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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. Processing Next. Some PCs won’t have speakers. the computer functions through four stages: input. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. stores and makes the output of the information. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. storage. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. Mouse . most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. and output. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. Speakers/headphones . A computer inputs information. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. .Provides printed paper output. Keyboard .Speakers provide sound output. process it. The following are the standard set: Monitor .Keypad for providing keyed input. the computer processes your data. processing.To provide input and output. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. mouse. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. Based on a typewriter. Computer Process From the IT perspective. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. Printer. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals.
it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. Output is the result we get through output devices. 1. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. . Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Figure 1. After storing the data. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. It might send the data over to the printer. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. the most visible of which are the external storage parts. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. storing procedure comes next.
Figure 1. the computer. a pair of tweezers.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. Use the right kind of tools. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. a little grabber tool.5).Figure 1. .3. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. a nut driver or two. Figure 1. and any loose components at the same electrical potential.4 Anti-static bag 2.4).
Check voltage requirement. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. 17. 15. Beware of sharp edges. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. 18. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. 10. trash can and fire exit. . 7. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. 14. 8. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. 6.Figure 1. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. 19. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. 11. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. 13. 16. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. 9. 5. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. 20. 4.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand.
safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. 4. 3.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. 8. 10. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 2. 9.3 Exercises 1. The monitor provides visual output for the computer.3. 6. 7. . Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device.1. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. 5.
mid-tower. desktop. mini-tower. Figure 2. tower. Figure 2.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit – front and back .1 System Unit The system case. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. and cube. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment.
distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case.Buttons used to turn the system on and off. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. Including power supply . Figure 2. CD-ROM.2). One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections.2 Onboard Devices . Connections such as USB. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy. and DVD drives are in the front of the case. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case.
3-volt current to support onboard electronics. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives. 12.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2. . and 3. Figure 2.3).1.3 . Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.3 V DC.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.0 .Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2. PCs use a 5-volt/3.Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2.2.First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V .
and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. supplemental motherboard power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. optical drive.Table 2. extra video card power. add-on fans. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) .
4 Uninterruptible power supply .Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power. surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2. Figure 2.4).
When power is turned off.2. When you start a computer. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. the processor interprets the data. Table 2. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. a computer uses memory. Most RAM is volatile.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. it loses its contents. While it is in RAM.
but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM.
third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. but could not fix it. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly.
needed by the program.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. but they are not interchangeable.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. CPUs might look similar. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. Figure 2.6). • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager. . Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. DDR RAM.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. 2.
which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.8).CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2.Figure 2.9 SEC processor . with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.9) Figure 2.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) . PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket. Figure 2.7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.
The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH). Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . Southbridge . it helps the CPU work with RAM. Figure 2. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card.2. On newer AMD systems. special port.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. similar to a PCI slot.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives. Figure 2. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply.a single. . Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) .10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. which enables system components to be added to the computer. which is dedicated to video.
contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. CD and DVD drives. and others. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. 2. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. video card. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. and components. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. Finally. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . hard drives. Table 2. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. chipset. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. including the expansion slots.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer.
Also called the display adapter.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. and number of colors that can be displayed. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. .Expansion Cards Video Card . Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. It is often called Ethernet Card.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. This controller determines the refresh rate. resolution. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors.
unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. Next.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. . A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. Turn off the PC and unplug it.Sound Card . Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case.
and open the case. Put the case down on your work surface. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed.g.2. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. . 3. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Fill in the following chart. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Component Specifications/Description e. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. 2. with the case door facing up.
These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2.11). Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2.11 Front panel control wires . Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. Figure 2. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. reset button. 4.3. After removing the RAM. Remove the front panel connectors. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Look at the label on the power supply.
The screws may also have small washers. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Check on the expansion slots. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. Handle the motherboard gently. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. as shown in Figure 2. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. by the edges.2.13). 4.14. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Figure 2. 13 3. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2.
Figure 2. .static mat. List them down. then raise the lever to a vertical position.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. 5. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. or you will bend its tiny pins. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. 3. 3. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1.2. Examine the CPU. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. . 4. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. 4.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. This drives are hot swappable. . SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. It sends data bit by bit. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable.
The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. the manufacturer of the drive. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. or on the manufacturer's web site. and any special features that the drive may possess. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. . requiring at least three drives. This technique. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. This drives are hot swappable. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing.
3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. without the use of software. or removed to break a connection.2 External Drives A. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).1.4 Floppy Diskette . Jumper Pins: A set of pins. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection.Figure 3. They have been around since the very first PCs. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. The small. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. 3. A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today. 1.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3.
as they are powered directly from the USB bus. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. which appeared around 1986. reading or writing data as necessary. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. a generic term. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. are used in digital cameras. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. however. B. and other devices.by higher capacity removable media. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. . Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. are 3½ inches. Memory cards. PDAs. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. Modern floppy disks.
They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. SmartMedia.5 CDs and DVD . Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. C. DVD players and DVD recorders. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. come in many varieties. Flash cards. DVDs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Figure 3. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Memory Stick. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. PDAs. and phones. Secure Digital. Some drives can only read from discs. The most common types are CompactFlash. Compact discs.
and DVD-RAM. DVD+RW.6). can store up to 16 GB of data. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors.37 GB of data.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. DVD-RW. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. but it lacks error checking. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps.2. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller.1 Internal Cables A.2 Internal and External Cables 3. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. DVD-R for authoring. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. 3. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. can be burned on both sides of the disc. file support. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. DVD+RW. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data. unlike CD-Rs. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. but as usage evolved to include data storage. DVD-RW. DVD-ROM. The colored . enable you to erase data and burn new data. wide. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. more densely packed pits. but still have forty pins. but not erased. DVD+R. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995.
The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.6 PATA cable . The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device. The drive positions on older.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. Figure 3.
and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3. Figure 3. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard. have only 34 conductors. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives.7 SATA cable C. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer.as high as 300 MB/sec. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower.8). SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables.B. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. Figure 3. which improves airflow inside the case.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes. . sizes. It is connected to the power supply unit.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground).2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3.D. and the needs of designers and users. Figure 3. Figure 3. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.2.9 SCSI cable 3.
router. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. and blue for line-in. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. switch. pink for microphone. or to another computer. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. . The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends.
with the case door facing up. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Next. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.3. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. . 6. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. and open the case. 5. Put the case down on your work surface. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Be careful but firm.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. rocking the connector gently from side to side. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for.
Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. 7. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6.2. 5. Be careful but firm. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. rocking the connector gently from side to side. 4. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Remove a hard drive from the system. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull.
Remove the floppy drive from the case. 2. 4. 5. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. and examine the pins. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. . Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 2.INSTALLING 1. 3. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable.
4. 2.INSTALLING 1. 2. Inspect the optical drive. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. 3. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. 2. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. . Get the Optical drive and its cable. 3. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. Get the floppy disk and its cable. 3.
Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. . 5.4. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6.
spreadsheets. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. taking control of the PC. act the same. 1. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. desktop computers. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. on the surface. and Web browsers. supercomputers. Operating systems do not look the same or. 3.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3.1). Almost all computers (including handheld computers. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. cannot run on a PC without an OS. 4.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4.0 .1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. Table 4. Application programs. 2. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. such as word processors. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). An OS works only with a particular type of processor.
The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. and media centers (Figure 4.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. laptops. including home and business desktops. 2001. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24.1)." .
CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. It is often built into the Southbridge. The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2). Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard.2 ROM BIOS A. Figure 4. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive.1 Windows XP environment 4.Figure 4. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery.2 BIOS and CMOS A. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix .
4 SoftMenu screen . CTRL-ALT-Enter.3) Figure 4. Usually.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4. F1. ESC. Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-ESC.To enter the CMOS setup program. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. F2. but they all contain basically the same settings. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different.4). CTRL-ALTINS. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup . or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have.
6).5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4. Figure 4. Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. Figure 4.5).6 Advanced BIOS Features . as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.
such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4.9 Power Management .8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4. Advanced Chipset Features .7).8).7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. enable.9). Figure 4. Figure 4. or disable the onboard ports. Figure 4.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4.
locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup.10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password .11 A CMOS password prompt 4.10). PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4. . Figure 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions. Figure 4.
Protecting or isolating files. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. These can change size dynamically and rapidly. In a smaller partition. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. . A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Use of multi booting setups. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. potentially making a file system full. Having cache and log files separate from other files. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. that file might only require 4KB to store. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. On Microsoft Windows machines.
It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. and archive file attributes. . if the file was located on a FAT partition. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. FAT supports only read-only. the file can be undeleted. which cannot be done under Windows NT. In addition. and files are given the first open location on the drive. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. However. system. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. In addition. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. This is because as the size of the volume increases. it can lead to data loss. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. hidden. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. To protect the volume.
This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. with larger volume sizes. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. which. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. . Therefore. like HPFS. such as 512 byte sectors. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. there are no special locations on the disk. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. someone can boot under MS-DOS. are sorted. or another operating system. as it does under FAT. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. In addition. However.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. Currently. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. unlike FAT or HPFS. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS.
and then click Disk Cleanup. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to System Tools. . which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. and then click Disk Defragmenter. click Start. To open Disk Defragmenter. point to Accessories. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. For example. To open Disk Cleanup. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. point to System Tools. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. Empty the Recycle Bin. Remove downloaded program files. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. a technique called defragmentation. When files are created. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. point to All Programs.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete.4. click Start. Remove Windows temporary files. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. deleted. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. point to All Programs. point to Accessories.
click Start. It can be both sword and shield. and if it finds any.12 Antivirus Programs . and removable disks (but not optical discs). Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. enabling you to back up to network drives. such as a hard disk or a tape. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. point to System Tools.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. and then click Backup. tape. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. To start Backup. point to All Programs. When ordered to seek and destroy. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. logical drives. point to Accessories. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. It supports a greater variety of devices.
4. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. Power your computer back on and be ready. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Press that key and let SETUP load. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen.14. To check what yours is. or DEL. it is ESC. You will need to press a certain key at this point. 3. Figure 4. and it varies depending on the BIOS. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . Usually. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. After the BIOS SETUP loads. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4.4. Shut down your computer. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. F1.13. 2.
15.Figure 4. This will reboot your computer. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). 7. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. . Figure 4. and third. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen.14 BIOS main screen 5. second. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. After the new order is set. Now just select where you want to boot from first. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation.
6. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. press ESC. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. At the Welcome to Setup page. Create two partitions of equal size. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. press _____. 2. Create partition ___________ b. 9. 3. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first.ACTIVITY 2. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. you are prompted to repair it. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. and then press ENTER. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. . press ENTER. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. Delete system partition ____________ c. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. 4. 8. 5. Partition size is entered in megabytes. To bypass the repair. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected.
Windows XP formats Partition C. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. so you must use the keyboard. press ENTER. Then. restart your computer to try again. If you connect . On the Personalize Your Software page. Windows XP Setup begins. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. From this point forward. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). Then press F8 to accept the agreement. 2. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. you can use your mouse. read the licensing agreement.ACTIVITY 3. you can change language settings after setup is complete. During this portion of setup. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. 3. On the Your Product Key page. the Regional and Language Options page appears. type your name and your organization name. your mouse will not work. 4. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. If prompted to start from the CD. 5. 8. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. click Next. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Eventually. On the Welcome to Setup page. click Next. Click Next to accept the default settings. press any key in your keyboard. Then. Select Partition C and press ENTER. 6. If you prefer a language other than English. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process.and then copies the setup files. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10.
click Next. click OK. click the Time Zone down arrow. 16. 12. 15. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. On the Networking Settings page. Click Next. Then. 20. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. On the Who will use this computer? page. When the Display Settings dialog appears. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. After setup is complete. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. click Finish. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. set your computers clock. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. You can use first names only. click Next. nicknames. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. On the Thank you page. . 13. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. Then click Next. click OK. click Skip. On the Date and Time Settings page. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. and select your time zone. 21. 18. Click Next. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. type the name of each person who will use the computer.your computer to a network. click No. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. 14. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. click Next. 17. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click Next. click Next. On the Help protect your PC page. 19. Then. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. or full names. and then retype it in the Confirm password box.
Look for the devices with question mark icons. When you buy a sound card. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. 4. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. your driver may not match the device installed. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. 6. Right-click MY COMPUTER. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. but have no existing drivers installed. wireless adapters. Click MANAGE. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". Click DEVICE MANAGER. If there are no question marks left. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. 9. Then click NEXT to continue. reboot your computer. and Printers. If it is not. 7. Afterwards. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. 3. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. At times. 11. 12.ACTIVITY 4. Hard Drives. 8. not this time‖. To install driver: 1. then select NEXT to continue. On the radio buttons. 5. 10. CD-ROMS. 2. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. Click START. . for example. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. select ―No. Video Cards. Wait until it is finished. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function.
An example of a network is a computer network. type of system bus (for example. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network.1 Networking Fundamentals A. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. A computer network. or fiber-optic cable) 3.1. coaxial. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. PCI or ISA) B. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. or FDDI) 2. type of media (for example. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. consider the following three factors: 1. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. Ethernet. . Figure 5. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. Also called a LAN adapter. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. twisted-pair. type of network (for example. a Token Ring card. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. Token Ring. often simply referred to as a network.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card.
. Ring. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. which will be described later in the chapter. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. Star. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. and Mesh. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. Hierarchical. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. C. Figure 5.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first.Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. examples for a city or a state. and the logical topology. Metropolitan area network (MAN). which is used for medium size area.2. This point is usually a hub or switch. Extended Star. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). These are shown in Figure 5. This creates a physical ring of cable.
printers. . D. first serve. it is first come. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. When a host receives the token. scanners. So as you can see in the graphic. will extend the length and size of the network. If the host has no data to send. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. This also reflects the design of the Internet. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. These hosts include computers. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. This is the way that Ethernet works. that means that that host can send data on the network. and obtain information. The host devices can exist without a network. but without the network. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. create. This. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. which has multiple paths to any one location. clients and servers. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. and many other user devices. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. The second type is token-passing. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. with which the users share. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. as you will learn later in the chapter.
Figure 5.4). Figure 5. 4. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.3 Repeater D.5 Bridge . to keep local traffic local.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5.4 Hub D. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.D.5).2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.g. Figure 5.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5.3). yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. 8. or even 24) using a process known as concentration. and increase the reliability of the network. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5.
choose the best path for them through the network. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. they make a LAN much more efficient. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. However. . routers have become the backbone of the Internet.6 Switch D.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. Token-ring. Routers can also connect technologies. because of their ability to route packets. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network).5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses.7). They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data.D. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. Figure 5. and FDDI. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. Because of the decisions that switches make. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. or a mixed wired/wireless network. such as Ethernet. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection.6). Switches at first glance often look like hubs. running the IP protocol. In contrast.
Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.7 Wireless router 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5.10 UTP Cable . through a LAN. cable.10). optical fiber (Figure 5. Figure 5.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. or space. or fiber. You can build computer networks with many different media types. and even free space can carry network signals. in the form of bits and bytes.Figure 5. however. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. networking media confine network signals to a wire. as the medium).2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information.9).8). Each media has advantages and disadvantages.
Connecting a switch to a switch 5.2.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. Unlike straight-through cables. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. Connecting a router to a router 4. crossover. Figure 5. and rollover cables. Connecting a computer to a router 2.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. and then the orange and green wires. 5. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. Connecting a hub to a hub .1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross.11. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time.
You can use a straight-through cable when: 1.2. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. .12). out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. and a large hard disk.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. vast memory. Connecting a router to a hub 2. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. hub. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. Connecting a computer to a switch 3.5. Figure 5. or computer 5.
) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page. audio and video files. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. Figure 5. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. . the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. graphics. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. In client/server networking. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. Figure 5.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. etc. When a page is requested. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing.
76.27.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. . Allows local resources to be shared directly. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number. quark. such as a supercomputer. rather than relying on a single computer.12. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. which is the remainder. For example.3. without the need for intermediate servers. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. 5.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04.groucho. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. which is contained in the leading octets.4. A network of peers can share its processor. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.physics. called an IP Address. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. and a host number. Instead.61. which is written as 149. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. A typical IP address looks like this: 216.
Classes D. they are often still isolated. Class C Class C networks range from 192. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.0. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.0 through 223. fax.0. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.0. defining different places to split IP addresses. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones.0.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.255.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.0 through 191. personal handheld devices). The network number is contained in the first octet.0. IP Multicast.0. .0.255.0.0.0.0.0.0 through 127.320 nets with 65.0. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0. allowing roughly 1.0.0 through 254. several classes of networks. with the network number contained in the first three octets.0. 5. the network number is in the first two octets. To accommodate different needs.6 million hosts per network. E.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network. have been defined. Class B Class B contains networks 128.024 hosts each. This class allows for 16.255. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.
They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. .Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. Like file sharing. decisions of purchase. structure. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing .Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. videos and movies from one computer to the next. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Printers . which allows direct printing from all computers. computer networks are necessary. computers can stream musing. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. Additionally. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. Sharing Media. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. printers can be connected using a print server.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network.
Cut a length of cable. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. 2. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. 8. 7. Video Games . Strip off the jacket. 5. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. then clip their length. 6.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. Media Center Server . Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. 3.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. . Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Untwist the wires. 4. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 5.
Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. 11. 2. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. 12. Subnet . Assign a unique IP address to each computer. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. 10. Inspect both ends of the cable. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Use Class C IP addresses. ACTIVITY 2. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Then click OK. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES.9. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4.
Type CMD. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. and then click OK. 4. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e.1) and press ENTER. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. In the command prompt. .168.ACTIVITY 3.g. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. Then click OK. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. 2. Click START. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. 5. then click RUN.0. The switch must be connected to the router. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). PING 192. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES.
Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. 4. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. 4. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. Rename the folder as share_yourname. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. Click OK. click Share this folder on the network. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. 3. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup.ACTIVITY 4. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. 2. Create a folder in DESKTOP. 2. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Type the name using UNC format. . Click START and then click RUN. 2. Click OK. 3. After you type the appropriate credentials. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. In the folder's properties. Use the default name for the shared folder.
Add a network printer 1. 7. Click START and then. Select YES. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. 3. 2. When the list of printers appears. Right-click the printer you want to share. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. . You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window.ACTIVITY 4. Click NEXT to start. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. Select Browse for a printer. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. 4. 8. or a printer attached to another computer. on the Start menu. 6. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. 5. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. Select A network printer. Click OK. Click the Sharing tab. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 4. In Control Panel. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. then click ADD PRINTER. Then click NEXT to continue. 2. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. 9. Click NEXT to continue. and select the Share this printer check box. 3. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. and then click Printer properties. In the Share name field.
4 Exercises 188.8.131.52 Software 6.2 Case Analysis .1 Hardware 6.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.3 Networks 6.1 Objective 6.
com).html June 2.Version Date: April 17. Mike.pcguide. R.ictglobal. 2011 http://www. Kayne.0 . http://www. Norton. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www. May 27.html April 17.tech-faq.build-your-owncomputer-tips. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.com/kb/310312 http://www.blogspot.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.html.kitchentablecomputers. The PC Guide (http://www.htm May 31. http://www. 2011. 2001.wisegeek. 2011 http://www. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B.php May 31.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. May 31.com/ Charles M. 2001.com/ Larry F. Kozierok. 2007.com/install-a-power-supply.com/ http://www. http://www. Site Version: 2.com/what-is-pata.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. Byard. Long. United States.com/drcables1.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.PCGuide.com/ . COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. Peter.microsoft. Larry and Nancy Long.ehow.duxcw.vistax64. The McGraw-Hill Companies.2. 2011 http://www.computerotic. http://www.
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