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FROM THE TRAINING OF THE USA IMO TEAM
T ANDREESCU £t Z FEND
AMT PUBLISHING
101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA
FROM THE TRAINING OF THE USA 1MO TEAM
T ANDRUSCU Ft Z FFNG
Published by
AMT PUBLISHING
Australian Mathematics Trust University of Canberra ACT 2601
AUSTRALIA
Copyright ©2001 AMT Publishing
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National Library of Australia Card Number and ISSN Australian Mathematics Trust Enrichment Series ISSN 13260170 101 Problems in Algebra ISBN 1 876420 12 X
Edmonton CANADA JORDAN B TABOV. . Waterloo CANADA WALTER E MIENTKA. They are intended to be sufficiently detailed at an elementary level for the mathematically inclined or interested to understand but. Cape Town SOUTH AFRICA The books in this series are selected for their motivating. be interesting and sometimes challenging to the undergraduate and the more advanced mathematician. the problems have occurred in either national or international contests at the secondary school level. Canberra AUSTRALIA ED J BARBEAU. at the same time. Typically. Terra Haute USA RON DUNKLEY. Moscow RUSSIA ANDY Liu. Lincoln USA NIKOLAY KONSTANT1NOV. It is believed that these mathematics competition problems are a positive influence on the learning and enrichment of mathematics. Canberra AUSTRALIA PETER J TAYLOR. Canberra AUSTRALIA WARREN J ATKINS. Toronto CANADA GEORGE BERZSENYI. with a lucid expository style in their solutions. Sofia BULGARIA JOHN WEBB.THE AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS TRUST ENRICHMENT S E R I E S EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Chairman Editor GRAHAM H POLLARD. interesting and stimulating sets of quality problems.
U Mottershead.THE AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS TRUST ENRICHMENT BooKs IN THE SERIES 1 SERIES AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 1 19781984 JD Edwards. DJ King Et PJ O'Halloran 2 MATHEMATICAL TOOLCHEST AW Plank Et NH Williams 3 TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS 19841989 PJ Taylor 4 AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 2 19851991 PJ O'Halloran. G Pollard Et PJ Taylor 5 PROBLEM SOLVING VIA THE AMC W Atkins 6 TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS 19801984 PJ Taylor 7 TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS QUESTIONS AND SOLUTIONS 19891993 PJ Taylor 18 ASIAN PACIFIC MATHEMATICS OLYMPIADS 19892000 H Lausch Et C Bosch Giral 9 METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING BOOK 1 JB Tabov Ft PJ Taylor 10 CHALLENGE! 19911995 JB Henry. J Dowsey. AR Edwards. A Nakos Et G Vardaro ii 1 12 USSR MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 19891992 AM Slinko AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 19791995 H Lausch Et PJ Taylor 13 CHINESE MATHEMATICS COMPETITIONS AND OLYMPIADS 19811993 A Liu .
JE Munro Et PJ Taylor 17 SEEKING SOLUTIONS JC Burns 18 101 PROBLEMS IN ALGEBRA T Andreescu Et Z Feng .114 POLISH Et AUSTRIAN MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIADS 1981.1995 ME Kuczma Et E Windischbacher 115 TOURNAMENT OF TOWNS QUES11ONS AND SOLUTIONS 19931997 PJ Taylor Et AM Storozhev 116 AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS COMPETITION BOOK 3 19921998 WJ Atkins.
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the book gradually builds students' algebraic skills and techniques. This work aims to broaden students' view of mathematics and better prepare them for possible participation in various mathematical competitions. It provides indepth enrichment in important areas of algebra by reorganizing and enhancing students' problemsolving tac tics and strategies. Instead. impenetrable questions.PREFACE This book contains one hundred highly rated problems used in the training and testing of the USA International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) team. It is not a collection of one hundred very difficult. . The book further stimulates students' interest for future study of mathematics.
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They may contain some ideas that did not occur in your solutions.INTRODUCTION In the United States of America. the selection process leading to participation in the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) consists of a series of national contests called the American Mathematics Contest 10 (AMC 10). Try to make connections between problems. Cor rect solutions often require deep analysis and careful argument. number theory. combinatorial and advanced geometry. Even if you can solve a problem. In some cases. Olympiadstyle exams consist of several challenging essay problems. Throughout MOSP. complex numbers in geometry. cleverly applied. Participation in the AIME and the USAMO is by invitation only. Olympiad questions can seem impenetrable to the novice. graph theory. Experiment with simple cases. The Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program (MOSP) is a fourweek. and the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad (USAMO). functional equations and classical inequalities. Here is some advice for students who attempt the problems that follow. and they . algorithmic proofs. theory of equations. The six students representing the United States of America in the IMO are selected on the basis of their USAMO scores and further IMOtype testing that takes place during MOSP. do read the solutions. yet most can be solved with elementary high school mathematics techniques. Take your time! Very few contestants can solve all the given problems. full days of classes and extensive problem sets give students thorough preparation in several important areas of mathematics. Try different approaches. intense training of 2430 very promising students who have risen to the top of the American Mathematics Competitions. Be patient. generating functions. A very important theme of this work is: all important techniques and ideas featured in the book appear more than once! Olympiad problems don't "crack" immediately. polynomials. working backward from the desired result is helpful. telescoping sums and products. recursive relations. These topics include combinatorial arguments and identities. probability. based on performance in the preceding exams of the sequence. the American Invitational Mathematics Examination(AIME). the American Mathematics Contest 12 (AMC 12).
use the books on the reading list. but not all are outlined here. For additional practice. and see if you can solve it in a different way. All terms in boldface are defined in the Glossary. try to reconstruct the thinking that went into them. When you read the solutions. Use the glossary and the reading list to further your mathematical education. Don't get discouraged if you have trouble at first. Meaningful problem solving takes practice. Ask yourself. false starts. but they often obscure the torturous process of investigation. "What were the key ideas?" "How can I apply these ideas further?" Go back to the original problem later. inspiration and attention to detail that led to them.viii Introduction may discuss strategic and tactical approaches that can be used elsewhere. . Many of the problems have multiple solutions. The formal solutions are also models of elegant presentation that you should emulate.
Russia We did our best to cite all the original sources of the problems in the solution part. . China Revista Matematica Timi§oara.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to Tiankai Liu who helped in proof reading and preparing solutions. Romania Kvant. Many problems are either inspired by or fixed from mathematical contests in different countries and from the following journals: HighSchool Mathematics. We express our deepest appreciation to the original proposers of the problems.
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Petersburg (Leningrad) Mathematical Olympiad Notations for Numerical Sets and Fields Z the set of integers the set of integers modulo n the set of positive integers the set of nonnegative integers the set of rational numbers the set of positive rational numbers the set of nonnegative rational numbers the set of ntuples of rational numbers the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers the set of nonnegative real numbers the set of ntuples of real numbers the set of complex numbers . which replaces AHSME American Regional Mathematics League International Mathematical Olympiad United States of America Mathematical Olympiad Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition St.ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONS Abbreviations AHSME AIME AMC10 AMC12 ARML IMO USAMO MOSP Putnam St. Petersburg American High School Mathematics Examination American Invitational Mathematics Examination American Mathematics Contest 10 American Mathematics Contest 12.
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CONTENTS PREFACE vii ix xi INTRODUCTION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONS 1. SOLUTIONS TO ADVANCED PROBLEMS GLOSSARY 65 131 FURTHER READING 137 . ADVANCED PROBLEMS 13 3. SOLUTIONS TO INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS 27 4. INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS xiii 1 2.
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INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS .
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. for all values of x. X. has the properties f (19) = 19. x1 = 4 and xn+1 = xn_1 . d c and f (f (x)) = x. and d are nonzero real numbers. . for z = 1. Problem 2 Find the general term of the sequence defined by x0 = 3.1. be a sequence of integers such that (i) 1 < x. Solve the equation a+bx+ b+cx+ c+ax= b ax+ cbx+ acx.. n. Problem 4 The function f. defined by f(x) = ax+b cx+d' where a. b. < 2. b. (ii) x1 + x2 + (iii) + xn 19. . a Problem 3 Let x1.. x2i . except  Find the range of f. and c be real and positive parameters. 2. INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS Problem 1 Let a. f (97) = 97. Determine the minimum and maximum possible values of xi+x2+ +xn...nxn for all' n E N.. c.
a instead. g(x). cannot coincide with the initial set. such that for all x. where y = x + 1 and as are constants. say a and b. b. Problem 9 Find polynomials f (x). One may erase any two numbers. + a16y16 + a17y17. . and h(x)..=c+.2 1. after any number of the preceding operations.. 1 1 If (x) I . Introductory Problems Problem 5 Prove that (ab)2 < a+b 8a  2 \< (ab)2 a 8b for all a>b>0. and c be distinct nonzero real numbers such that a+b=b+..I g(x) I + h(x) = ifx<1 if 1 < x < 0 3x + 2 2x+2 ifx>0.+x16_x17 may be written in the form ao + a1y + a2y2 + . Problem 7 The polynomial 1x+x2x3+. 2 Prove that the set of numbers on the board. c 1 1 1 Prove that Iabcl = 1.. if they exist. and then write the numbers a + 2 and b . Problem 8 Let a. Find a2. Problem 6 Several (at least two) nonzero numbers are written on a board.
Problem 12 Let a. Find the maximum possible value of max{a. a ER. and e be positive integers such that abcde = a + b + c + d + e. c. Problem 15 Find all real numbers x for which 10x + 1lx + 12x = 13x + 14x. d. d. . Find all possible values of x. Problem 13 Evaluate 3 4 2001 1!+2!+3! +2!+3!+4! Problem 14 1999!+2000!+2001! Let x= vfa2 +a+1'1a2 a+1. c.1. Introductory Problems 3 Problem 10 Find all real numbers x for which 8x + 27" 12x + 18x 7 6 Problem 11 Find the least positive integer m such that for all positive integers n. b. b. e}.
If(a)f(b)I < Problem 18 Find all pairs of integers (x.N be a function such that f (1. for all a Prove that b in the interval [0. q) = 2001. 1) = 2. . + 1 x1 x2 =1 has integer solutions. Problem 19 Let f (x) = Evaluate 2 4x 2 for real numbers x.f (b)I < I a .n)= f(m. q) such that f (p.n) +m and f(m.bI. Problem 21 Find all pairs of integers (a.n+1)= f(m..1. 1] such that f (O) =f(l) = 1 and I f (a) .nEN. y) such that 2 x3 + y3 = (x + y)2.x . Problem 17 Let f be a function defined on [0. Find all pairs (p.n)n for all m.. f(m+1.4 1. f Problem 20 (2001I ) +f (20012 ) + +f (20001) Prove that for n > 6 the equation 1 + 1 2 x2 +. Introductory Problems Problem 16 Let f : N x N . b) such that the polynomial ax17 + bxls + 1 is divisible by x2 . 1].
a4 .a2.xn_1 for n = 3. a2.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + What is the largest prime factor of S? + p(999).. . Problem 23 Let xn be a sequence of nonzero real numbers such that xi_2xn_1 xn 2xn_2 . then p(n) is equal to that digit..a1. Problem 24 Solve the equation x33x= x+2. (If n has only one digit. n) for which mn > 0 and m3 + n3 + 99mn = 333. Problem 27 Prove that 80 16<Ev1 k=1 <17.a3. Establish necessary and sufficient conditions on x1 and x2 for x. to be an integer for infinitely many values of n. let p(n) be the product of the nonzero digits of n.. a3 .}.1. and that a19 = a92 = 0. Suppose that all of the terms of the sequence A(AA) are 1. k Problem 28 Determine the number of ordered pairs of integers (m. 4. . a3. Introductory Problems 5 Problem 22 Given a positive integer n.. Problem 25 For any sequence of real numbers A = {a1. }. Find a1. Problem 26 Find all real numbers x satisfying the equation 2x+3x4x+6x9x=1. .. define DA to be the sequence {a2 ..
a2). Problem 34 Prove that the polynomial (x . Ic .6 1.1.al)(x . where al.cl < 2..e.bi < 2. and c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c < 4 and ab+bc+ca > 4. b.. i. an are distinct integers.. lb . 1 Problem 32 What is the coefficient of x2 when (1 + x)(1 + 2x)(1 + 4x).(1+2 nX) is expanded? Problem 33 Let m and n be distinct positive integers. a2.(x . . cannot be written as the product of two nonconstant polynomials with integer coefficients..al < 2 are true.an) . Find the maximum value of Ix' . it is irreducible. Solve for positive numbers x.. 1).k)!(n + k)! Problem 31 Let 0 < a < 1. . Problem 30 Evaluate n k=O E (n . Prove that at least two of the inequalities la . Introductory Problems Problem 29 Let a.xnl where x is a real number in the interval (0.
Problem 37 Let a be an irrational number and let n be an integer greater than 1. Introductory Problems 7 Problem 35 Find all ordered pairs of real numbers (x. Evaluate 1 1 1 xy+zl+yz+xl+zx+y1 .2 for real numbers x. x2. Prove that (a+ is an irrational number.x3 + x4)2 (x3 . x3.2)x = 2x+1 .x3) = x4(x1 + x2 .xl) for real numbers x1.a21) Problem 38 Solve the system of equations (x1 . x4.1)x2 + (2x2 .x5) = xl(x3 + x4 . Problem 36 Solve the equation 2(2x . y) for which: (1+x)(1+x2)(1+x4) = l+y7 and (1 + y)(1 + y2)(1 + y4) = 1 + x7.x4) = x5(x2 + x3 .x2) = x3(x5 + x1 .x1 + x2)2 = x2(x4 + x5 .x5 + x1)2 (x5 .x4 + x5)2 (x4 . Problem 39 Let x. x5. y. and z be complex numbers such that x + y + z = 2. a21) +(a .x2 + x3)2 (x2 .1. x2+y2+z2=3 and xyz = 4.
. where a is a given real number. Problem 44 Let P(x) = aoxn + al xn1 + . Taf is going to arrange the three numbers as the coefficients of a quadratic equation x2+ x+ =0. Fat wins the game if and only if the resulting equation has two distinct rational solutions. determine the maximum and the minimum value of a.1 2n 1 2 737 for all positive integers n.. Who has a winning strategy? Problem 41 Given that the real numbers a. with 0 < r < s.ax 2.1)2 . Find all complex numbers x such that (X) 2 x 2 2 . + a. d. Fat is going to pick three nonzero real numbers and Mr. Problem 42 Find the real zeros of the polynomial Pa(x) = (x2 + 1)(x . b. c.8 1. Mr. Introductory Problems Problem 40 Mr. Problem 43 Prove that 1 3 4 2n . and e satisfy simultaneously the relations a+b+c+d+e=8 and a2+b2+c2 +d2+e2=16.. Problem 45 Let m be a given real number. Prove that ak < s for some k. be a nonzero polynomial with integer coefficients such that P(r) _ P(s) = 0 for some integers r and s.
. xn_1i be the zeros different from 1 of the polynomial 1x1 + 1x2 Problem 50 +. .x x2y2 = b 1x2+y2 for real numbers x and y.+ 1 n1 2 1xn_1 Let a and b be given real numbers. Problem 47 Let a. y . and xn+1 .1 (Xn1 + 2 1 I . and d be real numbers such that (a2+b21)(c2+d21) > (ac+bd1)2. b. Problem 48 Find all complex numbers z such that (3z + 1)(4z + 1)(6z + 1)(12z + 1) = 2.1. Introductory Problems 9 Problem 46 The sequence given by xo = a..n>2. Prove that a2 + b2 > 1 and c2 + d2 > 1. Solve the system of equations x . is periodic.yx 2yz 1x2+y2 a. x1 = b. Prove that 1 1 P(x)=xn1.. c. Problem 49 Let x1i x2. Prove that ab = 1.
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ADVANCED PROBLEMS .
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y.. y 3 z3 Problem 54 Let {an}n>1 be a sequence such that al = 2 and an 1 an+i = 2 + an for allneN.2. Prove that x + y x+ (x+y)(x+z) y+ (y+z)(y+x) + z + z (z +X) (z + y) < . + (2000) Problem 52 Let x. Problem 53 Find all real solutions to the equation 2X + 32: + 6X = x2. ADVANCED PROBLEMS Problem 51 Evaluate 0200 0) 2 + (2000) + 5 (20800) + . y. Find an explicit formula for an.. Problem 55 Let x. Determine with proof the minimum value of x3 1x8+1y8+1z8. and z be positive real numbers. z be positive real numbers such that x4 + y4 + z4 = 1.
. Prove that 1 2 =xnx.+ 1 <122.. 22". find mk.. Problem 59 Let x1 = 2 and x'+1 for n > 1. with proof.14 2. f(x + y) +N(X) + f(y)) = f(f(x + f(y)) + f(y + f(x))). Problem 58 Let F be the set of all polynomials f (x) with integers coefficients such that f (x) = 1 has at least one integer root. Advanced Problems Problem 56 Find. Evaluate f (2001). Prove that f(f(x)) = x. the least integer greater than 1 for which there exists f E F such that the equation f (x) = Mk has exactly k distinct integer roots. all nonzero polynomials f (z) such that f(z2) + f(z)f(z + 1) = 0.yER+.. Problem 57 Let f : N * N be a function such that f (n + 1) > f (n) and f (f (n)) = 3n for all n. + 1. xn x1 x2 Problem 60 Suppose that f : R+ > 1[8+ is a decreasing function such that for all x. < 1 + 1 +. For each integer k > 1.
b. . b. e2. Problem 65 Consider n complex numbers zk.2.2.. and c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. for any m < n.x) = x. Problem 66 Find a triple of rational numbers (a. such that zk < 1. <2. . satisfying the following properties: f(x. Prove that there exist e1.. Prove that a+b+l+b+c+l+c+a+l C1 Problem 64 Find all functions f. c) such that 9 321= 3a+ 3b+ yc.y) = yf(x.. Problem 62 Let2<a<1. k = 1. . en E {1. y E Q. defined on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers.y) = f(y. n. Prove that the equation x3(x + 1) = (x + a)(2x + a) has four distinct real solutions and find these solutions in explicit form.x+y).. Advanced Problems 15 Problem 61 Find all functions f : Q . (x+y)f(x.Q such that f(x + y) + f(x . f(x..y) = 2f(x) + 2f(y) for all x.x). 1} such that. . Problem 63 Let a.
. Each time. . and replace them by the number 2 min(a. f(xf(x) +f(y)) = (f(x))2 +y for all x. a. are real numbers in the interval (4. b). + logy 1 1 xl ..52 + 62l 32 .Y + 62 . Advanced Problems Problem 67 Find the minimum of logxl (X2 1 4 + logX2 X3 = 4) + . a2. .16 2.4 where x1i x2. 1001. 2999 have been written on a board. one is allowed to erase two numbers. say. be real numbers. ...2 + 62 .. a and b. y E R.. not all zero. Problem 71 Let al.Z2 w2 4212 +4232 +4252 +4272 x2 2 z2 w2 _ 62 .Z2 w2 2212 +2232 +2252 +2272 x2 2 .x=n .. 1+a. one obtains exactly one number c on the board. Problem 70 The numbers 1000. xn. ..72 = 1.. Prove that c < 1. Problem 68 Determine x2 + y2 + z2 + w2 if x2 y2 . x2 y 2 z2 w2 8212 +8232 +8252 +8272 Problem 69 Find all functions f : R > R such that 1. After 1999 such operations. 1).. Prove that the equation 1 +a1x+ has at most one nonzero real root.
.. Advanced Problems 17 Problem 72 Let {an} be the sequence of real numbers defined by al = t and an+i = 4an(1 . Prove that Problem 75 .an) forn>1. an > blb2 . i=1 i=1 Suppose that there exists 1 < k < n such that bi < ai for 1 < i < k and b2 a2 for i > k. Prove that ab be ca as+b5+ab+b5+c5+bc+c5+a5+ca l . . alas + a2a6. b and c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1.. Given eight nonzero real numbers al. a2.. b.2. a5a7 + a6a8 is nonnegative. as. ala2 . ala7 + a2a8. prove that at least one of the following six numbers: alai + a2a4. 0 < bl < b2 n . Problem 76 Let a. a3a7 + a4a8. < bn be real numbers such that n E ai > E bi. a3a5 + a4a6.. For how many distinct values of t do we have ai998 = 0? Problem 73 (a) Do there exist functions f : JR > JR and g : JR + R such that f(g(x)) = x2 for all x E R? and g(f(x)) = x3 (b) Do there exist functions f : JR > JR and g : JR + JR such that f(g(x)) = x2 for allxEJR? and g(f(x)) = x4 Problem 74 Let 0 < al < a2 < an.
Fat wins. for alln>2..y2 =3 x+3y x2+y2 =0.. Y Problem 79 Mr. Problem 78 Solve the system of equations: 3x y x+ x2 +.. Taf wins. then F(O) = F(1) = . Taf play a game with a polynomial of degree at least 4: x2n + _x2n1 + _x2n2 +.Fn+2=Fn+1+Fn (nEN).k+1. otherwise. Mr. Mr.. who has a winning strategy? Problem 80 Find all positive integers k for which the following statement is true: if F(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients satisfying the condition 0<F(c) <k for c=0.1. Fat and Mr. . If Mr.18 2. Prove that F2n = F2n3 +2 + Fen2 9 3 2F2.. If the resulting polynomial has no real root. They fill in real numbers to empty spaces in turn. Fat goes first. Problem 81 The Fibonacci sequence Fn is given by F1=F2=1. y). = F(k + 1).y) + 4f(x)y holds for all pairs of real numbers (x.... + _x + 1. Advanced Problems Problem 77 Find all functions f : R > R such that the equality f(f(x) + y) = f(x2 .
..2.. b).. b]) as P(b) . Prove that 2 < xnyn < 3 for all n > 1.. b] (a.. . and xn+1 = xn + yn 1 } 1+X . b).. .P(a). 1] into a finite number of intervals and color them red and blue alternately such that. zn be complex numbers such that Iz1I+Iz21+.. Yn+1 = 1 + y2 for all n > 1. are defined in the following way: X1 = Ill = V3. Find all integer roots of P(P(x)) given that 0 is a root of P(x). Prove that there exists a subset S of {z1. define the difference of P(x) on the interval [a. Problem 86 For a polynomial P(x). . Advanced Problems 19 Problem 82 Find all functions u : lib > R for which there exists a strictly monotonic function f :ill. . . > l such that f(x + y) = f(x)u(y) + f(y) for all x.+znl =1.. Prove that it is possible to dissect the interval [0. y E R. (a.. and y1. for every quadratic polynomial P(x). the total difference of P(x) on red intervals is equal to that of P(x) on blue intervals.. What about cubic polynomials? ([a. Problem 83 Let z1i Z2. . Problem 85 Two real sequences x1i x2. . zn} such that I: z zES 6 Problem 84 A polynomial P(x) of degree n > 5 with integer coefficients and n distinct integer roots is given. Y2.. Z2.
After three moves the game is over. Fat and Mr. . (ii) for every positive integer n. Problem 90 Let n be a given positive integer.. Mr. 11<an. Consider the sequence ao. ]I82 > R be a function such that for Prove that f is the zero function. f (1) = 1. Taf are playing the following game. Advanced Problems Problem 87 Given a cubic equation x3 + _x2 + _x +  = 0. Mr. Problem 89 Let p be a prime number and let f (x) be a polynomial of degree d with integer coefficients such that: (i) f (0) = 0. Who has a winning strategy? Problem 88 Let n > 2 be an integer and let f : any regular ngon A1A2 . an.+f(An) =0.. f(A1)+f(A2)+. Taf puts it in one of the empty spaces.1.n. Fat wins the game if the final equation has three distinct integer roots. n .. An. In one move.<1.20 2. the remainder upon division of f (n) by p is either 0 or 1.2. Prove that . with ao = 2 and 2 ak = ak1 + ak_1 n fork=1. Prove that d > p .. Fat chooses a real number and Mr. a1. Mr.
2. not all zero. (a) Prove that °O E (b) Prove that 00 (n .1)! (x + n) _ 1 x' (n1)! n(x + 1).. 3a.. an be nonnegative real numbers. which cannot be written as the sum of squares of polynomials with real coefficients. Problem 93 For each positive integer n...anlx . Advanced Problems 21 Problem 91 Let a1.an = 0 has precisely one B=yn (b) Let A= 1aj and Prove that AA < RB. . show that there exists a positive integer k such that k = f(x)(x + 1)2n + g(x)(x2n + 1) for some polynomials f. and find the smallest such k as a function of n. a2.(x + n) 00 1 n=1 ti=1(x + k)2* . Problem 92 Prove that there exists a polynomial P(x.. (a) Prove that xn . Problem 94 Let x be a positive real number. .alxn1 positive real root R. g with integer coefficients. y) with real coefficients such that P(x. y) > 0 for all real numbers x and y..
y2. x2.. .x1)(x x2). 2... 3) in X such that the system aix + bly + c1z a2x + b2y + c2z = 0 = 0 a3x+b3y+c3z = 0 has a solution (x0.22 2. Problem 96 Let n > 3 be an integer and let x1..(x and Q(x) = P(x) (I + . Prove that one can find nine distinct numbers a.xn) 1 xn Problem 97 Let x1.n3} be a set of 3n2 elements.. X2.. Show that inIxi . bz..xn Let y'. yn_1 be the roots of Q. Suppose that ) Prove that 1 = 1...+ x2 . x1+ x2+.x. . z0) in nonzero integers. c. (i = 1. xn be distinct real numbers... + L) 1 xx1 + xx2 x ...+ xn>(n1) 1 xl + 1 +... Advanced Problems Problem 95 Let n > 3 be an integer.. . xn be positive real numbers.. n . Define the polynomials P(x) = (x . . yo.2. and let X C S= {1.j < inlyiy31..
al)(x . (x .. . alo such that the equation (x . x2.. Problem 100 Let X1. Let pk(xl. a3 E R.2. xn be variables. xn) even? For example. x7) be the kth elementary symmetric polynomial in the yi (the sum of every product of k distinct yis). f2i f3 : JR > JR be functions such that a1f1 + a2f2 +a3f3 is monotonic for all al. then yl. x)2' +1 cannot be written as the product of two nonconstant polynomials with Problem 99 Let fl.. x2..(x + alo) has exactly 5 different real roots.. the polynomial AX) = (x2 + integer coefficients. y2i y3 are x1... . c2. x1 + x2 and p1 = Yi + y2 + y3 = 2x1 + 2x2i P2 = Y1Y2 + Y2Y3 + y3y1 = xl + X2 + 3x1x2i P3 = y1112y3 = xlx2 + xlx2 Problem 101 Prove that there exist 10 distinct real numbers al.. c3 E JR. a2i .... Advanced Problems 23 Problem 98 Show that for any positive integer n. a2.. .alo) = (x + al)(x + a2). . . not all zero..a2) . y2. Y2"_1 be the sums of nonempty subsets of xi. Prove that there exist c1. . ... .. if n = 2. For which k and n is every coefficient of pk (as a polynomial in xl. and let yi. such that CI fl (x) + C2f2(x) + C3f3(x) = 0 for allxEJR.
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SOLUTIONS TO INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS .
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nxn for allnEN. Solution 2 We shall prove by induction that xn = n + 3.k(k + 3) = k + 4. This completes the induction. x1 = 4 and 2 xn+1 = xn_1 . Solution 1 It is easy to see that x = 0 is a solution.ifxk_1=k+2 =k+2andXk =k+3. as desired. Problem 2 Find the general term of the sequence defined by xo = 3. Since the right hand side is a decreasing function of x and the left hand side is an increasing function of x. b. there is at most one solution.kxk = (k + 2)2 . then Xk+1 = x2_1 . .1.3. Solve the equation a+bx+ vl'b c+ax=ax+ cbx+ acx. Fork>1. SOLUTIONS TO INTRODUCTORY PROBLEMS Problem 1 [Romania 1974] Let a. Thus x = 0 is the only solution to the equation. The claim is evident for n=0. and c be real and positive parameters.
When c = 0 (a = 40. . for i = 1. so xl +x2 + +xn = a+b+8c = 19+6c. Solution 4. Solution 3 Let a. c are nonnegative integers satisfying a+b+2c= 19 and a+b+4c= 99. f (f (x)) = x. defined by f(x) = ax+b cx+d' and where a. c. Alternative 1 For all x. Determine the minimum and maximum possible values of xi+x2+.e. the lower bound (19) is achieved..... Solutions to Introductory Problems Problem 3 [AHSME 1999] Let x1i X2. When c = 19 (a = 21. Then a. C f (f (x)) = x. Is. (ii) xl + x2 + + x2 = 99. be a sequence of integers such that (i) 1 < xti < 2.. It follows that a = 40 . f (97) = 97. b = 2). for all values of x. b. b = 59). (ax+b ) +b cx+d ax+b c (cx+d) +d a x' .c and b = 59 . ..3c. i. We need not consider the zeros. except . n. and d are nonzero real numbers. b. where 0 < c < 19 (since b > 0). and c denote the number of Is.+xn. Problem 4 [AIME 1997] The function f..d Find the range of f. has the properties f (19) = 19.. respectively. x. 2.. and 2s in the sequence.28 3. the upper bound (133) is achieved. b.
c. Alternative 2 The statement implies that f is its own inverse. Since c 0. b. c. Solution 4. Alternative 1 Note that C 2f + / `<1< 2Vb +V1` J .1843 = 58 + 1521 x58 x58' which never has the value 58. and the rest is the Problem 5 Prove that (ab)2 8a  a+b 2 a < (ab)2 8b for all a>b>0. Thus the range of f is R .{58}. it follows that a = d.97a+b. c(a + d)x + be + d2  c(a + d)x2 + (d2 . (972 . respectively. This yields f same as in the first solution. . which implies that c(a + d) = 0. It follows that a = 58c.192)c = 2(97 . which in turn leads to b = 1843c. Solution 5. The inverse may be found by solving the equation ay + b cy + d for y. and a. Solutions to Introductory Problems 29 (a2 + bc)x + b(a + d) x. and d must therefore be proportional to d. Therefore Ax) = 58x .b(a + d) = 0. The conditions f (19) = 19 and f (97) = 97 lead to the equations 192c=2. we must have a = d.a2)x . i(x) _ dxb cx + a The nonzero numbers a.19)a. 19a+b Hence and 972c=2.3. b.
2 instead. Prove that the set of numbers on the board. cannot coincide with the initial set. which is evident as a > b > 0 (which implies a > ab > b). after any number of the preceding operations. say a and b. Note that S increases in the first operation and does not decrease in any successive operation. Solution 6 Let S be the sum of the squares of the numbers on the board. This completes the proof. Problem 6 [St. Petersburg 1989] Several (at least two) nonzero numbers are written on a board.30 3. as Ca+2 \2 J +(b2)2=4(a2+b2)>a2+b2 with equality only if a = b = 0. Solution 5. Solutions to Introductory Problems (V 1b+Vb)2(VwVb)2 4a <(VuVO)2< (/+/)2(/ Vrb)2 4b (ab)2 8a <  a2 ab+b 2 <  (ab)2 8b from which the result follows. . and then write the numbers a + 2 and b . One may erase any two numbers. Alternative 2 Note that (a+b\2 a+b 2 ab = 2 ab a+b + 2 _ ab (ab)2 2(a+b)+4 ab Thus the desired inequality is equivalent to 4a>a+b+2 ab>4b.
+ a16y16 + a17y17. Here we used the formula (n) and the fact that k+ (k+ 1) . Then f(x) = f(y .+(1y)17.. Then xf(x)=xx2+x3.1) = 1 (y . Hence f(x) = f(y .3.1) + (y . + (17) = (18).x18 and (1 + x)f(x) = 1 ...1)18  1 .x18....(k + 1 (22) _ (33) = 1.1)18 1+(y1) y Therefore a2 is equal to the coefficient of y3 in the expansion of 1(y1)1s a2 = (18) = 816. (y .1) = 1 . Alternative 2 Let f (x) denote the given expression. Alternative 1 Let f (x) denote the given expression. .(y . Find a2. where y = x + 1 and as are constants.1) 17 Thus a2 = (2 ) 2 + (1)...1)2 =1+(1y)+(1y)2+. Solution 7. Solutions to Introductory Problems 31 Problem 7 [AIME 1986] The polynomial 1x+x2x3++x16x17 may be written in the form ao + aly + a2y2 + .(y .+. Solution 7.
3 + 13x + 31)/2 .3.x+ 21 .(5x+I5xl)/2+3x+2 = 1(3x+3)/21 . b.Ig(x) I + h(x) = ifx<1 if 1 < x < 0 2x + 2 ifx > 0. Alternative 1 Since x = 1 and x = 0 are the two critical values of the absolute functions. 0} max{5x. if F(x) is the given function. if they exist. Prove that IabcI = 1. one can suppose that F(x) = alx + 1 l+ blxl+ cx + d (cab)x+da ifx<1 (a+cb)x+a+d if1<x<0 (a+b+c)x+a+d ifx > 0. such that for all x. we have F(x) = max{3x . andca= aabb . then max(r. 1 If (X) I . b = 5/2. which implies that a = 3/2. . and h(x) = x + z . Problem 9 [Putnam 1999] Find polynomials f (x). and h(x). Solution 9.32 3. c = 1. b c = ccaa. and c be distinct nonzero real numbers such that a+=b+=c+. 3x + 2 Solution 9.sl 2 Therefore. 0} + 3x + 2 = (3x . s) = r+s+Ir . Solution 8 From the given conditions it follows that a b= b bc c . g(x). Solutions to Introductory Problems Problem 8 Let a. g(x) = 5x/2. Multiplying the above equations gives (abc)2 = 1.15x/21 . from which the desired result follows. Hence f (x) = (3x + 3)/2. Alternative 2 Note that if r(x) and s(x) are any two functions. and d = 1/2.
Therefore 2x+1 = 3x+1 or 2x1 = 3x1. (2a . Solution 11 Note that (0)+(1)+.2b) = 0. Solutions to Introductory Problems 33 Problem 10 Find all real numbers x for which 8x + 27x 12x + 18x 7 6 Solution 10 By setting 2x = a and 3x = b. 10) (5 Thus m = 4. = 252 > 35 . It is easy to check that both x = 1 and x = 1 satisfy the given equation. the equation becomes a3 + b3 a2b + b2a a2 ..ab + b2 ab 7 6 _ 7 6' 6a2 .3. Problem 11 [Romania 1990] Find the least positive integer m such that C2nln n <m for all positive integers n..3b)(3a .13ab + 6b2 = 0. which implies that x = 1 and x = 1.+\2n1 C2 n) < 2 =(1+1)2n=4n and for n = 5.
(1. 2.34 3.. 2). i. Therefore max{e} = 5...+ 1n. Note that 1_ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 bcde cdea deab eabc abcd < de + de + dc I I 1 ++d=3+d+ e I Therefore. c. 1. 2). 5) is a solution. d) = (1. which is impossible. 1. Alternative 1 Suppose that a < b < c < d < e.. suppose that a < b < c < d < e. Hence (a. d. Find the maximum possible value of max{a. b. 4). b. Solution 12. b. Alternative 2 As before. 1. . 1.1) < 4. de < 3 + d + e or (d.n}. . 1n =X1 +X2 + . 1. Solutions to Introductory Problems Problem 12 Let a. 1 < abcd < 5. 1.e. It is easy to see that (1. 1. Thus d1>lande1<4ore<5. c. 3).. We need to find the maximum value of e. e}. when xi. Since e<a+b+c+d+e<5e. If d = 1.. 1. then e < abcde < 5e. 1. (1. . d. xn are positive integers such that 1112. 5). which leads to max{e} = 5. c. Solution 12..1)(e. or (1. x. x2. and e be positive integers such that abcde=a+b+c+d+e. then a = b = c = 1 and 4 + e = e. 2.. Problem 13 Evaluate 3 4 2001 1! + 2! + 3! + 2! 3!+ 4! + + 1999! + 2000! + 200 1! . 1.. (1. Comment: The second solution can be used to determine the maximum value of {x1i X2. 1.
. Find all possible values of x.3. the desired value is equal to 1 1 2 2001! Problem 14 Let x = a2+a+1.a2a+ 1.1 (k + 2)! (k + 1)! (k + 2)! By telescoping sum. Solutions to Introductory Problems 35 Solution 13 Note that k+2 k! + (k + 1)! + (k + 2)! _ k+2 k![1+k+1+(k+1)(k+2)] 1 k!(k + 2) k+1 (k + 2)! (k + 2) . Squaring both sides of x+ yields vla2 a2+a+1 2x a2a+1=2ax2. a E R. Solution 14. Alternative 1 Since a2+Ial+1> Ial and x= we have 2a a2 + a + 1 + a2a+1' jxj < 12a/al = 2.
36 3. i.e.a2a+1. a half hyperbola of all points Q such that QA . SPA . Therefore their graphs can have at most one point of intersection. Alternative 2 Let A = (1/2. Conversely.1)a 2 = x 2 (x 2 . 0). x2 4 < 0 which forces x2 1 < 0.PB. for such a d. Problem 15 Find all real numbers x for which lOx + 11x + 12x = 13x + W. for every x E (1.4) or a 2 = x2(22 . / The left hand side is a decreasing function of x and the right hand side is an increasing function of x. In fact. .QB = d is well defined. Solution 15 It is easy to check that x = 2 is a solution. Then P is a point on the xaxis and we are looking for all possible values of d = PA . and P = (a. //2).PBj < IABI = 1. 1) there exists a real number a such that x = a2+a+1.) Since line AB is parallel to the xaxis. //2). Solutions to Introductory Problems Squaring both sides of the above equation gives 4(x2 .axis. 1 < x < 1. P is well defined. In fact.1) Since a2 > 0. Therefore..4) 4(x2 . dividing by 132 on both sides gives (10 ) x + (11)x+ ( 13)2 = 1+ (13)2. (Points A and B are foci of the hyperbola. Solution 14. We claim that it is the only one. Since IxI < 2. And it is clear that all the values 1 < d < 1 are indeed obtainable. we must have 22(x2 4) (X2 . By the Triangle Inequality. this half hyperbola intersects the x.1) > 0. B = (1/2.
q) = 2001.N be a function such that f (1.q) = f(p .n)= f(m.1) 2 = 1999.3.1) 2  q(q . Note that 1999 is a prime number and that p .1) f(l. q) such that f (p.1 = 3998. .1999.1 = f(p2. Solution 16 We have f(p. 2.1) 2 f(1. Solutions to Introductory Problems 37 Comment: More generally. Hence p = 2000 and q = 1999. + (a + k)2 = (a + k + 1)2 + (a + k + 2)2 + . Therefore p(p . f(m+1.1 = 1999.1) 2 2001. We have the following two cases: 1. k E N.q < p + q . +(a+2k)2 for a = k(2k + 1).q) + p .n) n for all m. . 1) = 2. (pq)(p+q. Hence p = 1001 and q= 999.n)+m and f(m.1)  + p(p .1) 2 f(1.1 for p.q1)(q1)+p(p1) 2 q(q .q = 1 and p + q . a2+(a+ 1)2 + .1. p . n E N.q) + p(p.n+ 1) =f(m.1) = 2.q)+(p2)+(p. q E N.q = 2 and p + q . Problem 16 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2001] Let f : N x N . Find all pairs (p. p .
Then the equation becomes x2xy+y2=x+y. Ia .f (b) I < I a . are solutions.bI . x2(y+1)x+y2y=0. for all a 54 bin the interval [0.7G. Solutions to Introductory Problems Therefore (p.f(b)I < 2 Solution 17 We consider the following cases. all pairs of integers (n.38 3. Then If(a)f(b)I = If(a)f(1)+f(0)f(b)I If(a)f(1)I +If(0)f(b)I < 1a+b0 1(ab) 1 Ia1I+I0bI < 2. 1] such that f(0)=f(1)=1andlf(a)f(b)I <IabI. Problem 18 Find all pairs of integers (x. we may assume that a > b. 999). y) such that x3 + y3 = (x + y)2. Suppose that x + y 54 0. n c. 1]. .bI < 1/2. Solution 18 Since x3+y3 = (x+y)(x2xy+y2). i. 1. Ia . q) = (200Q. as desired. 2. Then I f (a) .bI > 1/2. 1999) or (1001. as desired. Problem 17 [China 1983] Let f be a function defined on [0.e. n). Prove that If(a) . By symmetry.
f(1x)= 41x+2 2 _ 24x _ 4x 4+2. y) = (1. Therefore. Thus the desired sum is equal to 1000. (0.3. Evaluate f ( 2001) + f ( 2001) + + f ( 20001) Solution 19 Note that f has a halfturn symmetry about point (1/2. Solutions to Introductory Problems 39 Treated as a quadratic equation in x. 1). (1. we calculate the discriminant 0=y2+2y+14y2+4y=3y2+6y+1. Problem 19 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2001] Let 2 f(x) = 4x + 2 for real numbers x. the integer solutions of the equation are (x. Problem 20 Prove that for n > 6 the equation 2+2+ 1 1 . n). (2. (0.y. 2). 2). which lead to the solutions (1. (2. for all n E Z. and (2. Solving for 0 > 0 yields 32y . and 2. 2). Indeed.1).3+2y 3 3 Thus the possible values for y are 0. 1/2). 1). and (n. 0). 1. (2. (1.x) = 1.1). 2).4x 4x+2' from which it follows that f (x) + f (1 .+2=1 1 x1 x2 xn has integer solutions. 0). Solution 20 Note that 1 1 1 1 1 a2 (2a)2 + (2a)2 + (2a)2 + (2a)2' .
Xn+2. x2. the second one by p16 and using the fact that pq = 1. 3. 4.i x2. Thus ap17 + bp16 = 1 and aq 17 + bg16 = 1. an1. 2.) is an integer solution to 2 2 + x2 + xl 1 1 + xn+3 2 = 1. xn+l. Therefore we can construct the solutions inductively if there are solutions for n = 6.2an. 4..1 = 0. ger solution to 1 .. 12.x . By Vieta's theorem. p + q = 1 and pq = 1.2an. 3. 2. 2. 4.q = (p8 + g8)(p4 + g4)(p2 + q2)(p + q) .. 2.. and (2.2an. Problem 21 [AIME 1988] Find all pairs of integers (a.1. 2. 2. . Multiplying the first of these equations by q16. 6) and (2. 12) are solu tions for n = 6 and n = 8. Alternative 1 Let p and q be the roots of x2 . we find ap + b = q16 and aq + b = Thus a = p's (1) p 1s 16 pq . 3. respectively. Solution 21. b) such that the polynomial ax17+bx16+1 is divisible by x2 .+ 22 n (x1. 1 ) is an inte 2 1 then + 1 x2 2 +. xn) _ (a. Since x1 = 1 is a solution for n = 1. 2.40 3. xn.2an.. 4. 4. 2) is a solution for n = 4. Note that p and q must also be the roots of ax17 + bx16 + 1 = 0. xn1. It is easy to check that (2. This completes the proof. .x .. (2.. 2. and 8. xn+3) = (a1 a2 . a2. 4) is a solution for n = 7. Solutions to Introductory Problems from which it follows that if (x. 7.
7 ..3+ 1 = 1597 or (a. coc.. Hence b = 2207.2p2g2 =92=7.2p4g4 = 49 .. For n > 1.. xk: Ck2Ck1+Ck=O.p2g2(p2n + q2n) = 3k2n+2 . 1597). Then k6 = 18.c1=1 co ..c1 + c2 = 0.18+7.3. Then k2 = 3 and k4 = 7.47 = 987. and k2n+4 = p2n+4 + q2n+4 = (p2n+2 + q2n+2)(p2 + q2) . klo = 123. . k12 = 322. (p2 + q2)2 ..k2n for n > 3.q17 b = pq p16 + p15q + p14g2 + . Solutions to Introductory Problems Since 41 p+q = p2+q2 = p4 + q4 p8 + q8 1. + q'6 (p16 + q'6) + pq(p14 + q14) + p2g2(p12 + q12) + . Comparing coefficients: x0 x1: x2 : co=1.=0. = = it follows that a = 1 . . (p4 + q4)2 . Solution 21. (p+q)22pq=1+2=3. b) = (987..3.+c1xco)(x2x1)=ax17+bx16+1. let k2n = p2n +q2n..843+322 . and for 3 < k < 15. Likewise. + (p16 + q16) p7g7(p2 + q2) + p8g8 _ (p14 + q14) + .(p2 + q2) + 1. k16 = 2207. k14 = 843. c2 = 2. Alternative 2 The other factor is of degree 15 and we write (c15x15C14X14+. eliminating a in (1) gives p17 .123+47. k8 = 47.2 = 47.
F2n+5 = 2F2n+3 . since ignoring 0's is equivalent to thinking of them as 1's in the products. + (_1)n.7.. Solutions to Introductory Problems It follows that for k < 15. The sum of the products of the digits of all such positive numbers is (0. then p(n) is equal to that digit.. and the largest prime factor is 103. let p(n) be the product of the nonzero digits of n. Thus a = cl5 = F16 = 987 and b = c14 . we obtain some interesting facts about sequences k2.F2n+4 = F2n+3 .+9)30.. =(0+1+... However. 1597)..+1.... (If n has only one digit. p(n) is the product of nonzero digits of n.103. (Note that the final 0 in the above expression becomes a 1 and compensates for the contribution of 000 after it is changed to 111. Since 3F2n+3 . The sum of these products can be found by replacing 0 by 1 in the above expression. ck = Fk+1 (the Fibonacci number).. What is the largest prime factor of S? Solution 22 Consider each positive integer less than 1000 to be a threedigit number by prefixing Os to numbers with fewer than three digits. Problem 22 [AIME 1994] Given a positive integer n.1k2 + (1)n.) Let S = p(1) + p(2) + . and F2.. b) = (987..c15 = F17 = 1597 or (a.0._1 and k2n satisfy the same recursive relation._1..ken2 + k2n_4 .0+0.) Hence S=4631=(461)(462+46+1)=33.42 3.0. it follows that F2.5. It is easy to check that k2 = F1 + F3 and k4 = F3 + F5. + p(999).F2n+2 = F2. . Therefore ken = F2n_1 + F2n+i and F2n+1 = ken . Comment: Combining the two methods.
Yn1 = Yn1 . Then Yn ... Alternative 1 We have 1 21n2 . Solution 23.xn_1 1n2xn1 2 1 xn 1n1 Xn2 Let yn = 1/xn.6 cos a = or 2(cos a + 1)..Yn1 = 0 for all n.x1)' 1n (n . Clearly.2)x2 for n = 3. Alternative 1 It is clear that x > 2.. which in turn implies that x1 = x2 = m.1)x1 . Solution 24.... Since an arithmetic sequence is unbounded unless the common difference is 0. We consider the following cases. 2 cos 3a = V 4 cost a 2. 2 < x < 2.3. yn is an arithmetic sequence.Yn2.1n1 for n = 3. the yn's for n E S satisfy 1 < yn < 1. i. Setting x = 2 cos a. In this form we see that xn will be an integer for infinitely many values of n if and only if xl = x2 = m for some nonzero integer m. 1. Yn . . Establish necessary and sufficient conditions on x1 and x2 for xn to be an integer for infinitely many values of n. the equation becomes 8 cos3 a ..x2)n + (2x2 . this condition is also sufficient.e. Solution 23.. Solutions to Introductory Problems 43 Problem 23 [Putnam 1979] Let xn be a sequence of nonzero real numbers such that xn = 1n2xn1 2xn2 . 0 < a < 7r. a nonzero integer.(n . Problem 24 Solve the equation x33x= x+2. If xn is a nonzero integer when n is in an infinite set S. Alternative 2 An easy induction shows that 11x2 11x2 (x1 .4.4.
the solution in this case is x=2cosO=2. Since 0 < a < 7r. 1 1 is+ t6 =t+ t.44 3. x = 2. For 2 < x < 2. Hence there are no solutions in this case. please see the first solution. . Then x34x=x(x24)>0and x2x2=(x2)(x+1)>0 or It follows that x33x>x> x+2. . Solution 24.mEZ. Solutions to Introductory Problems from which it follows that cos 3a = cos 22' Then 3a2=2m7r. x=2cos45 and x=2cos47 .nEZ.or 3a+2=2n7r. which has no solutions for t > 1. x > 2. there is a real number t > 1 such that x = t 2 +t2. Alternative 2 For x > 2. Therefore. Hence there are no solutions for x > 2. 2. x = 2 cos 47r/5. and x = 2 cos 47r/7. The equation becomes 1 (t2+)3 3It2+ 2)= 1t2+ 2+2. (t71)(t51)=0.
. Solutions to Introductory Problems 45 Problem 25 [AIME 1992] }. define AA to be the sequence {a2 . Since alg = a92 = 0.a3. For any sequence of real numbers A = {al.. so al = (1 . This shows that an is a quadratic polynomial in n with leading coefficient 1/2. Problem 26 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2000] Find all real numbers x satisfying the equation 2x+3x4X+6X9X=1.92)..d+2. Solution 25 Suppose that the first term of the sequence AA is d. Multiplying both sides of the last equation by 2 and completing the squares gives (1 . Then AA={d.1)d + 2 (n .a . +d.b . .} with the nth term given by d + (n . a3. a2. a3 .3... the equation becomes 1 + a 2 + b 2 . Hence A = {al.92)/2 = 819. a. and that ai9 = a92 = 0. al +d+ (d+ 1) + (d+2).d+l.1).2). al +d+ (d+ 1). Suppose that all of the terms of the sequence A(AA) are 1.ab = 0.al.}..a) 2 + (a .1)(n ..19)(n .} with the nth term given by an = al + (n .a2. Find al.1)2 = 0... a4 . we must have an = 2 (n .19)(1 .b)2 + (b . Solution 26 Setting 2x = a and 3x = b.
Solutions to Introductory Problems Therefore 1 = 2' = 3'.k1 \ 80 2 1 k1vfk> Therefore 80 1 1: k=1 k <1+2E( k=2 . and x = 0 is the only solution. Problem 28 [AHSME 1999] Determine the number of ordered pairs of integers (m. Hence m + n . 2 (vrk .333 _ (m + n .33)[(m .mn + 33m + 33n + 332) = (m + n .k12 801<17. If m + n = 33. which proves the upper bound. Our proof is complete. 2 .n)2 + (m + 33)2 + (n + 33)2]. n) for which mn > 0 and m 3 + n 3 + 99772n = 333 Solution 28 Note that (m + n)3 = m3 + n3 + 3mn(m + n). We have m3 + n3 + 99mn . 1 k= vk Solution 27 Note that 2( k+1mi) Therefore 80 1 = k+1+f < '7k k=1 '" 1:( k=1 80 which proves the lower bound.333. then 333 = (m + n)3 = m3 + n3 + 377in(m + n) = m3 + n3 + 99mn. On the other hand.46 3. Problem 27 [China 1992] Prove that 80 16 < ) '<17.33 is a factor of m3 + n3 + 99mn .33)(m2 + n2 .
32). 0).b)2 + (b . i. i.al < 2 Solution 29 We have a+b+c)2 < 16.c)2 + (c . we have a3 + b3 + C3 .a)2 < 8. a2 + b2 + c2 < 8.c)2 + (c . (1. are true.3.a)2]. and c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c < 4 and ab+bc+ca>4. 33). and the desired result follows. b. (33.e.b)2 + (b . . (a . i. Comment: More generally.e. i. Solutions to Introductory Problems 47 Hence there are 35 solutions altogether: (0. Problem 29 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2001] Let a.e. Ic .3abc = 2(a + b + c) [(a . lb . a2 + b2 + c2 .e.cl < 2. Problem 30 Evaluate E 1 . a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + be + ca) < 16. Prove that at least two of the inequalities la .(ab + be + ca) < 4. and (33.bi <2. 33).
f(x)=a'. Solve for positive numbers x.kJ k (2k n) 2n 1 F 2n (2n\ + 2n (2n)! 2 r2zn L \2nJ n 22n1 1 (2n)! + 2(n!)2. It follows that f(x)g(x) = h(x) has unique solution x = a.. Consider functions from W ' R. Then both f and g are decreasing and h is increasing. Then Sn = 1 (2n)! a (n . x=x°. Problem 32 What is the coefficient of x2 when (1 + x)(1 + 2x)(1 + 2nx) is expanded? . Problem 31 [Romania 1983] Let 0 < a < 1. Solution 31 Taking logo yields a' log. Solutions to Introductory Problems Solution 30 Let Sn denote the desired sum. 9(x) = logo x.48 3. h(x)=x'.k)! (n + k)! 1 2n 1 k=o n k=O 1 (2n)! 1 ( n .
Let y = xmn.3.n nn (m n)mn .2 n+1 +2 3 (2n+1 .2) 3 Problem 33 Let m and n be distinct positive integers.xm = xn(l ..2 + 22n2 2 n1 +2 2n 2 n a1. Find the maximum value of I xm .1) (2n+1 . Solutions to Introductory Problems 49 Solution 32 Let + an.1x + It is easy to see that an.xnI = xn .o + an.1)x + an_1.(22 + 23 + .xn I.1) x + (an_1. fn(x) = an.1= 1+2+ Since fn(x) (1+2 nX).xm<xnand0<y<1. Solution 33 By symmetry. + 2n) 24(22n2 _ 1) _ 1) 2+ 4(2n1 3 22n+2 3. SinceO<x<1.nxn = (1 + x)(1 + 2x) . yn(ly)'nn = (mn n n)n ((m nn)y)n(1y)mn n+mn n /n mnny+(mn)(1y) ) 1 (mn) n+m. where x is a real number in the interval (0.xmn) = (yn(1 .2 + 22n 2 n = an2. +2=2 ' 1. Thus .2 = an1.y)mn) Applying the AMGM inequality yields Ixm .2x2 + ) (1+2 nX) = 1+(2 n+1 . we can assume that m > n. = fn1(x)(1 + 2'Lx) = (1+(2 n . 1)..o = 1 and a .2 + 22n 2 n ) x2 + we have an.2 + (24 +2 6 ++2 2n ) .
xnI < (nn(m l  n)m_n mm' = (m  n) / nnm Equality holds if and only if (mn)y = 1y n or Comment: For m = n + 1. Equality holds if and only if x = n/(n + 1).(x . where al. Solutions to Introductory Problems Therefore x m . Let f (x) = p(x)q(x) such that p(x) and q(x) are two polynomials with integral coefficients having degree less than n..' .(x . jp(ai)j = q(ai)j = 1 . it is irreducible.al)(x .. an are distinct integers.al)(x . Solution 34 For the sake of contradiction.e. we have xn .an) . Since p(ai)q(ai) = f(ai) _ 1 and both p(ai) and q(a..50 3... Problem 34 Prove that the polynomial (x .a2).xn+l < nn (n + 1)n+l for real numbers 0 < x < 1.1.1 is not irreducible. a2. Then g(x) = p(x) + q(x) is a polynomial with integral coefficients having degree less than n. suppose that f(x) _ (x . i.) are integers.a2).an) . cannot be written as the product of two nonconstant polynomials with integer coefficients.
y8 > 0. y) = (0. xy < 0. There are no solutions in this case.y) + (x7 . Then it is clear that x = y = 0 and (x. 4. But degg < n.y < 0. y < 0 and x j4 y. x8 . the system now reads 1x8 = (1+y7)(1x)=1x+y7xy7 1y8 = (1+x7)(1y) = 1y+x7x7y. Then f (x) = p(x)2. Solution 35 We consider the following cases. since the leading coefficient of f (x) is 1. 51 Thus g(x) has at least n roots. x7 . which implies that the leading coefficient of f (x) must be a negative integer. (1) Since x < y < 0. Then (1 + x)(1 + x2)(1 + x4) > 1 and 1 + y7 < 1. x. 0) is a solution. 1. y > 0 and x j4 y. . 3. so g(x) = 0. we can assume that x > 0 > y. xy = 0.3. we can assume that x < y < 0. By the symmetry. p(x) = q(x) and Problem 35 Find all ordered pairs of real numbers (x. Therefore.xy(xs .x and 1. and x6 . Solutions to Introductory Problems and p(ai) + q(ai) = 0. which is impossible. x .y7) . By the symmetry.y6). 2. Multiplying by 1. showing that there are no solutions in this case.y6 > 0.y the first and the second equation. Thus there are no solutions in this case.y7 < 0. the lefthand side of (1) is positive while the righthand side of (1) is negative. By the symmetry. xy < 0. Then (1+x)(1+x2)(1+x4) > 1+x7 > 1+y7. we can assume that x > y > 0. respectively.y8 = (x . x. Subtracting the first equation from the second yields x8 . y) for which: (1+x)(1+x2)(1+x4) = 1+y7 and (1 + y)(l + y2)(1 + y4) = 1 + x7.
they must have the same sign.1) = 0.2 for real numbers x. y) = (0. Solution 36 Rearranging terms by powers of 2 yields 2x2x + 2x+1(x2 . x = y.52 3. which implies that (x. which in turn implies that their sum is not equal to 0. 0) or Therefore. 0) and (1. y) = (0. (1) becomes 211x+2xy(x+y)=0 or x(2y . 1) are the only solutions to the system. / . Then solving 1x8=1x+y7xy7=lx+x7x8 leads to x = 0. Problem 37 Let a be an irrational number and let n be an integer greater than 1.1 and dividing by 2 on the both sides. Therefore (2) is true if and only if x = 0 or y = 0.1) 2 (X2 + x . Since f (x) = 2' .2)x = 2x+1 . Solutions to Introductory Problems 5. 1.1 and x always have the same sign. (2) Hence if the terms on the lefthand side of (2) are nonzero. Problem 36 Solve the equation 2(2x . x(2y 1) > 0. which leads to solutions x=1.0. (x.1) + y(2x .1)x2 + (2x2 . Prove that \1 (a+ a21 j +(a.1) = 0. (1) Setting y = x2 . 1. and 1.a2ll is an irrational number.
x4) (x4 . Then N = b + 1/b. x4. Therefore our assumption is wrong and N is irrational. x3.x3 + x4)2 = x2(x4 + x5 .1) + (a  a2 .x4 + x5)2 = x4(x1 + x2 .x5 + x1)2 (x5 . x5.1) and let b=(a+ a21)n.3. Problem 38 Solve the system of equations (xl . Solutions to Introductory Problems 53 Solution 37 Let N = (a + a2 .x2) = x3(x5 + x1 ..a21=2a is rational. in contradiction with the hypothesis. . assume that N is rational.x5) = x1(x3 + x4 . Adding the five equations gives s 5 J(3xk .x1 + x2)2 = x5(x2 + x3 .. we obtain that bm + 1/b' is rational for all mEN. 2.xkxk+l) = 0k=1 . bn +bn =a+ a21+a. Solution 38 Let xk+5 = Xk.x3) (x3 . Then by using the identity bm+1 + b +1 = (b + b / (m + b"')  (bm_ 1 +b 11 repeatedly for m = 1.4xkxk+l + 2xkxk+2) = 1:(x2 + 2xkxk+2) k k=1 k=1 It follows that 1:(xk ..X2 + x3)2 (x2 . In particular. For the sake of contradiction.x1) for real numbers x1i x2.
1). Problem 39 Let x. xz+yz+zz = 3. Solutions to Introductory Problems Multiplying both sides by 2 and completing the squares yields from which x1 = xz = x3 = X4 = x5.1) + (z .1)(z .1 1 5(xy+yz+zx).1) 1 1 (x . and Hence S _ _ 1 (x .54 3. and z be complex numbers such that x+y+z = 2.(x2 + yz + z2) = 1.1)(z . y.1)(y .1) + (y . and xyz = 4. yz+x1=(y1)(x1) zx+y1=(z1)(x.1) x+y+z3 (x . a. Likewise. a) for a E R.1)(z .1)(y . Therefore the solutions to the system are (x1. a.1) xyz. But 2(xy + yz + zx) = (x + y + z)z .x3.1)(y .x5) = (a.1)(x . Therefore S = 2/9.x2.1 Let S be the desired value. .x4.(xy+yz+zx)+x+y+z. Evaluate 1 1 1 xy+z1 Solution 39 yz+x1 zx+y. a. Note that xy+z1=xy+1xy=(x1)(y1).
d=x+dl. determine the maximum and the minimum value of a. and C be any arrangement of a.16). Let b=x+bl. the other solution is C/A.a. Then f (1) = A + B + C = a + b + c = 0.16a = a(5a . Fat has the winning strategy. Since the product of the two solutions is C/A. c. and it is different from 1. Therefore 0 < a < 16/5. A set of three distinct rational nonzero numbers a. Solution 41. where a = 0 if and only if b = c = d = e = 2 and a=16/5 if and only ifb=c=d=e=6/5. Mr. Alternative 1 Since the total of b. d. such that a + b + c = 0. and c. b. Taf is going to arrange the three numbers as the coefficients of a quadratic equation x2+x+= 0. b. and e satisfy simultaneously the relations a+b+c+d+e=8anda2+b2+c2+d2+e2=16. Fat is going to pick three nonzero real numbers and Mr. Solutions to Introductory Problems 55 Problem 40 [USSR 1990] Mr. which implies that 1 is a solution. their average is x = (8 . and e is 8 . 16=a2+4x2+b2+ci+d2+e2>a2+4x2=a2+ (8 _ 4 2 Then b1 + c1 + d1 + e1 = 0 and a) (1) or 0 > 5a2 . B. and let f (x) = Ax 2 + Bx + C. e=x+e1. b. Fat wins the game if and only if the resulting equation has two distinct rational solutions.3. d. will do the trick. .a)/4. Let A. c=x+c1. and c. Problem 41 [USAMO 1978] Given that the real numbers a. Who has a winning strategy? Solution 40 Mr. c.
56 3. if a > 8. Problem 42 Find the real zeros of the polynomial Pa(x) = (x2 + 1)(x ./l+a .) By setting y = x + 1/x.2 = l+ a. Alternative 2 By the RMSAM inequality. It follows that x+1=1f x X1. if a > 0. the last equation becomes y22ya=0. Solution 42 We have (x2 + 1)(x2 .2 In addition.1)2 . . Dividing by x2 yields (+!) (x_2+. then Pa(x) also has the real zeros X3. where a is a given real number.axe = 0.4 = 1.l+af a2 I+a2 2 Problem 43 Prove that 1 3 2n .ax 2.1 . then the polynomial Pa(x) has the real zeros 1+ 1+af 2 a 2. (1) follows from _ (8a)2 b2+c2+d2+e2> (b+c+d+e)2 4 4 and the rest of the solution is the same. which in turn implies that. Solutions to Introductory Problems Solution 41. 2n < 3n for all positive integers n. 1 2 4.2x + 1) .
3. Solutions to Introductory Problems
57
Solution 43
We prove a stronger statement:
1
3 4
2n1
2n
1
2
3n _+1
We use induction. For n = 1, the result is evident. Suppose the statement is true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
1
3
4
2k  1
2k
1
2
<
3k+1'
1
Then
1
3
2k1 2k+1
2k
2k+1
2
4
2k+2
2k+1
<
3k+1 2k+2'
1
In order for the induction step to pass it suffices to prove that
1
3k+1 2k+2
This reduces to
3k+4'
(2k+1
2
3k+1
2k+2) < 3k+4'
(4k2 + 4k + 1)(3k + 4) < (4k2 + 8k + 4)(3k + 1),
0 < k,
which is evident. Our proof is complete.
Comment:
By using Stirling numbers, the upper bound can be improved to 1/ 7rn for sufficiently large n.
Problem 44 [USAMO Proposal, Gerald Heuer]
Let
P(x) = a0x" +
a1xn1
+ ... + an
be a nonzero polynomial with integer coefficients such that
P(r) = P(s) = 0
for some integers r and s, with 0 < r < s. Prove that ak < s for some k.
58
3. Solutions to Introductory Problems
Solution 44 Write P(x) _ (x  s)xcQ(x) and
Q(x) = box' +
bix'n'1 +
... + b,,,,
where b,,,, 54 0. Since Q has a positive root, by Descartes' rule of signs, either there must exist some k for which bk > 0 > bk+1, or b,,,. > 0. If there exists a k for which bk > 0 > bk+1, then
ak+1 = sbk + bk+1 < 5
If b,,,, > 0, then a, = sb, < s.
In either case, there is a k such that ak < s, as desired.
Problem 45
Let m be a given real number. Find all complex numbers x such that
(x) 2
x+
+
x
2
x1
_ 2+m. m
Solution 45
Completing the square gives
x
x
2
(x++x)
x21
=
_
2x2
x2_1+m +m,
2
2x2
x2  1
+ m2 + m
.
Setting y = 2x2/(x2  1), the above equation becomes
y2y(m2+m)=0,
(ym1)(y+m)=0.
Thus
x 2x 2
1
= m or

2x 2
1
=m+
which leads to solutions
m x=f m+2 if m#2and x=±% m+1 ifm m1
1.
3. Solutions to Introductory Problems
59
Problem 46
The sequence given by xo = a, xl = b, and
xn+1 = 2 (Xn1 +
is periodic.
I
I
.
Prove that ab = 1.
Solution 46
Multiplying by 2xn on both sides of the given recursive relation yields
2xnxn+l = xn_lxn + 1
or
2(xnxn+l  1) = xn_lxn  1.
Let yn = xn_lxn  1 for n E N. Since Yn+1 = yn/2, {yn} is a geometric sequence. If xn is periodic, then so is yn, which implies that yn = 0 for all n E N. Therefore
ab=xoxl=yi+1=1.
Problem 47
Let a, b, c, and d be real numbers such that
(a2+b21)(c2+d21)>(ac+bd1)2.
Prove that
a2+b2>1andc2+d2>1.
Solution 47
For the sake of the contradiction, suppose that one of a2 + b2 or c2 + d2
is less than or equal to 1. Since (ac + bd  1)2 > 0, a2 + b2  1 and
c2 + d2  1 must have the same sign. Thus both a2 + b2 and c2 + d2 are less than 1. Let
x=1a2b2andy=1c2d2.
Then 0 < x, y < 1. Multiplying by 4 on both sides of the given inequality
gives
4xy > (2ac + 2bd  2)2 = (2  2ac  2bd)2 = (a2+b2+x+c2+d2+y2ac2bd)2 = [(ac)2+(bd)2+x+y]2
>
(x + y)2 = x2 + 2xy + y2,
60 3. Therefore the solutions to the given equation are z 335 and z= 24 23a5 24 Problem 49 Let x1.10w .. .y)2. Thus our assumption is wrong and both a2 + 62 and c2 + d2 are greater than 1.e. Setting u = 24z + 5 and w = u2 yields (u + 3)(u + 1)(u .2xy + y2 = (x . x2. . xn. + 1 _n1 2 1 .  1)(u2 . Prove that 1 1 P(x)=xn1. be the zeros different from 1 of the polynomial 1 .759 = 0. Solution 48 Note that 8(3z + 1)6(4z + 1)4(6z + 1)2(12z + 1) = 768.9) = 768. w2 i. (24z + 8)(24z + 6)(24z + 4)(24z + 2) = 768.xn_1 .n>2.e. (w . Problem 48 Find all complex numbers z such that (3z + 1)(4z + 1)(6z + 1)(12z + 1) = 2. Solutions to Introductory Problems or 0 > x2 .3). (u2 i.= 768. which is impossible._1.33)(w + 23) = 0.X2 + .1)(u ..x1 + 1 .
+ (n) x _ (n) 1and as are the nonzero roots of the polynomial Q(x).. . x2.a. the desired value is equal to (n S n1 12 P as desired..xn_1 = R' (x) R(x) ...an + aia3. n.ai)n .an + .. Alternative 2 For any polynomial R(x) of degree n1. (n) Solution 49.. Alternative 1 For i = 1.. .2..1 x Then Q(x) = (1)"x'1 + (1)n1 (n) (1 ..1 ai xn2 +. + aia2.an + .. Let Q(x) = P(1 .an is equal to the additive inverse of the ratio between the coefficient of x and the constant term in Q(x). that is...xi.x)n . the following identity holds: 1 + 1 + .. By the Vieta's Theorem.... + 1 X . whose zeros are x1.. as/ Q(ai) _ xi ..3.x) x (1 .. ..an + a1a3..e... let ai = 1 . . xn_1.X1 X ..the reciprocals of the roots of polynomial Q(x)..an1 ala2. the ratio between S = a2.. Solutions to Introductory Problems 61 Solution 49. + a1a2.1 _ 1 . i... Thus the desired sum is the sum of.X2 x .an1 and P = a1. 1 1 1 1x1 + 1x2 1 1 1 1xn_1 an1 a2 a1 a2a3.xi = 0..
x=u2v. It follows that (a .b 1a +b2 J 2'2 ' whenever 0 < a2 . andy=uv. Solve the system of equations x .1 2 1xn1 R(1) Let a and b be given real numbers. Then 0<x2y2=uv<1. + x + 1..x x2y2 = a.b2. R(1) = n and R'(1)=(n1)+(n2)+ It follows that 1 +1= n(n1) 2 R'(1) 1 1x1 + 1x2 Problem 50 +.u uv = (a+b) 1uv v + v uv = (a ..uv) = (a2 ..+yandv=xy. hence uv = a2 . Solutions to Introductory Problems For R(x) = xn 1 x1 = xn1 + xnz + . 1x2+y2 for real numbers x and y.+ 1 n.b2 < 1. b Solution 50 Letu=x.62 3. Multiplying the above two equations yields uv(1 . Adding the two equations and subtracting the two equations in the original system yields the new system u .y xz_yz 1x2+y z y . .azbz andv= 1+ a2b2 a+b a2b2 b+a a2b2 1a4.uv).b) 1 a2+b2 (a+b) 1a2+b2 u which in turn implies..that (xy) = '2 1.b2)(1 .b) l u v.
SOLUTIONS TO ADVANCED PROBLEMS .
.
Hence 3 (2 000) + 2000) 5 +. Let A be a positive real number.u8) < f Au8 +8(1 . + (2000) Solution 51 Let 2000 f (X) = (1 + x)2000 = k=0 02000) k xk.))2000 + w2 (1 + w2) 2000 = 22000 + w(w2)2000 + w2(_w)2000 = 22000 + w2 + w = 22000 .1.. let f(u) = u(1 .u8). y 3 z3 (1 .u8) 1 9 IL 9 J . z be positive real numbers such that x4 + y4 + z4 = 1.u8) . SOLUTIONS TO ADVANCED PROBLEMS Problem 51 Evaluate 0200 0) 2 + (2000) + 5 (20800) + . Let w = (1 + vi) /2. y. Then w3 = 1 and w2 +w+ l =0. A(f (u))8 = Au8(1 .. Determine with proof the minimum value of x3 1x8+1y8+1z8 Solution 52 For 0 < u < 1.1 3 Problem 52 Let x. By the AMGM inequality. Thus the desired value is 22000 . + (2000) 2000 2 =f(1)+wf(w)+w2f(w2) = 22 000 + w (1 + L..4..
x8) 4 4 Y y(1 . the function f (x) = 2x + 3x + 6x .. .x2 is increasing. 1 Comment: This is a simple application of the result of problem 33 in the previous chapter. Solution 53 For x < 0. But then s > lsj yields 2S > 2isJ = (1 + 1) L.z8) (x4+y4+24)439 8 943 8 ' with equality if and only if x=y=z= 43.66 4. so the equation f (x) = 0 has the unique solution x = 1. Solutions to Advanced Problems Setting A = 8 in the above inequality yields or It follows that x3 1x8+1y8+1z8 > y 3 z3 x4 x(1 . and hence [s] > 1. which in turn implies that 6S > 4S = (28)2 > s2. so s > f . Then s2 = 28 + 3S + 68 > 3. Problem 53 [Romania 1990] Find all real solutions to the equation 2x + 3x + 6x = x2.y8) + z4 z(1 . Assume that there is a solution s > 0.] > 1 + [s] > 8.
y. Note that an+1+v/'2 a2n+2vf2an+2 an+ 2 an+1vf2Therefore.2+1)try anvf2and an = v/2. Prove that x y x+ (x+y)(x+z) + y+ (y+z)(y+x) z + z+ (z+x)(z+y)  Solution 55 Note that (x+y)(x+z) > xy+ xz.4. . Problem 54 Let {an}n>1 be a sequence such that al = 2 and an 1 an+1 = 2 + an for all n E N. and z be positive real numbers. + 2^1 (Vr. a contradiction.1 Problem 55 Let x.[(vf2. Find an explicit formula for an. Therefore x = 1 is the only solution to the equation. Solutions to Advanced Problems 67 So 2S + 33 + 6S > s2. a22V12an+2 anv2 an+vf2 (a. Solution 54 Solving the equation leads to x = fV12.+1)2n+1] (V/2+ 1) 2n .
z2). that is. y+ and (y+z)(y+x) z < x+ f + f +f+VfZ VfY_ z+ (z+x)(z+y) Adding the last three inequalities leads to the desired result. Thus f is of the form zm(z . . 1 .68 4..zl)(z . Solution 56 Let f(z) = azm(z . zi 54 0 and zi 1 ..zl)(z .. Then z2m = zm+n. 2... (z .+ f+. The given condition becomes az2m(z .1)n(z + 1)n(z2 . Solutions to Advanced Problems In fact.1)mg(z).`' Likewise.z2 34 0.(z . . m = n. so a = 1. .zk). Problem 56 Find..zk) ..zl)(z2  z2). with proof. which is evident by the AMGM inequality. Since zi 0 1. the last equation becomes 9(z2) = 9(z)9(z + 1). where m and n are nonnegative integers and 9(z) = (z .z2) . Thus x x < x Vrx (x+y)(x+z) y x+ + xz _ Vrx.. k. for i = 1.(z2 Thus a = a2. Dividing by z2m(z .1)n(z . all nonzero polynomials f (z) such that f(z2) + f(z)f(z + 1) = 0. and f is nonzero.zk) _ a2zm+n(z + 1)m(z .1)n(z + 1)n.1)ng(z). squaring both sides of the above inequality yields x2 + yz > 2x yz.
Evaluate f (2001). and g(z) __ 1. Alternative 1 We prove the following lemma. Solutions to Advanced Problems 69 We claim that g(z) . 1. Therefore.. Suppose not.1. 2.3n. 0. f(3n)=2. Clearly.and 2. so I (r1)21=1. Since g cannot have infinitely many roots. and so on. so the same should be true of r2: r2 E < 1+Vi 1\i 2 2 This is absurd.. Lemma For n = 0. 1. Problem 57 Let f : N > N be a function such that f (n + 1) > f (n) and f (f (n)) = 3n for all n. Hence. g cannot have any roots. then clearly g must have at least one complex root r 0. if Iri=I(r^1)21=1.. g(r4) g(r8) = = 0. Now g(r2) = g(r)g(r + 1) = 0.1)g(r) = 0. Solution 57.1)"n for mEN.4. all its roots must have absolute value 1.1)2) = g(r .. the f (z) are all the polynomials of the form z(z . Now. g((r . 3n) = 3n+1 . then rE 1+Vr3i 1Oi . f (2. 2 2 But r2 is also a root of g.
Since f : N 4 N.3n+1 and f (2 3n+1) = f (f(3n+1)) = 3n+2 as desired. Solution 57. Suppose that for some positive integer n > 1. There are 3n . Alternative 2 For integer n. Hence f (2001) = f (2.1 integers m such that 3n < m < 2 . f (3n +. ae0 if a1 = 2. f is increasing. at denote the base 3 representation of Using similar inductions as in the first solution.3 n)) = 2. Solutions to Advanced Problems We use induction. 3n and there are 3n . let n(3) = ala2 n. Thus 1 < f (1) < f (f (1)) = 3 or f (1) = 2. f (3n+1) = f (f(2 . we can prove that f (n)(3) 2a2 = at if a1 = 1..32 +23 4 +23 6 + 1 . .. f (3n) =2.3n). note that f (1) 54 1. Therefore f (2 .3n<m'<3n+1=f(2.) =23 n + m. Since f is an increasing function.1 integers m' such that f(3n)=2.36 + 543) = 3 (36 + 543) = 3816.3') =3n+1 Then. For n = 0. for 0 < m < 3n. otherwise 3 = f (f (1)) = f (1) = 1. 3n + m) = f (f (3n + m)) = 3(3 n + m) for 0 < m < 3n. Since 2001(3) = 2202010.37 = 3816. Hence Proof: f(2) = f(f(1)) = 3. f (1) > 1. lag .3' and f (2. Since f (n + 1) > f (n).70 4. This completes the induction. which is impossible. f (2001)(3 = 12020100 or f (2001) = 1 .
1)(x + 1)(x . the least integer greater than 1 for which there exists an f E F such that f (x) = Mk has exactly k distinct integer roots.2)(x + 2) (x + (1)k [k/21) + [k/2]! [k/21 ! + 1. Note that rlr2 rk divides the constant term of gk(x) .. I1mkI > Ir1r2.(2). and let a be an integer such that fk (a) = 1. so the constant term of gk is 1. and none of them is 0.mk = (x .. r2i rk are distinct integers.rl)(x . where qk(x) is an integer polynomial. rk.mk.4.. . Solutions to Advanced Problems 71 Problem 58 [China 1999] Let F be the set of all polynomials f (x) with integers coefficients such that f (x) = 1 has at least one integer root.r2) ..3 .. Thus. which equals 1 . Let gk be the polynomial in F such that 9k(x) = fk(x + a) for all x. r 2 .mk cannot be 0.1) ('2')(x .rk)gk(x).. Now 9k (0) = fk(a) = 1. (x . 1 .. Since Mk > 1.. Now gk(x) = Mk has exactly k distinct integer roots rl. rkl > 11 (1) 2 . This value of mk is attained by 9k(x) _ (. For each integer k > 1. .. so we can write 9k(x) .mk. find mk. Solution 58 Suppose that fk E F satisfies the condition that fk(x) = Mk has exactly k distinct integer roots... (1)k+l [k/2]1 hence Mk > [k/2]! [k/21! + 1. Mk = [k/2]! [k/2]! + 1.rkl Now rl. so ) Irlr2 .
xn is increasing.+1 <121.. x2 = xi . i. for n E N. 1 1 1 1 < xn+1 . forn>1.1 1 xn xn xn . Then xn100.1) > 2 2k1 2 2k1 = 2 2k .1 xn+1 . 22k 1 < xk+1 . which is true.72 4.1 or 1 xn(xn . Solutions to Advanced Problems Problem 59 Let x1 = 2 and z xn+1 = xn .1 = Xn(Xn . Hence 1 1 xn+1 .1 which implies that 1 1 1 1 x1 x2 xn xn+1 Thus it suffices to prove that.1 = xk+1(xk+1 .xn + 1.e. Prove that 1Solution 59 Since x1 = 2 and 221 x1 x2 1<1+1+.1). Now suppose that (1) is true for some positive integer n = k.. the lower bound of (1) follows from Xk+2 .1) 1 xn . For n = 1..1 < 22 (1) We use induction to prove (1).1 < 22k (2) Then for n = k + 1.Si + 1 = 3 and (1) becomes 2 < 3 < 4. 2^ xn xn+1 .
Replacing x with f (x) yields f (2f (x)) + f (2f (f (x))) = f (2f (f (x) + f (f (x)))) Subtracting these two equations gives f(2f(f(x))) . the left hand side of this equation is negative.1. a contradiction. This finishes the induction and we are done. A similar contradiction occurs if f (f (x)) < x.1 = xk+1(xk+1 . If f (f (x)) > x. Comment: In the original formulation f was meant to be a continous function. Problem 60 [Iran 1997] Suppose that f : R+ R+ is a decreasing function such that for all x)yER+. . from which it follows that 22k+1 xk+2 . so f(f(x) +f(f(x)) > f(x+f(x)) and f(x)+f(f(x)) <x+f(x). Solution 60 Setting y = x gives f (2x) + f (2f (x)) = f (2f (x + f (x))).11 < as desired.f(2x) = f(2f(f(x) + f(f(x)))) . the lower bound of (2) implies that 22 Xk+1 C and xk+1 . Thus f (f (x)) = x as desired.4. f(x + y) + f(f(x) + f(y)) = f(f(x + f(y)) + f(y + f(x))). The solution above shows that this condition is not necessary.1) < 22k (22k .f(2f(x + f(x))). Prove that f(f(x)) = x. Solutions to Advanced Problems 73 Since xk+1 is an integer.1 < 22k .
1)z . y = z in the given equation we obtain f (nz) + f ((n .1 and n . Now suppose f is any function satisfying f(x + y) + f(x . so f (0) = 0.2)2f(z) _ (2n2 .f((n .1)2f(z) + 2f(z) .y) = k(x+y)2 + k(x .(n . Then letting x = (n . The claim holds for n = 0 and n = 1. Then letting x = y = 0 gives 2f (0) = 4f (0). since f(x+y) +f(x .n 2 + 4n .y)2 = kx2 + 2kxy + ky2 + kx2 . Solutions to Advanced Problems Problem 61 [Nordic Contest 1998] Find all functions f : Q > Q such that f(x + y) + f(x .1)z) + 2f(z) so f(nz) = 2f((n .z) = 2f((n . Solution 61 The only such functions are f (x) = kx2 for rational k.2)z) = 2(n . .2. Any such function works. Letting x = 0 in the given equation gives f (y) + f (y) = 2f (0) + 2f (y) = 2f (y) so f (y) = f (y) for all rational y.2)z) = f ((n . thus f (nz) = n2f(Z) for all integers n.2kxy + ky2 = 2kx2 + 2ky2 = 2f (x) + 2f (y). y e Q. let n > 2 and suppose the claim holds for n .74 4.4n + 2 + 2 .1)z.4)f (z) = n2f(z) and the claim holds by induction.y) = 2f (x) + 2f (y).1)z) + 2f(z) . We will prove by induction that f (nz) = n2f(Z) for any positive integer n and any rational number z.y) = 2f(x) + 2f(y) for all x.1)z + z) + f ((n .
Problem 62 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2000] Let1<a<1.x2 yields the quadratic equation x2+2x+a=0. Thus The first choice a = x+x2 yields the quadratic equation x2 xa = 0. The discriminant of this equation is 9x2 . Solutions to Advanced Problems 75 Now let k = f (1). whose solutions are The inequalities 1. g2f(x) = f(qx) = f(p) = p2f(1) = kp2 so f(x) = kp2/q2 = kx2. are the only solutions.x3 .1a<1+ 1a< 1.4. Solution 62 Look at the given equation as a quadratic equation in a: a2 + 3xa + 2x2 . 1+ 1+4a . whose solutions are x _ (1 f 1 ++ 4a) 2 The second choice a = 2x .1+4a 2 show that the four solutions are distinct.8x2 + 4x3 + 4x4 = (x + a= 3x + (x + 2x2) 2 2x2)2. Thus the functions f (x) = kx2. Prove that the equation x3(x + 1) = (x + a)(2x + a) has four distinct real solutions and find these solutions in explicit form. k E Q.x4 = 0. then for any rational number x = p/q.
Problem 63 [Tournament of Towns 19971 Let a.76 4. 2(a+b+c)+2 < (a+b)(b+c)(c+a). Prove that a+b+l+b+c+l+c+a+1 C1 Solution 63. 2(a+b+c) < a2b+ab2 +b2c+bc2 +c2a+ca2. which is evident. 3 (alb + a2c + 1) > 3 a4bc = 3a. Alternative 1 Setting x = a + b. or 3a < 4a2. . the inequality becomes 1 x+1y+1z+1 + + 1 1 C y+1z+1 x+l' y+z+2 < x x (y + 1)(z + 1) . and c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1.1+4a 6 1+4a<6+8a. y = b + c and z = c + a. b. Solutions to Advanced Problems Indeed 1+ 1a< 1/+4a 2 reduces to which is equivalent to 2 1a<3.x + 1' xy+xz+2x+y+z+2 < xyz+xy+xz+x. By the AMGM inequality. x+y+z+2<xyz.
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
Likewise,
77
(b2c + b 2 a+ 1) > 3b
and
(c2a + c2b + 1) > 3c.
Therefore we only need to prove that
2(a+b+c) +3 < 3(a+b+c),
3 <a+b+c,
which is evident from AMGM inequality and abc = 1.
Solution 63, Alternative 2 Let a = a', b = bl, c = ci. Then alblcl = 1. Note that
a, + bi  alb,  albi = (a,  bi)(ai  bi) > O,
which implies that
ai + bi > a,bl(a, + b1).
Therefore,
1
_
1
a+b+1
ai + bi + alblcl
1
albl(a, + bi) + alblcl alblcl
a,bl(a, + bl + cl)
Cl
al+bl+cl
Likewise,
1
<
al
bl
b+c+1  al+bl+cl
and
c+a+1  al+bl+cl
Adding the three inequalities yields the desired result.
1
<
78
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
Problem 64 [AIME 1988]
Find all functions f, defined on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers, satisfying the following properties:
f(x,x) = x, f(x,y) = f(y,x), (x + y)f(x,y) = yf(x,x + y).
Solution 64
We claim that f (x, y) = lcm(x, y), the least common multiple of x and y. It is clear that lcm(x, x) = x
lcm(x, y) = lcm(y, x).
lcm(x, y)
xy
= gcd (x, y)
gcd (x, y) = gcd (x, x + y),
where gcd (u, v) denotes the greatest common divisor of u and v. Then
(x + y)lcm(x, y)
_ (x + y) _
xy gcd (x, y)
x(x + y) gcd (x, x + y)
= ylcm(x, x + y).
Now we prove that there is only one function satisfying the conditions of the problem.
For the sake of contradiction, assume that there is another function
g(x, y) also satisfying the given conditions. Let S be the set of all pairs of positive integers (x, y) such that f (x, y) A g(x, y), and let (m, n) be such a pair with minimal sum m+n. It is clear that m A n, otherwise
f (m, n) = f (m, m) = m = g(m, m) = g(m, n). By symmetry (f (x, y) = f (y, x)), we can assume that n  m > 0. Note that
nf(m,nm) = [m+(nm)]f(m,nm) = (nm)f(m,m+(nm))
(nm)f(m,n)
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
or
79
f(m,nm) =
Likewise,
n
nm f(m,n).
g(m,nm) = n nm g(m,n).
g(m, n), f (m, n  m) g(m, n  m). Thus (m, n  m) E S. But (m, n  m) has a smaller sum m + (n  m) = n, a contradiction. Therefore our assumption is wrong and f (x, y) = lcm(x, y) is the only
Since f (m, n)
solution.
Problem 65 [Romania 1990]
Consider n complex numbers zk, such that Zk I < 1, k = 1, 2, ... , n. Prove that there exist e e2,,. .. , en E {1, 1} such that, for any m < n, 1
lelzl +e2z2 +''' +emzml < 2.
Solution 65
Call a finite sequence of complex numbers each with absolute value not exceeding 1 a green sequence. Call a green sequence {zk}'1 happy if it has a friend sequence {ek}n k_1 of is and is, satisfying the condition of the problem. We will prove by induction on n that all green sequences are happy. For n = 2, this claim is obviously true. Suppose this claim is true when n equals some number m. For the case of n = m + 1, think of the Zk as points in the complex plane.
For each k, let Bk be the line through the origin and the point corresponding to zk. Among the lines 21, L2, 6, some two are within 60° of each other; suppose they are f, and f,3, with the leftover one being f,. The fact that Qa and Qp are within 60° of each other implies that there exists some number e,3 E {1, 1} such that z' = za + e,3 z,3 has absolute value at most 1. Now the sequence z', z.y, z4, z5, ... , zk+1 is a kterm green sequence, so, by the induction hypothesis, it must be happy; let e', e7, e4, e5, ... , ek+1 be its friend. Let ea = 1. Then the sequence {ei}k+1 is the friend of {zi}k+l. Induction is now
complete.
(y+1)3 3 x3=y1= y2+y+1 1 3 (y+l)3 (1) or 'r3 x y+ On the other hand. (a. 3=y3+1=(y+1)(y2y+1) from which it follows that 1 y+l _ y2y+1 3 (2) Combining (1) and (2). Then y3=2andx= 3y1. Note that 1=y31=(y1)(y2+y+1).80 4. c) = 4 9' 9' 9 is a desired triple. and y2+y+1= 3y2+3y+3 3 which implies that _ y3+3y2+3y+1 3 . we obtain x (34 V9 32+1) 2 1 Consequently. Solutions to Advanced Problems Problem 66 [ARML 1997] Find a triple of rational numbers (a. c) such that V321= Solution 66 3a+ 3b+yc. b. Let xand y = 32. . b.
we have log.1/2)2 > 0 implies x2 > x . xn are real numbers in the interval (4.. since (x .." xk+i . xk+1 = 21og xk+l 4 logxk It follows that logxl I x2 . x is a decreasing function of x when 0 < a < 1 and.1 > logxk xk+1 = 2 logx. 4212 +42 32 x2 y2 z2 ..w2 x2 y 2 z2 W2 6212 +6232 +6252 +6272 x2 2 z2 w2 =1... Solution 67 Since log. Equalities hold if and only if x1 = x2 = . + log x2 109X.1 log xn > 2n by the AMGM inequality. 1)..4 ) >  2 log x2 log xi log xn + + log x3 + .. Problem 68 [AIME 1984] Determine x2 + y2 + z2 + w2 if x2 2212 +2232 +2252 +2272 =1. . Solutions to Advanced Problems 81 Problem 67 [Romania 1984] Find the minimum of logxl 1 1 x2  4 + logx2 x3  4 + ...4 I + log. (X3 . 8212+8232+8252+8272 .. + logxn log XI (1 .. = xn = 1/2..4) + .1/4.4. + logx (ii  1 4 where x1i x2. y 2 z2 w2 +4252 +4272 =1. .
16.25) (t .e.y2(t . Multiplying to clear fractions.1)(t .49) .25)(t . Problem 69 [Balkan 1997] Find all functions f : R + R such that f(xf(x) +f(y)) = (f(x))2 +y for all x. (1) is equivalent to the polynomial equation P(t) = 0. Since the range of a2+y consists of all real numbers. Comparing the coefficients of t3 in the two expressions of P(t) yields 1+9+25+49+x2 +y2+z2+w2 = 4+ 16+36+64. 9.36)(t . where P(t) = (t . and 64. z2. Solution 69 Let f (0) = a.4) (t . . we find that for all values of t for which it is defined (i.49) x2(t .9)(t . f must be surjective. 36. y2. and w2 is equivalent to claiming that x2 t12+t32+t52+t72 =1 y 2 z2 w2 (1) is satisfied by t = 4. and 64. from which it follows that x2+y2+z2+w2= 36. 25.16.e. 36.64). P(t) = (t . i.16) (t .25) (t .. for all y c R. y E JR. Setting x = 0 in the given condition yields f(f(y)) = a2 + y.1)(t .9)(t . and 49).82 4. Since deg P(t) = 4. t 0 1.49) z2(t1)(t9)(t49)w2(t1)(t9)(t25).. Solutions to Advanced Problems Solution 68 The claim that the given system of equations is satisfied by x2. P(t) = 0 has exactly four zeros t = 4.
After 1999 such operations. 2999 have been written on a board. one is allowed to erase two numbers. (f(x))2 = x2 (1) It is clear that f (x) = x is a function satisfying the given condition. (f(x))2 +y = f(xf(x) +f(y)) = f[f(f(x))f(x) +f(n)] = f[f(x)f(f(x)) +y] =f(f(x))2+y=x2+y. Therefore the only functions to satisfy the given condition are f (x) = x or f (x) = x. Setting x = b in the given condition yields f(f(y)) = f(bf(b) + f(y)) = (f (b))' + y = y. for x E R. that is. It follows that. say. for all x. a function which satisfies the given condition. for all y E R. Suppose that f (x) 54 x. Prove that c < 1. a and b. for all y E R.4. y E R. . and. It follows that (y)]2 [c2 + f or = (c2 + y)2. Setting x = cf (c) + f (y) in (1) yields If (cf (c) + f (y))]2 = [cf (c) + f (y)]2 = [c2 + f (y)]2. setting x = c in the given condition yields f(cf(c) +f(y)) = (f(c))2 +y = c2 +y. Note that (f (y))2 = y2. Then there exists some nonzero real number c such that f (c) = c. Each time. 1001. f (y) = y. one obtains exactly one number c on the board. Problem 70 The numbers 1000. for allyeR. . and replace them by the number 2 min(a. b). Solutions to Advanced Problems 83 Thus there exists b E R such that f (b) = 0. for all y E R.
2000 1000 + 1000 x 2000 or c < 1. Problem 71 [Bulgaria 1998] Let al. At the beginning this sum is S _ 1 1 1 1 1000 + 1001 + + 2999 < c' where 1/c is the sum at the end.1000 (1001 1 2999) 1 (1002 1 2998) (1999 2001 1.k2 > 20002 100 Rearranging terms in S yields C . Then a min(a. Hence f(x)= 1+a. 1 1 _ 4000 4000 1 2000 . we may assume a < b.b) = We have 2 1 1 1 a +b 2 )' from which it follows that the sum of the reciprocals of all the numbers on the board is nondecreasing (i. the sum is a monovariant).e.x .. not all zero. + l+a. for 1 < k < 999. Prove that the equation 1 +a1x+ l+a2x+ has at most one nonzero real root. Note that.k + 2000 + k 20002 . Solutions to Advanced Problems Solution 70 By symmetry.. a2..84 4. . a.x++ l+a. x = n Solution 71 Notice that fi (x) = 1 + ax is concave. as desired. be real numbers... .
For n = 1. 1]. Let An = {x E R : fn(X) = 0}. then An+1 = {x E 118: f n+1 (x) = 0} = {xER: fn(f(x))=0}={xER: f(x)EAn}. . An C [0. For how many distinct values of t do we have a1998 = 0? Solution 72. we have three real roots x1 < x2 < X3. we can find two distinct points on the curve with derivative 0. Now suppose n > 1 and An C [0. and I{y: f(y)=x}j =2 for allxE [0. f1(1) = {1/2}. Observe that f1(0) = 10. Alternative 1 Let f (x) = 4x(1 . 11. and IAnI = 2n1 + 1. Problem 72 [Turkey 1998] Let {an} be the sequence of real numbers defined by a1 = t and an+1 = 4an(1 . Applying the MeanValue theorem to f (x) on intervals [x1i x2] and [x2i x3]. 1] = x c [0. Then x c An+1 = f (x) E An C [0. We claim that for all n > 1. and An I = 2n1 + 1. 1]. 1 E An. we have A1= Ix GRI f(x)=0}= [0. Therefore. 1}. Suppose there is more than one nonzero root. so An+1 C [0. 1]. 1]) = [0.an) forn> 1. Solutions to Advanced Problems is concave. and the claims hold. Since x = 0 is also a root. 1]. 1].1). our assumption is wrong and there can be at most one nonzero real root for the equation f (x) = n. 85 Since f'(x) exists. 1 E An.x).4. f1([0. there can be at most one point on the curve y = f (x) with derivative 0. a contradiction.
a1998 = 0 if and only if f 1997(t) = 0.. so 1 E A. Thus the values of t which give a1998 = 0 are sin2(kir/21997) k E Z. Now choose 0 E [0.+1 Now we have jAn+1 j l{x : f (x) E A.86 4.sine 0) = 4 sin 2 O cost 0 = sin 2 20. 1]. 1]. observe that if f (x) E [0. Therefore a1998 = 0 sin 2 19970 = 0 0= k7r 21997 for some k E Z. . 7r/2] such that sin 0 = V. Solution 72. since a1 = sine 0. Observe that for any 0 E R. giving 21996 + 1 such values of t.. Solutions to Advanced Problems Since f (0) = f (1) = 0. .1) Ifx : f (x) =all aEA Thus the claim holds by induction... . a1998 = sin 2 219970. it follows that a2 = sin 2 20. so there are 21996 + 1 such values of t. a3 = sin 2 40.}l I{x : f (x) = all aEA. f (sine ¢) = 4 sin20(l .. l{x: f(x)=1}I+ aE[0. Alternative 2 As in the previous solution. so if a1998 = 0 we must have t E [0. Finally. 1] then x E [0. we have f'+1(1) = 0 for all n > 1.
Thus. where y is such that g(fy) = x. Therefore. g described above satisfy the conditions of the problem. thus. we are allowed to define f as an even function such that f (x) = y2. Note that g is even and jai = JbI whenever g(a) = g(b). But then a3 = g(f(a)) = g(f(b)) = b3. We claim that the functions f. It is clear from the definition of f that f (g(x)) = x2. there exist different a. Now let y = Of (x) Then g(y) = x and g(f(x)) = g(y2) (y2)In(y2) = y41ny = (ylny)4 In(y2) = (yInyl\)4 (y2) ify>1 _ 1 0 if0<y<1 ify=0 = [g(y)]4 X4 . b E {1. whence x E {1 0 1} x3 = x = f (X) = [ f (x)]2 = f (X) E {0. a contradiction. (b) Let g(x) = Ixl'n 1x1 IxjInlyl if Jxi > 1 if 0 < JxJ < 1 0 ifx=0. 11. 1} such that f (a) = f (b).4. 0. the desired functions f and g do not exist. Solutions to Advanced Problems 87 Problem 73 [IMO 1997 short list] (a) Do there exist functions f : R * ]I8 and g : R > R such that f(g(x)) = x2 and g(f(x)) = x3 for allxER? (b) Do there exist functions f : R > R and g : R * R such that f(g(x)) = x2 and g(f(x)) = x4 for all xEll? Solution 73 (a) The conditions imply that f (x3) = f (g(f (x))) = [f (x)]2.
_ (bib2 . 2. ai = (ak . .0<b1 <b2 <bn be real numbers such that n a i=1 i=1 n Suppose that there exists 1 < k < n such that bi < a. Solutions to Advanced Problems Problem 74 [Weichao Wu] Let0<a1 <a2 . > Y x+c y+c x>yandc>0. Therefore flak Applying the AMGM inequality yields b1b2 . (1) Note that. 2.ai)(ai . let b.. . n. Solution 74. Alternative 2 W e define two new sequences. let ai=ak andbi=bi+aka. for cy(x .ak ai ai = ak and bi = Then ai ..< n + bn < ak from which the desired result follows.. Prove that a1a2.an > b1b2. bnakn aia2... bn.bi=ak or (a' b.) .an bi + b2 + . bn )n'. for 1 < i < k and bi>a. .. Solution 74.. For i = 1 ..bi) ai >0..) a.(ai _ bi) bak = ak(aib... <an.Y) (Y + c) > 0. . n.. Alternative 1 We define two new sequences. For z = 1. Then bi+b2+ +b'<nak. ... > 0.fori>k.88 4..
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
89
Setting x = ai, y = bi, and c = ak  ai, the above inequality implies that ai/bi > ati/b?, for i = 1, 2, ... , n. Thus,
ala2...an > a' a' ...a'
(2)
blb2...bn
Using (1) and the AMGM inequality yields (ala2 ... a' r _ ak ? or
bi+b2+...+b'
n
1 > (blb2 ... bn) "
aia2 ... an > bib2 ... bn
(3)
It is clear that the desired result follows from (2) and (3).
Problem 75
, a8, prove that at least one of the following six numbers: alai + a2a4, alas + a2a6, ala7 + a2a8,
Given eight nonzero real numbers al, a2,
a3a5 + a4a6, a3a7 + a4a8, a5a7 + a6a8 is nonnegative.
Solution 75 [Moscow Olympiad 1978]
First, we introduce some basic knowledge of vector operations. Let u = [a, b] and v = [m, n] be two vectors.
Define their dot product u v = am + bn. It is easy to check that
(i)
m2+n2 = IvI2, that is, the dot product of vector with itself is the square of the magnitude of v and v v > 0 with equality if
and only if v = [0, 0];
(ii)
(iii) u. (v + w) = u v + u w, where w is a vector;
(iv) (cu) v = c(u v), where c is a scalar.
When vectors u and v are placed tailbytail at the origin 0, let A and B be the tips of u and v, respectively. Then AI = v  u. Let LAOB =0. Applying the law of cosines to triangle AOB yields
Iv  u12
= AB2
= OA2 + OB2  20A OB cos B = 1u12 + IV12  2jul ivI cos8.
90
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
It follows that
(vu) (vu)=
or
v2lullvlcosO,
cos 0 =
lullvl
Consequently, if 0 < 0 < 90°, u v > 0. Consider vectors vi = [al, a2], v2 = [a3i a4], v3 = [a5, as], and v4 =
[a7, a8].
Note that the numbers ala3 +a2a4i ala5 +a2a6, ala7+a2a8, a3a5+a4a6, a3a7 + a4a8, a5a7 + a6a8 are all the dot products of distinct vectors v; and vj. Since there are four vectors, when placed tailbytail at the origin, at least two of them form a nonobtuse angle, which in turn implies the desired result.
Problem 76 [IMO 1996 short list]
Let a, b and c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that
ca
a5+b5+ab + b5+c5+be + c5+a5+ca C
1.
Solution 76
We have
a5 + b5 > a2 b2 (a + b),
because
(a3
 b3)(a2  b2) > 0,
ab
with equality if and only if a = b. Hence
ab
a5 + b5 + ab
a2b2 (a + b)
1
+ ab
ab(a + b) + 1
abc
ab(a + b + c)
c
a+b+c
Likewise,
be
a
b5+c5+bc  a + b + c
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
and
91
ca
b
c5+a5+ca  a+b+c'
Adding the last three inequalities leads to the desired result. Equality holds if and only if a = b = c = 1.
Comment:
Please compare the solution to this problem with the
second solution of problem 13 in this chapter.
Problem 77 [CzechSlovak match 1997]
Find all functions f : R > ]l8 such that the equality
f(f(x) + y) = f(x2  y) + 4f(x)y
holds for all pairs of real numbers (x, y).
Solution 77
Clearly, f (x) = x2 satisfies the functional equation. Now assume that there is a nonzero value a such that f (a)
Let y = x
z_
a2.
2f (x) in the functional equation to find that
)
f
(f (x
2
+x2) = f (f(x)+x2) +2f(x)(xz f(x))
or 0 = 2f (x)(x2  f (x)). Thus, for each x, either f (x) = 0 or f (x) = x2. In both cases, f (0) = 0. Setting x = a, it follows from above that either f (a) = 0 or f (a) = 0 or f (a) = a2. The latter is false, so f (a) = 0. Now, let x = 0 and then x = a in the functional equation to find that
f (y) = f (y),
and so
f (y) = f (a2  y)
f (y) = f (y) = f (a2 + y); that is, the function is periodic with nonzero period a2. Let y = a2 in the original functional equation to obtain
f (f (x)) = f (f (x) + a2) = f (x2  a2) + 4a2f (x) = f (x2) + 4a2f (x)
However, putting y = 0 in the functional equation gives f (f (x)) = f (x2) for all x.
Alternative 2 Multiplying the first equation by y.1 = 3y. Since a is nonzero. and adding up yields 2xy + (3x .y) +(x + 3y)i 3 x2 y2 or x+ya+3(xyi) .92 4. Let z = x + yi. Then 1_ xyi z x2 + y2 Thus the last equation becomes z+3i=3 z or z23z+(3i)=0. the second by x.y)y + (x + 3y)x = 3y.  i(x . 1) or (x. (x. Solutions to Advanced Problems Thus. y) = (2. Problem 78 [Kvant] Solve the system of equations: 3xy x+ x2 + y2 =3 x+3y yx2+y2=0. either f(x) = x2 or f(x) = 0. It follows that y 0 and 3y + 1 2y . Alternative 1 Multiplying the second equation by i and adding it to the first equation yields x+yi+ (3x . y) Solution 78. Therefore. Hence Z= 3f 3+4i 2 = 3±(1+2a) 2 that is.yi) x2 + y2 x2 + y2 = 3. 4a2f(X) = 0 for all x. x2 y2 or 2xy . Solution 78. f (x) = 0 for all x.
First Mr. +_xs +_x2t1 where s and 2t . that is. Taf has a winning strategy. It follows that y2 = 1 and that the solutions to the system are (2. who has a winning strategy? Solution 79 Mr.3 plays. Mr.2y 1 12 + y2  13 2y 1 I . If the resulting polynomial has no real root.4. 1). Taf will fill in arbitrary real numbers into one of the remaining even spaces.1 even spaces. there will be at least one odd space left after 2n . Fat wins. Mr.. Since there are only n . We say a blank space is odd (even) if it is the coefficient of an odd (even) power of x..1 are distinct positive integers and q(x) is a fixed We claim that there is a real number a such that p(x) = q(x) + axs + x 2t1 will always have a real root regardless of the coefficient of x2ti Then Mr. . Taf wins. if there are any. Solutions to Advanced Problems 93 Substituting this into the second equation of the given system gives y (. the given polynomial becomes p(x) = q(x) polynomial. They fill in real numbers to empty spaces in turn. Taf play a game with a polynomial of degree at least 4: x2n + _x2n1 + _x2n2 + . Taf can simply fill in a in front of xs and win the game. Fat and Mr. Problem 79 [China 1995] Mr.3y = 0. Fat goes first. or 4y43y21=0. + x + 1. If Mr. 1) and (1. otherwise.
In either case.94 4. since F(k + 1) .1)G(x). Consider any polynomial F(x) with integer coefficients satisfying the inequality 0 < F(c) < k for each c E 10.1. We start by proving that it does hold for each k > 4. . 1.F(0) is a multiple of k + 1 not exceeding k in absolute value. Hence F(x) .k+1.b] 22t1 q(2) + q(1) + a[22t+1 + Since s 54 2t . then F(0) = F(1) F(k + 1).. Thus a=1 2s2t+1 + (_1)s is well defined such that a is independent of b and 22t_1 p(2) + p(1) = 0. p(x) has a real root regardless of the coefficient of as claimed.k . x2t1 Problem 80 [IMO 1997 short list] Find all positive integers k for which the following statement is true: if F(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients satisfying the condition 0<F(c)<k for c=0. . Solution 80 The statement is true if and only if k > 4.1.) and p(2) have different signs.... which implies that there is a real root of p(x) in between 1 and 2.. Note Now we prove our claim. Solutions to Advanced Problems x2t1 in p(x).. 2s2t+1 + (_1)s O 0. Note first that F(k + 1) = F(0). It follows that either p(1) = p(2) = 0 or p(1. k + 1}. Our proof is thus complete.F(0) = x(x . Let b be the coefficient of that 1 22t_1 p(2) + p(1) 11 22t 1 = = q(2) + 2s2t+la + b + [q(1) + (1)sa . .
2)! > 1. if F(x) satisfies the given condition then 0 and k + 1 are roots of F(x) and F(0) for any k > 1. (1) The equality c(k + 1 .x) F(x) = x(4 .1)H(x). G(c) = 0. and if k > 3 then 2 must also be a root of F(x) .k .c) > k holds for each c {2. k .F(0)j = (k . Thus F(x) .F(0).c)IG(c)I for each c E { 1.1}.F(O) I = c(k + 1 . .. Solutions to Advanced Problems 95 where G(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients. .. (2) where H(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients. . (2) implies that k > IF(c) . To complete the proof of our claim. k . and for any c in this set.2)2 for k = 1. IH(c)j. Taking this into account. it is not hard to find the following counterexamples: F(x) = x(2 ..F(0) = x(x . But the proof also provides information for the smaller values of k as well. k > IF(c) . Note that the set {2.(x .1)(k .x)(x .c) > 0. (1) implies that JG(c)j < 1. it remains to show that H(1) _ H(k) = 0. Consequently. Since G(c) is an integer...3). 3. k . for k = 2. 3... for k = 3. More exactly.x) F(x) = x(3 . Fork > 4.k + 1)(x .1} is not empty if k > 3. as it is equivalent to (c . Hence H(c) = 0. . . 2. . We established that the statement in the question holds for any k > 4. k}.2)! . (k .. Note that for c = 1 and c = k..2)(x .4.
Applying (1) twice gives F2n+2F2n2 = (3F2n .F3 . 2. (nEN).2F2n = F2n1 .+2 2.. Prove that 3 F2n  F2n3 +2 + F2n_2 9 3 .+1 .F2n2 = F2nF2n4 .96 4.F2n2 F2n  F6F2 . Setting a = 3F2n.9F2n+2F2nF2n2 = 0.F2n2 = 0 (1) for alln>2. The desired result follows from 9F2n+2F2nF2n2 .F2n = F2n(3F2n2 . and c = F2n_2 in the algebraic identity a3+b3+c33abc=(a+b+c)(a2+b2+c2abbeca) gives 27F23. Solutions to Advanced Problems Problem 81 [Korean Mathematics Competition 2001] The Fibonacci sequence Fn is given by Fi=F2=1.F2n+2 ..F2n) ..2F2n for alln>2. whence 3F2n .F2n = F2n2.Fn+2=Fn+i+F. b = F2n+2.2)F2n2 . Solution 81 Note that F2n+2 .3F2n = F2.F4 = 1.9F2n = 9F2n(F2n+2F2n2 .F2..2 . .F3 .F 22n) _ 9F2n.
u(x) . First. y E R. Thus.1 _ u(y) . a E R+. which would contradict the fact that f is strictly monotonic. or f(x)(u(y) . Next.u(0)) for all x. Thus. Now suppose u : R .1 = (a' .1) = f(y)(u(x) . We must show that u is of the form u(x) = a' for some a E ][8+.1)ay + ay . we have f(x)u(y) + f(y) = f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)u(x). take f (x) = a' . u(x) = 1+Cf (x) for x 0 0. If a # 1.4. It follows that there exists C E R such that u(x)1 _G f(x) for all x 0. To see that these work. so we must have u(0) = 1 and f (0) = 0. y E R.1. Then f (x) 0 0 for all x A 0. y E R. letting y = 0.1) for all x.1 = f(x)u(y) + f(y) for all x. this equation also holds for x = 0. take f (x) = x for a = 1. . That is. Solutions to Advanced Problems 97 Problem 82 [Romania 1998] Find all functions u : R * R for which there exists a strictly monotonic function f : R + R such that f(x + y) = f(x)u(y) + f(y) for all x. Solution 82 The solutions are u(x) = ax.R.1 f(x) f(Y) for allxy00. we obtain f (x) = f (x)u(0) + f (0) for all x E R. f (0) = 0. since u(0) = 1. y E R. u(0) 1 would imply f (x) = f (0)/(1 . then f(x + y) = a"y . f : R + R are functions for which f is strictly monotonic and f (x + y) = f (x)u(y) + f (y) for all x.
zn be complex numbers such that IZiI+IZ2I+. Problem 83 [China 1986] Let Z1. Let a = u(1) > 0. Solutions to Advanced Problems If C = 0. 3. observe 1+Cf(x+y) 1 +Cf (x)u(y) +Cf (y) u(y) + C f (x)UM u(x)u(y) for all x.sou(x)=ax for allxEQ. and u(x) _ 1/u(x)forallx. Since u is monotonic and the rationals are dense in R.. x E R. z } such that I2z zES 6 Solution 83. . and u(p/q) = (u(p))1/1 = aplq for allpE7L.sou(x)>0forallxasu(0)=1. . and Q3 be three rays from origin that form angles of 60°.. ZkEIZ2 zkE7Z3 By the Pigeonhole Principle. Then 1= zkER. y E R.gEN. with the positive xaxis.. z2. and we are done. a E R+. Z2. u is strictly monotonic.. 2. let Ri denote the region between Li and Li+1 (here P4 = f1).. . and 300°.+IznH = 1.. then u(n) = a" for all n E N. Since u(x) = 1 + C f (x) for all x. respectively. including the ray L.i Izkl + E zkl + E Izkl. Otherwise. then u(x) = 1 for all x. Thus u(nx) = u(x)" for all n E Z. Alternative 1 Let fl. Thus all solutions are of the form u(x) = ax. 22. .. at least one of the above sums is not less than 1/3.98 4. we have u(x) = ax for allxER. Prove that there exists a subset S of {z1. For i = 1. 180°.
1 E Xk > 2 Zk ER3 zk ER3 zkl>2 1 36 1 1 Solution 83. Alternative 2 We prove a stronger statement: there is subset S of {z1i z2. we may assume that 4 <_ Ixkl xk>0 Consequently. Problem 84 [CzechSlovak Match 1998] A polynomial P(x) of degree n > 5 with integer coefficients and n distinct integer roots is given.4.. at least one of the above sums is not less than 1/4.. .. Let Zk = xk + iyk... the lower bound can be further improved to 1/7f. Then 1 = C Iz11+Iz21+. Xk = IxkI > Izkl/2.+lznl (Ix11+Iy11)+(ix21+1y21)+.+(Ixnl +Iynl) >IxkI+1: lxkI+1: lykl+1: lyklxk>0 xk<O Yk>0 Yk<O By the Pigeonhole Principle. . Then for Zk E R3. Find all integer roots of P(P(x)) given that 0 is a root of P(x). which does not effect the magnitude of a complex number).. E Zk xk>O 1 4 Comment: Using advanced mathematics. Solutions to Advanced Problems 99 Say it's R3 (otherwise. 1: Zk zk ER3 as desired. Consequently. let Zk = xk + iyk. . By symmetry. we apply a rotation. zn} such that Ez zES 4 For 1 < k < n.
rn)I >.2)..rn..rn)I > 2IkI > Irnl.r3).1)(x . or at both endpoints. a < b.x) reaches its minimum value at an endpoint x = a or x = b. Since the ri are all distinct.(kr. 2. ri = 0 < Ir2l < Ir3l < .rn are integers. 1 < IkI < Irnl . a contra . a contradicLet a.riI > 1 for all i. IkI > rnl.r2i..rn). For x E [a. Let P(x) = a(x .rl)(x . at most two of I k . Since n > 5. Since P(k) 54 0. so Ia(kr2).. Also note that P(k) = ri0 for some io. IkI < Irnl.rn)I = Ikllrn .. b]. this is only possible if P(x) = (x + 2)(x + 1)x(x . which implies that Irnl < 2.rl.r2 I .1)I > allkr2llkr3llkr4I > 2.. Thus Ik(k .. It follows that Irnl > IP(k)I > 2Ik(k . c be real numbers. on the contrary.)I. We prove our claim by contradiction. Solutions to Advanced Problems Solution 84 The roots of P(x) are clearly integer roots of P(P(x)). where a.r4I equal ... Now we consider the following two cases: 1. I k .kI > IkI(Irnl kI) > Irnl 1. that P(P(k)) = 0 for some integer k such that P(k) 0.(x . ri and IkI < Irnl. we must have I k .r3I I k . and P(k)j > 2I k(k . the function f(x) = x(c ..100 4. < Irnl. Suppose.1. But then it is impossible to have k diction.r2) (X . we claim there are no other integer roots.. tion. that is. b.2(Irnl 1). Then IP(k)I > 2Ik(k . 1. so P(k)I < Irnl.
V 1 + xn1' Thus 3xn_1 > xn.1 > xn1 n_ Thus Xn > 2xn_1 and XnYn > 2. XI = y1 = V .4.. Since xns are increasing for n > 1. Solution 85. Solutions to Advanced Problems 101 Thus our assumption was incorrect. . Alternative 2 Setting xn = cot On for 0 < On < 90° yields (Xn+1 On)= COt On + 1 + COt2 en = COt On + CSC On = cot 2 . are defined in the following 1 + xn.. which is the lower bound of the desired inequality. Alternative 1 Let zn = 1/yn and note that the recursion for yn is equivalent to zn+1 = Zn + 1 + zn. and the integer roots of P(P(x)) are exactly all the integer roots of P(x).. Also note that z2 = f = xi i since the xis and zis satisfy the same recursion.. and y1i y2i way: . we have 2 2 xn_1 > x1 = 3 > 1 3' which implies that 2xn_1 > ity. Thus. Prove that 2 < XnYn < 3 for all n > 1. and xn+1 = xn + yn Yn+1 = 1+ l+y2 for all n > 1. this means that Zn = xn_1 for all n > 1. which leads to the upper bound of the desired inequal Solution 85.. . Xn Xn xnyn= = xn1 Zn Note that 1 +n.. Problem 85 [Belarus 19991 Two real sequences x1i x2.
b). tang On is positive and xnyn > 2. b] (a.P(a). What about cubic polynomials? ([a. Prove that it is possible to dissect the interval [0. for every quadratic polynomial P(x). It follows that xnyn = I . Lemma Let t be a positive real number. 1 Comment: From the closed forms for xn and yn in the second solution. we also have tan2o n < so that xnyn < 3.102 4.tan 2 Bn 2 . b). let / P denote the difference of polynomial P on i.tang On Since tan On 54 0. Solutions to Advanced Problems Since 01 = 30°. Solution 86 For an interval i. 1] into a finite number of intervals and color them red and blue alternately such that. b]) as P(b) . define the difference of P(x) on the interval [a. For a positive real number c and a set S C_ IR. Similar calculation shows that yn = tan(2Bn) _ 2 tan 0n 1 . for every polynomial P(x) with deg P < k. the total difference of P(x) on the red intervals is equal to that on the blue intervals. And since for n > 1 we have Bn < 30°. 2kf] into a finite number of intervals and color them red and blue alternatively such that. let S + c denote the set obtained by shifting S in the positive direction by c. and let k be a positive integer. we can see the relationship 1 yn xn1 used in the first solution. It is always possible to dissect interval Ik = [0. . (a. = 2 0 1. Problem 86 [China 1995] For a polynomial P(x). we have in general 0. the total difference of P(x) on red intervals is equal to that of P(x) on blue intervals. We prove a more general result.
g(x). (If R'+1 and both contain the number 2n1. we can just use intervals [0. For k = 1. for any polynomial f with deg f < n + 1. or =rER. = 0. then Ai1f + 22f = 23f7 where i3 = [a1i c1]. But note that if intervals i1 = [a1i b1] and i2 = [b1. By the induction hypothesis. Solutions to Advanced Problems 103 Proof We induct on k. there exists a set Rn of red disjoint intervals and a set Bn of blue disjoint intervals such that Rn f1 B. 21]. Define g(x) = f(x + 2n1) and h(x) = f(x) . Obh bEB. Now consider polynomial f (x) with deg f < n + 1. Then deg h < n. that number may be removed from one of them. c1] are in the same color.) It is clear that Bn+1 and R'+1 form a dissection of In+1 and. the total differences of P on Rn is equal to that of P on B.4. that is. . 1] and (2. the total difference of f on B' is n+1 equal to that of f on Rn+1 The only possible trouble left is that the colors in B'+1 U Rn+1 might not be alternating (which can happen at the end of the In and the beginning of In + 2n1). where n is a positive integer. and Bn+1 = Bn U (Rn + 2n1). U Bn = In. It is easy to see that a linear or constant polynomial has the same difference on the two intervals. > rERn Abf + E Or9 _ E Arf + E Obg bEBn rER. R. and. for any polynomials P(x) with deg P < n. Suppose that the statement is true for k = n. rEBn It follows that obf = bEBn+l rER'ri}1 where Rn+1 = Rn U (Bn + 2n1). Orh.
and p are three positive integers such that m2 + n2 = p2. In one move..+i This completes the induction and the proof of the lemma. in Bn+1 URn+1. Mr. then Mr.104 4. . Thus. bEB. Setting first f = a and then f = a in the lemma. The given polynomial becomes x(x . Taf chooses b = (mnp)2. Fat chooses a real number and Mr. obf = > orf. Let the polynomial be x3 + axe + bx + c. Fat will choose c = 0. Fat wins the game if the final equation has three distinct integer roots. If Mr. for every polynomial f (x) with deg f < n + 1.mnp) (x + mnp). Taf puts it in one of the empty spaces. Mr. Taf are playing the following game. Taf chooses a = 0. Fat can pick 0 first. there exists a dissection In+1 = Bn+1 U Rn+1 such that. we can simply put consecutive same color intervals into one bigger interval of the same color. Fat and Mr. n.+l rER. yielding the polynomial equation x3+bx+c=0. After three moves the game is over. Solutions to Advanced Problems Thus. Mr. We consider the following cases: (a) Mr. Fat then picks the number (mnp)2. where m. Who has a winning strategy? Solution 87 Mr. Mr. Mr." Problem 87 [USSR 1990] Given a cubic equation x3+x2+x+_=0.. it is clear that the answer to each of the given questions is "yes. Fat has a winning strategy.
The polynomial becomes (x . Fat can choose c = m8(m + 1)8(m2 + m + 1)6.n2p2 . (b) Mr. If Mr.(m + 1)q] [x . The given polynomial becomes (x + m2)(x + n2)(x . Fat will choose b = m2n2 . Solutions to Advanced Problems 105 If Mr. then Mr. where m is an integer greater than 1. then Mr. Taf chooses b = 0. If Mr. Mr. .4. Taf chooses a = m2(m + 1)2(m2 + in + 1)3.mp) [x + (m + 1)P1 [x + m(m + 1)p]. Taf chooses c=m2(m+1)2(m2+m+1)3. Fat then picks the number m2(m+ 1)2(m2 +m+ 1)3. Fat can choose a=(m2+m+1)2. The polynomial becomes (x + mq) [x . where p = m2(m + 1)2(m2 +m+ 1)2.p2m2. where q=m2+m+1.p2). yielding the equation x3+ax2+c=0. then Mr.m(m + 1)q]. Taf chooses c = (mnp)2.
. f(A1)+f(A2)+.. 1.b).) =0. An. j=1 . j=1 In particular. for each of k = 1.25 8. Taf could do: F 0 T a b F T b F 0 3600 " Roots 60.7 49 3 3 481 16. 8. .7 a 2 3 . Then the problem reduces to problem 40 of the previous chapter. 2 Problem 88 [Romania 1996] Let n > 2 be an integer and let f : 1[82 > R be a function such that for any regular ngon A1A2 .9. n.rz/n. we obtain f(z_(k+(')=0. Fat needs only to pick two integers a and b such that ab(a .1 0.a) or x(x . .9.21. a b 3. Mr. The polynomial becomes either x(x .49.0.. . Solution 88 We identify 1182 with the complex plane and let ( = e2.27.60 c " 4. . Then the condition is that for any z E C and any positive real t..1) yc. Fat and Mr.1)(b .0 and a + b = 1.49 14. Prove that f is the zero function. n f(z + W) = 0.+f(A. c 2 .1)(x . Solutions to Advanced Problems (c) Mr. Taf chooses c = 0. Below is an example of what Mr. 42749.106 4. Our proof is complete.42 c ..1)(x .9.0..
1. the inner sum again runs over a regular polygon.k .0 (mode). 1..1).2)! Setting x = p .k + 1)(x .2. p ...1)(p  2).k) (_1)p k k! E f (k) k=0 (1)p It follows that (1)kkt ( J)pkk! J p2 f (k) k=0 (mod p).k ..p + 2) k=0 k.(x . p2 f(x) f(k)x. the remainder upon division of f (n) by p is either 0 or 1. Prove that d > p . f (k) p2 k=0 k!(1)pk (p .1) . that is. Alternative 1 For the sake of the contradiction.4. f (1) = 1. m=1 k=1 For m = n the inner sum is n f (z). Then by Lagrange's interpolation formula the polynomial f (x) is determined by its values at 0. S(f) := f (0) + f (1) + .2. Problem 89 [IMO 1997 short list] Let p be a prime number and let f (x) be a polynomial of degree d with integer coefficients such that: (i) f (0) = 0. we have n n EEf(z(1(m)(k)=0. for other in.. Thus f (z) = 0 for all z c C.. + f (p . Solutions to Advanced Problems 107 Summing over k.. assume that d < p . (1) . (ii) for every positive integer n.(x .. .. Solution 89.(p .1 gives p2 AP1) = k=0 f(k)(p . hence is 0.. .
. The rest is the same as in the first solution. i0 where Si = k=0 (mod p) for all i = 0.108 4. This completes the induction and the proof of the claim.Si . and let f (x) = ap_2xp2 + . But (i) implies that 1 < 7 < p . Solutions to Advanced Problems On the other hand. (ii) implies that S(f) . .7 (mod p).2.2.1} for which f (k) . Solution 89. which contradicts M. + alx + a0. Assume that d < p . Now suppose that So . Then P1 p1 p2 p2 P1 p2 S(f) _ k=o P1 1 a k=0 i=0 i=0 k=0 aiSi.. So S(f) A 0 (mod p). . and our proof is complete.. p2 S(f) = i=o aiSi .... p . p .1 (mod p).. it follows that Si . Note that 0_pi+i =Eki+1 Eki+1 _E[(k+1)i+iki+i] k=1 p p1 p1 k=0 k=0 E(1)k3 =(i+1)S+ k=0i=0 (i±1)5 0 i (i + 1)Si (mod p) Since 0 < i + 1 < p. where j denotes the number of those k E {0.0 (mod p). 1.0 p . 1. Therefore.Si1 . Alternative 2 Again. We use strong induction on i to prove our claim. . The statement is true for i = 0 as So = p.2. we approach the problem indirectly. Thus our original assumption was wrong.0 (mod p) for some 1 < i < We claim that Si . .0 (mod p).1.
2. 2..k)2 n (2nk+1)(2nk1)=(2nk)z1 <(2nk)2. a y = ak+i < 2n . for k = 1.. . For k = 1. Then ak ak+i Ti k' (n + ak) Cn + 2nn k 2n 1 k < as 2nk1' n(2n . . a1. Consider the sequence ao. We first prove the upper bound.k + 1) (2n . Alternative 1 W e prove a stronger statement: For k = 1 .1 <a.. for k = n . a.1 n ak < 2n for some positive integer k < n. n..(n .1.4. . n.1) . n Solution 90. In particular. .1 1. n+1 n (1) 2nk+2 <ak < 2nk We use induction to prove both inequalities. with ao = 2 and z ak_1 ak = aki + n .. Solutions to Advanced Problems 109 Problem 90 Let n be a given positive integer. Thus our induction step is complete.<1. Prove that .. it is easy to check that ai Suppose that _1 2 1 _ 2n+1 4n + 4n n < 2n . 1.
it is easy to check that a1 _ 2n+1 4n n+1 > 2n+ 1 Suppose that n+1 ak> 2nk+2' for some positive integer k < n.. we obtain n+1 anak+1> 2n(n1)+1 as desired. For k = 1.2n . Alternative 2 Rewriting the given condition as 1 _ 1 n ak_1 ak1(n + ak1) 1 1 ak ak1 ak1 + n + ak1 n 1 1 yields 1 ak_1 ak n+ak_i (2) for k = 1. Thus 1 an > an1 > . It is clear that aks are increasing. Solutions to Advanced Problems as desired.k + 1 n+1 (n + 1)2 (2nk+1)(2nk+2) +n(2nk+2)2 n+1 (n+l 2nk+2)2 n _ 2nk+21 2nk+1 1 2nk+2)2  n+1 1 n .1... . Then It follows that n+1 ak+1 . This complete the induction step. Now we prove the upper bound.n. for n = k .. > ao = 2.. _n+1=In+2 >1n n+2 Solution 90.110 4. In particular.2..2nk+1 ) 1 > 0.
. an be nonnegative real numbers.aixni positive real root R.2.an_ix . 2 = ao < ak < an < 1 for k=1. a2. .. n. Problem 91 [IMO 1996 short list] Let a1. n... . . Then (2) implies ak_1 ak n+ak_i > n+ for k = 1. (a) Prove that xn . an > n+1 _ n+2 n+2 > l n' which is the desired lower bound. Solutions to Advanced Problems 111 Thus (2) implies that 1 1 1 ak1 ak n for k = 1. and. Since an < 1... (b) Let A = > 1 aj and B= Prove that AA < RB. Telescoping summation gives 1 ao or 1 1 .1 <1 an >1=21=1.. which gives the desired upper bound.. 2. .4.. . . since aks are increasing.an = 0 has precisely one 1 jai. an ao that is. .n. an < 1. . not all zero. Telescoping sum gives 1 1 n n + 1 ao or 1 1 an n n+2 an < ao n+l 1 1 n+1' 1 that is.. 2.
Problem 92 Prove that there exists a polynomial P(x. Comment: Please compare the solution of (a) with that of the problem 15 in the last chapter. Solutions to Advanced Problems Solution 91 (a) Consider the function f(x)= 1. Then cjs are nonnegative and E cj = 1.. oo).In x is a convex function on the interval (0.+ a2 x an 2+. Note that f decreases from oo to 0 as x increases from 0 to oo.112 4. Since . j=1 j=1 Substituting c.. (b) Let cj = aj/A. that is. y) with real coefficients such that P(x. c3 l 1nRj n 1n l =ln(f(R))=0. First we prove that P(x. It follows that lnA+jlnR) > 0 j=1 or n n 1: cj In A < E jcj In R.1)x2y2 + 1 27 is a polynomial satisfying the given conditions. by Jensen's inequality. Solution 92 We claim that P(x. y) = (x2 + y2 . y) > 0 for all real numbers x and y. . Hence there there exists a unique positive real root R of the given polynomial.+Xn. we obtain the desired inequality.7 = aj/A. unique real number R such that f (R) = 1. y) > 0 for all real numbers x and y. which cannot be written as the sum of squares of polynomials with real coefficients.
y) > 0. . Qi(x. Then.4. Next. Solutions to Advanced Problems 113 If x2 + y2 . y)2. Thus.y) = Atix3 + Bix2y + Cxy2 + Diy3 +Eix2 + Fixy + Giy2 + Hix + Iiy + JJ.27* 1 27' (x2 +Y 2 1)x2y2 > It follows that P(x. assume that n P(x. y) > 0. y) and En 1 Qi(x. (X. comparing those of x4 and y4 gives n n Ei i=1 i=1 Gi =0. y) cannot be written as the sum of squares of polynomials with real coefficients.1 > 0. then it is clear that P(x. of terms x6 and y6 gives or Ai = Di = 0 for all i. Comparing the coefficients. or Hi=12=0 for all i. For the sake of contradiction. Y) = i=1 Q. deg Qi < 3. comparing those of x2 and y2 gives n I2=0. y) = Bix2y + Cixy2 + Fixy + Ji.1 < 0. if x2 + y2 . or Ei = Gi = 0 for all i. then applying the AMGM inequality gives (1x2y2)x2y2 < or 1x2y2+x2+y2 3 1 (  3 ) . We are left to prove that P(x. Thus Qi(x. y)2. Since deg P = 6. in P(x.
114
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
But, finally, comparing the coefficients of the term x2y2, we have
n
F2 _ 1
which is impossible for real numbers F. Thus our assumption is wrong, and our proof is complete.
Problem 93 [IMO 1996 short list]
For each positive integer n, show that there exists a positive integer k such that
k = .f(x)(x + 1)2n +
g(x)(x2n + 1)
for some polynomials f, g with integer coefficients, and find the smallest such k as a function of n.
Solution 93
First we show that such a k exists. Note that x + 1 divides 1  x2n. Then for some polynomial a(x) with
integer coefficients, we have
(1 + x)a(x) = 1  x2n = 2  (1 + x2n)
or
2 = (1 + x)a(x) + (1 +
x2n).
Raising both sides to the (2n) th power, we obtain
22n = (1 + x)2n(a(x))2n + (1 + x2n)b(x),
where b(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.
This shows that a k satisfying the condition of the problem exists. Let ko be the minimum such k. Let 2n = 2' q, where r is a positive integer and q is an odd integer. We claim that ko = 29. First we prove that 29 divides ko. Let t = 2'. Note that x2n + 1 = (xt + 1)Q(x), where
Q(x) = xt(q1)
The roots of xt + 1 are
cos

xt(q2) +
...  xt + 1.
C (2m  1)7rl
J + i sin
((2m 1=
t
J,
m = 1, 2, ... , t;
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
115
that is,
R(x) = xt + 1 = (x  wl)(x  w2)...(x  wt).
Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials with integer coefficients such that
ko
= f(x)(x + 1)2n+ g(x)(x2n + 1)
= f (x)(x + 1)2n + g(x)Q(x)(xt + 1).
It follows that
f (w,,,)(wm, + 1)'ti = ko,
1 < m < t.
(1)
Since r is positive, t is even. So
2=R(1) =
Since f (wl) f (w2) .
(1+wi)(1+w2)...(1+wt).
f (Wt) is a symmetric polynomial in w1i w2, ... , wt with integer coefficients, it can be expressed as a polynomial with integer
coefficients in the elementary symmetric functions in W1, W2....
and therefore
F =
f(wl)f(w2)...f(wt)
I Wt
is an integer. Taking the product over m = 1, 2, ... , t, (1) gives 22n F = ko or 22' 'gF = k2' . It follows that 2g divides ko. It now suffices to prove that ko < 2g.
Note that Q(1) = 1.
It follows that
Q(x) = (x + 1)c(x) + 1,
where c(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.
Hence
(x + 1)2",(c(x))2, = (Q(x)  1)2n = Q(x)d(x) + 1, for some polynomial d(x) with integer coefficients. Also observe that, for any fixed m,
WM
{2j1
(2)
: j = 1 2, ... , t} = 1W1, W27 ... 7Wt
Thus
(1 + W,,,,)(1 + W3,) ... (1 +w2, t1) = R(1) = 2,
and writing
(1+W,,,,)(1Wm.+wn...
+w2ri2),
116
4. Solutions to Advanced Problems
we find that for some polynomial h(x), independent of m, with integer coefficients such that
(1 +w,)th(w,) = 2.
But then (x + 1)h(x)  2 is divisible by xt + 1 and hence we can write
(x + 1)h(x) = 2 + (xt + 1)u(x),
for some polynomial u(x) with integer coefficients. Raising both sides to the power q we obtain
(x + 1)2n(h(x))q = 2q + (xt + 1)v(x),
where v(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients. Using (2) and (3) we obtain
(x +
1)2n(c(x))2n(xt
(3)
+ 1)v(x)
= Q(x)d(x)(xt + 1)v(x) + (xt + 1)v(x)
= Q(x)d(x)(xt + 1)v(x) + (x + 1)2n(h(x))q  2q,
that is,
gl(x)(x2n + 1),
21 = fl(x)(x + 1)2n +
where fl (x) and gl (x) are polynomials with integer coefficients. Hence ko < 2q, as desired. Our proof is thus complete.
Problem 94 [USAMO 1998 proposal, Kiran Kedlaya]
Let x be a positive real number.
(a) Prove that
°O
n(x +1) (x+n)x'
(b) Prove that
00
(n  1)!
_
1
(n  1)!
n(x + 1)...(x +n)
00
1 (x + k) 2
n=1
k=1
x In particular.(x + n .1)! (x + n) .. we have to show that E °O n!x n(x + 1).f(x) _ 00 1 (n . so we can write f as an infinite telescoping series f (x) _ )[f (x + k . f (x) < 1.1) .4. by (a)...1) . (x + n) _ (x + (n . f (x) converges to 0 as x approaches oo. Solutions to Advanced Problems 117 Solution 94 We use infinite telescoping sums to solve the problem..(x + n) _ Note that x 1 1 n(x+n) It follows that n!x n x+n n(x + .. k=1 (1) On the other hand..(x + n)' f(x) _ n= Then...1) 1 X 1 E (x + 1) (n . (a) Equivalently. (b) Let 00 (n . the result in (a) gives 00 f(x .f (x + k)].1)! 1) n! (x + (x + n)' and this telescoping summation yields the desired result.1)! + 1).1)! n(x + 1).
The domain of f contains n6 elements. X3 = Define the function f : X1 X X2 X X3 + S x S as follows: f(a...b). . 2. Problem 95 [Romania 1996] Let n > 3 be an integer. z = a1 . . c2 (i = 1.. a set of cardinality n31 k=1 1= n3(n3 .bl is a solution in nonzero integers.. and let XCS={1.. on the other hand.c) = (b . Solution 95 Label the elements of X in increasing order x1 < . . in which case x = b1 . b2.. {x2n2+1. and put X1 = {xl.118 4.a. c .2. Prove that one can find nine distinct numbers a2. is contained in the subset of S x S of pairs whose sum is at most n3. some three triples (a2.c1i y = c1 ...1) 2 ns 2 By the Pigeonhole Principle. 3) in X such that the system alx+bly+clz = 0 a2x + b2y + c2z = 0 a3x+b3y+c3z = 0 has a solution (xo. .b.a1. bi. yo. . cx) (i = 1... 2. zo) in nonzero integers... 3) map to the same pair.x3n2}..n3} be a set of 3n2 elements. The range of f. xn2 }. X2 = {xn2+1 .. Solutions to Advanced Problems Substituting the last equation to (1) gives f(x) = as desired. x2n2 }. < X3n2.
b2. cl) and (a2. Prove that xl+ x2+ + xn>(n1) 1 xl + 1 x2 +. we may assume that xl < x2 < following lemma. Hence the nine numbers chosen are indeed distinct. Problem 96 [Xuanguo Huang] Let n > 3 be an integer and let Xi. = 1.. a contradiction. c2) are identical.1+xj Proof Since n > 3. and that al = a2 implies that the triples (al. xn be positive real numbers. and. we have 1 1 1> or 1+xi + l+xj _ 2+xi+xj (1+xi)(1+xi) 1+xi+xj+xixj > 2+xi+xj. x2i Suppose that . 1+xi . Solutions to Advanced Problems 119 Note that ai cannot equal bj since Xl and X2 are disjoint. Thus xi xj 1 + xj ( xi(1 + xj)  xj(1 + xi) 1 + xi (1 + xi) (1 + xj) xi  x3)(1  xixj) (1 + xi)(1 + xi) > 0. It follows that xixj > 1. since n 1 VT > xj = 1. We have the Lemma For l < i < j < n.. bl.4. < xn.+ 1 xn Solution 96 By symmetry. .
since 1 1 x1 > . Solutions to Advanced Problems as desired. we have xi i=1 1 + xi x=1 or 1 + xi "/x n 1 n2 n xi i=1 1 n + xi u xi '=1 + ti=1 xx >n2... > 1 x2 xn' it follows by the Chebyshev Inequality n 1 z=1 VT i=1 xi < 1 + xi n xi 1 i=1 xi 1 + xi i=1 1+xi = 1.> xn x1 > 1+x11+x2_ _1+xn and. (1) By the CauchySchwartz Inequality..120 4. we have x2 >. .. (2) Multiplying by on both sides of (2) and applying (1) gives n n x n > 1 Z which in turn implies the desired inequality. By the lemma.
4.e.. yn_1 be the roots of Q.xn .... n.xn) and Q(x) = P(x) Let Y1. +. =0...x1)(x . . assume that d< minlxixjl =minx..+ 1 Yi 'xn =Q(yl)=0. (2) Sk + d k=1 We claim that there is a k such that Sk(Sk + d) < 0.yjI = y2Yi < sn.. Show that inlxix31 < Solution 97 By symmetry. x1 > Let sk = y1 .x2). it shares none with Q. we may also assume that s1 < s2 < X2 > . ( 1 1 xx1 xx2 nlyi . we have 1 1 Sk +d Sk .X1 Yi .+ n 1 Yi . . . be distinct real numbers.xk. Y2. x. For the sake of contradiction. > xn. for k = 1.. Then P(yi) or 1 1 (1) yi . we may assume that d i:xj nlya .xn In particular. Solutions to Advanced Problems 121 Problem 97 Let x1. 2.Xi + 1 Yix2 + 1 +..... setting i = 1 and i = 2 gives _ k=1 Sk  1 =0.(x .. . xj =mins si i<j i<j i#j Since P has no double roots.X2 Yi .yjI L) x . . Define the polynomials P(x) = (x . i. otherwise. x2. By symmetry.
Solutions to Advanced Problems for all k.. sk < 0 < sk+d. that is Sk + d > 0.. that is. Then Sk+j > 0 if and only if k > i + 1. From (1).. 2. Thus our assumption is wrong and our proof is complete. . Let j be the number of ks such that sk (sk+d) < 0. we obtain sk + d < Sk+j..122 4. < Sni then s1+d< <si+d<0<si+1+d< <Sn+d. nj k=1 Sk+j or nj k=1 Sk 1 + d' 1 (3) n nj < k=j+1 sk k1 sk + d 1 Also note that E 1 <0< E k=1 Sk k=nj+1 Sk + d n (4) Adding (3) and (4) yields n 1 k=1 Sk k=1 Sk +d which contradicts (2).. we obtain 1 1 Sk + d Sk+j for all k = 1. and. which in turn implies that n n 1 k=1 Sk +d k=1 Sk which contradicts (2). A simple but critical fact is that sk + d and Sk+j have the same sign. In fact. n . since Sk + d and Sk+j have the same sign. .. < Si+j < 0 < Si+j+l < . Therefore.j. < Si < Si+1 < . suppose that S1 < .
x)2' +1 cannot be written as the product of two nonconstant polynomials with Solution 98 Note that f(x) = g(h(x)). by unique factorization we must A(x) . are even. +. and let r be a root of p.4.. observe that f(x) = (x2+x)2"+1 x2ii}l + have x2n + 1 . Since s = r2 + r E Q(r). we may assume without loss of generality . if f is reducible. + ao. bo are odd and all the other coefficients then a2. we have Q(s) C Q(r). g is irreducible. Therefore. .B(x) Thus. a2n1..) is even for 1 < k < 2n .1. Thus every factor of f has degree at least 2n. so deg p > deg(Q(r)/Q) > deg(Q(s)/Q) = deg g = 2n. Since g(y+1) = (y+1)2 + 1 =yen + k=1 (2m)k) +2.(x2 + x + 1)2n (mod 2). so s := h(r) is a root of g..x2n . where h(x) = x2 + x and g(y) = y2" + 1.. and ( . b2. Since f is monic. by Eisenstein's criterion. Now let p be a nonconstant factor of f. Since x2 + x + 1 is irreducible in Z2 [x]. Then g(h(r)) = f (r) = 0. if we write (x2 + x + 1)2 ' x2 + x2 1 + 1 (mod 2). A(x) = a2 B(x) = x2" + b2. the polynomial P X) = (x2 + integer coefficients. Solutions to Advanced Problems 123 Problem 98 [Romania 1998] Show that for any positive integer n. we can write f (x) = A(x)B(x) where A and B have degree 2n. + bo. Next.. ao..
f3 : R * R be functions such that aifi + a2f2 +a3f3 is monotonic for all ai.b2n+2n1 =2n1 1 + E aib2n1i i=o +a2n1b2n + aob2n1 +a2n1bo 2(a2n1 + b2n1) . so ao = bo = 1. bo > 0 as f has no real roots. g : R > R be functions such that f is nonconstant and a f + bg is monotonic for all a. Problem 99 [Iran 1998] Let fl. f2. aobo = f (0) = 1. but ao > 0. 11) is odd by Lucas's theorem. Prove that there exist c1i c2. . Therefore. a contradiction. Solutions to Advanced Problems that a2n = b2n = 1.124 4. t be two real numbers such that f (s) f (t). c3 E R. a2i a3 E R. b E R. such that Cifl(x) + C2f2(x) + c3f3(x) = 0 for all xER.c f is a constant function. so ([x2n+2n1] + [X2'']) (f(x)) =2 (mod 4).0 as a2n1 + But is even. Proof Let s. Then there exists c E R such that g . (mod 4) n ([x2n+2"'] n + [x2n 1])(f(x)) = ( 22 _1 =2 22 _1 _ 11) 1 and (2?n. also. ([x2n+2"'] + [X2'' ])(g(x)h(x)) 2i1 2" E a. Hence f is irreducible. not all zero. Lemma: Let f. Solution 99. Alternative 1 We establish the following lemma.
Suppose.di(f(s) .f(x3) hence c . Since h(x3) # r = h(xi).E r.d1 f.d1). on the contrary. the result is trivial. Let C 9(x1) .d1. . f2. C 9(XI) . suppose that f1 is nonconstant.d1 0 c' . at least one of f (xi) f (X3) and f (X2) 0 f (X3) is true. the monotonicity of h1 depends only on the sign of u . for each d1. which is impossible.dl.d1f for some dl E R.c f is a constant function.dl.f(t) Let hl = g . that there exists x3 E R such that h(x3) .4. We claim that h = g . Without loss of generality. there exist x1i x2 E R such that f (x1) f (x2).9(x2) f(xl) .d1. Without loss of generality. depends only on the sign of c .9(x3) f(xi) .9(x3) f(xi) f(x3)  Then the monotonicity of h1 also depends only on the sign of c' . Solutions to Advanced Problems Let 125 g(s) . We prove our claim by contradiction.cf.g(t) .f (t) 0 is fixed. Then r = h(xi) = h(x2) and the monotonicity of h1 = g . Since f (s) . f3 are all constant functions. Since f is nonconstant. So there exists some d1 such that h1 is both strictly increasing and decreasing. Now we prove our main result. Then hl is monotonic.g(t) f(s) . But hi(s) .hi(t) = g(s) .f(t))(u . Therefore our assumption is false and h is a constant function.f(t)) = (f(s) . suppose that f (xi) 0 f(X3) Let . Since f (xi) 0 f (X2). c 54 9(xi) . If fl.f(x2) and h = g .
a contradiction.f3(x)) forxeR. d = d' = 0 and f2i f3 are constant multiples of fl. Otherwise. d' are constant. fi(x2).d'. for a2 = 0. fi(x3)) = (0. 0). Solutions to Advanced Problems For a3 = 0. so f2 = cf1 +d. then let (c1ic2. and its columns also span R3. and then c1 fl (X) + c2 f2 (X) + c3 f3 (X) = 0 for all x R. So suppose the v(x) span all of R3. we apply the lemma to f1 and f3. we apply the lemma to f1 and f2.d) and we are done. c3) orthogonal to that subspace. If (c'd . and so the 3 x 3 matrix A with Ai3 = fj(xi) has linearly independent rows.c3) = (c'dcd'. d. Then there exist x1 < x2 < X3 E R such that v(x1). so f3 = c' fl + d'. i=1 and the function cifi+c2f2+c3f3 is then not monotonic. This means we can find c1. c2.cd'. v(x3) are linearly independent. . d) j4 (0.(x1). We have (c'dcd')fl+d'f2df3 = (c'dcd')fl+d'(cf1+d)d(c fl+d') = 0. Alternative 2 Define the vector v(x) = (f1(x).f2(x). v(x2). 1. Here c. c2i C3 such that 3 Ci(ff. If the v(x) span a proper subspace of 1183. d'. Then the problem is again trivial. c'.126 4. 0). 0. But then A is invertible. Solution 99. we can find a vector (Cl.
x2i . . P3 = YiY Y3 = XiX2 + xlx2 Solution 100 We say a polynomial pk is even if every coefficient of pk is even.Y2. Let pk(xl. x. . For any fixed positive integer n... be variables. facts: 1. xn+l) Let ok(y1iY2.Ys) 0) =Qk(Y1."'. pl(x1) = xl is not even and k = 1 is bad for n = 1 as k=1=212°=2n2°. x1 + x2 and p1 = yl + Y2 + Y3 = 2x1 + 2x2i P2 = Y1Y2 + Y2Y3 + Y3Y1 = xi + x2 + 3x1x2. We will show by induction on n that pk(xl. xn) even? For example.. Qk(yl. . Solutions to Advanced Problems 127 Problem 100 [USAMO 1999 proposal. ... and let y1... we say Pk is not even. We now consider pk (x1i X2. ... 2."'. For all1<r<s.ys). Otherwise. . ys) be the kth elementary symmetric polynomial.ys)]i 9k(x+y1.x+Ys) T. if n = 2.yr)Qj(yr+l. ... For which k and n is every coefficient of pk (as a polynomial in xl. y2^_1 be the sums of nonempty subsets of xi. Richard Stong] Let x1i x2. . We have the following useful... For n = 1.. y3 are x1.. x2. Srxkr Al . ..4..ys) = i+j=k 3. ..... (x + yq ) ik k 1: r=O sl .. Suppose that the claim is true for a certain n.. y2... Qk(y1.x+y2.Y2. xn) be the kth elementary symmetric polynomial in the yj (the sum of every productof k distinct yi's). .. but easy to prove.. then y1i y2.. . . xn) is not even if and only if k is bad for n. we say a nonnegative integer k is bad for n if k = 2n . (x + yi l) (x + yi 2) . Srl 1: S1<32< <S..2j for some nonnegative integer j..YS1 ys2 . o"i yi.
. r=0 Hence pk(xl.x2.. x2.. x2...ys) x kr .128 k 4. By the induction hypothesis.. + xn+1)1 E i+j=k r=0 (2n r r Pi(xl. By the induction hypothesis. ..r Ik r0r(y1. the terms in the first sum are even unless In the second sum.2' for some 0<w<n+1.. note that jr \jr/ 2t is even unless j . x2 xn) is even un less r = 2" . xn)p2^2t (x1. . x1 + x2 + . . xn)pr(x1.xn+1) [pi(xl. that is k = 2n+1 . ...e. that isk=2n+l2" Pk/2(x1) for k even. .... i..2".. Xn) i+j=k n + t=0 pk2^ (xl.. for some 0 < v < n.r = 2t.xn) i+j=k Qj (xn+1... x2. By the induction hypothesis. . x2.... .. every term of pr(xl. xn)Pj (x1. taking coefficients modulo 2. ..... k2n=2n2" forsome0<u<n.r = 0 or j . x2i xn+l) is even unless k = 2n+1 .2t.. .. kisbadforn+1: . every term appears twice except the term x2.xn)2. xn)xn+1' ..2v+1 It follows that Pk (XI.... . . pk(x1. xn)x 2t . this term is even unless k/2 = 2n . xl + xn+1. Therefore. Solutions to Advanced Problems /S . xn+1 pi (x1. For such r.. x2. for some 0 < t < n.
Problem 101 [Russia 2000] Prove that there exist 10 distinct real numbers a1. Solution 101 We show that {a1. x2. xn+1) occur for different powers of xn+1 Therefore.4.. the condition that k is bad for n + 1 is also sufficient for pk(x1.. . a2i . alo such that the equation (x . alo} _ {7. where g(u) = 2[((7+6+.a2). If ul and u2 are real solutions of g(u) = 0. that is... Solutions to Advanced Problems 129 Furthermore. then U1 +U2 < 0 and ulu2 > 0.... . ' .alo) = (x + al)(x + a2)..(x + alo) has exactly 5 different real roots.. both ul and u2 are negative. . Our proof is complete.1)x(x + 1)(x + 2)g(x2) = 0.+3)U2+ If g(u) = has no real solutions. The given equality becomes (x . a2. .. . Our induction is complete. then g(x2) = 0 has no real solutions. 6.) (x .. .2)(x . 2} is a group of numbers satisfying the conditions given in the problem.(x .. xn+1) to be odd. . It follows again that g(x2) = 0 has no real solutions...a. x2i .. note that the odd coefficients in Pk (x1.
.
2. an are n nonnegative numbers. Let x1. a2. y2. 1 (xl+x2+ +xn)(yl+y2+ +yn) < xlyl+x2y2+ +xnyn...+a2+. + anbn)2 with equality if and only if ai and bi are proportional.. then 1(a. yn be two sequences of real num bers. . Chebyshev Inequality 1. a2.) n with equality if and only if a1 = a2 = (ala2. . . .. i = 1... an. bn (al + a2 + ... .. .. .) = an.. and b1... .. x2 . . Let x1i x2 .. < yn... Binomial Coefficient The coefficient of xk in the expansion of (x + 1)n is n _ n! k) CauchySchwarz Inequality k!(n . . .... such that x1 > x2 >_ Then (X > xn and yi > Y2 > > yn .+a.. xn and y1. + an)(bi + b2 + _ + bn) > (alb. b2. + a2b2 + . yn be two sequences of real num bers. y2. ... such that x1 < x2 <_ Then <_ xn and yl < Y2 < . n.a. 2.. xn and y1.GLOSSARY ArithmeticGeometric Mean Inequality (AMGM Inequality) If a1..k)! F o r any real numbers al..
Then BC2 = AB2 + AC2 . That is. A2..x0) . for all nEN. be arbitrary real numbers...xn) .(xi Law of Cosines Let ABC be a triangle. + Anxn) for any xl. x1. xn in the interval [a. Fibonacci Numbers Sequence defined recursively by F1 = F2 = 1.. the inequality is reversed.. polynomial given by (x .xi1)(x xi+l).. n. b] and A1. . xn can be (uniquely) expressed as a polynomial in the si.. taken k at a time.... If the function is concave down.. + Anf (xn) > f (A1x1 + A2x2 + . .. . . . A.. . and let yo.. are defined by the relation (in another indeterminate t) (t+xl) (t+xn) =to+slti1+. b]. xn.. . . . Lagrange's Interpolation Formula . . Jensen's Inequality If f is concave up on an interval [a.xi1)(xi  xa+1). xn be distinct real numbers. .... This is the Let xo. It is a basic result that every symmetric polynomial in x1. the elementary symmetric functions s1. Fn+2 = Fn+l + Fn.+sn_1t+sn... then Alf (xi) + A2f (x2) + .2AB AC cos A.xn) P(x) = i=0 yi. y.. (cos a + i sin a)' = cos na + z sin no. 1.. yl.. (xi . . Then there exists a unique polynomial P(x) of degree at most n such that P(xi) = yi. Elementary Symmetric Polynomials (Functions) Given indeterminates xl. z = 0. .(x . sk is the sum of the products of the x... x2. .. .x0) .(x . .. . and vice versa.. .132 Glossary De Moivre's Formula For any angle a and for any integer n.(xi . sn. are nonnegative numbers with sum equal to 1.
+ akxk)1/t where t is a nonzero real number.. .. k....Glossary 133 Lucas' Theorem Let p be a prime. . some box contains at least two objects.. a1 a2 a M = x1 x2 . xn. For positive numbers x1..+X2 n XI +X2 +''' +Xk n More generally..... xk }. .. xn Mt = (aix' + a2x2 + . M. .. . where 0 < ai. ..xk}. b = bkpk +bk_lpk1 + . x2... bip+ bo.. . let a1. an be any positive numbers for which a1 + + an = 1. Pigeonhole Principle If n objects are distributed among k < n boxes. x2. x2... .. let a and b be two positive integers such that a = akpk +ak_lpki + . Then (bk1) Cab) (aobo) \bk/ \b1) (mod p).. a2. xi+x2+. Root Mean SquareArithmetic Mean Inequality (RMSAM Inequality) For positive numbers x1. . .. for s < t. = max{xiix2. xn we define a2 + M_ = min{x1. alp+ao.. Then MO<MS<Mt<_M. . 1. bi < p are integers for i = 0..
Vectors u = [ai. Let a and 3 be two complex numbers. . a2 + /32] form a triangle with sides lengths Iah.. a . The inequality la+01 :5 lal+101 is called the triangle inequality. a2]. and w = [al + X31. x1+x2+ X1X2 + +xn =. xn be the roots of polynomial P(x) = anxn + where an 0 0 and a0.31. 1. an2 an i xix2 .31. . Vieta's Theorem Let x1.an1 an i +xixj +xn1xn = . /32]. v = [N1. a2i i3 .. an_1xn1 + . Let a = al +a2i and 3 = Ni +132ti. . . an E C... and ja +. where al. The triangle inequality restates the fact that the length of any side of a triangle is less than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides. Let sk be the sum of the products sk=(1)kank of the xi taken k at a time. x2. Then a + = (al + al) + (a2 + /32)i. + a1x + a0. cot x = 1 tan a . /32 are real numbers.134 Glossary Triangle Inequality Let z = a + bi be a complex number. xn = (1)n a0 an Trigonometric Identities sin2 a + cos 2 a= sin a tan x = cos a 1... . Define the absolute value of z to be z _ a2 + b2. . . Then an that is.
cos 3a = 4 cos3 a .tan2 a . 1+tang2 2 tan 2 . . tan 3a = halfangle formulas: 3 tan a .1 = 1 . tan a ± tan b 1T.tan3 a 13tan2a 2 tan 2 ' sin a = cos a = 1+tang z 1 . tan(a ± b) = doubleangle formulas: sin 2a = 2 sina cos a. tan 2a = 2 tan a 1 .sinasinb.sin 2 a = 2 cost a .tang 2 ' sin a + sin b = 2 sin a l b cos a 2 b.2 sine a.Glossary 135 addition and subtraction formulas: sin(a±b) =sinacosb±cosasinb.tang a' tripleangle formulas: sin3a=3sina4sin3a.tan a tan b cos 2a = cost a . cos(a±b) =cosacosbT.3 cos a. cosa+cosb=2cosa2bcosa2 tan a + tan b = differencetoproduct formulas: sin(a + b) cos a cos b' b sinasinb=2sina2 bcosa2b. tan a = sumtoproduct formulas: 1 .
b) cos a cos b' .cos(a + b) + cos(a . 2 cosa cos b = cos(a + b) + cos(a .b).136 Glossary cosacosb=2sina2 bsina2 b tan a . 2 sin a sin b = .b).tan b = producttosum formulas: 2 sin a cos b = sin(a + b) + sin(a . sin(a .b).
2000. Kedlaya. 1961. 6.. Birkhauser. S. Problem Books in Mathematics. Mathematical Contests 19971998: Olympiad Problems from around the World. Random House. New Mathematical Library. 1989. with Solutions. Engel. with Solutions. Geometry Revisited. K. Kedlaya. Oxford Science Publications. Fomin... F. SpringerVerlag. An Introduction to Inequalities. 19.. 1998. Z. G.. 3. 27. Zeitz.FURTHER READING 1. 3. Mathematical Olympiad Challenges. First Concepts of Topology.. Doob. Vol.. Mathematical Association of America. 4. R.. Leningrad Mathematical Olympiads 19871991. K.. Andreescu. 1993. Kirichenko. T. The Canadian Mathematical Olympiad 19691993. 2000. Andreescu. 12. 8. 1999. Mathematical Olympiads: Problems and Solutions from around the World. W. M. Chinn. 1967. 11. E. What to Solve?. Greitzer. American Mathematics Competitions. T. L. 1966. Mathematical Association of America. T... M. Mathematical Contests 19961997: Olympiad Problems from around the World. P. E. 1997. Springer. 13. Andreescu. Vol. . Vol.. American Mathematics Competitions.. Gelca. ProblemSolving Strategies. R. N. Mathematical Association of America. 1994.. S. Polynomials. New Mathematical Library. E. American Mathematics Competitions.. 1990. Beckenbach. A. Cofman. Andreescu.. J. 1998. H. 5. Kedlaya. Coxeter. 10. 7. A. 19981999. University of Toronto Press. 2. K.. Barbeau. Andreescu. D. 9. with Solutions. New Mathematical Library. T. Steenrod. MathPro Press. Feng.. Bellman. T. Mathematical Contests 19951996: Olympiad Problems from around the World.
J. 1963. 1967. 2001. L. E. 4. 1961. 11 & 12. Springer.138 Further Reading 14. Rousseau. 1996. 1967. 1978. 1996. Concrete Mathematics. 14. 1964. M. Random House. New Mathematical Library. Patashnik. 1994. I. Sharygin. 20. 16. Kuczma.. D. Grossman. Random House. D. I. New Mathematical Library. Ore. M.. 21. C. New Mathematical Library. 1988. 27. Hungarian Problem Book.. 1998. L. 0. Canberra. Random House. 28. 0. S. Kazarinoff. 17. Mathematical Association of America. C. Lausch. Vol. 29. Bosch Giral. L. Kiirschak. 25. E.. International Mathematical Olympiads. S.. Volumes I & 77.. Mathematical Association of America. 15. 19721986.. 23. Geometric Inequalitties. R.. The Academic Distribution Center. 0... Graphs and their uses. Mathematical Association of America. ProblemSolving Through Problems. New Mathematical Library. Mir. Moscow. 19591977. Mathematical Circles. 1989. Greitzer. .. Mathematical Association of America. International Mathematical Olympiads.. Invitation to number theory. AMT Publishing. A. Mathematical Association of America. Lozansky. Vol. M. Vol. Chinese Mathematics Competitions and Olympiads 19811993. H. SpringerVerlag. Problems in Plane Geometry. Liu. F. New Mathematical Library. Magnus. D. Klamkin. N. American Mathematical Society. Genkin.. Ore. Vols.. 31. Canberra. 18. Itenberg.. I. 19781985. Graham. 19. The Asian Pacific Mathematics Olympiad 19892000. 1986. Groups and Their Graphs. 22. 1983. New Mathematical Library. C.. Vol. USA Mathematical Olympiads. W. 33.. 26. AddisonWesley. Fomin. AMT Publishing.. 27. Knuth. Larson. 24.. Vol. 144 Problems of the AustrianPolish Mathematics Competition 19781993... Klamkin. 1988.. Winning Solutions.
M. AMT Publishing. Random House. The USSR Olympiad Problem Book. Zeitz. P. Random House. Wilf. H. Taylor. 36. 8. Chentzov.. R. 1997. P. 31. 1968. Center for excellence in mathematics education. AMT Publishing.. 40. 46. 1962. Tournament of Towns 19891993. Soifer. New Mathematical Library. A. Moscow. AMT Publishing.. McGrawHill. John Wiley & Sons. F. 0.. N. Taylor. Taylor.. Wilson. 37... J. Canberra. 34. Random House. Cambridge University Press. Wiley. I. 44. 1986. D. J. 42. Taylor. I.. Slinko. 1994. 1993. 1992.Verlag.. J.. New Mathematical Library. 43. Enumerative Combinatorics. Stanley. Tournament of Towns 19841989. Freeman. 24. Geometric Transformations. The Art and Craft of Problem Solving. Contests in Higher Mathematics. 1997.. Vol.. M. M. 32. Canberra. P. Vanden Eynden. Yaglom . I. P. AMT Publishing. J. P. I. N. I. . Sharygin.Further Reading 139 30. Geometric Transformations III. Springer. 38. P. Shklarsky. Elementary Number Theory. Academic Press. Tomescu. M. 1994. 1962. Yaglom. Vol. 1996. Generatingfunctionology. 45. Szekely. Geometric Transformations II.. USSR Mathematical Olympiads 19891992. Academic Press.. C. 1994. C. 1987. Tournament of Towns 19801984. Canberra. 41. Canberra. S. R. Mir. Yaglom. 33. New Mathematical Library. Problems in Combinatorics and Graph Theory. Canberra. J. Tournament of Towns 19931997. 35. 39.. 21. A.. AMT Publishing. A.. 1972. Yaglom. Problems in Solid Geometry. 1998. Introduction to graph theory. 1973.. I. Colorado Mathematical Olympiad: The first ten years. Storozhev. 1985.. Vol. 1999. 47.
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He teaches at Phillips Exeter Academy. Andreescu received the Distinguished Professor Award from the Romanian Ministry of Education in 1983. Originally from Romania. and is an assistant director of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program. ISBN on THE AUSTRALIAN MATHEMATICS TRUST EN R I CHMENT SE R I E S 1 876420 12 X . l le also serves as a coach of the USA International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) Team. In addition. is Chair of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Committee. and is Director of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Summer Program. serves as Head Coach of the USA International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) Team. then after moving to the USA was awarded the Edyth May Sliffe Award for Distinguished High School Mathematics Teaching from the MAA in 1994. he received a Certificate of Appreciation presented by the President of the MAA for "his outstanding service as coach of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Program in preparing the USA team for its perfect performance in Hong Kong at the 1994 IMO". is a member of the USA Mathematical Olympiad Committee.Titu Andreescu is Director of the America n Mathematics Competitions. Prof. He received the Edyth May Sliffe Award for Distinguished High School Mathematics Teaching from the MAA in 1996. Zuming Feng graduated with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University with an emphasis Algebraic Number Theory Elliptic and Curves.
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