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  • 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance
  • 1.2 Occupational Health and Safety
  • 1.3 Exercises
  • 2.1 System Unit
  • 2.2 Power Supply
  • 2.3 Memory
  • 2.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • 2.5 Motherboard
  • 2.6 Expansion Cards
  • 2.7 Exercises
  • 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive
  • 3.1.2 External Drives
  • 3.2.1 Internal Cables
  • 3.2.2 External Cables
  • 3.3 Exercises
  • 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals
  • 4.2 BIOS and CMOS
  • 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions
  • 4.4 Windows Utilities
  • 4.5 Exercises
  • 5.1 Networking Fundamentals
  • 5.2.1 Crossover cable
  • 5.2.2 Straight Through/Patch cable
  • 5.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks
  • 5.5 Exercises
  • 6.1 Hardware
  • 6.2 Software
  • 6.3 Networks
  • 6.4.1 Objective


Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises

Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware

Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises

Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation

Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN


This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.


Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer

Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals

.Speakers provide sound output. Processing Next.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer.  Speakers/headphones . mouse. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard.  Keyboard . processing.  Mouse .Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. and output. Some PCs won’t have speakers. storage. The following are the standard set:  Monitor . A computer inputs information. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. process it. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer.Keypad for providing keyed input. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. the computer functions through four stages: input. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. Computer Process From the IT perspective. the computer processes your data. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals.Provides printed paper output.To provide input and output. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. stores and makes the output of the information. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations.  Printer. Based on a typewriter.

1. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. the most visible of which are the external storage parts.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). After storing the data. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. It might send the data over to the printer.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. Output is the result we get through output devices. Figure 1. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. . storing procedure comes next.

Figure 1.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. the computer. . a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1.4). Figure 1.4 Anti-static bag 2. Use the right kind of tools.3. a little grabber tool. and any loose components at the same electrical potential. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1.5). a nut driver or two. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. Figure 1. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench. a pair of tweezers.

19. 17. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. 16. 15. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. 18. Beware of sharp edges. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. trash can and fire exit.Figure 1. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. 10. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. 20. 11. 14. 9. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. 5. 7. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. 8. 4. 6. . Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. 13. Check voltage requirement.

safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. 8. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage.3 Exercises 1. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. 10. 5. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit.3. 4.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 2. 9. . 6. The monitor provides visual output for the computer. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 3. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device.1. 7. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals.

1 System Unit The system case. Figure 2. tower. and cube. mid-tower. Figure 2.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. mini-tower.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment.1 System Unit – front and back . Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. desktop.

distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Figure 2.Buttons used to turn the system on and off. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy. Connections such as USB. and DVD drives are in the front of the case.2 Onboard Devices . Including power supply . One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. CD-ROM.2).

3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.3). Figure 2. .3 .  PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.3-volt current to support onboard electronics. and 3. Some power supply versions:  Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.2.0 .First widespread update to ATX PS  EPS 12 V . 12.Introduced for server motherboards  ATX 12 V 2.  PCs use a 5-volt/3.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.3 V DC.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.1.

optical drive. add-on fans. supplemental motherboard power.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. extra video card power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20.Table 2.

4). surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power. Figure 2.4 Uninterruptible power supply .

a computer uses memory. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. When you start a computer. When power is turned off. it loses its contents. While it is in RAM. Most RAM is volatile. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory.2. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. the processor interprets the data. Table 2. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE  DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today  Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code)  144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM.

but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM  Wide number of pins  Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops  Faster than DRAMs  RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM  Speeds of up to 800 MHz  Comes on sticks called RIMMs  184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops  All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM)  DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  184-pin DIMM packages (desktops)  172-. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks  Synchronized with system clock  SDRAM is always a DIMM.

third slot is black  DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  Doubled the clock. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. but could not fix it. Wide range of speeds  Considered a standard today  Dual slots are blue. but just the I/O  240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. increasing buffering  Does not speed up core RAM. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file.

You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot.6). 2.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. Figure 2. DDR RAM. but they are not interchangeable. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager.6 An Common CPU Packages  Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. .needed by the program.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. CPUs might look similar.

PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.8 ZIF socket with arm on side  Single edge cartridge (SEC) . which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force.8).7 Sample of PGA package  Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins  Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2. Figure 2.9) Figure 2.9 SEC processor .Figure 2.

2. similar to a PCI slot. which enables system components to be added to the computer.  Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH). Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller  Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted  Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . . which is dedicated to video. Figure 2.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives. On newer AMD systems.a single.  Southbridge .10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard  Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. it helps the CPU work with RAM. Figure 2. special port.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card.

Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. and others. Finally. chipset. CD and DVD drives. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. including the expansion slots. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system.  Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. 2.  Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. and components.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. hard drives.  System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards .  Front panel connections  Soft Power  Reset  Power LED  Hard drive activity LED  Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. video card.  Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. Table 2.

resolution. It is often called Ethernet Card. This controller determines the refresh rate. . Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. Also called the display adapter. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter .A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer.Expansion Cards Video Card .A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. and number of colors that can be displayed.

A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. . Turn off the PC and unplug it. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.Sound Card . REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Next. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound.

Remove the screws of your system unit case.2. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. 2. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. and open the case. 3. Put the case down on your work surface. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. Component Specifications/Description e.g. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. with the case door facing up. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Fill in the following chart. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. .

Look at the label on the power supply. reset button.11 Front panel control wires . 4.11). Figure 2. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). After removing the RAM. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. Remove the front panel connectors. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2.3.

Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2.13).12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. 4. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. Figure 2. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Handle the motherboard gently. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . by the edges. The screws may also have small washers. Check on the expansion slots.2. 13 3. as shown in Figure 2. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2.14.

Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. 3. .14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. then raise the lever to a vertical position. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. . List them down.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. Figure 2. 4. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. Examine the CPU. 3. 4. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle.2.static mat. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. or you will bend its tiny pins. 5.

LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1  A Phillips head screwdriver  Thermal Compound  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.

ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.

2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.

Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).

How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a

cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins.  IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate.  It sends 8 bit data at a time.  PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.

 SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD.  It sends data bit by bit.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive)     SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. . Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable.  SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. This drives are hot swappable.

. the manufacturer of the drive.  SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. or on the manufacturer's web site. requiring at least three drives. and any special features that the drive may possess. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive)  SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. This technique. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity.  This drives are hot swappable. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive.

Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly.Figure 3. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection.4 Floppy Diskette . only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. They have been around since the very first PCs. 3. or removed to break a connection. without the use of software. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure). Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. The small.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. 1.1.  Jumper Pins: A set of pins. A jumper consists of two primary components:  Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection.2 External Drives A.

are 3½ inches. are used in digital cameras.  Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. which appeared around 1986. B. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. however. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. PDAs. reading or writing data as necessary.by higher capacity removable media. a generic term. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives  Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. . and other devices. Modern floppy disks. Memory cards.

and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. Flash cards. DVD players and DVD recorders. SmartMedia. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. Secure Digital. PDAs. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. C. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. Figure 3. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. The most common types are CompactFlash.5 CDs and DVD . come in many varieties. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs. DVDs. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. Memory Stick. Compact discs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. and phones.

wide.6). DVD+R. DVD-R for authoring. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to.2. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. 3.1 Internal Cables A. but it lacks error checking. and directory structure  CD-ROM discs are for storing data. DVD+RW. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers.  DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995.  CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data.37 GB of data. and DVD-RAM. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. The colored . but still have forty pins. DVD-RW. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. DVD+RW.  CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. but as usage evolved to include data storage.  DVD-ROM. can store up to 16 GB of data. DVD-RW. but not erased. more densely packed pits. can be burned on both sides of the disc. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. file support. unlike CD-Rs.Types of Optical Drives  CDs come in many varieties. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. enable you to erase data and burn new data.2 Internal and External Cables 3.

 The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable:  The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The drive positions on older. Figure 3.  The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard.  The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.  The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors:  The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard.6 PATA cable .

Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer.as high as 300 MB/sec. Figure 3. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.B. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . have only 34 conductors. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. which improves airflow inside the case. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. Figure 3. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3.7 SATA cable C. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables.8).

The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit.2. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time. . and the needs of designers and users.9 SCSI cable 3. Figure 3. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. Figure 3.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). sizes. It is connected to the power supply unit.D.

Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. . The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. or to another computer. switch. pink for microphone. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. router.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. and blue for line-in. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers.

Next. Be careful but firm. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. Put the case down on your work surface. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. 5. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Remove the screws of your system unit case. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. with the case door facing up.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3.3. . Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. and open the case. 6. rocking the connector gently from side to side.

How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. rocking the connector gently from side to side. 7. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. 5. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. Remove a hard drive from the system. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Be careful but firm. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following.2. 4.

Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. 5. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions.INSTALLING 1. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. 3. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. 2. and examine the pins. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Remove the floppy drive from the case. . Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 4. 2.

Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. 2. 2. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. . Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. 3. 2. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. 3.INSTALLING 1. 3. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Inspect the optical drive. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Get the floppy disk and its cable. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. 4.

Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. . Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. 5. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.4.

Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI).0 . Almost all computers (including handheld computers. Application programs. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. taking control of the PC. act the same.1 Home Users Windows 9x  Windows 95  Windows 98  Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. 1. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. and Web browsers. 2. cannot run on a PC without an OS. Operating systems do not look the same or. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). spreadsheets. 3.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. Table 4.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. supercomputers. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. 4. such as word processors. desktop computers. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. on the surface. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed.1). video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type.

laptops.1). The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24." . and media centers (Figure 4.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista  Windows Vista Business  Windows Vista Enterprise  Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7  Windows 7 Professional  Windows 7 Enterprise  Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista  Windows Vista Starter  Windows Vista Home Basic  Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7  Windows 7 Starter  Windows 7 Home Basic  Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. including home and business desktops. 2001.

It is customizable via the CMOS setup program.2 ROM BIOS A.Figure 4. It is often built into the Southbridge.1 Windows XP environment 4. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. Figure 4. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2 BIOS and CMOS A. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery.2). Three primary BIOS brands:  American Megatrends (AMI)  Award  Phoenix . Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard.

 Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4. F1. ESC. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program. Usually. but they all contain basically the same settings.3) Figure 4.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-ESC.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility  SoftMenu Setup . F2. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen.4). Figure 4. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have.4 SoftMenu screen . CTRL-ALTINS.To enter the CMOS setup program. CTRL-ALT-Enter.

Figure 4.5). as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.6).6 Advanced BIOS Features . Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. Figure 4.5 Standard CMOS Features screen  Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4.

Figure 4.8).9). enable. such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals  Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4.9 Power Management .deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. Figure 4.7).7 Advanced Chipset Features  Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. or disable the onboard ports. Advanced Chipset Features .

 PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4.10). . Figure 4.locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks.3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.10 PnP/PCI Configurations  Set Password . Figure 4.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.

Having cache and log files separate from other files. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. that file might only require 4KB to store. These can change size dynamically and rapidly.     . This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. Purposes for partitioning:     Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. Protecting or isolating files. In a smaller partition. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. On Microsoft Windows machines. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. Use of multi booting setups. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. potentially making a file system full. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation.

two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. FAT supports only read-only. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. . Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. In addition. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. if the file was located on a FAT partition. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). and archive file attributes. In addition. system. and files are given the first open location on the drive. which cannot be done under Windows NT. To protect the volume. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. it can lead to data loss. However. This is because as the size of the volume increases. the file can be undeleted.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. hidden. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. If the FAT table is not regularly updated.

unlike FAT or HPFS. . someone can boot under MS-DOS.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. which. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. Currently. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. as it does under FAT. with larger volume sizes. However. like HPFS. Therefore. In addition. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. are sorted. or another operating system. there are no special locations on the disk. such as 512 byte sectors.

point to System Tools. click Start. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. click Start. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. and then click Disk Cleanup. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. . To open Disk Defragmenter. Empty the Recycle Bin. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. point to Accessories. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to All Programs. Remove downloaded program files. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. and then click Disk Defragmenter. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk:       Remove temporary Internet files. When files are created. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. For example. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. point to All Programs. To open Disk Cleanup. deleted. point to Accessories. Remove Windows temporary files.4. point to System Tools. a technique called defragmentation.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete.

checking for viruses only when certain events occur. enabling you to back up to network drives. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. It can be both sword and shield. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. logical drives. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. point to Accessories. such as a hard disk or a tape. and removable disks (but not optical discs). the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. point to System Tools. It supports a greater variety of devices. tape. and if it finds any. To start Backup. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. Examples of Antivirus    Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4.12 Antivirus Programs .Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. point to All Programs. click Start. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. When ordered to seek and destroy. and then click Backup. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction.

What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. Shut down your computer.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen.13. and it varies depending on the BIOS.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. it is ESC. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. Figure 4. After the BIOS SETUP loads. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. F1. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive)  Windows XP installer  Driver installer  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. 2. 4. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. Usually.14. To check what yours is. Power your computer back on and be ready. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.4. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". or DEL. 3. Press that key and let SETUP load. You will need to press a certain key at this point.

The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have.15. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. This will reboot your computer. After the new order is set. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. .15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. Figure 4.Figure 4.14 BIOS main screen 5. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. Now just select where you want to boot from first. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. 7. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. and third. second.

you are prompted to repair it. 6. 2. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. Delete system partition ____________ c. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. and then press ENTER. At the Welcome to Setup page. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. . press ENTER. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. 5. 3. 8. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu.ACTIVITY 2. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. press ESC. press _____. Create partition ___________ b. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. Create two partitions of equal size. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. You can select from the following options:  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system  Format the partition by using the FAT file system  Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. To bypass the repair. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. 4. Partition size is entered in megabytes. 9. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device.

On the Personalize Your Software page. you can change language settings after setup is complete. you can use your mouse. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). 4. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. press ENTER. During this portion of setup. If you prefer a language other than English. 8. restart your computer to try again. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Click Next to accept the default settings. 3. Windows XP formats Partition C. press any key in your keyboard. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. On the Welcome to Setup page. If prompted to start from the CD. 6. 5. Select Partition C and press ENTER. On the Your Product Key page. Then. Eventually.ACTIVITY 3. Then. the Regional and Language Options page appears. If you connect . your mouse will not work. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page.and then copies the setup files. From this point forward. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. Windows XP Setup begins. so you must use the keyboard. click Next. type your name and your organization name. click Next. read the licensing agreement. 2. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required.

Then. . Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. click Next. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. On the Who will use this computer? page. You can use first names only. Click Next. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. click No. 16. On the Help protect your PC page. click Finish. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. When the Display Settings dialog appears. Then click Next. Then. click OK.your computer to a network. 17. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. click OK. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. 14. 12. After setup is complete. or full names. 15. and select your time zone. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. 13. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. On the Thank you page. 19. On the Networking Settings page. click Next. 20. type the name of each person who will use the computer. Click Next. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. click Next. click Next. 18. On the Date and Time Settings page. click Next. 21. set your computers clock. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. click Skip. nicknames. click the Time Zone down arrow. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet.

Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. 7. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. 9. Hard Drives. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Click MANAGE. Right-click MY COMPUTER. Afterwards. 4. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. Then click NEXT to continue. Click DEVICE MANAGER. 8. 3. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. 2. your driver may not match the device installed. To install driver: 1. If it is not.ACTIVITY 4. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. 6. Click START. 10. On the radio buttons. . then select NEXT to continue. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. wireless adapters. 5. select ―No. Look for the devices with question mark icons. Wait until it is finished. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. not this time‖. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. for example. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". 11. but have no existing drivers installed. At times. 12. CD-ROMS. If there are no question marks left. Video Cards. reboot your computer. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. and Printers. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. When you buy a sound card.

it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. type of system bus (for example. . A computer network. often simply referred to as a network. type of media (for example. Also called a LAN adapter. coaxial. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. Ethernet. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. PCI or ISA) B.1 Networking Fundamentals A. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. Token Ring.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. Figure 5. or FDDI) 2. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. twisted-pair.1. consider the following three factors: 1. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. or fiber-optic cable) 3. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. An example of a network is a computer network.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. a Token Ring card. type of network (for example.

Figure 5.Computer networks are classified into:  Local area network (LAN). and Mesh. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. Ring. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. This point is usually a hub or switch. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. .  Metropolitan area network (MAN). examples for a city or a state. which is used for medium size area. C. which is the actual layout of the wire (media).  Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. Star. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. Hierarchical. and the logical topology. Extended Star. These are shown in Figure 5.  Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. which will be described later in the chapter.2 Physical Topologies    A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network.2. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. This creates a physical ring of cable.

each host has its own connections to all other hosts. This is the way that Ethernet works. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. The second type is token-passing. as you will learn later in the chapter. D. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. The host devices can exist without a network.   An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. If the host has no data to send. . and many other user devices. which has multiple paths to any one location. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. with which the users share. first serve. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. This. but without the network. clients and servers. These hosts include computers. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. that means that that host can send data on the network. This also reflects the design of the Internet. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. and obtain information. it is first come. So as you can see in the graphic. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications.   Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. printers. create. scanners. will extend the length and size of the network. When a host receives the token.

1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5.4 Hub D.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals.3 Repeater D. to keep local traffic local.5 Bridge . or even 24) using a process known as concentration. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. and increase the reliability of the network.5). yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. 4. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.D.3). Figure 5.g. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.4). 8. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e. Figure 5. Figure 5.

choose the best path for them through the network. In contrast. routers have become the backbone of the Internet.D. running the IP protocol.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. However. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected.6 Switch D. such as Ethernet. or a mixed wired/wireless network. Because of the decisions that switches make. . they make a LAN much more efficient. Token-ring.7). The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port.6). Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. Switches at first glance often look like hubs. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). Figure 5.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). and FDDI. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. because of their ability to route packets. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). Routers can also connect technologies. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports.

optical fiber (Figure 5. in the form of bits and bytes. networking media confine network signals to a wire.10 UTP Cable .8).9). or fiber. You can build computer networks with many different media types. as the medium).10).7 Wireless router 5.Figure 5. or space. and even free space can carry network signals.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. however. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere. through a LAN.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. cable. Figure 5. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another.

and then the orange and green wires. Connecting a hub to a hub .2. Connecting a router to a router 4. crossover. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1.11. Connecting a computer to a router 2.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. Figure 5. Unlike straight-through cables. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. 5. Connecting a switch to a switch 5. and rollover cables.

. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable. Figure 5.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. and a large hard disk. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. or computer 5. hub.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables.2. Connecting a router to a hub 2. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. vast memory.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. Connecting a computer to a switch 3.5.12). Connecting a LAN port to a switch.

13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. In client/server networking. .) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page. Figure 5. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. etc. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays.  A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking:  Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. graphics. Figure 5. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. When a page is requested. audio and video files. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model.

called an IP Address.physics. which is written as 149. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. rather than relying on a single computer.12. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number.  Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed.4. such as a supercomputer. quark. without the need for intermediate servers.groucho. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage. For example.  Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems:  Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. 5.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. which is contained in the leading octets. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. .  Allows local resources to be shared directly.76. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences.27. A network of peers can share its processor. Instead. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. and a host number. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.  Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number.3. which is the remainder.61.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.

255. has been assigned addresses from within this range. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts. Classes D.0. To accommodate different needs.0.0. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.0 through 127.0.0. Class C Class C networks range from 192. the network number is in the first two octets.0.024 hosts each. defining different places to split IP addresses.320 nets with 65. personal handheld devices). This class allows for 16.0.0. .0. have been defined. they are often still isolated. E. IP Multicast. 5.255.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.255.0.0. The network number is contained in the first octet. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.0. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. allowing roughly 1.0 through 254.0 through 191.0 through 223. with the network number contained in the first three octets.0.0. fax.0.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. Class B Class B contains networks 128.0.6 million hosts per network.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network. several classes of networks. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.

Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. printers can be connected using a print server. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. . and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. structure. Additionally. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. computers can stream musing.  Printers .  Sharing Media. Like file sharing. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. Benefits of Computer Networks  File Sharing .Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. computer networks are necessary. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. there are other reasons as well:     cost reduction by sharing hard. which allows direct printing from all computers. decisions of purchase.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. videos and movies from one computer to the next.

Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED:  Two working computers with NICs installed  Router  Switch  Crimping tool  Cable tester  Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long)  Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. 3. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. 4. 2. 5. Strip off the jacket. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Untwist the wires. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. Cut a length of cable. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Media Center Server . 6. 8. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. . 5. then clip their length. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 7.  Video Games .5 Exercises LABORATORY 5.

Use Class C IP addresses. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Inspect both ends of the cable. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES.9. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 11. 10. Set the subnet mask for both computers. 12. ACTIVITY 2. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). 2. Subnet . Then click OK. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports.

Restart your computer for the changes to take effect.ACTIVITY 3. . Then click OK. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. Type CMD. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. 5. 2.1) and press ENTER. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch.0. and then click OK. then click RUN.168. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. PING 192.g. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 4. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. The switch must be connected to the router. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. Click START. In the command prompt.

Create a folder in DESKTOP. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. Type the name using UNC format. Use the default name for the shared folder. Click START and then click RUN. 3. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. . After you type the appropriate credentials. 4. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. 2. Click OK. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. 2. Rename the folder as share_yourname. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. 3. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted.ACTIVITY 4. 2. 4. Click OK. click Share this folder on the network. In the folder's properties.

then click ADD PRINTER. 3. 8. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. 6. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. and select the Share this printer check box. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Click NEXT to continue. 4. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. on the Start menu. Select YES. Select A network printer. Add a network printer 1. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 2. Then click NEXT to continue. . 4. Click OK. In the Share name field. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. Click START and then. 2. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. 3. Right-click the printer you want to share. and then click Printer properties. When the list of printers appears. In Control Panel. Click the Sharing tab. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer.ACTIVITY 4. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. 9. 7. 5. Select Browse for a printer. Click NEXT to start. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. or a printer attached to another computer.

3 Networks 6.4.1 Hardware 6.1 Objective 6.2 Case Analysis .Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.4 Exercises 6.2 Software 6.

com/ Charles M. 2011 http://www.microsoft. 2001. Norton.PCGuide.vistax64. The McGraw-Hill Companies. http://www.tech-faq. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. Mike.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.com/ Larry F.com/what-is-pata. Kozierok. 2001.duxcw.php May 31.2.computerotic.com/kb/310312 http://www.com/drcables1. Site Version: 2.kitchentablecomputers.wisegeek.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.htm May 31. Byard. 2011 http://www.ehow.ictglobal.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. 2011.0 .com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. http://www.com/ .com/ http://www.pcguide. Larry and Nancy Long.blogspot. United States. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.Version Date: April 17.html April 17. The PC Guide (http://www. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers. Peter. May 27. May 31.html. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www.com/install-a-power-supply. Kayne. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. 2011 http://www. http://www.html June 2. 2007.build-your-owncomputer-tips.com). R. Long.

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