iwQ fvj jvMvi ¯§„wZK_v| ‰`wnK ‡mŠ›`‡h©¨i PvB‡Z Avgvi
fvj †j‡M‡Q Kv‡iv K_v Kv‡iv gb g‡bvb Kv‡iv eyw×e„wË kª×vI K‡iwQ
KvD‡K KvD‡K| eÜz‡Z¡i avibvq jvwjZ Dc‡fvM K‡iwQ Zv‡`i m½|
wb‡Ri ¯¿x‡KI fvj‡e‡mwQ †mUv mvsmvwiK †PZbvq| ¯¿x Avgvi Kv‡Q
Homeliness, clamliness Gi PvB‡Z eo|
w_‡qUvi / hvÎv
wm‡bgv ZL‡bv GLv‡b Av‡mwb| we‡bv`‡bi gva¨g hvÎv,
w_‡qUvi| ga¨weË cwievi `y‡a fv‡Z GLv‡b fvjB wQj| abvX¨ e¨w³iv
131 |

cyRv cve©‡b hvÎv Mvb BZ¨vw`i Av‡qvRb Ki‡Zb| GRb¨ cÖPzi e¨vq
Ki‡ZI KzwôZ wQ‡jb bv| bvbv `‡ji Abyôvb gvmvwaK Kvj ¯’vqx
n‡Zv| j¶x‡Kv‡ji ivRvi evox‡Z GK Ni fwZ© †jc †ZvlK wQj|
bU-bwUi _vKv LvIqv, Gjvnx e¨vcvi| Kbmv‡U©i myi ïi“ n‡j `‡j
`‡j Db¥y³ c¨v‡Ûj f‡i †hZ| Drmvnx hyeK †kªYx wb‡Riv bvUK g¯’
Kivi w`‡K †hgb GwM‡q Av‡m, ¸i“Rb eq¯‹iv‡Zv Av‡MB Gi mv‡_
m¤ú„³ n‡q bvgx `vgx Awf‡bZv m„wó K‡i †d‡j‡Qb| †QvUivI eo‡`i
mvwbœ‡a¨ dvB digvm †L‡U wb‡R‡`i gv‡SI Gi Db¥v`bv RvwM‡q
Zz‡j‡Q| cvovq cvovq eo evoxi ˆeVKLvbvq cÖwZw`b mܨv †_‡K ïi“
n‡Zv gnov| Avgv‡`i evox‡Z †QvU †evb Avi Zvi evÜexiv wg‡j
N‡ivqv fv‡e bvUK g¯’ K‡i‡Q| eviv›`vq †óR `k©Ke„›` D‡Vv‡b| eB
evQvB Kiv mvavibZt †cŠivwbK ag© welqK ev †`kvZ¥‡evaK| wmivRD`-‡`ŠjvÕi PwiÎ nb‡bi †Póv Bs‡iRiv hZB Ki“K me `j †_‡K
GKvwaKevi wmivR-D`-‡`Šjv bvUK g¯’ n‡q‡Q| n¨vRvK evwZi
Av‡jvi AcÖZzjZv ev GK `„k¨ Gi cieZ©x `„‡k¨i mgq‡¶cb †ekx
n‡jI `k©K wbwe©Kvi †_‡K ivZ Kvevi K‡i evox wd‡i‡Q| GQvovI
wewPÎvbyôvb n‡Zv| Mv‡bi wkíx ev`¨ h‡š¿i S¼vi GmeI GLv‡b
cÖwZwbqZ n‡q‡Q| Mv‡bi PP©v cÖvq N‡i N‡i| bvU‡K Awf‡bÎxi
cÖ‡ekvwaKvi wQj bv| A‡bK ¸i“R‡biv huv‡`i †`L‡j ZU¯’ nZvg
ZuvivI KuvPzwj‡Z Zz‡jv f‡i Awfb‡q Ask wb‡q‡Qb is †g‡L| ciw`b
N‡i N‡i †g‡q gn‡j nvwm û‡j­vo n‡Zv MZ iv‡Zi PP©v K‡i|
¯’vbxq w_‡qUvi njUv 1930 `k‡K ZrKvjxb g¨vwR‡óªU wgt Wvbjc Gi
bv‡g ˆZix nq| wmb wmbvix KjKvZv †_‡K wkíx G‡b AvuKv nq| cy‡iv
†óRUvi gv‡c GB me wmbvix Kv‡Vi †ivjvi †cuwP‡q Dc‡i †eu‡a ivLv|
†cÖ¶vc‡Ui cÖ‡qvRb g‡Zv bvgv‡bv n‡Zv| njUvi RvqMv Ges A‡_©i
†RvMvb abvX¨ e¨w³ Qvov wmsMfvM BDwbqb cwil` enb K‡i| Gici
†ij wbR¯^ w_‡qUvi nj ˆZix K‡i 1934 mv‡j| GUvi AvqZb
ÔWvbjcÕ n‡ji †P‡q eo Ges GUvI `„k¨vejx mg„×| cÖvq cÖwZ‡hvwMZv
ch©v‡q bvUK g¯’ n‡Z _v‡K| kªg Avi `v‡bi fvÊvi wbt¯^v_© fv‡e
AvR KíbvI Kiv hvq bv| wU‡KU †K‡U w_‡qUvi †`Lvi m~ÎcvZ Avgiv
132 |

ïi“ Kwi A‡bK c‡i Ges †mUv ïaygvÎ LiP †cvlv‡bvi g~‡j¨ A_ev
gnr †Kvb wKQyi mvnvhv‡_©|
A‡bK bvgx Awf‡bZv Rb¥ †bq †m mgq| AZzjbxq huviv wQ‡jb†`‡e›`ªbv_ wmsn, Kzgvi †mŠix›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq, Ab½ VvKzi, nweei
ingvb, M‡R›`ª bv_ `Ë, UMi (cÖZvc `Ë) H fvB bvix Pwi‡Î Qvbv
`Ë, evgb `vm ¸nivq, Kvjx k¼i ˆgÎ, †j`y `vm, MwZ›`ª bv_ `vB
(Av‡jqv) n‡ib fÄ, Qvbv, Gg.G. †gv‡gb (ev”Pz gvóvi), Avãyi ie,
G.wU.Gg. Avãyi iv¾vK (DwRi Wv³vi), Gbv‡qZzi ingvb gbv, Avãyi
iwdK (†LvKv cÖ‡dmi), Agj K…ò PµeZ©x, ev`kv †PŠayix, †Mvjvg
cxi, †gvkvid, Avgvb Avjx, ibwRr mvnv, Avwgbyj Bmjvg (PZz wgqv),
Avt Rwjj (DwKj), Lv‡j` mvjvDwÏb, Avt iDd ivRv, wbjy evey,
AvZvDj Kwig, BqvKze †nv‡mb H fvB b~i †nv‡mb, f³ Wv³vi whwb
K¬vB‡fi f~wgKvq Awfbq K‡i‡Qb| fviZ wM‡q wZwb mZ¨wRr iv‡qi
Acyi msmvi eBUvq †g‡q c‡¶i GKUv f~wgKvq Awfbq K‡i‡Qb|
nvwee fvB cUjvi f~wgKvq GZUvB cÖfvweZ nb †h Zuvi GK cy‡Îi bvg
†i‡L‡Qb cUjv| myfvl wms, c~‡b©›`y fylY wb‡qvMx, A‡a©›`y f~lY
wb‡qvMx, †MŠi, M‡Rb `Ë Guiv mviv evsjvq cÖwm× n‡q‡Qb|
wm‡bgv‡ZI Avgv‡`i †gvZvnvi cwiPvjK wnmv‡e L¨vZ nq, Avãyj nK
aywÂ, QvbvDj­vn, ˆe`¨, mÄy G‡`i kªg Ges Z¨vM †m mg‡qi bvU¨
A½‡b BwZnvm|
Awe¯§iYxq Awfbq †`‡eb wms- †Mvjvg †nv‡mb, ivZKvbv nvwee fvB
†Kivbxi Rxeb- ÔcUjvÕ wmivR-D`-‡`Šjv- bxjyevey, guwk‡q jvjxtivRv| Kzgvi †mŠwi›`ª †gvnb ¸n ivq- †`e`vm| bvU‡Ki cÖgUvi bRi“j
MvW©, AvZvDj Kwig, Lv‡j` mvjvDwÏb Av‡iv Av‡b‡K|
wew”Qbœ wKQy hv Av‡Rv gb‡K †`vjv †`q
(1) g¨vwRK Avi nvZ mvdvB wk‡L mv_x‡`i ZvK jvwM‡q w`‡hwQ|
A`„k¨ Kwj, †jey †K‡U i³ †ei Kiv, Av¯— Kjvq Av½yj QyuB‡q
w`‡j †Lvmv Qvwo‡q †`Lv hv‡e †h Kevi Av½yj Qyu‡qwQ †mB Kq
133 |

UzK‡iv n‡q ‡M‡Q| hv`y we`¨v eBUvi me©‡kªô †Ljv wK Kwi‡j
w`‡bi †ejv Zviv †`Lv hvq| c×wZ Ak¦Ì Mv‡Qi Kl †Pv‡L
jvMv‡j w`‡bi ‡ejvq Zviv †`Lv hv‡e| Ak¦ÌMvQ wPwb bv| evevi
Kv‡Q wRÁvmv Kijvg Ak¦Ì Mv‡Qi cwiPq | fvwM¨m Ak¦Ì MvQ
wPbZvg bv|
(K) me©‡iv‡Mi g‡nŠl‡ai Dcv`vb : jvd †`q †h LvUvk Zvi
Kv‡bi evZvm, †h †eov †f‡½‡M‡Q Zvi LvwbK UzKiv, D‡i hvq
†h eK Zvi Pvi‡U bL nvgvbw`¯Ívq †eu‡U LvIqv‡j giv gvbylI
evu‡P |
(L) wc,wm, miKv‡ii gZ m‡¤§vnbx we`¨v cywb©gvi iv‡Z wPr n‡q
cjKnxb Puv‡`i w`‡K †P‡q _vK‡Z _vK‡Z hLb Puv` 1dz‡Ui
Kv‡Q P‡j Avm‡e ZLb AvqZ¡ n‡e | ZvI cÖvKwUm K‡iwQ |
(2) PoyB cvwL evmv evua‡Q NyjNywj‡Z| KvwiKi ¯¿x cvwLUvi Zzjbvq
cyi“lUvB †`L‡Z my›`i| †ePviv gb †hvMv‡”Q Kv‡jv eD‡qi, †Kv_v
†Kv_v †_‡K Lo Kz‡Uv wb‡q Avm‡Q | eD Zvi GK PZy_©vskI MÖnb
Ki‡Q bv| evwZj K‡i w`‡”Q †ekxB| cyi“lUvi G‡Z AvcwË †bB,
Avevi QyU‡Q bZz‡bi mÜv‡b| †bB weiwZ †bB weivg| GB †h
`v¤úZ¨ Rxeb, cieËx© cÖR‡b¥i Pjvi c_ mnRZ‡iv Kivi AvKzwZ
GUvB i¶v Ki‡Q RM‡Zi engvb aviv| cyi“lUvi cÖwZ GKvZ¥
njvg, gvqv nj| I‡Zv †gv‡n c‡o †M‡Q | GB †MvjK avuauv †_‡K
†ei nevi Ii Avi c_ †Lvjv †bB|
(3) ZLb Kvi w`‡b Kv‡j f‡`ª wPwV Avm‡Zv| ‡mUv cov‡Z Avi Reve
wjL‡Z gvi Kv‡Q eD wSiv Avm‡Zv| post Kivi `vhxË¡ Avgv‡K
†`Iqv n‡Zv | post office †_‡K Money order
form
Avi Telegraph Form webv chmvq cvIqv hvq hvbZvg bv|
Kv‡iv bv‡g Telegrame G‡j covi Av‡MB Kvbœvi ayg c‡o
†hZ| mvavibZt Ag½j RbK msev` Qvov Telegrame †KD
fve‡ZvB bv|
Avgvi ¯‹z‡ji mvg‡bB post office mvg‡bi gvVUvq †LjvI Kwi
| DuwK w`‡q ‡UwjMÖv‡di U‡i U°v Avi mncvwV iæeyi evev‡K
KvM‡R GKg‡b wjL‡Z †`wL | GKRb Kv‡b Vzwj Gu‡U n¨v‡jv
134 |

n¨v‡jv Ki‡Q Avi G Zvi I dz‡Uvq I Zvi Av‡iK dz‡Uvq XzKv‡”Q
| Av‡iK N‡i mvwi mvwi †Lv‡c wPwVi evwÛj wb‡q GUvq IUvq Rgv
Ki‡Q GKRb | gRvB jvM‡Zv | wKš‘ IUvi bvg †h WvKNi Zv
RvbZvg bv | post office e‡jB RvbZvg | †h †Q‡jUv BwZnvm
cixÿvi LvZvq wj‡LwQj †ki kvn& †Nvovi Wv‡Ki cÖ_g cÖPjb
K‡ib , Zvi Av‡M †Nvov WvwKZbv | Wv‡Ki A_© Gi †ekx AvgviI
Rvbv wQjbv | `yB †ejv evoxi mvg‡b w`‡q XvKv ‡gj wPUvMvs †gj
hvq | I¸‡jv †QvULvU †÷k‡b _v‡g bv e‡jB †Zv GB bvg |
WvKMvox nq wK K‡i ? ivRvi ¯‹z‡j covi mgq GK mncvwVi wPwV
G‡m‡Q | m¨vi wPwVUv Ii nv‡Z w`‡ZB I ejø m¨vi GUv‡Zv Avwg
wj‡LwQ Avgvi GK AvZœx‡qi Kv‡Q | Avm‡j †m RvbZbv
Bb‡fjv‡ci Wvb cvkUvq cÖvcK Avi evg cv‡k †cÖi‡Ki wVKvbv
wjL‡Z nq |
A‡b¨i wPwV †Lvjv Mwn©Z GgbUv A‡b‡KB fveZbv
AvR‡Ki g‡Zv | ÓGKvšÍ †MvcbxqÓ wPwVi Lv‡g 74//0 Ómv‡o
PzqvËziÓ wjL†Zv A‡b‡K | mv‡o PzqvËzi Avm‡j wK‡i (Kmg) |
Gi cÖPj‡bi w`bÿb Rvbv bv †M‡jI GKUv Kvwnbx cÖPwjZ wQj |
‡Kvb cyivKv‡j eªvþb Avi k~‡`ªi gv‡S fxlb hy‡×i †k‡l
wbn‡Zi msL¨v wbiƒcb Kiv m¤¢e wQjbv | ZLb eªþ‡bi Mjvi
ˆcZv msMÖn K‡i IRb K‡i †`Lv hvq mv‡o PzqvËi gb|
GB wPwV cÖvcK Qvov Lyj‡j †mB mv‡o PzqvËzi gb IR‡bi me
eªv¤§b nZ¨vi `vqfvi Zvi Dci eZ©v‡e | Ggb 74//0 †jLv wQwV
wn›`y gymjgvb A‡bK‡KB e¨envi Ki‡Z †`‡LwQ |
‡KvjKvZv †_‡K wPwV Avm‡Zv evevi, w`‡q †hZ wcIb,
WvKniKiv ïwb bvB | Money order G‡j UvKv †c‡Z †`ix nZ
| memgq post office G UvKv _vKZ bv | /10 Qq cqmvi Lvg
Avi /0 GK Avbvi †cvóKvW© †e‡P KZev R‡g | eo †bvU BbwkIi
K‡i cvVv‡j Av‡iK mgm¨v ivRevox evRv‡i 100 UvKvi fvswZ eo
†`vKv‡bI cvIqv †hZ bv | GKevi GK †`vKvb`vi fvswZ e‡q
wb‡q evox G‡m mveavb K‡i w`‡jb gv‡K GZUzKz ev”Pvi nv‡Z †hb
135 |

†PK bv †`b (ZLb 100 UvKv‡K †PK ejv nZ) †Q‡j Lyb n‡q h‡e
|
‡Zv †mB †ki kv‡ni †Nvovi WvK Bs‡iR ivR‡Z¡ WvKN‡oi
gva¨‡g Pvjy n‡q †Mj | 1853 mv‡j wmsn Avi ZvjMv‡Qi Qwe
Qvcv WvKwU‡KU cÖ_g †ei nj | Gici \10 `yB cqmv, /0 GK
Avbv, Y0 `yB Avbv, |0 Pvi Avbv, ||0 AvU Avbv `v‡gi | cÖ_g w`‡K
GKmv‡_ Qvcv wU‡KU Avjv`v Kivi perforating e¨ve¯’v wQj bv
| KuvwP w`‡q †K‡U Avjv`v Ki‡Z nZ| ZLb †ijI meLv‡b Pvjy
nq bvB †mRb¨ †Kv_vI MiæMvwo, †gv‡li Mvwo, †Nvov, Mvav, DU,
†bŠKv, gvby‡li Kuv‡a, †Vjv Mvwo‡Z wewfbœ cš’vq WvK †cuŠQv†bvi
e¨ve¯’v Kiv nj | 1870 m‡j AvMÖv Avi gv_yivi g‡a¨ mvB‡K‡j
WvK wewji e¨ve¯’v †bIqv nq |
wejvZ †_‡K wPwV Avm‡Z QvweŸk w`b mgq jvM‡Zv |
Rvnv‡RB wewfbœ ¯’v‡bi wPwV c„_K Kivi e¨ve¯’v nIqvq †ev¤^vB‡Z
RvnvR ‡fovi ci wb`„ó ¯’v‡b WvK †cuŠQv‡Z mgq wKQzUv K‡g hvq
| †i‡jI GB e¨ve¯’v Pvjy nq cyb©v½ WvKN‡ii myweav m¤^wjZ
GKUv eMx g~jMvwoi mv‡_ Ry‡o w`‡q | Avi †mUvB WvKMvwo |
cÖ_gw`‡K 200 gvBj ci ci WvKNo ¯’vcb Kiv nq |
cieZ©x Kv‡j wPwVi cwigvb e„w× cIqvq kn‡i kn‡i, gnjøvq,
evRv‡i GgbwK MÖv‡g M‡ÄI WvKNi emv‡Z nq| ivRevox‡Z
evRv‡ii post office AvRI Pjy Av‡Q | IUv cÖ_‡g nvRx
gv‡K©‡Ui cv‡k 6© X 6© bo e‡o GKUv N‡i Aew¯’Z wQj | post
master wQ‡jb d‡qR DwÏb Avn‡g` whwb AšÍZt Pvievi bv ¸‡b
‡cvóKvW© ev Bb‡fjvc n¯ÍvšÍi Ki‡Zb bv | Avgiv post master
general AvL¨v w`‡qwQjvg | cÖv_wgK hy‡M Bb‡fjvc wQj bv |
†cÖiK wPwV fuvR K‡i ¯’vbxq fvlvq wVKvbv wj‡L w`‡Zb | post
office IUvi Dci jvj Kvwj‡Z Bs‡iwR ZR©gv K‡i wVKvbv wj‡L
w`‡Zb | †m mg‡q iv¯Ív ev evoxi b¤^i bv _vKvq cÖvc‡Ki wcZvi
bvg, cv‡ki evwoIqvjvi bvg †Pnvivi eY©bv †hgb †gvUv ev cvZjv,
UvK ev evewoIqvjv, †Lvov‡q nuv‡U wKbv wel` wjL‡Z n‡Zv |
wPwVi Dci Gme †jLvi ci WvKN‡ii Qvc c‡o A‡bK mgq
136 |

`y‡ev©a¨ n‡q †hZ | Ggb wPwVi ¯‘yc M‡o IVvq Dead letter
office Lyj‡Z nq | Zviv K‡ó cv‡Vv×vi K‡i wb`„ó wVKvbvq
cvVvevi e¨e¯’v K‡i |
1873 mv‡j \10 `yB cqmv `v‡gi Lvg Avi \5 GK cqmv
`v‡gi post card Qvcv nq | Avi 1884 mv‡j Reply post
card evRv‡i Av‡m |
cÖv_wgK mg‡q Rwg`v‡iiv WvK niKiv mieivn Ki‡Zv |
1908 mv‡ji ci G cÖ_v we‡jvc Kiv nq| WvKNi ¸‡jvi Avq
†_‡KB mg¯Í e¨q wbe©vn Kiv n‡Z _v‡K |
µ‡g WvKN‡ii Kg© we¯—…Z nq | 1851 mv‡j †UwjMÖvd, 1873
mv‡j cv‡m©j, 1877/78 mv‡j Insurance, 1883 mv‡j †mwfsm
G¨KvD›U, gvwb AW©vi Pvjy nq e‡U Z‡e 1880 mv‡ji Av‡M 150
UvKvi †ewk gvwb AW©vi Kiv †hZ bv |
1892 mv‡j post office Gi gva¨‡g KzBbvBb weµ‡qiI
e¨e¯’v Kiv nq g¨v‡jwiqv AvµvšÍ GjvKvq |
G me QvovI hLb hvZvqv‡Zi myweav wQjbv Av‡M †_‡K Rvbvb
w`‡j post office cvwé fvovi e¨ve¯’vI K‡i w`Z | KjKvZv
†_‡K Kvkx 566 gvBj †h‡Z jvMZ 707 UvKv Avi cvUbv †h‡Z
jvMZ 500 UvKv | gv‡S ‡Kv_vI †h‡Z n‡j gvBj cÖwZ GK UvKv
`yB Avbv Avjv`v w`‡Z n‡Zv | By air G wPwV Av‡m cÖ_g wgki
†_‡K †ev¤^vB 1920 mv‡j |
Av‡Rv jW© Wvj‡nŠwmi cwiPvjb c×wZ WvK wefv‡M P‡j
Avm‡Q |
gnvivbx wf‡±vixqv ‰mwbK‡`i Rb¨ 8 cvB gy‡j¨i wU‡KU
Qv‡ob | Avi wUwK‡Ui Mv‡q G mgqB East India Company
i e`‡j ïay India †jLv nq | 1901 mv‡j mßg G¨‡WvqvW© ivRv
n‡j wf‡±vwiqvi ¯’v‡b Zvi Qwe Qvcv nq | 1910 mv‡j cÂg
R‡R©i mgq †_‡K fvi‡ZB wUwKU Qvc n‡Z _v‡K Avi G mgq
†_‡KB miKvix Kv‡R SERVICE †jLv Stamp e¨venvi ïiæ
nq | (gvwmK fviZel©)
137 |

(4) 1950 mv‡ji w`‡K XvKvi wm‡×k¦ix GjvKvq GKUv evoxi bvg
eo A¶‡i †¶v`vB K‡i †jLv wQj VMx evR ˆZdzi | ˆZdzi
bv‡gi eÜzwU avi wb‡q Avi ï‡ab wb | eÜzwU Zvi ¯’vqx cÖwZev`
Rvwb‡q‡Qb Gfv‡eB|
(5) jvj gvwUqvi GKUv wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi †M‡U wjLv †`Ljvg Enter
to learn KivPxi GKUv ¯‹z‡j cieË©x csw³ Go forth to
serve.
(6) Avgv‡`i m¨vi ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh©¨ ¯§„wZK_vq †h Ave`vi i¾K
(Avwg Zuvi wjwLZ evbvbUvB AbymiY K‡iwQ ) bv‡gi fvj gvbylwUi
m¤ú‡K© wj‡L‡Qb whwb †ejMvwQ †÷kb gvóvi wQ‡jb (hLb
KvjyLvwj †ij †÷kb cÖwZôv úvqwb ) QvÎiv `yi `yi †_‡K cv‡q
†nu†U †i‡j P‡o ivRvi ¯‹y‡j co‡Z Avm‡Zv | wZwb ev”Pv‡`i Rb¨
Kjv BZ¨vw` LvIqv‡Zb |huvi †i‡jcv KvUv hvq| wZwb Avgv‡`i
KvRxKv›`vi KvRx Avãyi iv¾vK, Zuvi cyÎ KvRx Avey evmvi, Zuvi
cyÎ Rtd. Lt. Col KvRx Rvdi web evmvi, Zvi cyÎ Av‡gwiKv
cÖevmx KvRx bvwdm web Rvdi 2007 mv‡j Oscar weRqx|
(7) wjIbv‡`v© `¨ wfw Zuvi mgq Kv‡j AvR¸we Ggb me Mí
wj‡LwQ‡jb| hv cieËx© Kv‡j ev¯—‡e i“c †c‡q‡Q| Kwei Kíjv
meB †h AjxK nq bv Zvi A‡bK D`vnib Av‡Q| †jL‡Ki bvg
¤§ib bvB eûeQi Av‡M Avgv‡`i evOjv‡`‡ki GKRb ig¨ iPbv
wj‡LwQ‡jb| †Kvb GKmgh Avgv‡`i †`‡kI we‡`kx ch¨©UKiv
Avm‡eb niàv Avi †gvnv‡Ä`‡ivi g‡Zv nvwi‡q hvIqv Ruins of
Adamsi Avi Stupa of the omnibuses at Mirpura
†`L‡Z | MvBW N¨vPvjy (Nvm I Avjy wgwkªZ RvD) †L‡q Mi“i
Mvox wb‡q cÖ¯—yZ ch¨©UK‡`i `ª÷e¨ ¯’v‡b wb‡q hvevi D‡Ï‡k¨|
AZw`b A‡c¶vi Av‡MB Avgiv Av`gRxi asmve‡kl Avi
wgicy‡ii BRTC ev‡mi ¯y‘c †`‡L †d‡jwQ| eZ©gv‡bi iv¯—vi
R¨v‡g AvU‡K Bw Bw K‡i G¸‡bv Mi“i Mvwoi K_vB‡Zv g‡b
Kwi‡h †`q | evwK N¨vPvjy †L‡Z Avgiv wbgœwe‡Ëi gvby‡liv
KZw`b A‡c¶vq _vK‡ev | Avgvi †QvU †Q‡jUv `k eQi eq‡m
KweZv wjL‡jv| GKmgq mvavib mw`©R¡‡iI gvbyl gviv †hZ |
138 |

AvR wPwKrmv weÁvb wØLwÊZ gvbyl‡KI Lvov K‡i †`Šo
†`Iqv‡”Q| G‡j bq nvRvi bq kZ wbivbeŸyB mvj, ZLb gvbyl
fy‡jB hv‡e Man is Mortal Zv m‡e‡Zv 2010 Pj‡Q|

wUwe W³vi
‡mw`b GK †mwgbv‡i Avgwš¿Z n‡q †MwQjvg| D‡`¨v³v
Denium Foundation, Gi D‡Ïk¨ h¶v Avi Kzô ‡ivMx‡`i †ivM
wbY©‡q mwVK mbv³ I wPwKrmvq mvnvh¨ Kiv| Guiv G †iv‡Mi mviv
we‡k¦ Al~a weZiY I civgk© w`‡q _v‡K i“Mx‡`i|
Av‡jvPbvq A‡bK wel‡qi AeZvibvi ïi“‡Z Rvbvjvg Denium
bv‡gi GK nj¨vÛ wbevmx cv`ªx GB †iv‡Mi wPwKrmvi my‡hvM we‡k¦ bv
_vKvq hLb i“Mx‡`i Avwd«Kvi wbR©b GK Øx‡c wbe©vmb †`Iqv nZ,
Lv`¨ †mev ewÂZ‡`i Avm‡j g„Z¨i gy‡L †V‡j †`Iqv nZ, †mB mg‡q
wZwb †¯^”Qvq G‡`i †mevi D‡Ïk¨ wb‡q ILv‡b hvb Ges wb‡RI
Avµvš— n‡q ILv‡bB gviv hvb|
h¶v Avi Kzô m¤ú‡K© Avgvi cÖ_g avibv Av‡m evgb `vm ¸n iv‡qi
wcZvi mvB‡Kj P‡o evRv‡i Avmvi we¯§qKi GK c×wZ †`‡L|
Ibv‡K †`LZvg wm‡Ui Dci n¨v‡Ûj a‡i e‡m Av‡Qb, Avi GKUv ev”Pv
†Q‡j †cQb †_‡K av°v w`‡q mvg‡b †`Šov‡Z| gRv †cZvg †ek|
‡KŠZ~njx Avwg gvi Kv‡Q wRÁvmv K‡i Rvbjvg Ibvi h¶v †ivM Av‡Q|
†mRb¨ †n‡U ev mvB‡Kj Pvwj‡q Avm‡Z cv‡ib bv| hvi nq h¶v, Zvi
bvB i¶v| cÖePb gy‡L gy‡L| Av‡iv Rvbjvg h¶v †ivM Rxevby Kei¯’
Ki‡jI wbg©yj nq bv| esk ci¤úivq †ik †_‡K hvq| IB cwiev‡i
†KD we‡q †`q bv, †gjv‡gkvI K‡i bv| Ggb wK cwiev‡ii Ab¨
m`m¨ivI i“Mxi _vjv evmbI e¨envi K‡i bv| Avi Kzôi“Mx? †m bvwK
Av‡iv fq¼i| ‡m nq‡Zv M­vmUv nv‡Z a‡i‡Q, ivLvi mgq †`Lv ‡Mj
Av½y‡ji wKQy Ask M­v‡mi Mv‡q †j‡M Av‡Q|
139 |

Ggwb me fxwZcÖ` K_v ï‡b Avgvi wK‡kvi g‡b N„bv wgwkªZ fq †Mu‡_
hvq| wek¦hy× †diZ GK Wv³vi G‡jb G mg‡q ivRevox‡Z| †jv‡Kv
eªx‡Ri cy‡e `igvi †eov †`Iqv †QvU GKUv Ni| IUv bvwK h¶v
nvmcvZvj| i“Mx‡`i Rvbvjv w`‡q iv¯—vi w`‡K †P‡q _vK‡Z †`LZvg
fve‡jknxb †Pv‡L| f‡q Iw`‡K ZvKvZvg bv wØZxq `dv| wUwe Wv³vi
mv‡ne evoxi mvg‡bi c_ w`‡q hvZvqvZ Ki‡Zb| µ‡g cvwievwiK
m¤úK©I M‡o DV‡jv| wKš— wZwb evox‡Z G‡jB Avgvi Mv wNb wNb
Ki‡Zv | wZwb †h †PqvqUvq em‡Zb Avwg h_vm¤¢e †mUv Gwo‡q
PjZvg| g‡b e×g~j avibv R‡b¥wQj Ibvi Mv‡qI h¶vi g‡Zv fq¼i
†ivM RxevYy †j‡M i‡q‡Q Ges †PqviUv‡ZI †m¸‡jv wKjwej Ki‡Q|
Avmj bvg (K¨v‡Þb Wvt mvnveywÏb) Qvwc‡q ivRevox‡Z Dwb cwiwPwZ
‡c‡q †M‡jb ÔwUwe Wv³viÕ wnmv‡e| LyeB iwmK gvbyl| evox gvj`n|
mš—vbvw` bvB| Kvco †Pvc‡o LyeB cwicvwU| ermiv‡š— †`‡ki evox
wM‡q Avg evMv‡bi †h Ask †c‡Zb Zvi meUv my¨U c¨v‡›UB e¨q
Ki‡Zb| iv‡Z evox‡ZB cwiwgZ cwigvb KviY evwi cvb Ki‡Zb|
K¬v‡e eªxR †Ljvq Zuvi mgK¶ Lye GKUv †KD wQ‡jb bv|
Ibvi evoxUvI wUwe Wv³v‡ii evox bv‡gB cÖwm× n‡q i‡q‡Q Av‡Rv|
Avgvi m¨vi ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPv‡h©¨i AvZœK_vq wjwLZ Three
Satelite Gi GK m`m¨ †gv³vi bxi` miKvi (whwb ivRevox
wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi †Pqvig¨vb wQ‡jb) †mB evoxUv Wv³vi mv‡ne Lwi`
K‡i ILv‡bB evm Ki‡Zb| ( ivRevox wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi Rb¥
†deªæqvix 1923 mvj | cÖv_wgK hy‡M †Pqvig¨vb wQ‡jb gb¥_ †mb,
ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh©¨, cjvb miKvi, Avng` Avwj g„av, dKiDwÏb
Avng`, bx‡iv` miKvi, Áv‡b›`ªbv_ †cvÏvi |) cwiYZ eq‡mB Zvui
g„Zy¨ nq| †Kvb mš—vbvw` bv _vKvq cvwjZv GK Kb¨vi eskaiivB
eZ©gv‡b evoxUvi gvwjK| (AcÖvmw½K Gme wel‡qi AeZvibv ïay gvÎ
HwZnvwmK e¨w³‡`i cwiwPwZ Zz‡j aivi D‡Ï‡k¨)
Avwg fvewQ cv`ªx Denium mv‡n‡ei K_v| wejvmx Rxe‡bi myL
m‡¤¢vM Z¨vM K‡i, AvR‡Ki ‡cÖ¶vc‡U bq| hLb h¶v, Kz‡ôi Ilya
Avwe¯‹vi nqwb| †mB mgq wK‡mi Zvobvq wbwðZ g„Zy¨‡KB eib K‡i
wb‡jb, wbR©b †mB Øx‡c †mevi eªZ wb‡q †¯^”Qvq|
140 |

Avgiv gymjgvb| bexRxi Dc‡`k Rx‡e `qv K‡i †hB Rb †mBRb
†mwe‡Q Ck¦i| hxï Avj­vi cyÎ, Pvi AvZ¥v whwb cÖPvi K‡ib, Zuvi cÖwZ
kª×v _vKvi K_v bq Avgv‡`i, Avgiv Zv wek¦vmI Kwi bv | Avgiv
m‡Z¨i cyRvix n‡qI KB Ggb GKUv bwRi †i‡L †h‡Z cviwQ bv|
MÖv‡g M‡Ä Pvjvnxb ew¯—i gv‡S †kvfv cvq cvKv cªv_©bvjq, cv‡ki
evoxi RvqMv `Lj Kwi jvD MvQ jvwM‡q| GwM‡q Avwmbv mwZ¨
K_vUvI ej‡Z wk¶v †`evi| GKRb wg_¨vkªqx, weag©x, bvQvivi
gvbweK KvR †`‡L gv_v Avgvi †nU n‡q hvq|
Avgiv †eŠ×g~Z©x †f‡½ ¯^ag© cÖwZôv Kwi, Avgv‡`i g‡b †Kvb †iLvcvZ
K‡ibv †MŠZg wbR wejvmx DcKiY, my›`ix ¯¿x-cyÎ, ivR¨ meB Z¨vM
K‡i‡Qb gvby‡li Kj¨v‡Yi c_ A‡š^l‡Y| Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q G Z¨v‡Mi
†Kvb g~j¨ †bB ïay gvÎ Ck¦i Av‡Qb wK ‡bB GB e¨vL¨vi gZ‡f‡`| ‡h
wkíx cvnvo †K‡U KZ KzkjZvq GUv ‰Zix K‡i‡Qb Zvi wkí Kg©
fv½‡ZI AvaywbK we‡ùviK e¨_© nq| Aš—Zt hvi hv ag© GUvI we‡k¦i
mevi Aby‡iva D‡c¶v K‡i A‡b¨i ag©vbyfywZ‡Z AvNvZ Ki‡Z ev‡a bv
Avgv‡`i|
cvwK¯—vbx gymjgvb evsjv‡`kx gymjgvb‡`i cÖwZ wK e¨envi Ki‡jv
1971 mv‡j| Avgiv ïay gvÎ Avgv‡`i b¨vh¨ cÖvc¨UzKzB `vwe K‡iwQ|
1965 mv‡ji cvK fviZ hy‡× AvgivB me‡P‡q †ekx i³ w`‡qwQ|
bvn‡j mwZ¨ jv‡nvi K¬v‡e mܨvq Pv cv‡bi ¯^cœ ev¯—evwqZ nZB
fviZxq †Rbv‡i‡ji evOvjx cvBjU Avjg bv _vK‡j| †hwKbv GKvB
AvUUv fviZxq wegvb fycvwZZ K‡i| Avi ey‡K gvBb †eu‡a 500
U¨vs‡Ki MwZ‡iva K‡i GB evOvjxivB | gvÎ cuvP eQ‡iB wK K‡i fy‡j
†Mj †m K_v? wenvix‡`i †`vl wK? Iiv ILv‡b gvi †L‡q wf‡U gvwU
†_‡K D‡”Q` n‡q P‡j G‡m‡Q| GUvB I‡`i †kl Avkªq| ivRevox‡ZI
†`‡LwQ evm¯’v‡bi Afv‡e †ij Bqv‡W© mvwimvwi gvjevnx IqvM‡b
cwievi wb‡q evm Ki‡Z| †jvnvi Mvox¸‡jv kx‡Zi w`‡b VvÛvq R‡g
†hZ| Mi‡gi w`‡b DËß n‡q Av¸b| †ivM evjvB †j‡MB _vK‡Zv
‡mwb‡Uk‡bi e¨e¯’v bv _vKvq| hw`I cybe©vmb Kiv n‡jv, †mUv I‡`i
Avjv`v fv‡e ¸”QvKv‡i| Qwo‡q wQwU‡q _vK‡j nq‡Zv mvgvwRK fv‡e
Avgv‡`i mv‡_ wg‡k †hZ| Zv n‡jv bv| GK a‡g©i, GK †`‡ki
141 |

evwm›`v n‡qI Avgiv wef³ n‡q iBjvg| wenvix bvg NyP‡jv bv I‡`i|
1971 mv‡j Iiv cvwK¯Zvbx‡`i c¶ †b‡e GUvB‡Zv ¯^vfvweK| Iiv
Avwkw¶Z, hw` nv‡Z A¯¿ cvq Avi N‡U eyw× bv _v‡K Zvn‡j hv Kivi
ZvBB K‡i‡Q| eis Avgiv hviv I‡`i mnvqZv wb‡q jyU K‡iwQ AvgivB
`vqx kZ¸Y| I‡`i †P‡q Avgv‡`iB `vwqZ¡ wQj msL¨vjNy ‡Zvgiv,
msL¨¸i“ Avgv‡`i mv‡_ wg‡jB †Zvgv‡`i evm Ki‡Z n‡e GK_v
‡evSv‡bvi|
K¨v‡Þb mvnveywÏb (wUwe Wv³vi) wZwbI gvj`n fvi‡Zi evwm›`v|
ILv‡b Zvui evox Avg evMvb me Av‡Q Zv m‡Ë¡I wZwb wg‡k wM‡qwQ‡jb
Avgv‡`i mv‡_| wbiÄb †cª‡mB Zuvi AvÇv wQj| K¬v‡e eªxR †Ljvi
mv_x hviv gvwR©Z wkw¶Z mgv‡Ri evwm›`v| Wv³vi mv‡ne Gu‡`i
ms¯ú‡k© G‡mB GKvš— n‡Z ‡c‡iwQ‡jb GB mgv‡Ri| GLv‡bi
evoxUvI wZwb `vb K‡i hvb †ij †cvóvj wefv‡Mi wcIb AwZ mvavib
GK AbvZ¥xq cwievi‡K|

gb¥_ †mb, e„›`veb P›`ª `vm, †Mvwe›` jvwnwo Avi my‡eva wmK`vi
gb¥_ †m‡bi wcZ…K~j m¤ú‡K© †Kvb Z_¨ GLb Avi cvIqv
m¤¢e bq| Z‡e wZwb †h fvM¨Kzj Rwg`v‡ii RvgvZv wQ‡jb GUvB
Avgiv RvbZvg| D”Pwk¶vi Rb¨ Kvjvcvwb cvwo †`b Ges mgv‡R
cwZZ nb| cÖvqwðË Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZi Kvi‡Y (cÖvqwP‡Ëi AbycvY
cÂMe¨ h_v- `ya, `wa, †Mvgq, †MvgyÎ I gay)| ¯¿x `yB Kb¨v mn Zuv‡K
cwiZ¨vM K‡i KjKvZvq P‡j hvb| gvZv cy·K Z¨vM bv Ki‡jI ¯^Zš¿
142 |

Avnvi Ki‡Zb| gvZ…f³ cyÎ †mRb¨ gv‡qi †mevq `vm `vmx, †Mvkvjv
Avi ZiKvixi evMvb K‡i †`b|
wekvj RvqMv Ry‡o e¨emv cÖwZôvb †Mvqvj›` AvBm G‡mvwm‡qkb †hUv
mvavi‡Y gb¥_ †m‡bi eidKj bv‡gB mgvwaK cwiwPZ wQj| wekvj
cyKziUvi `w¶Y cvoUvq emZ evoxUv we‡`kx wbg©vb‰kjx‡Z Mov|
Rvbvjvq Wej cvj­v KvV I Kuv‡Pi| kx‡Z †hgb VvÊv cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’v
M„‡®§ †Zgwb Zvc mnbxq ch©v‡qB _vK‡Zv| wmwo¸‡jv h‡_ó e¨eavb
†i‡L †QvU †QvU av‡ci, †hLv‡b Ibvi e„×v gv gv`yi wewQ‡q gv‡S gv‡S
`ycy‡i ï‡q _vK‡Zb| bywo cv_i weQv‡bv cyKzi cv‡oi wbR¯^ c_ w`‡q
wZwb hvZvqvZ Ki‡Zb †hUv cÖvqkt †ivjvi w`‡q gm„b ivLv n‡Zv|
c‡_i `yav‡i †g‡n`x MvQ D”PZvq wZb dz‡Ui †ekx bq| †fZ‡ii
evMv‡b `y¯cÖvc¨ dzjMv‡Q is‡ei‡Oi dz‡ji mgvnvi| cÖwkw¶Z gvwj
me©`vB cwiPh©vq iZ|
cyKz‡ii Aci cvoUvq c`gh©v`v Abyhvqx Kg©Pvix‡`i mvwie× evmfeb|
Kg©Pvixiv ¯^í g~‡j¨ †ikb QvovI wPwKrmv myweav †c‡Zb|
RbwnZKi ¯’vbxq me Kv‡RB wZwb `v‡bi nvZ evwo‡q w`‡q‡Qb| ¯‹zj
cÖwZôvq nvmcvZvj I cvbxq Rj mieiv‡n Zuvi Ae`v‡bi ¯^xK…wZ ¯^iƒc
GK mgq GB kn‡ii wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi †Pqvig¨vb wbe©vwPZ n‡qwQ‡jb|
mv`vwmav Abvo¤^i f`ª‡jvK Ggb gvbylUv‡KI iv‡Zi Avuav‡i Avajv
BU Quy‡o †K ev Kviv gv_v dvwU‡q w`‡q‡Q| GB AcKg©wU eY© wn›`y‡`i
Øviv Ges cÖvqwðË Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZi Kvi‡Y GgbUvB avibv n‡qwQj
ZrKv‡j|
1947 mv‡j cyivZb eÜz I e¨emvqxK m¤úK©hy³ e„›`veb P›`ª `vm‡K
mg¯— m¤ú` i¶Yv‡e¶‡Yi `vwqZ¡ w`‡q wZwb fviZ P‡j hvb| cvwK¯—vb
miKvi kΓ m¤úwË †NvlYv K‡i Ges 11 j¶ UvKvq wZbUv cÖwZôvb
KvRywoqv I‡qj wgj, cÙv eid Kj (eZ©gv‡b nvRx gv‡K©U) mn mg¯—
UvB †UÛv‡ii gva¨‡g nvRx †MvjRvi †nv‡m‡bi Kv‡Q weµq K‡i|
gb¥_ †m‡bi eid KjUvi Drcv`b ¶gZv ivRevoxi Ab¨vb¨ mg¯—
eidK‡ji PvB‡Z wظb wQj| †Kvì †óv‡i‡Ri g‡Zv eid gRy` K‡i
ivLvi e¨e¯’v m¤^wjZ GKUv wekvj wbwñ`ª ¸`vgI wQj|
143 |

Avgv‡`i GB kn‡ii Avi GK e¨w³Z¡ e„›`veb P›`ª `vm, wPiKzgvi|
cvk¦©eZ©x novB b`xi K~‡j nwiYaviv Muv‡qi gvbyl| Pvlvev‡`i we¯—i
m¤úwË QvovI kn‡ii †K›`ª¯’‡j †ek KwU evox| cuvPUv eidKj PweŸk
N›Uv Pvwj‡qI hLb ei‡di †hvMvb w`‡Z wngwkg Lv‡”Q †mB mg‡q
wZwb wQ‡jb †Mvqvj‡›` ei‡di †mvj G‡R›U| evmv Avi Awdm
ILv‡bB| mvgvwRK fv‡e †mLv‡bI wZwb mgv`„Z Avi cÖwZwôZ| †c‡U
Avjmvi nIqvq Acv‡ikb Kiv, mvwË¡K Avnvix|
e‡bi †gvl Zvov‡bvi mgq Avi evwZK †hUv wPiKzgvi‡`i cÖvqkt _v‡K
†Zgwb ZuviI †Nvov †ivM wQj| AvK„ó n‡Zb we‡klZ¡ wKQy †`L‡jB|
Avi †g‡Z DV‡Zb Zv‡ZB| wógvi †_‡K bvg‡Q RUvavix GK mvay|
cvKovI K‡i wb‡q G‡jb wbR †Wivq| _vKv LvIqvi XvjvI e¨e¯’v,
Aem‡i Mí| µ‡g †mUv eÜz‡Z¡i ch©v‡q| mvay Zuvi Rxebe„Ëvš— D‡b¥vPb
K‡ib| †divix Avmvgx †_‡K mvay‡Z iƒcvš—i| wngvj‡qi G cªvš— †_‡K
wn›`yKzk ce©Zgvjv †cwo‡q gvKivb A‡ji gnvZ©x_© wnsjvR ågb|
mvay m½ I wbR©‡b ¸nvev‡m AvZ¥¯’ n‡q AvR‡Ki mvay‡Z¡ iƒcvš—‡ii
my`xN© BwZnvm| †hgb wewPÎ †Zgwb †ivgvÂKi|
e„›`veb `vm mvay‡K Zuvi Rxeb K_v wjwce× Kivi Aby‡iva K‡ib|
mg¯— miÄvg G‡b wbR©b N‡i Ave× K‡ib| DØy× n‡q mvay wjL‡Z
_v‡Kb|
†ewo‡q Av‡m ÔAeay‡ZiÕ mvov RvMv‡bv Ôgi“Zx_© wnsjvRÕ| wm‡bgvI
nq DËg Kzgv‡ii Awfbq mg„× n‡q| ci ci Av‡iv A‡bK Kvwnbx,
A‡bK eB| eÜz‡Z¡i wb`k©b ¯^iƒc cÖ_g eBUv mvay e„›`veb `v‡mi
bv‡gB DrmM© K‡ib| cieZ©xKv‡j ÔAeayZÕ Avi ÔAeayZÕ wQ‡jb bv|
†hUv AZ¨š— †¶v‡fi mv‡_B e„›`veb `vm cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| wbiÄb †cª‡m
e‡m Zuvi KvQ †_‡KB Gme Kvwnbx ï‡bwQ| gy» n‡qwQ| Avgvi g‡Zv
Kg eqmxi mv‡_I Zuvi AvjvcPvwiZv wQj eÜzmyjf †Lvjv‡gjv|
1971 mv‡ji †g gv‡mi †kl fv‡M ¯’vbxq wenvixiv Zuv‡K a‡i wb‡q
b„ksm †gRi ÔwPgviÕ `iev‡i nvwRi K‡i ZuviB `vbK…Z RvqMvq †Rjv
cwil‡`i WvKevs‡jv‡Z| wZwb `„ßZvi mv‡_B e‡jb GUv Avgvi ‡`k
†Q‡o hvevi cÖkœB Av‡m bv| Avwg wPiKzgvi Avgvi AeZ©gv‡b Avgvi
m¤ú` _vK‡e G‡`‡ki gvby‡li Rb¨B †hgb- †h AwdmUvq Avcwb e‡m
144 |

Av‡Qb| Avi cv‡ki cvewjK jvB‡eªixUv Avgvi `vbK…Z ¯’v‡bB
cÖwZwôZ| †gRi cyY© gh©v`v w`‡q Zuv‡K we`vq †`b Ges wenvix‡`i
mZK© K‡i †`b †hb Ibvi †Kvb ¶wZ bv Kiv nq| †hUv cvwjZ nq e‡U
wKš‘ ¯^vaxb evsjvq †kvbv hvq m¤ú‡`i Kvi‡YB wZwb wbnZ nb| †h
inm¨ Av‡Rv inm¨ve„ZB i‡q †M‡Q| wbi‡eB wZwb nvwi‡q †M‡jb|
Avwg ¯^vw¯—K, wb‡jvf©, `vbkxj Avi AgvwqK GB gvbylUv‡K Av‡Rv
kª×vi mv‡_ `ytL fvivµvš— g‡bB ¯§iY Kwi| Avgv‡`i GB ¯§„wZi
kn‡i AviI GKRb ivR¨nxb Kzgvi wQ‡jb †Mvwe›` jvwnwo, wcZv
RwU‡jk¦i jvwnox, Zuvi wcZv wQ‡jb P›`ªbv_ jvwnwo, Avw`evm evbxen|
†ckv-IKvjwZ †m m~‡Î ivRevox AvMgb|
m`i iv¯—vq wekvj RvqMv Ry‡o mvg‡b A‡bKUv duvKv †i‡L Kvi“KvR
Kiv †`vZjv evoxUvi w`‡K ZvKv‡jB †evSv †hZ evwm›`v‡`i myi“Px Avi
Avw_©K m½wZi wekvjZv| Ni¸‡jv ‡KvbUv †MvjvK…wZ, †KvbUv
‡PŠ‡Kvbv| Qv‡`i Kvwb©‡k jZvcvZv LwPZ wewfbœ wPÎv¼b QvovI
gyLe¨v`b K‡i Avùjb iZ gy‡LvgywL `y‡Uv evN| Aa©P›`vªK…wZ NyjNywj
¸‡jv jvj, meyR njy` bxj KuvP emv‡bv, m~h©wKib cÖwZdwjZ n‡Zv is
†eis‡qi gyQ©bvq | bvg ÔP›`ªavgÕ wcZvg‡ni bv‡giB Acåsk|
A_© m¤§‡`i cÖvPzh¨© _vKv m‡Ë¡I †Mvwe›` jvwnwo wbt¯^ n‡q hvb
GKmgq| e‡bi ‡gvl Zvov‡bv‡i evwZK ZvuiI wQj| AK„„Z`vi wgïK,
†Ljvayjv, ivRbxwZ m‡e‡ZB Zvui m¤ú„³Zv| nvwZ †cvlvi g‡Zv wb‡RB
GKUv dzUej wUg MVb Ki‡jb| B÷vY© K¬v‡ei wbR¯^ †c­qvi wQjbv
†Zgb| evB‡i †_‡K Avb‡Z n‡Zv| Zuvi †c­qvi evQvB c×wZUv wQj
A™¢yZ| `uvo Kwi‡q †`L‡Zb `yB nvUzi gv‡S h‡_ó duvKv Av‡Q wK bv|
wg‡k †M‡j evwZj|
ZrKv‡ji AvwfRv‡Z¨i cÖZxK †mvgi‡m Avmw³, gvZv, wcZv I cy‡Îi|
Kw_Z Av‡Q gvZvj n‡q gv‡q †cv‡q †evZj †jvdvjywd †Lj‡Zb
ci¯ú‡i| cÖexbZg e¨w³ Kvjxc` gûixi fvl¨ Giv †evZ‡j ‡L‡Zb bv
†L‡Zb RvgevwU f‡i PzgyK w`‡q| Ibvi wcZv RUv jvwnwo †`‡eb
wms‡qi UvKv †g‡i w`‡q‡Qb GgbUvI gy‡L gy‡L iUbv wQj ZLbKvi
w`‡b| AvwgI ZLb ky‡bwQ Avi GUv Avgvi Kv‡Q hyw³c~Y© g‡b n‡q‡Q
GRb¨B †h, RwU‡j¯^i jvwnwo Avi †`‡eb wms cÖvq cÖwZw`bB †h‡Zb
145 |

KjKvZvq dzwZ© Ki‡Z| gvÎ `k eQ‡i †`‡eb wms wbt¯^ †`Dwjqv n‡q
hvb| †h wekvj A_© wcZv `~M©v bv_ wms whwb 1900 wLª÷v‡ã ivRv m~h©¨
Kzgvi BwbwówUDk‡bi wk¶KZv B¯—vdv w`‡q †Mvqvj‡›` Avi.Gm.Gb
Ges AvB.wR.Gm.Gb óxgvi †Kv¤úvbxi PvKzix Ki‡Zb| Bs 1929
mv‡j Avgv‡`i GB AÂj w`‡q †h So e‡q hvq Ges ÔK›`iÕ
(CONDOR) bv‡gi RvnvRwU cÙvq Wy‡e hvq| óxgvi †Kv¤úvbxi
Awdm ÔKvwj›`xÕ RvnvRUv m¤ú~Y© jÊfÊ n‡q hvq| †hUv †Kv¤úvbxi
†KvlvMvi wQj| H mgq wZwb †Kv¤úvbxi wekvj A_© wb‡q P‡j Av‡mb|
RbkÖ“wZ n‡jI GUv ZrKv‡j me©m¤§Z fv‡e M„wnZ n‡qwQj| Kvjxc`
gûixi fvlvq ÔP›`ªavgÕ †`‡eb wms Gi A‡_©B cÖwZwôZ| mZ¨ n‡jI
GRb¨ †Mvwe›` jvwnwo‡K `vqx Kiv hvq bv|
me wKQy Qvwc‡q Avwg †Mvwe›` jvwnwo‡K fvj gvbyl wnmv‡eB †`‡LwQ|
eq‡mi e¨eavb m‡Z¡I Zuvi mv‡_ Avgvi mnR †gjv‡gkv wQj| Zvi
Amnvq‡Z¡i Dcgv w`‡q wZwb Avgv‡K Dc‡`k w`‡Zb †hb Avwg KL‡bv
†bkvq Avm³ bv nB| †kl eq‡m gv cvMj n‡q hvb| eviv›`vq
fve‡jknxb †Pv‡L c‡_i w`‡K †P‡q _vK‡Zb| †`L‡jI Avi KL‡bv
Ievox hvB bvB|
g¨vM‡bvwjqv MvQ `y‡Uv dz‡j †h MÜ Qov‡Zv Av‡Rv Avgvi g‡b c‡o eo
†LvKvi MRj (whwb mvD_ Avwd«Kv _vK‡Zb) ï‡bwQ †mB gvqvgq
cwi‡e‡k ILv‡b e‡m|
1972 mv‡j KjKvZv †M‡j wni“ fvB‡qi Kv‡Q msev` †c‡q †Mvwe›`
evey †nv‡U‡j G‡mwQ‡jb| †nv‡U‡j bv †_‡K Ibvi wVKvbvq _vKvi
Avgš¿bI Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb| Avgvi `yf©vM¨ †m mgqUvq Avwg Abycw¯’Z
_vKvq †`Lv nqwb| 1947 Gi Av‡MB Ibvi `yB fvB wkwki jvwnwo I
we‡bv` jvwnwo KjKvZvq w¯’Z nb, †kl Rxeb wZwb Gu‡`i Avkª‡qB
KvUvb|
eZ©gv‡b evoxUvi mvg‡b mvwi mvwi †`vKv‡b XvKv c‡o †M‡Q †mw`‡bi
me‡P‡q my›`i ÔP›`ªavgÕ
A bachelor lives like a prince
But dies like a dog.
146 |

ï‡eva wkK`vi wQ‡jb †gv³vi kZxl wkK`v‡ii cÖ_g cyÎ, whwb †gv‡UB
my‡eva wQ‡jb bv| me©`vB Zzixqvb‡›` we‡fvi _vK‡Zb| UvDb g³‡ei
Dˇii cvKv evoxUv Ibvi wcZvi| †QvU fvB ev`j wmK`vi Ibvi
c`v¼ Abymvix wQ‡jb bv|
Avgv‡`i AvÇvLvbvq gv‡S g‡a¨B G‡m †`vKvbx‡K ûKzg w`‡Zb|
Avgvi †Q‡j‡`i cÖ‡Z¨K‡K GKUv K‡i ‡cuv` d‡ji Ag‡jU `vI|
GKmv‡_ Pwj­kUv wWg Mvgjvq †du‡U wRwjcx fvRvi Kovq fvRv n‡Zv|
wbR wcZvi KvQ †_‡K A_© Av`vq Ki‡Zb wewfbœ cš’vq| Abybq,
Aby‡iva, Dc‡iv‡aI Kvw•LZ cwigvb bv †c‡j g³e ¯‹z‡ji gvV †_‡K
Mi“ a‡i Avb‡Zb| ivbœv N‡ii ewU G‡b wcZv‡K fq †`Lv‡Zb Av‡iv
`vI bB‡j GUv †K‡U †MvnZ¨vi cvc Kiv‡ev| i³ Mv‡q †g‡L RvZ
†Lvqve| mvZ cyi“‡li †iŠie biKevm AeavwiZ| wcZv Amnvq †Mv
nZ¨v Ges esk i¶vq|
wcZv- hZ Kg w`‡q †invB cvq cyÎ hZ †ekx Av`vq Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avi
Avgiv ga¨¯^Z¡ †fvMx|

Òwbf„Z gayi fvebvi Aem‡i
cy‡iv‡bv w`‡bi ¯§„wZiv Rgvq fxiÓ
ÑÑÑÑÑÑRIni jvj †b‡ni“
ivZ A‡bK, G eq‡m Mfxi Nyg nq bv| †f‡m I‡V g‡bi
Mnx‡b Pvcv c‡o hvIqv hv ZLb ¸i“Z¡ cvqwb Ggb A‡bK K_v| G‡K
G‡K m‡i m‡i hv‡”Q| avivevwnKZv †bB| Av‡MiUv c‡i c‡iiUv
Av‡M| ¸i“Z¡ cv‡”Q †hUv fve‡Z PvBwb GgbZ‡iv K‡Zv wKQy|
147 |

‡Kvb duv‡K kvgmyj Kwig Lvb gbUv‡K Av”Qbœ K‡i †dj‡jv| Avgiv
fvj eÜz wQjvg| wKš‘ Zzwg‡Z bvgvi Av‡MB wew”Qbœ n‡q †MwQ| KweZv
wjL‡Zv Ô¸cx mvnvi P‡ci †`vKv‡b| fv½v †Uwej, †fRv Lwoi †auvqvq,
†PvL R¡jv, L‡Ï‡ii nƇMv‡j| eMv gvK©v wmMv‡iU †m Qvov nRg Kiv
Avgvi g‡Zv MuvRvi“iI n‡Zv bv|
KweZv¸‡jv Qovi g‡Zv, Avevi MfxiZvI wQj| GKUv KweZv c‡o
I‡K ej­vg Avcwb GKw`b weL¨vZ n‡eb|
mPj hv wKQy ZvB Rxeš—| b`x mPj †m Rxeš—, Zvi Mš—e¨ w¯’i, mvMi|
gvbylI mPj Zvi Mš—e¨ w¯’i, g„Zz¨| w¯’iZvq hvevi j¶¨ wb‡qB mevB
GwM‡q P‡jwQ| wKš‘ g„Zz¨‡Zv Avgv‡`i j¶¨ bq|
Avgiv euvP‡Z PvB| ¯^xq KxwZ©i gv‡S| mš—vb Rb¥ wb‡j Lywk nB,
Avgvi Avwg †eu‡P _vK‡ev GB †PZbvq| Kei euvavB Kwi ZvI wU‡K
_vKvi R‡b¨| ZvRgnj Mwo †m‡Zv ggZvR‡K euvPv‡bvi Rb¨ bq|
mvRvnv‡biB euvPvi ZvwM‡`| j¶¨‡Zv †eu‡P _vKv| wKš‘ P‡jwQ w¯’iZvi
j‡¶¨| hv Kvg¨ bq wKš‘ A‡gvN|
e‡jwQjvg weL¨vZ n‡eb, nqwb| KvM‡R bvg †`wLwb, QvcvI †`wLwb|
K‡qK MÊv fvB †ev‡bi msmvi| wcZvi mvavib Avq| g‡b nq dzwo‡q
†M‡Q| wK Rvwb w¯’iZvq bv hvevi j‡¶¨ wgwj‡q †M‡Q wKbv|
AvgviI wgwj‡q †h‡Z B‡”Q K‡i bv| cieZ©x j¶ †KvwU cÖR‡b¥i
avivevwnKZvi Askx`vi Avwg| Avgvi †mB As‡ki wPý _vK‡e bv G
Avwg gvwb wK K‡i?
Avgvi †QvU fvBUvi AvMvgx e‡j wKQy iBj bv| Avgvi `v`vi `v`v,
Zvi `v`v, G‡`i GKK ¯^Ë¡v KB?
iex›`ªbv_ mvš—¡bv w`‡qB Lvjvm|
ÔAvKv‡k †Zv Avwg ivwL bvB †gvi
Dwoevi BwZnvm,
Zey D‡owQby GB †gvi Dj­vmÕ
nu¨v, Avgvi `v`v wQj, Zvi `v`vI wQj, wKš‘ GKK ¯^Ë¡v Zv‡`i Avi
†bB| G‡Z Avwg mvš—¡bv cvB bv| AvZ¥Zzwó Av‡m bv| wK Pig †e`bv
Avgvi| Ô`g dziv‡j VymÕ|
148 |

hw` †mUvB Pig Avi cig mZ¨ n‡q _v‡K Zvn‡j wK‡mi ZvwM‡` †Kvb
†cÖiYvq Rxe‡bi A‡bK Kvgbv, evmbv, Av‡qm wemR©b w`‡q †mB wbg©g
¯’weiZvi cÖv‡š— †cuŠ‡Q hvw”Q? Avnv‡i Z¨vMx cyi“l GB AvßevK¨ Avgvi
Ac~Y©Zv Avgvi bv cvIqv fwi‡q Zzj‡Z cv‡i bv| Avi †m Zvobvq †Zv
Avwg PvwjZ nBwb|
kvgmyj Kwig weL¨vZ nqwb wKš‘ wkK`vi Avwgbyj nK n‡q‡Q|
KvM‡Ri mvwnZ¨ cvZvq GKvwaK _v‡K| nvwKg wgqvi Pv‡qi AvÇvi
K_v nq‡Zv Zvi ¯§iY bvB| VvÊv f`ª gvbylUv| Kwei g‡ZvB AvPiY|
†c­qv‡i Mvb ïb‡Z KL‡bv mL‡bv Zvi evox †MwQ| GKUv Mv‡bi †k‡l
wKQy weiwZ wKQy cvbvnvi, wKQy K_v| Zv‡Z cÖwZUv Mvb Avjv`v Av‡gR
m„wó Ki‡Zv| †ewk `yi G‡Mvevi Av‡MB wcZvi e`jx m~‡Î P‡j †Mj|
†ebRxi Avng` †UvK‡bi (m¤úv`K †fv‡ii KvMR) mv‡_ Zvi NwbôZv
†ewk wQj| `y‡e©va¨ KweZvi gg©v_© Iiv eyS‡Zv, Avgvi gv_vq Avm‡Zv
bv|
Lye Aí eqm †_‡KB eo‡`i AvÇvi †cQ‡b em‡Z Avgvi fvj
jvM‡Zv| evoxi cv‡ki †nv‡U‡j †`k we‡`‡ki KZ †ckvi KZ av›`vi
†jv‡K‡`i Avbv‡Mvbv| wewPÎ †ckvi †mB me gvby‡liv Avgv‡K fxlY
AvKl©Y Ki‡Zv| cvwéi †enviviv Aem‡i `wo cvKvq Lo weQv‡bv P‡Ui
weQvbvq e‡m| Avwg †mLv‡bI Xy gviZvg| fvj jvM‡Zv- mwZ¨, MuvRv
meB| eo‡`i fx‡o Fifth Brother whwb wcZvi cÂg mš—vb,
AvdZve fvB, jvwnwo `v, Lyiig fvB, gxi mv‡ne Giv Avgvi g‡bi
A‡bKUv Ry‡o i‡q‡Q|
mevi ‡P‡q fvj jvM‡Zv gwR` fvB‡K, †ev‡nwgqvb Pjv, ejv| KL‡bv
Pzj `vwo‡Z gyL †`Lv hvq bv Avevi KL‡bv fyi“ ev‡` me mvd| `yM©g
fyZz‡o wZb gvBj c_ cvwo w`‡j cÙvi Zx‡i evox| So, e„wó,
Agvem¨v, c~wY©gv, AvÇv KvgvB bvB| mevi Av‡M mKvj `kUvq mevi
†k‡l we`vq †mUv wba©vwiZ bq, ivZ `y‡UvI n‡Z cv‡i| KuvPv iv¯—v
Kv`vq c¨vP‡c‡P| jvkKvUv N‡ii Mv †N‡l †hLv‡b wkqv‡j cPv jvk
wb‡q Kvgov Kvgwo Ki‡Q| k¥kvb GKUv, †Mvi¯’vb `y‡Uv Avi RvMÖZ
Kvjx gw›`i cv‡k †d‡j gwR` fvB evox wdi‡Zv| N›Uvq N›Uvq Pv
wmMv‡iU| fvM AvwgI †cZvg| ï‡bwQ PvKzix Ki‡Zb, †`wLwb| fvj
149 |

g›` me wel‡qB cwÊZ e¨w³| Ggb A‡bK †Q‡j‡K cvk Kwi‡q w`‡q‡Q
wb‡RB †m wek¦vm ivL‡Zv bv| †ekx cov‡Zv bv `kUv A¼, wZbUv Kgb
co‡jB 30 gvK©| cvk| Bs‡iRx, f~‡MvjI ZvB| _vW© wWwfkb †c‡jB
n‡jv| Lye bgª Mjvq K_v Am¤ú~Y©, †klUv gv_v LvwU‡q ey‡S wb‡Z
n‡Zv| gwR` fvB K_v ejvi mgq ZvB Avgiv mevB Pyc K‡i †hZvg|
i‡m fiv K_v| Kvb, gMR †Lvjv bv ivL‡j im gvwU| mvZ dzU j¤^v,
dzUej †Ljvi gv‡V wn‡iv wKš‘ Amyweav GKUvB cv‡qi gv‡ci eyU cvIqv
†hZ bv|
e›`y‡Ki wbkvbvq wRg Ki‡eU| Kzgš¿bv †`evi bZzb bZzb c×wZi
D™¢veK| hw`I Avgv‡`i eq‡mi dvivK we¯—i Zey Avgiv Avm‡j eÜz
wQjvg|
Lye m¤¢e eo mv‡ne wei³ n‡q e`jx K‡i †`q gv`vixcyi| †mLv‡b
†_‡K Avgv‡K wPwV wjL‡Zv ixwZgZ mvwnZ¨ Kg©| Ggb kã Pqb Avi
ev‡K¨i MVb ˆkjx eo gv‡ci mvwnwZ¨K Qvov cvBwb| Avd‡mvm
¯^vaxbZv hy‡× A‡bK wKQzi mv‡_ Zvi †jLv¸‡jvI cy‡o hvq|
ZLbKvi w`‡b Avgiv cÖvq gv‡mB bvUK g¯’ KiZvg| Aek¨B †Mvd
Kvgv‡bv wn‡ivBb w`‡q| ivRevox‡Z GK we`ylx ¯¿x G‡jb 2nd
officer Gi| gwnjviv Zuvi cwiPvjbvq mevB wg‡j wmivR-D`‡`Šjv
bvUK g¯’ Ki‡eb| wkíx, `k©K me †g‡q| cyi“l bU GjvD AwZ_x
cyi“l GKRbB m`i gnKzgvi `Êgy‡Êi KZ©v|
AvdZve †MU w`‡q XyK‡Z wM‡q evav †cj cywj‡ki| cyi“l wbwl×|
AvdZve hyw³ †`Lvq †h‡nZz Gm.wW.I cyi“l †m‡nZz Avgv‡`i evav bv
w`‡q Ibv‡K †ei K‡i w`‡j Avgv‡`i ejvi wKQy bvB| gnv M‡Êv‡Mvj|
†k‡l `yÕPviUv WvÛvi evwo †L‡q Avgiv wd‡i Gjvg| gwR` fvB eyw×
w`j j¤^v `woi gv_vq Avajv †eu‡a B‡jKwUªK Zv‡ii Icv‡i wXj †g‡i
cvi K‡i †`| Gevi iwk a‡i Uvb, †`L wK nq| `yB Zvi GK n‡q
¯úvK© †g‡i Av¸b QyU‡jv nj gy‡Lv, †Kv_vq wmivR Avi †Kv_v Av‡jqv|
Avgiv mevB AvÇvq MonvwRi| GUv †h ˆ`e `~N©Ubv bq mevB
eyS‡jv| wKš‘ mv¶¨ cÖgvY cvIqv †Mj bv|

150 |

G‡nb gwR` fvB Av‡Rv †eu‡P Av‡Q| eyK Acv‡ik‡b `yB LÛ|
cÂvkUv wmMv‡iU‡Zv †LZB| Avgv‡`i gwR` fvB P‡j †M‡Qb †Kvb
¯^vÿi bv †i‡LB |

wewPÎ me m½xiv Avgvi
we‡kl Pwi‡Îi hv‡`i ms¯ú‡k© Avwg G‡mwQ Zviv mevB cÖvq
e¨_© gvbyl| nvDBevRxi g‡Zv ûm K‡i Eשgy‡L ciÿ‡bB ZZwaK †e‡M
ccvZ aiYx Z‡j| wgwj‡q †M‡Q wbwg‡lB D¾¡jZv| Ggb‡`i Avwg
fyj‡Z cvwiwb| GgbivB Avgvi ¯§„wZ‡Z A¶q n‡q Av‡Q| hviv mdj
Zviv‡Zv Avi `kR‡bi mv‡_ ZdvZ wKQy bq| e¨_©Zvi msÁv, †c‡q ab
nviv‡bv| mdjZv Zvi D‡ëvUv| Giv mwVK mg‡q mwVK c`‡¶‡c
av‡c av‡c D‡V hvq| welq Av‡qm G‡`i Z…ß K‡i| e¨_© gvby‡liv
AvZ¥Z…w߇ZB we‡fvi _v‡K| nviv‡bvi †e`bv, wKQy n‡Z bv cviv G‡`i
Kv‡Q ¯’vqx bq|
Avwg †Kvb `‡j, AvZ¥ we‡k­lY mnR bq| Avgvi me g›` Kv‡RiI
hyw³ †`Iqv hvq| †h QvÎ cv‡ki †Q‡jUvi LvZv †`‡L cix¶v w`j, †m
wb‡R cvm Ki‡jv e‡U wKš—y IB †Q‡jUvi cvk Kiv‡Zv †VKvqwb| hyw³
w`‡q wb‡R‡K gn‡Ë¡i ch©v‡q fve‡ZI cvwi| fvj hw` wKQy K‡iB
†dwj g‡bi A‡MvP‡iB jvwjZ nq cÖKvwkZ nevi †jvf, †hUv
mvgjv‡bvi g‡Zv gvbwmKZv Avgvi †bB| ZvB‡Zv Avgvi Kjw¼Z
Aa¨vq ¸ß ivwL, †ivR bvgPvq m‡PZb †PZbvqB AvuPo ivwL bv|
mg‡ik emy wj‡L‡Qb eo †¶‡`i mv‡_- Av”Qv Avgiv hw` mwZ¨ K_v
ej‡Z cviZvg|
Avwg‡Zv †`e`v‡mi g‡Zv †cÖwgK fvwe wb‡R‡K wKš‘ P›`ªgyLxi Dcw¯’wZ
mh‡Zœ Avovj Kwi| GUv wK mZ¨ K_b? ¯§„wZ K_v, G‡Zv wb‡Ri
Kv‡QB wb‡R‡K Qjbv| mr mvnm bv _vK‡j g‡b G‡jv e‡j cyi‡bv
151 |

Kvmy›`x bv NvU‡j Kvi wK G‡m hvq? Zvi †P‡q _vKbv meB wbi“³|
¸e‡i †cvKvi PvB‡Z †kª‡ô Avwg wK‡m?
m„wói avivevwnKZv †Kvb †m gš¿e‡j P‡j Avm‡Q Abvw` Kvj n‡Z?
Avw`g ¸nvgvbe Lv‡`¨i ms¯’vb Ki‡Z Rxeb evRx †i‡L wkKvi
K‡i‡Q| Svwc‡q c‡o‡Q wnsmª cïi mvg‡b| wbR cÖRb¥ A¶g Zv‡KI
Askx K‡i‡Q| ‡mB fvjevmv wQj wbgœMvgx| AvRI GB GKB aviv|
fvjevmv, g‡bi †Kvb †Kv‡Y Zvi evm? wkïi nvZ cv‡qi mÂvjb
†`‡LB wK? cï, cvwL, KxUcZ½ mevi avivevwnK Pµ‡Zv GKB| Kuywo
gyKzj hZw`b bv cyY©Zv cv‡”Q MvQI‡Zv Zv‡K k³ euva‡b †iu‡a iv‡L,
cyb©Zv †c‡j eÜb wkw_j K‡i †Q‡o †`q|
†hŠe‡b fvj jv‡M, fvjevmv Rv‡M| Kv‡Q Kv‡Q me©¶Y _vK‡Z B‡”Q
nq| fvjevmvi Rb‡K nviv‡q KZRb AvZœnb‡bi c_I †e‡Q †bq|
wb‡R‡K wejxb K‡i †`q †`n bq Ab¨ GK †PZbvnxb mË¡vq| †Kgb
K‡i?
wmwKi evRvi
i_‡Lvjv, KvZ¨vqbx †Lvjv, evZvmv cwÆ, `yaevRvi, SvjvB
cwÆ, †Nvl cwÆ Avi GKUv †jvnvi PvKv jvMv‡bv †`vKvb, †hUv Kv‡Q
`y‡ii †gjvq †U‡b †bIqv n‡Zv †gv‡li †Rvqvj Ryu‡Z GB wb‡q wmwKi
evRvi| gvwj‡Ki Ab¨ Av‡qi Dr‡mi m¤úK©hy³ n‡qB GB bvgKiY|
KvZ¨vqbx cy‡Rvq hvÎv Avi DuPz bneZLvbvq ev`¨Kvi‡`i mvbvB, Kuvmx
†m GK Gjvnx KvÛ `k w`b| `y‡ii Kv‡Qi gvby‡li Xj w`evivwÎ| abx
e¨emvqx mvnv m¤cÖ`v‡qi D‡`¨v‡M GB cyRvi Av‡qvRb|
we‡bv`cy‡ii †R¨vwZl fvRb ivR¯’vb †_‡K †bŠKv‡hv‡M Avb‡jb i_|
Kvi“KvRLwPZ wcZ‡ji QyUš— †Nvov `ywUi IRb wek g‡bi Kg bq|
VvB n‡jv GLv‡bB| Nbk¨vg `Ë ZrKv‡ji me©e„nr †`vZjv `vjv‡bi
wb‡P †`vKvb Avi Dci Zjvq Avevmb M‡ob| Qv‡` mKvj mܨvq
cyRvi N›Uv aŸwb I Djy Djy Avi †bcvjx `v‡ovqvb m`‡i| evRv‡ii
Ab¨vb¨ As‡ki gvwjK wQ‡jb XvKvi KuvPzjxi Rwg`vi Avi evbxe‡ni
152 |

evey wMwiRv k¼i gRyg`vi| wbR wbR GjvKvq evRvi mg„× Kivi
j‡¶¨ wbie GKUv cÖwZ‡hvwMZv Pj‡Zv Rwg`vi‡`i gv‡S| dwiqv‡`i
LvRbvq Qvo Avi M„n‡¯’i myweavRbK ¯’v‡b emvi e‡›`ve¯— K‡i w`‡q|
ZLbKvi w`b 64 cqmvq 1UvKv 16 Avbvq GK UvKv| 12Uv Zvgvi
dy‡Uv cvB A_ev PviUv eo Zvgvi cqmv 1 Avbv| cvb 80Uvq 1 we‡o|
Avg Avevi 125Uvq 1kZ aiv n‡Zv| Avi 16 cqmvq Pvi Avbv ev 1
wmwK| b`xi RjK‡ii GB wmwK As‡ki gvwjK Avi bv‡qe wQ‡jb
Kvjxc` `vm| Zuvi gvwjKvbvq evRv‡ii GB AskUvi bvg n‡qwQj
wmwKi evRvi| ewikv‡ji evbixcvov †_‡K AvMZ GB gvbylUvi ü`‡qi
wekvjZv wKse`š—xi g‡Zv| Avov‡j ev½vj ej‡jI cÖKv‡k¨ ivRv
mv‡ne L¨vwZ G‡b †`q| eÜz gn‡j evox evox gvQ Dcnvi cvVv‡bv wQj
Zuvi ˆbwgwËK| Avi.Gm.†K.BwDwówUDk‡bi †nW gvóvi ˆÎ‡jvK¨ bv_
fÆvPv‡h©i Kb¨vi weev‡n AwZw_ Avc¨vq‡bi Rb¨ cvVv‡jb †`ogb
IR‡bi `y‡Uv i“B Avi AvwkUv eo Bwjk| †Pbv A‡Pbv wec`MÖ¯’
gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbvwZwi³ D`vi nv‡Z wgwU‡q‡Qb cÖmbœwP‡Ë| DwKj
†gv³vi KZ…©K cÖZ¨vL¨vZ n‡q A‡Pbv gvby‡liI Rvwgb n‡q‡Qb ZrKv‡j
`k nvRvi UvKvi| AvR‡Ki gy`ªvgv‡b hv Kíbv‡KI nvi gvbvq|
eÜzgn‡ji ˆgÎx ms‡Ni mg¯— cÖ‡qvRb wgwU‡q‡Qb cÖmbœwP‡Ë| ¯’vbxq
msMÖn QvovI ewikv‡ji wbevm †_‡K Avb‡Zb eQ‡i wZb kZ gb Pvj
hv AwZw_ Avc¨vq‡b e¨wqZ n‡Zv M‡o cÖwZw`b GK gb| e¨w³‡Z¡i Ø›Ø
¯^‡Z¡I nwini AvZ¥v wgDwbwmc¨vwjwUi †Pqvig¨vb I †gv³vi wb‡iv` P›`ª
miKvi Avi mgv‡Ri cÖ_g mvwii kªx wbevib PµeZ©x Three Stelite
we‡kl‡b AvL¨vwqZ nb me© gn‡j| Z‡e Ab¨ `yRb Gui A_© I
†jvKe‡j Gu‡U DV‡Z cvi‡Zb bv|
Avgvi m¨vi ˆÎ‡jvK¨bv_ fÆvPv‡h©i fvlvq Ômvavi‡bi gv‡S AmvavibÕ
GB gvbylUv‡K wbR GjvKvq wZwb `vm evey‡`i mv‡_ idv K‡i
Avevm‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i KvQvKvwQ †i‡L‡Qb wb‡Ri| gnvZ¥v GB gvbyl
Kvjxc` `v‡mi Rxe‡bi cwimgvwß eoB Ki“Y| g`¨c `yB cy‡Îi
GKRb Zuvi RxeÏkvqB gviv hvq| Ab¨ cyÎ †Mvwe›` `vm KjKvZvq
P‡j hvq| GKgvÎ Kb¨v †mœnjZvi we‡q DwKj Ag~j¨ Kzgvi `v‡mi
153 |

mv‡_ w`‡q ZuviI Rxebvemvb nq GKw`b| fviZ wefvR‡bi ci Kb¨v
fvi‡Z P‡j hvq ¯^vgx mn|
KvjxKzgvi `v‡mi evoxUvi Ae¯’vb mwVK Z_¨ bv †c‡jI avibv Kiv nq
eZ©gvb Wv³vi †nv‡mb mv‡n‡ei evoxUv‡ZB Zvi Avevm wQj| eZ©gvb
gvwjK‡`i Z_¨ Abyhvqx ILv‡b †QvU eo 37wU Ni Avi weivU GKUv
†PŠev”Pv AvKv‡ii cvKv Muv_ywb wQj †hUv gvQ wRB‡q ivLvq e¨eüZ
n‡Z cv‡i| ‰eVKLvbvUv ÓKvjxfebÓ evUv †iv‡W |

BqvKze †nv‡mb
1947 mv‡j Rbve BqvKze †nv‡mb KjKvZv †_‡K G‡jb|
wPiw`b GKv evm Ki‡Zb †mRb¨ Zuvi cwievi Av‡Q avibvq Av‡m bv|
hw`I ˆeevwnK m~Î Avwgivev` e‡bw` cwiev‡i wQj ï‡bwQ| wZb fvB
Dwb eo, †gR Aveyj wgqv †QvULvU e¨emvq Ki‡Zb | †QvU fvB b~i
†nv‡mb Ii‡d †mvbv fvB mevi Kv‡QB wcÖq wQ‡jb Awfbq cÖwZfv I
dzUej †L‡jvqvo wnmv‡e| ivRevox gv‡V †mvbvi KY©vi wKK Avi
†UvK‡bi †nW cÖev` n‡q hvq| bvU¨ RM‡Z BqvKze wgqvi †Kivbxi
Rxe‡b bvg fywgKv Abe`¨| KvweZvI Ave„wZ Ki‡Zb | Avwg GKmgq
bRiæ‡ji ÓbvixÓ KweZvi cvV wb‡Z †MwQ Zuvi Kv‡Q |
ÓZvRgn‡ji cv_i †`‡LQ,
‡`wLqvQ Zvi cÖvY ?
AšÍ‡i Zvi ggZvR bvix
evwn‡i‡Z kv-RvnvbÓ
csw³Uvi e¨vL¨v Ki‡jb bZzb GK Avw½‡K, hvi AšÍtwb©wnZ A_© m¤c~Y©
bZzb Avgvi Kv‡Q | ü`q½gI nqwb gg© hv wZwb ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb |
Gevi ZvRgn‡ji †fZ‡i wM‡q Zuvi K_vUvB g‡b c‡o‡Q | evB‡i Avwg
ZvRgnj †`Ljvg ïayB kvRvnvb †K | hLb ggZv‡Ri Ke‡i‡i cv‡k
†Mjvg mwZ¨ †mUvi Ae¯’vb ZvRgn‡ji Mfxi AšÍ‡i wVK gwa¨Lv‡b |
ZvRgn‡ji AšÍ‡ii AšÍ¯’‡jB ggZvR |
154 |

KjKvZv ÷vB‡j New Fresco bv‡g GKUv †i÷z‡i›U †`b,
†mLv‡b evMvWyjx wQj | wbw`©ó b¤^‡i wbw`©ó cÖvBR cvIqv †hZ| wKš—
mgm¨v Dwb cvBc nv‡Z evB‡i me©¶Y Unj w`‡Zb| gd¯^j kn‡ii
Kv‡iviB ey‡Ki cvUvq KzjvZbv ILv‡b Pv, wWg AW©vi †`evi, AwP‡iB
M‡Yk Dëvq ZvB| Ab¨ wKzQ‡ZB †`vKvb fvov †`Iqv m¤¢e bv nIqvq
†ij cv‡i M‡Z©i Dci gvPv †c‡Z †Ljv ayjvi miÄv‡gi †`vKvb ‡`b
Ges †mUvB Zuvi AvevmI e‡U| cyi‡bv Ruv`‡ij me cwiPvjK dzUej
wUg Pvjv‡Zb GLv‡b| Dwb K‡é bv †c‡q wb‡RB Avj †njvj bv‡g
wUg MVb K‡ib| 8/10 †Mvj †L‡jI cieZx© †LjvqI wUg bvgv‡bv
KvgvB w`‡Zb bv|
KjKvZvq Bata Company †Z Pvgovi ¸Yv¸Y cix¶‡Ki
PvKzix Ki‡Zb| K¬ve MVb K‡i‡Qb †mLv‡b| †nv‡mb kwn`
†mvnivIqv`©xi mv‡_ ivRbxwZ †Z hy³ †_‡K‡Qb| Avgv‡`i cÖwZ Zuvi
‡h Ki“bv wgwkªZ DbœvwmK fve cÖKvk †c‡Zv G †Zv ¯^vfvweK|
ivRevoxi cvU PzwK‡q XvKv ¯’vqx n‡j Pvgov ißvbxKviK †Kv¤úvbx‡Z
PvKix Ki‡Zb| Ibvi we‡klZt cÖwZ C`I †Kvievbx‡Z ivRevox
Avm‡Zb| Ibvi †cÖiYv Ges ZvwM‡` Avgiv Wvbjc n‡ji m`m¨iv
cvÄvex AvdRvj Kvû‡Zi we‡ivwaZv m‡Ë¡I C` cybwg©jbx Abyôvb
Ki‡Z mg_© nB| 1958 mv‡j ivRevox e¨emvqx mwgwZi c¶ †_‡K
wZwb wgwjUvixi B”Qv gZ g~j¨ †eu‡a †`Iqvi we‡ivwaZv K‡ib | mZZv
Ges mrmvn‡mi Rb¨ wZwb Avgvi kª×vi cvÎ wQ‡jb|
Rjc‡o cvZvb‡o

¯’vb Kvj cÖ‡f` bvB, gwblx, wkï mevi fvebvq mgZv|
†Zgwb GK g„Zz¨c_ hvÎx 6 eQ‡ii wkïi K_v| cÖev‡m ˆ`‡ei e‡k
my`~i Rvg©vbx‡Z Ave`yj­vn Avj nviyb (wU, wf L¨vZ Ave`yj­vn Avj
gvgy‡bi fvB) D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb| g„Zz¨ wbwðZ †R‡b Zv‡`i †kl mg‡q
g„Z¨y‡K mnR K‡i Avwj½b Kivi gb gvbwmKZv ˆZix Kivi fvi wb‡q
155 |

wQ‡jb| †kl mgqUv m½ †`Iqv †Zgb mnR KvR bq| ev”PvUvi mgq
Dcw¯’Z| Kuv‡Pi Rvbvjv w`‡q e„wói †duvUv Mv‡Qi dzj, cvZvq †`vjv
w`‡”Q| ev”PvUv Rvg©vb fvlvq weo weo K‡i †h `y‡Uv kã D”PviY
Ki‡jv WASSER FLIEBT, BLATTER SCHUTTELT
SICH evsjvq hvi A_©t Rj c‡o cvZv b‡o| Kx A™¢yZ wgj | Avgiv
Aek¨ Rvwb GUv iex›`ªbv‡_i †Q‡j †ejvi †jLv, e¨vcviUv Zv bq, GUv
Ck¦i P›`ª we`¨vmvM‡ii | †mUv c‡o iex›`ªbv_I cyjwKZ n‡qwQ‡jb|

Kg‡iW Avï fiØvR
Kg‡iW Avï fiØvR eveyi mv‡_ Avgvi cwiPq mncvVx
Kg‡iW bwRei ingv‡bi m~Î a‡i 1956 mv‡j| Avgvi †ikb †`vKv‡b
Df‡qB gv‡Sg‡a¨B Avm‡Zb| bm&wm Uvb‡Zb `yR‡bB| bwRei co–qv
†Q‡j| cÖvq A`j e`j K‡i Avgiv coZvg| wKš‘ ivRbxwZ wb‡q
Avgvi AvMÖn †Zgb wQj bv| Avgvi mv‡_ `yRb evg ivRbxwZ‡Ki
AvÇv cÖkvm‡bi bRi Kv‡o Ges c‡iv¶ fv‡e Avgv‡K mveavb Kiv
nq| wPwVcÎ wØZxqevi AvVv jvMv‡bv †`‡L eyS‡Z cvwi I¸‡jv †Lvjv
n‡Zv|
bwRei ¯‹z‡j covKvjxb mg‡qB GKevi wb‡LuvR nq| fviZ Ny‡i cwðg
cvwK¯—v‡bi jv‡nv‡i †ek wKQyw`b KvwU‡q evox wd‡i Av‡m| †i‡ji
kªwgK †bZv Ges Ab¨vb¨ ivRbxwZwe`‡`i ms¯ú‡k© G‡m evg ivRbxwZi
m‡½ m¤ú„³ nb| Wvt Gm.Gg. Bqvwnqv whwb wbgZjvi Wv³vi wnmv‡e
weL¨vZ wQ‡jb| mKj ivRbxwZwe`‡`i cÖwZ mnvbyf~wZZkxj| mvnvh¨
mn‡hvwMZv Ges gnvbyfe GB e¨w³ LyeB kª‡×q wQ‡jb mevi| Avqye
Lv‡bi e›`xZ¡ Gov‡Z bwRi‡K wZwb evg©v hvevi my‡hvM K‡i †`b|
bwRei ILvb †_‡K fvi‡Z P‡j hvq Ges b·vjevox Av‡›`vj‡b hy³
n‡q wenvi A‡j wbnZ nq| Avï eveyi mv‡_I Avgvi m¤úK© `vev
†Ljvi mv_x wnmv‡e| Dwb †Rj Rxe‡bi cy‡ivUv mgq ivRbxwZi `x¶v
Ges `vev †L‡j KvwU‡q‡Qb| Avi Avgvi eqm 19 †c‡ivqwb Kv‡RB
156 |

ïay GK evi Qvov KL‡bv Zuv‡K civwRZ K‡i P¨w¤úqb c`K Avwg
cvBwb| Ibvi Rxeb K_v Rvbvi †Póv ZLb Avgvi _vK‡j wek` meB
Rvb‡Z †cZvg| Zey †mŠfvM¨ ekZt Ibvi ¯^n¯— wjwLZ `ywU cvÊywjwc
Avgvi nv‡Z Av‡m LyeB mv¤cÖwZK Kv‡j| AcÖKvwkZ GB †jLvq Ibvi
cvwievwiK Rxeb, ivR‰bwZK Rxeb cÖvq meB wea„Z| ZviB msw¶ß
AÎ †jLvq mshy³ Kivi †Póv Ki‡ev| wZwb †`evûZx PµeË©xi gvZv
kªxgwZ mvweÎx PµeËx©i KvQ †_‡K GKUv jvB‡eªix Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨
RvqMv Lwi` K‡ib| Kgj ¸ni ¯¿x kªxgwZ mweZv ¸ni bv‡g|
wZwb I Kgj evg ivRbxwZi mv‡_ hy³| ivR‡ivl Zuv‡`i KLb †Kv_vq
Kx AwbwðZ Ae¯’vq †d‡j GB Avk¼vq wfZi gn‡j Kgj cwiev‡ii
Avevm Avi ewniv½‡b GKUv cvVvMvi ¯’vc‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨B †`‡ki evoxi
Rwg weµxi A‡_©| Kg‡iW Kgj ¸ni mv‡_I Avgvi h‡_ó ü`¨Zv
wQj| nVvr K‡iB Zuvi g„Zz¨‡Z Avï eveyi †kl B”QvUv c~iY nq bvB|
Avwg 1971 mv‡ji GwcÖ‡ji †kl w`‡K mvBevoxqv Kgj‡`i evox‡Z
hvB †LuvR Lei wb‡Z| ILv‡b Avïevey, weï Av‡iv A‡b‡Ki mv‡_B
Avgvi †`Lv nq| cwikªvš— c_kª‡g K¬vš— Avgv‡K Wve †c‡o LvIqv‡bvi
Rb¨ Kgj D‡`¨vM †bevi gyû‡Z© ivRvKv‡ii `j evoxUv jyɇbi D‡Ï‡k¨
nvgjv K‡i| mevB cvwj‡q hvq- †KD we‡ji avb †L‡Zi Avj a‡i,
†KD Gw`K †mw`K| fvix kixi wb‡q Avï eveyi c‡¶ †ewk `~i hvIqv
m¤¢e nq bv| Dwb aiv c‡ob| wbwe©Kvi fv‡e ea¨f~wg‡Z †bevi c‡_I
wZwb nvwi‡q hvIqv Pkgvi †LuvR Ki‡Qb Pkgv Qvov nvU‡Z cvi‡Qb bv
e‡j| ¯’vbxq †jv‡Kiv Puv`v Zz‡j Ibv‡K ivRvKvi‡`i gyw³cY w`‡q i¶v
K‡ib| Bs‡iRx 1914 mv‡ji 21†k †deª“qvix kwbevi mܨvq dwi`cyi
†Rjvi †MvcvjMÄ gnKzgvi (eZ©gvb †MvcvjMÄ †Rjv) Dbwkqv MÖv‡g
fiØvR eªvþY cwiev‡i Rb¥ †bb| wcZv DgvPiY fiØvR, gvZv Abœ`v
my›`ix †`ex| wZb fvB GK †evb| eo evgvPib fiØvR, †gR
KvjxiÄb fiØvR Kve¨ e¨vKiY cy‡ivwnZ Zx_©, †QvU-Avïevey, mevi
†QvU †evb exbvcvwb Ii‡d cyZzj| KvKv‡Zv †evb gbyw`w` Avïeveyi cuvP
eQ‡ii eo| Ibvi gv‡K cvovcokx †QvU ev”Pviv mevB eo gv e‡j
WvK‡Zv| †`Lv‡`wL wZwbI wbR gv‡K eo gv e‡jB m‡š^vab Ki‡Zb|
gvZv †Kvb w`b ïay gv WvK †kv‡bbwb, mK‡jiB eo gv wZwb|
157 |

wkïKvj †_‡KB wZwb `yiš— cÖK…wZi wQ‡jb| Av`‡ii AvKl©‡Y e›`x n‡q
Kv‡iv †Kv‡jI _vK‡Zb bv| QUdU Ki‡Zb| my‡hvM †c‡jB cyKzi
cv‡o bq‡Zv R½‡ji w`‡K P‡j †h‡Zb| †k‡l euv‡ki PUv w`‡q †Luvqvo
ˆZix K‡i Zuv‡K ivLv n‡Zv| wcZv eo gv‡K e‡jwQ‡jb GLb †Zv e›`x
K‡i ivL‡Qv eo n‡j e›`x Ki‡e wK w`‡q? Ii †Kvwô‡Z A‡bK duvov
Av‡Q| wcZvi †ckv †Kvwô, wVKzwR †cŠiwnZ¨|
XvKvq eû RRgvb wQj Ges fRnwi mvnv ÷ªx‡U †`e‡Ëvi GKUv evox
wQj| XvKv †_‡K †h cÖbvgx Avm‡Zv Zv‡Z GB e„nr cwiev‡ii Pvj,
Wvj, Kvco-‡Pvco wKQyB wKb‡Z n‡Zv bv, eis weµx K‡i Ab¨vb¨
cÖ‡qvRbxq mvgMÖx †Kbv Pj‡Zv| Pvi eQi cyY© bv n‡ZB wcZv gviv
hvIqvq KvKv eo`v‡K XvKv wb‡q hvb| KviY GB RRgvbx I
†cŠiwnZ¨B cwievwiK Av‡qi cÖavb Drm| MÖv‡gi evoxUvi AvqZbI
wekvj| cÖvq 22 GKi RvqMv Ry‡o| MÖv‡g 20/22Uv †Uvj I ms¯‹…Z
Ges Ab¨vb¨ wk¶vi e¨e¯’v wQj| MÖv‡gi Ges GB cwiev‡ii Ae¯’vb
LyeB m¤§vbRbK| cyivKvj †_‡K ¸ß hyM, †gvMj, cvVvb, mvgªv‡R¨i
A‡bK wb`k©b mg„× RbemwZi BwZnvm| eû kZvãxi eY©ev` cÖ_vI
cÖej wQj eY© wn›`y Ges wbgœ †kªYxi gv‡S|
KvKvi mv‡_ eo fvB XvKvq cÖwZôv cvevi Av‡MB cuvP eQ‡ii gv_vq
KvKvi g„Zz¨| eo fvB Ab¨ †jvK wb‡qvM w`‡q XvKvi KvR Pvjv‡Z
_v‡Kb|
evsjv 1327 mv‡j wógv‡i hvevi c‡_ cÖ_g mvB‡Kj †`‡Lb| wógv‡i
mnhvÎx cwievi gby w`w`‡K †`‡L cQ›` K‡ib Ges 12 eQi c~Y© bv
n‡ZB †mB cwiev‡i KvKv‡Zv †evb gby w`w`i we‡q n‡q hvq|
‡Uv‡ji ms¯‹…Z wk¶vq Zuvi AvKl©Y wQj bv| †mRb¨ KvgvB Ki‡Zb|
eo`v XvKv †_‡K G‡m Ibvi wR‡`i Kvi‡Y eva¨ n‡qB Bs‡iRx ¯‹z‡j
fwZ© K‡i †`b| Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z 1926 mv‡j †KvUvjxcvov BDwbqb
BwbwówUDk‡b 13 eQi eq‡m ˆcZv Ges Bs‡iRx wk¶vi ïi“|
‰cZvi mgq †mvbvi Zvi AvswU BZ¨vw` †c‡jI KLbI Avi e¨envi
K‡ibwb| wKš‘ evox‡Z Ab¨ cyi“l bv _vKvq cyRv AP©bv BZ¨vw` Ibvi
Kuv‡aB Pv‡c| weaev gv‡qi nwel¨vbœ wbivwgl †L‡Z †L‡Z †kl‡gl gvQ
gvs‡mi cÖwZ Zuvi AvMªn Avi _v‡K bv|
158 |

cieZ©x Rxe‡b GUvB Zuvi eo mnvqK n‡qwQj| mvivUv Rxeb wZwb
wb‡RB ivbœv K‡i‡Qb Ges wbivwgl Lvev‡i Af¨¯’ nIqvq Rxeb
mnRZi n‡qwQj| mvaviY Kvco †Pvco, Abvo¤^i Rxeb aviv, GUvB
Zuvi Rxe‡bi mv‡_ wg‡k wM‡qwQj| †UwiKvUv Pzj eveyqvbv †`L‡j
m¨v‡iivI Ryjwd a‡i Uvb w`‡Zb| wejvmxZv cwiev‡ii KZ©vivI cQ›`
Ki‡Zb bv| GUv Aek¨ Zrmg‡q evsjvi meLv‡bB GKB wPÎ ejv
hvq| bvwc‡Zi mvg‡bi ev‡· `yB nvUzi KuvwPK‡j Pzj KvUvi AwfÁZv
meLv‡bB GK wQj| K`gQvU Qvov bvwcZ Ab¨ KvwUs Rvb‡Zv e‡jI
g‡b nq bv| bvwc‡Zi †fvZv Lyi KuvwP‡Z Kv‡bi †Mvovq ¶Z, Ggb
KóKi AwfÁZv Avgv‡`i meviB GK|
Avïevey lô †kªYx‡Z covi mgqB Ks‡MÖm †¯^”Qv‡meK evwnbxi m`m¨
nb| ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡bi ïi“ GLvb †_‡KB| mßg †kªYx‡Z covi mgq
wc‡KwUs Kivi Aciv‡a _vbvq cywj‡ki gvi‡avi Lvb| gvi Lvevi
cÖwZwµqvq Ibvi g‡b Pvcv †µv‡ai Rb¥ †`q| Gi cÖwZ‡kva †bevi
msKíI `vbv euv‡a g‡bi †Kvbvq| Kvjxc` bv‡gi ¯’vbxq GK e¨w³
miKv‡ii c‡¶ ¸ßP‡ii KvR K‡i †R‡b IUv‡K †kl Kivi cwiKíbv
K‡ib| †bZv‡`i Kv‡Q A¯¿ †P‡q †`ix Kiv mn¨ nq bv| g‡b cywj‡ki
wcUzwbi Av¸b wb‡q wb‡RivB D‡`¨vM wb‡q †Qviv msMÖn K‡ib| GB
wgk‡bi `vwqZ¡ †bb Avï fiØvR, Ag~j¨ †PŠayix Avi iwmK `vm| cÖ_g
w`b iwmK `vm Avi wZwb Kvjxc`i hvZvqv‡Zi c‡_ Iur †c‡Z _v‡Kb|
wKš‘ Zv‡K cvIqv hvq bv| K‡qKw`b ci Ag~j¨ †PŠayix Avi wZwb
Kvjxc`‡K cvb Ges †Qvov Avgyj we× K‡i Kvjxc`‡K nZ¨v K‡ib|
†mw`b iwmK `vm Ibv‡`i m‡½ wQj bv| g„Zz¨i Av‡M Kvjxc` Ag~j¨
†PŠayixi bvg e‡j wKš‘ Ab¨ ‡K wQj wPb‡Z cv‡i bvB Rvbvq| Ag~j¨
†PŠayix cjvZK nq| MÖv‡gi Ab¨vb¨ eû †jv‡Ki mv‡_ iwmK `vm
†MÖdZvi nb Ges cywj‡ki wcUzwb‡Z Aciva ¯^xKvi K‡i ivR mv¶x nb
Ges wZwb wb‡RI Avï evey m‡½ wQ‡jb e‡j bvg cÖKvk K‡ib| wePv‡i
iwmK `vm Qvov cvq Avi Avï eveyi duvmxi ivq nq| Ag~j¨ †PŠayixiI
duvmxi ivq nq Abygvb Kwi Z‡e wZwb cjvZK _vKvq Zuv‡K aiv hvq
bv|
159 |

cieZ©xKv‡j Av›`vgvb ågb †k‡l 1974 mv‡j KjKvZvq Ag~j¨
†PŠayixi mv‡_ Avï eveyi ‡`Lv nq Ges fviZ miKvi †h cÖv³b
¯^vaxbZv msMÖvgx‡`i Rb¨ miKvix evox I gvwmK GK nvRvi UvKv fvZv
†`evi A½xKvi K‡ib Zvi Av‡e`b cÎ mn Avïevey‡K ¯^v¶i ‡`evi
Rb¨ wcovwcwo K‡ib| weevwnZiv g„Zy¨i ci †cvl¨ivI fvZv cv‡e|
†i‡j webv fvovq hvZvqv‡Zi myweav QvovI A‡bK †jvfbxq cÖ¯—ve
Zv‡Z wQj| wZwb evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK †mKvi‡Y G myweav †bevi
AwaKvi iv‡Lb bv| GUv Zuvi ˆbwZKZvq gb †_‡K mvov cvb bv|
A‡bK wcovwcwo m‡Z¡I wZwb Av‡e`b c‡Î ¯^v¶i †`b bvB| fviZ
miKv‡ii fvZv ‡be Avi evsjv‡`‡k e‡m ivRbxwZ Ki‡ev- GUv Mwn©Z
KvR|
Avï evey wbR MÖv‡g mevi Kv‡QB f`ª bgª Ges ¯‹z‡j †jLvcovq mybv‡gi
AwaKvix wQ‡jb| my›`i wb¯úvc 15 eQ‡ii evj‡Ki Rxeb we‡ePbvq
ivq wKQyUv wkw_j K‡i hve¾xeb Kvivev‡mi wm×vš— †`Iqv nq|
dwi`cyi ‡RjLvbvq Kviv AvBb Ges K‡q`x‡`i K‡Vvi kª‡gi Kv‡R
wZwb cÖwZev`x wQ‡jb| ˆ`wbK Avavgb Mg †clvB, cvwb †Zvjv, †Zj
fv½v‡bv BZ¨vw` Kv‡R MvwdjwZ Kivq Zuv‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi kvw¯— †`Iqv
nq- WvÛv‡eix, Kv‡jv Uzwc, evjwZ fiv wRIj gv‡Qi g‡a¨ cv Pzwe‡q
KuvUvi †LuvPv LvIqv‡bv, Mig wU‡bi Dci `uvo Kwi‡q ivLv †Kvb
wKQy‡ZB Zuv‡K ek¨Zv ¯^xKvi bv Kiv‡Z †c‡i Z¨³-wei³ n‡q †eqviv
GB K‡q`x‡K XvKv †R‡j e`jx Kiv nq|
dwi`cyi cv‡ki ‡k‡j ‡ivwnbx eo–qv bv‡g GK duvmxi Avmvgx whwb
†Mvqvj‡›` `v‡ivMv nZ¨vi `v‡q `wÊZ wQ‡jb| Avi †m ivq †mL‡bB
Kvh©Ki nq| H mg‡q †Mvqvj‡›` Mr. Allen bv‡g GK Bs‡iR wbnZ
nq wec­ex‡`i Øviv| wZwb †mB Avmvgx aviYv Kiv nq|
XvKv †m›Uªvj †R‡jI Zvi KvjvKvby‡bi cÖwZev` I ûKzg Agv‡b¨i
Kvi‡Y wbh©vZb Kiv nq| wm×vš— †bIqv nq †eqviv GB K‡q`x‡K
Av›`vgv‡b cvVv‡bvi| †mB D‡Ï‡k¨ KjKvZv Avjxcyi †R‡j ¯’vbvš—i
Kiv nq| wØZxq wek¦hy× ïi“ n‡q †M‡Q ZZ w`‡b|
ivR‰bwZK †bZv‡`i Pv‡c Av›`vgvb †_‡K wKQy K‡q`x fvi‡Z †diZ
Avbv nq Ges e½xq gš¿x cwil` m`m¨‡`i mw`”Qvq K‡q`x‡`i Avi
160 |

kª‡gi KvR †`Iqv nq bv| G mg‡q wKQy K‡q`x hvi †ekxi fvM mgq
Kviv‡fvM K‡i‡Qb Zuv‡`i `Ê gIKzd nq| wKš‘ Ibvi nq bv| KviY
wnmv‡e ejv nq GKevi duvmxi ivq gIKzd K‡i AbyK¤úv Kiv n‡q‡Q|
Kv‡RB wØZxq evi AbyK¤úvi my‡hvM Dwb cv‡eb bv|
1947 mv‡j †`k wefv‡Mi ci wZwb wbR MÖv‡g Avm‡b eo gv‡qi mv‡_
†`Lv Ki‡Z| ZZw`‡b Avjxcyi †RjLvbvq, †hUv ivRbxwZ wk¶vi
wek¦we`¨vjq bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡qwQj Ges wbqwgZ gvK©mxq wk¶vi K¬vk
n‡Zv| wZwb evg ivRbxwZi mv‡_ GKvZ¥ nb| evox G‡m cvwU©i wm×vš—
†gvZv‡eK ivRevox Av‡mb| cvwK¯—vb miKviI h_vixwZ KwgDwb÷
cvwU© †eAvBbx †NvlYv K‡i Ges †`‡ki wewfbœ ¯’v‡b cvwU© m`m¨‡`i
wbg©g fv‡e `gb K‡i| cywj‡ki cÖwZ wb‡`©k wQj wcUzwb‡Z †g‡i
†djvi| ïay gvÎ ‰`wnK g‡bve‡jB wZwb †mB AZ¨vPvi mn¨ K‡iI
†eu‡P hvb| g¨vwR‡óª‡Ui Kv‡Q wcUzbxi Awf‡hv‡M g¨vwR‡óªU Reve †`q
Zzwg †eu‡P AvQ GUvB wK h‡_ó bq? Avevi e›`x Rxe‡bi ïi“|
1956†Z gyw³| Avevi 1959†Z †MÖdZvi 1967 mvj ch©š—| me
wgwj‡q Rxe‡bi ewÎkwU eQi KvivMv‡ii Aš—iv‡j †hŠeb ‰K‡kvi †K‡U
hvq|
evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxb nq| fviZ miKvi weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡b kixK
me ivRbxwZK‡`i Av›`vgvb †m‡ji wbh©vZb Ges †mLv‡b GKUv hv`yNi
D‡b¥vPb Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ mKj wbh©vwZZ e›`x‡`i bv‡gi ZvwjKv djK
D‡b¥vP‡bi Avgš¿b Rvbvb| Avï evey †mB `‡j kixK n‡q Ibvi
mne›`x mngZv`k©x eÜz‡`i wb‡q Ôiv½vZÕ (RANGAT) Rvnv‡R
Av›`vgvb †cuuŠQvb|
`yt†Li welq e›`x bv‡gi ZvwjKv wjwc I Zuv‡`i cÖwZ wbh©vZ‡bi weeiY
bv cvIqvq weªwUk mf¨Zvi wbgg©Zv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q Aby³ iBj| GK
e›`x dR‡j nK Lqivev`x whwb Kvd‡bi Kvc‡o KvV Kqjv w`‡q †Rj
Rxe‡bi K_v wj‡L wQ‡jb Ges 190 eQ‡ii fviZ `L‡ji BwZnv‡m
GKgvÎ eojvU Lord Mayo Av›`vgv‡b wbnZ nq| Zvi wek` wKQy
Rvb‡Z cvijvg bv|
¯^vaxbZv msMÖvgx QvovI Bs‡iR‡`i cÖwZ wewÏó n‡q mvavib †Pvi
LybxivI †h e¨w³MZ fv‡e Bs‡iR Lyb K‡i‡Q Zvi D¾¡j `„óvš— GUv|
161 |

kªx Rjai †m‡bi Rxeb K_vq cvIqv hvq KwjKvZv nvB‡Kv‡U©i GK
wePvicwZ Mr. Morman-‡K Avãy&j­vn bv‡gi GK cvVvb †KvU©
cÖv½‡bB nZ¨v K‡i| Avi Av›`vgv‡b Lord Mayo-†K nZ¨vK‡i
wmqvi Avjx bv‡gi GK Lybx e›`x | (jv‡nv‡ii Mayo Road GB
wbnZ eo jv‡Ui bv‡g)
1757 †_‡K hZ K‡q`x‡K ILv‡b cvVv‡bv n‡q‡Q, wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Qb
Zv‡`i msL¨v wekvj n‡jI bvg cwiPq Avgv‡`i Rvbv `iKvi|
Zviv‡Zv Avïeveyi g‡ZvB Avivg Av‡qk, hRgvbx m¤§vb, cÖvPzh© Rxeb
†hŠeb Kvivš—iv‡j nvwi‡q †d‡j‡Qb| Avgv‡`i A‡b‡KiB ILv‡b hvevi
†mŠfvM¨ n‡e bv| civaxbZv gvb‡Z PvBwb e‡j Avgv‡`iB DËim~ix
hviv GK mf¨ RvwZi `vwe`vi‡`i KvQ †_‡K KZUv wbh©vwZZ n‡qwQ,
mf¨Zvi gy‡Lv‡ki Aš—iv‡j wK wnsmªZv Avgv‡`i wcô K‡i‡Q| Avï
eveyi g‡ZvB Av‡iv kZ mnmª †`k‡cÖwgK cywjk _vbvq Ges †RjLvbvq
†h wbh©vZ‡bi weeiY wZwb wj‡L‡Qb wcwU‡q †g‡i †djvi ûKzg w`‡Z †h
KzwÚZ nq bv Zvi ü`q nxbZvi cwigvc Kivi mva¨ Avgvi bvB|
¯^vaxbZvi ci 1972 mv‡j †`‡k Lv`¨vfve †`Lv †`q| nvRvi nvRvi
gvbyl jvBb w`‡q `yB †mi PvD‡ji Rb¨ ivZ †_‡K A‡c¶vq| Avï evey
I Ggwb K‡i PvD‡ji ms¯’vb K‡i‡Qb| evox‡Z AwZw_ Avm‡j bZzb
K‡i Avi ivbœv n‡e bv| hv Av‡Q ZvB fvM K‡i †L‡Z n‡e Ggwb Av‡iv
A‡bK c×wZ‡Z msmvi Pj‡Zv|
Gmg‡q †`‡ki ivRbxwZ‡Z weivU cwieZ©b †`Lv †`q| Rvm`, wmivR
wmK`vi, me©nviv BZ¨vw`| GB mg¯— miKvi we‡ivax‡`i kv‡q¯—v Kivi
Rb¨ Avï eveyi fvlvq AvbQvi evwnbx‡K (?) miKvi cÖPzi ¶gZv †`q|
Giv cÖkvmb‡K Gwo‡q wePvi wefv‡Mi †Zvqv°v bv K‡i kZ kZ
gvbyl‡K wbôyi cš’vq nZ¨v K‡i| Avgvi †QvU fvB‡KI wcwU‡q nZ¨v
Kiv nq hvi ¶Z Avg„Zy¨ †kjwe× _vK‡e Avgvi ey‡K|
Avï fiØvR eveyi wØZxq wjwc‡Z †nuqvjxc~Y© GKUv weeiY cvIqv hvq|
ÒAvgvi ivRevox evmv †bevi ciB Avevi Avgvi wcÖq cyivb fy‡Zi
Avwe©fve n‡jv| wKQyw`‡bi g‡a¨ fyZ Zvi GK evÜex †cZœx †hvMvi K‡i
†dj‡jv| Zvnv‡`i ev”Pv n‡jv Kgj ¸n Av`i K‡i bvg ivL‡jv
wKwmÄvi, wb·b, †Mvìvgvqvi| fyZ ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡gi mgq GLv‡b
162 |

bigvsk Lvevi my‡hvM †c‡qwQj| GB evox‡Z Avmvi c‡i fyZ mvgwqK
fv‡e Amy¯’ n‡q c‡i| wbfyw` hZœ K‡i fvj K‡i| 1975 ch©š— Zviv
Avgv‡`i evox‡Z †_‡K hvq| Avgiv hLb evmv e`j K‡i Ab¨Î hvB
fyZ‡K mv‡_ wb‡q hvevi †Póv Kwi fyZ Avgv‡`i mv‡_ †Mj bv|
nvmcvZv‡j _vKvi e¨e¯’v K‡i 2 eQi c‡i gviv hvq|Ó eû AbymÜvb
K‡i Rvb‡Z cvwi fyZ bv‡gi GKUv KzKzi wQj †hUv mgi eveyi evox‡Z
cvwU©i †jvK Avm‡j wKQy mvov w`Z bv| wKš‘ Ab¨ †jvK KvD‡K mn¨
Ki‡Zv bv Avï eveyiv evox †Q‡o hvevi mgq nq‡Zv †m mgi eveyi
wd‡i Avmvi A‡c¶v‡ZB _v‡K| †m Zvi Avmj gwb‡ei A‡c¶vq
Rxe‡bi †kl ch©š— GLv‡bB †_‡K hvq| kZ †Póv‡ZI †m Avï evey‡`i
m‡½ hvq bv| cÖfyf³ GB KzKziUv Avg„Zz¨ Zvi GB cÖfyi A‡c¶vq
†_‡K †Mj wbwðZ Avnv‡ii cÖ‡jvfbI †m Z¨vM K‡i‡Q| Amy¯’ Ae¯’vq
†mev †c‡jI †m cÖfy †g‡b wb‡qwQj mgi evey‡KB| DovKv›`vq whwb
†iv‡M KvZi gvÎ `yB gvB‡ji e¨eav‡b †_‡KI Zvi cv‡k `uvov‡Z
cvi‡jv bv myü` `yBRb cy¯ú ivbx KzÊy Avi GB fyZ|
‡evSv hvq Avï evey 1975 mvj ch©š— mgi eveyi evmvqB _vK‡Zb|
Wv³vi Rvwn`‡K mgi evey evoxUv weµxi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z e‡jb| cjvZK
Ae¯’vq m¤¢eZt Wvt Rvwn`‡K Power of attorney e‡j ¶gZv
†`b| Wvt Rvwn` Avï eveyi KvQ †_‡K KLbI fvov †bb bvB|
15B AvMó 1975 Gi ci Avïevey KjKvZvq hvb| eo fvB‡qi †Q‡j
b‡Mb fiØvR Dg©v †ij †ókb gvóvi, wKQy w`b GLv‡b evm K‡i
hv`ecyi †gR fvB‡qi †Q‡j †g‡q‡`i ILv‡b _v‡Kb| 1977 mv‡j
Rvbyqvix gv‡m evsjv‡`‡k wd‡i Av‡mb|
17B GwcÖj, 1993 mvj evsjv 1400 mv‡ji 4Vv ˆekvL GB gnvb
gvbylUv c„w_ex †Q‡o gnvcÖqvb K‡ib|
evsjv‡`‡ki Dbkxqv MÖv‡g †h mnve¯’vb wPÎ cvB, mK‡ji wg‡jwg‡k
AvZ¥x‡qi g‡Zv evm| mg‡q Zv K‡Zv cv‡ë hvq Zvi GKUv wPÎ Ibvi
†jLvq †e`bvi g‡Zv AvNvZ K‡i| Dg©v †ij †ókb gvóvi Ibvi eo
fvB‡qi †QvU †Q‡ji evmvq wZwb wbR ZË¡veav‡b gvÎ c‡bi w`‡bi
g‡a¨ evmM„n cybt wbg©vb K‡ib| wKš‘ fvBwS cvi“j Zvi evÜexi mv‡_
163 |

beØxc †eov‡Z hvevi mgq Avï evey m‡½ hvevi B”Qv cÖKvk Kivq gš—
e¨ K‡i Ô‡Kv_vI hve ej‡j GKMv`v ‡jvK mv_x nB‡Z PvqÕ|
Ibvi Rxe‡b A‡bK wbh©vZ‡bi PvB‡ZI GUv gg©š—y`| gvÎ GK cÖR‡b¥
KZUv bv e`‡j †M‡Q me|

gvóvi gkvB mgi wms
gvóvi gkvB‡qi c~e©cyi“l beve AvjxeÏ©x Luvi Kg©Pvix wnmv‡e
Av‡mb my`yi gy‡½ui †Rjv †_‡K| Ibvi c`ex †_‡KB †evSv hvq Zuviv
G‡`kxq Avw` evwm›`v bb| wmivR-D`-‡ÏŠjvi cZb n‡j evsjvi
cÖkvmwbK wbqš¿Yµ‡g KjKvZvq †K›`ªxfyZ nq| †mLv‡bI c~e©cyi“l
Bs‡i‡Ri Kg©Pvix wnmv‡e Kg© K‡ib Ges Bs‡iRx‡Z `¶Zv AR©b
K‡ib| Rwg`vi †kªYx fy³ cvskvi P›`bv ZxieZ©x KvPvix‡Z wcZv
D‡c›`ªbv_ wms KvR Ki‡Zb|
ivRevox gnKzgv kni, wePvivjq, †KvU© KvPvix Ges cÖkvmwbK e¨e¯’v
Pvjy n‡j DwKj ev‡i GKRb Bs‡iRx‡Z Ávbm¤úbœ †jvK cÖ‡qvRb
nIqvq PvKzix wb‡q wcZv D‡c›`ª bv_ wms ivRevox P‡j Av‡mb|
m¾bKv›`v cÖavb mo‡Ki cv‡k emZevwo ¯’vcb K‡ib| DwKj evi
Ges †emiKvix ivRevox Kcv‡iwUf e¨vsK (†hUv eZ©gv‡b A¼zi
K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹zj) G PvKzix K‡ib| ‰Rô¨cyÎ hZx›`ª bv_ wms †nvwgI
Wv³vi wnmv‡e ivRevox evRv‡i cÖ¨vKwUm ïi“ K‡ib (†mUv eZ©gv‡b
g„av gv‡K©U)|
Z…Zxq cyÎ A‡gj›`y bv_ wmsn fvi‡Zi K…òbM‡i w¯’Z nb| gvóvi
gkvB AZ¨š— †gav m¤úbœ wQ‡jb| we‡klZt Bs‡iRx MÖvgvi Ges
G¨vj‡Reivq AsK wel‡q Hon’s cix¶v w`‡qwQ‡jb| wk¶v Rxe‡bB
ivRbxwZi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡q c‡ob Ges cix¶vq AK…ZKvh© nb| wcZv
GZUvB weiƒc nb †h, Ibvi Lvev‡ii _vjvUvq jvw_ gv‡ib| †mw`b
†_‡KB wZwb Rxe‡bi m‡½ ivRbxwZ‡K GKvKvi K‡i †d‡jb| Aviva¨
164 |

n‡q I‡V Rxeb bq, ‰efe bq, wbcxwoZ gvby‡li gyw³, KwgDwbR‡gi
c‡_ GB wek¦v‡mi|
my‡hvM¨ wk¶K wQ‡jb Avi.Gm.†K. BwbwówUDk‡bi| wKš‘ evg
ivRbxwZ‡Ki msmªe Qv·`i gv‡S msµvwgZ nIqvi ARynv‡Z
wk¶KgÊjx, cwiPvjKe„›` mK‡ji weiƒcZv cÖKvwkZ nIqvq m‡i
Av‡mb †mLvb ‡_‡K| Dwb _vK‡j KZ †mvbvi †Q‡ji Rb¥ n‡Zv
Avgv‡`i GB †QvU kniwU‡Z †mUv Avgiv hviv Zuvi †hvM¨Zvi kZvs‡ki
mv‡_ cwiwPZ ZvivB GKgvÎ Abygvb Ki‡Z cvwi| Avi hviv Zuvi
mv¶vr QvÎ wQj Zuviv mK‡jB ¯^xKvi Ki‡eb Zuvi e¨w³‡Z¡i ci‡kB
Zuv‡`i AvR‡Ki mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb| me‡P‡q j¶¨Yxq welq wZwb
jy°vwqZ AwMœMf© wPb‡Z cvi‡Zb| ivR‰bwZK wkl¨Z¡ e„w×i PvB‡Z
cÖwZev`x gvbyl ˆZix Kivq Zuvi Drmvn I Z¨vM Acwimxg| `yjvj,
Kvjy, bwRi, ev`j Av‡iv KZ kZ Zuvi ci‡k †mvbv n‡q †M‡Q| †Zgwb
Ibvi GK fve wkl¨‡K Avwg hLb ejjvg †h, wZwb cik cv_i wQ‡jb|
wkl¨ cÖwZev‡` e‡jb- Ôbv wZwb Avm‡j hv`yKi wQ‡jb| Ibvi m‡½
†gjv‡gkvUv Avgvi wcZvi AcQ›`bxq wQj| Avgv‡K eviY K‡i †`b|
K‡qKw`b A`k©‡b wZwb Avgvi †LuvR wb‡q Kv‡Q Av‡mb| wcZvi
Av‡`k Rvb‡Z †c‡i bvg wVKvbv Rvb‡jb| `yw`b ci wcZv Avgv‡K
wb‡R †_‡KB hvIqvi AbygwZ w`‡jb| GUv hv`y Qvov Avi wK n‡Z
cv‡i? Dwb Avgvi wcZv‡K hv`y K‡iwQ‡jbÕ|
wPËiÄb ¸n fvj QvÎ nIqv m‡Z¡I msm‡M© wk¶v wegyL n‡q Aóg
†kªYx‡Z `yB mve‡R‡± †dj K‡i| j¾vq, `yt†L ¯‹z‡ji cvVI PzwK‡q
†d‡j| gv÷vi gkvB Zuv‡K wb‡R evox‡Z †i‡L covb Ges AvR‡Ki
wP‡Ëi DÌvb nq| wZwb wP‡Ëi m‡½ KL‡bvB ivRbxwZ wb‡q Av‡jvPbv
K‡ib bvB| G‡ZB †evSv hvq wZwb ivR‰bwZK eje„w×i †P‡q gvbyl
Movq cÖvavb¨ w`‡q‡Qb †ekx| hw`I wPË cieZ©xKv‡j ivRbxwZK
wnmv‡e Avwef~©Z nq| ivRevox K‡j‡R wfwc Ges XvKvq wk¶v Rxe‡b
QvÎjx‡Mi D”P Avm‡b| †m Ab¨ avivq| gv÷vi gkvB‡qi ivR‰bwZK
Kg©avivi wecixZ|
Ibvi eoxUvq `~i `~i †_‡K ivRbxwZwe`‡`i Avmv hvIqvi gv‡S kvwš—
†mb, ¯¿x Ai“bv †mb, cyÎ PÂj ‡mb, †gvL‡jQyi ingvb, ‰mZ¨ ˆgÎ,
165 |

bwRi ingvb, cvebvi †gvt kwd wgqvi Avmv hvIqv wQj ˆbwgwËK
e¨vcvi| Avi wQj †i‡ji kªwgK †bZv i“¯—g Avjx wgqv †hUv mK‡ji
Kv‡Q GKUv A¯^w¯Zi fve cwijw¶Z nZ|
cvwUi Kvh©µg, cš’v I D‡Ïk¨ msµvš— GKUv mvßvwnK ILvb ‡_‡K
cÖKvwkZ n‡Zv †hUvi mÜvb GLb Avi cvIqv m¤¢e bq|
1956mv‡ji ci Avï fiØvR Ibvi evmvq _vK‡Zb| gvóvi gkvq
evB‡ii A½‡b Kjv Mv‡Qi Pvl K‡ib| ivbœv Avïevey fvj wk‡LwQ‡jb|
evMv‡bi Kjv MvQUv †`wL‡q Avïevey e‡j‡Qb Avgv‡`i ‡Zv Rxe‡b
we‡q n‡jvbv | GB KjvMvQUvi Pvicv‡k P‡°vi w`‡q †m Avkv cyiY
Kwi | Avïevey XvKv †R‡j _vKvi mgq wPËI †R‡j wQj| wP‡Ëi gyw³i
mgq Avïevey †R‡j cvIqv GK ‡cvUjv Kvco gvóvi gkv‡qi Rb¨
wP‡Ëi nv‡Z cvVvb| G‡Zv ü`¨Zv m‡Ë¡I hLb Av`k©MZ Kvi‡Y `yRb
`yB avivq wef³ n‡q hvb ZLb eÜz‡Z¡I dvUj a‡i| Gi c‡iB gvóvi
gkvB AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡ib| gvóvi gkvB e‡j‡Qb- ÔAvïevey GLb‡Zv
Avgv‡`i GKmv‡_ emevm Kiv P‡jbv|Õ Zvi ciI evoxUv wewµ nIqv
ch©¨š— Avïevey ILv‡b _vK‡Zb| AcÖvmw½K n‡jI GLv‡b Avgvi
m¤ú„³Zvi wKQy Ask _vKvq D‡j­L KiwQ| gvóvi gkvq Gi †QvU fvB
Ag‡j›`y wms K…òbM†i P‡j hvevi Av‡M ‰cwÎK wfUvi wbR Ask
Zuv‡K wj‡L w`‡q hvb| gvóvi gkvB AÁvZ ev‡mi mgq dwi`cy‡ii Wvt
Rwn` mv‡n†ei Kv‡Q evoxUv weµxi `vwqZ¡ †`b|
GKRb †µZv wnmv‡e Avwg Kg‡iW †gvL‡jm fvB‡qi Kv‡Q
wM‡q Wvt Rvwn‡`i ILv‡b Avgvi m‡½ cwiPq Kwi‡q †`evi Aby‡iva
Kwi| hw`I †gvL‡jQ fvB ZLbB e‡jwQ‡jb Avwg m‡½ _vK‡j †Zvgvi
KvR bvI n‡Z cv‡i | ZeyI wZwb Avgvi Aby‡iv‡a m‡½ wb‡q Wvt
Rvwn‡`i m‡½ Avjvc Kwi‡q †`b| Wvt Rvwn` Rvbvb wZwb ivRevoxi
AemicÖvß mve-‡iwRóªvi we.Gg. K· mv‡ne‡K GKgv‡mi mgq w`‡q
K_v w`‡q †d‡j‡Qb Ges mvg‡bi gv‡mi cÖ_g w`b Zvi †gqv` †kl
n‡e Ges wZwb IUv Avgv‡K †`‡eb K_v †`b| gvm cvi nevi ci Avwg
†Uwj‡dv‡b Ibvi mv‡_ K_v ejvq wZwb Rvbvb cvwievwiK Pv‡c wZwb
Zvi fvMwb RvgvB BqvwQb K‡j‡Ri cÖ‡dmi KvRx BKevj dvi“‡Ki
fwMœcwZ‡K evoxUv w`‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡Qb|
166 |

gvóvi gkvB‡qi Rxeb K_vq GUv AcÖvmw½K n‡jI IUv Z`ewa gvóvi
gkvB‡qi evox wQj| Wvt Rvwn‡`i ev KvRx BKevj dvi“‡Ki fwMœcwZi
bq| †hUv Avï fiØvR evey Zuvi AvZ¥K_vq ¯^xKvi K‡ibwb| †mUv
Avgv‡K cxov w`‡q‡Q|
mb ZvwiL g‡b †bB| eZ©gvb AvKei Avjx gwR© mv‡n‡ei evox|
RvqMvUv ZLb duvKv| iex›`ª RqšZx D`hvcb Abyôv‡b Avwg g‡Âi
Kv‡QB| gvóvi gkvB iex›`ª Kv‡e¨ †`k I wbcxwoZ gvby‡li K_v,
welqUv wb‡q my›`i e³e¨ w`w”Q‡jb| nVvr wcQb †_‡K GKUv eo wXj
Ibvi wc‡V AvNvZ K‡i| †hUv Avwg Ges `yPviRb Qvov †KD eyS‡Z
cv‡iwb| _g‡K wM‡q Avevi e³e¨ AZ¨š— msw¶ß K‡i †kl K‡ib|
Gi ci Avi Zvi †`Lv cvB bvB| AvZ¥‡Mvcb Ae¯’vq KLbI nq‡Zv
†cQb †_‡K A_ev Kv‡iv gy‡L Ibvi Dcw¯’wZ †R‡bwQ ZvQvov wKQy bq|
gvóvi gkvB‡qi AÁvZ ev‡mi mgq wPËiÄb ¸n I GKmgq i¶x
evwnbxi nvZ †_‡K i¶v cvevi Rb¨ cjvZK n‡q DovKv›`vq Avkªq
†bq| †hUv wPËi ivRxwbwZi kΓ wkwei Ges f‡qi KviY wQj| gvóvi
gkvB Aj‡¶ †_‡K †mLv‡bI wPˇK i¶v K‡ib| GKevi gvÎ
Avmmvjvgy AvjvBKzg w`‡q PjwZ c‡_i cw_K GK gvIjvbvi †e‡k
cvk KvwU‡q P‡j †M‡Qb| G‡Zv Kv‡Qi gvbyl n‡qI wPË Zuvi Kɯ^i
Aeqe wKQyB eyS‡Z cv‡i bvB|
gvóvi gkvB Rxe‡b KL‡bv myw¯’i n‡q cvwievwiK cwi‡e‡k evm Ki‡Z
†c‡i‡Qb wKbv †mUv ejv hvq bv| †kl RxebUv †Zv Abvnvi Aa©vnv‡i,
†iv‡M Avµvš—| †mLv‡b †mev cvIqv `~‡ii K_v wbtk‡ãB †e`bv
fvivµvš— gb wb‡q P‡j †M‡Qb| 7B b‡f¤^i 1975 mv‡j| few`qvi
†MvÕkvjvq Zuvi Rxe‡bi myL ¯§„wZ hw` g‡b c‡o _v‡K †mUv Rvýix
KzÊyi evox †hLv‡b evg Wvb me ivRbxwZK‡`i AfqviY¨ wQj|
†mLv‡bB wZwb Kb¨v cvb, †evb cvb| cy®úivbx KzʇK| †hLv‡b Zuvi
Acv‡ik‡b G eyK ‡Pov †`n| wPi Avgvk‡qi i“Mx| ev_i“g †_‡K G‡j
nv‡Z †j‡M _vK‡Zv Mucas hv ay‡jI hvq bv| Av½y‡ji duv‡K Nv‡qi
¶Z ¯^‡Z¡I wcZ…‡mœ‡n Ilya †`Iqv, Mv‡q †Zj †g‡Lmœøvb Kiv‡bv me
†mev †c‡qwQ‡jb| cy¯úi wcZvI Av‡¶c f‡i e‡j‡Qb- wb‡Ri
evc‡KI †m Ggb Avš—wiK †mev K‡iwb|
167 |

gvóvi gkvB‡qi B”Qv wQj †QvU fvB Ag‡j›`yi mv‡_ cy¯úi we‡q
†`evi| eq‡mi e¨eavb we¯—i, †mRb¨ cwiYwZ cvqwb †mUv| whwb
Dévi g‡Zv Avgv‡`i Lye Kv‡Q G‡mwQ‡jb| huvi Av‡jv”QUvq wKQy Rb
¯^v¶i ivL‡Z cvi‡Q mgv‡R| Zuvi me KxwZ© few`qvi gvwU‡Z mgvwnZ
Aj‡¶ wbf„‡Z 7B b‡f¤^i 1975 mv‡j| nvwi‡q hvIqvq Av‡¶c bvB|
¯§„wZ PZ¡i gy‡Q †M‡j `ytL cvB| Z¨vMx GB gnvb †bZvi ¯§i‡Y Zuvi
Abymvix Ges ivRevox kn‡ii ïaxRb Lwjdv cwÆi ¯^í cwimi
¯’vbUv‡K mgi wms PËi e‡j †NvlYv †`q | Zuvi GB ¯§„wZ wPý‡K
wKfv‡e ¯’vqx Kiv hvq Zv GLb mevB‡K fvev `iKvi|
‡Q‡j‡ejvq †Nvovq Pov
Avi `kUv wkïi g‡ZvB fvj bv jvM‡jI eB wb‡q em‡ZB n‡Zv| g³e
¯‹z‡j †h‡Z c‡_i `yÕav‡i wekvj wekvj †m¸b MvQ| `yR‡bI †eo
cvIqv hvq bv| eo iv¯—v n‡jI K`vwPr Pjvi m½x cvIqv †hZ| c‡_
c‡o nvmcvZvj †hLv‡b †_‡K AÁvb bv K‡i nvZ cv KvUv i“Mxi
`gdvUv wPrKvi cÖvqB †kvbv †hZ| c‡_i av‡ii LycixUvq wb`vb cvIqv
i“Mx‡`i fve‡jknxb †P‡q _vKv W¨ve‡W‡e †PvL| Avi Wvbjc n‡ji
mvg‡b wekvj RvgMvQ| †Rvrmœv iv‡Z mv`v kvwo c‡o †cZœx gvby‡li
nvo wPwe‡q Lv‡”Q gMWv‡j cv Szwj‡q, G‡Zv A‡b‡KB †`‡L‡Q| 5/6
eQ‡ii ev”Pvi GB c_UzKz †co–‡Z hw` Mv Q Qg K‡i _v‡K Zv‡K fxZz
ejv hvq bv|
GKUz jv‡qK n‡ZB mvivw`b IB RvgMv‡Qi †_vKv †_vKv Rvg †L‡q
wRe Kv‡jv K‡i †d‡jwQ| e‡b ev`v‡o Mve †cqviv †L‡qB †cU
fivZvg| evZvex †jey †c‡o Av‡M dzUej ‡L‡j wb‡q big n‡j Avnvi
ce©| je‡bi †cvUjv c‡K‡U me mgqB gRyZ _vK‡Zv| el©vKv‡j MÖvg
MÄ Wy‡e †M‡j MÖv‡gi †Nvov¸‡jv‡K `yÕgv‡mi Rb¨ †eIqvwik Po‡Z
†Q‡o w`‡q †hZ gvwjKiv| Avgv‡`i `‡ji mevi †Kvg‡o `wo gRy`|
ev”Pz gvóvi, Avwg, AviI Kviv GB `‡j wQjvg- GK Kv‡`i Qvov Kv‡iv
bvg g‡b bvB| eocy‡ji cÖPÊ †mªv‡Z N›UvLv‡bK Suvwc‡q P‡j †hZvg
†jv‡Kv‡k‡Wi Iw`‡K PZiv we‡j| †Nvov‡Zv euvavB Av‡Q| w¶‡` †c‡j
168 |

kvcjv d‡ji wewP hv cvB Zv‡ZB †cUUv fwi‡q wbZvg| Avagiv K‡i
†djZvg Rv‡bvqvi¸‡jv‡K| IivI wbwe©ev‡` Avgv‡`i AZ¨vPvi mn¨
Ki‡Zv Zv wKš‘ bq| KuvUve‡bi av‡i Pj‡Z Pj‡Z _g‡K `uvwo‡q c‡o
†d‡j †`evi †Póv Ki‡Zv| wbPz Mv‡Qi Wv‡j euvwa‡q cÖv‡b gvivi g‡ZvI
wec‡` †dj‡Zv| Zvi kvw¯—I †c‡Zv Aek¨ wbg©g fv‡e †eÎvNvZ|
nq‡Zv mvivw`bgvb cvjvµ‡g `veov‡bv| Avgv‡`i mevi cvQvq eo eo
Nv, nvwÇi ¸‡Zv †L‡Z †L‡Z| iv‡Z Nywg‡q co‡j gv‡qi Pzb njy‡`i
cyjwUk w`‡q †UvUKv wPwKrmv| wKš‘ ci w`b‡Zv Avevi `M`‡M|

‡LvKv
b~i KzZze Avjg †PŠayix
mvgïj AvdZve
MZKvj †LvKv‡K iv¯—vq †c‡q evox wb‡q Gjvg| GK Zz‡Lvi
e¨emvqx Pwj­k UvKv w`‡q MwQ‡q w`‡q‡Q GK †KŠ‡Uv MÖxb wU| †LvKv‡K
ej­vg †Zvgvi g‡b c‡o wK wUwd‡bi mgq Mvox †avjvB‡qi ILvb ‡_‡K
wewo Kzwo‡q †LZvg| wZ³ †mB ¯^v` MÖxb wU †L‡q Abyfe Kwi Avevi
G‡mv|
K¬vm dvB‡f cwo ivRvi ¯‹z‡j| fviZ fvM nIqvq ivbvNvU †_‡K Ii
fvB‡qi PvKzixi myev‡` G‡jv| gv evev †bB| fvB‡qi Kv‡Q †_‡K eo
n‡”Q| †jLvcovqI fvj| wKš‘ ¯‹zj †_‡K wUwd‡b †Sv‡c Sv‡o wewo
LvIqvUv Ii Kv‡QB nv‡Z Lwo nq Avgvi| Avgv‡`i eÜzZ¡ Mfxi Ges
†mŠRb¨Zvi e܇b Ave× ZLbI wQj bv AvRI †bB|
Ii evmi N‡i Avgv‡K wKQy mgq KvUv‡Z n‡q‡Q ey‡Ki aodovbx
_vgv‡Z| †mI Avgv‡`i AvÇvi wbqwgZ m`m¨ wQj|
iex›`ªbv‡_i GKwbô f³| gvq nv‡Zi †jLvUvI ivwe›`ªxK ÷vB‡j
KmiZ K‡i iß K‡i‡Q| Avgiv GRb¨ I‡K †¶cv‡Z µwU KiZvg bv|
`yR‡b AvdZve fvB‡K wb‡q Mfxi kª×vi mv‡_ Avjvc Kijvg| Avgiv
cÖvq 30/40 Rb AvÇvevR wn‡m‡e bvg wK‡bwQ| eo‡`i dvBdigvk
LvwU Lywk g‡bB| mevB Avcbvcb ˆewk‡ó D¾¡j|
169 |

mevi †P‡q AvdZve ¯^Z¯¿| meUv ¸bcbv gnvfviZ Zzj¨| †mI G‡jv
fviZ †_‡K| wefv‡Mi m~Î a‡i AvMgb Ggb me mncvwV‡`i KvQ
‡_‡K wewo LvIqv cÖ_g cvV Avgv‡`i| AvdZve fvB `yB K¬vm Dc‡ii
QvÎ| Av‡Mi w`‡b Dc‡ii K¬v‡mi Qv·`i mv‡_ wgk‡j kvw¯— †c‡Z
n‡Zv| G cÖ_v fv½‡jv AvdZve cÖ_‡gB| bbx eveyi Pz‡jvi Av¸b †_‡K
wewo awi‡q Avbvi ûKzg QvovI GUv IUv KZ wK|
Pvi fvB, †evb GKUv| Avgvi †gR †ev‡bi mncvwV| evev weªwUk
`v‡ivMv| †Pnviv †Mvd me wgj| Mjv ZvI| †Q‡j wc‡jiv‡Zv e‡UB
c_PvixivI evoxUv Gwo‡q P‡j| G‡nb ev‡ci †QvU †Q‡j AvdZve|
mwZ¨Kv‡ii cÖwZg~wZ© ev‡ci| wKš‘ GK Ni‡g †`v cxi ˆbe ˆbe Pt|
cwiYwZ evM gvbv‡bv Avi Nvo †Zov‡bv| Kv‡RB G Ae¯’vq hv
Aek¨v¤¢ex ZvB n‡jv| idv n‡jv AvdZve ïay †L‡Z cv‡e evox‡Z|
euvwKUv His His Whose Whose|
cywjk fvBUvi LuvwK nvdc¨v›U, †QvU †evbUvi QvZv GB Zvi wbZ¨m½x|
nvIqvB mvU©Uv Sz‡j Lv‡Uv, `gKv evZv‡m bvwfi ¸jwUm †ewo‡q
co‡Zv| Lvwj cv| QvZvUv †iv` e„wói †P‡q A¯¿ wnmv‡e e¨envi n‡Zv
†ekx| GK Avbv †c‡j N‡l N‡l avi ¸‡jv †g‡i iv‡Z Kzwci Av‡jvq
ey‡ov †Kvb †`vKvbxi Kv‡Q MQv‡Z cvi‡j wZb Avbv jvf| Zv‡Z Pvi
w`‡bi wewoi ms¯’vb wbwðwš—‡Z|
AvMvQvi g‡Zv †e‡o DV‡Z jvM‡jv| Z‡e bv Zv‡K ÔMi“‡Z †`q
gvwo‡q, QvM‡j †`q gywo‡qÕ, Ggb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z ci‡Z nqwb| QvZv
Av‡Q bv? ¯‹z‡j, AvÇvq, †Ljvi gv‡V meLv‡b Zvi wbf©xK c`PviYv|
†idvix dvDj ai‡jv bv †mUv †h `‡jiB c‡¶ †nvK Ii cÖwZev`
QvZv| GiB gv‡S mg‰`b¨ KweivR cyÎ wc.†K. jvwnwo Gi mv‡_ mg‡q
Amg‡q iv¯—vi cv‡k Mv‡Qi Qvqvq eB Ly‡j cvV PP©v Ki‡Z †`LZvg|
g¨vwÆK cvk K‡i †Mj| AevK nevi Av‡iv euvwK| ivRkvnx †_‡K
we.Gm.wm.ÕI cvk K‡i †Mj| ZL‡bv Zvi mvw_ nvdc¨v›U LuvwK i‡Oi|
A‡bK w`‡bi Abycw¯’wZ‡Z Avgv‡`i AvÇv _g‡K †Mj bv| nVvr G‡m
nvwRi| cy‡iv mv‡nex †cvkvK cov f`ª‡jvK| Avgv‡`i Rb¨ G‡b‡Q
200wUb _ªx K¨vmj| Pv‡qi Rb¨ bM` UvKv| wmwbqi‡`i Rb¨ we‡jZx
g`| GB‡Zv †mw`b C‡`i gq`v‡b bvgvR †k‡l Uzwc ‡c‡Z Cgvg
170 |

mv‡ne, Cgvg mv‡ne e‡j mvwie× gymj­x‡`i †_‡K Puv`v Zz‡j c‡K‡U
cyi‡jv| †mB AvdZve?
‡f` Rvbv †Mj †Ki‡g| P I A ‡Z Stuart n‡q‡Q| we‡`‡k hvq|
A‡Xj Kvgvq| XvKvq evmv wb‡q‡Q| evoxIqvjv‡K eD ev‡ci evox
Av‡Q e‡j | evoxIqvjvi †mvgË¡ †g‡q `yB wZbUv N‡i|
ivZ we‡i‡Z bZzb bZzb †g‡q Av‡m| †KD †evb, †KD ev kvjx
cwiP‡q| wewjwZ KzKziUv ch©š— g` †L‡q gvZjvgx K‡i|
evoxIqvjv Ki‡Rv‡o GKw`b ej‡jb- ÔAvdZve mv‡ne Avwg Rvwb
Avcwb we‡q K‡ib wb| euvKxUzKz ejvi my‡hvM wZwb †c‡jb bv| PUcU
AvdZv‡ei Reve- e‡jb, wK nvRx mv‡ne XvKvi me gnj­v‡ZB Avgvi
k¦ïi evox Av‡Q| ejyb AvR †Kvb GjvKvi eD †`L‡Z Pvb?
AvdZve Av‡m, hvq, eÜziv gyL e`jv‡Z Ii ILv‡b †hZ| †`‡ki
cwiwPZ KvD‡K †c‡j evox‡Z wb‡q †hZ| Mvox fvov, UvKv avi ZvI
†`‡e| KZ eÜz KZ wbj wnmve †m iv‡Lwb| ïbjvg we‡q K‡i‡Q|
Avb›` njUvi Kv‡QB evox| A‡Xj m¤ú‡`i gvwjK| PvKzix †Q‡o
ivRbxwZ ai‡jv| †ZRMuvI GjvKvi †Pqvig¨vb| †jvKwcÖq, cÖwZcwË
me Kivqˡ|
Avgvi mv‡_ GKw`b c‡_ †`Lv XvKvq| Avgvi Zvov wQj wKš‘ †invB
†cjvg bv| m`¨ †Uc †iKW©vi G‡b‡Q (ZLb GLv‡b Av‡mwb) Avgv‡K
w`‡q Ave„wË Kiv‡jv, ïbv‡jv, eD †`Lv‡jv, LvIqv‡jv, GLb Kv‡Ri
K_vq- †Kb G‡mwQ XvKvq? G.wR Awdm †_‡K †PK wb‡Z n‡e|
500/= UvKv eD‡K e‡j UvKv w`‡q w`j| ej­ I Avwg wVK K‡i wbe
ZzB hv| 1960 mv‡j h‡kvi Airport-G †`Lv, cwi‡aq ˆ`b¨Zvq
weeªZ Avgv‡K ewm‡q w`j Cockpit-G, Canteen-G wM‡q XvjI
ûKzg, †QvU fvB Avgvi hLb hv hZUv Pvq, †`‡e | Bill Avgvi|
wbqwgZ Av‡m Mvox wb‡q| ev”Pz gvóvi Pvjv‡Z wM‡q Lv‡` †d‡j Pzigvi
K‡i w`j| †Kvb weKvi bvB| †iLv KzwÂZ n‡Z †`Ljvg bv Kcv‡ji|
wK †h n‡jv, dzUcv‡_i Pv‡qi †`vKvbxi GK †g‡q‡K we‡q K‡i †dj‡jv
nVvr| Av‡Mi eD‡qi mv‡_ QvovQvwo| PvKzix m¤ú` meB nvZQvov|
cv‡ki ew¯—‡Z bZzb Avevm| †m RxebI mnR K‡i MÖnY Ki‡jv|
Aa©kZ eQiI _vKjbv Avgv‡`i gv‡S |
171 |

Ò‡QvU cÖvY †QvU K_v
‡QvU †QvU `ytL K_v
bvwn eY©bvi QUv
NUbvi NbNUv
bvwn ZË¡ bvwn Dc‡`kÓ|

evOjvi ¸Y bv ¸Yx AvRgLvb
evM`xcvovi AvacvMjv `xcKB wQj cye© cvwK¯—v‡bi GK
mg‡hi Mf©bi †jdUvb¨v›U †Rbv‡ij AvRg Lv‡bi †eUv | wgwnMjvq
Le‡ii KvMR †e‡P †eov‡Zv †m|
dwi`cyi cwi`k©b †k‡l AvRg Lv‡bi we‡kl †UªbUv ivZ GMv‡ivUvq
†cuŠQvq ivReox †÷k‡b| AZ iv‡ZI gvby‡li fxo, hw`I mKv‡j wZwb
mevi mv‡_ nvZ wgwj‡h ‡M‡Qb GKevi| e¨w³MZ mwPe Gmg‡q wZwb
wekªvgiZ Rvwb‡q mevB‡K kvš— _vKvi Aby‡iva Rvbv‡”Qb| `xcK
nv‡Zi †MvjvcUv Zuv‡K w`‡q Aby‡iva K‡i wewe mv‡nev‡K †`evi
Rb¨| `xc‡Ki WvK Av‡m †fZ‡i hvevi| wd‡iI Av‡m GK mgq
Mf©bi nvD‡m hvevi Avgš¿Y cÎ Avi †eUv bvg wb‡q|
Mfb©i nvD‡m AwZw_ n‡q †m hvq| †i‡ji PvKix , Avi cwiev‡ii
m`m¨ fy³ n‡h gv‡hi Rb¨ we¯—i Dcnvi mvgMxª wb‡q wd‡i Av‡m|
AvRgLvb `xcK‡K Avg„Z¨y cyÎer †mœn w`‡q‡Qb| wbR †`‡k wM‡qI
†c­‡bi wUwKU cvwV‡q †eUv‡K wb‡q †M‡Qb cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i
mgch©v‡q| Avc¨vhb †k‡l A‡Xj Dcnvi mvgMxª mn †`‡k †diZ
cvwV‡q‡Qb|
my`yi cÖmvix cweKíbv wb‡q cv‡q cv‡q Avhye Lvb MYZ‡š¿i mgvwai
Dci wbR Avmb cÖwZôv K‡i †cÖwm‡W›U n‡q e‡m GKw`b| ‡hUv cye©
cwK¯—vbevmx KLbB †g‡b †bqwb| Avi Zv †m fvj K‡iB Rvb‡Zv|
172 |

†mRb¨ cwðg cvwK¯—v‡bi Kvw`qvbx Av‡›`vjb wbg~©jKvix K‡Vvi kvlK
†jdUvb¨v›U †Rbv‡ij AvRg Lvb‡K G‡`‡k cvVvq Mf©b‡ii `vqxË¡
w`‡q| eOvjxiv cvwK¯—v‡bi g½jvKvw•L bq Ggb avibvI Zuvi g‡b
†Mu‡_ †`Iqv n‡qwQj|
cÖK…wZMZ fv‡eB Avgv‡`i gvbyl kvwš— wcÖq| fvjevmvi nvZ evwo‡q
w`‡j Avwj½‡b euv‡a| wZwb G‡`‡ki gvby‡li ms¯ú‡k© G‡m GUv
Dcjw× K‡ib, Zuvi cye© avibvI cv‡ë hvq| †h fvjevmv `yj©f wQj
Zuvi wbR †`‡k Zv wZwb cvb GLv‡b|
‡Kv_vI †cÖvMÖvg _vK‡j mgq g‡Zv †cuŠQv‡Z cvi‡Zb bv| fvjevmvq
Avc­yZ RbmvaviY †ij jvB‡b e‡m c‡o MwZ †iva K‡i w`‡q‡Q|
wZwbI wg‡k †M‡Qb Zv‡`i mv‡_| nvZ wgjv‡Z wgjv‡Z ¶‡Zi m„wó n‡q
†M‡Q |
Zuvi GB RbwcÖqZvq fxZ Avqye Lvb Zuv‡K c`Pz¨Z K‡i | me©¯—‡ii
gvbyl Zuv‡K GB A‰ea Av‡`k cÖZ¨vLvb Kivi Aby‡iva Rvbvq| wKš—
wZwb wQ‡jb Av`k© wmcvnx Av‡`k cvjbB Zuvi ag©| wd‡i hvb wZwb|
cieË©©x Kv‡j wZwb Avevi G‡m‡Qb G‡`‡k| Avqye Lv‡bi eywbqv`x
MbZ‡š¿i wei“‡× wgm dv‡Zgv wRbœvi †cÖwm‡W›U wbe©vP‡b| cÖZ¨¶¨
mvavi‡bi †fv‡U bq| Avwk nvRvi †W‡gvµ¨vU wbe©vwPZ n‡q †cÖwm‡WÈ
evbv‡e| GB Avwk nvRvi †W‡gvµ¨vU Lwi` Ki‡jv Avhye Lvb Pwj­k
†KvwU UvKvi Dbœqb eivÏ G‡`i w`‡q n‡e hvi wnmve wbix¶Y Kiv n‡e
bv Ggb fvlb w`‡q †iwWI ‡_‡K | Avi Avie mvM‡i ˆbwenvi miKwix
Li‡P|
Zuv‡K GLv‡b Rb mvavib A‡bK mfvmwgwZi Av‡qvRb K‡i wb‡R‡`i
gv‡S wb‡q †M‡Q, †mRb¨ A‡bK †¶‡ÎB wZwb †W‡gvµ¨vU‡`i mv‡_
wba©vwiZ mfvq mwVK mg‡q nvwRi n‡Z cv‡ib wb| ivRevox‡ZI
Wvbjc n‡ji mfvq Avmvi c‡_ Awba©vwiZ †i‡ji gv‡V Zuv‡K RbZv
wb‡q hvq| wZwb ivRbxwZwe` wQ‡jb bv| †mRb¨ mvavi‡bi WvK
D‡c¶v K‡i †W‡gvµ¨vU‡`i mfvq Av‡M Av‡mb wb | cuvPUvi mfvq
Avm‡Z ivZ AvUUv †e‡R hvq| hw`I wbe©vP‡bi djvd‡ji wKQyB
cÖfve n‡Zvbv G‡Z | Avgiv mK‡j hw` GB Pwjøk nvRvi
†W‡gvµ¨vU‡`i Dci Pvc m„w÷ Ki‡Z cviZvg Z‡eB Kvw•LZ djvdj
173 |

Avkv Kiv †hZ | fMœ ü`‡q wZwb †`‡k †d‡i hvb | Zuvi †eUv , `xcK
Av‡Rv Av‡Q, †mB wZwbB †bB|

Av°vm Avjx wgqv
‡`ŠjZw`qv †dix NvU †_‡K evm Qvo‡jv| PIov gm„b c‡_i `y
av‡i evejv Mv‡Qi mvwi wmœ» nvIqv g‡bvgy»Ki `„k¨| †dixi ¸‡gvU
†_‡K cwi‡ek e`‡j gbUvI Pv½v|
g‡b co‡jv 1976 mv‡j cÙvi †mªvZaviv DI‡i m‡i †M‡Q| `yB gvBj
Pov c‡o †dix †Mvqvj†›` fxo‡Z cvi‡Q bv|
†dixNvU ¯’vbvš—wiZ n‡q P‡j hv‡e dwi`cy‡ii kªxivgw`‡Z| †Mvqvj›`
Zvi HwZn¨ nviv‡e| Avi Avgiv hviv ivRevox A‡ji evwm›`v
Avgv‡`i dwi`cyi wM‡q †dix ai‡Z n‡e| †mLvb †_‡K GZUv c_
DwR‡q Z‡e AvwiPv cv‡ev mgq jvM‡e wZb Pvi N›Uv †ekx|
Av°vm Avjx wgqv ¯^ZtõzZ© GwM‡q G‡jb| cÙvi gv‡S j Avi
†bŠKvi †Ni w`‡q kªxivgw` Nv‡U †dix hvevi c‡_ evavi m„wó Ki‡jb|
grm¨ I cïcvjb gš¿x dwi`cy‡ii †jvK Rbve Ievq`yi ingvb| Zuvi
AvMÖn ¯^vfvweK fv‡eB kªxivgw`‡Z †dix NvU cÖwZôv| c~e© Avi cwðg
evsjvi †hvMm~Î Gate way of bengal L¨vZ †Mvqvj›`| †mB HwZn¨
i¶vi ZvwM‡` GK iKg Mv‡qi †Rv‡iB †dix †`ŠjZw`qv wfo‡Z eva¨
K‡ib Av°vm wgqv|
mgm¨v †`Lv w`j †`ŠjZw`qv †_‡K †Mvqvj›` GB `yB gvBj wbgœ mgZj
Pv‡li †¶Z| cwj R‡g big _j_‡j| cvk¦©eZ©x fvUvi BU wewQ‡q hw`I
wKQyUv PjvP‡ji Dc‡hvMx Kiv †Mj| gv‡S †Kv_vI †Kv_vI †`‡e wM‡q
ev‡mi hvÎx‡`i †fvMvwš—i Aš— wQj bv| Z‡e mevB GUv †g‡b
wb‡qwQ‡jb e„nËi ¯^v‡_©| el©vi mgq `yB dzU cvwb‡Z `uvwo‡q _vKv
wi·vq cv‡o IVvi ¯§„wZ A‡b‡KiB g‡b _vKvi K_v| µgvš^‡q AvR
GUv Avgvi`vqK iv¯—vi iƒc wb‡q‡Q|
174 |

H mg‡q Av°vm wgqv ewjô f~wgKvq bv `uvov‡j Avgiv wZb N›Uvq XvKv
hve KíbvI Ki‡Z cviZvg bv|
Av°vm wgqv ivRevox †cŠimfvi †Pqvig¨vb _vKvKvjxb mg‡q †cŠi
cyKziUvi c~e© cv‡o KzwoUv †`vKvb evbv‡jb| mgv‡jvwPZI n‡jb| AvR
ZviB m~Î a‡i †ij‡MU ch©š— we¯Z…Z n‡q e¨emvi †¶Î †hgb cÖk¯—
n‡q‡Q, †cŠimfvi Av‡qiI cÖmvi N‡U‡Q| Kzwóqv †iv‡W nvwmi
D‡`ªMKvix GKUv wU‡bi bvg me©¯^ mvBb‡evW©| AvR e¨¯—Zg c_|
‡Mv`vi evRvi †_‡K Dˇi mv‡ei gʇji NvU Ges cvebvi mv‡_ †dix
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi cwiKíbv wb‡q †h c_Uv wZwb ïi“ K‡iwQ‡jb b`x fv½‡b
wejxb bv n‡j nq‡Zv Av‡Mi †mB mv‡ei gʇji NvU Zvi HwZn¨ wd‡i
†cZ| †hLv‡b GKmgq gvjevnx nvRvigYx †bŠKvi eni wfo‡Zv| †bŠ
wkí M‡o D‡VwQj|
ivRevox evRv‡ii †`vKvb¸‡jvq wU‡bi Suv‡ci †Kvbv †j‡M nvUz‡i
AvnZ Ges i³v³| Gwb‡q ePmv †j‡MB _vK‡Zv| KZ…©c‡¶i Aby‡iva
Dc‡iva D‡c¶v K‡i †KDB mvU©vi c×wZ MÖnb K‡ib bv| e¨emvqx‡`i
weivMfvRb nevi Avk¼vq †KD †Rvi PvcI w`‡Z cv‡ib bvB| Av°vm
wgqv mg¯— evav D‡c¶v K‡i eva¨ K‡i‡Qb Suvc †K‡U mvU©vi evbv‡Z|
GLb Avi SuvcIqvjv GKUv †`vKvbI cvIqv hv‡e bv| wZ‡jvËgv
ivRevoxi ¯^cœ`ª÷v, iƒcKvi wn‡m‡e A‡b‡Ki bvg †kvbv hvq| cy¯ú
P›`b iƒcvq‡bi cÖ_g †dvUvwUi wZwbB m~ÎcvZ NwU‡qwQ‡jb
†`vKvb¸‡jvi Suvc †K‡U| whwb †Kvb we‡kl‡YB wefywlZ nb bvB|
Av°vm wgqvi cÖvwZôvwbK wk¶v †ekx bq| Rb¥m~Î †_‡K Rjvi
Rwg`vix cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q gvgjv †gvKÏgvq hy³ _vKvq AvB‡bi
LywUbvwU eyS‡Zb| ¯’vbxq nvU evRv‡ii LvRbv ¯’vbxq cÖwZôv‡bi cÖvc¨
GB `vex wb‡q wZwb miKv‡ii wei“‡× gvgjv Kivq cÖkvm‡bi
weivMfvRb nb| gvgjvq Zuvi c‡¶ ivq nq e‡jB AvR mviv evsjvq
nvU evRv‡ii LvRbv †cŠimfv ev BDwbqb cwil` cv‡”Q|
Av°vm wgqv m¤ú‡K© A‡bK wKse`š—x cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| XvKvi evoxUv
GZ` A‡ji evwm›`v‡`i mivBLvbv wQj ejv hvq| AwZwi³ AwZw_
G‡j †jc †ZvlK Z¶zwY evRvi †_‡K G‡b _vKvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Zb|
ivRevox Avm‡eb, mgq Amgq bvB, Mvox †Nvov cvIqv hvK bv hvK
175 |

iIbv w`‡Zb| nq‡Zv cy‡iv jÂUv fvov w`‡q GKvB P‡j G‡jb ivZ
`yBUvi mgq| Av‡iv A‡bK wKQy|
ivRevox cÖ_g †Uwjwfkb G‡b †`vZvjvi eviv›`vq ewm‡q DVv‡b
`k©‡Ki nvU emv‡jb| GK iv‡Z RbZvi g‡a¨ cywjk A¯¿avix
K‡qKRb‡K AvUK K‡i Ges Zuv‡KI, Zuvi MvoxUvI Rã Kiv nq|
†mUv cieZ©xKv‡j †diZ †bevi Av‡`k †c‡qI Av‡bbwb| Ibvi hyw³
Ôwb‡q †M‡Qb w`‡q hvbÕ|
Av°vm wgqvi Rb¥ ZvwiL cvIqv hvq bvB| c~e©cyi“l gwgb mi`vi
ZrcyÎ wRZz nvRx ZrcyÎ A‡Lj DwÏb mi`v‡ii cyÎ Av°vm Avjx
wgqv|
wcZvgn wRZz nvRx Zvi mg¯— m¤úwËi `vqfvi Ges RjK‡ii gvwjKvbv
†hUv kZeQi c~‡e© RjK‡ii g~j gvwjK †ZIZvi ivRv I cvebvi
mvb¨vj cwievi mw¤§wjZ fv‡e `yB Avbv AvU cvB Ask wcZ‡ji cv‡Z
wj‡L w`‡qwQ‡jb, Ac©b K‡ib †`ŠwnÎ Av°vm Avjx wgqv‡K| wbR
†hvM¨Zv e‡jB Zv myôZvi mv‡_ cwiPvjbv K‡ib wZwb| H A‡ji kZ
kZ cwievi Ges nvRvi nvRvi nvj`vi m¤cÖ`vq Zuvi GKvš—B AbyMZ
wQ‡jb| we¯Z…Y© Rjvi myKwVb cwiPvjb `¶ZvB cieZ©xKv‡j e„nËi
cwiwa‡Z wfbœZi †¶‡Î wZwb gvwb‡q wb‡Z †c‡i‡Qb| mva¨vZxZ
fvebvI wZwb fve‡Z †c‡i‡Qb Ges Suvwc‡q c‡o‡Qb| †hŠM¨ZvB
gvbyl‡K Zvi ¯^¯’v‡b cÖwZwôZ K‡i| wekvj Av‡qi Drm RjKi wb‡q
`v½v nv½vgv gvgjv †gvKÏgv †j‡MB _vK‡Zv| †mRb¨ AvBb msµvš—
wel‡qI Zuvi avibv †ckvRxex AvBb‡Ái †P‡q Kg wQj bv| cvwK¯—vb
miKvi Rwg`vix cÖ_v wejyß †NvlYv Ki‡j wZwb miKv‡ii wei“‡×
¶wZc~iY †P‡q gvgjv K‡i c~e© cvwK¯—vb nvB‡Kv‡U©I †n‡i hvb| Ibvi
AvBRxex ivq †g‡b wb‡jI wZwb ZrKvjxb mycÖxg †KvU© jv‡nv‡i Avcxj
K‡ib Ges wWµx cvb|
GK mgq `~M©vcyi NvU KjKvZvi mv‡_ †bŠ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †K›`ª wQj|
GUv ivRevox gnvKzgvaxb †gŠRvq bw_ f~³ wQj| b`x fv½‡b H
AÂjUv m¤ú~Y© wewjb n‡q cvebv †Rjvi mv‡_ mshy³ n‡q‡Q| GB
mshyw³ Ki‡Yi miKvix cÖ‡Póvi wei“‡× wZwb †mv”Pvi n‡qwQ‡jb|
¯^vaxbZvi ci †_‡KB Avgv‡`i †`‡k †ijc_ hLb m¼zwPZ n‡”Q
176 |

Av°vm wgqv Ki‡jb Zvi D‡ëv| †Mvqvj›` †_‡K †`ŠjZw`qv ch©š—
†ij ms‡hvR‡bi †¶‡Î Zuvi f~wgKvB AMÖMb¨|
1971 mv‡j gyw³hy× ïi“ †_‡KB wZwb AMÖYx f~wgKv †bb| fvi‡Z
wM‡qI G‡`kxq‡`i wewea mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv w`‡q‡Qb| GwcÖj gv‡mi
cÖ_gv‡a© ¯’vbxq wenvix‡`i nZ¨vi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKUv †Wvevq GKwÎZ Kiv
n‡j Piv‡ji I evYxen n‡Z AvMZ A¯¿avix mevB‡K wbe„Z K‡i
mgv‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Qb|
1980 mv‡ji ci RvZxq cvwU© ivR‰bwZK `j wnmv‡e AvZ¥cÖKvk
Ki‡j wZwb ivRbxwZ‡Z †hvM †`b| GB `‡ji g‡bvbxZ n‡q msm`
m`m¨ wnmv‡e wbe©vwPZ nb|
GB eûwea Kg©Kzkjx cyi“‡li Rxebvemvb N‡U 24†k †g 2000 mv‡j
Ges mgvwnZ nb fevbxcyi †Mvi¯’v‡b| wZwb AvR we¯§„Z n‡q‡Qb| Avi
AvgivI K…ZÁZvi `vq †_‡K n‡qwQ gy³| eZ©gvb †cŠimfvi †gqi
Rbve gn¤§` Avjx †PŠayix cÖ_g cÖwZwôZ †cŠimfvi 20wU ‡`vKv‡bi
bvgKiY Av°vm Avjx wgqv wecbx weZvb AvL¨vwqZ K‡i Avgv‡`i
ab¨ev`vn© n‡q‡Qb|
Avgiv Avgv‡`i GB kn‡ii cÖwZôvjMœ †_‡K mgvR‡mex †mB me
gvby‡li ¯§„wZPviY Ki‡Z PvB| `jgZ wbwe©‡k‡l cÖwZôv Ki‡Z PvB
Zuv‡`i bvg| GRb¨ mevB nvwi‡q hvIqv †mB me gvby‡li Kg©gq
Rxe‡bi LÊ LÊ wPÎ Zv †m h‡Zv ¶z`ªB †nvK bZzb cÖR‡b¥i Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q
w`‡Z PvB| huv‡`i c`Pvibvq AvR‡Ki Avgiv wZ‡jvËgv kni †c‡qwQ|
Avi †mUv mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póv‡ZB m¤¢e|

177 |

Awbj mvay (Awbj Kzgvi Ki)
Lye m¯—vq evoxUv wK‡b wb‡q Awbj mvay‡K wf‡U Qvov Kijvg|
mvay A‡_© RUvavix mb¨vmx wZwb wQ‡jb bv| wf¶ve„wËI Ki‡Zb bv|
ev”Pv‡`i cwo‡q gv‡q †cv‡q _vK‡Zb| AvPvi AvPi‡b mvayË¡ we‡kl‡b
AvL¨vwqZ nb| wf‡U Qvov n‡q †Kv_vq Avkªq †b‡eb GUv Avgv‡`i
fvebvi welq bq| ïbjvg Puv`gvixi gv‡Vi wXweUvq MZ© K‡i ¸nvevmx
n‡q‡Qb| IUv PZivi wej| GKmgq cÙvi Rj‡mªvZ GLvb w`‡q e‡q
†hZ| nvg©v` cZz©MxR Rj`my¨‡`i wbivc` Av¯—vbv wQj 1760 mvj
ch©š—| 1871 mv‡j †ij cÖwZóv †c‡j cÙvi Rj‡mªvZ evavcÖvß n‡q
µ‡g cwj R‡gwe‡ji AvKvi †bq| elv©q mg¯—Uv RjgMœ _vK‡jI Livi
mgq †Kv_vI †Kv_vI Pov †R‡M I‡V|
wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i mgq ivRevox †Mviv isiyU ˆmb¨‡`i Transit camp
nq| Giv G‡Kev‡iB AbwfÁ| wkwL‡q cwo‡q hy‡×i gq`vb evg©vq
G‡`i Mš—e¨| wew¯—Y© duvKv Rjvfywgi DIi cv‡k gvwUi GKUv wXwe Kiv
nq ‰mb¨‡`i ivB‡dj wbkvbvi cÖwk¶b †`evi Rb¨| †mB †_‡K
Puv`gvixi gvV|
GB wejUvi cwðg mxgvbv Ry‡o GKmgq †h Kz¤¢Kvi cwievi‡`i wbevm
wQj Zvi wKQy wPý cvIqv hvq| †eovWv½v PK‡Kócyi, KvRxKv›`v Gme
GjvKvq Lbb Kv‡Ri mgq †cvov gvwUi nuvwo cvwZ‡ji LÛvsk ¯‘cxK…Z
Ae¯’vq cvIqv hvq| KvRx Avey gv‡R` e‡jb GB GjvKvUv‡K Kz‡gvi
cvov Ges DËivÂj‡K Djyqvi Pi ejv n‡Zv| DjyLvMovi bv‡gi
weK…Zi“cI n‡Z cv‡i| Awbj mvay‡K gv‡S g‡a¨ iv¯—vq †`Lv †hZ|
Kv‡iv bRi Kv‡ob bvB mevi Aj‡¶¨B GKw`b Zuvi Rxebvemvb nq|

178 |

bvbv evoxi ¯§„wZ
‰kke ¯§„wZ fve‡Z Kvi bv fvj jv‡M| ˆkke †m †Zv
evjwLj­Zvi w`b| †Z‡ji evwUUv D‡ë †dj‡jI nvwmB ZLb cªvc¨|
Avi †mUv hw` nq bvbv evox| ˆK‡kvi ¯§„wZ wfbœZi| †Q‡jwg Ki‡j
kyb‡Z nq, Zzwg GLb Avi wkï bI, Po PvcoUvI cªvc¨ n‡q hvq|
eyw×gv‡bi g‡Zv eq¯‹‡`i K_vi dvu‡K bvK Mjv‡j ïb‡Z nq
AKvjc° †W‡cv †Q‡j, Avi †hŠeb? †m‡Zv gy‡³v †f‡e cuywZi gvjv
Mjvq Szjv‡bv| ïayB fy‡j fiv| Avi AvR nxiK Rqwš— a‡iv a‡iv
eq‡m ˆkk‡ei ¯§„wZi †ivgš’b| wd‡i hvevi B”Qv †mB w`‡b| wKš‘ bv,
hvnv hvq Zvnv hvq|
gv †hgb Avgvi bvbv bvbxi GKgvÎ mš—vb| AvwgI ZLb gv‡qi
Ô†cuv‡PvÕi _vev †_‡K wQwb‡q Avbv GKgvÎ cyÎ| Avgvi K`iB Avjv`v|
AvwgI †KD †KUv fvwe wb‡R‡K| bvbv evox hvevi w`b ¶b gvmLv‡bK
Av‡M ‡_‡KB wVK Kiv n‡Zv| MÖvg m¤ú‡K©i gvgv ev fvB Avm‡Zb
`yÕPvi w`b Av‡MB| evuav Quv`v Pj‡Q‡Zv Pj‡QB| ‡`Lv †Mj †Mvmj
K‡i ïK‡bv Kvco UvI cvIqv hv‡”Q bv| cy‡iv msmvi †cvUjv n‡q
†M‡Q ïK‡bv c¨v›UUv †h †Kvb †cvUjvq †m QvB wK g‡b Av‡Q? KZevi
†h †Mvbv n‡jv| ‡h hLb cvi‡Q ¸‡b wn‡me ivL‡Q| m‡Z‡iv bv
AvVv‡iv Avevi †Mv‡bv| wVK K‡i wgwj‡q bvI| bB‡j Mvox‡ZB c‡o
_vK‡e| cvwbi ïivB Kv‡Vi †d«‡g AuvUv IUv †Mvbvi `iKvi wK?
AvVv‡ivB wVK|
m‡½ hv‡”Q MÖv‡gv‡dvb, K‡ji Mvb| Aóg Avðh¨,© KjKvZv †_‡K bZzb
†iKW© †ek K‡qKUv Avbv n‡q‡Q| wcbI K‡qK †KŠUv| GUv 1941
mv‡ji K_v|
‡Uª‡b DVjvg ¸‡b ¸‡b †cvUjv mvRv‡bv n‡jv| †e‡Â kZiwÄ wewQ‡q
RvqMv `LjI n‡q ‡Mj| `iRvq cvnviv cÖwZwU †÷k‡b DU‡Kv
179 |

†jv‡Ki mv‡_ K_v KvUvKvwU| Rvbvjvi av‡i e‡m hLb hv †`LwQ
†dixIqvjvi gv_vq, evqbv awi| Av‡iv we¯§q jywK‡q wQj KvjyLvwj
†÷k‡b| BwÄbUv Ny‡i G‡m MvoxUv Avevi ivRevoxi w`‡KB wdi‡Q|
Z‡e wK bvbvevox hvIqv n‡e bv?
XvjvI weQvbv Avivg K‡i ï‡Z e‡j mevB| evB‡i MvQcvjv MÖvg¸‡jv
m‡i m‡i hv‡”Q wcQ‡b| ZviI †cQ‡bi MvQUv Avgv‡`i mv‡_B Pj‡Q
GB †h D‡ëvcvëv `„k¨ Zv †d‡j ï‡Z B‡”Q nq? Zey GK mgq Nywg‡q
cwo| nuvK Wv‡K Nyg †f‡½ GKUv Lykxi Av‡gR| AKvi‡b mevB
GKmv‡_ wPrKvi K‡i mevB‡K Avgv‡`i Ae¯’v‡bi Rvbvb †`Iqv n‡”Q
‡÷k‡b A‡c¶viZ huviv G‡m‡Qb Zuv‡`i | ¸‡b ¸‡b †cvUjv bvgv‡bv
n‡jv| †Nvov Mvox‡Z gv, †evb| Avwg Kvi †hb Kuv‡a| K‡ji Mv‡bi
ev·Uv gv_vq †bevi AwaKvi †h †c‡Zv †m Zvi †mŠfv‡M¨ W‡Mvg‡Mv|
n¨vwi‡Kb mvwi mvwi P‡jwQ gvBj †`‡oK c_|
evwo ‡cuŠ‡Q Avi GK `„k¨| cvov cvokx †eŠwSiv Dcw¯’Z| bvbvb cÖkœ
gv‡K| RvgvB G‡jv bv, BZ¨vw`| Mv‡q Mqbv cov AZ¨š— my›`ix wkw¶Z
†Q‡ji eD| ev‡ci evox‡Z †hgb ivbx wQj, ¯^vgxi N‡iI ivRivbx|
†eŠwSiv `xN©k¦vm †Mvcb K‡i| evB‡ii PvKwPK¨ †`‡L wbðq| wKš— gv
†h KZUv ewÂZv ZLb †evSvi eqm Avgvi nqwb| evev‡K Rxe‡b
GKeviB kïi evox Avgv‡`i mv‡_ †h‡Z †`‡LwQ| we‡qi mgq
†MwQ‡jb wKbv †mUvI cÖkœ| evevi we‡q nq 1922/23 mv‡j| G A‡j
†i‡ji cÖwZôv 1935 mv‡j| GB Pwj­k gvBj nvuUv c_ bv nq Mi“,
†Nvovi Mvwo| gv, ev‡ci evox ‡h‡Z †c‡i‡Qb e‡j g‡b nq bv †ij
emvi Av‡M| bvbv †g‡qi Uv‡b gv‡S mv‡S Avm‡Zb wKQyUv cv‡q †nu‡U
wKQyUv Mi“i Mvox‡Z evMv‡bi djg~j wb‡q|
bvbv evoxi Ae¯’vbUv LyeB my›`i| `w¶b w`‡K cv‡q Pjv c‡_i Icv‡k
duvKv gvV Zvi †Kvj †Nu‡l Kzgvi b`x mvg‡b euv‡ki gvPv euvav
Rvgi“jZjvq| mKv‡j ‡mB gvPvq K‡ji Mvb evR‡Q| `~‡ii Kv‡Qi
KZ †h gvbyl| wc‡bi †LuvPv †L‡q Mvb Mvq, †KD DwuK w`‡q gvbyl
†Lvu‡R| †iKW© Iëv‡bvi mgq, Pvwe †Nviv‡bvi weiwZ, †KD e‡j Pv
†L‡q Mjv mvd Ki‡Z †M‡Q MvqK| meRvš—v KZ †jv‡Ki KZ gš—e¨|
bvbvb M‡elYv|
180 |

kx‡Zi †gŠmy‡g †M‡j †LRyi Mv‡Q AvVv jvwM‡q im †L‡Z Avmv cvwL
a‡i biejxi g‡nvrme| we‡Kj †_‡K ïi“ n‡Zv gv‡Vi c‡o _vKv Lo
bvov GKwÎZ K‡i cvnvo ‰Zix, mܨvq Av¸b w`‡q Dj­vm| nv‡Ui w`‡b
mevB wg‡j jvwVi AvMvq Kzcx †R¡‡j nvU Kzov‡bv|
†cuqvR, Avjy, gwiP nVvr KLbI Zvgvi dz‡Uv cqmv| m`m¨iv mevB
hvi hvi fvM wb‡q evox †div| nv‡Ui ay‡jv Rvgv Kvco mviv Mv‡q gvLv
ZeyI meviB nvwm gvLv gyL| QvMj¸‡jv P‡o †eovq gv‡V, a‡i wb‡q
`ya `yB‡q †bIqv| Av‡iv gRv wQj cvU ¸`v‡g MuvU euvavi `wo cvKv‡bv
†`Lv| `y‡Uv LyuwUi gv‡S my‡Zv †cuPv‡bv †jvnvi Avj euvav| `yB nv‡Z
my‡Zvi cÖvš— a‡i Uvbv Avi wXj †`Iqv, AvjUvi eokxi g‡Zv AvMvq
cvU awi‡q GKRb Kvu‡a ivLv cv‡Ui cÖvš—fv‡M Ry‡o w`‡”Q Avi wcQy
nU‡Q| IB cÖv‡š— euv‡ki LywU‡Z `woUv †eu‡a †i‡L Avevi bZzb K‡i
ïi“ GB cÖv‡š— G‡m|
evoxi cv‡kB gmwR`| bvbv BgvgwZ Ki‡Zb| ïµev‡i Ry¤§vi bvgvR
†k‡l wkwbœ| †LRy‡ii ¸o w`‡q †gvUv Pv‡ji RvD| gvwU‡Z mevi mv‡_
Kjv cvZvq GK nvZv K‡i Ag„Z †m ¯^v`, †fvjv hvq?
evMv‡b ARmª d‡ji MvQ| , `kUv †d‡j GKUv LvIqv | abyK wb‡q
cvULwoi Zxi| cvwL‡`i w`‡K ZvK K‡i wZwi dyU, wZwidzU|
aby‡Ki evZv PvuQ‡Z wM‡q Av½yj cÖvq wew”Qbœ ,Avwg †h KZ
kvš— cÖK…wZi wQjvg nvZ cv‡qi ARmª wPý hv Av‡Rv wgwj‡q hvq wb|
bvbv Avgv‡K cvMjv e‡j WvK‡Zb | Zuvi g„Z¨y kh¨vq Gw`K Iw`K
†PvL †g‡j e‡jwQ‡jb gv‡K, cvMjvUv G‡jv bv|
Avgvi bvbv wbwe©‡ivax fvj gvbyl wQ‡jb| Mv‡j †nv wP wg‡bi
gZ m‡ZiUv `vwo, g‡bi Kó _vK‡jI cÖKvk wQjbv| ïay mviv w`bgvb
û‡Kvi ¸o–K ¸o–K kã| AvwgI H mg‡q ¸o–K kã Zz‡jwQ `y GKevi
mevi Ajঠ|
nvq‡i †mB gaygvLv w`b ¸‡jv, hvnv hvq Zvnv hvq|

181 |

AwZ_x cvwLiv
Gang of forty ‡Z Avmb †c‡qwQ| ivZ weiv‡Z †i‡ji gv‡V
wbqwgZ | gxi mv‡n‡ei wcwos wcwos †mZvi weiw³i D‡`ªM Avi K‡i
bv| †ng‡š—i AvMgbx ki“ n‡ZB †`LZvg kx‡Zi †`‡ki cvwLiv SuvK
†eu‡a Avm‡Z ïi“ Ki‡Zv| nvév †RvQbvi Av‡jvq Nv‡mi Dci ï‡q
e‡m Avgiv †mB Aciƒc `„k¨ †`LZvg gy» n‡q| mvwi e× nvRvi
nvRvi, GKmvwii ci Ab¨ `j Ggwb mvivUv ivZ Pj‡Zv I‡`i `wLb
gy‡Lv Pjv| evZv‡m GKUv †kuv ‡kuv kã †kvbv †hZ | Avgiv ev‡c
Zvov‡bv gv‡q †L`v‡bv AvÇvi m`m¨| Zvov †bB evox †divi, nvév
Kzqvkvq Rvgv Kvco wf‡R †hZ| Pvu‡`i g„`y Av‡jvq ¸YZvg Suv‡Ki
msL¨v| †k‡l †LB nvwi‡h †djZvg| ivZ MWxi n‡jI Avgv‡`i fvj
jvMvi †kl n‡Zv bv| gv‡S gv‡S KuK KuK kã ïbZvg Iiv ZLb nq
MwZ cwieZ©b Ki‡Q bq‡Zv mvwi ¸‡jv bZzb iƒc wb‡”Q | Avgv‡`i `„wó
mxgvi evB‡iI mviv AvKvkUvB fiv|
PLv PwLi †Rvo euvav gvby‡li g‡Zv f½yi bq | †Rv‡oi GKUv wbnZ
n‡j Ab¨Uv wd‡i wd‡i Av‡m cvwj‡q hvq bv| Avi ZvB †Zv Avgv‡`i
wRg Ki‡eU, gwR` fvB kZ Aby‡iv‡aI GKUv‡K gvi‡Zv bv, Ibvi GB
AvPi‡Yi gv‡b AvR SzwS | ZLb PLvi †Mv¯— Avi Pv‡ji i“wU Avgv‡`i
nvZQvwb w`Z ïay|
gÊjcvovi j¤^y‡gvnb
gÛj evoxi †gvnb, †eKvi | eKvSKvi †KD bvB, bvnq eKv
ce© †k‡l jvB‡b Avbvi nvj †Q‡o w`‡q‡Q| Avgv‡`i me© Kv‡R Ges
AKv‡R I‡K cvIqv hv‡e| cÖvc¨ hvB LvI A‡a©K fvM, ivZ wZbUvq
Awfmvi, †gvnb R½‡j cvnvovq, gkv gvi‡j AvIqvR n‡Z cv‡i nvZ
w`‡q mwo‡q †`q| fy‡Zi f‡q evox †div hv‡”Q bv I fyZ Zvov‡bv gš¿
182 |

Rv‡b, ‡cuŠ‡Q †`‡e| ‡cÖwg‡Ki wPwV †cuŠ‡Q †`evi wek¦¯— WvK niKiv |
mvg‡b Kv`v, Ry‡Zv †Lvjv,cv †avqv, wd‡Z euvav, bvbv Sv‡gjv| †Kv‡j
K‡i cvi Ki‡ZI wØav †bB|
Avgvi GK mgq Qwe †Zvjvi evwZK wQj| mve‡R± Pqb Ki‡Z e‡b
R½‡j Nyi‡Z GKv GKv fvj jvM‡Zv bv| mvw_ n‡Z †ekx Aby‡iva
Ki‡Z nqwb| †ivR `ycyi `y‡Uvq P‡j Avm‡Zv| e‡b ev`v‡o cÙvi cv‡o
gvBj wZb Pvi †nu‡U mܨvq †div| GKw`b bq `yBw`b bq, gv‡mi ci
gvm| †Kvb weKvi †bB, †bB K¬vwš—| Qwe †KvbUv wb‡j †Kgb n‡e †m
wb‡q gv_v e¨_v †bB| wb¯ú„n, wKš‘ wbqwgZ| mevi, †ejvqB GgbUv|
wb‡Ri f~wgKv ivLvi †PóvI K‡iwb| GKevi Gqvi Mvb w`‡q 40Uv NyNy
gvijvg `yR‡b| AvBbZt KzwoUv cÖvc¨ Zvi| gvÎ cuvPUv wb‡q Avi wbj
bv| evox‡Z Avgviv wZb Pvi †KwR NyNyi gvsm fy‡b c‡ivUv w`‡q
†Ljvg| GL‡bv †`Lv n‡j Avgv‡`i cyi‡bv w`‡bi Af¨vm g‡Zv wm‡bgv
ev bvU‡Ki WvqjM e‡j g‡bvfve cÖKvk Kwi †hUv Avgiv Qvov Kv‡iv
†evSvi mva¨ bvB| †mw`b evRvi K‡i wdiwQj K_v n‡jv bv| Bkvivq
cvQvq PvwU †g‡i ZR©bx e„×v½ywj PUP‡U jvM‡Q f½x K‡i †`Lv‡jv|
eySjvg gvQ wKb‡Z ev‡RU †kl | ey‡ov eq‡m msmv‡i gb w`‡q‡Q| Mí
Kivi mgq cvq bv| evm Qvov Avi †cuŠQv‡bvi euvwk evRvq| ag©NUUU
n‡j `y`Ê Kv‡Q cvIqv hvq|

Lyiig / Avwbm
Avgv‡`i M¨vs Gi me m`m¨B QbœQvov| evox †divi Zvov
†bB| M‡í AvÇvq mvivivZ Kvevi Ki‡jI †LuvR co‡Zv bv| †i‡ji
gv‡V em‡j myweav GKUvB Pv‡qi †`vKvbx ivZ n‡q‡Q, Kvjyi Nyg cv‡”Q
e‡j DwV‡q †`evi fq †bB| Kbdvg© e¨v‡Pjvi gxi mv‡ne whwb
†mZviev`K| †ó‡R DV‡j wcwos wcwos ï‡b nj Lvwj n‡q †hZ| ZviI
GKwbô ‡kªvZv AvgivB| ciw`b eÜz gn‡j ÷¨v›U †g‡i †`evi
AwfcÖv‡q g›`, fvj hv D™¢U meB coZvg| Rxe‡bi †kl wPwKrmvi
183 |

n¨vÛwejI| Av‡jvPbv ZK© Pj‡Zv welq †_‡K welqvš—‡i| Mí
Dcb¨v‡mi cÖwZwU Pwi‡Îi †cvóg‡U©g| ‡mB mgq D‡ëvi‡_ wegj
wg‡Îi Ômv‡ne wewe †MvjvgÕ avivevwnK †ei n‡”Q| msNvZ Gov‡Z cÖ_g
nv‡Z GKRb †Rv‡i †Rv‡i co‡Zv, GUv Mjvi ¸‡b Avgvi fv‡MB
co‡Zv, euvwKiv ïb‡Zv| Zvici jUvix K‡i `yB w`‡bi Rb¨ wbR
†ndvR‡Z ivL‡Z AbygwZ| ZK© n‡Zv eB wb‡q, Av‡jvPbv n‡Zv wbwl×
wel‡qI| Z‡e †g‡q‡`i wc‡Q wc‡Q †NvivNywi Avgv‡`i cQ‡›`i welq
wQj bv| hw`I †cÖ‡g c‡owQjvg Avgiv K‡qKRb| be¨ †cÖwgK‡K
mn‡hvwMZv civg‡k©i nvZ evwo‡q w`Z mK‡jB|
ZK©hy‡× Avwg Avi Avwbm me©`vB gv‡V| euvwKiv Dc‡fvM Ki‡Zv| GUv
cÖvq †iIqvR n‡q †MwQj| †k‡l Avgiv gvgv fv‡Mœ cvwZ‡q mwÜ Kwi|
gvgv fv‡Mœ ci¯úi‡K AvNvZ Ki‡j ey‡ov n‡j nvZ Kuvc‡e GB
hyw³‡Z| wKš‘ dj n‡jv D‡ëv| Avgvi evev Ii bvbv | Avwbm †Q‡j‡K
†Q‡o evc‡K ai‡jv| wLw¯— †LDo Avi Avw` imvZ¥K welq ev‡ci
m‡½I K‡i Avgvi mv‡_I| evc gv †bB| †ev‡bi evox †_‡K †U‡bUz‡b
g¨vwÆK cvk K‡i Wej †eKvi| Avwbm Avi Lyiig Avgv‡`i bvU‡Ki
¯’vqx †MUg¨vb Avi †÷R g¨v‡bRvi| cvk ev wU‡KU bv _vK‡j evc‡KI
XyK‡Z †`‡e bv|
ivRevox K‡jR cÖwZôvi mvnvhv‡_© bvUK n‡”Q| bvwqKvI G‡m‡Q XvKv
wd‡j¥i| wbR ¸‡bi K_v ejvi †jvf mvgjv‡Z cviwQ bv| bvqK GB
Aag| wU‡K‡Ui g~j¨ Kzwo UvKv, cÂvk UvKv| 1962 mv‡j A‡bK|
Z‡e eva¨Zvg~jK weµq nIqvq Ges mn‡hvwMZvq cÖkvmb _vKvq
nvDmdyj| †M‡U h_vixwZ Avwbm| cywj‡ki eo mv‡ne‡KI AvU‡K
†d‡j‡Q| †m‡KÛ Awdmvi Z`viwK‡Z, Ii mvnm Avi mZZvq gy»|
†W‡K PvKzix w`‡jb K‡jR wewìs wbg©v‡bi Kv‡R †`Lvïbvi
mycvifvBRvi| wKš‘ †mLv‡b LvUvLvwU Avwbm Avevi Suv‡Ki KB Suv‡K
wd‡i G‡jv| wKQy w`b Wvt AvmRv` mv‡n‡ei mnKvix, Avgv‡`i
miKvix, Aby`vb cÖvß Ôe­yÕ K¬v‡ei Awdm K¬vK© KL‡bv Avgiv Puv`v w`‡q
†h †Kv-Acv‡iwUf †÷vi Ly‡jwQjvg †mB †`vKv‡bi Pvj †Zj gvcvi
Kg©Pvix Kvg wnmve i¶K| GKw`b DavI n‡q †Mj ïbjvg †`‡ki
184 |

evox Ni RvgvB n‡q w`b KvUv‡”Q| wKQyw`b ci Lei Avm‡jv g‡iB
†M‡Q|
Avi GK PwiÎ Lyiig| Zvi me ejv n‡jI wKQyB ejv n‡e bv|
we.Gm.wm cvk K‡i fvj PvKzix †c‡q XvKvq _v‡K| Zvi ˆewk‡ói
GKUv bgybvi M‡elYv Ki‡j wKQy AvuP Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Ii we‡qi
eihvÎx Avgiv mevB gyiMxi V¨vs cvBwb e‡j Rxe‡b Avi k¦ïi evox
gyiMx Lvqwb| evmi N‡i beea~i Kv‡Q AbygwZ PvBj cv‡k emvi|
j¾vebZ ea~i wbieZvq KvwU‡q w`j mvivivZ †Pqv‡i e‡m| nu¨v,
Bs‡iRxi RvnvR wQj| PvKzix‡Z IB †h G¨vwmm‡U›U †UKwbK¨vj
Awdmvi n‡q Xy‡KwQj ZvB iBj D‡g`vix Ki‡Z cvi‡jv bv e‡j| eÜzi
Aby‡iv‡a K‡jR co–qv †g‡q‡K Bs‡iRx cov‡Z ivRx n‡jv e‡U| UvKv
†b‡e bv| †k‡l kZ© n‡jv Awdm QywUi ci cov‡e| wKš‘ IB mgq wL‡`
cvq- fvZ LvIqv‡Z n‡e| hv _v‡K ZvB w`‡q we‡kl wKQy Ki‡j n‡e
bv| GKw`b ïay Wvj Av‡Q M„wnbx wWg †f‡R †`Iqvq PvKixi B¯—dv|
gvm gvBbv †c‡j Avgv‡`i K¬v‡ei Puv`v Avi `yt¯’ m`m¨‡`i Rvgv ev
c¨v‡›Ui `vg gvwbIW©vi K‡i cvVv‡Zv wbqwgZ| fvj MvBZ †m| g„Zz¨
msev` †c‡qwQ| Avn& Dn& Kivi †KB bvB Avwg Qvov| govi Av‡MI
XvKvi dzUcv_ †_‡K cy‡iv‡bv wiWvi WvB‡Ró kÕLv‡bK cvwV‡q‡Q
Avgv‡K| †iv‡` `uvwo‡q eB evQvB Ki‡Z KZbv Kó n‡q‡Q Zvi|
ÔwKQy †jvK gnË¡ wb‡qB Rb¥vq
wKQy †jvK‡K Zv AR©b Ki‡Z nq
wKQy †jv‡Ki Dci Zv Pvwc‡q †`Iqv nq|
ev`euvKx Avgiv mevB fvwe
Avgiv gnr|Õ
AvM&by Avgvi `v`vevey
‡UwjMÖvd gvóvi m‡š—vl Kzgvi L„óvb| evoxUv K‡jRcvov
†ebRxi Avng‡`i `w¶‡b| ¯¿x Db¥v` wQ‡jb| ÔAvMbyÕ Avi wZwb †i‡ji
cvVkvjvi cv‡kB eb¨ GK ï‡qvi gvi‡jb| AvMby AvcNv‡Z g„Z †`‡ni
185 |

ke e¨e‡”Q` Kivi mvnvh¨Kvix| ZviI GKUv Mv`ve›`yK wQj|
Avgv‡K `v`v evey Avi evev‡K evev ej‡Zv|
cÖvqB iv‡Z †ekvgvj n‡q evox †divi c‡_ Avgv‡`i evoxi mvg‡b G‡m
evev, evev wPrKvi Ki‡Zv| evev hZ¶b bv D‡V evox hv ej‡e Zvi
WvK _vg‡Zv bv| GKw`b Igwb wPrKvi Ki‡Q| gv hw` ej‡Z cv‡i
†PuPvwe bv †Zvi `v`v eveyi R¡i| e¨m P‡j G‡jv evoxi †fZi|
`v`vevey‡K Ac‡`eZv fi K‡i‡Q GLv‡b wb‡q G‡mv GLywb mvwo‡q
w`w”Q| D‡Vv‡b †Mvj AvuK †K‡U Avgv‡K gv‡S ewm‡q P°i w`‡”Q Avi
weo weo K‡i gš¿ co‡Q| A‡bK eywS‡q mywR‡q †invB cvIqv †Mj|
Avgvi cÖwZ Ii fvjevmv wQj AK…wÎg| iv¯—vq †`Lv n‡jB †nB
`v`vevey evox hvI| co‡Z e‡mv wM‡q| evwn‡i Ny‡iv bv, †mUv †h
mg‡qB †nvK| GKw`b mKv‡j D‡V gv wPrKvi Ki‡Q evoxi KzovjUv
cvIqv hv‡”Q bv| cv‡ki evoxi †jvK G‡m e‡j­b fvex Kzovj Kzovj
K‡i †PuPv‡eb bv| †ij‡M‡Ui cv‡ki Lv‡` GKUv jv‡ki cv‡k GKUv
Kzovj c‡o Av‡Q| gv f‡q Pzc| I Qvov evox‡Z Avi †KD XyK‡Z cv‡i
bv| Ii g„Zz¨i ci jvjy Ii †Q‡j jvk KvUvi mnvqK nq| Zvi †Q‡j
Rqjvj MvqK| KvIqvjx Avi LvRvevevi Ii‡k ag©xq Mvb Mvq|
gymjgvb A‡b‡Ki G‡Z AvcwË wkíx Zvi ag© Z¨vM Ki‡jv wKš‘ Mvb
Qvo‡jv bv| Avãyi ingvb bvg wb‡q †m gv`vixcyi P‡j hvq| 1 †Q‡j
XvKvq e¨emv K‡i| †g‡q wZbwU †jLvcov wk‡L‡Q we‡qI n‡q‡Q fvj
cv‡Î| 1Uv †g‡q wb‡RI GjwRBwW-‡Z PvKzix †c‡q‡Q| jvjyi
Ab¨avivi †gvnbjvj eZ©gv‡b wcZ…aviv jvk KvUvq Wv³v‡ii mnvqK|

XvKvi eÜz
1951 mv‡ji †klw`‡K evev cwievi mn XvKvq emev‡mi Rb¨
wb‡q †M‡jb| GLv‡b ïay gv‡qi ZË¡veav‡b Avgv‡K e‡k ivLv hv‡e bv|
GUv cwi¯‹vi n‡q †M‡Q|
186 |

West end high school-G fwZ© njvg| ZLbI Mv‡q bZz‡bi MÜ|
cwiwPZ †KD bvB| we‡K‡j evoxi wcQ‡bi KvV †Mvjv‡ci Wv‡j e‡m
gv‡V ev”Pv‡`i †Ljv ‡`wL|
kwn`yj Rnx‡ii ÔWjy b`xi nvIqvÕi g‡Zv ebMÖvg †j‡bi bZzb fvov‡U
G‡j B`uyi n‡e, cy‡iv‡bviv wejvB, †mB huvZvK‡j AvwgI cojvg| gv‡V
ev”Pv‡`i †Mv`v Avgv‡K †`L‡jB wPKv, wewj­ e‡j wPrKvi w`Z,
Ab¨vb¨iv †`vnvi MvBZ| Avgvi †QvU fvBUvI IB `‡j wfu‡o †M‡Q|
Avwg ZvKv‡jB me Pzc, †Ljvq gb| cv‡ji †Mv`v GKUv euv`i
cyl‡Zv| Kuv‡a wb‡q Nyi‡Zv me mgq| †Ljvi mgqUvq IUv †Mvj
†cv‡ói cv‡k ivLv †MwÄ Rvgv wb‡q †jvdvjywd Ki‡Zv| GKw`b
†Mv`v‡K cvKovI Kijvg| fvj gvby‡li g‡Zv me A¯^xKvi Ki‡jv|
Z‡e †mw`b †_‡KB Avgiv eÜz njvg| Ii mv‡_ mvB‡K‡j me mgq
NyiZvg| bvivqbM‡Ä Ii bvbv evox †MwQ mvB‡K‡j| Avw` eªvþb
cwievi| cvwievwiK Kvi‡Y GKUv Pvcv †¶vf Ii g‡b KwVb †_‡K
KwVbZi n‡”Q eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ| †mUv Rvb‡Z †P‡q g‡b Kó w`‡Z
PvBwb| RvbZvg I †cvl euv`iUv‡K gvbv‡jI wb‡R †cvl gvb‡e bv|
cov‡jLv K‡i eo wWMÖx wbj| wKš‘ GLv‡bi eÜb wQu‡o fviZ P‡j
hvq| wVKvbv cvIqv KwVb wQj bv Zey Avgv‡K †c‡q hw` weeªZ †eva
K‡i ZvB †m †Póv Kwiwb| GZvw`b †eu‡P Av‡Q †Zv?

Kvkx Luv Ii‡d †Mvjvg cxi †PŠayix
Avgv‡`i `‡ji Av‡iK m`m¨ Kvkx Luv| wcZ…`Ë bvg †Mvjvg
cxi †PŠayix| gv‡S gv‡S A™¢yZ kã K‡i Mjv mvd Ki‡Zv †K‡k wb‡q|
Avwg bvg w`jvg Kuvkx Luv Avi †m bvgUvB †kl Aewa cÖwZôv †c‡q
†Mj|
‡mvbvi PvgP gy‡L wb‡q R‡b¥wQj| †ij cÖwZôvi m~Pbv j‡Mœ 1870
`k‡K Ii `v`v mwjgy¾vgvb †PŠayix wVKv`vi wQ‡jb| A_©vMg A¸YwZ
cwigv‡b|
187 |

e„wUk miKv‡i UvKv LiP K‡i †PŠayix n‡jb| ivRevox kni ZLb ax‡i
ax‡i cÖwZôv cv‡”Q| kn‡i RvqMv Rwg wKb‡jb, evox evbv‡jb|
RbwnZKi me Kv‡RB Avw_©K mn‡hvwMZvi nvZ evwo‡q bvg Ki‡jb|
Muv‡Ui cqmv LiP K‡i evoxi cv‡k †ij †ókb emv‡jb| w`Mš— Qwo‡q
dm‡ji †¶Z| evox‡Z cvKv ˆeVKLvbv| †k¦Z cv_‡i weQv‡bv
gmwR`| cyKziUvi gvS eivei †PŠ‡Kvbv †`qvj †Niv †g‡q‡`i muvZv‡ii
e¨e¯’v hvi †`qvj †b‡g G‡m‡Q †fZi evoxi cÖvš— †_‡K| cyÎ Gbv‡qZ
cxi †PŠayix ZrKv‡ji abx‡`i Zx_© KjKvZvq †_‡K iß Ki‡jb
AwfRvZ †kªYxi Pjv ejv, †mŠwLbZvi Pzovš— ch©v‡qi ixwZbxwZ| †mvbvi
e¨v‡Ûi Nwo, i¨vjx mvB‡Kj Avi e›`yK hvi wØZxqUv G †Rjvq wQj bv|
Zvi †Q‡j †Mvjvg cxi †PŠayix Kzwo eQi bv †ci“‡ZB me wKQyi gvwjK
nj| wcZvi m¤ú` †Kv_vq KZ Av‡Q Rvb‡jv bv| Rvb‡Z PvBjI bv|
ïay wejvwmZvq Mv fvwm‡q Do‡Z _vK‡jv| ïay AvÇvq †Mvjv k~b¨ nq
bv| ïay †bkv‡ZI c‡KU Lvwj nq bv| Ryqvq †h Avbymv½xK bvjv¸‡jv
Db¥y³ nq Zv‡ZB †kl n‡jv|
evox N‡ii BUI wewµ n‡q †Mj| †g‡q‡`i †mB NvUjvUvI _vK‡jv bv|
ˆelwqK †jv‡Kiv my‡hv‡Mi mبvenvi K‡i I‡K †`Iwjqv K‡i w`j|
†Kv_vq †Mj †mB mvB‡Kj Avi e›`yK hvi mgK¶ AvRI GKUv
†`Ljvg bv| GKw`b nVvr K‡iB g‡i †Mj| `~‡f©vM †_‡K i¶v †cj|
AvgvivI ¯^w¯— ‡cjvg| A‡bK w`b GK mv‡_ _vKv gvby‡li `~`©kv †`Lv
hvq? †hLv‡b Kivi wKQyB _v‡K bv|
Avgvi bvbx
MÖvg¨ GK gwnjv| `yBUv Kb¨v mš—v‡bi Rb¥ w`‡q eܨv
n‡q‡Qb, GK‡g‡q gviv †M‡j Avgvi gv A‡Üi hwô | G‡g‡qiI we‡q
nq hLb †hvMv‡hv‡Mi my‡hvM wQj bv e‡j­B P‡j| Zey bvwoi Uv‡b
Avm‡Zb, Z‡e †mUv Avgvi R‡b¥i mvgvb¨ wKQy Av‡M †_‡K , hLb †ij
†hvMv‡hvM n‡q †M‡Q| bvbv Avm‡Zb Mi“i Mvox K‡i Z‡e gv‡S e`j
Ki‡Z n‡Zv K‡qKevi †mRb¨ K‡ói mxgv wQj bv |
188 |

bvbx G‡j Avgiv Lykx nZvg Lye| me©`vB Av`i hZœ QvovI iv‡Z ï‡q
ï‡q Mí †kvbv ˆbwgwËK e¨vcvi wQj| fyZ ‡cÖZ ivRKb¨vi K_v |
ïb‡Z ïb‡Z KLb Nywg‡q coZvg| ciw`b wVK †mLvb †_‡K ïi“
n‡Zv, MÖvg¨ Awkw¶Z e„×vi ¯§„wZ kw³ AvR ‡f‡e AevK nB| fvj
jvM‡Zv †mB ivRKb¨vi K_v mœøvbv‡š— gv_vi `xNj Kv‡jv Pzj Qwo‡q
we‡K‡ji †n‡j cov m~h© ik¥x‡Z e‡m Av‡Q Avi mwLiv †n‡m †n‡m G
Ii Mv‡q jy‡UvcywU| bvbxi gv_vi cvKv Pzj Zz‡j w`‡j 10Uvq GK Avbv
cvIqv †hZ|
fv`y wgqv (kixd †gvt byi“j nK)
1962-63 mv‡j mg‡q Amg‡q GKRb ga¨eqmx †jvK‡K
†`Lv †hZ c_ w`‡q †nu‡U †h‡Z| †d KvU `vwo| gv_vq †LRyi cvZvq
ˆZix n¨vU, UvB †g‡q‡`i f¨wbwU e¨vM UzwKUvwK Av‡iv wKQy wb‡q, †cQ‡b
me©`vB Qvqvi g‡Zv U¨v‡Û‡ji Nv‡o cv‡Ui `wo Avi n¨vU UvB‡qi
†evSv| †mwQj ivbœvi eveyP©x Kvg weR‡bm cvU©bvi| Avgv‡`i Pv‡qi
AvÇvLvbvq wccvmv wgUv‡Z gv‡S g‡a¨ Xy‡K co‡Zb| wgófvlx bgª|
Avgiv Avjvc K‡i Rvb‡Z cvwi wZwb KivPx ‡_‡K ISC cvk K‡i
D”PZi wk¶vi AwfcÖv‡q nuvUv c‡_ jÛ‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ iIbv nb eQi
Q‡qK Av‡M| Bivb, Zzi¯‹, Rvg©vbx n‡q Ae‡k‡l GKw`b mwZ¨ †cuŠ‡Q
hvb wejv‡Z| ILv‡b Ibvi gv_vi M‡Ûv‡Mvj aiv c‡o| †mRb¨ Mvi‡`
_vK‡Z nq wZb eQi| wPwKrmvq wKQy my¯’¨Zv wd‡i G‡j ‡mLv‡bB
¯^vej¤^x Rxeb hvc‡bi Rb¨ nv‡Zi KvR wk¶v †`Iqv nq| †LRyi
cvZvi UzwKUvwK wRwbm QvovI ¯^í kª‡g cv‡Ui `wo cvKv‡bv Kv‡Vi Kj
†hUvq GKRb c¨v‡Wj Ki‡j `k Rb myZv cvKv‡Z cv‡i Ggb me
Kv‡Vi KvRI wZwb wk‡L Av‡mb| GLv‡b wZwb GUvB RxweKvi Aej¤^b
MÖnb K‡i‡Qb| Avgiv AvK„ó njvg Ges Ibvi mvnvh¨Kvix wnmv‡e
Avgv‡`i AvMª‡ni K_v Rvbvjvg| H mg‡q Avgiv Wv³vi AvmRv`
mv‡n‡ei wkwe‡i †_‡K wKQy mvgvwRK Kg©KvÛ KiZvg| gvwU †K‡U Szwo
gv_vq wb‡q iv¯—v ˆZix, c‡_i cv‡k R½j cwi¯‹vi BZ¨vw`| Avgiv fv`y
189 |

wgqvi mvK‡i` njvg| wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ Puv`v Zz‡j evRvi †_‡K cvU wK‡b
Avbjvg| †ivR we‡K‡j `yÕN›Uv `wo cvKvZvg| mKv‡j †`vKv‡b
†`vKv‡b †dwi K‡i myZvjx †e‡P ‡eov‡Z jvMjvg| Avgv‡`i `j QvovI
gbbkxj hyeK hyewZ GwM‡q G‡jv| mvavib gvby‡li c~Y© mnvbyfywZ wb‡q
GUv GKUv cÖvwZôvwbK iƒc †cj| bZzb wKQy Movi Avb‡›` mevB
Dj­wmZ| cÖwZôv‡bi GKUv cwiPvjbv KwgwUi cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv w`j| mfv
K‡i Avgiv me©m¤§Z fv‡e wm×vš— wbjvg| Avgiv wbt¯^v_© kªg w`e
mevB| fv`y wgqv wbw`©ó fvZv cv‡eb Ges A_©‰bwZK wefvMUv cyY©
`vwqZ¡ †`Iqv n‡e Kg‡iW Pvby‡K| cÖwZôvbUv Ibvi n‡jI Avgv‡`i
mevi Puv`vq M‡o IVv wecyj As‡Ki A_© Ibvi GKvi nv‡Z †`evi
c¶cvwZ wQjvg bv| Dwb Avgv‡`i G wm×v‡š— GKgZ n‡jb bv| †f‡Uv
w`‡jb| mg‡SvZvi me cÖ‡Póv e¨_© n‡jv| †mw`bB Avgiv IB
cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ me m¤úK© wQbœ K‡i †ewo‡q Gjvg| ay‡K ay‡K IUv
GKw`b eÜ n‡q hvq| fv`y wgqvI †ewk w`b euvP‡jb bv|
Avgv‡`i ibRb
ÓibRb †gv‡`i evoxi †Q‡j
mvivw`b KvUvq †L‡j,
mvivw`b K‡i ‡Nviv †div
¯^fve Zvi Nvo‡Ziv|
iv‡Z Nygvq AvUUvq I†V
mKvj mvZUvq|
Lvqbv †m `ya i“wU
Pzj Zvi KywU KzwU|
kxZKv‡j _v‡K †m
¸wU ïwU|Ó
17/12/1983mv‡j 10eQi eq‡m †h wbR PwiÎ we‡k­lY Ki‡Z †k‡L
Zvi †jLv KweZv w`‡qB Zvi g‡bi µg weKvk †evSv hv‡e |
190 |

gvÎ mv‡o wZb eQi eq‡mB †m gvZ…nxb nq | gv‡qi †Kv‡ji ¯§„wZUzKz
m¤^j K‡i w`‡b w`‡b †e‡o I‡V| †mB AvKzwZi cÖKvk Zvi KweZvq
Hmg‡qB |
Ógv‡K Avgvi g‡b c‡o bv,
gv †Kgb wQ‡jb, ZvI
Rvwbbv|
gv Zzwg †Kgb wQ‡j
GLb Zzwg †Kv_vq †M‡j?
‡gv‡`i †Q‡o Zzwg
‡Kv_vq P‡j †M‡j,
Avi‡Zv wd‡i bvwn G‡j |Ó
Rxe‡bi †e`bv AvZ¥¯’ nq we‡¶v‡f| hvi cÖKvk I KweZvqB|
ÓRxeb Zywg K‡Zv my›`i
Rxeb Zywg Beautiful
Rxeb Zzwg `yt‡L fiv
Rxeb Zzwg b‡ói g~j |
Rxeb
Zzwg
Ki‡j
present
Avgvq `yt‡Li w`b¸wj
Rxeb ‡Zvgvq mvg‡b †c‡j
Dwo‡q w`Zvg gv_vi Lywj|
Rxeb Zywg UvDU
Rxeb Zywg eLv‡U,
Rxeb †Zvgvq Avwo w`jvg
Speak wU not ‡Zvgvi
mv‡_|
Rxeb
Zzwg
AuvKveuvKv
eywSbv †Zvgvi AvMvgv_v|
ejbv Zywg Kx?Ó
Avcb fyeb M‡o Zzj‡jv ‡m wb‡RB | cyZzj †Ljvq Zvi AvKl©Y wQjbv
| wKQy M‡o †Zvjvi, wKQy D™¢vebx cÖ‡Póvq †m GKvKx GUv-IUv
191 |

evbv‡bvi †Póv Ki‡Zv| K‡q‡ji Zvi †cwP‡q cyi‡bv e¨vUvix w`‡q
Py¤^Km„wó K‡i bvbvb iK‡gi LyULvU Kiv G‡ZB ‡m gMœ n‡q †hZ| eo
`y‡Uv ¯‹z‡j †M‡j evox‡Z GKv c‡o hvq| Aek¨ G‡Z Ii Amyweav
wQjbv| wb‡Ri nvZzox †c‡iK m½x _vK‡j Ii mgq fvjB KvU‡Zv|
evoxi †MUUv A‡bK `~‡i| Avwg ivbœv ev mvsmvwiK Kv‡R e¨¯— _vK‡j
†KD G‡m †LuvR Ki‡j WvK AZ`~i Kv‡b †cuŠQv‡Zv bv| †m mgvavbI
IB Ki‡jv †M‡Ui ûo‡KvUvq Zvi †eu‡a evB‡i †ei K‡i w`j| GLb
IUv evB‡i †_‡K †LvjvI hvq eÜI Kiv hvq, wU,wf†Z weÁvb Abyôv‡b
WvqvMÖvg Gu‡K Calling bell evbv‡bvi †Póv Ki‡Z †`‡L evRvi
†_‡K speaker BZ¨vw` G‡b w`jvg| evbv‡jv Ges †mUv DPz ¯—‡ii
nj| ¯‹z‡ji weÁvb †gjvh Ask wb‡q cÖksmv †cj cyi¯‹…ZI nj| eo
fvB†`i mv‡_ K¬v‡m ewm‡q ivLvi Rb¨ cvVvjvg| ï‡b ï‡bB I‡`i cov
me gyL¯— n‡q †Mj| cvkI K‡i †Mj| fwZ© nevi mgq eqm Kg
nIqvq court †_‡K eqm evwo‡q Avb‡Z nj| Aem‡i eB co‡Zv
†mUv kerP›`ª wK¯^v RwmgD`&`xb fvix ev nvév ‡Kvb evQ wePvi wQjbv|
†`e`v‡mi AbyKi‡Y MíI wjL‡jv | Le‡ii KvMR iv¯—vq UvwO‡q
ivL‡Zv mvavi‡bi covi R‡b¨| pen friend Gi wVKvbv wb‡q wPwVI
†jLv ïi“ Ki‡jv MÊv MÊv| G‡Zv wKQyi ciI gv‡qi Rb¨ AvKzwZ
Anin Zv‡K we¶zä K‡i Zzj‡Zv| wKQy Rxeb weow¤^Z fvM¨ wb‡qB
Rb¥vq| civ_©ci cyY¨eZx gv‡qi mš—vb Kó cvq †Kb , AvU eQi cyY© bv
n‡j †Zv wPÎ¸ß cvccy‡b¨i LvZvq AvuPo Kv‡Ub bv| Z‡e wK 1937
mv‡j ‡h LvZv †Lvjv n‡qwQj GUv wK ZviB †hvMdj? gv‡qi weQvbvq
Avgv‡KI em‡Z w`Zbv| Avgvi †Kv‡j Avm‡ZvI bv| †h ey‡K gyL
¸‡R GZUzKz duvK ivL‡Zv bv wcZvi mva¨ wK †mB DòZv mÂvwiZ
Kivi| iv‡Z nuvZ‡o LuyR‡Zv †Kv_vq †mB Avwj½b Avi ggZv gvLv‡bv
Avkªq| g‡bi PvIqvUv cÖKv‡ki fvlv Rvbv wQjbv Ii | Avgvi †ev‡bi
evmvq gv‡S gv‡S wb‡q †hZvg|
dzcyi †Kvj †Q‡o bvg‡Z PvBZ bv, Zvi †Q‡jUv wb‡Ri gv‡qi †mœ‡ni
fvM emv‡”Q ¯^fvweK fv‡eB Zvi AvcwË| ibR‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ Avgvi
eyKUvI UzK‡iv UK‡iv n‡q †hZ | wm×vš— wbjvg Avi †Kv_vI hvebv |
Avgv‡`i e¨v_v Avgv‡`iB _vK| Gmg‡q ibRb wjL‡jv192 |

Ógv‡qi †møn cvBwb †gviv
wbVyi G RM‡Z |
ZeyI †gviv Nywiwb Kv‡iv
Øv‡i|
†gviv, evevi Av`‡i gvbyl
n‡ev fye‡b,
evev ZLb Lykx n‡eb KZ,
†`L‡e †gv‡`i AevK n‡q,
†jvK kZ kZ|
-25/8/83 10 eQi|
Avevi wjL‡jvwbt¯^v_© cÖRvcwZ †h wKQyB †bqbv ZviI Av‡¶c gvbyl bv n‡q
Rb¥vevi|
ÓcÖRvcwZ nIwb e‡j ,
KiQ Zzwg `ytL|
gvbyl n‡q G‡mQ ,
ZvI Zzwg gyL©|
cÖRvcwZ fv‡e e‡m ,
nZvg hw` gvbyl|
Zvn‡j _vK‡Zv bv g‡b
†Kvb iKg Kjyl| Ó
Gmg‡q ibR‡bi †jLvq dz‡U I‡V wKQy AwfgvbÓhLb †gv‡`i gv wQ‡jb bv,
evev wQ‡jb Lvwj |
dyj evMv‡b dzj wQj,
wQjbv ïay gvjx|
gvjx wenxb dzj MvQ‡K,
K‡iwQj evev hZœ |
G Rxe‡b evev †c‡qwQ ,
GB Avgv‡`i iZœ|
193 |

gv‡qi †kvK fyjZvg
†gviv,
Lvjvi w`‡K †P‡q|
gv‡qi †møn f‡i _vK‡Zv ,
Lvjvi gyL †Q‡q|
†Zvgiv †gv‡`i fy‡j †MQ,
Zv Avgiv Rvwb|
†Zvgv‡`i K_v Avgiv
mevB ,
Av‡Rv fywjwb|Ó
17/2/84
wb‡R‡K Amnvh †f‡e `vwi`ª¨ZvB Gi KviY †f‡e‡Q| Av‡¶c Zvi
†P‡q bv cvIqv | ZvB IB mg‡q wjL‡jv|
GK ‡`‡kiB GK †Rjv‡Z,
GK
Muv‡hiB
GK
cvov‡Z|
_vwK †gviv `yB Rbv‡Z
abx Mixe e‡jb hv‡K,
gvbyl †gviv `yRbvB |
`yR‡bB Lv`¨ LvB,
wePvi †Kv_vI bvwn cvB|
†gviv Mixe e‡j ZvB,
wePvi †Kv_vI bvwn cvB|
‡gv‡`i †Kvb `vg bvB
abxi mv‡_ †gv‡`i ,
Zzjbv †Kv_v cvB|
KLbI covïbvi e¨vcv‡i †Kvb cÖ‡Póv †bevi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Avwg †eva
Kwiwb | wbR cÖ‡PóvqB †m me K‡i‡Q| XvKvq GK eÜyi evmvq cuvP
eQi wbR evoxi g‡ZvB Avcb n‡q _vK‡jv mgv`‡i | hv AvRI
Ae¨vnZ Av‡Q|
194 |

GK cyÎ mš—vb wb‡q K…”QZvi mv‡_ w`b KvUvq | QywU QvUv Kg| B”Qv
_vK‡jI evox Avmv Zvi n‡q I‡Vbv| Ii office G wM‡qwQ| Ii hLb
Chief e‡jb ibR‡bi g‡Zv GKUv †Q‡j wZwb †c‡q Lykx, Avwg Avc­yZ
n‡q hvB| cÖwZ wbqZ Avwg Avgvi GB `ytLx mš—v‡bi Rb¨ cÖv_©bv Kwi|
Ii eo mva wQj| gv evev‡K Kv‡Q †i‡L †mev Kivi, cv‡iwb| †h
Kqw`b Ii GB gv Ii Kv‡Q wQj office †_‡K G‡mB gv‡qi †Kv‡j
gv_v †i‡L †PvL eyu‡R _vK‡Zv| Ii gv Pz‡j wewj †K‡U w`‡j Z…ß n‡Zv|
Rxe‡bi Mfxi w`KUv †Kgb Abyf~wZ wb‡q Ii ü`q ¯úk© K‡i‡Q †mB
†Q‡j‡ejvq| hv wKQy †m AvR †m Zvi wb‡Ri cÖ‡PóvqB| Avwg wb‡R
†_‡K †hUvq n¯—‡¶c K‡iwQ Zv Ii g½j e‡q Av‡bwb| GRb¨ Avwg
AbyZß nB cÖwZ c‡j| †klK_vUvB I‡K Avwg ewj g‡b g‡b| evev‡i
†hgb ZzB B‡”Q K‡i Avgvi Kv‡Q Avwmm wb, AvwgI †Zv‡K B‡”Q K‡i
Avwbwb|
‡QvU ‡ev‡bi g„Zz¨NÈv
1975 mv‡ji 6 GwcÖj Avgvi GKgvÎ †QvU fvB‡K i¶xevwnbx
†g‡i ‡dj­| evev‡K G AvNvZ mB‡Z nqwb| bqgvm Av‡MB wZwb MZ
n‡q‡Qb| Avgvi ¯¿x bvevjK wZbUv ev”Pv †i‡L P‡j †Mj wVK 1 eQ‡ii
gv_vq| weaev mšÍvbnviv gv c½y n‡q weQvbvq|
g„Zy¨i c`aŸwb Avevi †mvbv ‡Mj| †QvU †ev‡bi Lv`¨ bvjx‡Z
Cancer aiv c‡o‡Q| Avgvi me‡P‡q wcÖq †evbUvi g„Zz¨NÈv Rvbvb
w`‡q †Mj Wv³v‡ii Kj‡gi GK AvuP‡o|
wc‡VwcwV G †evbUv wQj Avgvi gv‡qi †Kv‡ji fvMx`vi| Rb¥ kΓ †m|
†hw`b ey‡Ki Dci †P‡c e‡mwQ †mw`b †_‡KB gv I‡K †Pv‡L †Pv‡L
ivL‡Zv ANUb wKQy NUvi f‡q| GZ`m‡Ë¡I GKwU †gv¶g my‡hvM †c‡q
hvB Avwg| gv‡qi RvgvB G‡m‡Qb| gnve¨v¯Í †nu‡m‡j| fvB †ev‡b
Kjgx QvIqv Lv‡ji cv‡o `uvwo‡q KB gv‡Qi †jR SvcUv‡bv †`LwQ|
†d‡j w`jvg GK av°vq| Zwj‡qI †Mj AvgvivB †Pv‡Li mvg‡b|
wbwe©Kvi Avwg †P‡q AvwQ| weij c_Pvix iv¯ÍvUvq †Kb †h †mB mgq
195 |

GKR‡bi †Pv‡L c‡o hvq| wPrKv‡i Le‡ii KvMR cvViZ `yjvfvB
Kjgx-`v‡g AvU‡K hvIqv I‡K †U‡b Zzjj| ZLb †m wbtmvo| Avgvi
†kl cÖ‡PóvI e¨_© nj|
K‡e ‡_‡K we‡Øl fvjevmvq iƒc wbj †mUvI g‡b Av‡Q| ZLb XvKvq
_vwK Avgiv| †ek †Rv‡oB GKU Po †g‡i emjvg Ii Mv‡j|
Avµg‡bv‡`¨Z †PvL cjKnxb| AvwgI cÖwZAvµg‡Yi A‡c¶vq|
Avgv‡`i mevi Mv‡j Ii b‡Li AvP‡oiB `vM| wKš‘ wK Avðh©| †hUv
NUvi wQj Zv NU‡jv bv| eo eo †Pv‡L †dvUv¸‡jv µ‡g S‡o co‡jv|
‡mUv 1952 mvj n‡e|
AvR Avgv‡`i cwiev‡ii me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi gvbylUvi g„Zz¨ c‡ivqvbv eoB
wePwjZ K‡i †d‡j‡Q| †m wKš‘ wbwe©Kvi wP‡Ë MÖnY K‡i‡Q Zvi wZ‡j
wZ‡j GwM‡q hvIqv|
KZ Mfxi ggZv Avgvi cÖwZ Ii| †MwQ nvRvi gvBj †cwi‡q ZvRgnj
†`L‡Z| c‡K‡U wmMv‡iU _vKvq Avwg AvUKv cojvg †M‡U| mvw_iv
mevB †fZ‡i P‡j †M‡Q| wmMv‡iU †d‡j AvwgI wfZ‡i Xy‡K ‡MwQ|
mv_x‡`i ‡c‡q Rvbjvg I Avgvi A‡c¶vq evB‡iB `uvwo‡q| †`Š‡o
G‡m I‡K wb‡q Avevi †fZ‡i †Mjvg| DwK w`‡qI I GKevi †`‡Lwb
hvi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i nvRvi gvBj cvwi w`‡q Avmv Zvi w`‡K| NÈvLv‡bK
†cwi‡q †M‡Q ZZ¶‡Y|
Avt nvwjg wek¦vm

1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g cÖwZwU cwieviB †Kvb bv
†Kvb fv‡e ¶wZMª¯’ n‡q‡Q| †Kvb cwievi m¤ú~Y© weaŸ¯’ n‡q
hvq| Zv‡`i mevi weeiY wbR wbR GjvKvi cÖR‡b¥i `vwqZ¡
msi¶b Kiv| Rvbv `iKvi ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ Giv †h g~j¨ w`‡q‡Q
Ges cieZ©x Kv‡j GB Z¨v‡Mi g~j¨vqb D‡cw¶Z n‡q‡Q ïaygvÎ
e¨vw³MZ gZv‰bK¨ I gZv`‡k©i wewfbœZvi Kvi‡Y| †m BwZnvm
mevi Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q †`evi `vwqZ¡ mevi Dc‡iB eZ©vq| M‡elK Zvi
Dcv`vb †Zv UzK‡iv UzK‡iv wQbœ cvZv †_‡KB msMÖn K‡i _v‡Kb|
196 |

Avwg †mB UzK‡iv †i‡L hvIqvi `vwqZ¡ ‡eva †_‡KB `yB GKUv hv
†`‡LwQ †i‡L †h‡Z PvB| fvlvi ˆ`b¨Zv eY©vbvq †jvgnl©K ev
Ki“YZv dywU‡q †Zvjv m¤¢‡e n‡e bv| Z‡e co–qvi gb gbb w`‡q
Dcjwä Kiv `„wóf½xi e¨vcvi| Ggwb GK cwievi †eovWv½v 3bs
†iv‡Wi cÖ_g evoxUvi evwm›`v| mvavi‡bi gy‡L gy‡L fvjgvby‡li
msÁvq Avt nvwKg wgqvi bvg cÖPwjZ wQj| m`vB nvm¨gq gvbylUv
AvKl©b Ki‡Zv Zvi e¨venv‡i| gyPwK nvwmi mgq mvg‡bi GKUv
`uv‡Zi wSwjK †L‡j †hZ| Lye mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv wekvj †`vKvb
m`i iv¯—i Dci, †QvU LvU wWcvU©‡g›Uvj †÷vi, myuB my‡Zv †_‡K
eB Pzi“U GgwK Bb‡fjvc †cvóvj ÷¨v¤úI cvIqv ‡hZ| †diZ
cqmv w`‡Zb e¨vsK ‡_‡K wb‡q Avmv PKP‡K UvKv ev LyPivq|
Avwg †Q‡j eq‡m wRwbm wK‡b evox wd‡i †`wL Dwb †ekx †diZ
w`‡q‡Qb| G‡m Avevi evowZ cqmv †diZ †`evi ci †_‡K Dbvi
e¨envi Avgvi cÖwZ wQj Ab¨ iKg| Avjgvix †_‡K eB †ei
KiZvg †`LZvg Avi †i‡Lw`Zvg †Kvb wb‡la wQj bv| Dwb
Avgv‡K wek¦vm K‡ib †mUv Avwg †hgb RvbZvg Avgvi
mvK‡i`ivI Rvb‡Zv| †mv‡K‡mi Dci †ev‡q‡gi g‡a¨ Pzi“U|
Avgv‡`i ¯^v` †bevi eoB B”Qv| mve¨¯— nj AvwgB cvi‡ev ILvb
†_‡K GKUv mov‡Z| K_vgZ KvRI nj| fevbxcyi R½j †e‡Q
wb‡q e‡mwQ mevB| g¨v‡Pi K_v g‡b nq bvB Av‡M| Avevi Gjvg
GKB c×wZ‡Z g¨vPI nvZvjvg|
wZwb ¯’vei A¯’vei A‡bK m¤ú‡`i gvwjK wQ‡jb| †ij cv‡o
Bmjvwgqv †nv‡Uj weL¨vZ, †hLv‡b euvKx LvIqv hvq ZvMv`vi fq
bvB|
wbR mš—vb‡`i cÖwZ wQj AZ¨š— Abyi³| cÖvqB Zv‡`i wb‡q GK
mv‡_ wewiqvbx †L‡Zb GK †Uwe‡j| AvcZ¨ †ø‡n †Q‡j‡`i Kvco
†Pvco, †iwWI †mŠwLbZvi me DcKiY †hvMvb w`‡q‡Qb| Ibvi
evwoi Lvwm Pzwi K‡i g¨v‡bRv‡ii Kv‡Q m¯—vq †Mv¯— wewµ K‡i
†Zj gmjvi cqmv †hvMvi K‡i‡Q Ibvwi †Q‡jiv Zv‡ZI i“ô nb
197 |

bvB| †n‡m †d‡j‡Qb g¨v‡bRv‡ii †evKvwg‡Z| G‡nb gvbylUv‡K
wenvixiv †hw`b nZ¨v K‡i †mw`b GLv‡b hviv ev½vjx ZLbI evm
Ki‡Zv Zv‡`i me fimvB bm¨vr n‡q hvq|
21†k GwcÖj cvK Avwg© ivRevox cÖ‡ek K‡i| Amn‡hvM
Av‡›`vj‡bi mgq mevB hLb wbwðZ nB cvwK¯—vb Avgv‡`i Dci
AvR †nvK Kvj †nvK AvcwZZ n‡eB, 25†k gv‡P©i c‡i hv mZ¨
nq| †gvj­v evoxi cyKzi cv‡o ¯’vbxq me hyeK‡`i mv‡_ Zuvi
†Q‡jivI A‡¯¿i cÖwk¶b †bq| hy‡×i gnov‡Z hyeK e„× mevB
cig Drmv‡n †hvM w`Z| 21†k GwcÖj mevB cjvZK| †g, Ryb
†Mj RyjvB gv‡mi 16 Zvwi‡L †Pv‡L fvBivm Avµvš— nIqvq
nvwjg Avi Ii †QvU ibx Jla wb‡Z evox Av‡m| gv †L‡q †h‡Z
Aby‡iva Kivq `ycy‡ii LveviUv †L‡q hvevi Rb¨ A‡c¶v K‡i|
Avi GmgqB wenvix Ges K‡qKRb cvK †mbv evoxUv wN‡i
†d‡j| ivRvKvi K¨v¤ú wgwócwÆ AvKzqvi wewìs‡q nuvUv c‡_ wb‡q
hvevi mgq `„ß f½x‡Z nvUv Ges fxZ ev KvZiZv cÖKvk bv Kivq
wenvixiv †mbv‡`i e‡j Ô†`wL‡q G‡jvM WivZv †bwn Avmwj gyw³
n¨vqÕ| I‡`i Avbv nq AvKzqvi †`vÕZjvq| †h hLb cvi‡Q Po
wKj Nywl Pvjv‡Z _v‡K| KvbœvKvwU bv Kivq AZ¨vPv‡ii gvÎv
µ‡gB ev‡o| B‡Zvg‡a¨ m½x Av‡iv GKUv RyU‡jv ejvKv ÷zwWIi
wmivR| wmiv‡Ri co‡b †UwW c¨v›U †mRb¨ I‡K †UwWwR e‡j
WvK‡Zv| R¡x e‡j Reve †`evi mv‡_ mv‡_ wewfbœ c×wZ‡Z
AZ¨vPvi P‡j| gyw³ †`L‡Z Avmv bevMZivI hÎZÎ Nywl| †VvU
†K‡U i³ Mv‡ji †fZ‡iI †bvbZv ¯^v` wenvixiv fq †`Lvq
†Zv‡`i †g‡i †djv n‡e| nvwjg evsjvq Reve w`j hLb gv‡i
gvi‡e| Avg©xiv evsjv bv ey‡S wenvix‡`i wRÁvmv Ki‡jv ÔK¨v
†evjvÕ? ZR©gv ï‡b wgwjUvixiv LyeB †¶‡c hvq| wbZ¨ bZzb
c×wZ‡Z cÖPÊ gvi‡avi| we‡K‡ji w`‡K †PvL †eu‡a dvqvi
eªx‡MÖ‡Wi GKUv Mvox‡Z DVvq dwi`cy‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨| c‡_ MvoxUv
weKj n‡j GKUv BU †evSvB Uªv‡K Zz‡j dwi`cyi hvq| †PvL euvav
198 |

_vKvq RvqMvUv wPb‡Z cv‡i bv| ILv‡bI wKQy gvi w`‡q GK N‡i
†d‡j ivLv nq|
mܨvi ci ci Lvevi †`q c‡ivUv †Mv¯—| Mvj †K‡U hvIqvq Sv‡j
†KD †L‡Z cv‡i bv| ibx †KQy †L‡q ï‡q co‡jv Ges Nywg‡q †Mj
wbwð‡š—| ivZ 9/10Uvi w`‡K ˆmq` Lvgvi Mvox Pvwj‡q dwi`cyi
hvq| I‡`i mv‡_ K_v e‡j nvwjg‡`i mv‡_ †`Lv K‡i| e‡j
†Zvgiv Avgvi wb‡Ri †jvK e‡j cwiPq w`‡qwQ G‡Z Avgvi
fvegywZ© bó n‡q‡Q| †Zvgiv wenvix‡`i nZ¨vi D‡Ï‡k¨ M‡Z©
bvwg‡qwQ‡j Ggb wi‡cvU© Av‡Q| hw`I Awdmvi K_v w`‡q‡Q
†Zvgv‡`i †Q‡o †`‡e wKš‘ Zvi mvg‡b nvwRi Ki‡j KvbœvKvwU
K‡i fxZ mš¿¯— fve †`Lv‡e| Av‡Mi E×Z¨c~Y© AvPib K‡iQ GUv
Rvb‡j Qvo‡e bv| Lvgvi P‡j hvq|
wKQy c‡i G‡`i Awdmv‡ii mvg‡b †bqv nq| KvM‡R Revbe›`x
wjwce× K‡i| †Zvgiv †Kvb cvwU© Ki? nvwjg PU K‡i e‡j
fvmvbx b¨vc| †Zvgiv wenvix‡`i gvi‡Z †P‡qwQ‡j A¯¿ w`‡q? bv
Avgv‡`i †Kvb A¯¿ †bB Avi Avgiv Gm‡ei mv‡_ RwoZ
_vK‡j‡Zv cvwj‡q †hZvg| Avgiv‡Zv evox‡ZB wQjvg Avgv‡`i
evox †_‡KB a‡i Avbv n‡q‡Q| Awdmvi wKQyUv KbwfÝ n‡q‡Q
g‡b nj| Zey ej‡jv †`‡Lv †Zvgv‡`i bv‡g Lvivc wi‡cvU© Av‡Q|
Zey Avgv‡`i GKRb fvj †jvK Aby‡iva Kivq †Q‡o w`w”Q| Zv
G‡Zv iv‡Z †Zv †h‡Z cvi‡e bv mKv‡j P‡j †h‡qv|
hw` iv‡Z Avevi gZ cvjUvq GB †`vjvP‡j ivZ †K‡U †Mj|
cÖ_g m~‡h©v‡jv‡K Aemv` Avi hš¿bvi Aemvb G‡b w`j gyw³|
wmiv‡Ri GK AvZ¥xq wd‡ivR †óv‡ii gvwjK Gi evmvq A‡c¶v
KiwQj Zv‡`i Av‡iK gg©vwš—K `ytmsev`| gv ivRevox †_‡K
iv‡ZB P‡j G‡m‡Qb Rvbjvg evev‡K MZ iv‡Z wenvixiv a‡i wb‡q
†M‡Q| †Kvb †LuvR bvB| AwZ `yt†L cv_i gv‡qi gy‡L Lye
¯^vfvweK fv‡eB GK_v aŸwbZ n‡jv|
199 |

Avgiv w`‡knviv fve‡jknxb †Kv_vq hve wK Ki‡ev? `yB fvB
ILvb †_‡KB XvKv P‡j hvB| bvbv Avkªq wbivkª‡q wKQyw`b †_‡K
ibx P‡j Av‡m ivRevox| Av°vm wgqvi mnvqZvq fviZ P‡j
hvq| ILv‡bI wec` wQj wKš‘ Av°vm wgqvi Avkª‡q _vKvq †eu‡P
hvq| wKš‘ g„Zz¨ A‡c¶v KiwQj Zvi ¯^vaxb evsjvq| weׯ—
msmv‡ii e¨emv hLb Avevi ïi“ K‡i‡Q Bmjvwgqv †nv‡Uj †_‡K
ibx Avi jvj‡K Avi eo fvB B`y‡K evox †_‡K AÁvZ †jv‡K
a‡i wb‡q hvq| jv‡ji eo fvB cvjv‡Z wM‡q Wy‡e gviv hvq|
nvwjg XvKv †M‡Q bvwe‡¯‹v we¯‹z‡Ui gvwmK eiv‡Ïi gvj Avb‡Z|
†eu‡P hvq fvM¨µ‡g| cjvZK Ae¯’vq GLv‡b †mLv‡b w`b Kv‡U|
†nv‡U‡ji RvqMvi jxR K¨vb‡mj n‡q nvZQvov nq|
Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b n‡j nvwjg fMœ wbt¯^ †QvU wZb fvB Ges cuvP
†ev‡bi †evSv gv_vq wb‡q Rxeb ïi“ K‡i gvÎ 21 eQi eq‡m|
d‡UvMÖvdx wk‡L GUv‡KB †ckv wnmv‡e †e‡Q †bq| msmv‡ii
cÖ‡qvRb wgUv‡Z wb‡Ri †`‡ni Rxebx kw³ nviv fMœ ¯^v¯’¨,
nvcvbxi †ivMvµvš—| AweevwnZ wbtm½ Rxeb wb‡q †eu‡P Av‡Q
Av‡Rv| me‡P‡q KóKi Rxeb hvcb K‡ib I‡`i gv| ¯^vgx `yB
cyÎ wbnZ nIqvq †eu‡P _vKvUvB Zuvi Kv‡Q †evSv n‡q `uvovq| †m
N‡i †Q‡jiv _vK‡Zv Avi †mB N‡i cÖ‡ek K‡ibwb| e„wói w`‡b
QuvU †_‡K euvPvi Rb¨ Kvwb©‡ki †`qvj a‡i ivZ KvwU‡q‡Qb Zey
N‡ii gv‡S Avovj †Luv‡Rb bvB| wb`vi“b †e`bvi †evSv wb‡q
GKw`b ZviI Aemvb nq|
gM, nvg©v`, wdwi½x, cZz©MxR Rj`my¨
cZz©MxR kã FRANCEZ ‡_‡K wdwi½x bv‡gi DrcwË| Avi
AvigvWv †_‡K G‡m‡Q nvg©v`| †h bvg ïb‡j evsjvi gvby‡li ü`‡q
GK ARvbv AvZ‡¼ †Ku‡c DV‡Zv|
200 |

BD‡iv‡ci cZy©Mvj †_‡K G‡`i AvMgY| †ivg mvgªv‡R¨i Aaxb †QvÆ
¯^Zš¿ ivR¨| wk¶v mf¨Zvq nxb| †¯ú‡bi gymjgvb gyi‡`i D‡”Q‡`i
mgq hy× weMÖn Avi wnsmªZvq nv‡Z Lwo| ivRv g¨v‡bv‡qj|
BD‡iv‡c H mgq dj-g~j AvbvRcvwZ GLbKvi g‡Zv Rb¥vZ bv|
Lv`¨vfve †j‡MB _vK‡Zv| AšÍ‡i m¤ú‡`i ¶zav| GB‡Zv gvÎ KÕeQi
Av‡M †¯ú‡bi bvweK Kj¤^vm bZzb GK †`k Avwe¯‹vi K‡i A‡Xj
m¤ú‡`i AwaKvix| Sjg‡j iƒc Zvi cÖwZwbqZ ‡e‡o P‡j‡Q| ivRv
g¨v‡bv‡qj fve‡Z _v‡Kb cZz©Mv‡ji Ggb †KD wK †bB †h G‡`‡ki
mg„w×I nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq G‡b w`‡Z cv‡i?
Ae‡k‡l fv‡¯‹v-Wv-Mvgv bv‡gi `ytmvnmx GK bvweK 1497 mv‡ji 8B
RyjvB kwbevi cZz©Mv‡ji e›`i †_‡K iIqvbv nj D‡ØM DrKÉv wb‡q
ARvbvi c‡_ 4 Lvbv RvnvR, 106 Rb gvj­v, wKQy Lv`¨ Avi wKQy A¯¿
wb‡q| H mgq BD‡iv‡c mvaviY aviYv wQj AvUjvw›U‡Ki cwð‡g ev
`w¶‡Y †Kvb emwZ †bB| fv‡¯‹v-Wv-Mvgvi bvweK‡`iI G ms¯‹vi
e×g~j g‡b| mg‡q mg‡q nvj †Q‡o w`‡q we‡`ªvn K‡i‡Q eûevi †`‡k
†divi Rb¨| Ae‡k‡l mwZ¨ GKw`b 1448 mv‡ji 20†k †g Mvgvi
RvnvR wfo‡jv gvjevi DcK~‡ji KvwjKU e›`‡i|
KvwjK‡Ui AwacwZ wn›`y bvqvi †kªYxfy³ c`ex Rv‡gixY| wZwb gnvLywk
bZzb evwYR¨ m¤¢vebv wb‡q bZzb †µZvi AvMg‡Y|
be Avwe¯‹…Z Rjc‡_i ¯^Z¡vwaKvix n‡q Gi ci Avm‡Z _vK‡jv †Mvjv
evi“` Kvgvb e›`yK wb‡q `j‡K `j cZz©Mx‡Riv fvi‡Z| ewY‡Ki
QÙ‡e‡k e‡¤^‡U Rj`my¨| †mbvcwZ Avjdv‡Ýv Avj eyKvK© KvwjK‡U
`~M© ‰Zix K‡i †d‡j­b| Rv‡gwi‡Yi mv‡_ †KvwP‡bi evRvi we‡iv‡ai
Kvi‡Y wZwb G‡`i cÖkªq †`b| hÏi“Y GB nvg©v`iv µ‡gB D×Z n‡Z
_v‡K|
Avie ewY‡Kiv eû Av‡M †_‡KB GZ`v‡j e¨emv evwYR¨ K‡i
AvmwQj †mRb¨ G‡`i j¶¨ n‡q `uvo‡jv Avie ewYK †Mvwôi webvm
mvab| †cv‡ci mg_©b †c‡q Giv gymjgvb‡`i nZ¨v K‡i bvix‡`i al©Y
I ev”Pv‡`i ag©všÍwiZ K‡i `vm wnmv‡e wewµ Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡i| evwYR¨
Rvnv‡R w`‡b `ycy‡i gvjvgvj jyÉb K‡i gvj­v‡`i mvM‡i Wywe‡q gvi‡Z
_v‡K| GKB mv‡_ fvi‡Zi wewfbœ A‡jI Giv Qwo‡q c‡o| `Lj
201 |

K‡i ‡bq †Mvqv, `gb, w`D, †Mvqv nj ivRavbx| evsjv‡`‡ki PÆMÖvg
G‡`i †miv NvwU Avi †bŠe›`i| bvg w`j †cvU© MÖvÊx| GLv‡b
AvivKv‡bi wKQy D”Q„•Lj hyeK bvix Avi m¤ú‡`i †jv‡f G‡`i mv‡_
†hvM †`q| gvigv Avi ivLvBb DcRvwZi g‡½vjxq esk™¢~Z †eŠ×
agv©j¤^x gM|
AvKei ev`kvi ivR¨ cwiPvjb c×wZ wewPÎ| wZwb kΓi mv‡_I
‰eevwnK m¤úK© M‡o eÜz‡Z¡i nvZ cÖmvwiZ K‡ib| wZjK c‡ob,
wbivwgl Lvb, A›`ign‡j †nvgvMœx R¡‡j|, gš¿cvV nq| Avevi L„óvb
cv`ix‡`iI Avk¦¯’ K‡ib, L„óa‡g©I Zvi weivM †bB e‡j| `iev‡i
h‡_ó mgv`i K‡ib| GB cv`ix‡`i cÖkªq †c‡q cZz©MxRiv `my¨e„wˇZ
wjß n‡q R‡j Wv½vq Aev‡a m¤ú` Avi m¤£g jyÉb Pvwj‡q †M‡Q|
G‡`i AcK‡g©i Kvwnbx ÁvZ n‡q ev`kv †mbvcwZ mvnevR Luv‡K
evsjvq cvVvb| mvnevR Lvu †gNbv b`xi ‡gvnbvq QvDwb K‡i AvswkK
weZvwiZ K‡ib G‡`i| Kw_Z Av‡Q Zvi bvgvbymv‡iB mvnevRcy‡ii
bvgKiY| wZwb wd‡i †M‡j Giv Avevi gv_vPvov w`‡q I‡V| †m mgq
†mbvcwZ AvwRg Imgv‡bi cÖwZ G‡`i `g‡bi `vwqZ¡ †`Iqv nq| wZwb
g‡M‡`i weZvwiZ K‡ib Avi wKQy wdwi½x e›`x K‡i XvKvi gyÝxM‡Ä I
PÆMÖv‡g Aei“× K‡i iv‡Lb| †hUv GLb wdwi½x evRvi bv‡g cwiwPwZ
†c‡q‡Q|
K·evRvi, PÆMÖvg, Lyjbv, nwiYNvUv †bvqvLvwj, m›`xc, ewikvj
GgbwK Avgv‡`i cÙv ZxieZx© Lvj †e‡q Mfx‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i GB
nvg©v`iv ivnvRvwb Ki‡Zv| G‡`i AZ¨vPv‡i my›`ebv‡ji we¯ÍxY©
RbemwZ GKmgq weivb n‡q hvq| G‡`i bvix †jvjycZv mePvB‡Z
wbôziZg| Av‡Rv `w¶Yv‡j †Kvb †Kvb gvbyl KUv †Pv‡Li MVb is
jvj‡P †`Lv hvq| gM eªvþY bvgI †kvbv hvq| Giv nvg©v`‡`iB
awl©Zvi eskai aviYv Kiv nq| Avgv‡`i †eovWv½v AÂjUvI
Kz‡gvo‡`i emwZc~Y© wQj| K‡e †_‡K Zviv G AÂj †Q‡o Ab¨Î P‡j
†M‡Q Rvbv hvq bv|
AvivKvb ivRv G‡`i cÖkªq †`q evsjvi ivRv‡`i AvMÖvm‡bi f‡q|
Avevi evsjvi evif~Bqv‡`i w`j­xk¦‡ii wei“‡× hy‡× evifyBqv ivRv
202 |

cÖZvcvw`‡Z¨i c‡¶ cZz©MxR †mbvcwZ d«vwÝm Kvf©vj‡nv, iWv, MÄv‡jm
ev`kvi †mbvcwZ gvb wms‡qi wei“‡× hy× K‡i|
mgªvU kvnRvnvbI wcZvi wei“‡× hy‡× wdwi½x‡`i mnvqZv †P‡q‡Qb|
wegyL nIqvq wmsnvm‡b Avmxb n‡q wZwb G‡`i `g‡bi Rb¨ Kov
Av‡`k cÖ`vb K‡ib|
‡mbvcwZ msMÖvg mvn mvnvevRcy‡i †Kj­v wbg©vY K‡ib| cieZx©Kv‡j
wZwb GLv‡bB w¯’Z nb| ZviB Aat¯Íbcyi“l evbxe‡ni Rwg`vi wMwiRv
ksKi gRyg`vi †Mvqvj›` nvB¯‹z‡ji cÖwZôvZv|
mgªvU kvnRvnvbB GB nvg©v`‡`i aesm K‡ib| A‡b‡KB wbnZ nq|
4400 e›`xi g‡a¨ evQv evQv 400 Rb‡K ivR `iev‡i cvVv‡bv nq|
cZz©MxR fvlvi A‡bK kã Avgv‡`i evsjvq wg‡j †M‡Q|
R¡i Avm‡j ÔmveyÕ Lve| ÔevjwZÕ †Z Rj f‡i ÔmvevbÕ w`‡q mœvb †m‡i
Ô‡Zvqv‡jÕ w`‡q Mv gy‡Q Ô‡K`vivqÕ ÔRvbvjvÕi av‡i e‡m Ô‡envjvÕq myi
Zzj‡Z Zzj‡Z ÔevmbÕ f‡i Ôwe¯‹zUÕ w`‡q ÔPvÕ Lve| Ôev®úÕ DV‡e Kvc
†_‡K| ÔZvgvKÕI Lve| ÔKvKvZzqvÕ GK †Kv‡Y `uv‡o e‡m| eo
ÔKvgivÕi ÔAvjgvixÕ‡Z Ô‡evZvgÕ jvMv‡bv ÔBw¯¿Õ Kiv ÔKvwgRÕ Av‡Q|
ÔAvPviÕI Av‡Q| ÔPvweÕ w`‡q Lyj‡Z n‡e| ÔZzdvbÕ G‡j ÔeRivÕi
Ôgv¯‘jÕ bvgvB| ÔeqvÕ wb‡q cÖ¯‘Z nB| Ô‡jvK-j¯‹iÕ ÔKvgvbÕ Ôwc¯ÍjÕ
wb‡q hy‡× hve| ÔAvjwcbÕ w`‡q KvMR AuvU‡ev| ÔAvqvÕ ev”PvUv‡K wb‡q
†Lj‡Q| Ô‡bvbvÕ djI g›` jv‡Mbv| ÔMvi`Õ †f‡½ †Pvi cvjv‡e| cÖwZ
iweevi Ôcv`ªxÕ ÔMxR©vqÕ cÖv_©bv †kvbvb| g‡b ÔQvcÕ c‡obv| Ôdg©vÕ|
ÔjÉbÕ R¡vwj‡q ÔK¤úvmÕ w`‡q w`K wbY©q K‡i ÔwdZvÕ w`‡q ˆ`N¨© †g‡c
ÔMy`v‡gÕi ÔeiMvqÕ ÕAvjKvZivÕ jvMv‡Z n‡e|
I‡`iB Avgv`vwb Kiv dj LvB Avbvim, †c‡c, †cqviv Kvgiv½v,
iv½vAvjy, Rvgi“j, AvZv, m‡d`v, wP‡bev`vg, Kgjv †jey, K…òKwj
dzj, ZvgvK|
XvKvi fvIqv‡j e‡m †jLv dv`vi g‡bvGj `¨v- Avbmy¤úvmvi †ivgvb
ni‡d †jLv cÖ_g evsjv eB Qv‡cb bvg, ÔK…cvi kv‡¯¿i A_©‡f`Õ|
1743 mv‡j fylYvi Rwg`vi es‡ki mšÍvb †j‡Lb ÔeªvþY K¨v_wjK
msev`|Õ AvivKvb `my¨iv Zuv‡K Pzwi K‡i `vm wnmv‡e wewµ K‡i †`q|
wZwb L„óvb n‡q bvg †bb, †`vb& G¨v‡šÍvwbIÕ|
203 |

Avi Zviv †i‡L †M‡Q wKQy e¨vwa| Aeva e¨vwfPv‡ii dmj ÔM‡bvwiqvÕ
wmwdwjm| Av‡Mi w`‡b wdwi½x †ivM ejv nZ|

WvKvZ
Av‡Mi w`‡b Rwg`vi‡`i †eZbfy³ cvBK, †cqv`v, eiK›`vR,
jvwVqvj evwnbx mvaviYZ †eqviv cÖRv Avi Rwg`vix mxgvbv i¶vi Rb¨
e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv| G‡`i †jvfx m`m¨iv A‡bK mgq WvKvwZ‡Z wjß
n‡Zv| GQvovI DMÖcš’x wKQy †jvK Avjv`v `j MVb K‡i b`xc‡_
gvjevnx †bŠKvq nvbv w`Z| wfwZKi cwiw¯’wZ m„wó Kivi Rb¨ Lyb RLg
KivUv G‡`i †cvkviB A½|
eo eo `j wecyj kw³ AR©b K‡i A‡bK mgq Rwg`vi evox ev
A_©kvjx myiw¶Z evox‡ZI nvbv w`Z AvMvg Rvbvb w`‡q|
mvaiYZ mowK, ej­g †`kx A¯¿B Giv e¨envi Ki‡Zv| †bc‡_¨ †_‡K
A‡bK cÖfvekvjx e¨w³I G‡`i g`` hywM‡q‡Q| OXFORD
UNIVERSITY PRESS ‡_‡K Qvcv HEAT AND DUST
c‡o Rvbv hvq 1923 mv‡j weªwUk miKv‡ii AvwkªZ ivR¨ SATIPUR
Gi beve WvKvZ‡`i mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv †`b Ggb Awf‡hvM weªwUk
miKv‡ii fviZxq `߇i wi‡cvU© Av‡Q|
‡V½v‡i

‡V½v‡iiv WvKvZ bq| Z‡e
eivei Qy‡o gvi‡Zv| jvwVUv PiwKi
AvNvZ K‡i c_Pvix‡K AvnZ K‡i
gvjvgvj wQwb‡q cvjZ| Giv Lybx
D‡Ïk¨|

204 |

ivZ we‡i‡Z wbR©‡b jvwV nuvUz
g‡Zv Nyi‡Z Nyi‡Z nvUz eivei
†d‡j w`Z| GB my‡hv‡M †m
bq| ïay AvnZ KivB G‡`i

wbwk KzUz¤^

Pzwi we`¨v eo we`¨v
hw` bv Lvq aiv|
evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Agi K_vwkíx g‡bvR emy GB wmu‡aj †Pvi
m¤cÖ`v‡qi Av`¨všÍ wj‡L 1966 mv‡j GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi †c‡q‡Qb|
`‡ji cÖwZ AvbyMZ¨, Z¨vM, mZZv †PŠh©¨e„wˇK GKwU wk‡íi ch©v‡q
Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb wZwb| †Pvi mgªvU cPv evBUvi †hvM¨ wkl¨ Ômv‡neÕ
†Pv‡ii PwiÎ wPÎY N„Yv bq eis ggZvq Avc­yZ K‡i co–qv‡K|
Av‡Mi w`‡b gvwUi †Wvqv, `igvi †eovi Ni GUvB mvavi‡Yi evmM„n,
Avi G m‡eB GB wmu‡aj †Pvi‡`i Kvh¨©Kjvc mxgve×| `‡ji
m`m¨‡`i `vwqZ¡ eÈb †hgb †LuvRb`vi Kg©‡¶‡Îi hveZxq msev`
mieivn K‡iB Lvjvm, wmu‡aj wmu` †K‡U c_ ˆZixi `vwqZ¡ ch©šÍB Zvi
Kg©cwiwa| N‡i Xy‡K KvR †m‡i Zvi m‡i covB KvwiK‡ii `vwqZ¡|
h_v¯’v‡b gvj †cuŠ‡Q †`Iqv †m Av‡iKRb| `jcwZ wba©vwiZ nv‡i cÖvc¨
Ask wewj eÈb Avi `‡ji cÖwZ cywj‡ki bRi †_‡K i¶vi `vwq‡Z¡
_vK‡Zv| wQuP‡K †Pv‡iiv GKK fv‡e M„n‡¯’i GUv IUv wb‡q m‡i
co‡Zv| †Pvi aivi Rb¨ G‡`‡k wewfbœ c×wZ GKmgq Pvjy wQj| PUv
Pvjvb, evwU Pvjvb| wKQy ¸wYb †jvK G †ckvq †ek `yÕcqmv Kvgv‡Zv|
Zzjv ivwki †jvK euv‡ki gš¿cyZ PUv ai‡j PUv wb‡RB Pj‡Z ïi“
Ki‡Zv Avi †Pv‡ii Mjvq AvU‡K ai‡Zv| Aek¨ G me eyRyiwK
†ekxw`b P‡jwb|
`vMx †Pvi‡`i cÖwZw`b _vbvq wM‡q nvwRiv w`‡q Avmvi wbqg wQj|
VMx/ duvmy‡o/AviZzjyKi/ZšÍKv‡ji“

A‡bK bv‡g cwiwPwZ _vK‡jI KvR GKUvB k¦vm‡iva K‡i nZ¨v I
ivnvRvbx| GK b„msk jyÉbKvix gv Kvjxi Aviva¨ nZ¨v G‡`i agx©q
eªZ| Avi nZ e¨w³ gv fevbxi bv‡gB DrmM©K…Z| nZ¨vi my‡hvM ‡c‡q
†Q‡o †`IqvUvB Aag© Avi kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ Aciva| G‡`i wek¦vm †Kvb&
205 |

Avw`Kvj †_‡K GB agx©q cÖ_v P‡j Avm‡Q hvi Kjv KzkjZv †Lvw`Z
Av‡Q B‡jviv ¸nvq, ce©‡Z, weL¨vZ gymwjg mvaK wbRvgywÏb AvDwjqvI
GKmgq GB `jfy³ wQ‡jb| †hRb¨ Zviv Zuvi mgvwa‡Z AN© cÖ`vb
K‡i, Avkªq †bq| M‡elKivI aviYv K‡ib wZwb cvi‡m¨i Awaevmx
Avi †hŠe‡b KzL¨vZ nZ¨vKvix nvmvb-Be‡b mveŸvn& bv‡gi GK `my¨
†bZvi wkl¨ wQ‡jb| VMx‡`i wkKvi c×wZ GKUv njy` is‡qi gš¿cyZ
†cjû (i“gvj) hvi GKcÖv‡šÍ GKLÊ avZe gy`ªv wMÆz w`‡q AvuUv †hb
duvm †`evi mgq nvZ dm‡K bv hvq| m`m¨iv `‡ji cÖwZ Pig AbyMZ
hvi e¨vZvq Pig g~j¨ w`‡qB †kva| `j‡bZvi wm×všÍ g‡ZvB wewfbœ
kvLvi Kg©aviv eÈb| Avi cÖvß Ask wba©vwiZ wQj G Rb¨| `y‡ev©a¨
ivgmx fvlvq ci¯úi fv‡ei Av`vb cÖ`vb PvjvZ| fvi‡Zi gvnivóª
A‡j wbR Muv‡q cy‡iv MÖx®§KvjUv wbixn mvaviY Rxeb hvcb K‡i
ki‡Zi ïi“‡ZB mI`vMi, †gvmvwdi, M„nZ¨vMx mb¨vmxi †e‡k `je×
fv‡e gv fevbxi Avwke©v` wb‡q ‡cjû njy` is‡qi gš¿cyZ i“gvj wb‡q
wkKv‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ Qwo‡q co‡Zv| wZjnvB (¸ßPi) wefvM †mv_x Avi
†ejnv (cÖjyäKvivK) wPhv ev eywbR (g‡°j ev wkKvi) †c‡j Zvi
wek¦vm AR©‡bi Rb¨ eÜz †m‡R w`‡bi ci w`b m½x n‡q my‡hvM g‡Zv
eywbR‡K wej‡nv‡Z (ea¨f~gx‡Z) g~j `‡ji nv‡Z †mvc`© KiZ| `jcwZ
wSiwb (nZ¨vi ms‡KZ) w`‡j Pv›`yiv (`¶ nZ¨vKvix) Zvi Mjvq duvm
Gu‡U nZ¨v Ki‡Zv| †fvRvix (jvk enbKvix) jvk wb‡q G‡jB dziRvbv
`j (gvwU Pvcv †`evi m`m¨) Kei¯’ K‡i Dc‡i jZvcvZv w`‡q wPý
gy‡Q †`‡e jvk ¸g Kivi fxj (Kei) Av‡M †_‡KB jyMvixiv (gvwU Pvcv
†`evi †jvK) cÖ¯‘Z K‡i †i‡L‡Q| wbwe©‡Nœ KvR mgvav n‡j gv Kvjxi
D‡Ï‡k¨ Zzcvbxi ¸o †L‡q wnm¨v eÈb Ki‡e mi`vi| VMxi `‡j
gymjgvb bvgavix m`m¨I wQj Avi Zviv bvgvR †hgb co‡Zv gv Kvjxi
c~RvqI †Zgwb Ask wbZ| fvi‡Zi weªwUk eojvU jn© DBwjqvg †ew›U¼
1830 mv‡j m¨vi DBwjqvg k­xg¨vb‡K eMx© `g‡bi `vwqZ¡ ‡`b| wZwb
1960 mv‡ji g‡a¨B G‡`i mg~‡j aesm Ki‡Z m¶g nb|

206 |

eMx©

‡Q‡j Nygv‡jv
cvov Ryov‡jv,
eMx© G‡jv †`‡k
eyjeywj‡Z avb †L‡q‡Q
LvRbv †`e wK †m|
avb dziv‡jv
cvb dziv‡jv
LvRbvi Dcvq wK
Avi KUv w`b meyi Ki
iïb ey‡bwQ|
Avgv‡`i Nygcvovbxqv GB Mvb MÖvg evsjvi N‡i N‡i †Kvb Kvj †_‡K
ï‡b ï‡b †Lv°m iv¶‡mi PvB‡Z wkï g‡b ARvbv GK k¼v fi
Ki‡Zv| †PvL gy‡` GKmgq Nywg‡q co‡Zv †m|
‡gvMj mgªvU AvIi½ †R‡ei 1707 L„óv‡ã g„Zz¨i ci `vw¶Yv‡Z¨i
gvivVviv gv_v Pvov w`‡q I‡V| `ye©j A‡hvM¨ ev`kv cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv
nvwi‡q Kvh©Ki †Kvb e¨e¯’vB wb‡Z cv‡ib bv| mgªvU bvw`i kvn cvim¨
†_‡K G‡m w`j­x jyÉb nZ¨vhÁ Pvwj‡q k¥kv‡b cwiYZ K‡i| we‡`kx
Bs‡iR, divmx, Ij›`vR, cZz©MxRivI G‡m h‡_”Q jyUcv‡Ui my‡hvM
wb‡Z _v‡K| cvwbc‡_i Z…Zxq hy‡× AvdMvb mgªvU Avn¤§` kvn&
Ave`vjx 1761 mv‡ji 13B Rvbyqvix gvivVv evwnbx‡K m¤ú~Y© aesm
K‡i| civwRZ gvivVv ‰m‡b¨iv eû`‡j wef³ n‡q †`‡ki wewfbœ
A‡j Qwo‡q c‡o| G‡`i g‡a¨ evOjv Avi Dwol¨vq eMx© `jB me
PvB‡Z fq¼i nZ¨v I jyÉbKvix| Giv ïaygvÎ avb cvb jyÉb K‡iB
¶všÍ nZ bv| M„n‡¯’i gvb gh©v`vI fyjywÉZ n‡Zv G‡`i Kv‡Q| km¨
†¶Z evox Ni R¡vwj‡q Giv mgMÖ evsjv k¥kv‡b cwiYZ K‡iwQj| beve
Avjxe`x© Luvb ZLb evsjv wenv‡ii ¯^vaxb fv‡e ivR¨ kvmb Ki‡Zb|
wZwb G‡`i `gb K‡ib|
GB eMx© `‡ji GK Ask Bk¦iw` A‡ji R½‡j Avkªq †bq| ¯’vbxq
MÖvg †_‡K bvix jyÉb K‡i Zviv ch©vqµ‡g al©Y K‡i ewj w`Z|
207 |

AvR Avi eMx©iv †bB e‡U i‡q †M‡Q Zv‡`i fq¼i ¯§„wZ Avi wejvc|
eyjeywj‡Z Aewkó avb †L‡q †M‡Q LvRbv †`evi Dcvq wK?
Elementary Road
‡jvK gy‡L wdjv‡g›Uvix †ivW bv‡g cwiwPZ nq| hvi Aw¯ÍZ¡
AvR Avi †bB| †Kvb GK mg‡q dwi`cyi †Rjv ‡evW© KZ©„K wbg©xZ
nq| ‡Lvqv weQv‡bv wQj GZUzKz Rvbv hvq| ˆÎ‡jvK¨bv_ fÆvPvh© m¨vi
Gi AvZ¥K_vq wj‡L‡Qb- hLb KvjyLvjx †ij †÷kb wQj bv ZLb
wKQyw`b †ejMvwQ ch©šÍ †nu‡U G‡m †Uª‡b ivRevox Avm‡Zb| c‡i Ibvi
m¤úKx©Z gvgv evox †ebxbMi †_‡K R.S.K. Institution G
Avm‡Zb| ¯‹z‡j Avmvi `yBUv c_ wQj †ebxbMi †_‡K| GKUv
†ijjvBb a‡i †hUvq Avm‡Z myZv Mv‡½i cÖej †mªvZaviv †cwi‡q
jvB‡b DV‡Z n‡Zv| Ab¨Uv Elementary Road a‡i †Mv`vi evRvi
n‡q R.S.K. Ges GUv‡KB mnRZi e‡j‡Qb|
eZ©gv‡b Pibvivqbcyi †_‡K K‡j‡R Avmvi ‡KvYvKzwb c_ †hUv ZLb
cÖwZôv cvqwb| m~ZvMvs QvovI cÙv Avi GKUv ms‡hvM Lvj †hUv Dry
Ice I evM`x cvovi gvS w`‡q cÖevwnZ n‡Zv| †ij cÖwZôvi Av‡M
†ebxbMi ev Pibvivqbcyi A‡ji evwm›`viv mvsmvwiK cÖ‡qvRbxq
†Mv`vi evRvi ev †ejMvwQ avIqvcvov †_‡K msMÖn Ki‡Zb aviYvq
Av‡m| cÙvcv‡oi wew¯ÍY© Rb emwZi Pvwn`v †gUv‡Z AÎ A‡jB
evRvi cÖwZôv nIqv m¤¢e| ivRevox Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †Zgb ¸i“Z¡ enb
Ki‡Zv bv| hw`I m¨vi †Mv`vievRvi †_‡K R.S.K Avm‡Zb wKš‘
†Mv`vievRvi iv¯ÍvUvI Mi“ †gv‡li Mvoxi PvKvq ¶Z we¶Z| hvZvqvZ
mnR wQj bv|
‡ejMvwQ w`‡q cvebv evwm›`viv enicyi evwjqvKvw›` ev`kvnx Avg‡ji
m„ó cë‡bi iv¯Ív e¨envi Ki‡Zb| Elementary Road G Avm‡Z
n‡jI m~ZvMvO cvi n‡Z †Lqv cvovcv‡oi e¨e¯’v wQj m¤¢eZt

208 |

‡gv³vi wb‡qvM
‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ m¨v‡ii AvZ¥K_vq ZrKv‡j †gv³vi wb‡qv‡Mi
mim eY©bv Av‡Q| †Rjvi RR MvQZjvq fuvRKiv KvMR nv‡Z A‡bK
†jvK‡K e‡m _vK‡Z †`‡L †ckKvi‡K wR‡Ám Ki‡jb| Bnviv †Kb
ewmqv Av‡Q| Dbviv †gv³vix cix¶v w`‡Z Avwmqv‡Q †ckKvi Rvbvq|
RR mv‡ne †ckKv‡ii Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z Pvb Bnviv AvU Avbv wdm w`qv‡Q
wKbv Ges Bnv‡`i nv‡Zi †jLv †`wL‡q‡Q wK bv| †ckKvi m¤§wZ m~PK
Nvo bvwiqv n¨uv m¨vi w`qv‡Q ewj‡j RR mv‡ne i“j Nywi‡q ej‡jb hvI
me cvk|
AvBbÁ wnmv‡e G‡`i A‡b‡KB hk A_© I mgv‡R cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Qb
cieZx© Kv‡j| Avevi gvgjv PjvKvjxb mg‡q †Kn †Kn nvm¨Ki
AÁZvi cwiPqI w`‡q‡Qb| avbKvUv wb‡q gvivgvwii m~ÎcvZ GK
ch©v‡q Avmvgx KuvwP w`‡q †Kvc gv‡i| mv‡ne KuvwP eyS‡Z bv †c‡i
wRÁvmv K‡ib What is KuvwÂ? m¨vi Kw is `vI evU LuvR KvUv LvuR
KvUv| Avqye Lv‡bi gvk©j j wb‡qI Mí Av‡Q| cvÄvex g¨vwR‡÷ªU
evsjv †ev‡S bv| mvw¶ MÖv‡gi †gvoj e‡j­b m¨vi Avwg I‡`i gvivgvwi
Ki‡Z wb‡la K‡iwQ e‡jwQ †`L †`‡k gvk©j j Pj‡Q AvBb Kvbyb fvj
bv _vg| Zv Iiv ïb‡jv bv | g¨vwR‡÷ªU e‡j­b K¨v †evjv? gvk©vj j
AvBb fvj bv? GB wmcvB Bm‡Kv nvZ‡KŠwo jvMvI|
ivRevox A‡ji K_¨ fvlv
wbq¨vi- wkwki
ûi“g- gywo
Lvov- mR‡b WvUv
Kzn‡i¨- gyiMx
nvZ&‡b- eviv›`v
209 |

Kzcx- †PivM
jç- cÖ`xc
wci¨vb- Rvgv
KBm- ewjm
KvBq¨v- KvK
Qvjyb- ivbœv ZiKvix
G¨v‡iv- GLv‡b
‡bvi- †`Šo
ZvMv`v- ZvovZvwo
dmK‡iLuywZ- UvKv _‡j
MvR¨v
‡Zvov
Zdb- jy½x
duvw`- jvd
Mu¨v`v- ev”Pv
wQwjg- Kj‡K
¸‡q¨- mycvwi
bwo- jvwV
wg‡VB- ¸o
Z‡j¨ nvwo
wV‡j- †Kvjv
Lv‡ÛK- LvwbKUv, wKQyUv
QÙbvg
Avãyj Rwjj- R‡j NyNy
Aveyj Kv‡kg- iweevey
‡Mvjvgcxi- Kvkx Luv
kwd- Kvbv
210 |

jvwnwo- †avwZ
mvjvg- jy, nvIqv
ev”Pz- cv¤ú my
wmivRyj- †Lvqvox
wmivRyj- g¨vbwQi“ wgqv
RMjyj- Kv‡kg fvwÆ, gvb‡K
‡LvKv- I‡q`vi dvDj
B`wim- Bewjk
‡`vjb VvKzi- 2/12
gwR` fvB- gnv¸i“
Aveyj- eivU KPv
BmnvK- G¨ivweqvb nm©
Rwjj wgqv DwKj- K¨v‡i gwb
†`e?
Rvýbex KzÊy- Rvbgviv KzÊy/KvVvj
†L‡q gviv hvb
‡gv¯Ídv- KvB‡V
Avãyj Kwig (Kwig my)- evZvm
†evSbv
nweei ingvb- RjZi‡½i KvwV

211 |

Avgv‡`i esk jwZKv
KzbKzb Avjx †mL
evei Avjx †mL
gnt ingZDjøvn&
1)wiwRqv †eMg 2)iIkb Aviv †eMg
(cuvP †g‡q)
(`yB †g‡q)
4)Rvnvbviv †eMg
(GK †Q‡j wZb †g‡q)

3)Lv‡j` mvjvn&DwÏb

5)†gvm‡jn DwÏb

6)byiæb bvnvi †eMg
(GK †g‡q)

1)Lv‡j` gvn&gy`

2)Lv‡j` Avn&‡g`

3)Lv‡j` nvmvb

1) Lv‡j` dvwng

1)†bQvi Avn&g`

1)dvivex nvmvb

212 |

m`¨ gv‡K nvwi‡q iexb ixeb ibRb

Avgvi evev g„Zy¨ 9 RyjvB 1974

213 |

eyeyi mv‡_ 1990 mv‡j

Avgvi gv g„Zy¨ 15B ‡deªæqvix 1979

1975 mv‡ji 6B GwcÖj wbnZ
nb gvÎ †PŠwÎk eQi eq‡m

‡QvU fvB‡qi D”Pj‡çi mb`

214 |

1976 mv‡ji 18B †g gvÎ evBk
eQi eq‡m wPi we`vq wbj

‡QvU fvB‡qi KivPxi †Ljvi mb`

‰bevwnbx cÖwk¶b †k‡l (‡kl jvB‡bi Wvb ‡_‡K 2q)

Avgvbyjøv 1960 mv‡j

215 |

Avgv‡`i mevi kª‡×q gwR` fvB

Lvb evnv`yi Avjxgy¾vgvb ‡PŠayixi n¯Íwjwc 1928

Wvbjc nj ¯’vwcZ 1920-22
mv‡j m¤¢eZ

216 |

dKiDwÏb Avng` (1920 mv‡j)
cÖv³b †Pqvig¨b ivRevox
wgDwbwmc¨vwjwU cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi

KvwRKv›`v gmwR` ¯’vwcZ 1760
mv‡j †mbvcwZ †Lv`v`v` Lvb KZ…K

L„÷vb MxR©v ¯’vwcZ 1911
217 |

WOOD HEAD LIBRARY,
BUILT 1914

ÓP›`avgÓ me‡P‡q my›`i evoxwU
†Mvwe›` jvwnwoi †kl Avevm ¯’j

‰Î‡jvK¨ bv_ fÆvPvh©
Bs‡iRx 1875 mv‡j Rb¥, 1963 mv‡j 92 eQi eq‡m
†Zvjv Qwe | Gi ciI wZwb AšÍZ 3 eQi †eu‡P wQ‡jb KjKvZvi
eivn bM‡i cy‡Îi evwU‡Z

218 |

1960 Gi `k‡KB G¸‡jvi wejywßi ïiæ,
MwZ‡eM N›Uvq 60 gvBj

RSK ¯‹z‡ji 2q BgviZ

219 |

ivRevox †ij †¯Ukb

RSK wejyß cÖ_g BgviZ GUvi cwð‡g
GUv 1943 mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

†Mvqvj›` nvB ¯‹zj 1893
mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

me‡P‡q cyivZb cvVkvjv jvjPuv`
we`¨vjq (evRvi cvVkvjv)

220 |

cÖ_g cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq
ivRevoxi `wÿb cÖv‡šÍ

†i‡ji nvmcvZvj 1936 mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

cÙvq Bwjk aivi †bŠKvi eni

Gg, G, †gv‡gb (ev”Pz gvóvi)
g„Z¨y:- 25‡k b‡f¤^i 2004 Bs

221 |

byi KzZze Avjg †PŠayix (†LvKv) g„Z¨y:19†k RyjvB 2007 Bs

‡mL †gvt KvBqyg (Mg‡cvqv)
hvi ü`q ey‡K AvU‡Zvbv

†i‡ji bvU¨ g mvg‡b nvW© †KvU
†Uwbm MÖvDÛ 1934 mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

†i‡ji w_‡qUvi nj 1934 mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

Aejyß ev®úxq BwÄb

222 |

†i‡ji K¬ve No 1933 mv‡j ¯’vwcZ

VMx‡`i nZ¨v c×wZ (evsjv‡`k
cÖwZw`b †_‡K †bqv)

mgvß
223 |

VMx‡`i nZ¨v c×wZ (evsjv‡`k
cÖwZw`b †_‡K †bqv)

SUB-DIVISIONAL OFFICE
GOALUNDO 1910 mv‡j e¨veüZ wcZ‡ji
wmj‡gvn‡ii Qvc

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