P. 1
Command Ref a4

Command Ref a4

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Published by: Oana_2510 on Nov 07, 2011
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12/14/2012

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Sections

  • Welcome to Rhinoceros
  • Why Rhinoceros?
  • Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Help
  • Shortcuts
  • Built-in aliases
  • Coordinate points
  • Enter construction plane coordinates
  • Enter world coordinates
  • UseWCSCoordinates
  • UseCPlaneCoordinates
  • Enter relative coordinates
  • Enter polar coordinates
  • Enter relative polar coordinates
  • Modeling aids
  • Elevator mode
  • Use Tab to constrain along a line
  • Angle Constraint
  • Distance Constraint
  • Toggle crosshairs on and off
  • Trimmed surfaces
  • Document properties
  • Document Properties dialog box, Dimensions tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Grid tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Notes tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render Mesh tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Summary tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Units tab
  • Viewport layout
  • Select objects
  • Selecting parts of objects
  • Import and export file types
  • Rhino 1.0 file exchange
  • 3D Studio file exchange
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange
  • RemoveFlippedNormals
  • ACIS file export
  • Adobe Illustrator file exchange
  • Applied Geometry file exchange
  • AutoCAD DWG file exchange
  • AutoCAD DXF file exchange
  • AutoCAD export options
  • Export object properties
  • GHS file export
  • Lightwave file exchange
  • Moray UDO Export
  • Parasolid X_T file export
  • RenderMan RIB export
  • POV-Ray export
  • Raw Triangle file exchange
  • SLC file exchange
  • STEP file exchange
  • STL file exchange
  • VDA file exchange
  • VRML file export
  • Viewpoint Technologies file export
  • Windows Metafile file export
  • DirectX file exchange
  • Moldex
  • PostScript file exchange
  • IGES file exchange
  • Troubleshooting IGES import
  • Edit IGES export types
  • Edit IGES export type details
  • OBJ (Wavefront) file export
  • IGES polygon mesh export
  • IGES Types
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange
  • Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange
  • Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange
  • AUTOFORM IGES file exchange
  • AutoShip IGES file exchange
  • Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange
  • CADCEUS IGES file exchange
  • CamSoft IGES file exchange
  • CATIA IGES file exchange
  • Cosmos/M IGES file exchange
  • Delcam IGES file exchange
  • FastShip IGES file exchange
  • FastSURF IGES file exchange
  • IronCAD IGES file exchange
  • Integrity Ware IGES file exchange
  • LUSAS IGES file exchange
  • Mastercam IGES file exchange
  • Maya IGES file exchange
  • ME30 IGES file exchange
  • Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange
  • Microstation IGES file exchange
  • Multisurf IGES file exchange
  • NASA GridTool IGES file exchange
  • Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange
  • OptiCAD IGES file exchange
  • Pro/E IGES file exchange
  • SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange
  • Softimage IGES file exchange
  • Solid Edge IGES file exchange
  • Solid Designer IGES file exchange
  • SolidWorks IGES file exchange
  • SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange
  • SURFCAM IGES file exchange
  • Tebis IGES file exchange
  • TekSoft IGES file exchange
  • Unigraphics IGES file exchange
  • Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange
  • Context menu
  • Select Color
  • Object snaps
  • Osnap
  • NoSnap
  • End object snap
  • Near object snap
  • Point object snap
  • Mid object snap
  • Cen object snap
  • Int object snap
  • Perp object snap
  • Tan object snap
  • Quad object snap
  • Knot object snap
  • From object snap
  • PerpFrom object snap
  • TanFrom object snap
  • Along object snap
  • AlongParallel object snap
  • OnSrf object snap
  • ProjectOsnap
  • Between
  • OnCrv object snap
  • SnapToLocked
  • Object properties
  • Object Properties, Object tab
  • Object Properties, Dimensions tab
  • Object Properties, Light tab
  • Edit light object properties
  • Object Properties, Material tab
  • Object Properties, Text tab
  • Options dialog box
  • Options dialog box, Aliases tab
  • Options dialog box, Appearance tab
  • Options dialog box, Files tab
  • Options dialog box, General tab
  • Options dialog box, Keyboard tab
  • Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab
  • Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
  • Options dialog box, Shade tab
  • Options dialog box, View tab
  • Shade
  • Render
  • Troubleshoot rendering
  • Troubleshoot OpenGL
  • Layers
  • Layer materials
  • Select Layers
  • Create a new layer
  • Rename a layer
  • Change the color of a layer
  • Delete a layer
  • Filter the layer display list
  • Surfaces through a sequence of curves
  • Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers
  • Troubleshoot Booleans
  • Edit the Rhino.ini file
  • Toolbars
  • Close a toolbar
  • HideToolbar
  • Open a toolbar
  • ShowToolbar
  • ToggleToolbar
  • Move a toolbar
  • Dock a toolbar
  • Float a toolbar
  • Reshape a toolbar
  • Rename a toolbar
  • Import a toolbar from another layout file
  • Change toolbar name or button size
  • Create a new toolbar
  • Delete a toolbar
  • Create a flyout toolbar
  • Flyout a toolbar
  • Hide a flyout toolbar
  • Tear off a flyout toolbar
  • Manage toolbar buttons
  • Move a toolbar button
  • Delete a toolbar button
  • Copy a toolbar button
  • Create a floating flyout button
  • Unlink a flyout toolbar
  • Customize toolbar buttons
  • Create a new toolbar button
  • Change the toolbar button tooltip
  • Programming the toolbar button functions
  • Customize toolbar button bitmap icons
  • Clear the bitmap image
  • Draw or edit a bitmap icon
  • Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon
  • Import a bitmap from another source
  • Save your bitmap to a file
  • Scripting tools
  • VBScript and JScript
  • 3-D digitizing
  • Diagnostics
  • Error messages
  • Scripting Rhino Installers
  • Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo)
  • Rhino plug-ins
  • Glossary
  • Commands
  • 34View
  • 3DFace
  • 3View
  • 4View
  • AddNextU
  • AddNextV
  • AddPrevU
  • AddPrevV
  • AddToGroup
  • AlignBackgroundBitmap
  • AlignProfiles
  • AllCPlanesThroughPt
  • AllLayersOn
  • Angle
  • ApplyCrv
  • ApplyMesh
  • Arc3Pt
  • ArcDir
  • ArcSER
  • ArcTTR
  • Area
  • AreaCentroid
  • AreaMoments
  • Array
  • ArrayCrv
  • ArrayCrvOnSrf
  • ArrayPolar
  • ArraySrf
  • Arrow
  • Arrowhead
  • AssignBlankTexture
  • Audit
  • Autosave
  • Back
  • Baseball
  • BaseballEllipsoid
  • Bend
  • Bisector
  • Blend
  • BlendSrf
  • BooleanDifference
  • Boolean difference
  • Boolean Difference
  • BooleanIntersection
  • Boolean intersection
  • BooleanUnion
  • Boolean Union
  • Bottom
  • BoundingBox
  • Box3Pt
  • BringViewportToTop
  • Chamfer
  • ChamferSrf
  • ChangeDegree
  • ChangeDegreeSrf
  • ChangeLayer
  • ChangeToCurrentLayer
  • Check
  • CheckInLicense
  • CheckOutLicense
  • Circle
  • Circle3Pt
  • CircleD
  • CircleTTR
  • CircleTTT
  • ClearAllMeshes
  • ClearUndo
  • CloseDisplayWindow
  • ClosestPt
  • CloseViewport
  • CommandHistory
  • CommandPaste
  • CommandPrompt
  • Cone
  • Conic
  • ConicPerp
  • Continuity
  • Contour
  • ControlPolygon
  • ControlPolygon on
  • ControlPolygonDensity
  • ControlPolygonHighlight
  • ConvertToBeziers
  • ConvertToPolyline
  • Copy
  • CopyClip
  • CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll
  • CopyCPlaneToAll
  • CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard
  • CopyViewToAll
  • CPlane3Pt
  • CPlaneElevation
  • CPlaneFront
  • CPlaneNext
  • CPlaneOrigin
  • CplaneOriginAll
  • CPlanePerpToCrv
  • CPlanePrev
  • CPlaneRight
  • CPlaneThroughPt
  • CPlaneToObject
  • CPlaneTop
  • CPlaneToView
  • CPlaneV
  • CPlaneX
  • CPlaneZ
  • CreateUVCrv
  • Crv2View
  • CrvDeviation
  • CrvEnd
  • CrvSeam
  • CrvStart
  • CrvThroughSrfControlPt
  • CSec
  • CullControlPolygon
  • Curvature
  • CurvatureAnalysis
  • CurvatureGraphOff
  • CurvatureGraphOn
  • CurvatureSrf
  • Curve
  • CutArea
  • CutAreaCentroid
  • CutAreaMoments
  • CutPlane
  • CutVolume
  • CutVolumeCentroid
  • CutVolumeMoments
  • Cylinder
  • Delete
  • Delete control points on curves
  • DeleteAll
  • DetachTrim
  • DigCalibrate
  • DigClick
  • DigDisconnect
  • DigPause
  • DigScale
  • DigSection
  • DigSketch
  • DigSpacing
  • DimAligned
  • DimAngle
  • DimDiameter
  • DimHorizontal
  • DimOptions
  • DimRadius
  • DimRecenterText
  • DimRotated
  • DimVertical
  • DirectionalLight
  • DisableOsnap
  • DisplayBitmap
  • Distance
  • Divide
  • DivideByLength
  • DocumentProperties
  • Domain
  • DraftAngleAnalysis
  • DragMode
  • Drape
  • DrapePt
  • DupBorder
  • DupEdge
  • DynamicShading
  • DynamicShadingPerspective
  • EdgeSrf
  • EditDim
  • EditPtOn
  • EditText
  • Ellipse
  • EllipseD
  • Ellipsoid
  • EMap
  • EndBulge
  • EndBulgeSrf
  • Enter
  • Erase
  • EvaluatePt
  • EvaluateUVPt
  • Exit
  • Explode
  • ExplodeMesh
  • Export
  • ExportCommandAliases
  • ExportWithOrigin
  • Extend
  • ExtendByArc
  • ExtendByArcToPt
  • ExtendByLine
  • ExtendCrvOnSrf
  • ExtendSrf
  • ExtractControlPolygon
  • ExtractIsoparm
  • ExtractPt
  • ExtractSrf
  • ExtractWireframe
  • Extrude
  • ExtrudeAlongCrv
  • ExtrudeSrf
  • ExtrudeToPt
  • Fair
  • Faro
  • Fillet
  • FilletEdge
  • FilletSrf
  • FitCrv
  • FlatShade
  • FlatShade1
  • FlatShadeAll
  • FlattenSrf
  • Flip
  • Flow
  • Front
  • GCon
  • Grid
  • GridAxes
  • GridOptions
  • GridSections
  • GridSize
  • GridThick
  • Group
  • HBar
  • Heightfield
  • Helix
  • Hide
  • HideBackgroundBitmap
  • HideOsnap
  • HidePt
  • HideSwap
  • Hotspot
  • Hydrostatics
  • Import
  • ImportCommandAliases
  • Improve
  • IncrementalSave
  • Insert
  • InsertEditPoint
  • InsertKink
  • InsertKnot
  • InsertLineIntoCrv
  • InterpCrv
  • InterpCrvOnSrf
  • InterpPolyline
  • Intersect
  • Invert
  • InvertPt
  • Join
  • JoinEdge
  • JoinMesh
  • JoinSrf
  • LabelCurveEndpoints
  • Lasso
  • LayerLock
  • LayerOff
  • LayerOn
  • Leader
  • Left
  • Length
  • Line
  • Line4Pt
  • LineAngle
  • LinearizeTrims
  • LinePerp
  • LinePP
  • Lines
  • LineTan
  • LineTP
  • LineTT
  • LineV
  • List
  • LoadPlugin
  • LoadScript
  • Lock
  • LockSwap
  • Loft
  • Make2D
  • MakeCrvPeriodic
  • MakeSrfNonPeriodic
  • MakeSrfPeriodic
  • Match
  • MatchLayer
  • MatchSrf
  • Maximize
  • MaxViewport
  • Menu
  • MergeEdge
  • MergeSrf
  • Mesh
  • MeshBox
  • MeshCone
  • MeshCylinder
  • Mesh cylinder
  • MeshDensity
  • MeshPlane
  • MeshPolyline
  • MeshSphere
  • MeshToNurb
  • Minimize
  • Mirror
  • Move
  • MoveBackgroundBitmap
  • MoveUVN
  • Mscribe
  • NamedCPlane
  • NamedView
  • NetworkSrf
  • NewViewport
  • NextOrthoViewport
  • NextPerspectiveViewport
  • NextU
  • NextV
  • NextViewport
  • NextViewportToTop
  • Normal
  • Notes
  • Note
  • Offset
  • OffsetSrf
  • OneLayerOff
  • OneLayerOn
  • Open
  • OpenWorkspace
  • Options
  • Orient
  • Orient3Pt
  • OrientCrvToEdge
  • OrientOnSrf
  • OrientPerpToCrv
  • Ortho
  • OrthoAngle
  • PackTextures
  • PanDown
  • PanLeft
  • PanRight
  • PanUp
  • Parabola
  • Paraboloid
  • Paste
  • Patch
  • Pause
  • Perspective
  • PerspectiveAngle
  • PerspectiveMatch
  • PictureFrame
  • Pipe
  • PlaceBackgroundBitmap
  • PlaceCameraTarget
  • PlaceTarget
  • Plan
  • Planar
  • PlanarSrf
  • Plane
  • Plane3Pt
  • PlaneThroughPt
  • PlaneV
  • PluginManager
  • Point
  • Point filters
  • PointCloudSection
  • PointDeviation
  • PointGrid
  • PointLight
  • Points
  • PointsAtNakedEdges
  • PointsFromUV
  • Polygon
  • PolygonEdge
  • Polyline
  • PolylineOnMesh
  • PolylineThroughPt
  • PopupMenu
  • PopupToolbar
  • PrevU
  • PrevV
  • PrevViewport
  • Print
  • PrintSetup
  • Project
  • Projection
  • ProjectToCPlane
  • Properties
  • PtOff
  • PtOffSelected
  • PtOn
  • Pull
  • PushViewportToBack
  • Radius
  • RailRevolve
  • ReadCommandFile
  • ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile
  • ReadNamedViewsFromFile
  • ReadViewportsFromFile
  • Rebuild
  • RebuildEdges
  • RebuildSrf
  • Rectangle
  • Rectangle3Pt
  • RectangleCen
  • RectangleV
  • Redo
  • RedoMultiple
  • ReduceMesh
  • RefreshShade
  • RemapCPlane
  • RemoveBackgroundBitmap
  • RemoveFromGroup
  • RemoveKnot
  • RemoveMultiKnotSrf
  • RemoveWallpaper
  • Remove wallpaper
  • RenderAGEdges
  • RenderCrv
  • RenderEdges
  • RenderOptions
  • RenderPreview
  • Render preview
  • RenderPreviewAll
  • RenderPreviewSelected
  • RenderPreviewSelectedAll
  • ReparameterizeSrf
  • Restore
  • RestoreCPlane
  • RestoreView
  • Revolve
  • RevU
  • RevV
  • Ribbon
  • Right
  • Rotate
  • Rotate3D
  • RotateCamera
  • RotateCameraDown
  • RotateCameraLeft
  • RotateCameraRight
  • RotateCameraUp
  • RotateCPlane
  • RotateDown
  • RotateLeft
  • RotateRight
  • RotateUp
  • RotateView
  • RunScript
  • Save
  • SaveAs
  • SaveAsTemplate
  • SaveCPlane
  • SaveDisplayWindowAs
  • SaveSmall
  • SaveView
  • SaveWorkspace
  • SaveWorkspaceAs
  • Scale
  • Scale1D
  • Scale2D
  • ScaleBackgroundBitmap
  • ScaleNU
  • ScreenCaptureToClipboard
  • ScreenCaptureToFile
  • ScreenCaptureToFile256
  • Section
  • SelAll
  • SelBadObjects
  • SelColor
  • SelConnected
  • SelCrossing
  • SelCrv
  • SelDim
  • SelDup
  • SelGroup
  • SelID
  • SelLast
  • SelLayer
  • SelLayerNumber
  • SelLight
  • SelMesh
  • SelNakedMeshEdgePt
  • SelName
  • SelNone
  • SelPolyline
  • SelPolysrf
  • SelPrev
  • SelPt
  • SelSrf
  • SelU
  • SelUV
  • SelV
  • SelWindow
  • SetActiveViewport
  • SetCurrentRenderPlugIn
  • SetGLShade
  • SetGroupName
  • SetLayer
  • SetLayerMaterialProperties
  • SetLayerToObject
  • SetMaximizedViewport
  • SetObjectMaterial
  • SetObjectMaterialProperties
  • SetObjectName
  • SetObjectNameMultiple
  • SetOrtho
  • SetPlanar
  • SetPt
  • SetRedrawOff
  • SetRedrawOn
  • SetSnap
  • SetViewportWindowSize
  • SetWorkingDirectory
  • Shade1
  • ShadeAll
  • ShadedViewport
  • ShadeOptions
  • ShadeSelected
  • ShadeSelectedAll
  • Shear
  • Show
  • ShowBackgroundBitmap
  • ShowBrokenEdges
  • ShowCamera
  • ShowEdges
  • ShowNakedEdges
  • ShowOsnap
  • ShowPt
  • ShowSelected
  • ShrinkTrimmedSrf
  • Silhouette
  • SimplifyCrv
  • Sketch
  • SketchOnMesh
  • SketchOnSrf
  • Smooth
  • Snap
  • SnapSize
  • Sphere
  • Sphere3Pt
  • SphereD
  • Spiral
  • Split
  • SplitEdge
  • SplitSrf
  • SplitViewportHorizontal
  • SplitViewportVertical
  • Spotlight
  • SrfControlPtGrid
  • SrfPt
  • SrfPtGrid
  • StatusBar
  • SubCrv
  • SwapUV
  • SwapView
  • Sweep1
  • Sweep2
  • SynchronizeViews
  • Taper
  • TCone
  • Text
  • TextObject
  • TiltLeft
  • TiltRight
  • Title
  • ToggleOsnap
  • Toolbar
  • Torus
  • Trim
  • Tube
  • Turntable
  • Twist
  • Undo
  • UndoMultiple
  • UndoSelected
  • Ungroup
  • UnifyMeshNormals
  • Units
  • UnLock
  • UnLockSelected
  • UnpackTextures
  • UnrollSrf
  • Untrim
  • ViewCPlaneBack
  • ViewCPlaneBottom
  • ViewCPlaneFront
  • ViewCPlaneLeft
  • ViewCPlaneRight
  • ViewCPlaneTop
  • ViewportProperties
  • Viewport title
  • ViewportTitle
  • Volume
  • VolumeCentroid
  • VolumeMoments
  • VRBSrf
  • Wallpaper
  • Weight
  • Weld
  • What
  • WireframeViewport
  • WireShade1
  • WorldAxes
  • Index

Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

ii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

iii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

iv

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

v

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

vi

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

viii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

ix

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

...................Rhino 2....0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index............................................................................. 447 xv .........................................................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. the name stuck. and by the time the product was in beta testing. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.com Web site www.rhino3d. Help Access Rhino's Help file. and Find. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. under the topic Help. Index. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file.rhino3d. see the Rhino Command List. 17 . Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. To explore the related topics.Rhino 2. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears.rhino3d.com/support/faq.

F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. drag with the right mouse button. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. and Right view.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1.Rhino 2. Ortho pane on the status bar. Lens length displays on status bar. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. F8. Shift. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. In parallel views like the default Top. Front. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar.

Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. PageUp. Rotate mouse wheel. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel.Rhino 2. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. PageDown. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button.

Lens length displays on status bar.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

Rhino 2. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. See Options dialog box. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 .0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. 26 . the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.

click Line. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the world x. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. then click Single Line.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.0 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates.3 and press Enter.6.and y-coordinates. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.0. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line.10 and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. the point will lie on the construction plane. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. 27 . type 12.6.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. type w0.y. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.and y-coordinates. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.10 and press Enter.y plane. type coordinates in the format: rx. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type 0. Note If you enter only x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the construction plane coordinates. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. enter the starting point for the line. type r2. click Line.y.6. Note If you enter only x.6.Rhino 2. type coordinates in the format: wx.z and press Enter. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. type coordinates in the format: x.z and press Enter. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. y and z coordinates to place points.10 in the world coordinates. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.0 and press Enter. type w12. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. then click Single Line. click Line. with r prefix relative coordinates.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.

then click Single Line. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. A white tracking line will display. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. click Line.axis) and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. click Free-form. type r4<45 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. enter the starting point for the line. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. click another point in the perspective viewport. then click Interpolate Points. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. type 4<45 and press Enter. indicating the new location of the selection set. 28 . Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x.axis) and press Enter. At the Next point of curve. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis.Rhino 2. Click the left mouse button to select the point. click a point in the perspective viewport. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt.

Drag the mouse out. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. From the Curves menu.D. negative numbers are below. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. You can start elevator mode in another location.D points using 2.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. press Ctrl. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. 29 . Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Press Tab. then press Ctrl and click.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. Specifying 3. and click again. Change viewports. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. click Line.Rhino 2. After starting elevator mode. release Ctrl. type NoElev. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Continue with picking locations. but only if the point can be truly 3. Release Ctrl. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. was when you pressed Tab. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Or press Tab twice. Place the first line point. then click Single Line. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode.

enter the starting point for the line. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. From the Curves menu. Or. Turn on end object snap. the marker snaps to the curve end. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. click Line. Click to place the point. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. then click Single Line.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. type a distance and press Enter. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. type <60.Rhino 2. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated.

the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. Click to place the point. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. Click to place the point. click Line.Rhino 2. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Or. enter the starting point for the line. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . From the Curves menu. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. then click Single Line. you can turn them on. type 10. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs.

it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. this will become more clear. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. 32 . You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on.Rhino 2. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. so those are the things that need to be merged. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. the surfaces cannot be merged. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces.

Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. 33 . Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Text height The text height in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. The text height. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line offset distance. extension line extension.

Rotates the text to align with the dimension line.Rhino 2. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. 34 . regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view.

Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. and higher polygon count. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. more accurate meshes. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. When the Refine check box is selected. but should shade and render relatively fast. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. Custom Set the custom options. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. type information you want to save with the model. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. This setting is scale independent. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. when not zero.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. is from 1 to 100. these settings are used. Notes tab Add notes to your model.Rhino 2. This setting is scale independent. Document Properties dialog box. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. whenever you start a new model without a template. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. 35 . less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Document Properties dialog box. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. but may take very long to shade and render.

Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Jagged seams is not selected. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Simple planes is not selected. After initial meshing. and Max dist. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale dependent. edge to Srf options. By default. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. When the Refine check box is selected. By default. The default values is 16. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. and lower polygon count. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine check box is selected. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. less accurate meshes. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. more accurate meshes. Refine is selected. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Document Properties dialog box. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Max dist. Max edge length. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. 36 . Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. In practice. Setting Max dist. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces.Rhino 2. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Min edge length. and higher polygon count.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value.

all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. In Rhino. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. This makes the image appear smoother. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. In practice. None No shadows. None Each pixel is sampled once. but also slows down rendering. if the shadows are turned on. With large objects. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image.Rhino 2. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. 37 . Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. use smaller shadow offset. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. In general. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Background Sets the color of the render background. use bigger shadow offset. With small objects. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly.

2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. trimming surfaces.2km 1.2m 1. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. In those commands.2c 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Select Decimal. You can mix fractional and decimal input. For example.2(") 1-1/2" 1. the relative tolerance is used instead. When you change from one units to another. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. or Feet & Inches.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1.Rhino 2.2cm 1. Fractional. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2mm 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Document Properties dialog box.2mic 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Mils 1.

step through the viewports. and use predefined viewport configurations. or Extents of the selected objects. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. In general. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Rhino 2.001. rename viewports. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. set multiple templates.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. You can specify which viewport is maximized. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. Use defined and named views. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. Close the viewport. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000.01 millimeters. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0.01 to 0. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. Extents. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work.Rhino 2. Zoom Window. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. You can create new viewports. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. 39 . and place a named viewport on top.

To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. click Zoom Extents All. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. from the View menu. Select objects General Click an object to select it. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. When you make a Window selection. 40 . Crossing. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. When the selection menu pops up. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Edit viewport properties. click Set View > Plan. To select additional objects. Edit Grid properties. To bring all your objects into view. from the View menu. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. When you make a Crossing selection. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command.Rhino 2. To remove an object from a selection set. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set.

Rhino 2. and you picked an edge as a curve. select Rhino 1. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . you'd get one line. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Copy.x files into Rhino 2. Saving 1.0 If you load a 1. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. but if you picked it as a boundary.3dm). Sweep1.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. type a filename.0.0.x file from Rhino 2. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude).x file. no 2. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. press Enter or the spacebar. In the File name box. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. For instance if you have a plane. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice.0 rendering information is saved in the 1. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Import and export file types Rhino 1. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. Click another object.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.0 If you save as a 1. In the Save as type box.x file into Rhino 2. When object is highlighted. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object.x 3D models (. Sweep2).x files from Rhino 2.

In the Save as type box. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. In the File name box.0. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. select 3D Studio. from the File menu.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in.2. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter.2. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. 2. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2. MAX 2. Click Save. or MAX 2. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. They are not converted to NURBS. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. For version 3. Or. type a name for the 3DS file. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. 2. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. type a name for the 3DS file. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface.0 use IGES to transfer files. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. click Open. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. In the File name box. When building morph targets.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. in the Files of type. In the Open dialog box. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided.5. 42 . select 3D Studio.0. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Or. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. If no object name is defined. Click Open. click Export Selected. If so. click Save As. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter.

This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. 3DS MAX version 2. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. RhinoMax25imp.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points.dli. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. Now mesh your curved surfaces. RhinoMax20imp.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. This happens because MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. RhinoMax2imp. click Import. are imported in several pieces. export to a DWG. From the MAX2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. use 3DS file format. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. (3dmimp. or RhinoMax25imp.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp.5. The Rhino web site at http://www.rhino3d. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. Open 3D Studio MAX2.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. RhinoMax2imp. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. or 3D Studio R4. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. MAX does not export NURBS curves. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. and RhinoMax20imp.dli. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.dli into your "3dsmax2. Select the 3DM file to import.dli. Only Spline objects get exported. This happens because the MAX2.5\plugins\" directory.5 File Import dialog box.dli. from the Files of type box.0 Command Reference File formats In general. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.3dm.Rhino 2.dli from the directories in your MAX2.5 plug-ins path. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. Attempt trimming? 43 . an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces.5 File menu.dli. In the MAX2. select Rhino 3D Models.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max.5.

In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.rhino3d. Given the information we have. CurveCV. Click the MAX2. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. NURBS curves: 44 . Be patient.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.dli and RhinoMax2imp. From the MAX2 File menu. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces.Rhino 2. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.5 or 3DS DOS.5 as a single surface. 3D Studio MAX 2. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. (3dmimp. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Open 3D Studio MAX2. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. The Rhino web site at http://www. click Import. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. To closely examine and edit MAX2. If you answer "no. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. from the Files of type box. 3DS MAX version 2. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Surface.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. Using developers tools. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. click the Sub-Object button.dli or RhinoMax2imp. If MAX crashes.0. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Curve.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5 module called "ACISMAX2.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. In general. select Rhino 3D Models. Select the 3DM file to import.5 NURBS object.

2 or 3D Studio VIZ. Surface.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. Curve." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS.1. In the File Import dialog box. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Select a MAX2 NURBS object.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. from the Files of type box. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. click Mesh. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. From the File menu. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.rhino3d. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. On December 10 1997. obj+number is used as a name. If there is no Rhino object name. Some surfaces. 45 . otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point.Rhino 2. From the Tools menu. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. select Rhino 3D Models. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. CurveCV. Clear the Weld control. click Import. 3D Studio MAX 3. are imported in several pieces. Click the Sub-Object button.habware.at/duck3. Open 3D Studio MAX. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. Select the 3DM file to import.

It does not fix geometry problems.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. At the Select object prompt.and v-direction vectors. but import in as bodies. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. type a name for the file. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support.Rhino 2. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. In the Save as type box.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. from the File menu. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 ACIS Version: 2.5 ACIS Version: 1.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. In Rhino. Or. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. All of the version types export curves.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . click Save As. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. Using ACIS Version 5.0 ACIS Version: 3. To change these into splines. Click Save. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. select ACIS SAT. select the options for the export. click Export Selected. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. In the File name box.0 is currently not suggested. select the curves and explode them. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box.

0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. click Import/Merge. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. under Scale.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid.Rhino 2.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.0 ACIS Version: 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. type a name for the AI file. select Adobe Illustrator. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport. click Open. select a scale option. Click Open.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. In the Files of type box. 47 . In the File name box.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. Or. from the File menu. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4. In the AI Import Options dialog box.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.

type a name for the AG file. curves need to be refit before exporting.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. click Save As. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. click Save As. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Or. Make the viewport you want to export from active.Rhino 2. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program.1 units from the original curve. from the Files of type box. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . from the File menu.0 files. Rhino only reads curve geometry. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet.0 > 8. Under some circumstances. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. select Adobe Illustrator. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. Or.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. In the AI Export Options dialog box. In the File name box. click Open. select AG. Click Save. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. type a name for the AI file. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. from the File menu. From the File menu. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. type a name for the AG file. In the Save as type box. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport.5. In the File name box. select AG. In some situations.ini. Or. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. under Scale. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. click a scale option. In the File name box. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. Click Open. click Export Selected. not text. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin.

They are not converted to NURBS. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. In the Files of type box. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. from the File menu. Or. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. From the File menu. Object properties. In the File name box. XREF's are imported. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. click Save As. Click Save. click Export Selected. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. click Open. Or. regions. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. In the Files of type box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. In the File name box. Click Save. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. In the Save as type box. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. select the options for DXF export. select AutoCAD DXF. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. select AutoCAD DWG. click Export Selected. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. type a name for the DXF file. Rhino will not import images. click Import/Merge. click Open. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. rays. type a name for the DWG file. In the File name box.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Or. select the options for DWG export. from the File menu. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. From the File menu. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. from the File menu. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Click Open. type a name for the DXF file. click Import/Merge. OLE objects. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . type a name for the DWG file. AutoCAD line types are ignored. click Save As. Click Open. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. or anything in paperspace. select AutoCAD DWG. Or. select AutoCAD DXF.

regions. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. arc. Rhino will not import images. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. circle. but do not properly read polyface meshes. arcs. They are not converted to NURBS. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. OLE objects. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. rays. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes.Rhino 2. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. or anything in paperspace. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. This means if the curve is just one line. AutoCAD line types are ignored. you can export either polyline or spline entities. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. curves are approximated with polylines. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. or circle. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. use RAW instead. arc. and line entities. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. or circle. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. 50 . it is exported as an AutoCAD line. 3-D curves are never simplified. export curves as splines. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. circles. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. 2-D curves are simplified. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. If you have mostly Rhino polylines.

The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. or ellipse. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . The larger this number. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. lines. In the Save as type box. line. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. arcs. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. For silhouette lines. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. From the File menu. ellipse. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. arcs. type a name for the file. If the simplify tolerance is too small. and ellipses as NURBS curves.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. or later DWG/DXF. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. line. arc.csv). select Object Properties (. click Export Selected. In the File name box. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. but increase the number of polyline segments. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. ellipses. it is exported as a simple entity. Use simple entities Circles.Rhino 2. Click Save. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. it will be exported as such. This setting uses current model units.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. not the file header. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. circle.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. circle. and line entities. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. If the simplify tolerance is too large.

This setting determines how the station lines are created. object name. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt.Rhino 2. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. Each component will have the same name as the shape. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.C). Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. 52 . object render color and selected mass properties. All component origin shift is considered 0. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save.0. You can give each shape the name you would like here. Rhino produces one component for each shape. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis.0. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline.S) or only half (. Rhino must approximate each polyline. layer color. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. The larger this number. If you have previously selected a centerline. When exporting curves as polylines.

The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Note Object names are supported. which does not have the 65. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 53 . You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Click Open. from the File menu. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Object names will be used when exporting the . In the File name box.Rhino 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. They are not converted to NURBS. Moray automatically numbers the objects. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. type a name for the LWO file.lwo file instead of a generic name. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Each component will initially be a member of this part. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. click Open. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select Lightwave.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. click Save As. If the same name is used for multiple objects. In the File name box. click Save As. click Import/Merge. Click Save. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. The LWO file is limited to 65. In the Open dialog box. Or. Or. from the Files of type box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Save as type box. type a name for the UDO file. click Export Selected.535 points for the entire file. or Windage (sail). In the Save as type box. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Or. Click Save. type a name for the LWO file. In the File name box. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects.000 polygon limitation. Containment. select Moray UDO. select Lightwave. from the File menu.

If the file contains open surfaces. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. from the File menu.Rhino 2. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. In the File name box. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. surfaces. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. click User Defined. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe.com/moray/.INC file. Rhino creates a . To import the object into Moray. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. surfaces. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file.0 will not read in open surfaces. select Parasolid X_T. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. and colors." Solution The model probably exported just fine. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. and curves Solid Edge 6. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Planes are important primitives. In the Save as type box. select the target application for the export. When you export to UDO.stmuc. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives.UDO file and a . Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. Or.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. from Create menu. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. they will be ignored with no warning. click Save As. click Export Selected. 54 . type a name for the file. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. they display a blank window.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. only closed solids will be imported.

rhino3d. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. select RenderMan. In the File name box. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.rendering. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill.bmrt. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. from the File menu.Rhino 2. 55 . Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. ISBN: 0201508680. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. however. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. ISBN: 1558606181. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. Or. click Export Selected. Click Save.rhino3d.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.graphics. click Save As. type a name for the RIB file. In the Save as type box.

Set up your scene with materials and lights. In the File name box. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. type a name for the POV file. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout." Two windows will open. To test render the scene. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.Rhino 2. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www.rendribrc. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. click Export Selected. Make sure the correct view is active when you export.1. however. Or. click the big blue "R. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. click Save As. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Export to RIB file format supports render background color.org. Rhino writes the surface. In the Save as type box. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. 56 . the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). This material name is exported for use by the renderer.rib reboot your computer. To cancel the rendering process.povray.org. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. The transparency color is the color of the object. color. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. The intensity is always set to 1. select POV-Ray Mesh.povray. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. and opacity statement for each object. and highlight. from the File menu. Click Save. Use Properties to set the object names. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. transparency.

All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. In the Save as type box. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. or into one large POV file. select Raw Triangles. 57 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Or. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. transparency.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. type a name for the RAW file. Click Open. click Save As. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. from the Files of type box.inc and lights. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Or. In the File name box. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. Textures are not exported. In the File name box. but object colors are. click Import/Merge. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. They are not converted to NURBS. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. from the File menu. Click Save. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. and highlight. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a name for the RTF file. click Export Selected.Rhino 2." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. select Raw Triangles. click Open.

from the File menu.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. The greater the number of polygons. In the File name box. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. from the Files of type box.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. Click Open. click Open. 0. click Save As. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. select STEP.0381mm. In the Save as type box. Or. In the File name box. Or. From the File menu. from the File menu. Import it back into Rhino. click Save As. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. Or. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. (For example. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. type a name for the SLC file. 58 .0127mm. Or. The slices will be evenly spaced. In the Open dialog box. 0. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. click Export Selected. Click Save. from the File menu. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device.0762mm. use DXF instead. Consequently. Click Save. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. select SLC. type a name for the STEP file. and use ExplodeMesh. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. In the Save as type box.0254mm. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. 0. click Import/Merge. select STEP. click Export Selected. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. click Open. type a name for the STEP file. In the File name box. Export it in RAW format.Rhino 2.0508mm and 0. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export.

Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. from the Files of type box. type a name for the STL file. click Save As. click Polygon Mesh. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. from the File menu. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. In the File name box. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. They are not converted to NURBS. then Weld (angle=180). In the Save as type box. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. If a mesh point is highlighted. to get JCAD to work. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. Use JoinMesh. From the Tools menu. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. to control STL accuracy. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. click Polygon Mesh. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Or. From the Tools menu. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. type a name for the STL file. that is. then they have the same idea of up. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. then click Join. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. but doesn't glue the edges together.) Select the new mesh object. if two triangles share an edge. Instead. select STL. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. then click Weld. For example. From the Tools menu. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. Click Save. Click Open. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. click Polygon Mesh. 59 . select STL. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. then click Unify Normals. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. In the File name box. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way.ini file to look like this.

Or. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. Rhino now 60 .axis toward the x. click Import/Merge. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. Render color. Or.y plane. from the File menu. from the File menu. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. Texture assignments are currently not exported. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. In the Save as type box. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select VRML. Click Open. type a name for the WRL file. select VDA. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Save as type box. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. click Save As. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or. etc. from the File menu. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. Click Save. shine. In the File name box. It does not support representation of drawing information. symbols. click Export Selected. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. click Open. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the File name box. type a name for the VDA file. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. It does not support assembly and feature information. select VDA. click Save As.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. From the File menu. views. Click Save.D geometry and topology information. type a name for the VDA file. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.

exe. select Windows Metafile. from the File menu.pdf.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer.0. you should try 2.viewpoint. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. 61 . Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. from the File menu. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. type a name for the file. This can be tricky. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer.0. In the File name box. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black.0 and 2. type a name for the WMF file. Or. In the File name box. Click Save.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. click Export Selected. and if so. You can download it from http://developer. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.com/software/mtx2html. In general. (The MTS file contains the actual data.viewpoint.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. but will make the WRL file much larger. click Save As. click Export Selected. Or. try 1. In the Save as type box. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. From the File menu." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file.0 first. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. If it does not work with your VRML viewer.) Outside of Rhino. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. click Save As. Click Save. Render Mesh tab.

type a name for the DXF file.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. in the Save as type box. 62 . To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. click Export Selected. Sender's product ID. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. From the File menu. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. from the IGES type box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export.3ds A file yourfile. Detailed options Author. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color.x is created. and click Save. select an IGES type. This means various settings have different values for each product. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. In the File name box. Organization. enter a name for the file. Click Save. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. select IGES. 1 2 In the File name box. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds.

the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. When Rhino 2. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. the IGES file will be empty. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.ini. To import trimming curves as curve objects.2 or 5.ini. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command.Rhino 2. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. To create an IGES import log. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.

then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping..Rhino 2." For example." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. To see if this is the case.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . you need to do a bit of sleuthing. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. This file can contain multiple flavors. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. Spaces and tabs are ignored. When Rhino reads an IGES file. an IGES level number is automatically selected. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. . To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. 2. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . 3. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.) are ignored. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor..0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0.). but this is not required. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. 1. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.

then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything.igs normally. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. regardless of type. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file.igs. click Close. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. 65 . In the IGES Export Types dialog box.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. Rhino reads alpha.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. accepting only entities marked as geometry. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file.igs. or Logical/Positional(). click New. If one of the Annotation(). It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. set the options for the IGES type. Definition(). If you do something like: open alpha. Other(). ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.igs open gamma.igs and gamma. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. you will get it.

maximum degree three. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Delete.2 stores years using two digits and 5. and click Edit. and click Copy Type. 66 . If the max degree is set to three. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. IGES 184 entities. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. and maximum degree five. IGES arcs. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. If the max degree is set to five. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. The difference is 5. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. select an IGES type. Unix. this number should be one. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF).2 and 5. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.Rhino 2. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. and MacOS uses CR. from the IGES type list box. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. click Close. or IGES circles. set the options for the IGES type. select an IGES type. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. The number must be bigger than zero. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. arcs. and MacOS style line endings. Unix uses LF. from the IGES type list box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.3 using four digits.3. In most cases. click Close. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. set the options for the IGES type.

OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. Click Save. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Try to load both files into your product. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. maximum degree three. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. from the File menu. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing.rhino3d.com/rhino so we can document this file format. click Export Selected. and maximum degree five. If you get better results with one export type. select Wavefront OBJ. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a name for the OBJ file. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. select the options for OBJ export. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. when possible. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. try the following test. 67 . post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.Rhino 2. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). Curves are not exported. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). In the Save as type box. If the max degree is set to five. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. If the max degree is set to three. when possible. when possible. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. click Save As.

The . There are also references to these materials added to the . mesh export is disabled.obj file. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. Export object names Exports object names. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. If is far from 100% satisfactory. Export layer names Exports layer names. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. To export to MAX. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. Export material definitions Creates an . IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. By default.Rhino 2. Options Skip Don't export meshes. CR (Mac OS) Return only. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead.mtl file contains one material definition per object. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino.mtl file with the same name as the . We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. LF (Unix) Line feed only. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example.obj file. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. 68 .0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces.ini file. Export layer names should be cleared. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. All data that is not grouped. click Export Selected. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. From the IGES Type box. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. from the File menu. select 3D Studio MAX 3. it is recommended that you save your work. and then restart MAX. select the surface. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. After a large IGES import. From the IGES Type box. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 .x. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. select Alias V8. try using OBJ format instead. type a filename. select IGES. click Export or Save As. select the trim curve. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. type a filename. it is recommended that you save your work first. In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. and flip the trim. Note When merging an IGES file. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In this case. To distinguish between separate entities. click Export or Save As.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. For the fastest import. In the File name box. and Customize > Preferences. select IGES. and set the display to wireframe.Rhino 2. make it independent. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application.

select Ashlar Vellum. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. type a filename.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . In the File name box. select AUTOFORM.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.Rhino 2. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select Breault Research's ASAP. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the File name box. select IGES.Rhino 2. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select AutoShip. 71 .0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CADCEUS.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. select IGES.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. click Export or Save As.

type a filename. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. select CamSoft. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CATIA. In the Save as type box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select Cosmos/M. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Surfaces and Solids. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. click Export or Save As. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. even those that are trivially trimmed.Rhino 2. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. type a filename.

From the IGES Type box. select Cosmos/M.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. select IGES. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select FastShip. 74 . type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu.

select Integrity Ware. From the IGES Type box. select FastSURF.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. select IGES. select IronCAD. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . type a filename. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. select Mastercam.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select LUSAS. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.

select ME30.Rhino 2. select IGES. Surfaces and Solids. click Export or Save As. type a filename. 77 . From the IGES Type box. type a filename. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. In the File name box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box. click Export Selected. select Maya.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.

) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. You may set these options as you see fit. in the Description box. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. click Structure. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. select IGES. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. click Geometry. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.opt.3.Rhino 2. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. To get the best results. 78 . In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.IGESOUT dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. click Export or Save As. select Microstation. In the Save as type box. type a filename. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. (The MDT defaults work fine. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. To save these settings. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . Version 5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. From the IGES Type box. click DE Mappings. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. Version 5.2 or 5.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. Surfaces and Solids. set IGES Version to either 5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. select Mechanical Desktop. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. and click OK. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. click Edit options. From the IGES Type box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the Save as type box. click Start and Global. type a filename.

0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting.1 using an IGES file. Multisurf 3. select NASA GridTool. In the File name box. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.ini file.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. click Export or Save As. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims.000000 79 . Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Multisurf.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. If you add the following section to your Rhino. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. the current version of Multisurf is 3. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. select IGES. select OptiCAD.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select NuGraf.

0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.pro file or save them as rhino. Note With Pro/E version 20. when exporting to IGES. click Export or Save As. use these settings in the Pro/E config. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on.Rhino 2.001 to 0. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5.01 units.0001 will produce good results. From the IGES Type box. use the "All Parts" option. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. If you set your tolerances right.pro file then read it in before exporting. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0. somewhere around 0. select IGES. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.

When modeling in Rhino. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. Surfaces and Solids. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. even those that are trivially trimmed. If the curves are planar. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. there are now two types. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Surface replace is another good tool to use. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. 82 . Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync.Rhino 2. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. then. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Things like fillets and drafts . make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. The more trims you have. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y.

In the File name box.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. and a solid. a surface. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. There is no geometry information in it. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. In the Save as type box. type a filename.Rhino 2. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. From the IGES Type box. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. select IGES. you will not get back what you sent. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.

select IGES. All three have their own problems and benefits. In the Save As dialog box. select Softimage. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.igs MyDSCFile. Check out their web site for more information: www. Type a filename and click Save.phoenixtools.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile.phoenixtools. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.com. In the IGES Export dialog box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. from the IGES Type box. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. SGI and x86 (Intel). click Save As. DXF.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. In the IGES Export Options dialog box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. Run iges2soft. select Softimage. from the Save as type box. 1.txt contains command line option information.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. Softimage can also import 3DS. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft. then click IGES.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.8: ftp://ftp.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.com Plugin download link page: www.okino. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. for SI versions 3.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. Open Softimage.Rhino 2. From the File menu. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. 3.7sp1 and 3. 2 84 .0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.phoenixtools.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . Surfaces and Solids.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. From the IGES Type box. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. select Solid Edge. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. type a filename. select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. In the Save as type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. type a filename. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation.

From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.0 Points=116 86 . select IGES. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. click Export or Save As. To export models to Rhino. In the File name box. Surfaces and Solids.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. select SolidWorks. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.0001 before building the geometry.001 or 0. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino.

try to model with smooth. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select SUM4. In the File name box. select IGES. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. In the File name box. which works on both edges and faces. Also. Generally. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. click Export or Save As. then shelling is likely to fail. ribs. by nature. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. In the Save as type box. SUM 4. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments.0001. select IGES. 87 . Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. Shelling. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. From the IGES Type box. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. is tangent. to test feasibility. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. leaving features such as fillets.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Nothing replaces experience.. for SolidWorks. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. type a filename. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select SURFCAM. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. shelling. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. and investigate alternative approaches. etc. which within human perception.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 . type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.

From the IGES Type box. select Unigraphics. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. In the Save as type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select TekSoft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. In the File name box.

The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. In the File name box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.Rhino 2. select Yamaha ESPRi. 90 .000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.

0 Command Reference If an object is selected. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. Context-sensitive menu indicator. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. type RGB values in the Red. from the Named Colors list. and Value boxes. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. Saturation. For maximum speed. In addition. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino.Rhino 2. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. actions related to objects appear in the menu.ini file. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. and Blue boxes. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. If context-sensitive menu is on. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box.txt in the Rhino install directory. or drag to manipulate the view. The same limitation does not apply to render color.ini file to add or change menu items. Edit the Rhino. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. Green. 91 . Context-sensitive menu in viewport. type values in the Hue. If no object is selected. select a color. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click.

When activated. Point. To clear all persistent object snaps. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. on the status bar. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. When an object snap is active. After the pick. Near. All object snaps behave similarly. and Knot object snaps can persist. For example. Near. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time.Rhino 2. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Midpoint. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. right-click the Lock checkbox. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. To display the Osnap dialog box. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. and Point will not work for that pick.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. Center. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. Tan. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. End. or can be activated for one pick only. the appropriate object snap displays. click Osnap. Perp. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. Quad. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. As you pass your cursor over an object. if End. End. 92 . Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. Intersection. Only Near. If object snaps are locked. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point.

0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .Rhino 2.

The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. This command is useful for command files. or just suspends them for one pick. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. from the Tools menu. Perp. then click End. Valid options are NoSnap. Center. Point. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. separated by commas. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. it turns off all persistent object snaps. If a command is active. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. for example in ExtractIsoparm. InsertKnot. OrientOnSrf. click Object Snap. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. End. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. The marker jumps to the endpoint. NoSnap Turn object snaps off.Rhino 2. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. Near. 94 . Midpoint. Click to enter the endpoint. and Knot. all others will be cleared. Intersection. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. with no spaces. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Only these object snaps will be set. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. Tan.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. Quad.

In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. Move the cursor near a curve. the seam point on closed curves. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click Mid. On the status bar. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. The marker jumps to it. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. then click Mid. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. 95 . click Object Snap. Near object snap Snap near a curve. then click Point. On the status bar. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. The marker moves along the curve. from the Tools menu. click End.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. and the "corners" of surfaces.Rhino 2. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Click to enter the midpoint. click Object Snap. Move the cursor near a point. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Near. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter a point on the curve. then click Near. On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter the point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Point.

click the Osnap pane. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. The marker jumps to its center point. Move the cursor along a curve. Click to enter one of these points. click Int. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. then click Tangent To. 96 . In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter the center point. click Object Snap. Move the cursor along a curve. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. then click Center. then click Intersection. perpendicular to the curve.Rhino 2. Move the cursor near a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near an intersection. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. click the Osnap pane. click Cen. click Object Snap. click Perp. click Object Snap. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. On the status bar. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Click to enter the point of intersection. tangent to the curve. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to it. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. then click Perpendicular To. Click to enter one of these points.

type Knot. You can use another object snap to pick this point. On the status bar.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. without entering that point for the original command. Set your constraints relative to the base point. Move the cursor near a curve. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Tan. and relative coordinate entry. or similar surface edges. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. In the Osnap dialog box. Similarly. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. 3 Example 97 . with From. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. then click Quadrant. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. click Object Snap. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Move the cursor along a circle. then click Knot. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. click Object Snap. distance constraint. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. pick a point. angle constraint. At the Choose a base point prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. arc or ellipse. and finally choose the point for the original command. Click to enter one of these points. click Object Snap. From object snap Snap from a point. click Quad. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. You can set this point. then click From. Click to enter the knot point. without picking it.Rhino 2.

you can use simple snaps. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. then click Tangent From. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. click Object Snap. then click Perpendicular From. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. Cen. Note When selecting points during this sequence. from the Tools menu. from the Tools menu. select the curve. At the Choose a point prompt. select the curve. snap to the end of the line. click Object Snap. type 2 and press Enter. End. The cursor moves only along the curve. 98 . At the Click near the curve prompt. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. At the Click near the curve prompt. Near. and Quad. Int. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Mid.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Point. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. then click From. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. for greater precision. At the Choose a base point prompt. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line.Rhino 2.

in the Object Snap toolbar. type AlongParallel. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point.Rhino 2. Point. select a second point. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Near. Int. Point. Cen. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Click to enter a point on the line. you can use simple snaps (End. and Quad) for greater precision. The marker moves only along the line. Cen.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. At the End of base line prompt. you can use simple snaps (End. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Or. Int. At the End of tracking line prompt. At the Start of base line prompt. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Int. Cen. Near. and Quad) for greater precision. Mid. The marker moves only along the line. Click to enter a point on the line. from the Tools menu. Mid. The marker tracks along the tangent line. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. Point. right-click the Along toolbar button. Mid. select a second point. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Along object snap Track along a line. Near. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. then click Along Line. you can use simple snaps (End. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. select a first point to specify the tracking line. click Object Snap. 99 . and Quad) for greater precision. At the Choose a point prompt.

and the cursor is over an object snap point. click Object Snap. Intersection. Click to enter a point on the surface. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. Note When selecting a point on the surface. and Knot. The marker moves only along the surface. select the surface. Center. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. it is off.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. from the Tools menu. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. When Osnap projection is on. you can use simple snaps. By default. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. select Project to CPlane. but works on curves. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. for greater precision. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. Near. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. then click On Surface. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. At the Click near the surface prompt. End.Rhino 2. 100 . Point. Mid.

Object Properties. General tab. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. and the other positive integers. The valid values are -1. and OBJ file export. POV-Ray. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Information Technical information about the command displays. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. or just the knot isoparms. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display.Rhino 2. 0. 1. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. 101 . One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. 2. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. go to the Options dialog box. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. and RenderMan RIB. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox.

Material tab Edit object material properties. texture. Color Sets the color of the light. 102 . use the Edit Layers dialog box. using a plug-in library. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. this tab displays the properties for that light type. To change the material assignment of the layer. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. finish. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. you can set the color. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. From top left to bottom right.0 Command Reference Object Properties. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. Turns light on or off. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties.Rhino 2. transparency. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Light tab Edit light object properties.

or a polygon mesh. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. polysurface.Rhino 2. Unlike more advanced renderers. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. From top left to bottom right. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Object Properties. To change the color of the wireframe display.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Text tab Edit text properties. 103 . Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene.

Example If your units are inches. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). set Annotation Scale factor to 4.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. When you place annotation text. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.25 inches. Command string Command alias definitions. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Options dialog box. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. 104 . and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. The two sizes update each other.Rhino 2. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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Render Mesh tab. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. highlights. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. On the Shade tab. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. Also. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point.Rhino 2. shadows. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. click Options. 114 . spotlighting. For highest quality results. click Use OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Choose between the quick render preview. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. and a backdrop image. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. from the smooth geometry. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Rhino takes that time to calculate. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. you will see improved performance. and the color-andshadows Render. this shading mode may be much faster. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. The next time you shade the same model. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller.

you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. When you draw the plane. the patterns may probably disappear. Self. you will see improved performance. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box.0 or 1. Render tab. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. In some situations.Rhino 2. The next time you render the same model.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Also. Rhino Render tab. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. Render Mesh tab. Jagged spotlight edges and self. so it won't be deformed. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it.5. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. 115 . We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. which might appear in waves. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. of the view in the active viewport. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Rhino takes that time to calculate. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. from the smooth geometry. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort.

Self-shadowing artifacts. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you increase it too much. Change the size of the light. The scale of the objects is very large. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth.Rhino 2. Correct shadow. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high.shadowing effects. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. If you’re getting self. If the problems still persist. Sometimes the conversion 116 . Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. That will usually solve the problem.

drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. and since the polygons are flat. Windows 95. and download the latest drivers. On Status of layer. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer.com/windows/downloads/winntw. To update your OpenGL drivers. change the color of the wire frame.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. To set the column width. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. select them all with one selection. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Even if you got the card last week. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. For example. Off Status of layer. 117 . To update Windows NT drivers. When objects are on a layer.asp. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Or you can organize your parts a different way. if you were working on a human figure. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. they look jagged. This helps you organize your model.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). If this does not fix the problem.dll and Glu32.Rhino 2. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. Otherwise. contact Rhino Technical Support. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Name Layer name. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. you may not have the current drivers. you can turn them all off at once. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. please read section the next section. Start Rhino. available from Microsoft at www.microsoft. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model.

and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. transparency. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. texture. You can snap to objects on this layer. Unlike more advanced renderers. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. To change the color of the wireframe display. polysurface. 118 . Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white.Rhino 2. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. finish. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. or a polygon mesh. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. you can set the color.

Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. select the name on the list. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. and Invert the selection. type a new name and press Enter. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. In the Edit Layers dialog box. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.Rhino 2. In the Layer dialog box. If you don't remember the layer names. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. select a set of layers. 119 . Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. You can select all layers. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. click New.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. You cannot create new layers with these names.

To delete empty layers. click a filter option. click the color column of the layer you want to change. select a color for the layer. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. select all the displayed layers and delete. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. When a model has a large number of layers. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. In the Show box. Click Delete. In the Select Color dialog box. from the list select the layers you want to delete. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . use the Empty Layers filter. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Rhino 2. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects.

off. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. click Filtered Layers. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. and whether or not there are objects on the layer).Rhino 2. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box." are on or locked. set the desired filter options. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. or locked.

122 .0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. then use the one closest to the top of the list. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. If this doesn't help. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. Think of each curve you select in Loft. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. Sweeps. stair-like. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. then the surface created by loft will. Lofts. Sweep1. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. try adding a few more cross sections. then use a ruled surface. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. generally. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work.Rhino 2. If you are after a tent-like. The surface is smooth. then try Loft. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. or accordion bellows-like surface. The rail curve directs the surface along it. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. Rules. If you are after a flag-like surface. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2.

If surfaces are twisted with open curves. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. while keeping the other end fixed. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. 123 . Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. If you have a several of closed curves.Rhino 2. the surface will twist. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. use a Sweep2.

Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. and thus the fillet. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. or no curves. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. For each of these four ways. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. For a given radius. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. the intersection of the offsets can have one. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. 124 . there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. several. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface.Rhino 2. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. there are four ways to fillet.

0 Command Reference As mentioned. 125 . for this choice of sides. there may be several fillet pieces. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component.Rhino 2. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.

If yes. then the surfaces are left intact.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. 126 . the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. yes. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. No. When that is the case. If no. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. and split.Rhino 2. If split. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. Because of this. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. When Extend = yes.

127 . and a fillet will exist. their offsets may intersect. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. then no fillets will be created. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. If two surfaces are tangent.

and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. no fillet will be created. except cross-sections are lines. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. 128 . Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. rather than arcs. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. Otherwise. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. If some fillets that should have been built weren't.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command.

So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. In this case. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Do each surface individually. it doesn't. However. on an open surface or polysurface. If both are single surfaces. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. Often. B and C. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. then the result to B will work. Once we have a curve on the surface. Additionally. The result will have a hole at the corner. do not pick A and B first. When joining A. If one is a polysurface. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. no corner patch will be attempted. a spherical patch will be made. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen.Rhino 2. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. If you do. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. it is projected. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. In this case." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. Objects have overlapping surface areas. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. but it may not fit. The picking order can make the difference. 129 . FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. joining A to C. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize.0 Command Reference In general.

or visa versa. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. You can also move control points to the same location. 130 .0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. For success using the Booleans. This point is also called a singularity. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent.Rhino 2. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. the operation can fail. not mesh objects.

In this example. the two boxes are just touching along one side. click From Objects. and then click Intersection. At the Select object for intersection prompt. there are three possible intersection curves. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. Depending on the order the objects are selected.Rhino 2. 131 . The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. In this example. select the second object. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. In this example. In this example. The objects will Union. we chose the cone first. At the Select object to intersect prompt. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. the Intersect command may give different results. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. select one object. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. and Intersection do not work.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. but Difference.

Rhino 2. you would expect to get all three curves. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . If your objects are very complex. this may not happen. however. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. To get all the possible curves. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. so we will Explode it.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. In our simple example. Therefore. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. if your objects are polysurfaces.

At the Select object to split prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. At the Select cutting objects prompt. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. select the cone. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. click Extract Surface. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. Explode the cone. Delete the small wedge of the cone. click Split. From the Solid menu. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. 133 .

From the Edit menu. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. Use the Join command to join all the parts together.Rhino 2. go through the same code. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. 134 . and is achieved by flipping the normals. So. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. There is no intersection. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. The intersection involves isolated points. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. difference. select the two curves. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. In this case. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). click Trim. A – B = A intersect ~B. union. intersection. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt.

one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface.ini and restart Rhino. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. planes. find the folder where Rhino is installed. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. select the check box for the toolbar. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap.ini. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Double-click Rhino. To understand the results. etc. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. Edit the Rhino. Exit Rhino. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. Find the setting you want to change. For a polysurface that is not a solid. In Windows Explorer. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. cylinders. the outside is the side to which the normals point.Rhino 2. 135 . then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. To edit the Rhino. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface.ini file. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap.ini to open it for editing.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Surfaces overlap.

Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. and from the Toolbar menu. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. 136 . loses its title bar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. and is docked. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Or. The title bar appears on the toolbar. it has no title bar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The toolbar reshapes. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar moves to a new position. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. select the toolbar. The title bar appears. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. type the new name. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. and click Properties. This is a setting in the Rhino.ini file. The toolbar appears or hides. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. click Properties. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. until the preview frame of it changes shape.Rhino 2. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it.

and from the Toolbar menu. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click New. Or. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Or. Or. and click Import Toolbar. Or. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. click Delete. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and from the Toolbar menu. and drop in the desired position. select the toolbar. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. and click New Toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. which has the white triangle in the corner. Release the mouse button. select the toolbar. and click Properties. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbars to import. The linked toolbar appears. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.Rhino 2. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Click Import. select the toolbar. Press and hold Ctrl. and click Delete Toolbar. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. Or. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. Click Open. click Properties. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. 3 137 . and from the Toolbar menu. The linked toolbar appears. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. select the toolbar. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. click Import. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. it will distort the bitmap icon. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay.

The linked toolbar vanishes. Press and hold Shift. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. and click the right mouse button. Or. Press and hold Ctrl. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Press and hold Shift. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. Move the cursor over a link button. 138 . The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. The buttons rearrange. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Press and hold Shift. The toolbar is floating. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. clear Float to Top. it will distort the bitmap icon. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar.Rhino 2. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Release the mouse button. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. In this case. select Float to Top to make the link button float. The toolbar appears. click both mouse buttons simultaneously.

Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. 139 . Release the left mouse button. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. click Add Button. If you don't know what to enter. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Or. Click Close. Press and hold Shift. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. and from the Toolbar menu. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.Rhino 2. You can change the ToolTip. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Use this area to edit your bitmap. and the bitmap icon. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Press F2 to view the command history. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. type text in the ToolTip box. capture a portion of the screen. type text in the ToolTip box. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. A blank button is added to the toolbar. draw with the paint tools. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. for example: Zoom In | Out. click OK. and click the right mouse button. and click Add Button. right-click the toolbar name in the list. You can clear the image. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. In the Delete Button dialog box. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background.

Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. A square replaces the cursor. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. click Undo. 140 . Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. Note You can shift the image left. then OK. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. from the Edit menu. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. Press and hold Shift. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. click Edit Bitmap. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Or. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. and click the right mouse button.Rhino 2. and click the right mouse button. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. up. Press and hold Shift. Or. from the Edit menu. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. right. from the Edit menu. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. click Edit Bitmap. the button is blank. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. To undo a mistake. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. click Grab. and click the right mouse button. Click the pencil tool. click Clear. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.

Click Open. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.0 5. Press and hold Shift. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. click Edit Bitmap. type a bitmap file name. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. 141 .4 13. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. The bitmap icon is saved to a file.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. from a text file.4 -4. command aliases. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. Click Save. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. from the File menu. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.-3 1. which stops the creation of point objects. click Import Bitmap. click Export Bitmap.-4 8. This script moves objects. and click the right mouse button. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. shortcut keys.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. from the File menu. select a bitmap file. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.1 4. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.Rhino 2.

All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. layername2. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. These scripting languages allow loops. Automation servers. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. is a fast. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Microsoft JScript 5. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. browsing for files.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. Mode is always 1. From the Tools menu. 1=Fit. Press F2 to view the command history. click Commands. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. variable names. If you don't know what to enter. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. Divs is the samples per knotspan. The default is 20. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). the Web's only standard scripting language. then click Paste from Clipboard.Rhino 2.5. Fit is the fitting method. Options are 0=Interpolate. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. 142 . and Java applets. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. queries. portable. The default is 1.

You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. These damaged areas can cause problems. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. 143 . then it will list some specific problems. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. Another problem is having a tiny. For more information on scripting. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems.microsoft. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. If a model passes Check. and Check doesn't check for those things. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. If your model doesn't pass Check. and join everything back together again.for instance. If Rhino matches the large edges. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. though. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. Rhino will let you do it. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. you have to explode the model. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. see: http://msdn. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint.Rhino 2. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. you may find some of those microscopic edges. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. To fix broken edges. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . If your model doesn't pass Check.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. Some bad model parts. If you zoom in enough. The first one to try is the Check command. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. then edit the trim curves. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. re-trim the surface.rvb. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. You can set the scale factor for digitized points.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems.

Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. To draw a non-G1 curve. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Trim again.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. If there are lots of tiny edges. FitCrv. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. Draw a Curve (Degree=3).5 5. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure.0 5.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. 144 . Split the curve at the kink. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. Untrim or DetachTrim.0 5. Thus. Additionally.10 5. open up the kink by control point editing. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.4 10. the Join command can get confused when that happens. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. simple edge-to-edge matching. and Join. you can Undo changing the degree. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. Solution: Rebuild the curve. You will get this error message.Rhino 2. This test does not check the geometry. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.

There are stacked control points along a surface edge. Solution: DetachTrim. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Edge direction. Usually.Rhino 2. Internal control points are coincident.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Rhino 2. fix curve and retrim. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. The warning lets you know when this has happened. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Draw a Circle. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Extrude it. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Solution: Rebuild the edge. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other. Join and Booleans in particular. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. In short. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. but not right on top of each other. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. 145 . Use this to install as a standalone node. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. but not right on top of each other. You will get this error message. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. You will get this error message. You can put control points very close to each other. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Some operations. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. and then control point edit the extrusion.

That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.htm. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino.com/plug-ins. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. This is an installation option. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www.0" as a workgroup node. No special hardware is needed. When a node shuts down. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. unlike standalone Rhino.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. the license is added back to the available license pool.Rhino 2. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. contact your network administrator. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.com/plugins/developer. 146 .rhino3d. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down.rhino3d. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. Thus. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. visit www. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. For details on setting up a workgroup. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. Very little administration is required. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. it does not modify the shape of the surface. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments.0 as a workgroup node. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded.

90 degrees The range is from . called the edge. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. 147 . if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 3. called the pedge. 2. 1. the cursor turns into a crosshair. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. which also approximates the intersection. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). and pe_tol tells how close the 3. Each 2. Rhino meshes all trim edges.D curve.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. and tolerance values for each of the curves. The 3. When using elevator mode. trim curves are ignored. then e_tol tells how close the 3. 0. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface.D curve (the one you see). 0. Marker. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view.D edge. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. 2. When the initial mesh grid is made. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. the marker will snap to the snap point.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. two 2. 8/3. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. 3. After the initial grid is made. For example. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3.Rhino 2. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. the draft angle is 0. If an object snap is on. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 1. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.D curves. 1/3. Cursor. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or .90 degrees to 90 degrees. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general.D edge is to the surface.

When you have a finished solid. or reflective metal on one side. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. 148 . Normal direction Every surface has a normal. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. or a polysurface. The other side is the inside. when you have a single surface. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. However. Solid objects do not have naked edges. red on the other. blue on one side. the stiffness of the rope. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. Imagine a rope.Rhino 2. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect.) with a polynomial definition. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. etc. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. If you hold it at the ends. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. flat constant on the other). Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes.

If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. In some other 3-D programs. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. It is a mathematical way of defining curves." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Snap pane. this is called a "quilt. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. surfaces. 149 . Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Ortho pane. and solids. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. it is also a solid. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. From left to right they are: Layer pane.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object.

there will be no holes in the mesh. The u. U. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. A rectangular surface with the u.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. u. If objects are selected and no command is active. units. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino.direction is indicated by the green arrow. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. Esc turns off the points. When no command is active. and the v.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. and tolerances. no objects are selected. The u. and normal. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces.direction is indicated by the red arrow. Surfaces have three directions. Esc deselects all objects. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. v.Rhino 2. You can save your own templates to base future models on. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. You can display the u.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. grid size.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. v. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. 150 . and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. Esc clears the command prompt. If a mesh is generated from a solid. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files.

Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. and Third corner of polygon prompts.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. 4View Four-viewport layout. 151 . using Point object snap and JoinMesh. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Second corner of polygon. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Press Enter for triangle prompt. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Or. 3View Three-viewport layout.Rhino 2. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon.

Start the AddNextU command. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. 152 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextV command.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. Start the AddPrevU command. Surface with four control points selected 153 .

154 . Select a point on the surface.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. 1 At the Select objects prompt. 2 At the Select groups.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. Start the AddPrevV command. select an object to add to a group. Use the Group command to group objects together. prompt select the group or enter a group name. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface.

select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. At the Select curve to change prompt. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. World Front.Rhino 2. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. or World Right. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. AlignProfiles Align two curves. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. 1 2 Select the objects. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. The curves must be planar. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. 155 .

End of first line prompt. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. 156 . select a point that defines the start of an angle line. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.Rhino 2. Start of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines.

select the surface to apply the mesh. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. and fitted onto the selected surface. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. 157 .Rhino 2. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. If the surface is trimmed. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh.0000 degrees. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt.

so if you Mirror something. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. one of which has been squished around in some way. although if you understand the process and work at it. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. 158 . ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. you can make such morphs. For example. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. enter the angle for the arc. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Then. Arc Draw an arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. Or. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. At the End point or angle prompt. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. enter the center of the arc's radius. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. At the Start of arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. ApplyMesh guarantees that. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. If making morph targets. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. Start. enter the start point of the arc.Rhino 2. If you use the Mirror transformation. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. Generally. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. enter the center of the arc's radius. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. mesh the most complex surface first. But that swaps u and v on the surface.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh.

Rhino 2. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. You can enter the number of control points. At the Point on arc prompt. enter a point on the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. enter the end point of the arc. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Arc from three points 159 . At the End of arc prompt. enter the start of the arc.

move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. end point. End. enter a radius value. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. enter the radius of the arc. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. At the Radius prompt. end point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the start point. Arc from start point. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. At the Choose arc prompt. 160 . enter the end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter the start point. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. If the radius value is too small. At the End of arc prompt. At the Direction prompt. and radius. select the second curve. select the first curve. At the Radius prompt. enter the end point. End. Tangent. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. Radius At the Start of arc prompt.Rhino 2. At the End of arc prompt.

8545412. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. 161 .0 (+/. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).7e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.1e-006.Rhino 2.4601236. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. If you cannot see the entire report. First moments. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.1. product moments. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.34 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0). area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. second moments. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.1.1.014). Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces.

you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.0 and 6.36650165 (+/.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. For example.10.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.73300329 (+/.1e-009.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. Area First Moments: 162 .0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.1e-009) Rz: 6.Rhino 2.5. if you select a box polysurface. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-009) Rz: 3. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.0 (+/. and sometimes contradictory.1e-009) Ry: 1. Area = 60 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-009.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.0 is shown below.77350269 (+/.46410162 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need.0) zx: 0 (+/. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments. As an example. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.88675135 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 3.0. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.73205081 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/. with a surface or open polysurface.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.

Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. The relationship between the area first moments. In terms of integrals. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. area first moments. In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. area second moments. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. In particular.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. the area. and area product moments. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 .Rhino 2. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area.

type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. type the y-interval and press Enter. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. type the x-interval. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. Or. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. 164 . The array directions are the x. At the Number in X direction prompt.and y-intervals. to indicate the x. press Enter. Transform. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. those distances are applied to the array directions. At the Number in Z direction prompt. At the Number in Y direction prompt.

Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. At the Select path curve prompt. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. choose two points that define the z-interval.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. specify twist behavior. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. Or. 165 . In the Array Along Curve dialog box.Rhino 2. or the spacing distance along the curve. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. type the z-interval and press Enter. set the number of elements to array.

and object to array. At the Basepoint prompt. At the Angle to fill prompt. Objects arrayed along line. Surface. Enter a value of 1 or more. choose a center point for the array. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. At the Center of polar array prompt. curve on surface.Rhino 2. 166 . select objects to copy along the curve. You can continue to place objects. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. select a curve on a surface.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. type the number of copies and press Enter. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. type an angle and press Enter. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line.

If the surface is a trimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. At the Select surface to array along prompt. choose the surface to array along. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. type a number of objects. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt.Rhino 2. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. type a number of objects. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. Array along a surface 167 . The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear.

This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. If the Audit command detects a database error. the path. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. the model's folder will be used as the default. it prints a detailed description of the error. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt.rhp Options set the resolution. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). 168 . This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects.Rhino 2. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. enter the start of the arrow. otherwise you must select a folder. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. At the End of line prompt. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. See the PluginManager command. enter the end of the arrow.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow.

By default. choose a center point. automatic Autosave is turned off. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. This sphere is two joined surfaces.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. Note By default. you must edit your Rhino. 169 . At the Radius prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. General tab.ini. Files tab.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. Back Set to world back view. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. choose a radius. Files tab.

place the point outside the object. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. To bend the entire object. At the Start of spine prompt. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. place the point outside the object. To bend the entire object. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. choose a center point. choose the second endpoint of the line.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. At the End of spine prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the amount of bend. At the End of second axis prompt.Rhino 2. choose an endpoint. At the End of third axis prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint. Bend Bend objects. At the End of first axis prompt. Bend 170 . choose an endpoint.

171 . Bend moves the control points of objects. The remainder of the object is kept straight. and meshes. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt.Rhino 2. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. enter the start of the bisector line. enter the end of the angle to bisect. curves. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the start of the angle to bisect.only control points. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. surfaces. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. You can't bend a polysurface . you will only bend that part of the object. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. or enter a length and press Enter.

172 . Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.Rhino 2.

and curvature. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. If you are joining curves. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. In either case. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. If a blend appears to tight or loose. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. and curvature. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. tangent direction.Rhino 2. tangent directions. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. then you should probably use InsertKnot. The Blend command creates G2 blends. and one of the curves is a blend curve. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. tangent direction. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. tangent direction. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. delete the arc. Note The location. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. tangent direction. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. At the Select first set of edges. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. select adjacent edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. tangent direction. If it is invoked after picking the first end. If you need a G1 blend. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. it applies to both ends. The location. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. 173 . select a surface edge. To do this. tangent direction. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. it applies only to the second end. or press Enter. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. A blend curve that matches location. and curvature is called a G2 blend.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

The number of control points added depends on the degree entered.Rhino 2. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. This gives you more control over the shape. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. the greater the number of control points. 183 . the higher the degree. If you raise the degree of a surface. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. click the new layer. it will no longer be periodic. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. but adds control points between each knot span.

Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. Note Delete or rebuild the object. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. 184 . CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. use the CheckInLicense command. Select objects. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. select one object. Diagnostics. enter the center point. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures.Rhino 2. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. To check a license back in. When users get back in the office. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. enter the radius point. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. Circle Draw a circle. When the user gets back in the office. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer.

You can enter the number of control points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

You can enter the number of control points.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Tangent. 186 . select the second curve. enter a point on the circumference. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. At the Second point on circle prompt. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. select the first curve.Rhino 2. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. enter a third point on the circumference. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Radius prompt. enter a second point on the circumference. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. At the Third point on circle prompt. There may be multiple circles. enter a radius. enter the end of the diameter. delete the extras.

You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. select the third curve. Note To reduce the size of the model file. delete the extras. or are tangent to a second curve. select the first curve. 187 . There may be multiple circles. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. At the Third tangent curve. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. select the second curve.Rhino 2. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. Point Select a point for input.

right click in the Rhino Command History window.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. Note Point objects display as small squares. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. 188 . To start one of those commands. Point objects are not a part of any other object. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. pick it from the list. Press F2 again to close the window. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. or in the Command area. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. CommandHistory View command history. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model.Rhino 2. At the Base point for closest point prompt. enter a point.

Or.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. it is pasted. it is pasted as a command script. look at the Command List in this help file. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. If there is text in the Clipboard. Without the command area. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. choose a center point for the base. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. At the End of cone prompt. Commands List all Rhino commands. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . At the Radius prompt. Cone Draw a cone. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.

type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. enter the middle point for the conic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. enter the end point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the Curvature point or rho prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. enter the start point for the conic. At the Reference vertex prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the End of conic prompt. Or. Conic Draw a conic section curve. Conic 190 .

S) intersects chord(A. Second reference curve prompt. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number.5.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. let T be the point where line(B.Rhino 2. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. First reference curve prompt. select a curve. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic.5 and less than 1. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.C). If you work out the details.5. type T to select tangent curves. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. select a second curve. Point on first curve prompt. Curvature point or rho prompt. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. Point on second curve prompt. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. B. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 and less than 0. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle.

This point partially defines the plane for the conic. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. 192 . type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. so the w<1 case is elliptical. Parabolic Rho value of 0. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Or. End control points are at the same location. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.Rhino 2. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to.5 and 1. At the End of conic prompt.5. enter the end point for the conic. enter the reference vertex for the conic.0 and 0.5. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt.

Rhino 2. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Blend. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. and meshes for contour line creation. Match. BlendSrf. Position. curvature. 193 . The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. At the Contour plane base point prompt.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. One of the contour planes will go through this point. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. polysurfaces. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. choose a base point. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity.

enter the distance between contours and press Enter. the less dense the control polygon will display.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. 194 . 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. At the Control polygon display density prompt. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. At the Distance between contours prompt. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces.Rhino 2. generated in both directions from the base point. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. The higher this number is.

Rhino 2. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. 195 . Edges can't be converted with this command. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. At the Angle tolerance prompt. select curves and press Enter. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. use the ExtractWireframe command first. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. The original curves are removed. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. select an object to create polylines from.

Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. it is created when the object is pasted. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. 196 . choose a point to move the copy from. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. to move the copy vertically. snap spacing. Or. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.Rhino 2. type v and press Enter. type I and press Enter. If the layer does not exist. to copy the object in the same place. choose locations for copies. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Or. At the Point to copy to prompts. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Object properties and location are stored with the object. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt.

CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports.axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. 197 . All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane elevation prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose the new origin. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the y-axis.

Once your construction plane is positioned. for example. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. in the dynamic preview. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point.and yaxes to a new location.D. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. drag the construction plane's new x.D location where it needs to be. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.Rhino 2. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. choose the new origin. At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. 198 . If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin.

Rhino 2. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. 199 . The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. select a curve or surface.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane.

choose the new origin.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose the new origin.axis. choose a point on the z. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. choose a point on the x. At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. choose a point on the x. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the X axis direction prompt.Rhino 2. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the X axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. At the Z axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 200 .

If true arc-length mapping is desired. select a surface.Rhino 2. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. Top view of profile curves 201 . A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. the original surface must be developable. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. select the second planar curve. At the Select planar curve prompt.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. cut openings in the unrolled surface. Use UnrollSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. select the first planar curve. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface.

Rhino 2. From 2 Views. Look in the index under "Curve.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Example For an example. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve." 202 .

joining the ends of the overlap interval. 203 . The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. They are connected with a line. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. For each overlap interval. press Enter. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. When you are done adjusting the connections. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. pick on a seam point marker. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. At the Location of seam point prompt. pick a new location for the seam point. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. and move it along the curve. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. 204 . Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. reversing the direction of the curve.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface.

When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line.Rhino 2. with the control polygons. press Enter to end the command. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. Press Enter to stop creating curves. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the Select point on the surface prompts. At the End of cross-section line prompt. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. pick near a control point. V or Both directions. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. end the line for the cross section plane. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. select a surface. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. that passes through the profile curves. The control point for the surface appear. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 .

CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. For best results.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.Rhino 2. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . space the cross section curves relatively evenly. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.

click to create the circle object. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. select a curve. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible.Rhino 2. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. the curve is locally flat. This does not automate finding the inflection points. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. 2 207 . Or. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. press Esc to end the command without change. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar.

Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green.Rhino 2. and other important properties. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. set the style and range. Options Gaussian In the images below. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. For example. curvature. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. 208 . In the Curvature dialog box. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like.

5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. cylinders.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. Set the value for blue rather high (10. Blue areas should be safe. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). In the case of an offset. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. 209 . (Planes. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. In the case of the mill." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing.>1000) and the red close to infinity.>100.Rhino 2.

As a starting point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. These meshes can be large. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. At any point on a curve in the plane. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. this may result in a rather uninformative image. or to the right of the curve. the normal to the surface at that point.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. these values may not be appropriate. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. and the direction. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. both free and attached to objects. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. This is known as signed curvature. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. unlike a simple soap film. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. A soap bubble. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. then we establish a convention. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. If we care about this. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value.Rhino 2. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue.

A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. frequency. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. such as wire loops. close the dialog box.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. Curvature graph on surface. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. Adjust the length. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. This contrasts with a soap bubble.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. 211 . To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or.Rhino 2. even when other commands are started. u.

In other words. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. Degree 5 curve 212 . They are not curvature continuous. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. However.Rhino 2. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. or tangent only. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.

The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way.Rhino 2. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. 3. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. Gaussian curvature. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. If the graph changes smoothly. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. 3. Press F2 to show the Command History window. As you move your cursor.D normal. that is. minimum principal curvature. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. Curve Draw a curve by control points. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. To see the circle. maximum principal curvature. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. At any point on a curve (except lines). 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. If isoparm display is turned off. pick a point on the surface.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line.D point. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. To better grasp this. negative when the circles point opposite ways.

When drawing a high degree curve. To end the curve. enter additional control points. and pick.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. At the Next point. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. press Enter. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. The curve closes. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. enter an additional control point.Rhino 2. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. enter the start of the curve. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. At the Next point. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Press Alt to suspend autoclose.

4 215 . select the box. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. second moments. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.1. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2.1e-006. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. When you Paste objects into Rhino. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0 (+/. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.7e-006. If the layer does not exist. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.4601236.014). select the box.8545412. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. it is created when the object is pasted.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.34 (+/. product moments.1. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. First moments.1.0). At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.0. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.

At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. At the End of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.3921 (+/. press Enter to stop making cut planes.0. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box.Rhino 2. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0001). 216 . At the Start of cut plane prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. select the first point of a line to define a plane. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. product moments. second moments. choose a point for the center of the top surface.1. Solid cylinder 217 . volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0.Rhino 2. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. choose a radius. At the End of cylinder prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt.7e-006. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.4601236. select the box. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0 (+/. choose a center point for the base. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Radius prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. select the box. First moments.8545412.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1.0). and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.1e-006. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.

Rhino 2. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Delete Delete selected objects. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. use New command instead. To start a new model. Press Delete. 218 .0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. saved views. All objects in the model are deleted. use the Erase command. Layers.

At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. use the arm to choose a y. select your digitizing arm. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. 219 . Surface after outside trimming curve detached. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis in the real world. Surface before outside trimming curve detached.axis. and the trim curve is created. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve.axis is perpendicular to the x. select the proper serial port and baud rate. Rhino will do it for you. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. In the Baud Rate dialog box. You do not need to ensure that the y. use the arm to choose an x. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.Rhino 2. choose an origin in Rhino. select a boundary to detach. Similar to Untrim .axis in the real world. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box.

0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer.axis in Rhino. choose a y. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. arcs. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. or the object moves slightly. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. recording reference points as you go. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. You can draw lines. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. you can use the digitizer. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. If it is more convenient. and is assigned to the F12 key. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. choose an x. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. 220 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. and curves with the digitizer. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. circles. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input.Rhino 2. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Thus. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. Whatever the reason. Digitize the third set of reference points. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt.

From the Tools menu. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. and Y for the origin. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 .axis on the table. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. and then click Calibrate. use the arm to choose a y.axis on the table.axes. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Label each point O. or you need to close and restart Rhino. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. click Digitize. Y. and O. This is the reference polyline. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y.. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. and y. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. If the digitizer or object moves. X. x. click Digitize. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. From the Tools menu. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. use the arm to choose an x. Microscribe. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table.

enter the start of the section plane axis. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. a point is sampled. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. enter 2. and spacing. direction. At the Start of axis prompt. You can space the planes at intervals. specify how you want to space the planes. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. At the Third point on plane prompt. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. At the Second point on plane prompt. The planes are defined with a base point. enter 25. To digitize in centimeters. When you finish digitizing points on the object. Press Enter when you are finished. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. enter a second point on the base plane. type the scale factor for all digitized input. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them.Rhino 2. enter a third point on the base plane. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. As long as the pedal is depressed. To digitize in millimeters. enter a point on the base plane.4. To digitize in meters. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. hold the pedal. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. enter 0.54. 222 .0254. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. Type C to create a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt.

pick a second line. 223 . pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Rhino samples points. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. At the Select second line prompt. As long as the pedal is depressed. enter the distance between sampled points. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. At the Place the dimension prompt.Rhino 2. a point is sampled. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. When you release the pedal. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. pick a line. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the Second dimension point prompt.

DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . pick a curve.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve.Rhino 2. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Second dimension point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

225 . enter an angle for the dimension line. enter the second point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. pick a curve. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. At the First dimension point prompt.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.Rhino 2. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. At the Second reference point prompt. At the Place the dimension prompt.

The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. At the Second dimension point prompt. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Press Enter to terminate the display. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. At the Dimension line location prompt. red and green arrows show the u. Dir Show direction display.directions at the point. type F. At the Dimension line location prompt. On surfaces. pick a point for the dimension line location. surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt.Rhino 2. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. to change the direction. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal.and v. select a curve. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Curve direction 226 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt.

At the Start of light direction vector prompt. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions.and v. the UReverse.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. VReverse. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. 227 .Rhino 2. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. The directional light icon does not render or shade.order and direction. pick a location for the directional light. unless you apply textures. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. The location of the directional light does not matter.

light the scene less. Darker colors. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. pick a point. like gray. right-click the Disable checkbox. When Object snaps are disabled. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. 228 . DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. Distance Measure the distance between two points. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. clear the Disable checkbox.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. At the Number of segments prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. select the curves to divide and press Enter. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Point objects are not a part of any other object. reversing the direction of the curve. use the Split command. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Note Point objects display as small squares. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt.0000 units. At the Length of segments prompt. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 229 . DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. type an integer number and press Enter. select curves and press Enter. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.Rhino 2. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects.

If you want points to start at the other end. Point objects are not a part of any other object. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength.Rhino 2. use the Split command. or polysurface to evaluate.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. use the Dir command to flip the curve. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. select a curve. 230 . DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. surface. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. When a polysurface is picked.

Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. 231 . Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. type the text to show in the dot. You can check this with the Dir command. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. At the Location of dot prompt. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. enter the location of the dot. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane.

Rhino 2. DragMode Toggle drag mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . A surface is created that drapes over the objects.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.

or bnd (boundary). The Dup command only duplicates curves. and solids. then select the edge to duplicate. For example. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. type f (face). DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. type c (curve). Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. It does not duplicate points. Because of this. and press Enter. Dup Duplicate an object. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. select an object to duplicate.Rhino 2. meshes. edge. surfaces. dimensions. or lights. the surface will always sag more than the original. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. The object will be duplicated in place. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. Duplicate border curve 233 . and polysurfaces. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. To limit your selection to surfaces. but it only makes points. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. surfaces. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. textblocks. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations.

Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the edges of a surface. Or. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the third curve. For many surface creation commands. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. select the second curve. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. select the first curve. 234 . At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. select the fourth curve.Rhino 2. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . type new text. select a dimension. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. For a surface from closed planar curves. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. You can use surface edges. EditDim Edit dimension text. use Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Type the new text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. In the Edit Text dialog box.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. 236 . The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. set the options. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text.Rhino 2. They are not the same as knots. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. select a text block. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter.

You can enter the number of control points.25 inches.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. enter the endpoint for the second axis. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. The two sizes update each other. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. At the End of first axis prompt. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. At the End of second axis prompt. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Example If your units are inches. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. enter the center point. When you place annotation text.Rhino 2.

238 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a focus point. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter the second focus point. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. enter the end of the axis. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the End of first axis prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. Draw an ellipse from focus points. enter the end of the second axis.

enter the second focus point. or type a height and press Enter. choose an endpoint for the major axis. choose an endpoint. 239 . Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. End of second axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. End of first axis prompt. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the minor axis.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. enter a focus point. End of third axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. choose a center point. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid.

select a bitmap file to use for mapping. and other important properties. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials.Rhino 2. 240 .0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. These meshes can be large. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. When you use the EMap command. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.

in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected. but will always work. on the Shade tab. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. select More reliable. 241 . under Zebra and EMap. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions.Rhino 2. When Faster is selected. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box.

This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. you are moving control points of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. In each case. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. select a surface edge. as with the Blend command. drag point indicators. One-point-per-end mode. At the End of region to edit.Rhino 2. At the Start of region to edit. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. maintains the tangent direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. No means there is one drag point. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. 242 . Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle.

so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. aliases.2 does the same thing as Circle 0.Rhino 2. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.1 2. the script Circle 0.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.1 2. For example.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. 243 .and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. During EndBulgeSrf editing. After editing.

Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. select a point.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. If the surface is trimmed. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. Note When a polysurface is picked. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface.z format. select the objects you want to erase. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of.y. and the U. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. click points on the surface. 244 . the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. At the Select objects to erase prompt. select the surface to evaluate. Press Enter when done prompt. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. the untrimmed surface is used.Rhino 2. A point object is created on the surface. Exit Exit Rhino.

Rhino supports several file types. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. Click Save. layer color. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select objects to explode. Use the Explode command. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. In the Files of type box. 245 . Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the File name box. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export.Rhino 2. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. select the file type you want to use. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Export Export selected objects to a file. This command is obsolete. and selected mass properties.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. object render color. In the File name box. File. In the Files of type box. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. type a filename. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. type a filename.0 files. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Click Save. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. object name.

Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Extend Extend a curve. At the next Select boundary objects. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. Or. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. The extension is joined to the original curve. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Or. select a boundary object to extend to. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Click Save. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. type a filename. enter a name for the text file. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. Press Enter when done prompts.Rhino 2. At the next Select object to extend prompts.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. 246 . select objects to extend. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. In the Files of type box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the File name box. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done.

At the End point or angle prompt. select a curve to extend. surfaces. Note You can use any combination of curves. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Or. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. enter the end of the extension.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. and solids as boundary edges. 247 . Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. type an angle for the arc. At the Radius of arc prompt. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Or.

Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. At the End of arc prompt. use Extend a curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Select near the end of the curve to extend.Rhino 2. select a curve to extend. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . the extension will be joined to the original curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. enter the endpoint of the extension. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes.

the extension will be joined to the original curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. select the curve to extend. At the End of line or length prompt. type a distance to extend and press Enter.Rhino 2. Or. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. if possible. select a curve to extend. Options Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. enter the endpoint for the line extension. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. near the end you want to extend. 249 . pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. or pick two points to specify the distance. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. This fixes the original. enter an amount to extend. The extension length is based on parameterization. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Note With the linear extension.Rhino 2. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. 250 . Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. depending on the shape of the object. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Then the surface is extended on the end. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor.

ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations.Rhino 2. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. If you need angled cross sections along surface. v or both directions. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. If you need to place an object on a surface. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. Extract several isoparms. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. and Loft a surface through them. and polygon mesh objects. use Project or Intersect. surfaces.and v-directions of the surface. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. If you need curved cross sections. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. choose a point. and isoparms display at the marker. The marker is constrained to the surface. In contrast to InsertKnot.

or type a distance and press Enter. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. At the Extrusion distance prompt. drag the desired distance and pick. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. Note ExtractPt works on curves. select curves and press Enter. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. the surface is copied. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. If you choose the Copy option. surfaces. select surfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Main. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. The original surface is left intact. 252 . and polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. Solid Tools.

Round. Smooth. This option does not appear for open curves. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. and Chamfer. The choices are Sharp. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .Rhino 2. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. then the extrusion is in that direction. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Otherwise.

At the Extrusion distance prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. draw two lines at right angles. The default is vertical to the construction plane. At the Point to extrude to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. 254 . pick a point. select surfaces and press Enter. At the Select path curve prompt. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. select the curve. select the path curve. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. choose the point. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. or enter a distance and press Enter. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. select the curve to extrude. To draw a deformable plane. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt.

0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. Or. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Join To change the Join option. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. select curves and press Enter. type R and press Enter. enter a number. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. At the Tolerance prompt. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. type J and press Enter. 255 . type the fillet radius and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. or accept the default and press Enter. Fillet Fillet two curves.

select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. choose the first surface to fillet. choose the second surface to fillet.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface.Rhino 2. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. In general. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. enter a tolerance.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Each face has a constant monochrome color. If you have a dense string of points. The original curves are unchanged. For scripting. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. 257 . select curves and press Enter. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. The curves are refitted. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges.Rhino 2. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. At the Fitting tolerance <0. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up.

Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Each face has a constant monochrome color. 258 . If OpenGL shading is turned on. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. this shading mode may be much faster. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. axes. object highlighting. the OpenGL shade options will be available.Rhino 2. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. click Options. On the Shade tab. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Use OpenGL. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. The grid. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.Rhino 2. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. 259 . select curves. the OpenGL shade options will be available. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. On the Shade tab. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. such as Union instead of Difference. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. If OpenGL shading is turned on. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. but their directions are reversed. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. enter a number and press Enter. At the Increment size prompt. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. click Use OpenGL. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. that define the outline of the flattened surface.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. The objects looks exactly the same. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. If Booleans give unexpected results. click Options. this shading mode may be much faster. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane.

At the New backbone curve . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Flow does not work on polysurfaces. select the new backbone curve to flow to. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. At the Original backbone curve . Front Set to world front view.Rhino 2. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Flow works on the control points of an object . select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. Instead of drawing a line before the command. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. This curve will be used as a new backbone. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. especially those with trimmed edges. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve.

GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. Grid Toggle the display of the grid. At the Second curve . select the second curve near the coinciding end. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve .Rhino 2. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line.select near end prompt.select near end prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. you must edit your Rhino. 261 .

A handlebar displays on the curve. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. 262 . click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select the curve or surface to edit. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. You can then apply commands to the entire group. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Group Place selected objects in a group. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one.Rhino 2. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt.

select the surface to edit. adjust options. A handlebar will display on the surface. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. In the Heightfield dialog box. At the First corner prompt. or enter a length. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. pick a point. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. pick a point. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap.Rhino 2. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. At the Second corner or length prompt. 263 . Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. select a bitmap file.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. At the End of axis prompt.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. 264 . Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. If you select Pitch. If you select Reverse twist. At the Radius prompt. enter the start of the helix axis. select Turns or Pitch. This is the line the helix will wind around. the helix will twist counterclockwise. enter the end of the helix axis. enter the radius for the helix. If you select Turns. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the number of turns for the helix.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Visibility.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. 265 . close the Osnap dialog box. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. If you exit the model and reopen it. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt.Rhino 2. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Status bar: Osnap Or. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. select the objects you want to hide. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Organic. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times.

axis or the y. and press Enter. the command does nothing. The visible objects hide. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. The smaller the number.Rhino 2. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone.0 and 1. enter a number between 0. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100.axis. Longitude=X. Waterline Length Length at water line. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). not a statement of a physical principle. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. ) prompt. (This is a limitation of the command.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. 266 . only half of the model needs to be given. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Use 1. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. that is. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. The longitudinal direction. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. the more concentrated the hotspot. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. The information displays in a separate window. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.

Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. 267 . ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. select curves.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. If the imported file type does not support layers. In the File name box. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. and STL Tools File menu. the command will fail. select Rhino 3D Models. the objects are placed on the current layer. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. type a filename. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. Note Rhino supports many file types. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Click Open. The objects are reparameterized. File.Rhino 2. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). click Import/Merge In the Files of type box.

1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm tricky 1a 2. etc. and rotate.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. 268 . Scale Scales the objects. y.3dm hi 1. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. type a filename. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object.3dm hi 2. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. scale. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. At the Scale factor <1.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.3dm bg 32985. If you say yes. In the File name box. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. and z-directions.3dm tricky 1a. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs.3dm bg 32986. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. it does.Rhino 2. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. The scale operation works just like the Scale command.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt. At the Rotation Angle <0. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. Options Rotate Rotates the objects.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.3dm tricky 1a 1. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. Click Open.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. If you say no. choose a start angle. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. or a point to rotate from.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x.0.3dm tricky 1a 1. select Rhino 3D Models. Press Enter to place the model at 0.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.

Rhino 2. select the curve to insert edit points to. After inserting kinks. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. choose points where you want to insert a kink. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. 269 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. press Enter to end the command. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve.

At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots. 270 . V.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. or Both. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. select a surface.Rhino 2. pick points of the surface for new knots.

0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface.Rhino 2. and the parts are joined. enter an additional point. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. To end the curve. At the End of line prompt. press Enter. enter additional points. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). pick a point for the end of the straight segment. At the Next point of curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. At the Start of line prompt. enter the start of the curve. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. A straight line replaces part of the curve. 271 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. The curve closes automatically. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. and pick. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Main.

Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. At the Start of curve prompt.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. At the Next point on curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. The marker is constrained to the surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. 3. 9. and 11. select a surface. Valid degrees are 1. choose the first point of the curve. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. choose an additional point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. 5. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. 7. When you draw an interpolated curve. Sharp When you make a closed curve.Rhino 2. 272 . it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized.

it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Close Creates a closed curve. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Object snaps End. Knot.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Midpoint. Near.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Cen.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. 273 . and Intersection work.

To create surface and solid intersections. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Non-polyline curves are rejected. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Intersect Intersect two objects. use the BooleanIntersection command.Rhino 2. Invert Invert the selection. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated.

Rhino 2. 275 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Join Join objects. Points selected. select objects. press Enter. Invert also selects the polysurface. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. When you are finished selecting objects to join. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Contrast this with the Invert command.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. which also selects other objects.

If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. NetworkSrf. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. then the second one gets moved. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. If the edges are too far out of line. For the group joiner. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. If not. BlendSrf. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. and resetting the tolerance. use MergeSrf. or Patch. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. but are not coincident.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. Do you want to join these edges?". doing a Join. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. If you use JoinEdge. When two edges are joined. Using the Millimeter template. but the surfaces aren't changed at all.015 units apart. depending on what you may do with the model. NetworkSrf. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. Booleans. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. use MergeSrf. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. BlendSrf. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Booleans. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. or Patch. you can have some problems later on. no join occurs. a 3. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. 276 . For simplicity. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance.Rhino 2. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining.

If there are naked edges. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. y. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. 277 . It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Booleans. use MergeSrf. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. NetworkSrf. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. No mesh points are moved. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined.Rhino 2. This command does not work in all cases. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. The action performed is reported on the command line. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. The picking order can make the difference. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. merged or deleted. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. BlendSrf. select curves. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. or Patch.

Start the Lasso command.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. but you cannot select them. Lasso Select points with a lasso. press Enter to close the lasso.Rhino 2. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Click the Lock option. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Select Points. 278 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. select the layers you want to lock. See the PluginManager command. In the Edit Layers dialog box.

Layer Three" 279 .Layer Two. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). type the name of the layer to turn off. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. unlike the Lock (object) command.Two. separate the layer names with commas: One. Click the Off option. from the list select layers you want to turn on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Note For layer names with spaces.Rhino 2. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Layer Two. Note For layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). select the layers you want to turn off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Two. separate the layer names with commas: One. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. type the name of the layer to lock.Layer Two. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. LayerOff Turn a layer off. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. separate the layer names with commas: One.Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three". surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. LayerOn Turn a layer on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. from the list. Click the On option. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Layer Three". surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. type the name of the layer to turn on. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt.

Rhino 2. pick the start of the leader. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. At the Next point of leader.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. pick additional points. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . Press Enter to stop the command. Left Set to world left view. This is the arrow end. They will not show in the perspective view. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. pick the next point on the leader line. At the Next point of leader. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed.

The line extends on both sides of the start point. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. Line Draw a line. polylines. arcs. Line.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. polysurfaces. including lines and polylines. select a curve or edge. circles. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt.Rhino 2. pick the start point for the line. you can select any of these curve objects. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. At the End of line prompt. surfaces. and can be used to create other curves. and meshes. pick the end point for the line. ellipses. BothSides option selected 281 . The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves.

and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. enter the end of the line. At the Start of line prompt. At the End of base line prompt. enter the start of the base line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. 282 . The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. enter the second point. enter the start of the base line. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. enter the start of the line. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. At the End of line prompt. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt.

Rhino 2. 283 . At the End of line prompt. enter the end of the base line.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. type an angle and press Enter. At the Pivot angle prompt. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. and parallel to the current construction plane. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. At the Select object prompts. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. pick the end of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. enter pick endpoints for segments. When you are finished drawing lines. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. press Enter. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. enter the start of the first line segment. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. At the End of line prompts. 284 .Rhino 2. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. enter the end of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. 285 . LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve.

At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. 286 .Rhino 2. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.

Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. LineV Draw a vertical line.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar.Rhino 2. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. At the End of line prompt. enter the second endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. Line vertical to construction plane. or enter a length and press Enter. BothSides option selected 287 .

A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. on the Options dialog box. Close Closes the dialog box. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. select one object. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. See the PluginManager command. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. You can download plug-ins. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files.Rhino 2. Load Loads a selected script file. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. 288 . LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. enter an integer. the code interpreted and run immediately.rhino3d. from www. or press Enter to accept the default. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. If the script file just contains script expressions.com/plug-ins. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view.

select the objects you want to lock. In the scripts folder (e. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them.0 Beta\Scripts). Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. pick on a seam point marker. adjust options. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.exe is located (e..g.g. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. Note You cannot select locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. Lock Lock objects..0 Beta).0 Beta\System). pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.g. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead.. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. When you are done adjusting the connections. In the folder where Rhino. At the Location of seam point prompt. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. The unlocked objects lock. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.Rhino 2. 289 . You can snap to locked objects. In the install folder (e. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. Preview. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. In the Loft Options dialog box. press Enter. Select open curves near the same ends. and move it along the closed curve.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. 291 . The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction.Rhino 2. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface.

Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. This is also known as a ruled surface. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Available when you have selected three shape curves. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Units tab before lofting. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface.Rhino 2. 292 . Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting.

If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. If the curves have kinks. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. Preview Click to preview the loft. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface.Rhino 2. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. cones. or wrinkle. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. the surface is not developable. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. If the surface is not linear in one direction. too. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. and some steel ship hulls. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. 293 . Surfaces can be created in other ways. These are called ruling lines. you may get unexpected results. You may get no surface or a partial surface. tear. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface.

It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. 294 .D surface. thereby smoothing the surface. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. You just have to be careful. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable.

expand the plates. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. 295 . Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout.Rhino 2. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).y-plane. select the layout and object visibility options. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. aluminum). 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft.D models. though. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut.

There is no way to avoid this. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). 296 .0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing.D view.Rhino 2. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added.D drawings from mesh objects. they may not appear on the correct layer. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. Note This command does not create 2. If two surfaces pass through each other. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown.

Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. Other closed curves. Then use control point editing on both curves. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. 297 . To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. select the first curve at the end that will move. At the Select curve to match .Rhino 2. To get a feel for what the command does. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. At the Choose an object prompt. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Match Match two curves. select a curve to make periodic. If the curve was open. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. If a joined curve is made periodic.pick near end prompt. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. Close the dialog box. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. it is closed. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. Sometimes. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. This command tries to fix those surfaces.

Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. 298 .Rhino 2. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. 299 . The curves are merged together after the match. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity.Rhino 2. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. If you edit this curve with control points.

select the edge of the surface to match. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. 300 . Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. If the target surface is also untrimmed. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity).select near edge prompt. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. In the Match Surface dialog box.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces.Rhino 2. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity).select near edge prompt. choose the type of match. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. select the edge of the target surface. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. At the Select target surface .

301 .Rhino 2. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. Generally. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. If necessary. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance.

Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. 302 . in degrees. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. percent. in units. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces.Rhino 2. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed.

A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. If you need to match to part of an edge. Something like position = 0.2. but it will still be a valid trim. it will stay roundish.Rhino 2. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. If the surface being changed is trimmed. 303 . Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. In these cases. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. it may be useful to preview without refinement. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. If refinement is interrupted. This is the hardest condition to meet. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. especially if tight tolerances are specified. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. but if the conditions are wrong. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. If refinement is specified. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. If it is roundish. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. it can twist the surface near the edge.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. That may be several seconds. but you will get something. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. If it isn't. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. This is sometimes useful.knot spacing to curvature vector. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already.) In usable terms. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning.

and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. select an adjacent edge. if possible. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. double click the viewport title bar. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. must belong to the same surface. select the first surface to merge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge.1 ) prompt. Or. select the second surface. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. double click the viewport title bar. Maximize Maximize Rhino. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. then click Restore. 304 . and the prompt repeats. Note The edges must be naked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. must share an endpoint.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. Right click the viewport title bar. Or.Rhino 2. then click Maximize. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint.

Smooth The surface will be smooth.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge.Rhino 2. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . End view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.

with finer or coarser mesh. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. This is useful for modeling half of an object. Generally. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. 306 . The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. mirroring it. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. editable surface. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). The default is 1 (full smoothing). Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. The resulting surface can be edited. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface.Rhino 2. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. For closed surfaces.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . Once you have trimmed surfaces. In some ways. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. you have to approach things differently. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. A mesh can be preview and then created.

These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. more accurate meshes. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Scale independent.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. 307 . When the Refine is checked. edge to Srf options.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. and adjustment for trim boundaries. By default. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option.Rhino 2. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Max dist. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. less accurate meshes. When the Refine is checked. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Limits the size of the polygon edges. and lower polygon count. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. By default. which is the default. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Zero means no limit. Jagged seams is not selected. When this Refine is checked. No refinement results in faster meshing. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. In practice. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. after initial meshing. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). and higher polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Setting Max dist. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. which is the default. Simple planes is not selected. Zero means no minimum. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. more accurate meshes. Scale-dependent. The default is zero. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. and higher polygon count. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Scale independent. Default is 0.

or type in a height and press Enter. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. Or type in a length and press Enter. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. 308 . and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. choose the cone's point. not editable. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. At the Height prompt. choose a height. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. or type in a width and press Enter. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. choose a diagonal corner. choose a radius. At the End of cone prompt. at the Width prompt. choose a width by picking. If a length was entered. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. choose a corner of the box. choose a center point for the base. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane.

Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose a radius.Rhino 2. joined from a base circular mesh. At the Height prompt. and a open cone-shaped mesh. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. choose a height. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. choose a center point for the base. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. joined from a base and top circular meshes.

select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. If a length was entered. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. at the Width prompt. choose a corner of the plane. choose a width by picking. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. Or type in a length and press Enter. choose a the diagonal corner. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. 310 . The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. At the Other corner or length prompt. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. or type in a width and press Enter. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner.Rhino 2. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline.

0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. At the Radius prompt. choose a center point. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. 311 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.Rhino 2. choose a radius. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.

Press delete to delete the original. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. choose a point to move the objects from. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Select the objects.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. 312 . choose a point on the mirror plane. The original is left selected. Minimize Minimize Rhino. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. As you move the cursor. Mirror Mirror objects. Note Mirror makes a copy. Move Move objects. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy.

choose a location for objects. pick a new location for the base point. corner2. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. or z-direction. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction.0 Command Reference Or. Slider scale affects this mode. to move the objects vertically. At the Point to move to prompt. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. and n. To move objects small amounts.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. Along control polygon The u. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. 313 . Modeling Aids tab. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. At the Choose offset point prompt. y-. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. you can type corner1. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. corner3. type V and press Enter.sliders to move the selected control points. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. During the command.Rhino 2. MoveUVN Use u-. pick a base point. v-. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap.

314 . Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. rename or delete unwanted named views.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. All points to edit have to be selected. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. NamedView Edit named views. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. All points to edit have to be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves.Rhino 2. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box.

You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. The default is the system tolerance. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. the surface will have four edges. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges.Rhino 2. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. 315 . Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. The default is the system tolerance x 10. you can turn the automatic sorter off. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Edge Matching After the command is done. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. the best guess is made at the surface. If you want to select the curves individually. be sure to select the surface edge. The surface will be created. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature.

Position. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .Rhino 2. Select from Loose. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Tangent. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities.

This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. For example. layers. drag a window for a new viewport. grid settings. viewport layout.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. New Create a new model. NewViewport Create a new viewport. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. and tolerances. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. select a template to base your model file on. Use New to open the template you want to change. 318 . units. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt.

Start the NextU command.Rhino 2. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the u-direction is selected. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Start the NextV command. 319 . Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Select a point on the surface.

pick a point for the end of the line. At the Point on surface prompt. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. At the Length of line prompt. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.Rhino 2. choose a point on the surface. or enter a length and press Enter. 320 . The marker is constrained to the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. select a surface.

Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. it will be open next time the model is opened. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Offset Offset a curve. Line normal to a surface. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. copy. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model.Rhino 2. type information you want to save with the model. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 .

you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance.Rhino 2. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Otherwise.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. the resulting surface is exact. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. cylinder. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. torus. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. sphere. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. click on one side the curve. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. A surface and its offset 322 . Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Note For best results. select a curve or edge. Negative values offset the other way. or cone is offset. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. When a plane.

Note Rhino supports several file types. File.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Open Open an existing model. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. they are also unlocked. select the layer to turn on. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. so the fact that they are locked is lost.Rhino 2. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. In the File name box. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. they are not converted to NURBS objects. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Click Open. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. select Rhino 3D Models. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. not the trim edges. 323 . Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. type a filename. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. When you turn the layers back on. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. All other layers will be turned off. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor.

and the number of columns when floating. Options Opens the Options dialog box. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. or some of them may be hidden. In the Open Workspace dialog box. and whether it is hidden or showing. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. type c and press Enter. 324 . the buttons in them. The prompt will change to Scale=No. click Open. the screen position of each toolbar. whether it is floating or docked. Or. Scale If Scale=No. to orient copies of the objects. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. The objects are moved. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. from the File menu. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. select a workspace file. pick a target point for the first reference point. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. pick a target point for the second reference point. type s and press Enter. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. but objects remain the same size.Rhino 2.

defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. to orient copies of the objects. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. The two triplet of points define two planes. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Or. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. select objects and press Enter. select the surface. The three points are not interchangeable. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3.Rhino 2. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. 325 . OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. with the other two reference points. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. If the curve does not start on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. pick a point that. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. and an arrow indicates the normal direction.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. The Mirror option toggles between them. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. 326 . Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). As you move the cursor over the surface. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical.and v-directions. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction.Rhino 2. There are four possible orientations on the surface. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies.

The object will be perpendicular to the curve. you will get different end results. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. select the curve you want to align the object to. The cursor tracks along the curve. are all toggles. click a point on the curve to move the object. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. If you pick this point in different views. At the Base point prompt. 327 . The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step.Rhino 2. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. select a base point on the object. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. Shift Note The Ortho command. and the F8 key. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object.

Off. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. The default angle is 90 degrees. Note When Ortho is on. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. When polysurfaces are meshed. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. the packed texture coordinates are created. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. At the Ortho Angle prompt. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. 328 . When Ortho is on. and Toggle. Modeling Aids tab. Polysurface made of four surfaces.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. If more than one object is selected. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The default angle is 90 degrees. Packed textures. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. type the new angle and press Enter. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set.

Pan Pan the view. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. PanRight Pan the view right. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Front. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys.Rhino 2. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 329 . use the Pan command. PanLeft Pan the view left. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. use the Pan command. use the Pan command. PanDown Pan the view down.

Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. use the Pan command. Direction. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. enter a point for an end of the parabola.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. From the Curve menu. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Focus. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. Focus From the Curve menu. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. show a direction for the parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. 330 . click Parabola. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. and then click Vertex. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Focus. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. click Parabola.

End. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Focus and direction. 4 Vertex and focus. 331 . enter a point on the parabola's edge. Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.

Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. they are pasted into your model. it is created when the object is pasted. Uncapped paraboloid. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. When you Paste objects into Rhino.0 Command Reference End.Rhino 2. 332 . Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.

Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. it will be very close to reasonable input. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. To make a highly curved surface. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. but with proper configuration. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Note This command can be very useful. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. you may need a starting surface. select the point objects. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. select curves that form a closed shape. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch).Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. adjust options. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Minimum of 8 points per curve. These don't have to be connected. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. In the Patch Options dialog box. and edges to base the patch on. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Even for a relatively flat patch. curves. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. For a trimmed patch. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. but it also can produce some unexpected results. 333 .

It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script.Rhino 2. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. Pause is a built in command option. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. Perspective Set to perspective view. 334 . you must edit your Rhino. and type PerspectiveMatch. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. aliases. 2 The wallpaper image. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.

Rhino 2. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. The first point on the model. The first point on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. 4 All points picked on the model. 335 . All points picked on the image.

This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. Make the image view large. Pick carefully. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model.Rhino 2. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. etc. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. you have modified your model. If possible.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. In particular. At the Length of picture frame prompt. select a bitmap file to use. changed the viewport settings. This aids in accurate image point picking. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. Note The image must be a true perspective image. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. Pipe Draw a pipe.

For an open curve. at the End radius prompt. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. At the First end radius prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. At the First corner prompt. 337 . At the Starting radius prompt. select a curve. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. At the Starting radius prompt. select a curve. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. At the Second corner or length prompt. Click Open. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. If the pipe objects are capped.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. if the curve is closed. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second end radius prompt. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. Or. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. Thick The pipe has two walls. enter the radius for the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. and the closed pipe is created.Rhino 2. select a bitmap file. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. At the Second start radius prompt. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. type T and press Enter. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle.

In PARALLEL viewports. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Front. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. enter the target point.Y. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. At the New target location <X. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. 3-D Digitizing. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. BMP. 338 .Y. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. align it (move and scale in one operation). then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. You can move the background bitmap. enter the camera point. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. Placing a second deletes the first. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. see Place a bitmap backdrop. By default the Top. and temporarily hide it. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports.Z> prompt. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. TGA. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. PCX. To place a backdrop behind your model. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. remove it. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. not a part of the scene that will be rendered.Z> prompt. scale it. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. and JPG.

You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. From the Curve menu.Z> prompt. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. In PERSPECTIVE views. Toolbar: Menu Set View. Without Planar on. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. 339 . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. enter the target point. (Watch the Top and Right viewports).Rhino 2. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport.Y. In PERSPECTIVE views. Planar Toggle planar mode. regardless of where the previous point was picked. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. 3-D Digitizing. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. click Free-form. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. then click Control Points.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. In PARALLEL viewports. PlaceTarget Place the target location. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

select a mesh object. To end the polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. To end the polyline. press Enter. enter the start point of the polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts.Rhino 2. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter. start the polyline. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline. making a closed polyline. 349 . At the Next point of polyline prompts.

Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. making a closed polyline. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. 350 . PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.Rhino 2.

The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Start the PrevU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. 351 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. Start the PrevV command.

Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. the objects outside the viewport are printed. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. 352 . No viewport edge is printed. If you fit the image to the page. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. print to a file.Rhino 2. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. print scale. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. color. Always.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. The part that does not fit is not printed. and each viewport is printed in its area. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. the central part of the view is printed. the contents are printed on top of each other. If viewports overlap. and number of copies.

Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. as the paper you're printing on. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. If the objects don't fit. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. if they don't fit on the page. hide them.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. and same orientation. Then. PrintSetup Set up your printer. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. not printing from perspective viewports. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. Light objects do not print. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. too. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. It will crop objects that are visible. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. Print. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer.Rhino 2. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. If you want to print at some other scale. (Actually.

Basic shapes like ellipses. Project will never work correctly for this. Properties Edit object properties. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. surfaces. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. curves. and polysurfaces. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. set the projection type for the viewport.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. and free-form curves work well. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. circles. however. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. choose to keep or delete the input objects.Rhino 2. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. lines. This command works on points. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 .

The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. STL Tools. STL Tools. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. Organic. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Main. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. To control point edit a polysurface. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Toolbar: Menu: Main. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Point Editing. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. Point Editing.

drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface.Rhino 2. use the fewest control point possible. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back.0000. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. select a curve to measure. select the surface to pull the curves back to. Then. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. When drawing the curves. Both commands ask for the viewport name. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. Use curve commands to draw the curve. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves.

Rhino 2. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. select a rail curve. rail curve. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. Profile curve. in addition to being revolved. select a profile curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. In this case. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 .

9. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.0 23. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.0.2. Note When building command files.txt Click the button to read the file.Rhino 2. readcommandfile myfile. a file dialog box appears. ! Interpcrv 23. If you read in a particular file often.9. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.1 26. You can then select a file from the list. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.4.1. If the rail curve is closed.2.1. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. The file contents are copied into the command line. If you leave off the filename.4. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.0 27.5.1.5.8. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.9 Enter etc….0 23.4.1. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.8. 358 .5. select the file to read. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.7. use the Enter command. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. leaving only the rebuilt curves. 359 . Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. the highest number of control points is shown. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. When you are satisfied with the results.Rhino 2. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. If more than one curve is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. but a more accurate fit. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. use the FitCrv command. click OK. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves.

select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. draw two planes several units apart. Edges are pulled away from the surface. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. To see what it does. in the Degree box. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface.Rhino 2. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. select an object. The degree can be set to 1 through 9.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. in the Point Count boxes. Joined and exploded polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command.

You will be prompted for the width.Rhino 2. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. 361 . Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. choose a corner for the rectangle. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. Delete Input Deletes the original surface.an v-directions. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. Or. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. enter the length of the rectangle. At the Other corner or length prompt. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves.

Rhino 2. 362 . enter the end of the same edge. select the center point of the rectangle. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. At the Width prompt. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the End of edge prompt. enter the width of the rectangle. Or. select a corner point. enter the length of the rectangle. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. You will be prompted for the width. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. At the Corner or length prompt.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners.

0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. 363 . At the End of edge prompt. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter.Rhino 2. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. At the Height of rectangle prompt.

An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. click Preview. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. General tab. 364 . This makes this command scriptable. To see the results of the reduction. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. set the polygon count.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. To reduce the size of the model file. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session.Rhino 2. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. to remap copies of the objects. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. For one thing. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). Or. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. 365 . click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. avoid clearing meshes. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. After RefreshShade. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. type c and press Enter. which may be undesirable in some cases. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .

367 . At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. At the Click knot to remove prompt.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. and Blend commands. Sweep2. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. At the Select knotline to remove. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. select a curve. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Use the Group command to group objects together. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt.Rhino 2. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select objects. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. which is equal to the degree. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. In particular. select a surface. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt.

for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. When on. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. expanded to fill the page.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport.Rhino 2. Render tab. the current working folder. It has a single menu: File. and render again. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. Render tab. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. 368 . the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. increase the size of the viewport.

see Troubleshooting OpenGL. When on. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. or bump mapping. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Basically.Rhino 2. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. zoom. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. Does not show shadows. Toolbar: Render 369 .

Rhino 2. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.and v. and similar prompts. Example You have two surfaces side by side. At the New U begin domain prompt.length of righty is about 11.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. The y. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. including the domain unless you apply textures. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. 370 . set the new limits of the u. In this example.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. the texture is not distorted.and vdomains for the surface. (In this example. However.length for both is about 22 units. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. First you must set the u. let's call them lefty and righty. the x. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. The x.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. it is distorted. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.

Or. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. then click Set View. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. choose a point on the revolution axis. 371 . RestoreView Restore a named view. Revolve Revolve a curve. select the named view to restore. or to restore only the view. select the construction plane to restore. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box.Rhino 2. then click the name of the view to restore. Right click the title of a viewport. At the Start of revolve axis prompt.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. select one or more curves. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt.

372 . enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. defining the revolution axis. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. The marker tracks on the curve. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. choose a second point.Rhino 2. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. Enter the Start angle and End angle.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. select a curve. enter the number of control points. click Exact or Deformable. select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. If you choose Deformable. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. In the Revolve Options dialog box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. to rotate copies of the objects. or a point to rotate to. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose a start angle. or a point to rotate from. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. choose an end angle. 373 . At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. choose a point to rotate the objects around. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Or. type C and press Enter. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. Right Set to world right view.

choose a second point on the rotation axis. or choose a point to rotate from. 374 . Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. the following prompt appears. choose a point on the rotation axis. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. If you entered a point to rotate from. Or. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. to rotate copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.Rhino 2. At the End of rotate axis prompt. etc. type in an angle. At the Start of rotate axis prompt.

RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. At the Second reference point prompt. etc.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. Or. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. etc. place the construction plane. etc. etc. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the end of the rotation axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis.Rhino 2. pick a point. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the End of rotation axis prompt. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. 375 . RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane.

RotateRight Rotate the view right. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Run Run another application from Rhino. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. type the name and path of the file to run.Rhino 2. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Press the arrow keys. use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateView Rotate the view. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Name of program to run prompt. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. RotateUp Rotate the view up. 376 .

Save Save your model. select Rhino 2 3D Models.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. you can use RunScript command.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Language Specifies the language of the code. 377 . Cancel Closes the dialog box. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Click Save. or SaveAs dialog boxes. File. type a filename. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Push Pin When the button is depressed. In the File name box. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Save. Note Rhino supports several file types. Otherwise. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.Rhino 2. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. See the PluginManager command.

Click Save. In the File name box. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. You can set up grid settings. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. type a filename. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Save. type a filename. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Note Rhino supports several file types. or SaveAs dialog boxes. viewport layout. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. and tolerances and save them in a template. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. 378 . Click Save. You can also save default geometry with the template. Files tab. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. units. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane.Rhino 2. layers.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

381

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

) to select multiple objects. Note You can use wild cards (*. This command is "transparent. enter an object name." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. ?. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. all objects with no name are selected. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. SelPolyline Select all polylines." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. etc.Rhino 2. SelNone Deselect all objects. 388 .0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name.

" It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. Start the SelU command.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelPt Select all point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. 389 . Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select.direction based on previously selected control points.

select the surface.direction.Rhino 2. A surface with control points selected 390 .0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. The control points on the surface display.and v. At the Select row of points prompt.

SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. v-direction.Rhino 2. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . Start the SelV command.direction based on previously selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. or both directions.

SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. This is not the same as restoring a named view. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. Note Type w to start a window selection. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. ShadeAll. 392 . Shade tab. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.rhino3d. You can download plug-ins. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. and FlatShadeAll. from www. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name.Rhino 2.com/plug-ins. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. FlatShade. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.

0 to 1.Rhino 2. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. 393 . You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. The Undo command will work. select the layer to set current.0 to 255) Transparency (0. select an object on the layer you want to be current. Lets you name or rename a group. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. SetLayer Set the current layer.

Rhino uses a generic name. If no object name is defined. This is not the same as restoring a named view. 394 . This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. and RenderMan RIB. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize.0 to 255) Transparency (0. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. 3DS. Moray UDO. Note The object material can be used by RIB. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. If the object name has already been used. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. POV-Ray. double-click the viewport title bar.0 to 1. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Object names are exported to IGES. Or. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Or. and OBJ material/shader export.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. POV.Rhino 2. To set names for a group of objects. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt.

New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". In the Set Points dialog box. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. if you selected ten unnamed objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. enter one of the options. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. At the Ortho is Off. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. Select the objects. enter one of the options. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. use the SetObjectName command. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. Object names are not used in Rhino. and RenderMan RIB. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. At the Planar is On. To set names for individual objects. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. SetPt Set control point location. For example. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. check the coordinates you want to set. 395 . Starting number Sets the starting number. POV-Ray. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3.

You still see interactive drawing of curves. At the Grid snap is Off. enter the viewport width in pixels. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. At the Viewport height prompt. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels.Rhino 2. etc. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. 396 . SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. enter the viewport height in pixels. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off.

this shading mode may be faster. It may not be very quick the first time. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. In the Browse for Folder dialog box.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. monochrome. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Pan. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. and no antialiasing. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Shade Shade a viewport. Subsequent renderings may be faster. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. select the working directory. and a special background color appears. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. click Options. the OpenGL shade options will be available. zoom. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. The grid and axes are not shown.Rhino 2. with no shadows. If OpenGL is turned on. On the Shade tab set the options. Note Be patient on the first shade.

OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. monochrome. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. For more information. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. see www. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. On the Shade tab. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The grid.Rhino 2. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Be patient on the first Shade. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. then Rhino will use it. click Use OpenGL. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. zoom. and a special background color appears. If OpenGL is turned on.sgi. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API).org/ and www. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. with no shadows. Subsequent renderings will be faster. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. axes. The objects in current viewport are shaded. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. the OpenGL shade options will be available. It may not be very quick the first time. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. 398 . Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. Pan. On the Shade tab. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. object highlighting. this shading mode may be much faster.opengl.com/software/optimizer/. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. click Use OpenGL. click Options. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and no antialiasing. If you use OpenGL Shade. The grid and axes are not shown.

Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. 399 . Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. points. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. select the objects to shear. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. or annotation or the object will be selected. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. isoparms.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. The click cannot be near curves. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. You do not have to select an isoparm. Shear Shear objects. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.

Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. select objects and press Enter. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Visibility. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. If you exit the model and reopen it. If your object has broken edges. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. The edge is highlighted. pick the first point that defines the shear angle.Rhino 2. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. Show Show hidden objects. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. pick the base point for the shear.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. The base point does not move with the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. At the Reference point prompt. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. 400 .

Sometimes. At the Press Enter when done prompt.Rhino 2. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. If you cannot see the naked edges. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. Status bar: Osnap 401 . Camera icon. terminate the command. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. press Enter to terminate the command. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. The edges highlight. Edge Tools. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command.

ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible.Rhino 2. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . When textures are applied to surfaces. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Original trimmed surface. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. select the objects you want to show. To fix this. Organic. At the Select objects to show prompt. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. You will see no visible change in the surface. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command.

SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. the silhouette looks like an oval. 403 . Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. the silhouette is two circles. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. For example. If you look at a doughnut from the side. only backwards. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from.

0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. Release the mouse button. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Or. Sketch Sketch a curve. a polyline appears along your path. drag the mouse.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. 404 .

At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. type C. select the surface to sketch on. Sketch on surface 405 . press Enter.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. drag a curve. At the Click and drag to sketch. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. drag a curve. Or. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.Rhino 2.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt.

Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. adjust the Smooth factor. Smooth works on mesh objects. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. too. The selected control points will move slightly. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. The selected entities will appear to melt. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. The larger the number. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed.01 and 1. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. click Point Editing.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. Smooth Smooth objects.2. The default is 0. click Smooth. From the Edit menu. select the curves. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces.00. meshes. smoothing the curve or surface. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. From the Transform menu. 406 . then click Control Points On. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt.Rhino 2. In the Smooth dialog box. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.

Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. Note This is different from the grid size. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Grid tab. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Sphere Draw a sphere. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. At the Radius prompt. 408 . Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. When Snap is off. choose a point for the radius. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points.Rhino 2. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. A sphere is single closed surface. choose a center point. Modeling Aids tab. or enter a distance and press Enter. Note When Snap is on. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. it is grayed out. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. SnapSize Set snap size. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the second circumference point. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint for the diameter.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. At the End of diameter prompt.Rhino 2. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. choose the first circumference point. At the Third point on sphere prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Second point on sphere prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. choose the third circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. 409 . A sphere is a single closed surface.

If you select Turns. At the Radius prompt. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. enter the start of the spiral axis. This is the line the spiral will wind around. If you select Reverse twist. 410 . enter the end of the spiral axis. enter the number of turns for the spiral. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the radius for the spiral. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. select Turns or Pitch. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise.Rhino 2. If you select Pitch.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. At the End of axis prompt. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral.

At the Select cutting objects prompt. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. the polysurfaces are ignored. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. select the cutting objects.Rhino 2. The marker moves along the curve. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. press Enter. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. 411 . type p and press Enter.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. surfaces. select the curve to split. select the objects to split. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. and points. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt.

Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. Front. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. v. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. select points at which to split the surface. The edge is split into two edges. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Options control the direction of the split. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. or b.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . 412 . Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Select a surface. and Right view.Rhino 2. select a point. At the Point to split edge prompt. Type u. At the Split point prompts. the marker is constrained to the edge. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms.press Enter when done prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. surfaces and polysurfaces. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. to access option directly.

It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. and then deleting the extra isoparms. then Split. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. 413 . This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface.Rhino 2.and v-directions of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.

Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. beam angle. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. At the Degree in V prompt. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. Or. like gray. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. pick a target point for the spotlight. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. light the scene less. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight.it stays the same. length. At the End of cone prompt.Rhino 2. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . not the range of the light. set the radius of the spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. and position. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . hotspot angle. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Darker colors. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. The spot light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. pick a location for the spotlight.

choose the third corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt.Rhino 2. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. enter points until all the points have been entered. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the fourth corner. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. choose the first corner. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. At the Third corner of surface prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. choose the second corner. At the Point prompts. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the Second corner of surface prompt. Or. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. enter points until all the control points have been entered. 415 . Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface.

At the End of curve prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface.-2.33.5.5.2.-5. select a curve.10 -4. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.33.5.5.-2.-2.2.10 4.-2.0 0.5 0. click in the other viewport to swap.-5.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.5. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.5.33.5 4.33. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.Rhino 2. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.5 -4.10 4.5.5.5.33.0 4.10 0.0 -4.33. pick a point for the new start point. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.5.2. select the following text.33.2.5. the surface is created but not point objects.0 0.5. At the Start of curve prompt. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.-5. and run the CommandPaste command.33. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform. copy it. KeepPoints When on.-2. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. When off.0 4. The marker is constrained to the curve.2.5.33.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. SwapUV Swap a the u.0 -4.and v-directions of a surface. 416 . pick a point for the new end point.2.33.5 -4.33.5. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.-2.5.5 0. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.33.10 -4.5 4.

If the shapes are tangent to the surface. adjust options. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. 417 . use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. reversing the direction of the curve. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep.Rhino 2. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. select the single rail curve for sweeping. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. the new surface should also be tangent. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. the shape will twist with the surface edge.

Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. If you use the Smooth option. the cross section curves need to be compatible. Preview Click to preview the surface. Note To create a single surface.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. reversing the direction of the curve. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point.Rhino 2. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. With closed rail curves.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. (The original curves are not modified. 418 . Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. adjust options. The swept surface is created. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. If you don't use Smooth. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series.

Rhino 2. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. 419 . use the Maintain height option. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default.

If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. and continues to the ends of the rails. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order.Rhino 2. If you use the Rebuild option. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. Preview Click to preview the surface. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. If you get the wrong surface. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve.) With closed rail curves. but want to control where the sweep ends. If you don't use Rebuild. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. (The original curves are not modified.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. one of two possible surfaces appears. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. To create a single surface. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them.

Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of taper axis prompt.Rhino 2. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Taper Taper objects. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. 421 . the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.

Radius prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 422 . choose a radius for the base of the cone. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.Rhino 2. second Radius prompt. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. you will only taper that part of the object. You can't taper a polysurface . choose a center point for the base. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. surfaces. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. and meshes.only control points. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. curves. Taper moves the control points of objects. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. End of cone prompt. TCone Draw a truncated cone. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter.

and XP. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Example If your units are inches. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. or solids. In the Edit Text dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. surfaces. 2000. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Type the text. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. enter the start position for the text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. The two sizes update each other. in the form of curves.25 inches. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. When you place annotation text. surfaces. It will not show in a perspective view. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. 423 . you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. set the options. or solids based on TrueType fonts. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor.

In the Text height box. In the Text box. In the Font Style box. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.Rhino 2. specify the height of the text characters. The text appears in the Sample window. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . specify the height of the text characters. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. type text characters to make into surfaces. in the Font box. In the Font Style box. type text characters to make into solids. In the Text height box. In the Text box. select a style. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. select a style. select Solid. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Under Create.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. select a font. select Surfaces. select a font. Under Create. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. The text appears in the Sample window. in the Font box.

create new toolbars. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Top Set to world top view.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. the buttons in them. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. the screen position of each toolbar. adjust the size of buttons. add new buttons to toolbars. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. import toolbars from a different workspace file. TiltRight Tilt the view right. 425 . Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. The workspace holds the toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing.Rhino 2. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides.

At the Radius prompt.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. select objects you want to trim other objects with. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. click the parts of objects to trim away. press Enter. When you are finished trimming. choose a center point.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. When you are finished selecting objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. press Enter.Rhino 2. 426 . Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Second radius prompt. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt.

choose a radius for the tube wall size. At the first Radius prompt. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. To trim a surface with more than one curve. surfaces and polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. imaginary extensions of the line are used. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. Tube Draw a tube. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. 427 . If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off.Rhino 2. choose a center point for the tube's base. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. and Right view. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. or use Split. Front. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. use trim several times.

Shade.Rhino 2. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Press Esc to stop the turntable. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 428 . Twist Twist objects. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note The view rotates about the target point.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. and Render Preview.

At the End of twist axis prompt. 429 . 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. If you entered a point to rotate from. General tab. edit. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. surfaces. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. to twist copies of the objects. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. viewports. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a point on the twist axis. and meshes. or construction planes. choose a second point on the axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or transform commands. you will only twist that part of the object. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. You can't twist a polysurface . You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. the following prompt appears. Or. or choose a point to rotate from. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. Undo Undo the last command. type c and press Enter. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. curves. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. type in an angle.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. Twist moves the control points of objects. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. The opposite to undo is Redo.only control points.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. their normals are flipped. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Render your mesh. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. 430 . Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab.Rhino 2. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. For example. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. This makes this command scriptable. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. If some of the faces that should render disappear." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group.

UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. normals point the wrong way. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. If more than one object is selected. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it.Rhino 2. For example. In general.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. UnLock Unlock locked objects. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. re-join the meshes. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. select the objects you want to unlock. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. explode it. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. The 431 . When polysurfaces are meshed. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. Export in desired format. All polygons have a face normal direction. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. 3DFace object. Use UnifyMeshNormals. the packed texture coordinates are created. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. If you see inside the mesh. Once the normals are correct. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh.

0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. 432 .Rhino 2. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. select a surface or curves. Packed textures. Polysurface made of four surfaces. If the surface is developable. Unpacked textures.

This is not like folding out a box. tori. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. an information message is printed at the command line. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). removing any attached geometry. you can remove the trim curves. This command may take some time. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main. In Rhino. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. but not meet that requirement. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. it may be geometrically developable. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. Curves on a surface can also be developed. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. 433 . or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. Surfaces such as spheres. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. an information message is printed at the command line. a developable surface has to be single span linear. Surface Tools.

Untrim removes the trimming curve.Rhino 2. Trimmed surface.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim joined polysurfaces. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. 434 . Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view.Rhino 2.

The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces.Rhino 2. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles.0001). you can change the lens length of the camera. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Appearance tab. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport.0. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. 436 .3921 (+/. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu.

enter a radius for this point. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. If an edge point was picked.6.4649522 (+/. second moments. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. product moments. choose a point on the edge. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.3. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii.7e-007). volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.-4e016. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. select a surface or part of a polysurface. At the End radius <x> prompt.6. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.2e-007.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.9553974. At the Point on edge prompts. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. 437 . At the Start radius prompt. First moments.1. enter or drag a radius. select a surface or part of a polysurface. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.7e-007.

Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. or rotate your view. pan. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. Weight Edit control point weight. In other cases. It does not change when you zoom. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. like adjacent surfaces in a cube.Rhino 2. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. 438 . use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box.

If we want a smooth roof. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. we can use weld with an angle of 40. they are replaced by a single mesh point. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. No points in the blue mesh are welded. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. To get this to happen. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. At the Angle tolerance prompt. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A.Rhino 2. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. 439 . Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. see the SetPt command. and file export for stereolithography. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. To perform a similar operation with control points. When shaded. texture mapping on mesh objects. In our case. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth.

Use JoinMesh. 440 . Weld does not report the results on the command line. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. the bottom right is (1. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. they always get welded. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls.1). Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. top left is (0. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. then Weld (angle=180). they must be joined before welding is effective. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. See Importing and exporting STL files. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Thus. Welding in MAX is different.0). The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. 3D Studio MAX). It does not physically fuse the vertices.Rhino 2. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects.1) and top right (1.

Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line.Rhino 2. At the Select object prompt. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. World axes icon on 441 . The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. or polysurface. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. select a curve. the grid. surface. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. axes. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. object highlighting. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. The wireframe of the objects.0 Command Reference What Display object information. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes.

ini file set the color for the icon. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. size. 442 . The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. and black is the farthest away.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. WorldYAxisIcon=. where white is the closest to your eye.Rhino 2. When objects are rendered in Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. on the Shade tab. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. In the Zebra Options dialog box. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. and color. set the stripe direction.

this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. and other important properties. These meshes can be large. Position. Tangent matches. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. MatchSrf. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. curvature. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. this means the position. tangency. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. and curvature between the surfaces match. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. 443 . and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. the surfaces touch. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. curvature. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection.Rhino 2.

but will always work. If you have a wheel mouse. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom.Rhino 2. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. When Faster is selected.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. in the Options dialog box. select More reliable. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. When More reliable is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. 444 . ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. under Zebra and EMap. on the Shade tab. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out.

0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change.

0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. This is particularly useful in perspective views. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. pick a point for the center of the view. 446 . ZoomWindow Zoom window. At the Zoom factor prompt. Note In a perspective view. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. drag a window to zoom. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All.Rhino 2. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. type a zoom factor and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport.

31 AG file exchange. 221. 204. 35. MAX 3. measure between two lines. 212. 3DS file format.Rhino 2. 26. 28. 151 array:. extend to a point. MAX 2. 207. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 205. suspend autoclose. 5. 251. 203. 53 aliases. 144 ArcTTR command. 206. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 127. 151. 169 3CPlane command. 231. 152 arrowhead on curve. 24 AddNextU command. 305. 5.0 IGES.0 Command Reference Index !. DXF file exchange. 265. 148. 5. 28. 239. 5. 150. 5. 204. 28. 144 ArcSER command. calibrate. 205. 76. 149. 144 Area command. from the last point. 231. 135 ACIS file export. from start. 150. 141 ApplyMesh command. around a pole. 151 ArraySurface command. initialize. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 30 add object to selection. 205. 346 3Sphere command. 298. 143. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 203. 29 3DFace command. 251. 27. end and radius. 5. 197. 140. 203. 180. 53. 145 AreaMoments command. 368. 88. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 2. 5. 230. 141 arc: extend by. 5. 136 AddPrevU command. DWG file exchange. 279 2Sphere command. 333. 150. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 195. 266 animate view. arrow. 14. built into Rhino. 144. 251. 207. 229. 140 angle:. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. export options. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 426 angle: constraint. 14. on a surface. 255. 33. 151 arrow annotation object. 187. 10. set spacing between points. 192. 162. 125 array: along a curve. 152 Arrow command.0. 309 AlignProfiles command. 221. 232 Arc3Pt command. 33. 5. 330. 139 AlignTrace command. 137 AddPrevV command.5. 205. 5. 232. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 141 ApplyCrv command. 152 Attach command. 362 3Plane command. 5. command aliases. 135 3DM file exchange. 5. DOS. 312 Angle command. 3. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 5. 322. dot. end and direction. 82 Alt key. disconnect. 139 Align3D command. 139 All command. profile curves. 140 Align command. 143 Arc3Pts command. 206. 149 ArrayPolar command. 29. 207. MAX 2. 82 AlongTan object snap. 308 align:. 32 AGLib file exchange. 5. 205. 142 Arc toolbar. 88 align: background bitmap. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. import. 205. 5. 143 3Box command. 144 Arc command. 5. 393 34View command. 151 ArrayCrv command. from three points. 152. 152. 143. 5. pause input. 149 Array command. 27. 53. 5. 150. 140. 251. 361. 34. 210. Release 12 export. 148 Array toolbar. 393 3View command. 149. shortcuts. dimension. 150. 180. 168. 426 Analyze toolbar. 123 Arrowhead command. 5. 144. 33. 5. 140. with FaroArm. 10. 281 AttachEnd command. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 135 3Arc command. 305. 215. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 123 2Circle command. 133. 5. 5. 140 Along object snap. 141 ApplyCurves command. set ortho. 215 annotation. 5. set scale. toolbar button function. 145 AreaCentroid command. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 307.0 OBJ. with a MicroScribe. to suspend object snaps. 138 AddToGroup command. 142. scale factor. sketch curve with. 152. 5. 139. 152. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. VIZ. rectangular. 255. 385 analyze:. 28. 146 arguments at the command line. 5. 215. 206. 152 AnnotateDot command. polar. 255. add notes to the model. 230. 412 Annotate toolbar. set up function key for click. 245. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 138 adjust end bulge. 312 AngleLine command. 143. 340. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 135 4View command. 206. 170 2-D drawings from model. 2. 144. 144 arc:. MAX 1. 136 AddNextV command. 220. 5. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 29. 123. 150 ArraySrf command. 198. 29. 324 3Rectangle command.2. 143 ArcDir command. 55 Ascii STL tag. 281 Audit command. create planar sections. 206. 27. 407. MAX 3. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. arrowhead on curve. 149 ArrayCurve command. 163 3Circle command. 127. 62 447 . 5. 5. circular. 204. 152 AutoCAD. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 333. options. 151. 148. to copy while dragging. tangent to two curves. export. 34. 251. 149. 207. 152 ASAP file exchange. 323 3-D digitizing:.

85. set construction plane z. place. center of. 249. 123. 312. move. 168. 198. 124. 338 buoyancy. 163. 156. 139. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. delete toolbar button. 5. 90 Autosave command. 162 BoundingBox command. 124. command. 165 Chamfer command. with Esc key. toolbar. 322. 39 BMRT support. 351. copy to. 171 clear. 153 background bitmap: align. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 367. 13. 101. 250. 169. 384. convert NURBS curve to. 249. place background. show. 204 camera. 153 back view. 124. backdrop for rendering. 349 ClearUndo command. 133. 156. from center. toggle world icon. background. 231 CArcPt command. 114. 102. cut. 158. 56 cancel command. 116. object properties. render meshes. from three points. edit button icons. 249. 172. move background. hide background. 321. area. 160 Bend command. variable radius between surfaces. 123. 90 ChangeDegree command. 133 BU command. 133. 122. 171 circle:. edit toolbar. 316. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 168. 152 autosave:. 162.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 123. 79 center:. 118. 297. 180. 384 background bitmap:. 198. 320. 322. paste from. undo buffer. 124. 362 ClearMesh command. 292 Box command. 5. 392. 160. 162. clear undo. remove.Rhino 2. 425 Back command. 169 CircleD command. select. 171. 166. 39 Boolean. 5. 243. 123. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 163 B-spline. 12. 250. 321. 24 circle: by diameter. polygon mesh. 163 box:. 122. 115. 320. 161 BooleanDifference command. align backgound. 322 blend: curve. 365. tangent to three curves. 170. 139. intersection. 322. 168. 250 centroid. 164 chamfer:. 157. 321. with toolbar button. 323. 384 bad objects. 232 CATIA file exchange. 160 BooleanUnion command. tangent to two curves. 122. 157. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 409. capture button image. 154 baseball-style seams. 168 choose one object. display grid. save button image to file. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 124. toolbar button tooltip. 172 built-in aliases. 365. 351. 160 bi-rail sweep. edit button image. 297. as bitmap. height. 122. 363. 168. 168 CheckInLicense command. move toolbar button. 165 change. 368. 369 C2View command. 169 Circle3Pts command. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 54 autosave: file location. 124. 321. 312. 5. 351. radius. layer. 133. 365. floatation. 164. 145 chamfer: two curves.0 file exchange. 56 center: buoyancy. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 160. 133. hide. 5. 322. 366 CArc command. ortho angle. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 123. 157. 365. 184. 297. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 161 Bottom command. show hidden background. 249. 245. 153. 384. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 101. 297. render meshes when saving file. 162 Box toolbar. 5. 5. time control. 171. remove background. 168 Circle toolbar. 90. 161. as 256-color bitmap. 161 buffer. 139. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 425. 170 CircleTTT command. 167. 113. 5. snap size. selection. 168 Check command. 384. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 5. to the Clipboard. 321. 184. 167. 250 Center object snap. 171. 421 BlendSrf command. 171 Circle3Pt command. 172. 153 BD command. 154. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 172 CLine command. 179. surface. 297. 152. 392. 322. 184. 90. two surfaces. 168. 243. 366. 172. 39 BMP file format. 166 ChangeLayer command. 163. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 250 button. 169. 245. import button image. 249. 165 ChamferSrf command. 292 Box3Pt command. scale. place. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 179 BI command. toolbar button image. 145. 170. 164. 168 check objects for errors. 5. 163 Box3Pts command. 160. 125. settings. 180. 316 448 . 162 box: from length. toolbar layout. 156 blend:. 162 bottom view. 232 Clipboard. 368 Baseball command. 124. set construction plane x. 90. ellipsoid. 421 Blend command. 170 CircleTTR command. 365. from three points. clear button image. 162. 124 capture viewport. 164 cap open planar ends. undo levels. 2. 123. 322 CamSoft file exchange. lock. 139. 154 Between object snap. the layer of an object. 367. 161. surface degree. width. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 363. 159. 5. 55 axis. 154. 139. 338. use. use for tracing. 199. 123 Cap command. to current layer. 166. 125. 123. scale background. 170. 366. 155 bitmap. 229. union. 124 C command. difference. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 130. sphere. copy toolbar button. 351. 170 Circle command. 402 Bisector command. 171. 351. troubleshooting. 170. 123. 84 Bezier curve.

380. 11. 173 Commands command. 15 construction plane. old. set extents of. 155. 89. coordinates. 180. 176 Conic command. 57 CPDash command. 180 copy:. 179 Coons patch. 174. 339. set front. 131. 88. 172. 245. 249. 245. 138. 178 CPHighlight command. 292. view right of. 89. 184. 374. Esc to cancel. 88. set to z-axis. 375. 164. 173. import from 3DM file. add next in v-direction to selection. 2. 182. 21. 379. 5. turn on. toolbar button. 133. 422. macro. 173 cone:. 104. 297. save. 154. 5. coincident. 164. 166. toggle construction plane entry. 140. 362. 179. render window. 126. 173 commands: list of all. set normal to curve. set to x-axis. 183. 303. 89. 182 449 . toggle display of. 202. 177 continuous shading. 184. 338. 180. 323. 245. 177. 173. 184. 75 comma-delimited file export. plan view. 181 CPlaneFront command. 5. 183. 234. select next in v-direction. 181 CPlaneNext command. 181 CopyClip command. 181. objects. show hidden. 342. 178 control point definition. 172 CloseViewport command. 14. 11 copy: command shortcut. construction plane coordinates. 119. 419 context menu. entering coordinates. viewport. 177. G2. 362. 5. 75. truncated. 123. world coordinates. 166. move through a point. 338. 178. 11. 126 conic: curve. 88. 419. polar coordinates. set to previous. add previous in v-direction to selection. false. 172 Closest point to an object. 172 ClosePoint command. 419. 298. options. 343. 115. previous. polygon mesh. 183. 419. 246. highlight. 182. 345. 155. settings of one construction plane to all. 304. 2. 104. display for a point. 114. 195 color. view back of. angle. 11 coordinates. taper. 179 ConvertToCurves command. list all. 174 conic:. 75. 246. 75 continuity. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. dialog box. 181. 84. 12. 119. objects to Clipboard. 2 command line. 413 command aliases. 90. set origin. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. set to vertical. 335. 138. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. set top. 338. project objects to. 176. 173. rendering to Clipboard. 125. 422. set right. 180. 339. move in u-. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. curve and surface. 398. next. set the number of thin gridlines. 18. v-. 182 CPlaneO. 173 CommandPrompt command. options. display axes. 178. toolbar. view bottom of. 336. 197. 75. 234. relative polar coordinates. 181 Copy command. turn off. toggle display. 125. 5. wheel. 406. select previous in v-direction. 182. 10. move to coordinate location. 419. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 75. 131 command history.0 Command Reference close. 172. select row on surface. 5 command:. copy settings of one to the all. 379. weld. 183. 181. 406 ConfigScript command. 359. 250. 182. 335. 5. delete from a curve. 5. set to view. 122. 298. 133. 137. 172 ClosestPt command. 344. undo. 125. 228. 136. 11. 177 contour curves. for spotlight editing. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 375. 373. set to 3 points. 217 COff command. toggle world coordinate entry. shortcut. 419. 181. 88. 342. set to next. 292. display recently used. 182. 174. 173. 5. 173 command names. view front of. G1. 75. relative coordinates. 406. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 182. layer. 11. 5 CPlaneObject command. 235. 173. arguments. 137. 245. 180. distance. 12. 235. display. 184. 2. 419. 15. 175. 10. 173. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 181. 172 cloud of points. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 172. 173. 174. View top of. assign to mouse buttons. perpendicular to curve. 297. and ndirections. 323. 85. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 126. 5. 202. make all have same orientation. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 343. AutoCAD. 327. 386. 218 Contour command. 219 coordinate entry. 379 control polygon. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 373. place point objects on. curve. 131. named construction plane. select row in vdirection. 228. add previous in u-direction to selection. render window to Clipboard. 406 Cone command. draw curve using. 181. along line. 180. 84. 136. 181 CopyViewToAll command. view to all viewports. 245. 181. 179. 398. render.Rhino 2. set to object. 184. select previous in u-direction. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. turn grid on or off. G0. history. move all through a point. 4. 126. 172 CommandPaste command. 5. 245. 122. 405. 88. set distance between grid lines. read from file. 131 ControlPolygon command. 140. 176 ConicPerp command. hide. paste from clipboard. display in clipboard or history. 303. 359. 13. set display density. move along Z. 178 control vertex. select next in u-direction. 251 command area. 176. 173 COn command. 183. 249. 114. 10. extract. 172. add to surface. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. holes in surfaces. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. view left of. add next in u-direction to selection. 386. 339. 176 constraint. 197. 11. 35 command: alias. 179 CPlane View toolbar. set origin of all construction planes. 115. set weight. 11. create curve from. 246. 74. 180. 173 commands:. bend. 123. 125. 11. project object snap to. 12. list. 183. 327 Cob command. 136. 195 cone: cone. 303. 14. 183. rotate. 335. 131 control points. 246. script. 413 CommandHistory command. 90.

333. 202. 164. 162. 187 CrvSeam command. 253. 174. measure radius. 217. 218. 187. 256. marker. 4. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 194. 281. 197. circle from center. 245 Curvature command. line vertical to construction plane. 139. 387 curve:. 238. 257. 323. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 170. 15. 144. extract wireframe from surface. measure between two curves. constrain along line. 267. 187 CurveSketch command. align in two views. 305. fillet. display graph. rebuild. 367. 231. 389. 254. graph on. 268. constrain to plane. circle tangent to two curves. 254. 169. 330. flatten section of. 267. 270. 182 CPlanePrev command. 221. 336 Ctrl + Tab. radius. 195. match ends. 189. 187. 316 Ctrl+X. 141. 255. points. 281. 339. 188. 334. 15. 142. 162 CurveEnd command. simplify. 343. 2 Ctrl+S. 355. 157. 183 CPlaneRight command. 394 CurveBlend command. 164. raise degree. 184 CPlaneZ command. 235. extrude along path. 191 curvature:. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. add knots. offset. 195. 388. 197. 189 crosshairs. 268. 183 CPlaneToView command. 185. tangent line. insert edit point. 185 CRectangle command. 255. 217. 13. 268. 194. divide by number of segments. 298. 162. apply to surface. 226. 179. 253. convert to Beziers. 389. 271. 131. 258. 4. 4. 268. 189. 15 crossing: select with mouse. extract isoparms from surface. 340. 179. 298. 155. 343. 195. 239. select all. 256. from interpolated points. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 197. 195. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 180 Ctrl+N. 187. 4. menu for selecting from multiple objects. line segments. chamfer. 2. 305. 389 CurveStart command. 314. arc tangent to two curves. interpolate through polyline. section. curvature graph off. line perpendicular to two curves. 323. 187 CrvStart command. 305. 189 CSec command. 235. 142. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 155. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 177. sketch on surface. 184 CPlaneV command. single line. 164. 230. 230. 143. 185. 185 CrvBox command. 258. bounding box. mean. extrude straight. place point at end. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 269 Curve command. arc from start.Rhino 2. 24. 169. make periodic. 236. 391. extend to surface boundary. 3. crosshairs. 367. 144. revolve. 165. silhouette. 169. 327. 190 cursor. 238. refit. 191. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. circle from three points. 238. from control points. 311. 233. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. point. 156. 2. 184 CPTog command. 269. 221. 188. 218. 15. intersect two objects. 197. 369 Crv2View command. 231. 186. 3 Ctrl+C. extend. 141. 133. end. 307 Ctrl+P. 2. 25. 314. toggle. 174. 195. 330. 389. 337. 187 CrvEnd command. sketch on polygon mesh. 90. surface from network. 241. 265. cross sections through profiles. 144. 3 crossing:. delete control points. 218. 333. 351. 234 CreatePCurves command. polyline. duplicate border of surface. 195. place point at start. 356. 257. 395. 241. direction. 185. 175. constrain parallel to view plane. 337. 340. 197. 2. 156. 304. 4. 195. 337. 179. conic. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 162 CrvDeviation command. 196. 387. line. 355. constrain to ortho. fair. 156 CurveBox command. 2. 255. 156. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 281. pull to surface. 90. from 2 views. remove knots. 339. 183 CPlaneTop command. 24. extend by arc. ellipse. 304 Ctrl+A. Gaussian. 239. 165. 257. 24. 183 CPlaneToObject command. tracking line. 216. 235. 236. 239. analyze surface. 197 curve degree. duplicate edge of surface. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. interpolate on surface. 387 Curve toolbar. 178. 270. extrude to point. 226. 187 CurveSeam command. 390. periodic. 236. 226. 369. 281. 191. 327. 213. 168. line normal to a surface. 143. 194. 326. 265. contour. 351. blend. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 4. curvature graph. 4 Ctrl+V. 394. 195. 232. 348 Ctrl+Z. adjust seam point. 334. 14. 239. 302 Ctrl+O. 230. 306. extend by line. 168. 304. 388. 190 CullCP command. arc. circle by diameter. spiral. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 192. graph off. 170. 4. 131. parabola. 390. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 187. 279. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. polyline through point objects. 2. 216. 389. 369 crossing selection. 248. 326. 198 Ctrl+Y. 133. 189. arc from three points. 184 CPlaneView command. 248. bisector line. from point cloud. 311. 241. 177. line tangent to two curves. 141. 187 CurveOverlap command. 233. 369. 258. 387. 239. 184 CPlaneX command. helix. 170. 343. 256. 305. 202. sketch. 232. 2. 339. selection. 200 450 . 388. 236. 197. smooth.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 232. adjust end bulge. 198 CutPlane command. project onto surface. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 156. 248. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 165. 222. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 387. 213. 346 cross sections through profiles. 197 curve. 217. 139. 367. 271. 249. extend by arc to a point. 174. convert to polyline. 177. 189 CSV export. 255. 165.

330. 209 DimRecenterText command. units. Boolean. join two out of tolerance edges. 205 DigScale command. 202 delete:. 219. 208. edge of surface. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 196. 210 DirArc command. toolbar. 203 DigCalibrate command. display curve or surface. 260. 330. raise curve degree. 216 Drape command. 251. 104. 165 Delcam file exchange. 220. 372 Deselect command. 197. 204 DigClick command. 208 DimOptions command. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 58 delete: all objects. 368. 207 DimDiameter command. disconnect. 196. 104. 202. 250. Render Mesh tab. 243. 135. 121. edit text.Rhino 2. 370. 17. object discription. 202 Deselect All. viewport properties. surfaces. 396 edge:. 209. 123. with FaroArm. 201. 34 DXF file exchange. 206. sketch curve. 22. Rhino. border of surface. 205 displacement. select all. toolbar button. 344. 211 DirectX file export. select all objects. create 2-D curves. 217 DupEdge command. 260. 10. 210 Dir command. 19 document properties:. 207. 124. 106. 384. 15 divide: curve by length. curve. 123 451 . rebuild. 121. 260. 422 Display command. 217 DupBorder command. 19. 19 DocumentProperties command. object. 213 dock a toolbar. 209. 206 DigSection command. 91. 202 DeleteAll command. 288. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 195. 396 EdgeSrf command. 85. 216. 19. 178. 293 Cylinder command. 205. 3-D polygon mesh face. points at naked edges. edit points. 208. 207 DimAngle command. 220. 218 duplicate. 218. 99 disable. 265. 15. radius. 208 DimRadius command. 215 Dot command. 212 display:. 19. in Split command. 212 disconnect digitizer. polylines. 203. 217. in Trim command. 107. 3-D digitizing. 209 DimVertical command. 385. 211.0 Command Reference cutting objects. vertical. 288. 207. 370. 23 distance:. 210. button image. 127. 219. 213 DivideByLength command. 206. 133. 395. grid. 17. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 160 Dig command. 293 data structure for object. naked edges. 251 dot: annotation. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. isoparm density. 372 DeselectAll command. 45 dirty looking rendering. hydrostatic calculation. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 218. angle between lines. 215 draft angle. 384. 203 develop a surface. change. split. 416 developable surface definition. intialize. 272. 370. 127. 214 domain:. 208. 166. 206. 22. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 127. 206 DigSpacing command. 22. 2. 385. polygon mesh. 23. 10. control polygon. 384. 410. 210. 243 DirectionalLight command. 207. 277 diagnostics. naked. 12. render mesh settings. 372 DetachTrim command. 239. 250 display: bitmap window. shortcuts. tolerances. 217 draw. 217. reverse object direction. 123. 205. 344. 212 distance: constraint. Notes tab. curve by number of segments. set scale. grid axes. with MicroScribe. recenter text. 215 drafting. options. 208. 385. 251 Domain command. 213 divide:. 209. 245. toggle. 215 dot:. 144 direction. 207. 119. 411. display broken. merge. planar section. 219. from last point. 288. diameter. 108 Dup command. 212. 330. 122. 132. objects. pause input. annotation text. rotated. 205. 33 DynamicShading command. change degree of surface. 213. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 167. lines. broken edges. 165. 207 DimAligned command. control points. 166. 209. 265. persistent object snaps. wallpaper. 395. 245. options. 88. dimension text. 122 Delete command. command button. 370 DWG file exchange. 15 Distance command. 218 e_tol. 217. 210 DimHorizontal command. toolbar button bitmap icons. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 202. 210. 206 DigSketch command. 208 difference. 2. 18. 338. 202. 212 distance display. 132. layer. 218. set spacing between points. 213 Divide command. show. 425. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 212 DisableOsnap command. 344. 168. 385. 204. 208 dimension. 272 date. 217 DrapePt command. 212. 17. 201 cylinder:. 384 diameter dimension. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 168. 298 DigPause command. 120 document properties: notes. 279. 214 domain: match. horizontal. 205 DigDisconnect command. 131 Ebroken command. summary. 201. aligned. 135. 384 edge: create curve from. 197. 205 digitize. 160. 209. 105.ini. set up function key for click. 207. 22 degree. 217 drape surface. 279 Dragmode. calibrate. 12. 218. 220. 209 DimRotated command.

233 ExtendByArc command. 32. 67. 233 ExtendSrf command. 63. 231. IGES. mesh to IGES file. 133. 55. Applied Geometry (AG). 40 errors in model. 57. 12 Enter:. 239 FastShip file exchange. Yamaha ESPRi. 154 Ellipsoid command. 231. Viewpoint Technologies. 43. 237. Catia (IGES). 230. 260 elevator mode. DirectX. 58 452 . 45. 30. 60. 33. 58. 239 false color display. 229 explode:. 230. 32. SURFCAM (IGES). 54. 53. triangles. 61. 57. 31. 56. 35. 222 ellipse:. curve to surface boundary. 234 Extend command. 385 EnakedPt command. 227 environment map. 236. 67. 29. 42. curve by offset. 62. 119. 54. surface. 37. 221 Ellipse toolbar. Alias (IGES). VRML. 41. 239 fair curve. 33. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 174 Elmo command. 288 Enaked command. 63. 58. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 53. 26. 13. 4 F2. Softimage (IGES. 230 Extend toolbar. 3D Studio (3DS). Multisurf (IGES). 44. 133 EShow command. 35. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 233. 36. 64. Solid Designer (IGES). 223 elliptical conic curve. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 26. Metastream. 71. 3D Studio MAX 3. NASA GridTool. 330 End key. 253. 233. 235 ExtractSrf command. 4 F8. 221. 222 Ellipse command. 12 ELine command. 13. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 56. 41. 233 extend:. 29. 60. 232. 231. AutoShip (IGES). 74 Export command. 41. space and rightmouse click. 344 EMap command. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 128. Unigraphics (IGES). 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). Alias (OBJ). 219 EditPtOn command. 45. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 54. unable to run program renrib. 55. SolidWorks (IGES). FastShip (IGES).0 (OBJ). 131. 236. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 33. 224 erase objects. command aliases. 70. ACIS. 236 ExtractWireframe command. show. 71. 3. 51. 59. 3D Studio MAX 3. 224 EMerge command. 55. surface into a solid. 69. 4 F9. 11. from focus points. AutoCAD (DWG). 10. options. 131 FAQ. 65. 42. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 2. 229 Explode command. IronCAD (IGES). arc to a point. 73. SLA. 220. 228 Excel.0 (IGES). 56. 233. export to. curve along path. 229. 230. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 45. 40. 236. Maya (IGES). 202. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 44. 123 edit:. curve on surface. OptiCAD (IGES). 45. 228 EvaluateUV command. 232. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 59. 2. 73. 220. 127 Esc key. surface. 227. 238. 69. 420 EditDim command. 385 ESplit command. 228 expand a surface. 238. 236. 40. Plug-in). TekSoft IGES. 234. 356. 221 EllipseD command. 45. 73. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. surface from polysurface. 65. 343 ElmoSrf command. 229 Exit command. 68. 51. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 93. 61. 232. Wavefront (OBJ). 42. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 236 Extrude toolbar. 229. 416 explode: NURBS objects. Microstation (IGES). 45. 230 extend. CAD 3D SUM 4. isoparms from surface. 12. 36. 356 extrude:. insert on curve. 220 EditText command. 36. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 52. 68. by line. 73. 64. 47. raw triangles (RAW). 232. 72. 223 ellipsoid:.0 (IGES). 71. 45. 231. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 232 ExtendByLine command. Solid Edge (IGES). turn on. 233 extract. 26. 236. AutoCAD (DXF). 234. curve. 64. 253. GHS. 31. 222 EllipseEnds command. 238 F1. 63. 236. 37. 30. 4 Fair command. 228 error messages. 59. 37.0 Command Reference edit points. 219.Rhino 2. 53. 226 endpoint object snap. 48. 63. 231. 72. 2. Pro/E (IGES). CSV file. wireframe curves from surface. turn off. POVRay (POV). 238. 55. Lightwave (LWO). 62. by arc. LUSAS (IGES). Tebis IGES. 229 ExplodeMesh command. Integrity Ware (IGES). Commadelimited file. PostScript. 53. Moldex DXF. CamSoft (IGES). 58. 124. 35. 78 EndBulge command. 238 Extrude command. 133 Escape key. 396 EvaluatePoint command. ME30 (IGES). Delcam (IGES). control polygon. object properties to file. 60. 52. Mastercam (IGES). 31. 123. 229 export. 46. 228 exit Rhino. AUTOFORM (IGES). 133 enter coordinates. 230. 221. polygon mesh. 220 EJoin command. STL. 58. CADCEUS (IGES). 35. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 74. curve to point. 235. Cosmos/M (IGES). 30. 92. 1 Faro command. NuGraf (IGES). 35. Moray (UDO). 236 extrude: curve. SAT file format. 46. 429 End object snap. 70. 229 export:. 92. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 235. 46. 228 EvaluatePt command. 62. FastSURF (IGES). 46. Adobe Illustrator (AI). Windows Metafiles (WMF). 69. 61. 235 ExtractPt command.

255. 380. 407. 247 Helix command. set snap size. 67. 453 . surface. section of curve. 131. cursor. 249. 75 Hydrostatics command. 245 GridOptions command. 172 hold. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 1. 417 FlattenSrf command. panes. 122. IGES export type details. 249. 46. 36 glossary terms. 249 HideSwap command. 72. 249. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 249 HideCV command. 134. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 302. 133. 251. 52. unlock locked objects. 220. keep last used on top. 305. texture mapping coordinates. 2. 123. 251. 172. 416. 379 IGES file types. 131. 18. 55. polygon mesh export. AutoShip. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 380. 55. 386. Enter key. 120. 246 GridSize command. show selected. 71. 235 FltE command. 246. 273. 251. 60. reduce size of model. 379. 119 HideToolbox command. definition. 273. 337. 261. 279. 378. 214 fillet. 330. 57. 56.0. 380 GridThick command. troubleshooting import problems. 339 HideOsnap command. 135. 396. 119 Hide command. 176 Gaussian curvature. 75 hue. 339. 307. 53.Rhino 2. 415 GHS file export. 245. 46. 386. isoparm. 348. 171. 245 grid:. 74. 55. 387 HSV color. 251. CADCEUS. save. edit using. 46. 325 FitCrv command. 194. 53. initial mesh grid. periodic surface. 410. 249 HidePoints command. 244 G0 continuity. 416. 246 group. simple controls. 262. 132. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 273. 49 IGES export:. 415 Freeze command. 395. 73. 246 HBar command. 245. Ashlar Vellum. normal. 250 HideToolbar command. 103 hidden objects. 68. 132. 249. 50. 221 fonts. 239. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 242 flatten. 124. flyout toolbar. 246 Heightfield command. spacing. 377 Group command. axis lock. 429 Horizon command. 307. 407 freeze: a layer. 1 From object snap. 415 Ghost command. 240 filter the layer display. 390. 229. open. 360. 134. curve. 203. 229. 2 hidden layer name. tracking line. 133. 119 HideTrace command. text. 302. 59. 407. turn on or off. 63. 58. 250 hide: background bitmap. save as. center of. unlock locked objects. units. 249. 1 help:. 133. polysurface. 281 FlatShade command. 246. 47. 380 GridAxes command. 133. 278. 54. 362 FileProperties command. 212 frequently asked questions. 243 floatation. 5. objects. two surfaces. template. 277. 122. 240 FilletEdge command. wireframe. 260. 386. 131. 302. 62. 50. 131. 1. Esc key. 250. types. 377. seamless mesh. 133. import. edge of polysurface. 426. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 246 HBarSrf command. 241 FlatShade1 command. 133. 236. Unicode. 240 Fillet command. 249 highlight in rendering. 273 freeze:. 246 handlebars. 273 ghost:. 174 icon. name. 130 Flow along a curve. 386. AUTOFORM. 130. 277. 250. bumpmap. status bar panes. 385. snap to. 168. 361. 360. 119. marker. swap hidden status. 240 FilletSrf command. 249 hide:. 131. 262. run application from inside Rhino. 240. world axes. 249 HidePt command. 246. 135 grid: axes . 362 File toolbar. 229. periodic curve. 133. 244 front view. 176 G2 continuity. command area. 361. Osnap dialog box. 171. 104 fit a plane through points. 362 file:. 54. 46. 245 GridSections command. 386 HideAll command. 413. 384. 46. 368. edit points. 65. 246 Gridsnap command. new. 69. 229. 273. 246. 251 floating license. 131. 1 Help command. 64. 245 Grid command. 122 font. 239 fillet:. 262. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 12 Home key. 123. edit toolbar button. 176 G1 continuity. 61. 220. 131. 49. tolerance. control point. 48. 241 FitPlane command. NURBS. 133. toolbar. 120. Breault Research's ASAP. 123. 425 IGES: file exchange. toolbar. technical support. naked edge. 134. false color. set distance between lines. 336. 130. 70. 12. objects. 132. set the extents of. 192. text. 307. 255. command line. 131. 53. 338 history. 3D Studio MAX 3. 55. 250. 2. 378. 131. show hidden control points. control points. 132. Alias|Wavefront. 244 Flow command. 425. 262. 250. 133. 81 Front command. 249. object names. 194 GCon command.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 417 ghost: a layer. 246. objects. shortcut. 246 Group objects for selection. 46. 259. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 248 help: display Help file. 239. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 134. 54.turn on or off. 243 Flip command. 249 HidePts command. 228. 361. set the number of lines. developable surface. 244 Flowline command.

152 Leader command. split surface at. 259 join:. 57. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 307. 261 JPG. 261 Join command. 262 lasso selection. kink in curve. 64. 160. Integrity Ware. 263 leader: arrow. select objects by. 104. 60. 67. Softimage. Mechanical Desktop. 160. Softimage IGES. Solid Edge. 78. 42. IronCAD IGES. 61. 91. Multisurf IGES. 256. 103. remove from curve or surface. CATIA IGES. Pro/E IGES. 140. display density. 257 InterpPolyline command. 254. 255. SUM 4. 377. 396. 61. 251. 152. construction planes from 3DM file. 29. 81. 78. 253. 69. 132. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. CamSoft IGES. 425. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 254 InsertKnots command. 71. 73. two objects. 371. 56. 55. FastSURF. 257 intersect: Boolean. SURFCAM IGES. 60. 55. 53. dialog box. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. snap to. 62. match attributes. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 283. 59. 77. 68. 64. curve. 46. 54. 56. 254. 253. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 119 initial mesh grid. 63. set current. Cosmos/M. 254 Insert command. 312. 55.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 31. 253 InsertKinks command. 140. 167. 257. 85. 152. one layer on. 26. insert on curve or surface. 168. knot. SolidWorks. SDRC's I-DEAS. 63.0 IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. stereolithography STL. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 73. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 259. turn off. 59. IGES. 254. CATIA. 283. 42. 263 LayerOn command. 104. FastShip IGES. 64. 338. CAD 3D SUM 4. delete. Tebis IGES. 69. 371. Solid Designer. turn off by selecting an object. 73. 37. 67. Pro/E. 265 Length command. 54. Delcam. 73. 363. 255 Int object snap. TekSoft IGES. 63. 251 Improve command. 101 Layer pane. translate IGES/Rhino. OptiCAD. 56. 322 JScript. 101. 61. 58. new. 3D Studio MAX 3. 59 isoparametric curve. 256 interpolate. 160. 56. change to current. 60. 57. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 103. 104. Solid Edge IGES. turn all layers on. 71. 351. 263. 260.0 IGES. 263. 63. FastSURF IGES. 29. filter display. 72. CADCEUS IGES. AutoCAD DXF. 65. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 60. 37. 258 IntersectCrv command. 15 lathe. set material. 312. 58. 377 LayerLock command. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 57. set material properties. NASA GridTool IGES. 48. 61. 70. 396. 41. 73. 262 last point. 72. 251. distance from. 32. select from list. 71. 90. 103. 42. 251 import:. 104. 104. 167. SURFCAM. 104. angle from. 14. 366. 253. 56. 59. AutoShip IGES. 74. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 132. definition. 46 IGES:. 168. 61. 101. 263. 377 layer:. 10. 126 kink. 70. 62. 258 Intersect command. 261 JoinMesh command. 55. 168 license manager. SolidWorks IGES. Unigraphics. 355 layer: change color. 265 length:. 59. 99 JCAD STL export. AUTOFORM IGES. 46. Multisurf. 264 length: measure curve. objects. 103. Unigraphics IGES. 307. 62. 60. Delcam IGES. 81. turn on. 63. 69. 367 JPG file format. Maya. 425 ini file. 41. 252 information. 70. 74 Import command. 264 left view. AutoCAD DWG. definition. 2. 135 jagged shadows. aliases.Rhino 2. 69. toolbar from another layout. 283. 58. 168. 101. 262 LayerOff command. 46. 66. 54. wireframe view. LUSAS. 71. ME30 IGES. 256. insert in curve. Microstation IGES. 261 JoinEdge command. 65. 103. 68. 101. 260. Solid Designer IGES. NuGraf IGES. Tebis. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 67. 3D Studio 3DS. 67. 262. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 62. FastShip. 41. LUSAS IGES. purge empty. 258 intersect:. 68. 133 Layer toolbar. 252 insert:. 168 454 . 72. 254 InsertEditPoint command. check out from workgroup license manager. 59. triangles. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 121. 253. 160. 59. 255. 132. Yamaha ESPRi. 69. 59 InterpCrv command. 258 intersection. 253 knot. 253 InsertKink command. match. 260 JoinFaces command. 32. Cosmos/M IGES. curve on surface. 135. Adobe Illustrator AI. 62. 307.0 OBJ. 46. Mastercam IGES. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 33. 33. 63. 261 JoinSrf command. 254. 58. 263 Layer command. Integrity Ware IGES. 71. named views from a 3DM file. 73. 53. insert in surface. 132 isoparm. 253 InsertKnot command. Boolean. 130 license:.0. 264 leader:. 58. Raw triangles RAW. management. 131 insert: edit point. surface or polysurface. Mastercam. 251 IncrementalSave command. 102. 63. 58. 258 InvertPt command. surfaces. Lightwave LWO. 76. 104. 26. Microstation. object snap. 140. 65. NASA GridTool. rename. Applied Geometry AG. 33. display for object. 53. 64. 255. Maya IGES. 103. 132. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. change for an object. 160 Invert command. 264 Left command. 70. 261 Lasso command. 343. 31. Alias IGES. 102. 307. arrowhead on curve. 46. 167. 69. 121. 14. 64. ME30. 343. 52 import. 259. 71. TekSoft. OptiCAD IGES. 10. 15. IronCAD. 10. 377.

421 Mastercam file exchange. 74. layer attributes. 288 mesh: 3D face. 334. 289. 288 Merge command. 75. extend by. 245. 90 Main toolbar. 265. clear render mesh. 266. 62 menu: context. length. 329. 125. 270 LineV command. 271 Line command. 296 macro. from closed polyline. 398. tangent to two curves. 333. 266. 180. 421. 378.0 Command Reference Light tab. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 290. polyline. 135. 283. 145. environment. 415. 221. from NURBS object. volume. two adjacent edges of a surface. run from external file. clear at save time. 377 Material properties. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 334. 142. perpendicular to curve. 155. paste script from Clipboard. distance. 267. 290. 224. 378 maximize: current viewport. breaking apart. 377. 269. bump. directional. 232. 39. 288 Menu command. 92. density for primitives. 266 LineAngle command. 371. 259. 156. 194. surface. 212. 304. 88. 88. 290. 213 measure:. 239. 265. 288 MergeEdge command. 210. select naked edges. 265. 74. area centroid. 191. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 268. join. 272 LoadScript command. 140. clear render mesh for all objects. 141. explode. 281. options. 420. 326. 333. polyline through point objects. 229. 125. 60 LWO file exchange. 267 LinePerp command. 191. 415 locked layer name. 228. 288. 285. 261. 338. 328. 279 Make2d4View command. 211. Rhino. 420. set viewport. run with middle mouse. 270. 288 MergeSrf command. 334 LineTan command. 268. 52. 273 Loft command. 288. unlock locked objects. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 273 lock:. 270 LineTT command. 86 lights. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 212 LockSwap command. 304. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. plane. 273 lock: a layer. geometric continuity. apply to surface. reduce density. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 266 Line4pts command. 134. 349. deviation of points and curves from a surface. set for export.Rhino 2. cylinder. 155. 284 material: for rendering. 331. 145. box. 134 marker definition. 102. 273. 420. 62 ME30 file exchange. 40. 291. 39. 292. 288. 267 LinePP command. single line. 334 merge: surface. 284 MatchLayer command. 270. persistent object snaps. from four points. 91. pop up at cursor. 212. 267. 145. axis. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 140. 417 Make2D command. 267. 396. 61 MDT IGES options. segments. 256. 23. 145. 187. 377 Maximize command. 103 locked objects. 84. 268. 294. 288 maximize:. 130 manage layers. 24 menu bar. 126. 145. 296. 270. 12. 194 MaxViewport command. 268 Lines toolbar. 337. select all. 287 Match command. 288 menu:. tangent to a curve. 225. 410. 135. 357. vertical to construction plane. curve curvature. 304. 3DFace. 101 manage:. 395. 399. 41. 213. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 225. 288. 228 LooseLoft command. select all. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. cone. 272 LoadPlugin command. 155. 38 match: curve ends. 348. snap to. 171. 371. 271. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 255. 420. 92. 265. 377 maximum curvature. 268. 12. 281. 61 mean curvature. 104. 212. 339. 33. convert each face to NURBS surface. 333. layer. swap status with unlocked objects. 283 MatchSrf command. run from shortcut key. export to IGES file. run from toobar button. 330. 105. 262. 288. 251 merge:. normal to a surface. 338. 340. 328. 365. 224. detailed options. 194 measure: angle. 123. 270. 290. 268. area moments. 229. toggle display. 345. 329. 292. 371. 173. viewport. volume moments. 283. 269 LineTP command. 145. 37 M command. 333. 148. 141. 286. 123. set for layer. 240. 262. 340. 84. 192. 86 material:. 211. 338. 271. 266. volume centroid. seamless. run from an alias. 228 Logout command. 294. 255. point. 179. 255. decrease number of faces. 281 manage: license. 296. 212. 358. 273. 338. 269. 146. 334 Line4Pt command. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 273. 284. 288 Maya file exchange. 162. 265 line:. 293. radius. 220. 269. 342. 281 match:. 293. 187. 228. 371. 273 LockOsnap command. objects. spotlight. 232. 173. 236. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 37 line: at angle from line. 273 Logoff command. 342. 272 list data structure of an object. bisector. 212. insert straight segment into curve. 261. 23. 266. 292. create. 268 Lines command. 455 . definition. BMRT. 273 loft surface. 348. 130 map. 421 Measure command. 290. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. unlocked objects. 338 mapping coordinates. 363. 161. deviation between two curves. 273 Lock command. 131 mass properties. 245. 421 MeasurePoint command. texture. area. set properties for layer. perpendicular to two curves. 265. 271 List command.

weld. save. 141 mouse. 78. 425 offset: curve. 295. 229. 82. 120. tangent from curve. read from file. 141. off construction plane. 302 New command. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 296 minimize:. 78 Notes command. 304 node. 302. 216 Moldex command. edit. 212. 302. 41. end. 62 middle mouse button function. 309. surface display. 377. 79. center. 304. 295. 121. 205. 362. disable. 80. 298. object to align with curve. toolbar button. 298. 306 OffsetSrf command. 147. 295. objects. 298 new: file. 423 mesh:. set for multiple objects. 251. display. 385. 3. 194 Mirror command. 131 NoElev option. layer. scale and rotate. 311 OBJ export properties. 122 Move command. 414. 296 move:. 298. unify normals. ortho viewport active. 90. 81. definition. 409 object:. 296 minimum curvature. 304. perspective viewport active. 385. 79 NetworkSrf command. 296. read from file. 307 Offset command. 305 notes in Rhino file. 30. 82. 294. 141. reverse direction. intersection. restore. 79. 215. 63 Near object snap. 52. 297. 293 MeshDensity command. 118 Normal command. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 103. 114. reparameterize. 203. 84. wheel function. 302. a view. surface. 362. 80. 123. 415. 378. 83. 113. 140. 421 Moray UDO file export. 81. 83. 92. 384. hide toolbar. 292. 145. show. 84. 414. 63 naked edge. 387. project to construction plane. 251. toolbar. 212 object snap:. 296 Minimize command. toolbar button. 90 move: background bitmap. 123. 378 object properties. 372 non-uniform scale. 304 normal:. 113. lock. 311. 303 NextV command. 338. 414. 297 Mscribe command. 229 Microstation file exchange. 355. 140. 305 N-sided patch. 212. 348. 79. export to IGES. 35. 298 NamedViews command. 338. surface control points in u-. viewport. 297. 4. export to OBJ. from. 243. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. perpendicular to a curve. 363. 204. 251. 338. 423. 80. 78. unlock. between two points. 385 name. 377. show toolbar. 379 Named Colors list. 37 object: description. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 302 next. 84. 134. 117. 294 MeshSphere command. 355 NamedCPlane command. 293. construction planes through a point. 115. 2. 79. 297.Rhino 2. 229. draw line. 293 MeshPlane command. on surface. 290. 379. 297. 132. 84. 12. 146. 296. 348. 384. parameterization. 215. 75 named construction planes. 338 OBJ file exchange. 12. set for single object. 298. 78. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 297. 85. 371. 303. 379. knot. 290 Mesh toolbar. 133. 132. 378. midpoint. 234. 355. options. 4. 303 NextViewport command. 261. 317 nudge. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 183. 308. to move objects. 84. 343. 249. toolbar. 103. quadrant. 309. 2. 30. set mesh the same. 82. v-. 387. viewport active. 296 Metastream file export. 80. 243. 91. 378. 296. 81. 312 mold. export to RIB. near. snap to a curve. 304. 362 named view. 132. multiple objects. definition. 298 NamedView command. 12 None command. 363. 296 modeling aids. point. 80.0 Command Reference sphere. options. 132. 295 MeshToNurb command. 294 MeshPolyline command. 93. export to file. 385. 349. 305. 3. group. 92. 305. 363 name:. 148. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 171. 78. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 338. 292. 243 456 . 303. 423 MeshBox command. 120. pull direction. 135. show hidden. 297. viewport to top. 84. 415 object names. 133. an object. 35 object snap: along. objects to new construction plane. 414 NoSnap command. scale and rotate on surface. 2. and n-directions. 132 O command. 296 mirror objects. surface. 306. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 424 Mesh command. set properties. 343. 92. 292 MeshCone command. 46 moments. 311. 92. tangent to a curve. 249. 206. 81. 33. export to. 82. 305 offset:. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. restore. 81. 366 normal: definition. 338. 229. 37 morph target. 298. 79. view. 409. 79. 414. 293. 121. 385. 297 MoveUVN command. 362. 303 NextU command. improve. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. remove flipped. 306. 2. 135. 83. 212. 290. 296. 251. 355. 261. construction point through point. 323 Microsoft Excel. toggle persistent. 80. 379. 64 NURBS. 292 MeshCylinder command. 425. 308. 297 MoveTrace command. 309. 322. 79 minimize: Rhino. perpendicular from a curve. 343. 294. 302 NewViewport command. 82. 349. 343. 243. 132. set persistent. parting line. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 90 Midpoint object snap. save named construction plane. viewport. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 79. 183. 302 new:. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 304. turn off. 122. move control points.

133. 311. 313. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 308 Options dialog box. options. 92. 314 Pan command. 307 OneLayerOn command. 28. 133 P command. 94. 133. use for shade. 322. 3DS MAX 2. load. 317 pause digitizer input.5. file locations. 426 OpenGL:. 366. 2. 2. 119 Open command. 322. 323. 80 Perpendicular line. press shift to toggle. on a surface. set. middle mouse button function. 272. 330. 205 pause for user input in script. 262. 82 PerpLine command. 311. 174 parameterization. 325. 307 OnSrf object snap. 309. 90. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 96. 101. 3DS MAX 2. 312 PageDown key. 326 Point object snap. 79 point objects. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 12. 351. autosave. 318. 318 PConic command. 314 PanDown command. 88. 90. target location. 27. 321. toggle. 130. Snap. 308 Orient command. 325 Plane command. redraw speed. 218. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 2. 5. 68. 367 POff command. 325 Plane3Pt command. 308. 98 Options command. 326. 92. 281. 2. 131 pedge. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. trackball motion. 96.0. 68 PNG file format. 323 planar section. 4. 206. up. 422 Point filters. 130. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 92. click ortho pane to toggle. 324. toggle. 379. 88. 90. troublshooting. 312. toggle. 92. 325 PlaneV command. objects from the clipboard. 133 OrthoAngle command. lock to axis. 290. 325 plane:.2. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 96. 206 PlanarSrf command. 92. 92. 307. 351. 96 options:. 309. 96. 425 Orient. 98. 281. 379 Ortho pane. 133. 133. Osnap. 29. 133 PanLeft command. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 200. control polygon appearance. 27. 78 Osnap:. to curve. place at end of curve. 176 PCX file format. about. Layer. 313 Panes. 68 PictureFrame command. 316. 38 parting line. 312 Osnap: pane. 290. Aliases tab. grid of. 2 PackTextures command. 131. 308 orient objects. 92. turn on or off. 90. select method. 130. 325 plug-ins. 328. 2. place multiple. 133 Osnap command. saved toolbar layout. 84 open: file. 330 457 . 90. 94. 95. 313. 40 perspective angle . ortho angle. 321. options. 101. 307. 88. 313 Pan:. 96. 322. 88. 313 PanUp command. 88. 119. 133. 64 options: aliases. shortcut keys. 133. 220. 318. 224. 326. 98. 96. 314 parabola. 314 Parabola command. 307 open:. 190. 326. General tab. 329. right. 253. 325 Pline command. 387 paste. 329. make surface periodic. 97. 308 OpenWS command. 84 OneLayerOff command. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. Keyboard tab. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 324 Plane toolbar. 96. 323. camera and target location. 90. isoparm density. 316. no-repeat commands. 281. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 29. 200. 330. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 2 Patch command. 133. 92. left. 258. 213. 327 Point command. 325. 363. object snap radius. 311. 28. 323 Pa. 323 Plan command. 320 place. change interface appearance. 367 pe_tol. 133. digitize. background bitmap. 281. 88. 379. 4. on surface from UV coordinates. 94. Modeling Aids tab. 94. 322 PlaceTarget command. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 246. 92. 363. 88. view. 313. 92. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 314 parabolic curve. 376. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 92. 324 plane: cut through objects. 90. 249. place one. undo number. 326 Point Editing toolbar. detailed polygon mesh. snap increment. 133 Perp object snap. shade. make surface non-periodic.Rhino 2. developers. Files tab. 131 periodic. options. startup commands. shortcuts. Ortho. 373. Softimage. manager. 200. 90. 290 Organic toolbar. 325. 376. 373. 318 perspective view. Appearance tab. make curve periodic. pan distance. 311 ortho mode. 330. 133. 327. 253. 373 Point toolbar. 374. trim options. curve. 375. 187. 339 POffSelected command. set angle. Shade tab. fit through points. 254. set. from three points. 3DS MAX 1. 339. 312. 318 Perspective command. 2 Pan: down. 309. surface. 386. 339 point: control. 338. Planar.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 96. place at start of curve. 333 PluginManager command. 90. shortcuts. 2. 313 PanRight command. polygon mesh. 90. View tab. 92. 172. 2. 311 Ortho command. nudge increment. 324. 188 point cloud. 366.set. 90. 323 Planar command. select all. 339. 323 planar mode. toolbar. 133. 324 Plane3Pts command. 94. 90. 93. 92. 96. 272. create curve from. 313. 5. 92. 320 Pipe command. 379. 94. 311 Orient3Pt command. by three points.

343. 220. 3D face. 353. 343. 329 PointLight command. 141. 344 recent commands list display. explode. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 331. 235. 344 RebuildSrf command. 336 print. density for primitives. join. 138. 254. 41 POV-Ray file export. 303. 339 purge empty layers. 136. 85 Properties Material tab. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 261. 293. 331 polygon mesh. 414. 64. from NURBS object. from edge. 68 POn command. 64. 339 PtOffSelected command. interpolate curve through. 414. 86 Properties Text tab. 331 Polygon command. 344. 228 quinitics. 339 PointTest command. viewport. select connected. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. plane. 333. Polytrans Softimage translation. 335. 86. set normals the same. 10. 382 QRenderAll command. 50 Quit command. 368. 331. to file. 337 project:. 36. 330 PointsFromUV command. 65 program toolbar functions. 334. 343. 209. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 235. 361. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 338. 333. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 339 pull curve to surface. 339. 386. 349. export to file. 35. edit points. 338 project: curve to surface. object. 136. objects to construction plane. 187. 337 ProjCP command. 229. 339 Pull command. 294. select object to turn off. 343 ReadCommandFile command. options. 334 Polyline command. 262. 334 polysurface. 12. show edit and control. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 338 Project command. 366. select all. 367. 343. 229. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. select next in u-direction. 379 preview. grid. 296. 339. 340 RailRevolve command. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 10. 353 previous viewport. control points. render mesh. relative. 261. 293. 179. cylinder. 296. 343 rebuild:. select previous in v-direction. 303. 150 polar coordinates. 334 PopupToolbar command.0 Command Reference point:. 420. 249. 338. 137. 344 RebuildEdges command. hide edit and control. 290. 292. 223 PolarSphere command. material. 17. 337 Print command. 290. 392 polygon: circumscribed. render using OpenGL shade. 220. absolute. 228 radius: dimension. convert each face to NURBS surface. 81 QueryDomain command. 361. 295. 412. 137. 259. 338 Projection command. 337. 188 PointCloudSection command. 202. inscribed. coordinate points. 135. 424. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. display information about an object. 331. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 382 Quad object snap. measure. 87. 333. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 372. 372 Polytrans. 420 Properties command. 339. 413 Points command. named views from a 3DM file. 371. 121. 259. show control. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 121. 190. 335. 257. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 294. 334 PostScript file export. 259. 372. add next in v-direction to selection. 339 PointsOffSelected command. explode. 328 PointGrid command. 41 read. 338. 197. add previous in u-direction to selection. 85. invert selection. 19. 340 Radius command. draw. hide back. 19. 303. 190. 46 POV Lights toolbar. apply to surface. surface. named construction planes from file. 12. from closed polyline. 21. 337. image of model. render. notes. 340 radius:. 260. 339 PointsOn command. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 254. 294. clear render mesh for all objects. 131. 197. 141. 328 polar array. 249. toolbar. 366 PrintSetup command. 425 PtOff command. select with lasso. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 368. 344. select naked edges. 343. 202. 19. 86. 332 polygon:. 135. 340 RailRev command. 259. 330 PointsOff command. twist. 381 QRender1 command. 12. 343 rebuild: curve. to Clipboard. 229. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 423 Polygon toolbar. select previous in u-direction. 335. 335 PrevViewport command. 340 QRender command. 171. 229. through point objects. 423. select all. 35. knot. weld. 290. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 257. 335 PrevV command. 171. 292. 138. 333 polyline:. 339 PtOn command. 349. 293. 209. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 262. 371. 386. 336. 339 PopupMenu command. 425. 136. 90 458 . 327 PointDeviation command. 295. 345 Rebuild command. 291. select next in v-direction. 378. 340 rail revolve. sphere. join. add previous in v-direction to selection. 330 points:. 338 properties. cone. draw on mesh. 179. clear render mesh. 332. create from control points. 68. 292. 18. 2 PrevU command. box.Rhino 2. viewport layout from file. 40. 123 Proj command. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 19. 87 properties:. 338 ProjectOsnap command. delete control on curve. document.

360. 352. 355 Rev command. a surface. 338. 360 rotate:. 348. 320. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. move and scale. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 338. 308. 96. 354. 355 restore:.0 Command Reference Rect command. left. 125. 346 RectangleCen command. 416 rotate: construction plane. 360. 133 right view. 324. 357. 309. 363. 30. 3. 324. 148 rectangular surface. 391 SAT file export. 356 RevV command. 346 rectangle: center. 120. Top construction plane. 30. 349 remove. edges. 2. 251. 288. 361. 171. 39. 2. curves. 181. 30 save: as small file. 355 revolved surface. why the name. 4. objects in 3D space. 4. 346. 348. 346. an object. 353. 181. 10. 360. 172. 39. 360 RotateView command. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. highlight. textures. 352. 183 Restore command. 120. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 288. 382.0 file exchange. 19. autosave. 121 render: BMRT. 358. 398. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 338. 356 RGB color. 363. command aliases. 4. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 359. 1. 352. 2 redo:. 325 RectCen command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 40. 351 RemoveKnots command. close render window. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 378. 25 Rhino web page. options. 351. edges of polygon meshes. 351. 171. 4. 39. 203. 348 Redo command shortcut. 360 Run command. 20 render problems. 363. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 349 RemapCPlane command. 2. 351 RemoveTrace command. 355. 96. 3. 429 RedoMultiple command. 103. 379 RenderOptions command. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 348 ReduceMesh command. 24. materials. 348 refit a curve. 99 Render toolbar. 172. 5. 39. 2. clearing render meshes. 355. 360 RotateRight command. 353. 3. 354 reparameterize. 75 Rhino 1. 358. 94 RIB file export. named view. down. vertical. named construction plane. sequentially numbered versions of model. background bitmap.0. 347 Rectangle command. 355. 359 RotateDown command. Front construction plane. shine. object from selection. 203. file to a different file name or file type. 346. 340 Revolve command. 181. button image to file. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 345. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 320. 425 render:. 3. 351. copy to Clipboard. 324. 353. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 338. 1 RhinoScript options. 459 . 412 Rotate command. 4. 353. 345 Rect3Pt command. wallpaper. toolbar. 355 revolve:. 241 RefreshShade command. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 183. 359 RotateCameraRight command.Rhino 2. objects. 353. 363. 360. 340. 362. 338 Render command. 357 right-click menu. 347 rectangle:. 398. 346. 355 RevU command. 4. named construction plane. 355. 2. 429 Redo command. create background image. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 24. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 352. 309. clear render mesh for all objects. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 152. 355 RestoreView command. 252. 25. 363. view change. 352 render plug-in application: options. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 362. file. save image in render window. 273 ruled surface. bumpmaps. 119 Rhinoceros. up. 349 relative coordinates. 309. 359 RotateCPlane command. 308. 354. 353 RenderEdges command. 353 RenderPreview command. corner. 351 RemoveKnot command. length and width. 3. 346 RectV command. 353 RenderCurves command. 359. 3. 412 Rotate3D command. place lights. 356 Right command. 360 RotateLeft command. mesh settings. 120 restore: current viewport size. 2. 361 S command. 360 RunScript command. 357. 90 reshape a toolbar. 338 Ribbon command.ini. 358 RotateCamera command. image in the render window. 347 rectangular array. transparency. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 357 right mouse button. 360 Rule command. 338. from three points. 1 Rhino. trim curve from surface. 363. 181. 126. 352 RenderCrv command. 360 RotateUp command. layer. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. through three points. 338. preview using OpenGL shade. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. surface using rail curve. right. 171. 5. 325. 354 repeat command exclude list. Rhino 1. curve knots. 346 RectangleV command. 357 rotate view. scale and move on surface. 381. view continuously. 103. 2. ii roll out a surface. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 352 rename. named view. 230. 19. vertical to construction plane. Rhino from being minimized. 347 redo: last undone command. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 338.

460 . 375. construction plane to view. 103. 367 section curves. 373. 364. 90 Select Color dialog box. 335. 372. 367 Section command. extents of grid. 184. next control point in u-direction. to Clipboard. 362. objects to shade. subparts of objects. 368 SelColor command. 369. 370. construction plane to next used. 363 Save command. 308. with mouse method. 181. 370 SelID command. 335. 367. 309. 373 SelPt command. 369 SelCrvs command. 372. 181. 136. 374. 182.0 Command Reference shortcut. 372. 373 SelU command. 376. 126. 303. spotlights. 25. 138. curves. 262. 373. 24. 372 SelSrf command. 379. 25. 367. construction plane to previously used. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. surfaces. 138. 375. 368 SelectConnected command. 374. 129 scripting tools. 126. 363 SaveSmall command. 368. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 172. 371 SelName command. 366. 370 SelLast command. 372 SelPoint command. 206. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 364. 354. 136. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. move and rotate. 368 SelCrossing command. 136. construction plane with 3 points. 182. 366. 366. 373 SelPolyline command. construction plane vertical. 125. objects for render preview. with a window. 383. 369 SelCrv command. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 363 SaveWS command. 364 Scale2D command. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 335. dimensions. all objects. 258. 364. 368. distance between grid lines. 371 SelLight command. 90. objects non-uniformly. add next control point in v-direction. 369. 366. 103. 415. 368 SelConnected command. 309 Scale command. 182. 362. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 339. by object ID. 367 screen:. 364 Scale toolbar. 339. 370 selection menu. duplicate objects. 2. 354. to file in 256 colors. 369. row of control points in udirection. 178. 373. polysurfaces. 371. 370 SelDup command. 361 save template. 376 set: active viewport by name. digitizing scale. 25. 373 SelPts command. objects to unlock. 370 SelLayer command. 371. 372 SelPolysrf command. 258. previous control point in vdirection. 246. 51. 246. 365 ScaleNU command. 184. 375 SelWindow command. 374. 137. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 365. 371 SelMesh command. VBScript. 303. 259. 125. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 363 scale: background bitmap. 370. objects by name. 370. objects in two dimensions. 373 SelUV command. 363 SaveWSAs command. 183. control polygon display density. deselect all objects. 373 select:. 372. lasso. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. toolbar layout. in shaded viewport. 368. 24. 370. to file. 262. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 368 SelectID command. 303. by layer. 308. 373 SelSrfs command. 366. add previous control point in v-direction. next control point in v-direction. 366 Scale1D command. template. 372. coordinates of points. construction plane origins to a point. 367. 372 SelPrev command. construction plane to object. 377. connected points. 363 SaveView command. invert. 383. 288. rotate and move on surface. 371. 262. 372 SelNone command. 136.Rhino 2. meshes. 371 SelLights command. 367. 363. 262. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 383. with crossing window. 373 SelSurfaces command. 230. invert point selection. 373. 335. IGES. 137. 372. 184. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 258. points objects. 371 SelectName command. objects in one direction. bad objects. 367 SelBadObjects command. construction plane to zaxis. 370 SelDups command. 369 SelCurves command. 152. 371. 137. 369 SelCurve command. 373. 369 SelDim command. 371 SelMeshes command. 365. 369. 50. front construction plane. 376. 67 Sect command. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 371. 361. current layer. construction plane origin. 366 scale:. 363 SaveAs command. polylines. 252. 372 SelSolids command. 368. objects instead of control points. 362 save:. 377. 181. 364. 24 SelectLayer command. objects uniformly. 372 SelGroup command. 365 screen capture. 183. objects by layer number. 362 SaveCPlane command. 50. 373 SelSurface command. JScript. construction plane to x axis. 184. previous control point in udirection. 363. 75 Select Points toolbar. layers from list. 309. 246. 138. 372 SelPolylines command. 373 SelSolid command. 376. 303. 259. 363 SaveWorkspace command. toolbar layout as different name. 365. 365. 370. 367 SelAll command. 366 ScaleTrace command. add previous control point in u-direction. 375 Select toolbar. objects. 374 SelV command. 371. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. rows and columns of control points on surface. 126 scripting:. maximized viewport by name.

218. 181. working directory. 339. 79. 220 ShowGrid command. to next used. 181. 383 ShadedViewport command. 376 SetGridSnap command. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 376. by key. 376. 246. 382. Right. change size. 92. perspective angle. 84. edit points. 250 SetLayer command. 242. 119 ShowTrace command. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 380 SetGroupName command. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 383 shadow. 244. 76. from a point. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 390 snap: along a line. 385 ShowGrev command. 261. 250. 386 ShowPts command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 120. edges of surface or polysurface. 386. right construction plane. 355. to previously used. 378 SetObjectName command. 183. 173 ShowCV command. 388 sketch:. 183. 385. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. with grid. 337. 323. 119. 21 Shear command. 384. to the center of a circle. 377 SetLayerToObject command. OpenGL. 386 ShowSelected command. 94. 162. 212. 385 ShowOsnap command. 220. 391. spotlight hotspot. 389 Sketch command. 78. z-buffer. 82. 389 skinning. 242. turn off object snaps. 382. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 79. 80. 241. 241. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 206. 3 Points. 245 ShowMenu command. 385 ShowPoints command. 381 set construction plane. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 81. 94. selected objects in all viewports. 382 ShadeAll command. 2. tangent to a curve. 183. 388. 212. 2. z-axis. 385. toolbar. 83. 337. 381 shade: continuous. 183. 387 silhouette curves. shortcuts. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 426 ShowAll command. 183. 92. 379 SetOrtho command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 80. 178. 80. 183. to the view. to construction plane. 318. options. 355. viewports. 98. 5. selected hidden objects. 183. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 79. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 2. project object snaps to construction plane. 96. bitmap in a separate window. 383 ShadeOptions command. 384. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 95. 388. flat in all viewports. to a knot. 77. 381. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 362 Set View toolbar. 384 ShowCamera command. 376.Rhino 2. built-in aliases. 387 sketch: curve. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 133. 359. 5 Shift+PageUp. 386. 241. 381 shade:. 363. options. 409 set:. with wireframe. grid. toggle object snaps. 390 smooth curve or surface. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. vertical. to a point object. handlebars. curve with digitizer. 184. 409 ShowToolbar command. 392. curve on polygon mesh. 42 SLC file exchange. broken edges. 385. toggle OpenGL mode. 318. 343. 82. to a surface. 4 Shift+PageDown. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 81. 183. 182. 389. Top. to an object. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 379 SetPt command. 81. hidden control points. 425 Shade command. to the end of a curve. 42 Smooth command. 383. 386. 5 shine in rendering. 94. 380 SetRedrawOn command. top construction plane. 94. 383. 382. hidden objects. 184. 409. 242. 242. 246. 385. 119 ShowToolbox command. 379 SetPts command. 338 shortcuts. 23. 2. 322. 206. 318. control points. 78. 84. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 376 SetGLShade command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 384 show:. 381. 3. 298. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 261. 246. naked edges. 379. keys. 425 Shade1 command. 119. 206. 2. 84. 184. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. scripting tools. 383 ShadeSelected command. 264. 5. 184. 153. 183. onto a curve. 318 SetPlanar command. 220. near a curve. 384. to surface isoparm. 273 SLA export. 125. flat with grid. 182. with no smoothing on mesh. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 207 SetSnap command. 78 461 . Osnap toolbar. 2. 74. 383. 384. printer. 184. midway between two points. continuous shaded mode. 84. 76. 184. 400 ShowTitle command. in all viewports. along a line tangent to a curve. selected objects. 386 Silhouette command. 218. 23. 92. 218. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 377. continuous in perspective view. 380. 377 SetHotspot command. on surface. 182. pane. 357. 78.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. to the intersection of two curves. perpendicular to a curve. 140. to the midpoint of a curve. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 181. 339. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 383 Shift key. 98. object. 125 show: background bitmap. 78. 382 shaded display. 426 Show command. flat in one viewport. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 387 SimplifyCurve command. display context menu. 298. 250. x-axis. 79. 380 Settings command. 383 shear objects. 382. 339 ShowEdges command. 182. 386 ShowPt command. 181. by function.

398. 334 spacebar. minimum radius of curvature. 398. Boolean union. 229. Booleans. 417 surface:. 236. 392. 397 SplitEdge command. 392. unroll. 160. 250. 317. 163. 92. 133. 35. 4. 288. 273. 428. 42 Stereograms. 132. hide backfacing control points. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 277. one object with another. 416. cone. 10. 160. developable. 223. 228. 216. 339. 406. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 238. select all. 298. revolved. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 330. IGES file exchange. extract from polysurface. 236. extrude curve along path. 101. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 240. 277. rebuild. 396. 133 sphere. 166. 192. 42 StopScript command. X_T file export. 344. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 372. 324. 243. for rendering. center. pipe. 157. 163. 275. plane. 324. 217. create fillet between. 421. from planar curves. 411. 355. 399 SrfPoints command. toggle. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 372. 348. viewport vertically. 162. 391. 133. 400 STEP file exchange. 281. 160. 398 spotlight:. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 165. 36. 391. 163. 262. 393 sphere:. 229. create variable radius fillet between. 364 SubCrv command. turn on or off. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. export object properties to. 307. 325. 84 Softimage file exchange. create. 15. 90. 161. 400 StatusBar command. maximum radius of curvature. 298. merge. 401. 192. 161. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 391 snap mode. panes. 69. 338. 392. 276. 355. cap planar ends. blend. 132. from curve network. 76. torus. cylinder. draw curve through control points. 238. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 68 Softimage plug-in. untrim. make nonperiodic. toolbar. 88. 320. 198. 393. 15. 316. 105 surface normal. 380. 250. 377. 218. 400. 414. develop. 281. 401. 133. 200. 396. 160. 201. 114. rule. 371. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 173. 157. 277. 69 Solid Edge. 395. 354. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 285. 247. 242. 90 status bar. 399. 153. 281.0 Command Reference Snap command. 238. 38. 171. 96. tube. 166. extrude curve to point. 70. 306. 306. 200. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 417. 324. 161. 164. 391. box from three points. 398. 224. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 344. 366. display. IGES file exchange. 153. 284. 288. drape. 190. comma-delimited file export. 42. 417. 320. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 80. 306. extend. 22 support. 386. 400 SubCurve command. 398. reverse direction. 281. 399 SrfPt command. by diameter. 162. surface at isoparms. extrude into solid. 373. 382. 360. 189 SrfMatch command. 352. 380. turn on or off. 416. select all. 413. 82. 395 split:. 426. 189. plane vertical to construction plane. sweep two rails. 380 snap to locked objects. 402. 399. 38 Solid toolbar. Boolean intersection. 273. 284. 393 Sphere2Pts. 399. 216. 79. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 396. 114. 104. 19. 393 SphereD command. 182. patch. 396 SplitSrf command. 407. 70. 406. 240. 2. 92. 278. shortcuts. file exchange. 157. 115. change degree. 416. 238. 216. 243 Surface toolbar. 399. 361. 113. X_T file export. 240. 158. 173. 238. match. 401. 409. 392. 229 SrfAlign command. viewport horizontally. 233. 38. 1. 397. 201. tolerance. 240 solid:. plane from three points. 313. 38 SortPoints command. 340. 279. 410. make periodic. polygon mesh. 165. offset. 399 SrfSum command. 371 Spotlight command. 236. skin. 238 Standard toolbar. 324. 81. 417. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 201. 247. 290. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 395. box. 237. 430 startup commands. 284 SrfMerge command. 395. truncated cone. 392 Sphere toolbar. 429. 223. 249. 164. 426 surface analysis:. 234. 317. 411 SolidWorks. 321. 233. 273. 395. sweep along path. 69. split. 78. 192. 164. 35. 385. 426 462 . 223. 295 Sphere command. 398. 309 SrfBlend command. 317. 192.Rhino 2. 159. select all. baseball sphere. 399 SrfPts command. 361. 373. 288. 251. 10. 192 Surface menu. 354. 154. 166. from heightfield bitmap. 295. 42. 398 spreadsheet. 133. 402. 324. 392 SnapToLocked command. 190. from grid of control points. 393 Spiral command. 298. mean curvature. 189. periodic. 356. 83. 202. 398. 385. 384. 238. from 3 or 4 points. 421. 397 Split command. 2. 249. 153. 273. 251. 165. 233. 255 split: edge of a surface. reparameterize. 180. 218. 287. 410. 392. 133. 236. 241. 381. 325. 229. 261. 320. trim. chamfer. 118. 162. 236. 340. 426 STL: ascii tag. 84. 317. 302. 398 SrfCV command. 286. 273. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 367. 393 Sphere2Pt. 307. from three points. 396. 2. 247. 160 summary information. 263. 284. 94. 243. hotspot. 328. 84 snap:. 289. 394 spline. 5. 344. ellipsoid. from grid of points. 103. extrude. 126 Stretch command. 135. 386. 288. loft. 218. 423 STL:. from 3 or 4 curves. 3. 372. 392. 409 SnapSize command. 307. 393. cutting plane. 173. 410. 16. 203. 406.

90. 230. 260. 401. 124. 122. 334. 385. 387. new toolbar. model size.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. show toolbar. 382. 402. 119. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 215. 3-D Digitize. 326. 205. 420. properties. 330. 236. 204. 258. 401 Sweep2 command. 404 Sweep1 command. 254. 409. import button image. 50. 430. 352. 409 TiltLeft command. 407. 119. 379. 384. 122. 338. 153. 266. Diagnostics. 120. 345. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. relative. 281. 272. 245. Curve Tools. 338 texture for rendering. 218. 344. left. 318. 71 Swap. Background Bitmap. 198. 248. 120. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 203. 322. 305. 270. 122. 120. 269 TanLine command. 122. 337. 339. 330. 426. 239. 423. 122. 197. save. 349. 265. 255. 351. 279. 309. float icon to top of cascade. 203. 194. 387. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 125. 257. 420. 120. 384. Analyze. 182. 374. 251. 157. 268. 138. 411. 167. 244. 279. 297. 123. capture button image. 166. 170. persistent object snaps. 409. set viewport. 353. 379. 84. BMRT Materials. open. 323 TCone command. 390. 419. 353. 405 target. 220. edit. BMRT Lights toolbar. 121. 96. 420 Title command. move. 302. 171. 160. 344. 412. 140. 253. status bar on or off. 13. 347. 241. 168. viewport title. 421. 221. 407 Texture command. 173. 330. new button. 407 text:. 404. 180. 170. 120. 78. 179. 295. create cascading toolbar. 122. 210. 283. 177. save layout as different name. new file. 409 toggle. 340. 134. 340. 104. 387. 352. 246. copy button. 120. display viewport. 409 TogglePerspective command. 121. 265. edit button image. 351. 142. 119. 395. 15. 407. 200. 125. 262. display of title bar. 367. 364. 15. 396. 22 toolbar buttons. 302. 135. 407 TextObject command. 206. 94. 162. 393. 408. planar curves. display of menu bar. 420. 331. 409. 288. 346. 224. 174. 103. 232. 210. 323. 281. 323. 22. menu bar. 248. 220. 398. 152. two rails. 164. 119. 360. 249. 245. Annotate. programming. 123. 238. 365. 386. 212. 241. 123. 366. 271. 195. copy. 88. snap mode. 358. 208. 120. Box. 39. 396. 419. along path. 399. viewports. 403. 400. 190. 307. 229. 143. rename toolbar. ortho mode. 169. 400 sweep. 212. 124. 249. delete toolbar. 230. 171. 165. 178. grid on and off. 363. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 245. 296. 303. 409. 120. 73 template. 92. 185. 400. 308. 124. 320. 125. 294. 409 title bar. 365. 216. 23. 204. 179. 239. display of viewport title. edit 2-dimensional. 178. 337. 123. 373. 404 TAB key. 400 SwapView command. title bar on or off. 216. 168. display of command prompt. rendering of curves. 90. 140. angle. 51. 124. 120. right. 369. 121. 51. 136. 407. 124. 410. perspective view on and off. 261. 217. 216. 187. 124. 400. 172. 222. 121. IGES export. 181. 363. 292. Curve. 152. 408 Text command. 325. 192. clear button image. 362 text: annotation dot. 185. 145. 233. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 390. 3-D Digitizing. 361. 169. 297. 401. 101. 173. planar mode. 90. 366. 356. 322. 179. 407. change button size. 288. 228. 395. 40. reshape toolbar. 121. grid axes on or off. 90. 231. 362. 321. 82 tangent line. import from another layout. 352. 370. 187. 184. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 245. 425 Toggle34View command. definition. toggle toolbar on and off. Circle. 125. 137. 368. 288. 311. Ellipse. 353. 189. 205. 120. 272. move button. 121. 269. 142. 187. 391. 328. edit annotation. save. 80 TanFrom object snap. 230. 267. 221. 293. 141. 322. 156. 231. close. ortho. 379. 409. 207. 363. 209. 209. 417. 155. 260. 371. 257. 302. 240. 120. 207. 124. 363. 367. surface u and v. 339. 413. 409. 143. 420. 363. 215. toolbar on and off. scaled size. 323. move toolbar. 220. 154. 197. 121. 135. 144. dock. scripting. 121. 120 tolerance. 151. 264. 388. 400. 125 Toolbar command. 384. 122. 343. 306. 269 Taper command. 185. 263. clear the bitmap image. 389. 195. 255. 139. 367 Thaw command. 134. 139. 414. 420. 226. 121. 80. 429. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 400 SwapUV command. 223. 135. 163. capture icon. 173. Curve From Object. Edge Tools. 124. 321. 355. 425. 82. 385. float toolbar. file location. 163. 308. rendering of edges. 389. 406. 258. 235. 316. 357. 164. 381. 324. 409. 83. 463 . 81. 348. 332. 288 ToggleOsnap command. tear off flyout. 338. 223. 259. surfaces. 218. 123. 215. 392. 1. 342. pop up with middle mouse. 122. 353. Array. 177. world axes on or off. 256. 14 Tan object snap. 288. 405. 311. change name. 391. 362. 305. 236. 401. 222. 161. 162. 428. 368. 168. 122. 208. 392. 151. save. solids. 226. 397. 388. 165. 123 Toolbars. 385. 221. 5. Arc. 425. change. 217. display program. 323. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 192. 144. 409. 150. edit bitmap icon. cascade. 304. 123. 79. 273. 335. unlink flyout. 407. 39. delete button. 221. 235. 162. 149. 284. 311. 313. 232. 245. 255. save button image to file. 298. 409 TiltRight command. 415 tilt view. 156. 242. 409 toolbar layout. 134 TGA file format. 220. 213. control polygon highlight. 402 Sxtrd command. 394. 409. 338. 317. 19. 383. 333. 247. display of status bar. 288. 90. 407. 141. 422. 372. 375.Rhino 2. open toolbar. 210. 215. 234. control polygon display. 256. 359. dragging based on view plane. 174. 39. 308. 330. hide flyout. 290. 206. 409. 201. 416. 22. 343. 400. CPlane View. Dimensions. 183. 148. hide toolbar. 402. 150. 72 technical support. crosshairs on and off. 198. 377. 119. 323. 379. Extend. 368. 189. 243. 409. 336. 148. 168. 149. 415.

Scale1D command. 363. 238. 333. 96. Set CPlane. 337. 383. 303. 168. Select Points. 364. 15 Units command. definition. 413. 293. 311. 410. 330. Fillets and chamfers. 414 UnhidePoints command. 201. 103. 263. shrink to trim boundary. 101. 325. 271. 386 Unicode fonts. 364. control points. 398. 228. 309. 338. 326. Point Editing. 348. 134. 180. 391. 221. 365. 218. 2. 307. 244. 302. 149. 79. 311. Organic. 174. 194. 373. 245. 395. POV Materials. 377. 229. shortcuts. 399. 149. 192. Mesh. 83. Rotate command. 390. 218. 338. 162. Smooth command. 141. 224. 307. 307. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 245. 236. 348. 99. 240. 220. 2. 206. 105. 330. 409. 173. 366. 84. 365. 92. 229. 405. 113. 90. world axes. 309. 361. 318. 398. 214. 262. 236. Boolean. menu bar. 355. 142. 381. 339. 219. 405. 342. 390. 268. 382. 357. Polygon. 339. 365. 88. 288. 367. 262. 412 transform:. 357. 324. 151. 172. 308. 412. 296. 154. 410. 429. 150. 161. Taper command. status bar. 348. Rectangle. 154. Geometry Fix. 408. 403. 349. 259. Point. 358. 334. 381. 263. 154. 307. Object Snap. 362. 412 Transform toolbar. 133. 425 turn on. command. 238. Orient3Pt command. 263. 414 unfold a surface. 183. 414. 208. 270. 88. 140. 339. 203. 382. 82. 412 U command. 78. 357. 338. 296. 160. Plane. 262. 283. 81. 345. 251. 190. 208. 172. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 182. 246. 366. Flow command. 375. 49. 251. 386. Layer. IGES export type details. 316. 349. 308. 409 top view. layers. layer. 256. 392. 414. 288. 162. 216. 203. 342. 153. 405. 338. 410 TraceBitmap command. 339. ScaleNU command. 103. 150. 92. 420. 236. 213. 173. 276. menu bar. 255. grid axes. 138. 368. 181. 2 Torus command. 372. 19. 247. 148. 94. 171. 305. 241. 386. 82 tracking line. 249. 48. 145. Rotate3D command. 161. 425. 108. 104. 400. 2. 275. 304. 370. 203 trimmed surfaces. 102. 356. IGES export file types. set. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 348. 244. 348. 243. 341. 423. 264. 406 Tube command. 331. 356. 153. 172. 343. 281. 203. 19. Shear command. along a line tangent to a curve. 392. 73 union. 80. 374. 351. 349. 16. 245. 263. 429 UndoMultiple command. 358. 92. command line. 244. 210. 335. 366. grid. 298. 268. ArrayPolar command. 51. Sphere. 430. shortcut. 142. 406. 367. 417. 309. 361. 386. 299. 273. Scale. 171. 309. 379. 379. 236. 245. 412 Twist command. 355. Render. 263. 82. 379. 308. 425. 203. all layers. 260. 339. 415 Ungroup command. grid axes. 258. 321 track. rendering. 288. 154. 249. 298. Transform. 331. 245. 353. 383. 332. 236. 88. 373. 288. 16. 100. Scale2D command. 343. 173. 203. 228. Tools. 413. 294. Standard. Lines. 410. 409. 338. 409. STL Tools. 358. 352. 284. 140. 200. 415. 356 u-direction:. RemapCPlane command. 101. 262. 302. 429 Undo command. 362. Scale command. 415 Toolbox command. 262. Copy command. 92. 322. 173. 415 units systems. 374. 330. 157. 399. Move command. 249. 240. OrientOnSrf command. 396. 321. 240. 344. Bend command. 140. 309. 161 unit systems. 393. Microscribe. 390. 399. 273. 261. Mass Properties. 180. 384. 288. 296. 379. 414 Ungroup objects. 410 trim:. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 423. 263. 339. 377. 164. 140. 421. 347. 409. 90. 233. 413 u-direction: move control points. 412 transparency in rendering. 249. 243. 152. 307. 41. 244. Visibility. reverse. grid. 295. 306. 348. 173. 424. 345. Solid Tools. 202. 400. 385. 50. 358. 407. 135. 296. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 261. Booleans. 427. Twist command. 311. 180. 355. 366. world axes. 383. 204. 322. 317. Surface Analysis. 400. 339. 425. 253. status bar. 364. 198. pop up at cursor. 212. 307. 346. 173. 94. 390. along a line. title bar. 357. OrientPerpToCrv command. 363. 290. 277. 402. 413 undo:. File. 357. 148. 234. 372. ProjectToCPlane command. options. 396. 416. 131 transform: Array command. 180. 269. 409. 338. 229. 422. 337. 351. ArraySrf command. 416 UnGhost command. 152. 151. POV Lights. autosave. 48. 349. 2. 324. 339. 179. 338. 413. 425. 373. 384. 333. 148. 304. 386 troubleshooting. 369. 154. 167. 108. 267. 166. 358. 401. 135. 330. 360. 308. 180.0 Command Reference 233. 96. 292. 409 Top command. control points. 365. Surface 2. 323. 386. 321. 258. 405. 386. 205. 409. 311. Viewport Layout. 409 Tools toolbar. Mirror command. 413. Set View. 386. 365. 94. redo. trimmed surfaces. 429. 352. 412. 229. 261. 137. 259. 420. 384. Surface Tools. 296. 266. OpenGL. 400. Select. 96. 371. 172. 155. 368. 334. 323. 397. 153. IGES. 363. 375. 239. 300. 245. 104. 203. 297 u-direction curves. 414 UndoSelected command. 265. 19. 253. in text. 426 Turntable command. 90. 1. 92 Trim command. 135. 425. 148. 173. 185 u-direction definition. 148. 223. 180. 395. 83. 383. 288. ArrayCrv command. 153. 290. 165. 317. 349. 417. 326. 296. 409. 41. 361. 294 trim: detach trimming curve.Rhino 2. 136. 90. Extrude. Orient command. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 50. command line. Solid. layer. 184. 220. 364. 82. 339. 313. 101. autosave. 123 464 . title bar. 409. control points on selected objects. 229. 339. Surface. 342. 254. 359. 428. 298. 244. SetPt command. Main. 161. 182. 404. 318. 83. 249. 357. 2. 417. 229. 251. 190. 90. 409. 162. 328. view change. 261. 336. 398. 411 turn off. 15 truncated cone. 134. 365. 242.

409. 318. 386. 397. 134. zoom extents. 24. 23. 303. 288. split vertical. 184 VDA file exchange. 425. perspective view. 135. 400 viewport properties. 163. next active. 23. 412. make previous active. 363. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. zoom window. 314. 428 Windows Clipboard. 304. 343. 360. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. maximize viewport. 250 water plane area. 428. set density. 416 UnrollSrf command. 379 Weld command. set right view. 212. 425. 338. 363. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 264. new. swap. 162.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 360. tilt left. 430 view:. 357. 249. target. 415 unlock:. 409. 190. 355. 165 UpDegSrf command. 298. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 323. 303. 135 WireframeViewport command. 415 UnPackTextures command. 134 VBscript. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 250. tilt right. zoom in and out by a percentage. 429. 343. 45 workgroup: check in license. set to shaded display. 132. 11 user input in script. 423 wetted surface area. zoom extents selected. 323. move next to top. object. 384. 185 v-direction definition. 376. 415 unroll a surface. 135. 313. 302. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. left view. 322. reverse. 429. 244. 313. 44 W command. 249. 419. 420 viewport title menu. 325. 425 wireframe:. 355. 420. 383. construction plane right. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. three viewports. 357. 420. maximize. 162. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 318. 421 VRectangle command. 430. 198. 288. continuously rotate. selected objects. 412. lock objects. 415 UnLockSelected command. 2. zoom out. 386. 415 Visibility toolbar. 384. 249.Rhino 2. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 400. set bottom view. construction plane left. 168. 409. pan up. 24. 181. 172. 417 unwrap a surface. front view. right view. 409. control points. next ortho active. 336. 244. 429. 23. read named from file. construction plane front. 420 views. 273. 338 wireframe display. 3 window:. 420. 400. 313. 304. 249. save named. show control points. 379. 298. check out license. print. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 322. 271. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 360. 420. 430. pan right. 153. rotate down. 273. 224. 419. rotate right. 415 UnLock command. 430. 425 WireShade1 command. 313. set to wireframe display. 135. zoom extents in one viewport. camera. 376. set maximized by name. 1 window: select. 404. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 377. 343. 162. 318. with mouse. 423. next perspective active. 96. 297 v-direction curves. 244. 397. create from surface. 264. 163. 429 viewport layout:. 51 weight: edit control point. 90. 323. 430. 190. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 343. layout. isoparm. 383. 126 Vline command. 250 What command. 325. rotate. split horizontal. 343. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 153. 190. 313. set left view. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. plan view. pan. pan down. unlock objects. 404 visibility: control points. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. create new. 96. 25. 430. set all to match. 397. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 405. 419. 417 Untrim command. 376. zoom. 273. 419. 302. 428. 409. 271 Volume command. set front view. 422 weight:. construction plane bottom. 425 WMF file export. 322. 131. 419. top view. swap viewports. 90 window selection. display. properties. zoom extents in all viewports. 357. set back view. zoom window. 384. 420 ViewportTitle command. 357. 421 VRBSrf command. 377. restore named. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. line. zoom all to the same scale. 383. shade. 322. 153. rectangle. 302. 429. set viewport. 288. 360. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 264. 264. 185. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. close. 422 Weight command. 404. hide back. 422 water level. 314. 271. set perspective view. 360. 415 visibility:. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. redraw speed. zoom window and set a target point. 323. 376 Wallpaper command. 162. 419. 336. 415 Visual Basic script. 54 vertex. 386. 45 viewport: bring to top. 288. 430 viewport:. rotate up. menu. plane. 24. 321. 360. 347 VRML file export. 416 UpDeg command. edit named. 397. synchronize. 318. 421 VPlane command. 423 weld:. 132. place camera and target. 425 ViewportProperties command. 347 view: back view. set active by name. 126 VCPlane command. 168 465 . 416 untrim a surface. copy to all. 336. rotate left. 356 v-direction:. construction plane back. 304. 420. 135. zoom in. 318. 347. 420 VolumeCentroid command. place target. 304. 236. read from file. 43 v-direction: move control points. 135. wireframe viewport. 153. object snaps. 131 vertical. 409. 302. 429. 415. 429. 421 VolumeMoments command. 244. 172. 429. set top view. 181. control point. 325 Vrbf command. 288. 430. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 400. 302. pan left. bottom view.

check in license. 217 ZBufferPts command. 429.Rhino 2. 430 ZBuffer command. 11 WorldAxes command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 363. 429. 430 ZP command. 425. 428 Zoo. check out license. 97. 168. set colors. 217 ZBufferPt command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 44 X_T file export. 96. 363. 5. 428. 130. 430 ZoomX command. 168 working directory. 425 world coordinates. 4. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 430 zoom window. 389 ZBufferSrf command. previous view. 429 ZS command. 429. 429 ZoomMouse command. 430 ZoomTarget command. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 363 world axes.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 74 Z command. extents in all viewports. 430 ZoomDynamic command. toggle display. save. save as different name. 430 466 . options. 308. 2. extents in one viewport. 429. 168 workgroup:. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 130 zoom: dynamic. 430 ZSA command. 233 XtndF command. 3 zoom:. 3. 216 ZE command. 428. 430. 428 ZoomExtents command. 430. open. 3. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 428 ZoomNext command. 2. 429. 429 Zebra command. 4. 233 Xtra command. 96. window. 2. 308. window and set a new target point. 38 XtndB command. 381 workspace. 426 ZM command. 425. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 2. in. 168. 428. 429 ZoomP command. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. in and out by a percentage. out. 429 ZEA command. 425 WRL file export. 430. 428. 429 ZoomIn command. 430 Zoom command. 430. 430 ZoomWindow command. 429 ZoomOut command. 429 ZoomPrev command.

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