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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. Keyboard . Some PCs won’t have speakers.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Printer. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. Based on a typewriter. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. process it.To provide input and output.Speakers provide sound output.Provides printed paper output. Computer Process From the IT perspective. Speakers/headphones .Keypad for providing keyed input. storage. Processing Next. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. the computer processes your data. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. the computer functions through four stages: input. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. stores and makes the output of the information. processing. and output. mouse. The following are the standard set: Monitor . A computer inputs information. Mouse .Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals.
Figure 1.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. storing procedure comes next. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. It might send the data over to the printer. After storing the data. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. . Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Output is the result we get through output devices. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. the most visible of which are the external storage parts. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. 1.
a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1.3. Figure 1.4).5). a little grabber tool.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. Figure 1. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1. a nut driver or two. and any loose components at the same electrical potential. .Figure 1. the computer.4 Anti-static bag 2. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. a pair of tweezers. Use the right kind of tools.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1.
5. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. 10. 7. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. 11. 14. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords.Figure 1. 18. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. 8. Check voltage requirement. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. 4. 9. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. 6. 19. 15. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. Beware of sharp edges. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. 20. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. 16. 17. trash can and fire exit. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. . Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. 13.
The monitor provides visual output for the computer. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. 10. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health.1. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage.3 Exercises 1. . Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. 7. 8. 2. 9. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. 4. 5. 6. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. 3.3.
1 System Unit – front and back . sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment. mini-tower. Figure 2. and cube. mid-tower.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. tower.1 System Unit The system case. Figure 2. desktop.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case.
and DVD drives are in the front of the case. Including power supply . Connections such as USB. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. CD-ROM. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy.2 Onboard Devices . Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Figure 2.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections.2).Buttons used to turn the system on and off.
Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1. .Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2. PCs use a 5-volt/3.3 V DC.1.0 .First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V .Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2. 12. Figure 2. and 3.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.2.3).3 .3-volt current to support onboard electronics.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.
and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20. extra video card power. add-on fans. supplemental motherboard power.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. optical drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) .Table 2.
It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power. Figure 2. surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.4 Uninterruptible power supply .Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage.4).
certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. a computer uses memory.2. the processor interprets the data. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . Table 2. When power is turned off. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. When you start a computer. While it is in RAM. Most RAM is volatile. it loses its contents. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) .
Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. but could not fix it. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly.
you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. 2. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager.needed by the program. .5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. DDR RAM.6). Figure 2. CPUs might look similar. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts. but they are not interchangeable.
which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.9 SEC processor .CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2. Figure 2.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) . ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.8).7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.9) Figure 2.Figure 2.
a single. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . it helps the CPU work with RAM.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. Southbridge . special port. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. . On newer AMD systems. which is dedicated to video.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. Figure 2.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. similar to a PCI slot. which enables system components to be added to the computer. Figure 2.2.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. Table 2. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. and others. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. hard drives.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. chipset. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. Finally. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . capable of storing about 64 KB of data.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. including the expansion slots. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. and components. CD and DVD drives. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. 2. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. video card. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data.
resolution.Expansion Cards Video Card . Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. This controller determines the refresh rate. Also called the display adapter. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. and number of colors that can be displayed. It is often called Ethernet Card. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . .
Next. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. Turn off the PC and unplug it. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2. . Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.Sound Card .
. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. Component Specifications/Description e. 3. Remove the screws of your system unit case.g. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1.2. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Fill in the following chart. Put the case down on your work surface. 2. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. with the case door facing up. and open the case.
Look at the label on the power supply. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. Remove the front panel connectors. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). Figure 2. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.3. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3.11). Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. reset button.11 Front panel control wires . Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. After removing the RAM. 4.
Note the maker and model information on the motherboard.14. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. as shown in Figure 2. by the edges.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. 4. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans.2.13). You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. Figure 2. Handle the motherboard gently. Check on the expansion slots. The screws may also have small washers. 13 3. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount.
5. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. Examine the CPU. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. 3. List them down. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. 3. or you will bend its tiny pins. . Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. then raise the lever to a vertical position. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti.2. 4.static mat. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. 4. . Figure 2. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. It sends data bit by bit. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. . This drives are hot swappable. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD.
full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. or on the manufacturer's web site. . This drives are hot swappable. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. and any special features that the drive may possess. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. This technique. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. the manufacturer of the drive. requiring at least three drives. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping.
across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. The small. A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection.Figure 3.4 Floppy Diskette . They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).2 External Drives A. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. without the use of software.1. or removed to break a connection. They have been around since the very first PCs. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today. 3. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. 1. Jumper Pins: A set of pins.
which appeared around 1986. B. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. are 3½ inches. are used in digital cameras. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. however. and other devices. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. PDAs. reading or writing data as necessary. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. Modern floppy disks. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. a generic term. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. Memory cards. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. . USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive.by higher capacity removable media.
DVDs. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. Secure Digital. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. SmartMedia. Figure 3. Memory Stick. C. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. and phones.5 CDs and DVD . come in many varieties. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Compact discs. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. PDAs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. The most common types are CompactFlash. Some drives can only read from discs. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. DVD players and DVD recorders. Flash cards.
enable you to erase data and burn new data. DVD+RW. and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data. but it lacks error checking.1 Internal Cables A.6). Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. more densely packed pits. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. DVD-R for authoring. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. can store up to 16 GB of data.2. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. DVD-RW. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. but still have forty pins. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. but as usage evolved to include data storage. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. DVD+R.2 Internal and External Cables 3. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. file support. DVD-ROM. can be burned on both sides of the disc. wide.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. but not erased. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. unlike CD-Rs.37 GB of data. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. DVD+RW. 3. The colored . and DVD-RAM. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. DVD-RW. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers.
80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device. Figure 3. The drive positions on older.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard.6 PATA cable . 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device. The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device.
Figure 3.B.as high as 300 MB/sec. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower.8). Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.7 SATA cable C. which improves airflow inside the case. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. Figure 3. have only 34 conductors. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.
Figure 3.9 SCSI cable 3.2. sizes.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground).D. It is connected to the power supply unit.9 shows an internal SCSI cable. and the needs of designers and users.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. . and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes. Figure 3. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit.
. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. and blue for line-in. switch. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. router. pink for microphone.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. or to another computer. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends.
unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3.3. and open the case. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. 6. with the case door facing up. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Next. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Put the case down on your work surface. . Be careful but firm. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. 5. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case.
rocking the connector gently from side to side. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Remove a hard drive from the system. 7. Be careful but firm. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. 4. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. 5. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation.2. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable.
2. 5. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. and examine the pins. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. 2. . Remove the floppy drive from the case. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. 4. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. 3.INSTALLING 1.
Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. 2. 2. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. . Inspect the optical drive. 4. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk.INSTALLING 1. 3. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. 2. 3. 3. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking.
Connect the power connector to the Optical drive.4. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 5. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. .
taking control of the PC. 2. on the surface. 3. Operating systems do not look the same or. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. desktop computers. supercomputers. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. Almost all computers (including handheld computers. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. act the same. cannot run on a PC without an OS. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. 1. An OS works only with a particular type of processor.0 .1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. Application programs. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). 4. and Web browsers. such as word processors.1). spreadsheets.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. Table 4. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4.
Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers." . The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience.1). including home and business desktops. laptops. 2001. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24. and media centers (Figure 4.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix . The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2).Figure 4. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time.2 ROM BIOS A. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery.1 Windows XP environment 4. Figure 4. It is often built into the Southbridge. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS).2 BIOS and CMOS A. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive.
Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. Usually. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.To enter the CMOS setup program. F1. CTRL-ALTINS. ESC. CTRL-ALT-Enter. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. Figure 4.4 SoftMenu screen .3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup . but they all contain basically the same settings. CTRL-ALT-ESC. Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. F2.4).3) Figure 4.
5). Figure 4. as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4. Figure 4.5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4.6). Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings.6 Advanced BIOS Features .
9 Power Management . such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4. Figure 4.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4.7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. or disable the onboard ports.7). Advanced Chipset Features .9).8). enable. Figure 4.
3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.10). .10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password . Figure 4. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4.locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. Figure 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks.
Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. Protecting or isolating files. potentially making a file system full. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. In a smaller partition. that file might only require 4KB to store. . to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. Having cache and log files separate from other files. On Microsoft Windows machines. Use of multi booting setups. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. These can change size dynamically and rapidly.
Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. This is because as the size of the volume increases. which cannot be done under Windows NT. system. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. In addition. it can lead to data loss. However. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. the file can be undeleted. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. In addition. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). To protect the volume. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. if the file was located on a FAT partition. and archive file attributes. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. FAT supports only read-only. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. and files are given the first open location on the drive. hidden. .Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT.
unlike FAT or HPFS. someone can boot under MS-DOS. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. However. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. are sorted. which. as it does under FAT. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. like HPFS. In addition. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. . Therefore. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. with larger volume sizes. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. Currently. or another operating system. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. such as 512 byte sectors. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. there are no special locations on the disk.
You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to All Programs. point to Accessories. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. a technique called defragmentation. Empty the Recycle Bin. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. deleted. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. Remove Windows temporary files. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. Remove downloaded program files. To open Disk Cleanup.4. When files are created. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. . which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. point to Accessories. To open Disk Defragmenter. click Start. point to System Tools. click Start. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. and then click Disk Defragmenter. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. point to All Programs. For example. and then click Disk Cleanup. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. point to System Tools.
checking for viruses only when certain events occur. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. and then click Backup. point to All Programs. point to System Tools. logical drives.12 Antivirus Programs . If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. To start Backup. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. It can be both sword and shield. tape. click Start. and removable disks (but not optical discs). enabling you to back up to network drives. point to Accessories. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. such as a hard disk or a tape. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. and if it finds any. It supports a greater variety of devices. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. When ordered to seek and destroy.
14. 4. To check what yours is. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. Usually. or DEL. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. Press that key and let SETUP load. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. F1. After the BIOS SETUP loads. Shut down your computer. and it varies depending on the BIOS. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. Figure 4. it is ESC. Power your computer back on and be ready. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen.4.13. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. 3.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. 2. You will need to press a certain key at this point.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom.
7.Figure 4. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. After the new order is set. and third. second. Now just select where you want to boot from first. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. Figure 4. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4.14 BIOS main screen 5. This will reboot your computer. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. . your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive).15.
Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. . and then press ENTER. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. press ESC. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement.ACTIVITY 2. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. 8. Create partition ___________ b. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Create two partitions of equal size. 6. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. 4. 5. To bypass the repair. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. press ENTER. Delete system partition ____________ c. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. press _____. Partition size is entered in megabytes. At the Welcome to Setup page. 9. 3. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. you are prompted to repair it. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. 2.
You cannot use spaces or punctuation. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. Windows XP Setup begins. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. 4. press any key in your keyboard. read the licensing agreement. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. 6. you can change language settings after setup is complete. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. click Next.ACTIVITY 3. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. 8. press ENTER. If prompted to start from the CD. 3. From this point forward. Eventually. If you prefer a language other than English. your mouse will not work.and then copies the setup files. On the Your Product Key page. 5. click Next. If you connect . Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. you can use your mouse. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. Click Next to accept the default settings. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Windows XP formats Partition C. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. During this portion of setup. Then. Then. the Regional and Language Options page appears. restart your computer to try again. 2. On the Personalize Your Software page. Select Partition C and press ENTER. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. type your name and your organization name. On the Welcome to Setup page. so you must use the keyboard.
set your computers clock. and select your time zone. On the Date and Time Settings page. Then click Next. click Next. On the Networking Settings page. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. click Finish. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. On the Who will use this computer? page. Click Next. click Next. . click OK. 12. You can use first names only. 15. 14. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. type the name of each person who will use the computer. click Next. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. Then. 16. On the Thank you page. 17. When the Display Settings dialog appears. click Next. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. 21.your computer to a network. 13. Click Next. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. 20. 19. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. On the Help protect your PC page. or full names. 18. click No. After setup is complete. nicknames. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click the Time Zone down arrow. click OK. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. click Skip. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. click Next. Then.
Click DEVICE MANAGER.ACTIVITY 4. 11. 12. . To install driver: 1. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. not this time‖. Then click NEXT to continue. 2. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". 9. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. Right-click MY COMPUTER. Click MANAGE. 7. Afterwards. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. On the radio buttons. At times. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. CD-ROMS. 8. select ―No. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. Wait until it is finished. 3. 4. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. Hard Drives. wireless adapters. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. and Printers. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. then select NEXT to continue. 5. Click START. 10. for example. If there are no question marks left. Video Cards. Look for the devices with question mark icons. your driver may not match the device installed. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. 6. When you buy a sound card. If it is not. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. but have no existing drivers installed. reboot your computer.
or FDDI) 2. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. Also called a LAN adapter.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. or fiber-optic cable) 3. Figure 5. .1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. a Token Ring card. An example of a network is a computer network. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network.1 Networking Fundamentals A. type of media (for example. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. Ethernet.1. PCI or ISA) B. often simply referred to as a network. type of network (for example. A computer network. Token Ring. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. coaxial. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. consider the following three factors: 1. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. twisted-pair. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. type of system bus (for example.
Metropolitan area network (MAN). which is the actual layout of the wire (media). which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. which will be described later in the chapter. examples for a city or a state. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. and the logical topology.2. . Hierarchical. C.Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. This creates a physical ring of cable. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. Star. These are shown in Figure 5. Extended Star. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. Ring. This point is usually a hub or switch. and Mesh. which is used for medium size area. Figure 5.
will extend the length and size of the network. clients and servers. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. This is the way that Ethernet works. When a host receives the token. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. If the host has no data to send. D. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. first serve. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. create. The second type is token-passing. with which the users share. that means that that host can send data on the network. it is first come. but without the network. and many other user devices. printers. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. The host devices can exist without a network. which has multiple paths to any one location. . as you will learn later in the chapter. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. scanners. So as you can see in the graphic. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. This also reflects the design of the Internet. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. and obtain information. This. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. These hosts include computers.
3). or even 24) using a process known as concentration.4).3 Repeater D.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.g.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5. and increase the reliability of the network.5 Bridge . A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. 4. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media. Figure 5. to keep local traffic local.D. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.5). The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. 8. Figure 5.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5.4 Hub D. Figure 5. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.
Because of the decisions that switches make. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port.7). Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. Routers can also connect technologies. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets.D. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. Token-ring. routers have become the backbone of the Internet. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. . In contrast. they make a LAN much more efficient.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. However. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. and FDDI.6 Switch D. running the IP protocol. such as Ethernet. or a mixed wired/wireless network. Figure 5. because of their ability to route packets. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network).4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data.6). Switches at first glance often look like hubs. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. choose the best path for them through the network.
8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. in the form of bits and bytes.Figure 5. and even free space can carry network signals. networking media confine network signals to a wire.10 UTP Cable .9). cable. or fiber. as the medium).9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5.8).2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. You can build computer networks with many different media types. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. through a LAN. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. however.7 Wireless router 5.10). Each media has advantages and disadvantages. or space. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere. optical fiber (Figure 5. Figure 5.
A visual example can be seen on Figure 5.2. Figure 5. Connecting a computer to a computer 3.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. Connecting a switch to a switch 5.11. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. crossover. and rollover cables. and then the orange and green wires. 5. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. Connecting a hub to a hub . Connecting a computer to a router 2. Unlike straight-through cables.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross. Connecting a router to a router 4.
Connecting a computer to a switch 3.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. Connecting a router to a hub 2. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. and a large hard disk. Figure 5.2. or computer 5.12).12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. hub. vast memory. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. . The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor.5. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable.
) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. . A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. Figure 5. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. Figure 5. etc. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. In client/server networking. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. graphics.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. audio and video files. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. When a page is requested.
called an IP Address. rather than relying on a single computer. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. which is contained in the leading octets.27. .137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.3. 5. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. Allows local resources to be shared directly. and a host number. which is the remainder. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number.4. A network of peers can share its processor. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. For example. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage.76.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. Instead. which is written as 149. without the need for intermediate servers. quark. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. such as a supercomputer.12. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks.groucho.physics.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04.61.
0. fax. defining different places to split IP addresses.0. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.0.255.0. personal handheld devices).0 through 223.0. with the network number contained in the first three octets. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0 through 191.0 through 254.0. Class B Class B contains networks 128. 5.0. While managers today are able to use the newest applications. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.255.0.0.0.6 million hosts per network.255. Class C Class C networks range from 192.0. have been defined. they are often still isolated. To accommodate different needs. Classes D.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network.0.0.0.0. . which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time. The network number is contained in the first octet. allowing roughly 1. IP Multicast.0 through 127. This class provides for a 24-bit host part. the network number is in the first two octets. several classes of networks. E. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.024 hosts each.0. This class allows for 16.320 nets with 65.
Printers . printers can be connected using a print server. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing . Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Sharing Media. . which allows direct printing from all computers.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. computer networks are necessary. computers can stream musing.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. Additionally. videos and movies from one computer to the next. structure. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. decisions of purchase. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Like file sharing. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology.
Strip off the jacket. 5. 2. 3. 6. then clip their length. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. 5. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. .A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. 8.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. 7. Untwist the wires. Video Games . Media Center Server . Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. 4. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Cut a length of cable. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires.
Assign a unique IP address to each computer. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Subnet . Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Use Class C IP addresses. 10. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Inspect both ends of the cable. 2. Then click OK. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3.9. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. 11. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). 12. ACTIVITY 2.
Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers.1) and press ENTER. Then click OK. The switch must be connected to the router. . 5. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES.168. 4. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. Type CMD. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. 2. PING 192. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Click START. then click RUN. In the command prompt.g. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. and then click OK.0. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e.ACTIVITY 3. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect.
To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. click Share this folder on the network. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. 3. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. Create a folder in DESKTOP. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. . a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. 2. After you type the appropriate credentials. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. 2. 3.ACTIVITY 4. Click OK. Type the name using UNC format. 4. Rename the folder as share_yourname. 2. 4. Click START and then click RUN. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. In the folder's properties. Use the default name for the shared folder. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. Click OK. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES.
enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. Click START and then. In the Share name field. or a printer attached to another computer. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. Click the Sharing tab. 2. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 9. 7. Click NEXT to start. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. Click NEXT to continue. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. 6. Select YES. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. Select A network printer. 3. Then click NEXT to continue. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. Click OK. Select Browse for a printer.ACTIVITY 4. 2. on the Start menu. 8. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. In Control Panel. and select the Share this printer check box. When the list of printers appears. then click ADD PRINTER. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. 4. 3. and then click Printer properties. 4. 5. Add a network printer 1. . Right-click the printer you want to share. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. click PRINTERS AND FAXES.
3 Networks 6.2 Software 6.4.4 Exercises 6.1 Hardware 6.1 Objective 6.2 Case Analysis .Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.
tech-faq.0 . May 31. Norton.html April 17. 2011 http://www.ehow.com/what-is-pata.microsoft.computerotic. http://www.com/install-a-power-supply. Long.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support. 2011 http://www. United States.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.com). Kozierok.htm May 31. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.pcguide.php May 31. 2011 http://www.html.2. 2011. http://www. http://www. R. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition. May 27.html June 2. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. 2001.com/ Larry F.vistax64.com/kb/310312 http://www.wisegeek. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. Kayne.com/drcables1.com/ . 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www. 2007.duxcw.PCGuide. 2001.Version Date: April 17.com/ http://www. The PC Guide (http://www.build-your-owncomputer-tips.blogspot.com/ Charles M. Mike. http://www. Larry and Nancy Long.kitchentablecomputers. Site Version: 2.ictglobal. Peter. Byard.
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