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  • 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance
  • 1.2 Occupational Health and Safety
  • 1.3 Exercises
  • 2.1 System Unit
  • 2.2 Power Supply
  • 2.3 Memory
  • 2.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • 2.5 Motherboard
  • 2.6 Expansion Cards
  • 2.7 Exercises
  • 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive
  • 3.1.2 External Drives
  • 3.2.1 Internal Cables
  • 3.2.2 External Cables
  • 3.3 Exercises
  • 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals
  • 4.2 BIOS and CMOS
  • 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions
  • 4.4 Windows Utilities
  • 4.5 Exercises
  • 5.1 Networking Fundamentals
  • 5.2.1 Crossover cable
  • 5.2.2 Straight Through/Patch cable
  • 5.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6.1 Hardware
  • 6.2 Software
  • 6.3 Networks
  • 6.4.1 Objective


Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises

Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware

Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises

Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation

Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN


This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.


Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer

Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals

The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer.Provides printed paper output. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). the computer processes your data. A computer inputs information. Based on a typewriter. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. processing. process it.  Keyboard . stores and makes the output of the information. the computer functions through four stages: input. storage. The following are the standard set:  Monitor . and output. mouse.  Printer.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. Processing Next. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. .  Speakers/headphones .Speakers provide sound output. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse.To provide input and output. Some PCs won’t have speakers. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals.Keypad for providing keyed input. Computer Process From the IT perspective. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system.  Mouse .

the most visible of which are the external storage parts. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD).Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. After storing the data.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 1. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. It might send the data over to the printer. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Output is the result we get through output devices. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Figure 1. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. storing procedure comes next. . Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output.

2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. a little grabber tool.Figure 1. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. . Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1. a nut driver or two. Figure 1.5). a pair of tweezers. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. and any loose components at the same electrical potential. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench. the computer. Use the right kind of tools.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have.4).4 Anti-static bag 2. Figure 1.3.

Figure 1. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. trash can and fire exit. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Check voltage requirement. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. 18. 17. 15. 6. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. . Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. 7. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. 10. 8. 19. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. 14. 16. 4. Beware of sharp edges. 13. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. 20. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. 5. 9. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. 11.

.1.3. 7. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. 6. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. 3. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. 8. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. The monitor provides visual output for the computer. 2. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device.3 Exercises 1. 4. 5. 9. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. 10.

Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. tower. Figure 2. mid-tower. mini-tower. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. desktop. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case. Figure 2.1 System Unit – front and back .1 System Unit The system case. and cube.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2.

FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. Including power supply . CD-ROM. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2.Buttons used to turn the system on and off. Figure 2. and DVD drives are in the front of the case.2 Onboard Devices . Connections such as USB.2).

3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5. Some power supply versions:  Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.Introduced for server motherboards  ATX 12 V 2. Figure 2. 12.First widespread update to ATX PS  EPS 12 V .3 .1.3).2. and 3.0 .3-volt current to support onboard electronics.  PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2. .  PCs use a 5-volt/3.3 V DC.

add-on fans. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. optical drive. extra video card power. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) .or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. supplemental motherboard power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20.Table 2.

Figure 2.Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage.4 Uninterruptible power supply . surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power.4).

Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. it loses its contents. When you start a computer. the processor interprets the data. a computer uses memory. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. Most RAM is volatile. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. Table 2.2. When power is turned off. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. While it is in RAM. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE  DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today  Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code)  144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops .

200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM  Wide number of pins  Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops  Faster than DRAMs  RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM  Speeds of up to 800 MHz  Comes on sticks called RIMMs  184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops  All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM)  DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  184-pin DIMM packages (desktops)  172-. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks  Synchronized with system clock  SDRAM is always a DIMM.

 Wide range of speeds  Considered a standard today  Dual slots are blue. but just the I/O  240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. increasing buffering  Does not speed up core RAM. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. but could not fix it. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. third slot is black  DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  Doubled the clock.

You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager. .6 An Common CPU Packages  Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins.needed by the program.6). CPUs might look similar. but they are not interchangeable. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. Figure 2. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. DDR RAM. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. 2.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.

8 ZIF socket with arm on side  Single edge cartridge (SEC) .9 SEC processor .7 Sample of PGA package  Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins  Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.8). with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2. which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force.Figure 2. Figure 2.9) Figure 2.

the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. which enables system components to be added to the computer.  Southbridge .2. Figure 2.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller  Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted  Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . special port. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. it helps the CPU work with RAM. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH). Figure 2. On newer AMD systems. similar to a PCI slot.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard  Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards.  Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . .a single.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. which is dedicated to video.

 Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. that stores the data that is read by BIOS.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. Table 2.  System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. 2. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. and components.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. CD and DVD drives.  Front panel connections  Soft Power  Reset  Power LED  Hard drive activity LED  Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor.  Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. chipset.  Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . video card. hard drives. Finally.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system.  Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. and others. including the expansion slots. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices.

. resolution. It is often called Ethernet Card. Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network.Expansion Cards Video Card . permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. This controller determines the refresh rate. Also called the display adapter. and number of colors that can be displayed. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors.

7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. . Turn off the PC and unplug it. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.Sound Card . Next. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process.

with the case door facing up.2. Put the case down on your work surface.g. 3. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. 2. and open the case. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Fill in the following chart. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. . Component Specifications/Description e.

After removing the RAM. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. 4. reset button. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). Figure 2. Remove the front panel connectors. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. Look at the label on the power supply. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.3.11 Front panel control wires .11).

What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. Figure 2.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. Check on the expansion slots. 13 3.14. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. Handle the motherboard gently. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. The screws may also have small washers. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . as shown in Figure 2. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. by the edges. 4. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this.13). Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.2. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case.

2.static mat. Figure 2. List them down. 5.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. . 3. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. then raise the lever to a vertical position. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. or you will bend its tiny pins. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. . Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. 4. 4. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. 3.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. Examine the CPU.

LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1  A Phillips head screwdriver  Thermal Compound  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.

ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.

2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.

Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).

How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a

cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins.  IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate.  It sends 8 bit data at a time.  PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.

Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable.  It sends data bit by bit.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. . SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate.  SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive)     SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins.  SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. This drives are hot swappable. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable.

or on the manufacturer's web site. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. Although disk striping without parity works very fast.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive)  SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. . This technique. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity.  This drives are hot swappable. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. the manufacturer of the drive. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. and any special features that the drive may possess. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable.  SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. requiring at least three drives.

2 External Drives A. The small.1. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure). They have been around since the very first PCs.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. or removed to break a connection.4 Floppy Diskette . without the use of software. 1. 3. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs.  Jumper Pins: A set of pins.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. A jumper consists of two primary components:  Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing.Figure 3.

as they are powered directly from the USB bus. which appeared around 1986. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. are used in digital cameras. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. Modern floppy disks. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy.by higher capacity removable media. and other devices. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. are 3½ inches. reading or writing data as necessary. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives  Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. PDAs. .  Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. a generic term. however. Memory cards. B.

5 CDs and DVD . and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. Compact discs. Figure 3. Secure Digital. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. PDAs. come in many varieties. Flash cards. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. C. SmartMedia. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. Memory Stick. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Some drives can only read from discs. DVD players and DVD recorders. DVDs. and phones. The most common types are CompactFlash. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives.

Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. DVD+R. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. enable you to erase data and burn new data. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. but still have forty pins. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. but not erased. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps.  DVD-ROM. unlike CD-Rs. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. can be burned on both sides of the disc. file support. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors.1 Internal Cables A.Types of Optical Drives  CDs come in many varieties. DVD+RW. and directory structure  CD-ROM discs are for storing data. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps.  CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. wide.37 GB of data.2. DVD-RW. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. but as usage evolved to include data storage. DVD-R for authoring. more densely packed pits. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. can store up to 16 GB of data.  CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. but it lacks error checking. DVD-RW. and DVD-RAM.  DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. DVD+RW. 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. The colored .6).

 The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors:  The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard. The drive positions on older. Figure 3.  The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable:  The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device.6 PATA cable .  The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.  The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.

which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives.as high as 300 MB/sec. Figure 3.8). Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.7 SATA cable C. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard. Figure 3. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3.B. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. have only 34 conductors. which improves airflow inside the case.

. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time. It is connected to the power supply unit.D. Figure 3. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and the needs of designers and users. sizes. Figure 3.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground).9 SCSI cable 3. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.2.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3.

switch. pink for microphone. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. or to another computer. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. .The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. and blue for line-in. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. router. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port.

unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. . Turn off the PC and unplug it.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. and open the case. 6. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Be careful but firm.3. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. Put the case down on your work surface. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Next. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. 5. with the case door facing up. Remove the screws of your system unit case. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. rocking the connector gently from side to side.

Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Be careful but firm. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. 5. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. 4.2. Remove a hard drive from the system. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. rocking the connector gently from side to side. 7.

How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. 2. and examine the pins. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. Remove the floppy drive from the case. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. 4. 5. 2. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. .INSTALLING 1. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. 3.

2. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. Inspect the optical drive. 2.INSTALLING 1. . Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. 3. 4. 3. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. 2. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. 3. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1.

Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. . 5. Connect the power connector to the Optical drive.4. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.

Operating systems do not look the same or. spreadsheets.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. taking control of the PC. supercomputers. 4. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. desktop computers. 3. act the same. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. Application programs. Almost all computers (including handheld computers.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. 1.0 . An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. such as word processors. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. cannot run on a PC without an OS. Table 4. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST).1).Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. on the surface. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. 2. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. and Web browsers.1 Home Users Windows 9x  Windows 95  Windows 98  Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4.

The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24.1). laptops. 2001." .Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista  Windows Vista Business  Windows Vista Enterprise  Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7  Windows 7 Professional  Windows 7 Enterprise  Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista  Windows Vista Starter  Windows Vista Home Basic  Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7  Windows 7 Starter  Windows 7 Home Basic  Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. and media centers (Figure 4. including home and business desktops.

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard.1 Windows XP environment 4.2 ROM BIOS A. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time.2). These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2 BIOS and CMOS A. It is often built into the Southbridge. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery. Figure 4. Three primary BIOS brands:  American Megatrends (AMI)  Award  Phoenix .Figure 4. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive.

CTRL-ALT-ESC.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility  SoftMenu Setup .  Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4.4 SoftMenu screen . you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. F2. but they all contain basically the same settings.To enter the CMOS setup program.4).enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. CTRL-ALTINS.3) Figure 4. Figure 4. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have. Usually. F1. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. ESC. CTRL-ALT-Enter. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.

5). Figure 4. Figure 4. Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings.6 Advanced BIOS Features .6).5 Standard CMOS Features screen  Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4. as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.

enable. Figure 4. Advanced Chipset Features .deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. or disable the onboard ports. Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals  Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4.8).7).9 Power Management .7 Advanced Chipset Features  Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure.9). such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4.

locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. .10 PnP/PCI Configurations  Set Password . Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. Figure 4. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4. Figure 4.10).

which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. potentially making a file system full. Use of multi booting setups. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Having cache and log files separate from other files. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. Protecting or isolating files. On Microsoft Windows machines. These can change size dynamically and rapidly. Purposes for partitioning:     Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. that file might only require 4KB to store. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. In a smaller partition.     .

. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. This is because as the size of the volume increases. In addition. performance with FAT will quickly decrease.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. system. However. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. and archive file attributes. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. FAT supports only read-only. hidden. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. it can lead to data loss. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. and files are given the first open location on the drive. the file can be undeleted. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. if the file was located on a FAT partition. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). In addition. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. which cannot be done under Windows NT. To protect the volume. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure.

unlike FAT or HPFS. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. In addition. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. or another operating system. However. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. someone can boot under MS-DOS. Currently. as it does under FAT. such as 512 byte sectors. are sorted. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. which. there are no special locations on the disk. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. . Therefore. like HPFS. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. with larger volume sizes. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume.

Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk:       Remove temporary Internet files. point to All Programs. To open Disk Cleanup. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. click Start. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. point to Accessories. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. Remove Windows temporary files. point to System Tools. and then click Disk Defragmenter. a technique called defragmentation. To open Disk Defragmenter.4. . and then click Disk Cleanup. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. click Start. deleted. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to All Programs. point to System Tools. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. For example. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. Empty the Recycle Bin. When files are created. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. Remove downloaded program files. point to Accessories.

such as a hard disk or a tape. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. It can be both sword and shield. and then click Backup. and removable disks (but not optical discs). logical drives. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. tape. enabling you to back up to network drives. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. checking for viruses only when certain events occur.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. point to Accessories. click Start. point to System Tools. point to All Programs. When ordered to seek and destroy. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. It supports a greater variety of devices. Examples of Antivirus    Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. and if it finds any. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten.12 Antivirus Programs . By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. To start Backup. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways.

You will need to press a certain key at this point. After the BIOS SETUP loads. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. To check what yours is. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. Power your computer back on and be ready. Figure 4.13. or DEL. Press that key and let SETUP load. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive)  Windows XP installer  Driver installer  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. 2. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. 4. 3.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4.14. F1. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". it is ESC. Shut down your computer. and it varies depending on the BIOS. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Usually. you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4.4.

14 BIOS main screen 5. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. . and third. Now just select where you want to boot from first. second. After the new order is set. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6.Figure 4. Figure 4.15. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. This will reboot your computer. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). 7. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen.

ACTIVITY 2. You can select from the following options:  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system  Format the partition by using the FAT file system  Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Partition size is entered in megabytes. To bypass the repair. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. Delete system partition ____________ c. press ESC. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. you are prompted to repair it. At the Welcome to Setup page. 9. Create partition ___________ b. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. 2. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. and then press ENTER. 3. 5. press _____. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. . To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. 4. 6. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. press ENTER. Create two partitions of equal size. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. 8.

ACTIVITY 3. Eventually. press any key in your keyboard. Windows XP formats Partition C. restart your computer to try again. click Next.and then copies the setup files. On the Personalize Your Software page. click Next. 3. If you prefer a language other than English. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. If you connect . Click Next to accept the default settings. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Then. Windows XP Setup begins. type your name and your organization name. 8. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. Then. press ENTER. you can use your mouse. you can change language settings after setup is complete. 2. On the Welcome to Setup page. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. During this portion of setup. your mouse will not work. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. 6. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. the Regional and Language Options page appears. Select Partition C and press ENTER. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. On the Your Product Key page. so you must use the keyboard. 4. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. From this point forward. read the licensing agreement. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. 5. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. If prompted to start from the CD.

and then retype it in the Confirm password box. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. On the Help protect your PC page. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. 12. Click Next. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click Next. nicknames. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. On the Date and Time Settings page. click Next. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. You can use first names only. click No. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. click Next. On the Networking Settings page. click Finish. 13. and select your time zone. 17. 18. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. 19. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. Then. 16. Then click Next. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. click OK. 14. type the name of each person who will use the computer. click Next. Then. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. 20. click Next. . 15. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. click the Time Zone down arrow. 21. After setup is complete. On the Thank you page. or full names. click OK.your computer to a network. When the Display Settings dialog appears. click Skip. Click Next. set your computers clock. On the Who will use this computer? page.

If there are no question marks left. Click MANAGE. CD-ROMS. your driver may not match the device installed. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. 11. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. not this time‖. 7. At times. and Printers. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. 8. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. select ―No. Click DEVICE MANAGER. Hard Drives. Wait until it is finished. Look for the devices with question mark icons. To install driver: 1. Right-click MY COMPUTER. On the radio buttons. wireless adapters. Video Cards. Then click NEXT to continue. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left.ACTIVITY 4. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. 12. 10. but have no existing drivers installed. 3. 6. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. Click START. reboot your computer. 9. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. If it is not. then select NEXT to continue. 4. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. When you buy a sound card. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. 2. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. Afterwards. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. for example. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". . 5.

called a Media Access Control (MAC) address.1 Networking Fundamentals A. often simply referred to as a network. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer.1. type of media (for example. An example of a network is a computer network. Figure 5.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. a Token Ring card. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. consider the following three factors: 1. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. Token Ring. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. Also called a LAN adapter. PCI or ISA) B. A computer network. or fiber-optic cable) 3. twisted-pair. coaxial. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. or FDDI) 2. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. . Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. type of system bus (for example. type of network (for example. Ethernet.

which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. Figure 5. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. and Mesh.  Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. Extended Star. C. examples for a city or a state.Computer networks are classified into:  Local area network (LAN). which will be described later in the chapter. This creates a physical ring of cable. Ring. which is used for medium size area.  Metropolitan area network (MAN).2. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. Hierarchical.2 Physical Topologies    A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly.  Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. and the logical topology. This point is usually a hub or switch. Star. These are shown in Figure 5. . Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network.

which has multiple paths to any one location. as you will learn later in the chapter. and obtain information. will extend the length and size of the network. printers. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. clients and servers. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. first serve. that means that that host can send data on the network. it is first come. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. If the host has no data to send. So as you can see in the graphic. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. D. These hosts include computers. and many other user devices. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. This is the way that Ethernet works. The second type is token-passing. This also reflects the design of the Internet. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology.   Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. but without the network. create. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. The host devices can exist without a network. When a host receives the token.   An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. scanners. with which the users share. . This. There is no order the stations follow to use the network.

3 Repeater D. or even 24) using a process known as concentration. Figure 5. 4. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. to keep local traffic local.3).g.5). and increase the reliability of the network.4 Hub D. Figure 5.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.D. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN. Figure 5. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. 8. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.5 Bridge .4).

they make a LAN much more efficient. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. Because of the decisions that switches make.7). They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. running the IP protocol. or a mixed wired/wireless network. choose the best path for them through the network. Routers can also connect technologies. routers have become the backbone of the Internet. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. and FDDI. because of their ability to route packets. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. However.6). since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). In contrast. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). such as Ethernet.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. . Switches at first glance often look like hubs. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. Figure 5.D. Token-ring.6 Switch D.

optical fiber (Figure 5. cable.10 UTP Cable . Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. You can build computer networks with many different media types. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. or fiber. and even free space can carry network signals.Figure 5.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. in the form of bits and bytes.7 Wireless router 5. through a LAN. Figure 5. as the medium). or space.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5.9).10). Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.8). networking media confine network signals to a wire.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. however.

Connecting a computer to a computer 3. and then the orange and green wires. Connecting a router to a router 4. Connecting a computer to a router 2. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. we use crossover cables to connect like devices.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross. Figure 5.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through.2. Connecting a hub to a hub .11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. crossover. Connecting a switch to a switch 5. 5. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. Unlike straight-through cables. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. and rollover cables.11.

Figure 5. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.5. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5.12). out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. vast memory. Connecting a router to a hub 2. and a large hard disk. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. hub. Connecting a computer to a switch 3.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. or computer 5. .2.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices.

13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking:  Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. audio and video files. Figure 5.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. In client/server networking.  A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. etc. . graphics. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. Figure 5. When a page is requested. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers.

physics.  Allows local resources to be shared directly. . which is contained in the leading octets. which is written as 149.3.  Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. called an IP Address. such as a supercomputer.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage.61. rather than relying on a single computer.  Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. For example. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use.  Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems:  Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences.12. quark. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.4.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.groucho.76. A network of peers can share its processor. which is the remainder. Instead. 5. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. and a host number. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. without the need for intermediate servers. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number.27. A typical IP address looks like this: 216.

320 nets with 65. have been defined.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network.0. Classes D. To accommodate different needs.0 through 223.0. 5. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones.0. fax.0. with the network number contained in the first three octets.0.0.0 through 254.0.0 through 191.0. allowing roughly and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. they are often still isolated.0 through 127.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.0.0.255. the network number is in the first two octets.024 hosts each.6 million hosts per network.0. The network number is contained in the first octet. defining different places to split IP addresses. Class C Class C networks range from 192. several classes of networks. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.0. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1. IP Multicast.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.0. While managers today are able to use the newest applications. E. personal handheld devices).0. . which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.255. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts. Class B Class B contains networks 128. This class allows for 16. has been assigned addresses from within this range.

Like file sharing.  Sharing Media.  Printers . Additionally. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. computer networks are necessary. structure. computers can stream musing. Benefits of Computer Networks  File Sharing . decisions of purchase.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. there are other reasons as well:     cost reduction by sharing hard.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. printers can be connected using a print server.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. which allows direct printing from all computers. . videos and movies from one computer to the next. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications.

Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 4.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. Strip off the jacket. 7. . Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED:  Two working computers with NICs installed  Router  Switch  Crimping tool  Cable tester  Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long)  Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1.  Video Games . Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. 6.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Cut a length of cable. Media Center Server . 8. 3. 5. 5. 2. Untwist the wires.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. then clip their length. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end.

Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. 11. Subnet . ACTIVITY 2. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Then click OK. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. 12. 2.9. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). 10. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Use Class C IP addresses. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Inspect both ends of the cable. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct.

. and then click OK. 2. PING 192. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. 4.0. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. then click RUN. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers.g.ACTIVITY 3. Click START. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Type CMD. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. 5. The switch must be connected to the router. In the command prompt. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. Then click OK. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch.168. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES.1) and press ENTER.

To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. Click OK. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3.ACTIVITY 4. Create a folder in DESKTOP. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. 2. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. click Share this folder on the network. Use the default name for the shared folder. 4. After you type the appropriate credentials. . Click OK. 2. 2. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. Type the name using UNC format. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. In the folder's properties. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. 4. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. 3. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. 3. Rename the folder as share_yourname. Click START and then click RUN.

Click NEXT to start. . 5. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. or a printer attached to another computer. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. In the Share name field. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. In Control Panel. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. Then click NEXT to continue. 2. Add a network printer 1. on the Start menu. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. 8. 6. Click START and then. then click ADD PRINTER. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. Click NEXT to continue. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. Click the Sharing tab. 9.ACTIVITY 4. 3. 7. Right-click the printer you want to share. and select the Share this printer check box. 4. Select Browse for a printer. Select A network printer. and then click Printer properties. 2. 3. Click OK. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. 4. Select YES. When the list of printers appears.

4.1 Hardware 6.4 Exercises 6.3 Networks 6.4.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.1 Objective 6.2 Case Analysis .2 Software 6.

com/ref/fdd/confCable-c. 2011 http://www. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B.ictglobal. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www.htm May 31.com/what-is-pata.com/kb/310312 http://www. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition. 2001.com/ http://www. May 31.wisegeek. The PC Guide (http://www. 2001.Version Date: April 17.com). Long.0 .duxcw.html. http://www.com/ Larry F. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. http://www.blogspot.pcguide.com/install-a-power-supply.2.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. http://www. Norton.com/drcables1. United States. Mike.php May 31. 2007.html June 2. 2011 http://www. Larry and Nancy Long.html April 17. 2011 http://www. Peter. Kozierok. Site Version: 2.computerotic.kitchentablecomputers. R.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. The McGraw-Hill Companies.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.microsoft. Byard.ehow.vistax64.build-your-owncomputer-tips. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. May 27.tech-faq.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers. Kayne.PCGuide. 2011.com/ . http://www.com/ Charles M.

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