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2.

.
IP,
, IPv6.
2.1.
IP
. :

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. , IP .
.

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.

2.1 IP-, LAN-


frame relay WAN-1.
LAN- B
LAN-a WAN-a.
.
. ,
IP- . IP.
IP
. IP
( t1) , ,
. :
. IP
(Internet
protocol data unit - PDU), .
LAN (LLC t2; MAC
t3) , LAN IP
(t6).
(frame relay protocol fields) (t8) WAN-a .
frame relay , LAN
, LAN- 2 .
.
;
. IP
1

IEEE 802 ; (MAC)


(LLC),
LLC-a.

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: 6

() . ,
X. , IP
( LLC) . LLC
MAC , MAC
MAC . , LAN 1
, , IP , LLC
, ( t3 2.1).
, 1 X. LLC
IP ,
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MAC .
.
3. . o
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2.1

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IP-. Frame relay
Y. Y,
. IP
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LAN 2. B, LAN IP
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. ( TCP),
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. , ,

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LAN-a WAN-a.

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(debugging).

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IP-, . IP
IP :

(ID)

More ()

ID
. IP- ,
(. TCP),
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, 64 .

, = 0 0 (false).
, IP
:
1.
.
2. 64 , ,
64 .
3.
1 (true).
.
4.
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. (0, false).
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2.2

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. ID
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0 (false).

: IP .

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ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).


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.
. TCP/IP , IP
, . IP PDU
IP PDU-.

, frame relay .

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(Service Access Point SAP) OSI .

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:
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2.3 IP

. ,
;
unicast .
.
. ,
.
broadcast, , multicast,
. 2.3
.

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: 6

3.
4 IP-a, RFC-
791. , IPv4 IPv6,
IP TCP/IP .
(IP) TCP/IP
. ,
je IP :

(. TCP), IP
.
.

IP , .
IP . Internet Control
Message Protocol (ICMP), IP-a.
3.1. IP
(. IP
TCP) .
,
.
. .
IP
. Send .
Deliver IP-a
. :

: .
: .
:
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:

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.
Dont Fragment ( ):
IP .
Time To Live (B ):
.
: .
: IP .
: .

, Dont Fragment (DF) Time To


Live (TTL) Send Deliver .
IP- IP
.
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. :

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:
. (
) (
).
:
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:
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(. ).
: IP -
( )
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3.2.

IP
IP 3.1 .
:

3.1 IPv4

(4 ):
. 4.
(IHL) (4 ): 32 .
20 .
DS/ECN (8 ): ,
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6 DS (Differentiated
- 11 -

: 6

Services), 2 ECN (xplicit


ongestion Notification).

(16 ): ,
, ().
(16 ): ,
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(3 ): . More
,
. DF .

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(13 ):
, 64 .

64 .
(8 ): , ,
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TTL , TTL
.
(8 ): --
; ,
IP .
(16 ):
. (.
, ),
.
16 16- .
, .
(32 ):

.
(32 ):
.
(): .
():
32- .
(): 8-
. ( +
) 65,535 .

IP , Send Deliver ,
IP .
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: 6

3.3. IP
IP 32 ,
.

3.2 IP



, 3.2.

.
:

: , .
B: , .
C: , .


. ,
C. ,

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,
.
IP , ,
, 32- .
, IP 11000000 11100100 00010001 00111001
192.228.17.57.
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: 6

, 0.
0 ( 00000000) 127 ( 01111111)
, 126 ,
1 126. B 10,
128 191 (
10000000 10111111). B,
2 14 = 16 384 B. C
110, C
192 223 ( 11000000 11011111).
C 2 21 = 2 097 152.

.
WAN- ,
LAN-.
LAN

.
LAN-
.
, LAN- .

.

3.3

,
IP
.
.
LAN- (
) LAN- ( ).
(. )
. 3.3
.

. . 3.4
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: 6

.
LAN- .
B 140.25..,
, .
255.255.255.0. ,
140.25.2.1 Y
,
1 LAN-
LAN- .
, .

3.4

3.4. INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL (ICMP)


IP
ICMP (RFC 792). ICMP
. , ICMP
. ICMP-
,

. , ICMP
,
.
ICMP IP TCP/P ,
IP-a. ICMP IP-
IP
. ICMP IP ,
.

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: 6

3.5 ICMP

3.5 ICMP . ICMP 64-


:

(8 bita): ICMP .
Kod (8 bita):
.
(16 ): ICMP .
IP-.
(32 ): .


.
ICMP
, IP 64
.
ICMP .
64 IP

. 64 TCP
.

.
.
.

.
IP .
, .
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IP
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- 16 -

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(source quench)
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.

.


.
.
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,
.

.

(
).
.

, .

.
LAN
. broadcast LAN.
LAN-
.

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: 6

4. 6
(IP)
. ,
IPv6 (IP 6),
IP.

IP-a, .
4.1. IP-A

32 IPv4. 32- ,
2 32 , 4
.
. ,
80- ,
90-. 32-
:

IP ( ) ,
.
,
.
, IP ,
, .
IP
IP
.
.
LAN-, LAN .
.
.
TCP/IP
IP .
TCP/IP- - .
IP .
IP . , ,
IP .


IP-a. IP ,
,
.
, (The
Internet Engineering Tast Force, IETF) IP-a
(IPng) 1992. 1994.
IPng. RFC
- 18 -

: 6

1752, The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol,


1995. RFC 1752 IPng, PDU-a
IPng- ,
. ,
IPv6. IPv6
(RFC 2460), RFC-a IPv6 (RFC 2373)
.
IPv6 IPv4:

: IPv6 128- 32 IPv4.


2 96 . 6 x 10 23
.
, .
: IPv6
IPv6
.
.
IPv6 IPv4
. ,,
.
: IPv6 anycast
, .
multicast
multicast .
: IPv6
.
real-time video.
4.2. IPv6

IPv6 :

IPv6 .
40 , 20
IPv4. :

Hop-by-Hop :
hop-by-hop .
: ,
IPv4.
:
.
- 19 -

: 6

:
.
: .
:
.

, IPv6
:
1. IPv6 : , .
2. Hop-by-Hop
3. :
IPv6

.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. :
.

4.1 IPv6

4.1 IPv6
. IPv6
.
.
,
. ,
- 20 -

: 6

IPv6 ( ),
IPv4 . 4.1,
TCP, IPv6
TCP-a .
IPv6 ,
.
4.3. IPv6

4.2 IPv6

IPv6 40 (),
( 4.2):

(4 ): , 6.
DS/ECN (8 ): ,
Traffic Class
/
IPv6 .
DS
(differentiated services), 2 ECN
(explicit congestion notification).
(20 ):

.
(16 ): IPv6
, . ,
PDU- .
(8 ): IPv6
. IPv6
, TCP UDP.
- 21 -

: 6

(8 ):
.

.
.
IPv4.
IPv4
. , IPv4 ,
, TTL .
(128 ): .
(128 ): .
, ,
.

IPv6 IPv4 (40


20 ), (8 12). ,
, .

IPv6
(unicast multicast)
.
20-
. ,
.
, , ,
,
. TCP
TCP . .
,
,
, .
,
. ,
, , .
,
,

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. ,
.
,


, Hop-by-Hop .

.
,
.
- 22 -

: 6

,
.
, IPv6, ,
.
.
:
1.
,
.
2.
,
, Hop-by-Hop (
) ( ).

.
3. .
() 1 2 20 -1,

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.
.
,
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. 2 20
( ) ,
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, ,
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. ,
.

.
( 8. 10.) 20
.
3 .
4.4. IPv6
IPv6 a 128 .
, .
unicast . unicast

.

IPv4. IPv4,

.
, , ,
- 23 -

: 6

. ,
.


.
IPv6 :

Unicast: . unicast
.
Anycast: (
). anycast
(,
).
Multicast: (
). multicast
.
4.5. HOP-BY-HOP

Hop-by-Hop ,
,
. ( 4.3):

(8 ):
.
(8 ):
64 , 64 .
:
. :
(8 ), ; (8 ),
; ,
.

4.3 Hop-by-Hop

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: 6


.
, :

00 .
01 .
10 ICMP
,
.
11 multicast ,
ICMP
, .


(0) (1) .
.
.
hop-by-hop :

1:
.
N: N
(N 2) . 8
.
: IPv6
65 535 .
32 , IPv6
. , IPv6
.
, IPv6 4 .
IPv6
.
:
.
IPv6
,
.
IPv6
.
RSVP,
.
- ,
.
4.6.

IPv6, ,
.
,
,
(Maximum Transmission Unit MTU),
- 25 -

: 6

. MTU ,
, . ,
1280 ,
MTU .

4.4

( 4.4):

(8 ):
.
(8 ): .
(13 ):
. 64 .
( )
64 .
(2 ): .
(1 ): 1 = ; 0 = .
(32 ):
.
.
,

.

.
4.7.

.
32- 8- ,
( 4.5).
8- :

:
.
:
64 , 64 .
: .
,
.
- 26 -

: 6

: ;
-
.

4.5

RFC- 2460
0. 0 ,
IPv6 .
,
, IPv6 .

IPv6 . ,
IPv6 .
IPv6
.

4.8.
, ,
, .
Hop-by-Hop . ( 4.3).

- 27 -

: 6

5.
,

. (IP)
.
, IPv6 (IP
6), IP.

IP.
,
.

.

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: 6

6.

WAN

Wide Area Network

LAN

Local Area Network

IP

Internet Protocol

PDU

MAC

LLC

Protocol Data Unit


Medium Access Control

Logical Link Control

TCP

Transport Control Protocol

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

SAP

Service Access Point

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

- 29 -

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7.
1. Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 1996
2. Computer Networking & Internet Protocols, William Stallings,1996
3. http://www.cisco.com
4. http://www.rfc-editor.org
5. http://www.iana.org

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