P. 1
Command Ref a4

Command Ref a4

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Published by: Oana_2510 on Nov 07, 2011
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12/14/2012

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Sections

  • Welcome to Rhinoceros
  • Why Rhinoceros?
  • Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Help
  • Shortcuts
  • Built-in aliases
  • Coordinate points
  • Enter construction plane coordinates
  • Enter world coordinates
  • UseWCSCoordinates
  • UseCPlaneCoordinates
  • Enter relative coordinates
  • Enter polar coordinates
  • Enter relative polar coordinates
  • Modeling aids
  • Elevator mode
  • Use Tab to constrain along a line
  • Angle Constraint
  • Distance Constraint
  • Toggle crosshairs on and off
  • Trimmed surfaces
  • Document properties
  • Document Properties dialog box, Dimensions tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Grid tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Notes tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render Mesh tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Render tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Summary tab
  • Document Properties dialog box, Units tab
  • Viewport layout
  • Select objects
  • Selecting parts of objects
  • Import and export file types
  • Rhino 1.0 file exchange
  • 3D Studio file exchange
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange
  • RemoveFlippedNormals
  • ACIS file export
  • Adobe Illustrator file exchange
  • Applied Geometry file exchange
  • AutoCAD DWG file exchange
  • AutoCAD DXF file exchange
  • AutoCAD export options
  • Export object properties
  • GHS file export
  • Lightwave file exchange
  • Moray UDO Export
  • Parasolid X_T file export
  • RenderMan RIB export
  • POV-Ray export
  • Raw Triangle file exchange
  • SLC file exchange
  • STEP file exchange
  • STL file exchange
  • VDA file exchange
  • VRML file export
  • Viewpoint Technologies file export
  • Windows Metafile file export
  • DirectX file exchange
  • Moldex
  • PostScript file exchange
  • IGES file exchange
  • Troubleshooting IGES import
  • Edit IGES export types
  • Edit IGES export type details
  • OBJ (Wavefront) file export
  • IGES polygon mesh export
  • IGES Types
  • 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange
  • Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange
  • Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange
  • AUTOFORM IGES file exchange
  • AutoShip IGES file exchange
  • Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange
  • CADCEUS IGES file exchange
  • CamSoft IGES file exchange
  • CATIA IGES file exchange
  • Cosmos/M IGES file exchange
  • Delcam IGES file exchange
  • FastShip IGES file exchange
  • FastSURF IGES file exchange
  • IronCAD IGES file exchange
  • Integrity Ware IGES file exchange
  • LUSAS IGES file exchange
  • Mastercam IGES file exchange
  • Maya IGES file exchange
  • ME30 IGES file exchange
  • Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange
  • Microstation IGES file exchange
  • Multisurf IGES file exchange
  • NASA GridTool IGES file exchange
  • Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange
  • OptiCAD IGES file exchange
  • Pro/E IGES file exchange
  • SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange
  • Softimage IGES file exchange
  • Solid Edge IGES file exchange
  • Solid Designer IGES file exchange
  • SolidWorks IGES file exchange
  • SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange
  • SURFCAM IGES file exchange
  • Tebis IGES file exchange
  • TekSoft IGES file exchange
  • Unigraphics IGES file exchange
  • Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange
  • Context menu
  • Select Color
  • Object snaps
  • Osnap
  • NoSnap
  • End object snap
  • Near object snap
  • Point object snap
  • Mid object snap
  • Cen object snap
  • Int object snap
  • Perp object snap
  • Tan object snap
  • Quad object snap
  • Knot object snap
  • From object snap
  • PerpFrom object snap
  • TanFrom object snap
  • Along object snap
  • AlongParallel object snap
  • OnSrf object snap
  • ProjectOsnap
  • Between
  • OnCrv object snap
  • SnapToLocked
  • Object properties
  • Object Properties, Object tab
  • Object Properties, Dimensions tab
  • Object Properties, Light tab
  • Edit light object properties
  • Object Properties, Material tab
  • Object Properties, Text tab
  • Options dialog box
  • Options dialog box, Aliases tab
  • Options dialog box, Appearance tab
  • Options dialog box, Files tab
  • Options dialog box, General tab
  • Options dialog box, Keyboard tab
  • Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab
  • Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
  • Options dialog box, Shade tab
  • Options dialog box, View tab
  • Shade
  • Render
  • Troubleshoot rendering
  • Troubleshoot OpenGL
  • Layers
  • Layer materials
  • Select Layers
  • Create a new layer
  • Rename a layer
  • Change the color of a layer
  • Delete a layer
  • Filter the layer display list
  • Surfaces through a sequence of curves
  • Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers
  • Troubleshoot Booleans
  • Edit the Rhino.ini file
  • Toolbars
  • Close a toolbar
  • HideToolbar
  • Open a toolbar
  • ShowToolbar
  • ToggleToolbar
  • Move a toolbar
  • Dock a toolbar
  • Float a toolbar
  • Reshape a toolbar
  • Rename a toolbar
  • Import a toolbar from another layout file
  • Change toolbar name or button size
  • Create a new toolbar
  • Delete a toolbar
  • Create a flyout toolbar
  • Flyout a toolbar
  • Hide a flyout toolbar
  • Tear off a flyout toolbar
  • Manage toolbar buttons
  • Move a toolbar button
  • Delete a toolbar button
  • Copy a toolbar button
  • Create a floating flyout button
  • Unlink a flyout toolbar
  • Customize toolbar buttons
  • Create a new toolbar button
  • Change the toolbar button tooltip
  • Programming the toolbar button functions
  • Customize toolbar button bitmap icons
  • Clear the bitmap image
  • Draw or edit a bitmap icon
  • Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon
  • Import a bitmap from another source
  • Save your bitmap to a file
  • Scripting tools
  • VBScript and JScript
  • 3-D digitizing
  • Diagnostics
  • Error messages
  • Scripting Rhino Installers
  • Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo)
  • Rhino plug-ins
  • Glossary
  • Commands
  • 34View
  • 3DFace
  • 3View
  • 4View
  • AddNextU
  • AddNextV
  • AddPrevU
  • AddPrevV
  • AddToGroup
  • AlignBackgroundBitmap
  • AlignProfiles
  • AllCPlanesThroughPt
  • AllLayersOn
  • Angle
  • ApplyCrv
  • ApplyMesh
  • Arc3Pt
  • ArcDir
  • ArcSER
  • ArcTTR
  • Area
  • AreaCentroid
  • AreaMoments
  • Array
  • ArrayCrv
  • ArrayCrvOnSrf
  • ArrayPolar
  • ArraySrf
  • Arrow
  • Arrowhead
  • AssignBlankTexture
  • Audit
  • Autosave
  • Back
  • Baseball
  • BaseballEllipsoid
  • Bend
  • Bisector
  • Blend
  • BlendSrf
  • BooleanDifference
  • Boolean difference
  • Boolean Difference
  • BooleanIntersection
  • Boolean intersection
  • BooleanUnion
  • Boolean Union
  • Bottom
  • BoundingBox
  • Box3Pt
  • BringViewportToTop
  • Chamfer
  • ChamferSrf
  • ChangeDegree
  • ChangeDegreeSrf
  • ChangeLayer
  • ChangeToCurrentLayer
  • Check
  • CheckInLicense
  • CheckOutLicense
  • Circle
  • Circle3Pt
  • CircleD
  • CircleTTR
  • CircleTTT
  • ClearAllMeshes
  • ClearUndo
  • CloseDisplayWindow
  • ClosestPt
  • CloseViewport
  • CommandHistory
  • CommandPaste
  • CommandPrompt
  • Cone
  • Conic
  • ConicPerp
  • Continuity
  • Contour
  • ControlPolygon
  • ControlPolygon on
  • ControlPolygonDensity
  • ControlPolygonHighlight
  • ConvertToBeziers
  • ConvertToPolyline
  • Copy
  • CopyClip
  • CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll
  • CopyCPlaneToAll
  • CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard
  • CopyViewToAll
  • CPlane3Pt
  • CPlaneElevation
  • CPlaneFront
  • CPlaneNext
  • CPlaneOrigin
  • CplaneOriginAll
  • CPlanePerpToCrv
  • CPlanePrev
  • CPlaneRight
  • CPlaneThroughPt
  • CPlaneToObject
  • CPlaneTop
  • CPlaneToView
  • CPlaneV
  • CPlaneX
  • CPlaneZ
  • CreateUVCrv
  • Crv2View
  • CrvDeviation
  • CrvEnd
  • CrvSeam
  • CrvStart
  • CrvThroughSrfControlPt
  • CSec
  • CullControlPolygon
  • Curvature
  • CurvatureAnalysis
  • CurvatureGraphOff
  • CurvatureGraphOn
  • CurvatureSrf
  • Curve
  • CutArea
  • CutAreaCentroid
  • CutAreaMoments
  • CutPlane
  • CutVolume
  • CutVolumeCentroid
  • CutVolumeMoments
  • Cylinder
  • Delete
  • Delete control points on curves
  • DeleteAll
  • DetachTrim
  • DigCalibrate
  • DigClick
  • DigDisconnect
  • DigPause
  • DigScale
  • DigSection
  • DigSketch
  • DigSpacing
  • DimAligned
  • DimAngle
  • DimDiameter
  • DimHorizontal
  • DimOptions
  • DimRadius
  • DimRecenterText
  • DimRotated
  • DimVertical
  • DirectionalLight
  • DisableOsnap
  • DisplayBitmap
  • Distance
  • Divide
  • DivideByLength
  • DocumentProperties
  • Domain
  • DraftAngleAnalysis
  • DragMode
  • Drape
  • DrapePt
  • DupBorder
  • DupEdge
  • DynamicShading
  • DynamicShadingPerspective
  • EdgeSrf
  • EditDim
  • EditPtOn
  • EditText
  • Ellipse
  • EllipseD
  • Ellipsoid
  • EMap
  • EndBulge
  • EndBulgeSrf
  • Enter
  • Erase
  • EvaluatePt
  • EvaluateUVPt
  • Exit
  • Explode
  • ExplodeMesh
  • Export
  • ExportCommandAliases
  • ExportWithOrigin
  • Extend
  • ExtendByArc
  • ExtendByArcToPt
  • ExtendByLine
  • ExtendCrvOnSrf
  • ExtendSrf
  • ExtractControlPolygon
  • ExtractIsoparm
  • ExtractPt
  • ExtractSrf
  • ExtractWireframe
  • Extrude
  • ExtrudeAlongCrv
  • ExtrudeSrf
  • ExtrudeToPt
  • Fair
  • Faro
  • Fillet
  • FilletEdge
  • FilletSrf
  • FitCrv
  • FlatShade
  • FlatShade1
  • FlatShadeAll
  • FlattenSrf
  • Flip
  • Flow
  • Front
  • GCon
  • Grid
  • GridAxes
  • GridOptions
  • GridSections
  • GridSize
  • GridThick
  • Group
  • HBar
  • Heightfield
  • Helix
  • Hide
  • HideBackgroundBitmap
  • HideOsnap
  • HidePt
  • HideSwap
  • Hotspot
  • Hydrostatics
  • Import
  • ImportCommandAliases
  • Improve
  • IncrementalSave
  • Insert
  • InsertEditPoint
  • InsertKink
  • InsertKnot
  • InsertLineIntoCrv
  • InterpCrv
  • InterpCrvOnSrf
  • InterpPolyline
  • Intersect
  • Invert
  • InvertPt
  • Join
  • JoinEdge
  • JoinMesh
  • JoinSrf
  • LabelCurveEndpoints
  • Lasso
  • LayerLock
  • LayerOff
  • LayerOn
  • Leader
  • Left
  • Length
  • Line
  • Line4Pt
  • LineAngle
  • LinearizeTrims
  • LinePerp
  • LinePP
  • Lines
  • LineTan
  • LineTP
  • LineTT
  • LineV
  • List
  • LoadPlugin
  • LoadScript
  • Lock
  • LockSwap
  • Loft
  • Make2D
  • MakeCrvPeriodic
  • MakeSrfNonPeriodic
  • MakeSrfPeriodic
  • Match
  • MatchLayer
  • MatchSrf
  • Maximize
  • MaxViewport
  • Menu
  • MergeEdge
  • MergeSrf
  • Mesh
  • MeshBox
  • MeshCone
  • MeshCylinder
  • Mesh cylinder
  • MeshDensity
  • MeshPlane
  • MeshPolyline
  • MeshSphere
  • MeshToNurb
  • Minimize
  • Mirror
  • Move
  • MoveBackgroundBitmap
  • MoveUVN
  • Mscribe
  • NamedCPlane
  • NamedView
  • NetworkSrf
  • NewViewport
  • NextOrthoViewport
  • NextPerspectiveViewport
  • NextU
  • NextV
  • NextViewport
  • NextViewportToTop
  • Normal
  • Notes
  • Note
  • Offset
  • OffsetSrf
  • OneLayerOff
  • OneLayerOn
  • Open
  • OpenWorkspace
  • Options
  • Orient
  • Orient3Pt
  • OrientCrvToEdge
  • OrientOnSrf
  • OrientPerpToCrv
  • Ortho
  • OrthoAngle
  • PackTextures
  • PanDown
  • PanLeft
  • PanRight
  • PanUp
  • Parabola
  • Paraboloid
  • Paste
  • Patch
  • Pause
  • Perspective
  • PerspectiveAngle
  • PerspectiveMatch
  • PictureFrame
  • Pipe
  • PlaceBackgroundBitmap
  • PlaceCameraTarget
  • PlaceTarget
  • Plan
  • Planar
  • PlanarSrf
  • Plane
  • Plane3Pt
  • PlaneThroughPt
  • PlaneV
  • PluginManager
  • Point
  • Point filters
  • PointCloudSection
  • PointDeviation
  • PointGrid
  • PointLight
  • Points
  • PointsAtNakedEdges
  • PointsFromUV
  • Polygon
  • PolygonEdge
  • Polyline
  • PolylineOnMesh
  • PolylineThroughPt
  • PopupMenu
  • PopupToolbar
  • PrevU
  • PrevV
  • PrevViewport
  • Print
  • PrintSetup
  • Project
  • Projection
  • ProjectToCPlane
  • Properties
  • PtOff
  • PtOffSelected
  • PtOn
  • Pull
  • PushViewportToBack
  • Radius
  • RailRevolve
  • ReadCommandFile
  • ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile
  • ReadNamedViewsFromFile
  • ReadViewportsFromFile
  • Rebuild
  • RebuildEdges
  • RebuildSrf
  • Rectangle
  • Rectangle3Pt
  • RectangleCen
  • RectangleV
  • Redo
  • RedoMultiple
  • ReduceMesh
  • RefreshShade
  • RemapCPlane
  • RemoveBackgroundBitmap
  • RemoveFromGroup
  • RemoveKnot
  • RemoveMultiKnotSrf
  • RemoveWallpaper
  • Remove wallpaper
  • RenderAGEdges
  • RenderCrv
  • RenderEdges
  • RenderOptions
  • RenderPreview
  • Render preview
  • RenderPreviewAll
  • RenderPreviewSelected
  • RenderPreviewSelectedAll
  • ReparameterizeSrf
  • Restore
  • RestoreCPlane
  • RestoreView
  • Revolve
  • RevU
  • RevV
  • Ribbon
  • Right
  • Rotate
  • Rotate3D
  • RotateCamera
  • RotateCameraDown
  • RotateCameraLeft
  • RotateCameraRight
  • RotateCameraUp
  • RotateCPlane
  • RotateDown
  • RotateLeft
  • RotateRight
  • RotateUp
  • RotateView
  • RunScript
  • Save
  • SaveAs
  • SaveAsTemplate
  • SaveCPlane
  • SaveDisplayWindowAs
  • SaveSmall
  • SaveView
  • SaveWorkspace
  • SaveWorkspaceAs
  • Scale
  • Scale1D
  • Scale2D
  • ScaleBackgroundBitmap
  • ScaleNU
  • ScreenCaptureToClipboard
  • ScreenCaptureToFile
  • ScreenCaptureToFile256
  • Section
  • SelAll
  • SelBadObjects
  • SelColor
  • SelConnected
  • SelCrossing
  • SelCrv
  • SelDim
  • SelDup
  • SelGroup
  • SelID
  • SelLast
  • SelLayer
  • SelLayerNumber
  • SelLight
  • SelMesh
  • SelNakedMeshEdgePt
  • SelName
  • SelNone
  • SelPolyline
  • SelPolysrf
  • SelPrev
  • SelPt
  • SelSrf
  • SelU
  • SelUV
  • SelV
  • SelWindow
  • SetActiveViewport
  • SetCurrentRenderPlugIn
  • SetGLShade
  • SetGroupName
  • SetLayer
  • SetLayerMaterialProperties
  • SetLayerToObject
  • SetMaximizedViewport
  • SetObjectMaterial
  • SetObjectMaterialProperties
  • SetObjectName
  • SetObjectNameMultiple
  • SetOrtho
  • SetPlanar
  • SetPt
  • SetRedrawOff
  • SetRedrawOn
  • SetSnap
  • SetViewportWindowSize
  • SetWorkingDirectory
  • Shade1
  • ShadeAll
  • ShadedViewport
  • ShadeOptions
  • ShadeSelected
  • ShadeSelectedAll
  • Shear
  • Show
  • ShowBackgroundBitmap
  • ShowBrokenEdges
  • ShowCamera
  • ShowEdges
  • ShowNakedEdges
  • ShowOsnap
  • ShowPt
  • ShowSelected
  • ShrinkTrimmedSrf
  • Silhouette
  • SimplifyCrv
  • Sketch
  • SketchOnMesh
  • SketchOnSrf
  • Smooth
  • Snap
  • SnapSize
  • Sphere
  • Sphere3Pt
  • SphereD
  • Spiral
  • Split
  • SplitEdge
  • SplitSrf
  • SplitViewportHorizontal
  • SplitViewportVertical
  • Spotlight
  • SrfControlPtGrid
  • SrfPt
  • SrfPtGrid
  • StatusBar
  • SubCrv
  • SwapUV
  • SwapView
  • Sweep1
  • Sweep2
  • SynchronizeViews
  • Taper
  • TCone
  • Text
  • TextObject
  • TiltLeft
  • TiltRight
  • Title
  • ToggleOsnap
  • Toolbar
  • Torus
  • Trim
  • Tube
  • Turntable
  • Twist
  • Undo
  • UndoMultiple
  • UndoSelected
  • Ungroup
  • UnifyMeshNormals
  • Units
  • UnLock
  • UnLockSelected
  • UnpackTextures
  • UnrollSrf
  • Untrim
  • ViewCPlaneBack
  • ViewCPlaneBottom
  • ViewCPlaneFront
  • ViewCPlaneLeft
  • ViewCPlaneRight
  • ViewCPlaneTop
  • ViewportProperties
  • Viewport title
  • ViewportTitle
  • Volume
  • VolumeCentroid
  • VolumeMoments
  • VRBSrf
  • Wallpaper
  • Weight
  • Weld
  • What
  • WireframeViewport
  • WireShade1
  • WorldAxes
  • Index

Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

ii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

iii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

iv

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

v

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

vi

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

viii

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

ix

0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

.................................................................. 447 xv ......0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index...................................................................................Rhino 2..

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

and Find.com/support/faq.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. 17 . the name stuck. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. under the topic Help.rhino3d. Index. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. Help Access Rhino's Help file. To explore the related topics.rhino3d. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. see the Rhino Command List. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office.rhino3d. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. and by the time the product was in beta testing. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file.com Web site www. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window.Rhino 2. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino.

Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . F8. In parallel views like the default Top. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. and Right view. Front. drag with the right mouse button. Shift. Ortho pane on the status bar. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Lens length displays on status bar. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. PageUp. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. PageDown.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel.

Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Lens length displays on status bar.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

Rhino 2.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. See Options dialog box. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

26 . Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.

For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type w0.and y-coordinates. with r prefix relative coordinates. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.3 and press Enter. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. type coordinates in the format: rx. type w12. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. y and z coordinates to place points.10 and press Enter.10 and press Enter.0.Rhino 2. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point.z and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. enter the starting point for the line. the point will lie on the construction plane.6. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. type 12. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. This starts the line at the construction plane origin. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.y.0 and press Enter. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. click Line.0. Note If you enter only x. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. type r2. Note If you enter only x. the point will lie on the world x. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. type coordinates in the format: x. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line.y.10 in the construction plane coordinates. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. then click Single Line.z and press Enter. click Line. 27 .6.6. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wx.y plane. click Line.and y-coordinates. type 0. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. then click Single Line.0 and press Enter.6.10 in the world coordinates.

Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. click another point in the perspective viewport. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. A white tracking line will display. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. click Free-form. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. 28 .axis) and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type 4<45 and press Enter. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. click Line. click Line.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. click a point in the perspective viewport.axis) and press Enter. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. At the Next point of curve. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. indicating the new location of the selection set.Rhino 2. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. enter the starting point for the line. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. then click Single Line. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. then click Single Line. type r4<45 and press Enter. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Click the left mouse button to select the point. then click Interpolate Points. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x.

The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. Continue with picking locations.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. but only if the point can be truly 3. was when you pressed Tab. Change viewports.D points using 2. and click again. From the Curves menu. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Drag the mouse out. After starting elevator mode. Place the first line point. release Ctrl. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. click Line. type NoElev.D. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Release Ctrl. Or press Tab twice. then click Single Line. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. then press Ctrl and click. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. press Ctrl. You can start elevator mode in another location. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Specifying 3. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. 29 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. negative numbers are below. Press Tab.

click Line. enter the starting point for the line. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. Click to place the point.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. then click Single Line. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. Turn on end object snap. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. type a distance and press Enter. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. the marker snaps to the curve end. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated.Rhino 2. Or. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. type <60. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. From the Curves menu.

At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. Or. Click to place the point. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. type 10. Click to place the point. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. From the Curves menu. click Line. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape.Rhino 2. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. enter the starting point for the line. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . you can turn them on. then click Single Line. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle.

their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. 32 . the surfaces cannot be merged. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. this will become more clear.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are.Rhino 2. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. so those are the things that need to be merged.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces.

Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Text height The text height in Rhino units. extension line offset distance. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. The text height. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. 33 .0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. extension line extension. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units.Rhino 2.

Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. 34 .Rhino 2. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it.

These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. and higher polygon count. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Custom Set the custom options. When the Refine check box is selected. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. whenever you start a new model without a template.Rhino 2. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. This setting is scale independent. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Notes tab Add notes to your model. Document Properties dialog box. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. these settings are used. but should shade and render relatively fast. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. This setting is scale independent. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. when not zero. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. type information you want to save with the model. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. 35 . Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Document Properties dialog box. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. but may take very long to shade and render. more accurate meshes. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. is from 1 to 100. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid.

Max dist. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. 36 . The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Max edge length. By default. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. and Max dist.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. less accurate meshes. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. In practice. When the Refine check box is selected. After initial meshing. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. This option is scale dependent. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. By default. Simple planes is not selected. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. When the Refine check box is selected. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Jagged seams is not selected. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Refine is selected. edge to Srf options. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value.Rhino 2. and higher polygon count. The default values is 16. By default. Min edge length. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Setting Max dist. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. When the Refine check box is selected. and lower polygon count. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. more accurate meshes. Document Properties dialog box.

Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. use smaller shadow offset. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. use bigger shadow offset. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Background Sets the color of the render background. With small objects.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area.Rhino 2. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. 37 . Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. In general. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. if the shadows are turned on. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. In Rhino. With large objects. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. None No shadows. None Each pixel is sampled once. This makes the image appear smoother. but also slows down rendering.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. In practice.

Fractional. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2(") 1-1/2" 1. Mils 1.2m 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2cm 1. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. When you change from one units to another.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. Select Decimal. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. trimming surfaces.2mic 1.2mm 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. For example. In those commands.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Document Properties dialog box.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input.Rhino 2. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. or Feet & Inches. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . the relative tolerance is used instead.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box.2km 1.2c 1.2centimeter(s) Meters 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1.

39 . Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Close the viewport. rename viewports. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.01 millimeters. You can create new viewports. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance.001. Zoom Window. Use defined and named views. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Extents. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. In general. and use predefined viewport configurations. set multiple templates.Rhino 2. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Rhino 2. and place a named viewport on top. or Extents of the selected objects. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. You can specify which viewport is maximized. step through the viewports.01 to 0. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0.

the current object and its designation in the list highlight. To select additional objects. click Set View > Plan. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. Edit Grid properties. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. from the View menu. click Zoom Extents All. When you make a Window selection. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. When the selection menu pops up. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. from the View menu. Edit viewport properties.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Select objects General Click an object to select it.Rhino 2. 40 . To bring all your objects into view. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. To remove an object from a selection set. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. When you make a Crossing selection. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Crossing.

x 3D models (. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . Saving 1. For instance if you have a plane. type a filename.3dm). select Rhino 1. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). When object is highlighted. To cancel the selection process: Click None.0 If you load a 1. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. and you picked an edge as a curve.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. but if you picked it as a boundary.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.x file from Rhino 2. press Enter or the spacebar.x files from Rhino 2.x files into Rhino 2. Sweep2).0 rendering information is saved in the 1.x file into Rhino 2.0. Click another object. no 2. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane.Rhino 2. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Sweep1. Import and export file types Rhino 1. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude.0.0 If you save as a 1. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. Copy. you'd get one line.x file.

The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Or. Or. click Save As. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. in the Files of type. If so.2. click Export Selected. In the Open dialog box. Click Open. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. type a name for the 3DS file.Rhino 2. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 42 .0. click Open.0 use IGES to transfer files. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. Click Save. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 2. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. When building morph targets. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. from the File menu. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in.0. In the File name box. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. MAX 2. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. from the File menu. In the File name box. For version 3. They are not converted to NURBS. select 3D Studio. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. type a name for the 3DS file. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. click Import/Merge. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. 2. select 3D Studio. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters.5. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added.2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. If no object name is defined. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. or MAX 2. In the Save as type box. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects.

RhinoMax25imp. Open 3D Studio MAX2. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. From the MAX2.5 plug-ins path.0 Command Reference File formats In general.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.5. click Import.dli. This happens because the MAX2. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.dli from the directories in your MAX2.5 File Import dialog box. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. Select the 3DM file to import. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. In the MAX2. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in.rhino3d. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. 3DS MAX version 2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. and RhinoMax20imp. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. are imported in several pieces. MAX does not export NURBS curves. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Only Spline objects get exported. RhinoMax2imp.Rhino 2. This happens because MAX2.dli.dli into your "3dsmax2.5\plugins\" directory.dli.5. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. Now mesh your curved surfaces.dli. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. from the Files of type box.3dm.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. use 3DS file format. RhinoMax20imp. Attempt trimming? 43 .5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. or RhinoMax25imp.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. or 3D Studio R4.5 File menu. export to a DWG.dli. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. RhinoMax2imp.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. (3dmimp. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. select Rhino 3D Models. The Rhino web site at http://www. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model.

rhino3d. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.dli or RhinoMax2imp. Given the information we have. 3D Studio MAX 2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.5 as a single surface. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. If you answer "no. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. Select the 3DM file to import. select Rhino 3D Models. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.0. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Be patient.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. To closely examine and edit MAX2. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. Using developers tools. In general.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. from the Files of type box.5 or 3DS DOS. If MAX crashes. The Rhino web site at http://www.Rhino 2.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2.5 NURBS object.dli and RhinoMax2imp. 3DS MAX version 2. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. (3dmimp. click Import. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. Surface. Curve. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. NURBS curves: 44 . Click the MAX2. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface.5 module called "ACISMAX2. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. click the Sub-Object button.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. CurveCV. From the MAX2 File menu. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino.

then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object.rhino3d. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. click Mesh. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. CurveCV. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. click Import. Some surfaces. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. obj+number is used as a name. On December 10 1997. In the File Import dialog box. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. select Rhino 3D Models.at/duck3. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Click the Sub-Object button.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Clear the Weld control. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button.1. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1.habware. If there is no Rhino object name. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Open 3D Studio MAX. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. From the Tools menu. Select the 3DM file to import. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. Curve. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. 3D Studio MAX 3. Surface. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. from the Files of type box." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. are imported in several pieces.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. 45 . From the File menu.Rhino 2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.

Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. but import in as bodies. type a name for the file.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. All of the version types export curves. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.5 ACIS Version: 1. click Export Selected. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. Using ACIS Version 5. Or.0 is currently not suggested.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4.0 ACIS Version: 3. from the File menu. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. click Save As.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects.0 ACIS Version: 2. In the File name box. Click Save. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. In Rhino. select the curves and explode them.and v-direction vectors.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. To change these into splines. It does not fix geometry problems.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. At the Select object prompt. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. select ACIS SAT. select the options for the export. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files.

0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. Click Open. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. select a scale option.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. type a name for the AI file. 47 .0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. click Import/Merge. Or. In the Files of type box. In the File name box.Rhino 2. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. under Scale. In the AI Import Options dialog box. click Open. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. from the File menu.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 ACIS Version: 4. select Adobe Illustrator.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.

Click Open.5. In the Save as type box. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino.Rhino 2. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. type a name for the AG file. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . click Export Selected. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. Make the viewport you want to export from active. from the File menu. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. click Save As.1 units from the original curve. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. Rhino only reads curve geometry. select AG. From the File menu. select AG. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. In the File name box.0 > 8. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. click Open. from the File menu. Or. Or. In some situations. In the File name box. type a name for the AI file. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. click Export Selected. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. from the Files of type box. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. In the Open dialog box. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. In the Save as type box. From the File menu. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use.ini. type a name for the AG file. click Save As. Click Save. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Or. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. In the AI Export Options dialog box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. under Scale. Under some circumstances. click Import/Merge. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. click a scale option. select Adobe Illustrator. curves need to be refit before exporting. from the File menu.0 files. not text.

Or. Click Open. Or. from the File menu. Rhino will not import images. In the File name box. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Or. Object properties. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. click Import/Merge.Rhino 2. select the options for DWG export. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. They are not converted to NURBS. In the Files of type box. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. click Import/Merge. OLE objects. click Save As. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. rays. XREF's are imported. click Open. Click Open. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. regions. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. click Save As. select AutoCAD DWG. from the File menu. Click Save. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. select AutoCAD DXF. type a name for the DWG file. select AutoCAD DWG. In the File name box. from the File menu. or anything in paperspace. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Or. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. type a name for the DXF file. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. type a name for the DXF file. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Click Save. click Open. In the Files of type box. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. From the File menu. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. In the Save as type box. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . viewport settings and mesh information is lost. From the File menu. In the File name box. click Export Selected. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. select AutoCAD DXF. select the options for DXF export. from the File menu. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. type a name for the DWG file. click Export Selected.

regions. and line entities. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. This means if the curve is just one line. you can export either polyline or spline entities. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. 50 . circles. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. 2-D curves are simplified. or circle. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. arc. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. circle. arcs. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. but do not properly read polyface meshes.Rhino 2. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. curves are approximated with polylines. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. 3-D curves are never simplified. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. or anything in paperspace. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. rays. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. export curves as splines. Rhino will not import images. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. They are not converted to NURBS. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. arc. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. use RAW instead. or circle. OLE objects.

Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Click Save. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases.Rhino 2. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. line. or ellipse. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. ellipse. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. circle. lines. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. In the File name box. or later DWG/DXF. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. and ellipses as NURBS curves. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. If the simplify tolerance is too small. type a name for the file. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. it is exported as a simple entity. arcs. arc. arcs. For silhouette lines. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. not the file header. If the simplify tolerance is too large. circle. but increase the number of polyline segments. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. This setting uses current model units. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . In the Save as type box. select Object Properties (. line. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. The larger this number. ellipses. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. Use simple entities Circles. From the File menu. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0.csv). click Export Selected.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. it will be exported as such. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. and line entities.

At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. object name.Rhino 2.0. This setting determines how the station lines are created. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. If you have previously selected a centerline.S) or only half (. layer color. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. The larger this number.0. Rhino must approximate each polyline.C). 52 . Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. Rhino produces one component for each shape. Each component will have the same name as the shape. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. object render color and selected mass properties. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. You can give each shape the name you would like here. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. All component origin shift is considered 0. When exporting curves as polylines. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name.

Rhino 2. click Save As. They are not converted to NURBS. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. The LWO file is limited to 65. type a name for the LWO file.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. If the same name is used for multiple objects. which does not have the 65. In the File name box. from the File menu. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Click Open. Click Save. click Export Selected. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name.000 polygon limitation. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. or Windage (sail). select Moray UDO. Or. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. from the Files of type box. In the Save as type box. Moray automatically numbers the objects. click Open. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a name for the LWO file. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or. Object names will be used when exporting the . 53 . Or. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Open dialog box. In the File name box. Note Object names are supported. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. from the File menu. type a name for the UDO file. click Import/Merge. select Lightwave. from the File menu.lwo file instead of a generic name. click Export Selected. Containment. select Lightwave. In the File name box.535 points for the entire file. Click Save. click Save As.

In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.stmuc.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. surfaces. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. from Create menu. click User Defined.UDO file and a . Planes are important primitives.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. To import the object into Moray. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception.INC file. surfaces. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. click Export Selected. Rhino creates a . they display a blank window. In the File name box. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. type a name for the file." Solution The model probably exported just fine. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges.Rhino 2. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. Click Save. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives.com/moray/. When you export to UDO. and curves Solid Edge 6. and colors. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. select the target application for the export. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. 54 . Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. Or. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. In the Save as type box.0 will not read in open surfaces. click Save As.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. from the File menu.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. select Parasolid X_T. only closed solids will be imported. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. they will be ignored with no warning. If the file contains open surfaces.

Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select RenderMan.rhino3d.rendering.Rhino 2. however. click Export Selected. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.rhino3d.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. 55 . Click Save. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino.graphics. In the Save as type box. ISBN: 0201508680. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. In the File name box. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.bmrt. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. type a name for the RIB file. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. Or. click Save As. ISBN: 1558606181. from the File menu.

transparency." Two windows will open.1. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Set up your scene with materials and lights. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Export to RIB file format supports render background color.org. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www.rendribrc. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.rib reboot your computer." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Use Properties to set the object names. Click Save.povray. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected.org. The transparency color is the color of the object. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. To test render the scene. however. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. To cancel the rendering process. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www.povray. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. click the big blue "R. 56 . In the File name box. The intensity is always set to 1. and highlight. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. type a name for the POV file. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . color. and opacity statement for each object. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino.Rhino 2. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. Rhino writes the surface. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. Or. select POV-Ray Mesh.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. click Save As. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.

Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. from the File menu. select Raw Triangles. In the File name box. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. from the File menu. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. from the Files of type box. 57 . click Open. In the Save as type box. select Raw Triangles. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Or. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. but object colors are. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). transparency.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. click Import/Merge. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. and highlight. or into one large POV file. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. They are not converted to NURBS. In the Open dialog box. Click Open.inc and lights. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. type a name for the RAW file. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Click Save. Set up your scene with materials and lights. click Save As. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Textures are not exported. type a name for the RTF file.

To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles.0762mm. Consequently. and use ExplodeMesh. 0. Or.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. In the Save as type box. type a name for the STEP file. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. Click Save. Or. from the File menu. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. From the File menu. from the File menu. 0. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. 58 . Or. The slices will be evenly spaced. Click Open.0381mm. select SLC. from the File menu.0254mm. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. In the File name box. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. click Export Selected. click Import/Merge. select STEP. select STEP. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. click Save As. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. use DXF instead.0127mm. In the Open dialog box. 0. In the Save as type box. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. type a name for the SLC file. In the File name box. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. click Open. Click Save. click Import/Merge. (For example. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. Or. type a name for the STEP file. Export it in RAW format. Import it back into Rhino. The greater the number of polygons. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt.0508mm and 0. from the File menu. click Save As. click Open.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.Rhino 2. click Export Selected. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal.

In the File name box. click Polygon Mesh. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. If a mesh point is highlighted.Rhino 2. click Save As.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. click Export Selected. click Polygon Mesh. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. In the File name box. From the Tools menu. click Polygon Mesh. if two triangles share an edge. Click Open. For example.) Select the new mesh object. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Use JoinMesh. They are not converted to NURBS. to control STL accuracy. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. that is. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. In the Save as type box. then Weld (angle=180). select STL. to get JCAD to work. type a name for the STL file. Click Save. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. From the Tools menu. but doesn't glue the edges together. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. from the Files of type box. then they have the same idea of up. Instead. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box.ini file to look like this. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. From the Tools menu. from the File menu. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. select STL. then click Weld. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. type a name for the STL file. Or. 59 . then click Join. then click Unify Normals. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance.

symbols. select VDA. Click Open. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. Or. In the File name box. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. It does not support representation of drawing information. select VRML. shine. In the File name box. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. click Export Selected. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. It does not support assembly and feature information. etc. Click Save. Click Save. Or. type a name for the VDA file. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. views. from the Files of type box. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the File name box.D geometry and topology information. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. type a name for the WRL file. Render color. from the File menu. click Open. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. In the Save as type box. Rhino now 60 .axis toward the x.y plane. select VDA. click Save As. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. type a name for the VDA file. Texture assignments are currently not exported.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. From the File menu. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Save as type box. Or. click Save As. from the File menu. from the File menu.Rhino 2. In the Open dialog box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.

click Export Selected.0. In the File name box.exe. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. from the File menu. Render Mesh tab. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. click Export Selected.) Outside of Rhino. type a name for the WMF file. This can be tricky.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer.viewpoint. Or. you should try 2." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output.pdf.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. In the Save as type box. (The MTS file contains the actual data.0 first. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. You can download it from http://developer.com/software/mtx2html. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. From the File menu. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. try 1. click Save As. In the File name box.viewpoint. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. click Save As. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. 61 .Rhino 2. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Click Save. In general. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file.0. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. from the File menu. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. In the Save as type box. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. Or. but will make the WRL file much larger. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. type a name for the file. and if so. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK.0 and 2. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. select Windows Metafile.

Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. Sender's product ID. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. click Export Selected. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. from the IGES type box. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. From the File menu. 1 2 In the File name box. in the Save as type box. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. and click Save. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. select IGES. In the File name box. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. 62 . Click Save. Organization. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry.3ds A file yourfile.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. This means various settings have different values for each product.Rhino 2. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver.x is created. type a name for the DXF file. select an IGES type. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Detailed options Author. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. enter a name for the file. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds.

ini. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier.2 or 5. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. When Rhino 2. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. the IGES file will be empty. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. To import trimming curves as curve objects.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.ini. To create an IGES import log. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.Rhino 2. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.

This file can contain multiple flavors." For example. When Rhino reads an IGES file.).igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 .Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. an IGES level number is automatically selected. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. 2. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. . 1. Spaces and tabs are ignored. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . A flavor is terminated by a blank line." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. you need to do a bit of sleuthing. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. Lines that begin with semi-colon (. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0... that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file.) are ignored. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. but this is not required.Rhino 2. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. 3.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . To see if this is the case.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.

accepting only entities marked as geometry. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs. or Logical/Positional(). To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. set the options for the IGES type. If you do something like: open alpha. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. click Close.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. click New. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need.Rhino 2.igs. 65 . If one of the Annotation(). Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Other(). ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. you will get it. Rhino reads alpha. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file.igs and gamma.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.igs open gamma. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0.igs normally. regardless of type. Definition().

0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. In most cases. or IGES circles. and MacOS uses CR. IGES 184 entities. select an IGES type. and click Copy Type. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. If the max degree is set to five. If the max degree is set to three. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Unix.3.Rhino 2. and MacOS style line endings. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. this number should be one. select an IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.3 using four digits. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). and maximum degree five. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. set the options for the IGES type. click Close. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. and click Delete. from the IGES type list box. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Unix uses LF. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. set the options for the IGES type. The difference is 5.2 and 5. from the IGES type list box. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS.2 stores years using two digits and 5. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. The number must be bigger than zero. and click Edit. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. 66 . click Close. arcs. IGES arcs. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines.

Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. If you get better results with one export type. Try to load both files into your product. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. click Save As. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). If the max degree is set to three. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. maximum degree three. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. In the Save as type box. when possible. from the File menu.rhino3d. type a name for the OBJ file. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. click Export Selected. select the options for OBJ export. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If the max degree is set to five. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. Curves are not exported.Rhino 2. Or. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. try the following test. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. 67 . Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). and maximum degree five. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. when possible. In the File name box. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). select Wavefront OBJ.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Click Save.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. when possible.

Export layer names Exports layer names. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. The . Export material definitions Creates an . The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. the trimming curves are NURBS curves.mtl file contains one material definition per object. Export layer names should be cleared.ini file. By default.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. mesh export is disabled. There are also references to these materials added to the . If is far from 100% satisfactory. Options Skip Don't export meshes. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. 68 . The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines.obj file.mtl file with the same name as the . The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. Export object names Exports object names. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. LF (Unix) Line feed only. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13.obj file. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. To export to MAX. CR (Mac OS) Return only. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters.Rhino 2.

type a filename. and flip the trim. In the Save as type box.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In this case. and then restart MAX.Rhino 2. try using OBJ format instead. select 3D Studio MAX 3. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . select IGES. from the File menu. select Alias V8.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. and set the display to wireframe. In the File name box. All data that is not grouped. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. In the File name box. it is recommended that you save your work. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. To distinguish between separate entities. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. make it independent. and Customize > Preferences. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. change your viewport layout to a single viewport.x. For the fastest import. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. From the IGES Type box. After a large IGES import. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. select the surface. select IGES. Note When merging an IGES file. type a filename. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. it is recommended that you save your work first. click Export Selected. Or. From the IGES Type box. select the trim curve.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. select Ashlar Vellum. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. select AUTOFORM. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2.

In the Save as type box. select IGES. In the File name box. select Breault Research's ASAP.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select AutoShip. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 71 . select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select CADCEUS. click Export or Save As.

From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. In the File name box. type a filename. select CATIA. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 .000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CamSoft.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. Surfaces and Solids. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. select Cosmos/M. even those that are trivially trimmed. type a filename. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 .0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the File name box. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select IGES.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Cosmos/M. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 74 . In the Save as type box. select FastShip.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.

type a filename.Rhino 2. select IGES. select IGES. select Integrity Ware.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IronCAD. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . In the Save as type box. select FastSURF. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select LUSAS.Rhino 2. In the File name box. select IGES. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . In the File name box. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Mastercam. type a filename.

In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select Maya. Or. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. 77 . click Export Selected.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Export or Save As. select ME30. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. select IGES.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. from the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

click Start and Global. in the Description box.3. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Structure.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. select Mechanical Desktop. In the Save as type box. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. type a filename. click Edit options.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box.Rhino 2. type a filename. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. set IGES Version to either 5. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.2 or 5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. select IGES. Version 5.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. In the Save as type box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Geometry.opt. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. select Microstation.IGESOUT dialog box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. In the File name box. To get the best results. and click OK. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. Surfaces and Solids. click Export or Save As. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. From the IGES Type box. 78 . To save these settings. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. click DE Mappings. In the File name box. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . Version 5. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. You may set these options as you see fit. (The MDT defaults work fine.

click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. In the Save as type box.1 using an IGES file. the current version of Multisurf is 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.1. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. In the File name box. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. Multisurf 3.ini file. In the File name box. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.000000 79 .Rhino 2. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. select Multisurf. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If you add the following section to your Rhino. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select NASA GridTool.

type a filename.Rhino 2. select NuGraf. select IGES. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select OptiCAD. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.

select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. click Export or Save As. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. somewhere around 0. select IGES.pro file or save them as rhino. Note With Pro/E version 20. From the IGES Type box.01 units. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0001 will produce good results. If you set your tolerances right.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. when exporting to IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. use the "All Parts" option. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. use these settings in the Pro/E config.001 to 0.Rhino 2. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0. type a filename.pro file then read it in before exporting. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E.Rhino 2. 82 . Surface replace is another good tool to use. there are now two types.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. even those that are trivially trimmed. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. When modeling in Rhino. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Surfaces and Solids. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. then. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. The more trims you have. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Things like fillets and drafts . If the curves are planar. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted.

select SDRC's I-DEAS. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. select IGES. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. From the IGES Type box. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. type a filename. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. you will not get back what you sent. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go.Rhino 2. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. a surface. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. and a solid. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. In the Save as type box. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. click Export or Save As. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. There is no geometry information in it.

From the File menu. In the IGES Export Options dialog box.Rhino 2. All three have their own problems and benefits. for SI versions 3. 2 84 . from the IGES Type box.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. DXF.phoenixtools.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.com. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. In the Save As dialog box.phoenixtools.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.txt contains command line option information. Open Softimage. SGI and x86 (Intel). Check out their web site for more information: www.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. then click IGES.phoenixtools. select Softimage. 1. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. click Save As.8: ftp://ftp. Softimage can also import 3DS.7sp1 and 3. In the IGES Export dialog box. select Softimage.okino. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. Type a filename and click Save.igs MyDSCFile. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. 3. Run iges2soft. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.com Plugin download link page: www. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. from the Save as type box.

Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. In the File name box. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Solid Edge. type a filename.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. From the IGES Type box. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. Surfaces and Solids. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES.Rhino 2.

0 Points=116 86 . The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.0001 before building the geometry. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select IGES. To export models to Rhino. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.001 or 0. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. select SolidWorks. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. Surfaces and Solids. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. by nature. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. Also. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. and investigate alternative approaches. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Generally. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. SUM 4. In the Save as type box. select SURFCAM. In the File name box. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. type a filename.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. ribs. etc. In the Save as type box. type a filename. which works on both edges and faces. Nothing replaces experience.. click Export or Save As. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. click Export or Save As. leaving features such as fillets. select IGES. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. to test feasibility. which within human perception. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur.0001. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. is tangent.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. try to model with smooth. for SolidWorks.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Shelling. select SUM4. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. shelling.Rhino 2. 87 . then shelling is likely to fail. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks.

select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.Rhino 2. In the File name box. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. type a filename.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. select IGES. select Unigraphics. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select TekSoft.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . click Export or Save As.

90 . The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the File name box. select Yamaha ESPRi. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

from the Named Colors list. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. If no object is selected. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. The same limitation does not apply to render color. and Blue boxes. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors.ini file.Rhino 2. and Value boxes. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Edit the Rhino. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu.ini file to add or change menu items. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. Saturation. type RGB values in the Red.txt in the Rhino install directory. For maximum speed. Green. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. type values in the Hue.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. If context-sensitive menu is on. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. actions related to objects appear in the menu. or drag to manipulate the view. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. select a color. In addition. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. Context-sensitive menu indicator. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. 91 . Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no.

Near. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. End. When activated. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. and Knot object snaps can persist. End. 92 . After the pick. Center. To clear all persistent object snaps. Near. Intersection. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Point. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. All object snaps behave similarly. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. To display the Osnap dialog box. Tan. Midpoint. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. As you pass your cursor over an object.Rhino 2. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. right-click the Lock checkbox. Quad. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. or can be activated for one pick only. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. If object snaps are locked. and Point will not work for that pick. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. For example. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. if End. on the status bar. click Osnap. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. Only Near. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. When an object snap is active. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. the appropriate object snap displays. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. Perp.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.

all others will be cleared. Only these object snaps will be set.Rhino 2. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. and Knot. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. then click End. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. for example in ExtractIsoparm. or just suspends them for one pick.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. This command is useful for command files. with no spaces. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. The marker jumps to the endpoint. separated by commas. Quad. OrientOnSrf. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Center. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. InsertKnot. Midpoint. it turns off all persistent object snaps. Valid options are NoSnap. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. Point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Near. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Perp. End. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. from the Tools menu. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. Tan. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. If a command is active. Intersection. 94 . click Object Snap. Click to enter the endpoint.

click the Osnap pane. Click to enter the point. click Object Snap. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. and the "corners" of surfaces. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. click Near. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. click the Osnap pane. click Point. Move the cursor near a point. then click Point. click End. then click Mid. In the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Near object snap Snap near a curve. the seam point on closed curves. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to its midpoint. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. The marker moves along the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click Object Snap. Click to enter a point on the curve. 95 . click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. then click Near. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. On the status bar.Rhino 2. On the status bar. click Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to it. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter the midpoint. Move the cursor near a curve.

click Cen. click Int.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Perpendicular To. On the status bar. The marker jumps to its center point. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point.Rhino 2. Click to enter the point of intersection. Click to enter one of these points. Move the cursor near an intersection. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. 96 . from the Tools menu. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. perpendicular to the curve. The marker jumps to it. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter one of these points. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Tangent To. then click Intersection. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor along a curve. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. click Perp. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a curve. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Move the cursor along a curve. then click Center. tangent to the curve. Click to enter the center point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap.

Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. type Knot. At the Choose a base point prompt. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. arc or ellipse. Move the cursor along a circle. without entering that point for the original command. or similar surface edges. click Quad. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. distance constraint.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. and finally choose the point for the original command. click the Osnap pane.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. Click to enter one of these points. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. You can use another object snap to pick this point. from the Tools menu. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. then click From. and relative coordinate entry. then click Knot. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. with From. without picking it. Click to enter the knot point. Move the cursor near a curve. Set your constraints relative to the base point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Quadrant. You can set this point. From object snap Snap from a point. On the status bar. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. pick a point. click Tan. Similarly. angle constraint. 3 Example 97 .

Note When selecting points during this sequence. snap to the end of the line. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. 98 . At the Click near the curve prompt.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. for greater precision.Rhino 2. click Object Snap. Cen. then click Perpendicular From. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Mid. The cursor moves only along the curve. Int. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. then click From. At the Choose a base point prompt. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. End. Point. Near. select the curve. you can use simple snaps. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. select the curve. and Quad. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent From. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. At the Choose a point prompt. type 2 and press Enter.

you can use simple snaps (End. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Point. from the Tools menu. At the Choose a point prompt. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. Mid. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. right-click the Along toolbar button. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. At the Start of tracking line prompt. click Object Snap. type AlongParallel. and Quad) for greater precision.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Near. Note When selecting points during this sequence. At the End of base line prompt. Near. Note When selecting points during this sequence. you can use simple snaps (End. Int. Int. 99 . Cen. Click to enter a point on the line. The marker moves only along the line. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. and Quad) for greater precision. Mid. and Quad) for greater precision. Or. select a first point to specify the tracking line. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Along object snap Track along a line. Near. Cen. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Click to enter a point on the line. At the Start of base line prompt. Point. in the Object Snap toolbar. Int. Cen. The marker moves only along the line. The marker tracks along the tangent line. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. you can use simple snaps (End. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. select a second point. At the End of tracking line prompt.Rhino 2. Mid. then click Along Line. Point. select a second point.

then click On Surface. but works on curves. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Intersection. Click to enter a point on the surface. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. and the cursor is over an object snap point. By default. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. and Knot. When Osnap projection is on. End. Center. The marker moves only along the surface. you can use simple snaps. Point. Mid. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Near.Rhino 2. Note When selecting a point on the surface. it is off. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. select the surface.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. 100 . select Project to CPlane. for greater precision. click Object Snap. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. At the Click near the surface prompt.

One isoparm on knot-free spans. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. 101 . 1.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. Information Technical information about the command displays. and RenderMan RIB. The valid values are -1. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. General tab. go to the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. and OBJ file export. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms.Rhino 2. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. 0. Isoparms at surface knot locations. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. or just the knot isoparms. POV-Ray. 2. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. and the other positive integers. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Object Properties. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties.

Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. Light tab Edit light object properties.Rhino 2. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. you can set the color. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. this tab displays the properties for that light type. Turns light on or off. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. 102 . Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. transparency. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. From top left to bottom right.0 Command Reference Object Properties. finish. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. use the Edit Layers dialog box. texture. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Material tab Edit object material properties. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. To change the material assignment of the layer. using a plug-in library. Color Sets the color of the light. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light.

Rhino 2. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. polysurface. 103 . Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. or a polygon mesh. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Text tab Edit text properties. Unlike more advanced renderers. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Object Properties. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. To change the color of the wireframe display. From top left to bottom right. Clear this option to remove the bump map. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces.

You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Options dialog box. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.Rhino 2. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Example If your units are inches. Command string Command alias definitions. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. 104 . Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. The two sizes update each other. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). and you intend to print at 1/4 true size.25 inches. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. When you place annotation text. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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spotlighting. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. 114 . click Use OpenGL. and a backdrop image. On the Shade tab. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. click Options. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. shadows. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive.Rhino 2. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. The next time you shade the same model. and the color-andshadows Render. Also. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. you will see improved performance. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Render Mesh tab. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. this shading mode may be much faster. from the smooth geometry. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Rhino takes that time to calculate. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. For highest quality results. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. highlights. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Choose between the quick render preview. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall.

first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. of the view in the active viewport. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. 115 . Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Rhino Render tab. Render tab. from the smooth geometry. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. so it won't be deformed.0 or 1. which might appear in waves.5. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. the patterns may probably disappear.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Render Mesh tab. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. In some situations. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Self. you will see improved performance. Jagged spotlight edges and self. When you draw the plane. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. The next time you render the same model. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Also. Tries to exclude the hidden lines.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them.Rhino 2. That will usually solve the problem. If you increase it too much. Change the size of the light. Correct shadow. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. If the problems still persist.shadowing effects. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. The scale of the objects is very large. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. Sometimes the conversion 116 . If you’re getting self. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. Self-shadowing artifacts. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow.

Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. This helps you organize your model. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Otherwise. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. select them all with one selection. they look jagged. Or you can organize your parts a different way. contact Rhino Technical Support. When objects are on a layer. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. To update your OpenGL drivers. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. Even if you got the card last week. you can turn them all off at once. please read section the next section.dll and Glu32.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. For example. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. If this does not fix the problem. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. Start Rhino. Name Layer name. change the color of the wire frame.com/windows/downloads/winntw. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. To update Windows NT drivers. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. and download the latest drivers. available from Microsoft at www. Off Status of layer. you may not have the current drivers. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. if you were working on a human figure.microsoft. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. On Status of layer. and since the polygons are flat. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons.asp. Windows 95. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. 117 . To set the column width.Rhino 2.

Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Unlike more advanced renderers. you can set the color.Rhino 2. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. transparency. polysurface. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. or a polygon mesh. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. finish. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. You can snap to objects on this layer. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. texture. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. To change the color of the wireframe display. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. 118 . Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer.

and Invert the selection. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. In the Layer dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. You can select all layers. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. select a set of layers.Rhino 2. You cannot create new layers with these names. 119 . click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. If you don't remember the layer names. click New. Clear this option to remove the bump map. select the name on the list. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. type a new name and press Enter. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right.

Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. In the Select Color dialog box. To delete empty layers. In the Show box. use the Empty Layers filter. In the Edit Layers dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. select a color for the layer. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list.Rhino 2. When a model has a large number of layers. click the color column of the layer you want to change. select all the displayed layers and delete. click a filter option. Click Delete. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. from the list select the layers you want to delete.

set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box." are on or locked. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. or locked. set the desired filter options. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. click Filtered Layers. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. off.Rhino 2. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z.

then try Loft. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. you might want to use Sweep1 instead.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. then the surface created by loft will. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. Lofts. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. The surface is smooth. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them.Rhino 2. If this doesn't help. If you are after a flag-like surface. If you are after a tent-like. try adding a few more cross sections. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. then use the one closest to the top of the list. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. generally. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. Rules. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. Think of each curve you select in Loft. then use a ruled surface. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. The rail curve directs the surface along it. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. Sweeps. stair-like. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. Sweep1. 122 . then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. or accordion bellows-like surface.

some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. the surface will twist. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. If you have a several of closed curves. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. while keeping the other end fixed. use a Sweep2. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. 123 . Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface.

and thus the fillet. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. several. For a given radius. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. there are four ways to fillet. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. or no curves. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. For each of these four ways. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius.Rhino 2. 124 . The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. the intersection of the offsets can have one. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. then intersecting the resulting surfaces.

125 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference As mentioned. These pieces can be grouped into connected components. there may be several fillet pieces. for this choice of sides. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component.

then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. yes. 126 . the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails.Rhino 2. If yes. No. then the surfaces are left intact. When Extend = yes. If split. and split.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. If no. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. When that is the case. Because of this. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible.

127 . Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect.Rhino 2. If two surfaces are tangent. then no fillets will be created. and a fillet will exist.

no fillet will be created. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. Otherwise. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. except cross-sections are lines. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. 128 . rather than arcs. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command.

Once we have a curve on the surface. but it may not fit. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. In this case. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. The result will have a hole at the corner. Often. it is projected. However. joining A to C. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. If one is a polysurface. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. The picking order can make the difference. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. no corner patch will be attempted. In this case. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. When joining A. 129 . If both are single surfaces. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. then the result to B will work. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface.Rhino 2. Do each surface individually. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. B and C. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. do not pick A and B first. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. it doesn't. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. If you do. if more than three edges meet at a vertex.0 Command Reference In general. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. Objects have overlapping surface areas. Additionally. on an open surface or polysurface. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. a spherical patch will be made. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A.

0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. You can also move control points to the same location. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. the operation can fail. or visa versa. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. For success using the Booleans. not mesh objects. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean.Rhino 2. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. 130 . This point is also called a singularity. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.

The objects will Union. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. In this example. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. At the Select object to intersect prompt. 131 . In this example. but Difference.Rhino 2. At the Select object for intersection prompt. we chose the cone first. there are three possible intersection curves. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. the two boxes are just touching along one side. the Intersect command may give different results. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. In this example. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. and then click Intersection. select the second object. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. select one object. and Intersection do not work. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. Depending on the order the objects are selected.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. click From Objects. In this example.

Therefore. so we will Explode it. however. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. To get all the possible curves. you would expect to get all three curves. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. If your objects are very complex. In our simple example. if your objects are polysurfaces. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces.Rhino 2. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. this may not happen.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces.

At the Select cutting objects prompt. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. click Split. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. From the Solid menu. select the cone. click Extract Surface. Delete the small wedge of the cone.Rhino 2. 133 . 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. select the two faces of the box as shown below. At the Select object to split prompt. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the cone. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom.

for example if one solid is completely contained in another. intersection. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. go through the same code. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. The intersection involves isolated points. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other.Rhino 2. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. 134 . where ~ is the set theoretical complement. difference. select the two curves. union. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. From the Edit menu. A – B = A intersect ~B. In this case. click Trim.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. There is no intersection. So. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. and is achieved by flipping the normals.

For a polysurface that is not a solid. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. cylinders. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. the outside is the side to which the normals point. planes.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. etc.Rhino 2. Find the setting you want to change. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino.ini and restart Rhino. find the folder where Rhino is installed. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Edit the Rhino. Exit Rhino. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. 135 . Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. select the check box for the toolbar. Double-click Rhino. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap.ini file. To understand the results. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. In Windows Explorer. To edit the Rhino. Surfaces overlap.ini.ini to open it for editing.

Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar moves to a new position. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar.ini file. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. type the new name. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. and is docked. 136 . Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. Or. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. select the toolbar. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. which can be on or off the Rhino window. it has no title bar. and from the Toolbar menu. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. The title bar appears on the toolbar. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The toolbar reshapes. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. The toolbar appears or hides. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area.Rhino 2. click Properties. The title bar appears. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. and click Properties. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. loses its title bar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. This is a setting in the Rhino.

Rhino 2. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. Or. select the toolbars to import. right-click the toolbar name in the list. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Release the mouse button. The linked toolbar appears. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. click New. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Click Open. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. Press and hold Ctrl. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. Click Import. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. and click New Toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. click Properties. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. select the toolbar. Or. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. and click Import Toolbar. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. it will distort the bitmap icon. and drop in the desired position. and click Properties. and click Delete Toolbar. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. and from the Toolbar menu. select the toolbar. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. which has the white triangle in the corner. 3 137 . click Delete. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. Or. click Import. Or. and from the Toolbar menu. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. Or.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list.

Or. The linked toolbar vanishes. and click the right mouse button. it will distort the bitmap icon. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. select Float to Top to make the link button float. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. In this case. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Release the mouse button. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. The toolbar appears. 138 . Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. Move the cursor over a link button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar.Rhino 2. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. The buttons rearrange. Press and hold Shift. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. The toolbar is floating. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. clear Float to Top. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Press and hold Ctrl. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.

click OK. draw with the paint tools. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Press and hold Shift. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. 139 . Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. A blank button is added to the toolbar. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. capture a portion of the screen. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. and the bitmap icon. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. and click Add Button. and click the right mouse button. Click Close. type text in the ToolTip box. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. the left and right mouse buttons commands. You can clear the image. Press F2 to view the command history. In the Delete Button dialog box. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. and from the Toolbar menu. and click the right mouse button. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. You can change the ToolTip. Release the left mouse button. for example: Zoom In | Out. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. If you don't know what to enter. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. right-click the toolbar name in the list.Rhino 2. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. type text in the ToolTip box. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. select the toolbar. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. click Add Button. Or. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar.

Or. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. Press and hold Shift. and click the right mouse button. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. then OK. up.Rhino 2. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Press and hold Shift. Or. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. from the Edit menu. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. A square replaces the cursor. from the Edit menu. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. and click the right mouse button. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. Press and hold Shift. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. and click the right mouse button. To undo a mistake. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Undo. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Click the pencil tool. from the Edit menu. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. click Clear. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. Note You can shift the image left. 140 . This is the time to set the toolbar button size. click Edit Bitmap. click Edit Bitmap. click Grab. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. right. the button is blank.

from a text file. In the Import Bitmap dialog box.Rhino 2. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. command aliases.-3 1. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. which stops the creation of point objects. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script.4 13.-4 8.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. click Import Bitmap. click Export Bitmap.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.0 5. This script moves objects. select a bitmap file. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. shortcut keys. type a bitmap file name. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed.1 4.4 -4. Click Open. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. Press and hold Shift. 141 . Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. from the File menu. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. Click Save. click Edit Bitmap. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. from the File menu. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5.

Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. is a fast. layername2. 1=Fit. then click Paste from Clipboard. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Microsoft JScript 5.Rhino 2. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. The default is 20. the Web's only standard scripting language. Divs is the samples per knotspan. The default is 1. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. Fit is the fitting method. Automation servers. Mode is always 1. Press F2 to view the command history. portable. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. browsing for files. queries. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. variable names. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. If you don't know what to enter. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. 142 . From the Tools menu. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. and Java applets. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. These scripting languages allow loops. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. click Commands. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language.5. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). Options are 0=Interpolate. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition.

it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . Another problem is having a tiny. If Rhino matches the large edges. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. To fix broken edges.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects.Rhino 2.rvb. Some bad model parts. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. 143 . You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. The first one to try is the Check command. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . though. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. If your model doesn't pass Check.for instance. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there.microsoft. Rhino will let you do it. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. re-trim the surface. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. For more information on scripting. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. These damaged areas can cause problems. see: http://msdn. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. If your model doesn't pass Check. then it will list some specific problems. If you zoom in enough. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. you have to explode the model. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. and Check doesn't check for those things. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. If a model passes Check. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. you may find some of those microscopic edges. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. and join everything back together again. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. then edit the trim curves. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. You can set the scale factor for digitized points.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other.

Rhino 2. Untrim or DetachTrim. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. FitCrv.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Solution: Rebuild the curve.0 5. you can Undo changing the degree. open up the kink by control point editing. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message.10 5. This test does not check the geometry. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. Trim again. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. If there are lots of tiny edges. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. 144 . and Join. Thus.4 10. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. To draw a non-G1 curve. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. Additionally. You will get this error message.0 5. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot.5 5. simple edge-to-edge matching. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. the Join command can get confused when that happens. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. Split the curve at the kink. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it.

Solution: Open up the stacked points. Solution: DetachTrim. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Usually. You can put control points very close to each other. Use this to install as a standalone node. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Join and Booleans in particular. Edge direction. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. 145 . The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. The warning lets you know when this has happened. Internal control points are coincident. but not right on top of each other. Draw a Circle. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You will get this error message. Extrude it. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. In short. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. fix curve and retrim. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Solution: Rebuild the edge. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. You will get this error message. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. You can put control points very close to each other. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. and then control point edit the extrusion. but not right on top of each other. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Some operations. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. Rhino 2.Rhino 2. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge.

The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2.rhino3d. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses.0" as a workgroup node.0 as a workgroup node. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back.rhino3d. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. which requires that a license key be entered on each system.com/plug-ins. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. No special hardware is needed. Very little administration is required. This is an installation option.htm. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. For details on setting up a workgroup. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. unlike standalone Rhino. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. contact your network administrator. 146 . it does not modify the shape of the surface. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. the license is added back to the available license pool. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically.Rhino 2. When a node shuts down. visit www. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. Thus. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.com/plugins/developer.

Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. 3. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. 1.D curve. Marker. 8/3. The 3. 0. When using elevator mode.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. the cursor turns into a crosshair. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 147 . This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. then e_tol tells how close the 3. If an object snap is on. For example.90 degrees to 90 degrees. After the initial grid is made. Rhino meshes all trim edges.D curves. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. 1/3. called the edge.D curve (the one you see). Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. 2.D edge. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. 2. 0. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. 1. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. called the pedge. and tolerance values for each of the curves. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). If the surface is not joined to another along the edge.90 degrees The range is from . the marker will snap to the snap point. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. trim curves are ignored. Cursor. Each 2. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . 3. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected.D edge is to the surface. which also approximates the intersection.Rhino 2. When the initial mesh grid is made. two 2. the draft angle is 0.

Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. red on the other. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. The other side is the inside. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. Solid objects do not have naked edges. Sphere with normal direction displayed However.Rhino 2. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. When you have a finished solid. Imagine a rope. blue on one side. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. 148 . The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. or reflective metal on one side. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. when you have a single surface. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face.) with a polynomial definition. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. However. flat constant on the other). Some renderers support double-sided shaders. etc. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. the stiffness of the rope. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. or a polysurface. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. If you hold it at the ends.

Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose.Rhino 2. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. In some other 3-D programs. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. and solids. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. From left to right they are: Layer pane. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Snap pane. Planar pane and Osnap pane. surfaces. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. it is also a solid. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. this is called a "quilt. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. 149 . Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Ortho pane. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve.

When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. and the v.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. and tolerances. The u. You can display the u. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. v. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. You can save your own templates to base future models on.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. The u. u. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. v.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. 150 . the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. A rectangular surface with the u. no objects are selected. When no command is active.direction is indicated by the green arrow. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. there will be no holes in the mesh.direction is indicated by the red arrow. Surfaces have three directions. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. Esc turns off the points. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. Esc clears the command prompt.Rhino 2. and normal. If objects are selected and no command is active. grid size. If a mesh is generated from a solid. U. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Esc deselects all objects. units.

Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Or. Press Enter for triangle prompt. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. 3View Three-viewport layout. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. 4View Four-viewport layout. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Second corner of polygon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. 151 . using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. and Third corner of polygon prompts. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display.

Select a point on the surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextV command. Start the AddNextU command. 152 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.

The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Start the AddPrevU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected 153 .

Select a point on the surface. Start the AddPrevV command. Use the Group command to group objects together. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.Rhino 2. prompt select the group or enter a group name. select an object to add to a group. 1 At the Select objects prompt. 2 At the Select groups. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. 154 .

Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. or World Right. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. AlignProfiles Align two curves. World Front.Rhino 2. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. 1 2 Select the objects. At the Select curve to change prompt. The curves must be planar. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. 155 . with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point.

pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. 156 . select a point that defines the start of an angle line. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. End of first line prompt. Start of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0000 degrees. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. If the surface is trimmed. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. select the surface to apply the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. 157 . select the surface on which to apply the curves. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. and fitted onto the selected surface.

ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. Or. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. enter the center of the arc's radius. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. Then. you can make such morphs. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. so if you Mirror something. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. For example. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. At the Start of arc prompt. If you use the Mirror transformation. If making morph targets. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Generally. But that swaps u and v on the surface. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. Start. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. although if you understand the process and work at it. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. Arc Draw an arc. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. one of which has been squished around in some way. enter the end point of the arc. ApplyMesh guarantees that. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. enter the center of the arc's radius. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. enter the start point of the arc. 158 . Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. enter the angle for the arc.Rhino 2. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. At the End point or angle prompt. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. mesh the most complex surface first. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going.

Rhino 2. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the Point on arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. enter a point on the arc. enter the start of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. At the End of arc prompt. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. Arc from three points 159 . You can enter the number of control points. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc.

Rhino 2. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. end point. At the Radius prompt. At the Choose arc prompt. 160 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. If the radius value is too small. Arc from start point. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. At the Direction prompt. At the End of arc prompt. enter the start point. and radius. At the End of arc prompt. select the first curve. Tangent. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. End. At the Radius prompt. end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. End. enter the end point. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. enter the start point. enter the radius of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter the end point. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. select the second curve. enter a radius value.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction.

1. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. second moments.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.7e-006. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. If you cannot see the entire report.0 (+/.0). area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0. First moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. product moments. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.Rhino 2. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1e-006.34 (+/. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.8545412. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2). AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.4601236.1. 161 . Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.014). Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.

1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.0 is shown below.73300329 (+/.0.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface. Area = 60 (+/. and sometimes contradictory. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.46410162 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.1e-009) Ry: 3. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.88675135 (+/.1e-007) z: 0 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. with a surface or open polysurface. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.0 and 6.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. For example.1e-009) Rz: 6.1e-009) Rz: 3.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. In order to get the particular moment you need. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.0) zx: 0 (+/.0 (+/. if you select a box polysurface.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.77350269 (+/.73205081 (+/.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-009.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-009) Ry: 1.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 .36650165 (+/. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.Rhino 2.5. As an example.1e-009.10.

the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. The relationship between the area first moments. In terms of integrals. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area.Rhino 2. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. and area product moments. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. In particular. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. area first moments. area second moments. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. In terms of integrals. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. the area.

press Enter. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. those distances are applied to the array directions. Or. Transform. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. type the y-interval and press Enter. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. At the Number in Z direction prompt. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. type the x-interval. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. The array directions are the x. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. 164 .and y-intervals. At the Number in Y direction prompt. At the Number in X direction prompt. to indicate the x.Rhino 2. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete.

or the spacing distance along the curve. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Or. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. set the number of elements to array. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. 165 . In the Array Along Curve dialog box. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. type the z-interval and press Enter. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. choose two points that define the z-interval. At the Select path curve prompt. specify twist behavior. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array.

select objects to copy along the curve. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. You can continue to place objects. Surface. select a curve on a surface. Enter a value of 1 or more. At the Center of polar array prompt. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. choose a center point for the array. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. 166 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. and object to array. type the number of copies and press Enter. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. curve on surface.Rhino 2. type an angle and press Enter. At the Angle to fill prompt. At the Basepoint prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. Objects arrayed along line.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. type a number of objects. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface.Rhino 2. If the surface is a trimmed surface. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. type a number of objects. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. choose the surface to array along. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. Array along a surface 167 . At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. At the Select surface to array along prompt.

otherwise you must select a folder.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. At the End of line prompt.Rhino 2. it prints a detailed description of the error. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). 168 . the path. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to.rhp Options set the resolution. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. the model's folder will be used as the default. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. enter the start of the arrow. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. See the PluginManager command. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. If the Audit command detects a database error. enter the end of the arrow.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. choose a center point. 169 . Back Set to world back view. choose a radius. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. Files tab. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. By default.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. Note By default.Rhino 2. Files tab.ini. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. you must edit your Rhino. At the Radius prompt. automatic Autosave is turned off. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. General tab. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles.

choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. Bend 170 . At the End of spine prompt. Bend Bend objects.Rhino 2. place the point outside the object. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose an endpoint. To bend the entire object.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. To bend the entire object. choose an endpoint. At the End of first axis prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the End of second axis prompt. choose the second endpoint of the line. At the Start of spine prompt. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. choose an endpoint. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the End of third axis prompt. choose the amount of bend. place the point outside the object.

you will only bend that part of the object. You can't bend a polysurface . curves. The remainder of the object is kept straight. Bend moves the control points of objects. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. and meshes.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. surfaces. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the start of the angle to bisect.only control points. 171 . enter the start of the bisector line. enter the end of the angle to bisect. or enter a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt.

select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt.Rhino 2. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. 172 .0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves.

If the curve will only be used in Rhino. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. tangent direction.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. it applies to both ends. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. In either case. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. If you are joining curves. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). To do this. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. If it is invoked after picking the first end. select adjacent edges. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. The location. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. At the Select first set of edges. tangent direction. and curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. If you need a G1 blend. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. and one of the curves is a blend curve. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. delete the arc. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. tangent direction. then you should probably use InsertKnot. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. tangent direction. and curvature is called a G2 blend. Note The location. or press Enter. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. The Blend command creates G2 blends. If a blend appears to tight or loose. A blend curve that matches location.Rhino 2. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. it applies only to the second end. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. and curvature. tangent direction. tangent directions. tangent direction. 173 . If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. select a surface edge. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

it will no longer be periodic. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. the higher the degree. 183 .Rhino 2. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. This gives you more control over the shape. If you raise the degree of a surface. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. but adds control points between each knot span. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. click the new layer. the greater the number of control points. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory.

0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. Select objects. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. select one object. When users get back in the office. To check a license back in. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. 184 . The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Circle Draw a circle. Diagnostics. Note Delete or rebuild the object. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt.Rhino 2. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. When the user gets back in the office. use the CheckInLicense command. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. enter the center point. enter the radius point. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager.

0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.

Rhino 2. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. At the End of diameter prompt. enter a radius. At the Second point on circle prompt. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Tangent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. delete the extras. enter the end of the diameter. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter a second point on the circumference. enter a point on the circumference. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. select the second curve. At the Third point on circle prompt. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. select the first curve. At the Radius prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. 186 . There may be multiple circles.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. enter a third point on the circumference.

Point Select a point for input. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.Rhino 2. At the Third tangent curve. or are tangent to a second curve. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. There may be multiple circles. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. select the second curve. select the third curve. Note To reduce the size of the model file. delete the extras. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. 187 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. select the first curve.

Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. pick it from the list. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. Point objects are not a part of any other object. 188 . enter a point. right click in the Rhino Command History window. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. CommandHistory View command history. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. Press F2 again to close the window. At the Base point for closest point prompt. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. Note Point objects display as small squares. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. They are not visible in wireframe view mode.Rhino 2. To start one of those commands. or in the Command area.

and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. Commands List all Rhino commands. it is pasted. look at the Command List in this help file. At the Radius prompt.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. If there is text in the Clipboard. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. Or. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Cone Draw a cone. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . choose a radius. At the End of cone prompt. Without the command area. choose a center point for the base.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. it is pasted as a command script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2.Rhino 2.

This point partially defines the plane for the conic. Or. At the End of conic prompt.Rhino 2. At the Reference vertex prompt. enter the end point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Conic 190 . type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. enter the middle point for the conic. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. Conic Draw a conic section curve.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. enter the start point for the conic. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

let T be the point where line(B.5. type T to select tangent curves. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0.0 and less than 0. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . Second reference curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Point on first curve prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. First reference curve prompt.C). Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.Rhino 2. Curvature point or rho prompt. select a second curve. B. select a curve.5 and less than 1. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A.S) intersects chord(A. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. If you work out the details. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. Point on second curve prompt.5.

Parabolic Rho value of 0. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. 192 . Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.Rhino 2. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. so the w<1 case is elliptical. At the End of conic prompt. End control points are at the same location. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve.5.5 and 1. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. enter the end point for the conic. enter the reference vertex for the conic.5. Or. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt.0 and 0.

Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. and meshes for contour line creation. Match. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. curvature. polysurfaces. Position. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. At the Contour plane base point prompt. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same.Rhino 2. 193 . Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. Blend. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. One of the contour planes will go through this point. choose a base point. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. BlendSrf.

enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. generated in both directions from the base point. 194 . the less dense the control polygon will display.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt.Rhino 2. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. The higher this number is. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. At the Control polygon display density prompt. At the Distance between contours prompt. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons.

Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. select an object to create polylines from. Edges can't be converted with this command.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting.Rhino 2. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. The original curves are removed. 195 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. use the ExtractWireframe command first. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. At the Angle tolerance prompt. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. select curves and press Enter. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments.

At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. choose locations for copies. Or. Or. type I and press Enter. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. to move the copy vertically. At the Point to copy to prompts. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. Object properties and location are stored with the object. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. choose a point to move the copy from. snap spacing. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. it is created when the object is pasted. type v and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. If the layer does not exist. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. to copy the object in the same place. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard.Rhino 2. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. 196 . When you Paste objects into Rhino.

197 .Rhino 2.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. choose a point on the y-axis. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. At the CPlane elevation prompt. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. choose a point on the x-axis. At the X axis direction prompt. At the CPlane orientation prompt.

D location where it needs to be.D. for example. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. At the CPlane origin prompt. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. drag the construction plane's new x. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. 198 . choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin.Rhino 2. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Once your construction plane is positioned. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane.and yaxes to a new location. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. in the dynamic preview. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt.

pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 199 . CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point.Rhino 2. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. select a curve or surface.

choose the new origin. choose the new origin. At the X axis direction prompt. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. At the Z axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. choose a point on the x. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the z.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. 200 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis.

select a surface. Top view of profile curves 201 . Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. the original surface must be developable.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. select the first planar curve. If true arc-length mapping is desired.Rhino 2. cut openings in the unrolled surface. Use UnrollSrf. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. At the Select planar curve prompt. select the second planar curve.

" 202 . then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. From 2 Views.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Look in the index under "Curve.Rhino 2. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Example For an example. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide.

joining the ends of the overlap interval. pick a new location for the seam point. pick on a seam point marker. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts.Rhino 2. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. When you are done adjusting the connections. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. press Enter. At the Location of seam point prompt. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. and move it along the curve. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. 203 . CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. For each overlap interval. They are connected with a line. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter.

You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. 204 .

A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter.Rhino 2. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . as the desired control polygons are emphasized. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. with the control polygons. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. that passes through the profile curves. Press Enter to stop creating curves. pick near a control point. At the End of cross-section line prompt. press Enter to end the command. end the line for the cross section plane. V or Both directions. The control point for the surface appear. select a surface. At the Select point on the surface prompts. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need.

For best results. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.Rhino 2. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.

press Esc to end the command without change. This does not automate finding the inflection points. select a curve. click to create the circle object. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Or. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. 2 207 . The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. the curve is locally flat. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command.Rhino 2. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt.

The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. In the Curvature dialog box. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. and other important properties.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. Options Gaussian In the images below. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. 208 . Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. curvature. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. set the style and range. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green.Rhino 2. For example.

>1000) and the red close to infinity. Blue areas should be safe. (Planes. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. cylinders. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. 209 ." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue.Rhino 2. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. In the case of an offset. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.>100. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). Set the value for blue rather high (10. In the case of the mill. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself.

Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. A soap bubble. then we establish a convention. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. and the direction. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. As a starting point. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. If we care about this. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. or to the right of the curve. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. unlike a simple soap film. this may result in a rather uninformative image. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. This is known as signed curvature. both free and attached to objects.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. these values may not be appropriate. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. These meshes can be large. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. the normal to the surface at that point. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. At any point on a curve in the plane. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature.Rhino 2. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles.

Adjust the length. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. Curvature graph on surface. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves.Rhino 2. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. such as wire loops. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. This contrasts with a soap bubble.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. frequency. close the dialog box. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. even when other commands are started. 211 . u.

In other words. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate.Rhino 2. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. Degree 5 curve 212 . or tangent only. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. They are not curvature continuous.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. However. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph.

pick a point on the surface. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). that is. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. If isoparm display is turned off. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. At any point on a curve (except lines). maximum principal curvature. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. Gaussian curvature.Rhino 2. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. To better grasp this. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. To see the circle. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. Press F2 to show the Command History window. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. minimum principal curvature. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation.D normal. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. If the graph changes smoothly.D point. As you move your cursor. Curve Draw a curve by control points." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. negative when the circles point opposite ways. 3. 3.

The curve closes. At the Next point. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. You must draw one more control point than the degree. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Next point. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter additional control points. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. enter the start of the curve. and pick. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Sharp When you make a closed curve. To end the curve.Rhino 2. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. When drawing a high degree curve. enter an additional control point.

Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box.1. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.0.7e-006. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.8545412.0). Object properties and location are stored with the object. product moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.014).1e-006. second moments.1. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. select the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. First moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 (+/. it is created when the object is pasted. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. 4 215 .34 (+/. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. If the layer does not exist.4601236. When you Paste objects into Rhino. select the box.

select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0.3921 (+/. 216 . press Enter to stop making cut planes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the box. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. At the Start of cut plane prompt. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. select the first point of a line to define a plane. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. At the End of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes.0001).Rhino 2. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects.

volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. select the box. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt.8545412. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cylinder prompt. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. second moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select the box. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. choose a point for the center of the top surface. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. product moments. choose a center point for the base. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.7e-006. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.4601236. choose a radius.1.0 (+/.Rhino 2.1. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. First moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.1e-006. Solid cylinder 217 .1.0). At the Radius prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.

All objects in the model are deleted. Delete Delete selected objects. To start a new model. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. If you want to post-select objects to delete.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Layers. Press Delete. saved views. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. Select the control points on the curve to delete.Rhino 2. 218 . Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. and saved construction planes are not deleted. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. use the Erase command. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. use New command instead. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete.

axis in the real world.axis in the real world. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. and the trim curve is created.axis is perpendicular to the x.axis. Rhino will do it for you. select a boundary to detach. 219 . In the Baud Rate dialog box. You do not need to ensure that the y. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box.Rhino 2. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. Microscribe. use the arm to choose a y. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. use the arm to choose an x. select the proper serial port and baud rate. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Similar to Untrim . select your digitizing arm. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. choose an origin in Rhino. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.

Digitize the first two sets of reference points. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. and is assigned to the F12 key. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. circles. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Whatever the reason. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. or the object moves slightly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. choose a y. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. recording reference points as you go. Digitize the third set of reference points. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Thus. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. If it is more convenient. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. you can use the digitizer. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. You can draw lines. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. choose an x. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. arcs. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. and curves with the digitizer. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped.Rhino 2. 220 . all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer.axis in Rhino.

The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. and O. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.axis on the table. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. x. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. Microscribe. Y. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. click Digitize. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. If the digitizer or object moves. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . X.. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table.axes. or you need to close and restart Rhino. From the Tools menu. and Y for the origin. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. use the arm to choose a y. click Digitize. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. and then click Calibrate. Label each point O. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. This is the reference polyline. From the Tools menu.axis on the table. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. use the arm to choose an x. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y.Rhino 2.

0254. type the scale factor for all digitized input. You can space the planes at intervals. To digitize in centimeters. enter the start of the section plane axis. To digitize in millimeters. specify how you want to space the planes. enter a second point on the base plane. enter 2. 222 . Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. The planes are defined with a base point. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize.4.Rhino 2. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. As long as the pedal is depressed. enter a point on the base plane. At the Second point on plane prompt. enter 0. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. Type C to create a closed curve. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. When you finish digitizing points on the object. a point is sampled. enter a third point on the base plane. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. and spacing. Press Enter when you are finished. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. direction. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. hold the pedal. At the Start of axis prompt. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. To digitize in meters. enter 25.54. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. At the Third point on plane prompt.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale.

pick a second line. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. When you release the pedal. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. pick a line. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them.Rhino 2. At the Second dimension point prompt. Rhino samples points. a point is sampled. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Place the dimension prompt. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. enter the distance between sampled points.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. As long as the pedal is depressed. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Select second line prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. 223 .

pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve.Rhino 2. At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a curve. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. pick a point for the dimension line location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to.

pick a curve. enter the second point of a reference angle. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the Place the dimension prompt. enter an angle for the dimension line.Rhino 2. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. At the Second reference point prompt. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. 225 . At the First dimension point prompt. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line.

surface or polysurface. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Second dimension point prompt. At the Press Enter when done prompt. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. Or. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. to change the direction. pick a point for the dimension line location.directions at the point. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Dir Show direction display. red and green arrows show the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. Press Enter to terminate the display. pick a point for the dimension line location. type F. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. On surfaces. Curve direction 226 .and v.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. select a curve.Rhino 2. At the Dimension line location prompt.

VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. the UReverse. The location of the directional light does not matter.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction.and v. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. If the textures don't apply in the right direction.Rhino 2. VReverse. The directional light icon does not render or shade. unless you apply textures. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. 227 .order and direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. pick a location for the directional light. pick a point at which to aim the directional light.

When Object snaps are disabled. like gray. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. Darker colors. clear the Disable checkbox. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. right-click the Disable checkbox. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. 228 . DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps.Rhino 2. light the scene less.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Distance Measure the distance between two points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. pick a point.

At the Length of segments prompt. use the Split command. reversing the direction of the curve. select the curves to divide and press Enter. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects.Rhino 2.0000 units. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. type an integer number and press Enter. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Point objects are not a part of any other object. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. At the Number of segments prompt. Note Point objects display as small squares. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. select curves and press Enter. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 229 .0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.

When a polysurface is picked. Point objects are not a part of any other object.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. use the Dir command to flip the curve. use the Split command. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. select a curve. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. surface. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. or polysurface to evaluate. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. 230 .Rhino 2. If you want points to start at the other end. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength.

Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold.Rhino 2. type the text to show in the dot. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. You can check this with the Dir command. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. At the Location of dot prompt. 231 . In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. enter the location of the dot. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value.

Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . DragMode Toggle drag mode. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports.Rhino 2.

Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. select an object to duplicate. the surface will always sag more than the original. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface.Rhino 2. For example. surfaces. edge.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. surfaces. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. meshes. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. but it only makes points. type c (curve). The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. To limit your selection to surfaces. The object will be duplicated in place. or lights. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. Because of this. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. or bnd (boundary). dimensions. and polysurfaces. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. textblocks. It does not duplicate points. The Dup command only duplicates curves. Duplicate border curve 233 . It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. and press Enter. then select the edge to duplicate. type f (face). Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. and solids. Dup Duplicate an object.

DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. 234 . select the edges of a surface. select the third curve. select the second curve. Or.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the first curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the fourth curve. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. For many surface creation commands.Rhino 2. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

Rhino 2. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. For a surface from closed planar curves. You can use surface edges. select a dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . EditDim Edit dimension text. type new text. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. In the Edit Dimension dialog box.

They are not the same as knots. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. 236 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. set the options. Type the new text. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. In the Edit Text dialog box.Rhino 2. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. select a text block.

The two sizes update each other. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . enter the center point. Example If your units are inches. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. When you place annotation text. enter the endpoint for the second axis.Rhino 2. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. At the End of second axis prompt.25 inches. At the End of first axis prompt. You can enter the number of control points. enter the endpoint for the first axis. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).

At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse.Rhino 2. enter the end of the second axis. At the End of second axis prompt. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the End of first axis prompt. enter a focus point. Draw an ellipse from focus points.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. enter the second focus point. enter the end of the axis. 238 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipse.

choose an endpoint for the minor axis. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose a center point. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. or type a height and press Enter. choose an endpoint. 239 . End of first axis prompt. choose an endpoint for the major axis. End of second axis prompt.Rhino 2. End of third axis prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. enter the second focus point.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a focus point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. and other important properties. curvature. These meshes can be large.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.Rhino 2. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. 240 . The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. When you use the EMap command.

The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. on the Shade tab. When More reliable is selected. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. When Faster is selected. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. under Zebra and EMap. 241 . but will always work. select More reliable. in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface.

At the End of region to edit. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. as with the Blend command. you are moving control points of the curve. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. select a surface edge. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. One-point-per-end mode. In each case. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. maintains the tangent direction. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. No means there is one drag point. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. drag point indicators. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the Start of region to edit. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. 242 . At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence.Rhino 2.

and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.1 2.1 2. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. aliases. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. For example. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. After editing.Rhino 2. During EndBulgeSrf editing.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. 243 .0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. the script Circle 0.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.

V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. and the U. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. select a point. Note When a polysurface is picked. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.Rhino 2. Note Erase is the same as Delete. the untrimmed surface is used. select the surface to evaluate. The Cartesian coordinates of the point.z format. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. click points on the surface. Exit Exit Rhino. select the objects you want to erase. Press Enter when done prompt. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.y. A point object is created on the surface. 244 . EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. At the Select objects to erase prompt. If the surface is trimmed.

but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. object name. Click Save. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode.Rhino 2. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select Rhino 2 3D Models. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. and selected mass properties. Use the Explode command. type a filename.0 files. File. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. In the File name box. layer color. This command is obsolete. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Rhino supports several file types. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Export Export selected objects to a file. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. Click Save. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. In the File name box. 245 . In the Files of type box. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. select objects to explode. object render color. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. select the file type you want to use. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. In the Files of type box. type a filename. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt.

At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. select objects to extend. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type a filename. select a boundary object to extend to. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. In the Files of type box. 246 . but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Click Save. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. Or.Rhino 2. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Or. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. At the next Select object to extend prompts. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Press Enter when done prompts. At the next Select boundary objects. In the File name box. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. enter a name for the text file.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. select Rhino 2 3D Models. The extension is joined to the original curve. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. Extend Extend a curve. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command.

ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Or. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Note You can use any combination of curves. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension.Rhino 2. At the Radius of arc prompt. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. surfaces. and solids as boundary edges. 247 . type an angle for the arc. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. enter the end of the extension. Or. select a curve to extend. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the End point or angle prompt.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension.

Rhino 2. the extension will be joined to the original curve. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. use Extend a curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . Select near the end of the curve to extend. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. At the End of arc prompt. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. enter the endpoint of the extension. the extension will be joined to the original curve. select a curve to extend. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes.

Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Options Join If Join=Yes.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Or. select the curve to extend. select a curve to extend.Rhino 2. the extension will be joined to the original curve. type a distance to extend and press Enter. 249 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. if possible. At the End of line or length prompt. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. near the end you want to extend. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines.

Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt.Rhino 2. The extension length is based on parameterization. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Note With the linear extension. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. 250 . depending on the shape of the object. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. enter an amount to extend. Then the surface is extended on the end. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. This fixes the original. or pick two points to specify the distance. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon.

surfaces. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. and Loft a surface through them. In contrast to InsertKnot. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. If you need to place an object on a surface. choose a point. and isoparms display at the marker. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. and polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. If you need angled cross sections along surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. v or both directions.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. If you need curved cross sections. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . use Project or Intersect. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Extract several isoparms. The marker is constrained to the surface. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces.and v-directions of the surface.

select surfaces and press Enter. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. and polygon mesh objects. Note ExtractPt works on curves. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. 252 . Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. If you choose the Copy option. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Solid Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. the surface is copied. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first.Rhino 2. surfaces. The original surface is left intact. or type a distance and press Enter. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. select curves and press Enter. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. At the Extrusion distance prompt. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. drag the desired distance and pick.

Round. Otherwise. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. then the extrusion is in that direction. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . and Chamfer. Smooth. The choices are Sharp.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. This option does not appear for open curves.

use Create a 1-Rail sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. select the curve to extrude. or enter a distance and press Enter. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. At the Select path curve prompt. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. At the Point to extrude to prompt. The default is vertical to the construction plane. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. 254 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. To draw a deformable plane. At the Extrusion distance prompt.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. choose the point. select the path curve. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. draw two lines at right angles. select surfaces and press Enter. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. pick a point. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. select the curve.

0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. Fillet Fillet two curves. 255 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. type R and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. enter a number. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined.Rhino 2. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. At the Tolerance prompt. Join To change the Join option. or accept the default and press Enter. select curves and press Enter. Or. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. type J and press Enter.

Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. choose the second surface to fillet. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go.Rhino 2. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. choose the first surface to fillet.

Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. At the Fitting tolerance <0. select curves and press Enter. The original curves are unchanged. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline.Rhino 2. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. If you have a dense string of points. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. In general. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. The curves are refitted. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. enter a tolerance.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. For scripting. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Each face has a constant monochrome color. 257 . FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.

click Options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. 258 . object highlighting. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL shading is turned on. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. axes.Rhino 2. the OpenGL shade options will be available. On the Shade tab. The grid. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. this shading mode may be much faster.

It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. such as Union instead of Difference. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. At the Increment size prompt. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface.Rhino 2. click Use OpenGL. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. 259 . Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. that define the outline of the flattened surface. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. this shading mode may be much faster. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. select curves. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. If Booleans give unexpected results. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. enter a number and press Enter. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. but their directions are reversed. click Options. If OpenGL shading is turned on. On the Shade tab. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. the OpenGL shade options will be available. The objects looks exactly the same.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. especially those with trimmed edges. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. Instead of drawing a line before the command. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Flow does not work on polysurfaces. Flow works on the control points of an object .Rhino 2. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. select the new backbone curve to flow to. At the New backbone curve . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. At the Original backbone curve . All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. This curve will be used as a new backbone. Front Set to world front view. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3.

you must edit your Rhino. Grid Toggle the display of the grid.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. select the second curve near the coinciding end.select near end prompt. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.Rhino 2. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. At the Second curve . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.select near end prompt. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. 261 .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. You can then apply commands to the entire group. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. 262 . select the curve or surface to edit.Rhino 2. Group Place selected objects in a group. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. A handlebar displays on the curve. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars.

Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file.Rhino 2. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. or enter a length. pick a point. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. pick a point. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. A handlebar will display on the surface. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. adjust options. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. 263 . At the First corner prompt. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. At the Second corner or length prompt. select the surface to edit. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. In the Heightfield dialog box. select a bitmap file. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box.

enter the number of turns for the helix. If you select Pitch. At the End of axis prompt.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. 264 . enter the end of the helix axis. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. the helix will twist counterclockwise. select Turns or Pitch. enter the radius for the helix. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. If you select Reverse twist. enter the start of the helix axis. This is the line the helix will wind around. If you select Turns.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. 265 . HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. select the objects you want to hide. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt.Rhino 2. Visibility. hidden background bitmaps are displayed.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Organic. Status bar: Osnap Or. If you exit the model and reopen it. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. close the Osnap dialog box.

axis.axis or the y. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. 266 . only half of the model needs to be given. Use 1. not a statement of a physical principle. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. ) prompt.Rhino 2. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. (This is a limitation of the command. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. that is.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. and press Enter. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. the command does nothing. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. The smaller the number. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). enter a number between 0. The information displays in a separate window. The visible objects hide.0 and 1. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. Longitude=X. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. Waterline Length Length at water line. The longitudinal direction. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. the more concentrated the hotspot.

If the imported file type does not support layers. and STL Tools File menu. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. Import Import or merge objects from another file. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. the command will fail. the objects are placed on the current layer. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. 267 . in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. Click Open. Note Rhino supports many file types. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. type a filename. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. In the File name box. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. select curves. The objects are reparameterized. File.Rhino 2. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. select Rhino 3D Models.

If you say no. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. At the Scale factor <1. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. Click Open. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. At the Rotation Angle <0.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists.3dm tricky 1a 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. type a filename.3dm hi 1. etc. it does.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.Rhino 2.0. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.3dm tricky 1a 1. scale. Scale Scales the objects. or a point to rotate from. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. and rotate. In the File name box.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm bg 32985. Press Enter to place the model at 0.3dm tricky 1a.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. If you say yes. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. y. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. choose a start angle. 268 .3dm hi 2.3dm bg 32986. select Rhino 3D Models. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. and z-directions. choose an insertion point for the imported objects.

At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. After inserting kinks. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. press Enter to end the command. 269 . select the curve to insert edit points to. The marker is constrained to track along the curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. choose points where you want to insert a kink.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve.

Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. pick points on the curve for new knots. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a surface. 270 . To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. V.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. or Both.Rhino 2. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. pick points of the surface for new knots.

enter an additional point. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. and pick. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. press Enter. At the Next point of curve.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. and the parts are joined. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. At the End of line prompt. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free.Rhino 2.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. To end the curve. enter additional points. At the Start of line prompt. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. The curve closes automatically. 271 . 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. enter the start of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. Main. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). A straight line replaces part of the curve.

Sharp When you make a closed curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Valid degrees are 1. 5. When you draw an interpolated curve. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. At the Next point on curve. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. 9. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. 272 .0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. choose an additional point. The marker is constrained to the surface. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. choose the first point of the curve.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve.Rhino 2. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. At the Start of curve prompt. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. 7. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. select a surface. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). and 11. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. 3.

Object snaps End. 273 .0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.Rhino 2. Near. Close Creates a closed curve. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Knot. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Cen. Midpoint. and Intersection work.

Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. select the objects. Intersect Intersect two objects. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . To create surface and solid intersections.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Non-polyline curves are rejected. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Invert Invert the selection. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. use the BooleanIntersection command.

275 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Invert also selects the polysurface.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. press Enter. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Join Join objects. When you are finished selecting objects to join. which also selects other objects. Contrast this with the Invert command. select objects. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Points selected.

NetworkSrf. Do you want to join these edges?". in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. BlendSrf. When you join two surfaces by whatever method.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. but are not coincident. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals.015 units apart. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. no join occurs. or Patch. If you use JoinEdge. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. For the group joiner. use MergeSrf. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. then the second one gets moved. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. 276 . If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. you can have some problems later on. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. or Patch. Booleans.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other).0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. If not. Booleans. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. BlendSrf. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. use MergeSrf.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. doing a Join. When two edges are joined. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. Using the Millimeter template. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. NetworkSrf.Rhino 2. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. For simplicity. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. a 3. depending on what you may do with the model. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and resetting the tolerance. If the edges are too far out of line. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining.

y. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. or Patch. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. If there are naked edges. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. The action performed is reported on the command line.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. BlendSrf. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. No mesh points are moved.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. merged or deleted. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. use MergeSrf. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. select curves. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. The picking order can make the difference. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Booleans. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined.Rhino 2. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. This command does not work in all cases. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. NetworkSrf. 277 . LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x.

Rhino displays objects on locked layers. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Start the Lasso command. press Enter to close the lasso. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Select Points. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. select the layers you want to lock. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. 278 .0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. In the Edit Layers dialog box. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Click the Lock option. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. but you cannot select them.Rhino 2. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. See the PluginManager command.

The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change.Layer Three" 279 . type the name of the layer to turn on. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Layer Two. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. Click the On option. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Click the Off option. unlike the Lock (object) command. from the list select layers you want to turn on.Layer Two. type the name of the layer to turn off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Note For layer names with spaces. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Layer Three".Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Two. separate the layer names with commas: One. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Layer Two. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. select the layers you want to turn off. LayerOn Turn a layer on.Rhino 2.Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. separate the layer names with commas: One.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Layer Three". In the Edit Layers dialog box. from the list.Two. type the name of the layer to lock. separate the layer names with commas: One. LayerOff Turn a layer off. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.

pick the next point on the leader line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. At the Next point of leader. They will not show in the perspective view. At the Next point of leader. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. pick the start of the leader. This is the arrow end. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . pick additional points. Press Enter to stop the command. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options.Rhino 2. Left Set to world left view. Press Enter when done prompt. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader.

you can select any of these curve objects.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. BothSides option selected 281 . At the End of line prompt. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line.Rhino 2. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. Line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. pick the end point for the line. surfaces. circles. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. polylines. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. Line Draw a line. ellipses. The line extends on both sides of the start point. arcs. select a curve or edge. and can be used to create other curves. including lines and polylines. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. pick the start point for the line. and meshes. polysurfaces.

282 .0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. enter the start of the base line. enter the start of the base line. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. enter the start of the line. At the End of line prompt. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. enter the end of the line. At the Start of line prompt. At the End of base line prompt. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. enter the second point.Rhino 2.

and parallel to the current construction plane. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. At the End of line prompt. type an angle and press Enter. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. enter the end of the base line. pick the end of the line.Rhino 2. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. At the Pivot angle prompt. 283 . The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. enter the end of the line. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. At the Select object prompts. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve.

select the first curve near the start of the desired line. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. When you are finished drawing lines. 284 . Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt.Rhino 2. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. enter the start of the first line segment. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. At the End of line prompts. press Enter. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. enter pick endpoints for segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.

Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. 285 . At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. enter the end of the line. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.

At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.Rhino 2. 286 . select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve.

or enter a length and press Enter. At the End of line prompt. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the second endpoint. BothSides option selected 287 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. LineV Draw a vertical line. Line vertical to construction plane.

the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. You can download plug-ins. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. from www. enter an integer. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. Load Loads a selected script file. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. on the Options dialog box. 288 . If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Add Adds an item to the list of script files.rhino3d. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Close Closes the dialog box. If the script file just contains script expressions.com/plug-ins. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. See the PluginManager command.Rhino 2. select one object. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. or press Enter to accept the default. the code interpreted and run immediately. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it.

Preview. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction.g. In the scripts folder (e. and move it along the closed curve. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. select the objects you want to lock. You can snap to locked objects. adjust options.g. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. In the Loft Options dialog box.g.0 Beta).0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.. 289 . If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts..Rhino 2. pick on a seam point marker. Lock Lock objects. The unlocked objects lock. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. In the folder where Rhino. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Note You cannot select locked objects. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. At the Location of seam point prompt. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.. When you are done adjusting the connections. In the install folder (e. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers.0 Beta\Scripts).0 Beta\System). Select open curves near the same ends.exe is located (e.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. reversing the direction of the curve.Rhino 2. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. 291 . Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.

Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Units tab before lofting. 292 . maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. This is also known as a ruled surface. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Available when you have selected three shape curves.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface.Rhino 2. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box.

A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. the surface is not developable. If the curves have kinks. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. tear. Preview Click to preview the loft. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. 293 . but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. too. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. These are called ruling lines. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. you may get unexpected results.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. cones. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. or wrinkle. and some steel ship hulls. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. You may get no surface or a partial surface. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other.Rhino 2. If the surface is not linear in one direction.

You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface.Rhino 2. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. 294 . thereby smoothing the surface. You just have to be careful. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives.D surface.

Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. expand the plates. though. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports)." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. select the layout and object visibility options.y-plane.Rhino 2. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. 295 . Make2D Make a 2-D drawing.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. aluminum).D models. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects.

Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.Rhino 2. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. There is no way to avoid this.D drawings from mesh objects.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. 296 . While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown.D view. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. they may not appear on the correct layer. Note This command does not create 2. If two surfaces pass through each other.

At the Choose an object prompt. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. Match Match two curves. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt.Rhino 2. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. select the first curve at the end that will move. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic.pick near end prompt. If a joined curve is made periodic. Sometimes.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. Close the dialog box. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. Then use control point editing on both curves. At the Select curve to match . select a curve to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . To get a feel for what the command does. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. 297 . select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. it is closed. Other closed curves. This command tries to fix those surfaces. If the curve was open. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt.

0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.Rhino 2. 298 . This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other.

Merge Only available with the Curvature option.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. The curves are merged together after the match. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted.Rhino 2. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. If you edit this curve with control points. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. 299 . the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve.

0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. reversing the direction of the curve. choose the type of match. 300 . the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two.select near edge prompt.Rhino 2. select the edge of the target surface. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. In the Match Surface dialog box. If the target surface is also untrimmed. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. At the Select target surface . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change .select near edge prompt. select the edge of the surface to match. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. This surface must be an untrimmed surface.

It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance.Rhino 2. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. Generally. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. If necessary. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. 301 .

Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. in degrees. 302 . Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. in units. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.Rhino 2. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. percent. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.

If it is roundish. 303 . An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). If refinement is interrupted.Rhino 2. If the surface being changed is trimmed. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. That may be several seconds. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. This is the hardest condition to meet. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. it can twist the surface near the edge. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly.2. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small.) In usable terms. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. If it isn't. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. This is sometimes useful. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. but it will still be a valid trim. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. Something like position = 0.knot spacing to curvature vector. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. it will stay roundish. especially if tight tolerances are specified. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. it may be useful to preview without refinement. In these cases. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. but if the conditions are wrong. If you need to match to part of an edge. but you will get something. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. If refinement is specified.

MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. double click the viewport title bar. if possible. select the first surface to merge. then click Maximize. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0.Rhino 2. must share an endpoint. must belong to the same surface. Right click the viewport title bar. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. double click the viewport title bar. and the prompt repeats. Or. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. Note The edges must be naked. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. then click Restore. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. select the second surface. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge.1 ) prompt. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. 304 . and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. Or. select an adjacent edge. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Maximize Maximize Rhino.

End view of original surfaces . This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .Rhino 2.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. but may alter the shape of both surfaces. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. Smooth The surface will be smooth.

Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. The default is 1 (full smoothing). A mesh can be preview and then created. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. editable surface. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. 306 . they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. This is useful for modeling half of an object. The resulting surface can be edited. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . mirroring it. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface.Rhino 2. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. For closed surfaces. Generally. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. you have to approach things differently. In some ways. Once you have trimmed surfaces. with finer or coarser mesh.

Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Simple planes is not selected. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. When the Refine is checked. and higher polygon count. 307 . Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. more accurate meshes. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. In practice. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. after initial meshing. Limits the size of the polygon edges. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Default is 0.Rhino 2. edge to Srf options. Scale independent. less accurate meshes. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). By default. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. and lower polygon count. Setting Max dist. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria).0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Scale independent. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. The default is zero. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. When this Refine is checked. which is the default. Jagged seams is not selected. Scale-dependent. more accurate meshes. When the Refine is checked. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. By default. and higher polygon count. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Zero means no minimum. No refinement results in faster meshing. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. and adjustment for trim boundaries. which is the default. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Zero means no limit. Max dist. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees.

choose a center point for the base. choose a corner of the box. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a width by picking. choose a height. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. At the Other corner or length prompt. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. choose a diagonal corner. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Or type in a length and press Enter. choose a radius. 308 . and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. at the Width prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. or type in a height and press Enter. If a length was entered. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command.Rhino 2. At the Height prompt. At the End of cone prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. not editable. choose the cone's point.

joined from a base and top circular meshes. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. choose a radius. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. joined from a base circular mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . choose a center point for the base. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Height prompt. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. choose a height. and a open cone-shaped mesh.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt.

If a length was entered. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. Layers The number of mesh points in the height.Rhino 2. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. At the Other corner or length prompt. choose a width by picking. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. at the Width prompt. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. choose a the diagonal corner. or type in a width and press Enter. 310 . The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. choose a corner of the plane. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction.

choose a center point.Rhino 2. choose a radius.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Radius prompt. 311 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.

Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Press delete to delete the original. 312 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. choose a second point to define the mirror plane.Rhino 2. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Select the objects. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Minimize Minimize Rhino. choose a point to move the objects from.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. As you move the cursor. Mirror Mirror objects. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Note Mirror makes a copy. Move Move objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a point on the mirror plane. The original is left selected.

313 . Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. v-. pick a base point.Rhino 2. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. Slider scale affects this mode. or z-direction. At the Choose offset point prompt. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. you can type corner1. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. choose a location for objects. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. MoveUVN Use u-. To move objects small amounts. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. During the command. and n. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. type V and press Enter. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. corner3. pick a new location for the base point. Along control polygon The u. y-. Modeling Aids tab. to move the objects vertically.0 Command Reference Or. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap.sliders to move the selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. At the Point to move to prompt. corner2. UV Move mode Along tangent The u.

V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. 314 . Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. All points to edit have to be selected. All points to edit have to be selected. NamedView Edit named views. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box.Rhino 2. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. rename or delete unwanted named views. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves.

0 Command Reference Select the curves. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves.Rhino 2. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Edge Matching After the command is done. The surface will be created. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. If you want to select the curves individually. The default is the system tolerance. the surface will have four edges. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. be sure to select the surface edge. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. you can turn the automatic sorter off. 315 . this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. the best guess is made at the surface. The default is the system tolerance x 10.

Rhino 2. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Position. Select from Loose.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Tangent.

0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .

NewViewport Create a new viewport. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. 318 . drag a window for a new viewport. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. select a template to base your model file on. viewport layout. units.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. For example. New Create a new model. Use New to open the template you want to change. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. and tolerances. grid settings. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template.Rhino 2. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. layers. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units.

Select a point on the surface. Start the NextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction.Rhino 2. 319 . Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextU command. The next control point in the u-direction is selected.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. or enter a length and press Enter. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. pick a point for the end of the line. At the Point on surface prompt. choose a point on the surface.Rhino 2. 320 . The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. At the Length of line prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. select a surface. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface.

and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model.Rhino 2. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. type information you want to save with the model. it will be open next time the model is opened. Line normal to a surface. copy. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. Offset Offset a curve.

ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Note For best results. torus. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Negative values offset the other way. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. sphere. When a plane. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. cylinder. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. click on one side the curve.Rhino 2. select a curve or edge. Otherwise. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. or cone is offset. the resulting surface is exact. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. A surface and its offset 322 . If the surface is offset to the wrong side.

Type 0 to use the default tolerance. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. An arrow indicates the offset direction. they are also unlocked. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. so the fact that they are locked is lost. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. select Rhino 3D Models. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. All other layers will be turned off. 323 . The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. type a filename. they are not converted to NURBS objects.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. select the layer to turn on. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. When you turn the layers back on. not the trim edges. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. Click Open. Note Rhino supports several file types. Open Open an existing model. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve.Rhino 2. In the File name box. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. File.

type c and press Enter. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. pick a target point for the second reference point. select a workspace file.Rhino 2. and whether it is hidden or showing. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. Or. from the File menu. type s and press Enter. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. 324 . Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. the screen position of each toolbar. the buttons in them. Scale If Scale=No. The prompt will change to Scale=No. whether it is floating or docked. click Open. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. Options Opens the Options dialog box. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. pick a target point for the first reference point. to orient copies of the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. The objects are moved. or some of them may be hidden. In the Open Workspace dialog box. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. and the number of columns when floating. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. but objects remain the same size. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point.

pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. with the other two reference points. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point.Rhino 2. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. to orient copies of the objects. select the surface. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. If the curve does not start on the edge. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. select objects and press Enter. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. The two triplet of points define two planes. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. The three points are not interchangeable. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Or. 325 . This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. type c and press Enter. pick a point that.

The Mirror option toggles between them. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.and v-directions. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. 326 . Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. As you move the cursor over the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. There are four possible orientations on the surface.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. If you pick this point in different views. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. The cursor tracks along the curve. The object will be perpendicular to the curve.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. clicking Ortho in the status bar. and the F8 key. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. 327 . It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. you will get different end results. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. At the Base point prompt. are all toggles. select a base point on the object. Shift Note The Ortho command. select the curve you want to align the object to. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. click a point on the curve to move the object.

When polysurfaces are meshed. 328 . Packed textures. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. Modeling Aids tab. At the Ortho Angle prompt. Off. and Toggle. When Ortho is on. type the new angle and press Enter. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Polysurface made of four surfaces. Note When Ortho is on. the packed texture coordinates are created. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. The default angle is 90 degrees. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created.Rhino 2. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. The default angle is 90 degrees. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. If more than one object is selected.

Pan Pan the view. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. use the Pan command. PanDown Pan the view down. Plan parallel views like the default Top. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. 329 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. PanRight Pan the view right. Front. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. PanLeft Pan the view left. use the Pan command.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.Rhino 2. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.

The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. use the Pan command. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola. and then click Vertex. 330 . Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Focus. and then click Focus. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. This is the "open" direction. From the Curve menu.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. show a direction for the parabola.Rhino 2. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. click Parabola. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. click Parabola. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. Focus From the Curve menu. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. Direction. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.

331 . At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. Uncapped paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge. 4 Focus and direction. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. End. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction.

Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. they are pasted into your model. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Uncapped paraboloid. it is created when the object is pasted. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. 332 .Rhino 2. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference End. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. When you Paste objects into Rhino. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. If the layer does not exist.

and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Even for a relatively flat patch. To make a highly curved surface. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. adjust options. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Minimum of 8 points per curve. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. it will be very close to reasonable input. and edges to base the patch on. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. In the Patch Options dialog box. curves. you may need a starting surface. 333 . select curves that form a closed shape. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. select the point objects. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Note This command can be very useful. For a trimmed patch. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. These don't have to be connected.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects.Rhino 2. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. but with proper configuration. but it also can produce some unexpected results. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. Perspective Set to perspective view. Pause is a built in command option. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. aliases. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. 2 The wallpaper image. 334 . like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. and type PerspectiveMatch.

Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. All points picked on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. 4 All points picked on the model.Rhino 2. 335 . The first point on the model. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. The first point on the image.

PictureFrame Create a picture frame. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. you have modified your model. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. In particular. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. Pipe Draw a pipe. etc.Rhino 2. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. select a bitmap file to use. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. Pick carefully. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. changed the viewport settings. At the Length of picture frame prompt. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. Make the image view large. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. Note The image must be a true perspective image.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. This aids in accurate image point picking. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. If possible.

At the Starting radius prompt. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. If the pipe objects are capped. select a bitmap file. Click Open. At the Starting radius prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. and the closed pipe is created. select a curve. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically.Rhino 2. For an open curve. enter the radius for the pipe. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. 337 . enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the First end radius prompt. At the Second start radius prompt. Or. At the First corner prompt. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. At the Starting radius prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. select a curve. At the Second corner or length prompt. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. at the End radius prompt. type T and press Enter. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. if the curve is closed. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second end radius prompt.

then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Front. At the New target location <X. see Place a bitmap backdrop.Z> prompt. and JPG. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Placing a second deletes the first. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. PCX. In PARALLEL viewports. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. To place a backdrop behind your model. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. By default the Top. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. align it (move and scale in one operation). and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. 338 . and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. and temporarily hide it. 3-D Digitizing. enter the target point.Y. remove it. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts.Z> prompt. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. BMP. scale it. You can move the background bitmap. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location.Rhino 2. enter the camera point. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time.Y. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). TGA. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results.

Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. then those objects are not visible on the screen. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). 3-D Digitizing.Z> prompt. regardless of where the previous point was picked. enter the target point. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. PlaceTarget Place the target location. In PARALLEL viewports. Without Planar on. Toolbar: Menu Set View. Planar Toggle planar mode. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. In PERSPECTIVE views. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. click Free-form. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. 339 . You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. then those objects are not visible on the screen.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. In PERSPECTIVE views.Y. then click Control Points. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. From the Curve menu. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. enter the start point of the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt.Rhino 2. enter additional vertices for the polyline. To end the polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. making a closed polyline. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. 349 . press Enter. At the Next point of polyline prompts. To end the polyline. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. select a mesh object. press Enter. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. start the polyline.

Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. making a closed polyline. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.Rhino 2. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. 350 .

Start the PrevU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Start the PrevV command. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. 351 . Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface.

Rhino 2. the contents are printed on top of each other. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. color. The part that does not fit is not printed. print to a file. If viewports overlap. No viewport edge is printed. and number of copies. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. the central part of the view is printed. Always. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. and each viewport is printed in its area. 352 . Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. the objects outside the viewport are printed. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. print scale. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. If you fit the image to the page.

you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. Then. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. if they don't fit on the page. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Light objects do not print. as the paper you're printing on. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. too. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. not printing from perspective viewports. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Curve projected to a surface 353 . and same orientation. If the objects don't fit. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. hide them. (Actually. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. It will crop objects that are visible.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. If you want to print at some other scale. PrintSetup Set up your printer. Print. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface.

and polysurfaces. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. This command works on points. Properties Edit object properties. however. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . Project will never work correctly for this. set the projection type for the viewport.Rhino 2. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. circles. lines. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. and free-form curves work well. surfaces. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. curves. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. choose to keep or delete the input objects. Basic shapes like ellipses. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild.

Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Point Editing. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves.Rhino 2. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Point Editing. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Organic. To control point edit a polysurface.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. STL Tools. STL Tools. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . surfaces.

Then. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. Use curve commands to draw the curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt.0000. use the fewest control point possible. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. When drawing the curves. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. select the surface to pull the curves back to. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface.Rhino 2. select a curve to measure. Both commands ask for the viewport name. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface.

select a profile curve. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. the result looks exactly the same both ways.Rhino 2. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . in addition to being revolved. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. rail curve. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. In this case. Profile curve. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. select a rail curve.

Rhino 2.0 23. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. The file contents are copied into the command line.txt Click the button to read the file.4. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. Note When building command files.4.9. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.7. If you read in a particular file often.1 26.1. 358 . The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.9 Enter etc…. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.2.4.1. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. If you leave off the filename.9. use the Enter command.2. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail. readcommandfile myfile.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.0. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. You can then select a file from the list.1.0 27.0 23. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.8. If the rail curve is closed.5.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.5. select the file to read.5.8.1. ! Interpcrv 23. a file dialog box appears.

In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. When you are satisfied with the results. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. but a more accurate fit. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. click OK. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. leaving only the rebuilt curves. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. the highest number of control points is shown. 359 . Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. If more than one curve is selected. use the FitCrv command.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. Edges are pulled away from the surface. Joined and exploded polysurface. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface.Rhino 2. select an object. in the Point Count boxes. draw two planes several units apart. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. To see what it does. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. in the Degree box. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions.

At the Other corner or length prompt. choose a corner for the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Delete Input Deletes the original surface.Rhino 2. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. You will be prompted for the width. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. 361 . choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. Or. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. enter the length of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Rectangle Draw a rectangle.an v-directions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. Or. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. You will be prompted for the width. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. enter the end of the same edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. At the Corner or length prompt. 362 . At the End of edge prompt. select the center point of the rectangle. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt.Rhino 2. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. At the Width prompt. select a corner point. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. enter the width of the rectangle. enter the length of the rectangle. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners.

Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. At the End of edge prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt.Rhino 2. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. At the Height of rectangle prompt. 363 .

This makes this command scriptable.Rhino 2. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. set the polygon count. To see the results of the reduction. 364 . click Preview. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. General tab.

This command replaces the ClearMesh command. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. For one thing. avoid clearing meshes. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. To reduce the size of the model file. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. which may be undesirable in some cases.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. 365 . RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. After RefreshShade. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. Or.Rhino 2. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. type c and press Enter. to remap copies of the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .

and Blend commands. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. At the Click knot to remove prompt. select a surface. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. which is equal to the degree. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Sweep2. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. At the Select knotline to remove. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. select objects. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. select a curve. Use the Group command to group objects together. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. 367 .Rhino 2. In particular.

and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Render tab. Render tab. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. the current working folder. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. and render again. increase the size of the viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats.Rhino 2. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. When on.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. 368 . It has a single menu: File. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. expanded to fill the page. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object.

RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. Basically. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. When on. Toolbar: Render 369 . Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. Does not show shadows. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. or bump mapping. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. zoom.

length of the side on lefty is about 20 units.Rhino 2. In this example. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. (In this example. and similar prompts.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading.and v. The y. At the New U begin domain prompt.length for both is about 22 units. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. the texture is not distorted. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. including the domain unless you apply textures.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. the x. The x.and vdomains for the surface. set the new limits of the u. First you must set the u. However.length of righty is about 11. 370 . let's call them lefty and righty. it is distorted. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. Example You have two surfaces side by side.

RestoreView Restore a named view. choose a point on the revolution axis. 371 . then click the name of the view to restore. Revolve Revolve a curve. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. select the construction plane to restore. then click Set View. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. select one or more curves. select the named view to restore. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. or to restore only the view. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Or. At the Start of revolve axis prompt.Rhino 2. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. Right click the title of a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box.

At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset.Rhino 2. enter the number of control points. select a surface that is not a polysurface. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. click Exact or Deformable.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Enter the Start angle and End angle. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. If you choose Deformable. defining the revolution axis. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. choose a second point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. 372 . select a curve. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. The marker tracks on the curve. In the Revolve Options dialog box. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.

choose a point to rotate the objects around. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or a point to rotate from. you must edit your Rhino. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. or a point to rotate to.Rhino 2. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. Or. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. Right Set to world right view.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. choose a start angle. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. type C and press Enter. to rotate copies of the objects. 373 . choose an end angle.

or choose a point to rotate from. etc. At the End of rotate axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. type in an angle. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. type c and press Enter. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. If you entered a point to rotate from. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. the following prompt appears. Or. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. choose a point on the rotation axis. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. choose a second point on the rotation axis. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. to rotate copies of the objects.Rhino 2. 374 .

Or. pick a point. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right.Rhino 2. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Second reference point prompt. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. 375 . etc. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. etc. At the End of rotation axis prompt. etc. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. place the construction plane. etc. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key.

376 . RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command. Run Run another application from Rhino. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. At the Name of program to run prompt. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Press the arrow keys. RotateView Rotate the view. type the name and path of the file to run. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. RotateUp Rotate the view up. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. RotateRight Rotate the view right.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Save. type a filename. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute.Rhino 2. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Note Rhino supports several file types.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. or SaveAs dialog boxes. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Save Save your model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. 377 . you can use RunScript command. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the File name box. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Push Pin When the button is depressed. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Cancel Closes the dialog box. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. See the PluginManager command. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Otherwise. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Click Save. Language Specifies the language of the code. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. File. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript.

Click Save. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file.Rhino 2. You can also save default geometry with the template. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. In the File name box. type a filename. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Click Save. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. type a filename. layers. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. 378 . units. Files tab. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. You can set up grid settings. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. and tolerances and save them in a template. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Save. viewport layout. Note Rhino supports several file types.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

Note You can use wild cards (*. This command is "transparent.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. enter an object name. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. all objects with no name are selected. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. SelPolyline Select all polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt.) to select multiple objects. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. ?. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. SelNone Deselect all objects. 388 .

" It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.direction based on previously selected control points. Note SelLast clears the current selection set." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. 389 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. Start the SelU command. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelPt Select all point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. The control points on the surface display. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select.direction.and v. At the Select row of points prompt. select the surface. A surface with control points selected 390 .

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.direction based on previously selected control points. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. or both directions. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. Start the SelV command. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.

SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. This is not the same as restoring a named view.Rhino 2. and FlatShadeAll. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Note Type w to start a window selection. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt.rhino3d. from www. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.com/plug-ins.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. You can download plug-ins. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. Shade tab. ShadeAll. FlatShade. 392 . Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter.

Rhino 2. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.0 to 1. In the Edit Layers dialog box.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. Lets you name or rename a group. select an object on the layer you want to be current. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. The Undo command will work. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. select the layer to set current. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. 393 . Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. SetLayer Set the current layer.

POV-Ray. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object.0 to 1. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Rhino uses a generic name. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. and OBJ material/shader export. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Moray UDO. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. 394 . Or. double-click the viewport title bar.0 to 255) Transparency (0. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Object names are exported to IGES.Rhino 2. Or. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. 3DS.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. Note The object material can be used by RIB. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. To set names for a group of objects. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. If the object name has already been used. If no object name is defined. POV. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. and RenderMan RIB. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.

395 . At the Planar is On. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. use the SetObjectName command. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. At the Ortho is Off. In the Set Points dialog box. check the coordinates you want to set. enter one of the options. if you selected ten unnamed objects. POV-Ray. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". Select the objects. For example. Starting number Sets the starting number. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. SetPt Set control point location. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. enter one of the options. To set names for individual objects.Rhino 2. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. Object names are not used in Rhino. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. and RenderMan RIB. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt.

SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. At the Grid snap is Off. etc. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options.Rhino 2. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. enter the viewport width in pixels. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. You still see interactive drawing of curves. 396 . New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. enter the viewport height in pixels. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. At the Viewport height prompt.

OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. with no shadows. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. and no antialiasing. the OpenGL shade options will be available. On the Shade tab set the options. Note Be patient on the first shade.Rhino 2. click Options. It may not be very quick the first time. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. zoom. monochrome. Subsequent renderings may be faster.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and a special background color appears. Pan. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . If OpenGL is turned on. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. Shade Shade a viewport. select the working directory. this shading mode may be faster. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. The grid and axes are not shown. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front.

0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library.com/software/optimizer/. the OpenGL shade options will be available. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. zoom. Be patient on the first Shade. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. The grid and axes are not shown. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Subsequent renderings will be faster. with no shadows.Rhino 2. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. object highlighting. On the Shade tab. monochrome. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Options. If OpenGL is turned on. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. click Use OpenGL. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. click Options. For more information. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. It may not be very quick the first time.sgi. If you use OpenGL Shade. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. and a special background color appears. this shading mode may be much faster. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. see www. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Pan. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The grid. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. then Rhino will use it.opengl. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. 398 . and no antialiasing. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. On the Shade tab.org/ and www. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. The objects in current viewport are shaded. axes. click Use OpenGL. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API).

Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded.Rhino 2. The click cannot be near curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. or annotation or the object will be selected. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. select the objects to shear.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. 399 . Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. You do not have to select an isoparm. isoparms. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. points. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. Shear Shear objects.

select objects and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. pick the base point for the shear. 400 . If you exit the model and reopen it.Rhino 2. The edge is highlighted. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. The base point does not move with the shear. Visibility. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. If your object has broken edges.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. At the Reference point prompt. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Show Show hidden objects. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt.

You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. Status bar: Osnap 401 . ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. If you cannot see the naked edges. Camera icon. Edge Tools. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. Sometimes. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. Naked edges of the selected object highlight.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. terminate the command. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. At the Press Enter when done prompt.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. press Enter to terminate the command. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. The edges highlight.

resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. You will see no visible change in the surface. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Organic. At the Select objects to show prompt. Original trimmed surface. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . When textures are applied to surfaces. select the objects you want to show. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. To fix this. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. the silhouette is two circles. only backwards.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Then the remaining control points are thrown away. 403 . the silhouette looks like an oval. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. For example.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves.Rhino 2. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. If you look at a doughnut from the side.

Rhino 2. drag the mouse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Release the mouse button. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. a polyline appears along your path.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. 404 . Sketch Sketch a curve.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. Or. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse.

Type C to close the curve mid-drag. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Sketch on surface 405 . drag a curve. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. press Enter. drag a curve. select the surface to sketch on. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. type C.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to the surface.

Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. meshes. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. From the Edit menu.01 and 1. The larger the number. Smooth works on mesh objects. Smooth Smooth objects. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt.00. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. click Smooth. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. then click Control Points On.2. From the Transform menu. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The selected control points will move slightly. The selected entities will appear to melt.Rhino 2. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. In the Smooth dialog box. smoothing the curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. select the curves. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. click Point Editing. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. The default is 0. adjust the Smooth factor. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. 406 . too.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. A sphere is single closed surface. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Modeling Aids tab. it is grayed out. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. At the Radius prompt. 408 . Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. Grid tab. choose a center point. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points.Rhino 2. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. When Snap is off.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Note When Snap is on. Sphere Draw a sphere. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. or enter a distance and press Enter. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. choose a point for the radius. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. SnapSize Set snap size. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. Note This is different from the grid size.

SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. 409 . Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. At the Third point on sphere prompt.Rhino 2. choose the first circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. At the End of diameter prompt. choose the second circumference point. At the Second point on sphere prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the third circumference point. choose an endpoint for the diameter.

enter the start of the spiral axis. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. This is the line the spiral will wind around. If you select Reverse twist. enter the radius for the spiral. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. enter the number of turns for the spiral.Rhino 2. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. 410 .0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. At the End of axis prompt. select Turns or Pitch. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. enter the end of the spiral axis. At the Radius prompt. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. If you select Turns. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. If you select Pitch.

type p and press Enter. the polysurfaces are ignored. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. and points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. select the curve to split. The marker moves along the curve.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. select the cutting objects.Rhino 2. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. At the Select cutting objects prompt. select the objects to split. press Enter. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. 411 . If you select polysurfaces with other objects. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. surfaces.

SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms.Rhino 2. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. Type u. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . surfaces and polysurfaces. and Right view. 412 . At the Point to split edge prompt. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. the marker is constrained to the edge. select a point. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. The edge is split into two edges. Options control the direction of the split. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. to access option directly. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Front. At the Split point prompts. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. select points at which to split the surface. or b.press Enter when done prompt. Select a surface. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. v. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view.

and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. and then deleting the extra isoparms. then Split.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u.Rhino 2. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. 413 . SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally.and v-directions of the surface.

enter a v-direction degree for the surface. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. length. not the range of the light. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. At the End of cone prompt. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. set the radius of the spotlight. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region.it stays the same. pick a location for the spotlight. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Darker colors. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Or. light the scene less. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects.Rhino 2. hotspot angle. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. pick a target point for the spotlight. The spot light icon does not render or shade. beam angle. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. and position. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . The shape of the cone affects the lighting. At the Degree in V prompt. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. like gray.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight.

press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the Third corner of surface prompt. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. choose the fourth corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. Or. At the Second corner of surface prompt. 415 .Rhino 2. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the first corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the third corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. enter points until all the points have been entered.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. At the Point prompts. choose the second corner.

5.5.10 -4.and v-directions of a surface.33.2.5.0 -4. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0. The marker is constrained to the curve.-5. KeepPoints When on.2.5. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.5 0.5. copy it. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.-2.-5.5 4. When off.2. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.5. 416 . 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.0 -4. pick a point for the new start point.33. At the End of curve prompt. the surface is created but not point objects.33.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.0 0. and run the CommandPaste command.5 -4.33.-2.5. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.5 4.-2. select the following text.33.5.33.5.-2.2.-2.2.10 4. SwapUV Swap a the u.33.0 0. select a surface that is not a polysurface. select a curve.0 4.10 4.10 -4.5.5 0.5. click in the other viewport to swap.33.Rhino 2.5 -4.5.5. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.33.33.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.5. At the Start of curve prompt. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.0 4.33.-5. pick a point for the new end point.2.5.-2.33.10 0.

the new surface should also be tangent. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. reversing the direction of the curve. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. 417 . Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.Rhino 2. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. select the single rail curve for sweeping. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. adjust options. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. the cross section curves need to be compatible.Rhino 2. With closed rail curves. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. Preview Click to preview the surface. adjust options. reversing the direction of the curve. If you don't use Smooth.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. If you use the Smooth option. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. Note To create a single surface. 418 . (The original curves are not modified. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. The swept surface is created. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep.

Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. 419 . The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. use the Maintain height option. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default.Rhino 2.

If you don't use Rebuild. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. and continues to the ends of the rails.) With closed rail curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. Preview Click to preview the surface. To create a single surface. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. one of two possible surfaces appears. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. If you get the wrong surface. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. but want to control where the sweep ends. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . If you use the Rebuild option. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature.Rhino 2. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. (The original curves are not modified.

At the Start of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. 421 . Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into.Rhino 2. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. At the End of taper axis prompt. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. Taper Taper objects. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.

Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. surfaces.only control points. Radius prompt. Taper moves the control points of objects. second Radius prompt. 422 . choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. choose a radius for the base of the cone.Rhino 2. You can't taper a polysurface . You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. curves. choose a center point for the base. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. you will only taper that part of the object. End of cone prompt. and meshes. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. TCone Draw a truncated cone. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.

set the options. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Font Sets the font for the annotation text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. and XP. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. 2000. or solids based on TrueType fonts. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Example If your units are inches. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. 423 . The two sizes update each other. Type the text. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. or solids. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. in the form of curves. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. When you place annotation text. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.Rhino 2. In the Edit Text dialog box.25 inches. surfaces. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. surfaces. enter the start position for the text. It will not show in a perspective view. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.

select a style. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. type text characters to make into surfaces. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. select a style. in the Font box.Rhino 2. in the Font box. Under Create. In the Font Style box. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . The text appears in the Sample window. Under Create. In the Text box. select Solid. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. type text characters to make into solids. specify the height of the text characters. In the Text height box. select a font. In the Text box. The text appears in the Sample window. specify the height of the text characters. In the Font Style box. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Text height box. select a font. select Surfaces. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box.

ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. The workspace holds the toolbars.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. the buttons in them. import toolbars from a different workspace file. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. 425 . adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. add new buttons to toolbars. Top Set to world top view. adjust the size of buttons.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. and whether it is hidden or showing. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. create new toolbars. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. the screen position of each toolbar. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. and to delete toolbars from the workspace.

press Enter. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. click the parts of objects to trim away. 426 .Rhino 2. choose a center point. At the Second radius prompt. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. press Enter. When you are finished selecting objects. When you are finished trimming.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. select objects you want to trim other objects with. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. At the Radius prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt.

To trim a surface with more than one curve. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. or use Split. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. choose a center point for the tube's base. 427 . When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. and Right view.Rhino 2. use trim several times. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. imaginary extensions of the line are used. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. Tube Draw a tube. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. At the second Radius prompt.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. choose a radius for the tube wall size. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. surfaces and polysurfaces. At the first Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. Front. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view.

The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Shade. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Twist Twist objects. Note The view rotates about the target point. Press Esc to stop the turntable. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. 428 . and Render Preview. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going.

choose a second point on the axis. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. the following prompt appears. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. General tab. type in an angle. to twist copies of the objects. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. Or. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. Twist moves the control points of objects. or construction planes.Rhino 2. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. or choose a point to rotate from. or transform commands. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. choose a point on the twist axis. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. curves. surfaces. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. 429 .0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. You can't twist a polysurface . you will only twist that part of the object. and meshes. type c and press Enter.only control points. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. At the End of twist axis prompt. The opposite to undo is Redo. viewports. Undo Undo the last command. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. edit. If you entered a point to rotate from.

Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh.Rhino 2. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. their normals are flipped. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. This makes this command scriptable. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Render your mesh. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. If some of the faces that should render disappear. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. For example. 430 . You can then apply commands to the individual objects." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group.

Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. All polygons have a face normal direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. The 431 . explode it. If you see inside the mesh. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. When polysurfaces are meshed. select the objects you want to unlock. For example. Once the normals are correct. re-join the meshes. If more than one object is selected. Use UnifyMeshNormals. In general. Export in desired format. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. normals point the wrong way. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals.Rhino 2. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. the packed texture coordinates are created. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. 3DFace object. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. UnLock Unlock locked objects.

Unpacked textures. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. If the surface is developable. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state.Rhino 2. Polysurface made of four surfaces. Packed textures. select a surface or curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. 432 .

The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. Toolbar: Menu: Main. a developable surface has to be single span linear. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. Curves on a surface can also be developed. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. removing any attached geometry. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. Surfaces such as spheres. In Rhino.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. This command may take some time. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface.Rhino 2. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. an information message is printed at the command line. an information message is printed at the command line. Surface Tools. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. but not meet that requirement. This is not like folding out a box. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. 433 . it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. you can remove the trim curves. it may be geometrically developable. tori. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface.

Untrim removes the trimming curve.Rhino 2. 434 . Trimmed surface. Untrim joined polysurfaces. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.

Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective.0001). Target The camera target location in world coordinates. 436 .0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. you can change the lens length of the camera. Appearance tab.3921 (+/.0.Rhino 2. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera.

enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend.9553974. At the Start radius prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. enter a radius for this point. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.2e-007. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. At the End radius <x> prompt. choose a point on the edge.3. 437 .7e-007. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces.1.6.-4e016.Rhino 2. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. select a surface or part of a polysurface. At the Point on edge prompts.7e-007).4649522 (+/. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. enter or drag a radius. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. First moments.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. If an edge point was picked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. second moments. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. product moments.6. select a surface or part of a polysurface. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt.

0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. In other cases. Weight Edit control point weight. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. It does not change when you zoom. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment.Rhino 2. 438 . pan. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. or rotate your view.

the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. In our case. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same.Rhino 2. To perform a similar operation with control points. At the Angle tolerance prompt. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. and file export for stereolithography. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. see the SetPt command. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. When shaded. texture mapping on mesh objects. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. No points in the blue mesh are welded. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. If we want a smooth roof. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. they are replaced by a single mesh point. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. 439 . To get this to happen. we can use weld with an angle of 40. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp.

then Weld (angle=180). Welding in MAX is different. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. 3D Studio MAX). They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. Thus. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. See Importing and exporting STL files. Use JoinMesh. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Weld does not report the results on the command line. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX.1). A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image.0). To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. they must be joined before welding is effective.1) and top right (1. the bottom right is (1. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible.Rhino 2. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. top left is (0. 440 . Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. It does not physically fuse the vertices. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. they always get welded. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved.

axes. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command.0 Command Reference What Display object information. the grid. object highlighting. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. or polysurface. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.Rhino 2. At the Select object prompt. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. surface. World axes icon on 441 . Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. select a curve. The wireframe of the objects. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes.

the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. WorldYAxisIcon=. size.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. on the Shade tab. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. and color. 442 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. and black is the farthest away. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. When objects are rendered in Rhino. In the Zebra Options dialog box. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer.ini file set the color for the icon.Rhino 2. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. set the stripe direction. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. where white is the closest to your eye. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes.

the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. MatchSrf. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. curvature. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. These meshes can be large. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. and other important properties. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. and curvature between the surfaces match. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Tangent matches. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. 443 . tangency. this means the position. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. the surfaces touch. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Position. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. curvature. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection.Rhino 2. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior.

but will always work. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. If you have a wheel mouse. When Faster is selected. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. select More reliable. in the Options dialog box. 444 . The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out.Rhino 2. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. When More reliable is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. under Zebra and EMap. on the Shade tab. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping.

Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 .0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. Note In a perspective view. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. 446 . ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. drag a window to zoom. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. At the Zoom factor prompt.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. type a zoom factor and press Enter. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget.Rhino 2. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. ZoomWindow Zoom window. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. This is particularly useful in perspective views. pick a point for the center of the view.

5. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command.Rhino 2. 143 3Box command. 255. 168. 221. 53 aliases. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 2. 163 3Circle command. 245. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. to copy while dragging. 148. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 5. 28. 151 ArrayCrv command. 26. set scale. 139 AlignTrace command. command aliases. 323 3-D digitizing:. 407. 232 Arc3Pt command. 144 Area command. 140 Align command. 5. 206. export options. profile curves. 33. 82 Alt key.5. 5.2. 135 3DM file exchange. 5. 144 ArcTTR command. 136 AddPrevU command. dot. 141 ApplyCrv command. 5. 142 Arc toolbar. set up function key for click. 5. 5. 151 array:. 333. extend to a point. 251. 305. 152 arrowhead on curve. 5. 140 Along object snap. 205. add notes to the model.0 Command Reference Index !. 14. 14. 145 AreaMoments command. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 149. 229. 3DS file format. 149 ArrayCurve command. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 205. 62 447 . 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 28. 76. 27. 151 arrow annotation object. 393 34View command. 151 ArraySurface command. 144 arc:. 145 AreaCentroid command. 5. 29. 82 AlongTan object snap. on a surface. 127. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 135 3Arc command. 207. 368. 140. 5. 140 angle:. set ortho. 281 AttachEnd command. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 143 Arc3Pts command. 298 3D Studio file exchange. arrow. 143 ArcDir command. 5. 169 3CPlane command. 5. 197. 31 AG file exchange. 3. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 144 Arc command. 150 ArraySrf command. 144. from three points. 146 arguments at the command line. 5. with FaroArm. 144. 139. 140. shortcuts. 180. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 34. 206. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 362 3Plane command. with a MicroScribe. options. 148 Array toolbar.0 OBJ. 88. 151. 221. 307. 53. from the last point. 143. 170 2-D drawings from model. 180. 152 Arrow command. 322. initialize. 206. 5. 32 AGLib file exchange. 27. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 203. Release 12 export. 5. 34. 141 ApplyMesh command. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. VIZ. to suspend object snaps. dimension. 123. built into Rhino. 205. 266 animate view. 203. DWG file exchange. 207. 5. 333. 29. 210. disconnect. 204. scale factor. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 123 2Circle command. polar. DXF file exchange. 150. 150. 138 adjust end bulge. 152 ASAP file exchange. 152. 24 AddNextU command. arrowhead on curve. 144 ArcSER command. MAX 2. 33. 150. 152. 212. 412 Annotate toolbar. 149 ArrayPolar command. sketch curve with. 138 AddToGroup command. 206. set spacing between points. 139 All command. 127. export. 28. 195. MAX 3. 239. 308 align:. 5. measure between two lines. 142. 426 angle: constraint. 152. MAX 3. 206. 251. 203. 231. 53. 149. 393 3View command. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 2. toolbar button function. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 125 array: along a curve. 5. 35.0. 255. 152. 137 AddPrevV command. 187. 150. 150. 143. end and direction. 232. 30 add object to selection. 265. 5. 5. 312 AngleLine command. pause input. 361. 5. 136 AddNextV command. 207. 148. 298. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 255. 88 align: background bitmap. end and radius. 312 Angle command. 231. 55 Ascii STL tag. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 33. 29 3DFace command. 215. 162. 207. 152 Attach command. 251. circular. 5. create planar sections. 143. around a pole. 346 3Sphere command. 251. 140. 279 2Sphere command. 10. 198. 230. 10. 135 ACIS file export. 309 AlignProfiles command. 204. 324 3Rectangle command. 5. 152 AutoCAD. 29. 5. MAX 1. 141 ApplyCurves command. 340. 133. calibrate. 330. 5. 230. MAX 2. DOS. 149 Array command. 28. 151. 305. from start. suspend autoclose. 281 Audit command. 205. 152 AnnotateDot command. 215. 149.0 IGES. rectangular. 139 Align3D command. 141 arc: extend by. 204. 220. 135 4View command. 215 annotation. 27. 385 analyze:. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 5. import. 205. tangent to two curves. 205. 5. 123 Arrowhead command. 426 Analyze toolbar. 144. 192. 251.

168. 124. 368. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 171 Circle3Pt command. 421 Blend command. 402 Bisector command. 297. set construction plane x. troubleshooting. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 124. 322. 168 Check command. 171 circle:. 169 Circle3Pts command. 170. 114. 164. 39 BMRT support. 198. 157. 124. 338 buoyancy. 122. 384 background bitmap:. 139. 123. 163 Box3Pts command. 171 clear. 172. 90. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 5. 245. paste from. 139. 156. 184. move toolbar button. 249. 160. 421 BlendSrf command. 123 Cap command. 250 centroid. 232 Clipboard. 123. 116. 123. move background. 154 baseball-style seams. 162. convert NURBS curve to. 124. 312. 161. 249. 322. place. 123. 139. 168 choose one object. floatation. 123. difference. 170 CircleTTR command. 365. 409. 322. 297. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 369 C2View command. 125. 5. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 171. copy toolbar button. render meshes. 124. import button image. 133. render meshes when saving file. 250. toolbar. 384 bad objects. remove. 160 BooleanUnion command. 12. 362 ClearMesh command. 180. background. 162 box: from length. 425. capture button image. 161. 168. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 39 Boolean. 168. union. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. display grid. 366 CArc command. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. sphere. 170. 161 Bottom command. 152 autosave:. 39 BMP file format. 349 ClearUndo command. 164. 163 box:. remove background. variable radius between surfaces. 249. 162. scale background. clear undo. 130. toolbar button image. 166 ChangeLayer command. 124. 160. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 5. with Esc key. layer. settings. 163. object properties. set construction plane z. 351. 156. 322. 167. 55 axis. 124 C command. 204 camera. 363. 5. 101. 153 background bitmap: align. 321. undo levels. 320. 168 CheckInLicense command. 124 capture viewport. 172 CLine command. 90 Autosave command. 321. 158. tangent to two curves. 5. 169. 102. 56 cancel command. 312. 321. 170. 153 back view. 250. 320. polygon mesh. as bitmap. 163 B-spline. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 90. 243. intersection. 5. 297. 166. 366. 133. 351. 249. tangent to three curves. from three points. two surfaces. 323. to the Clipboard. 164 cap open planar ends. 5. with toolbar button. command. the layer of an object. 162. 133 BU command. 172. 85. 392. 367. 165 ChamferSrf command. 162 Box toolbar. 163. 154. 157. 162 BoundingBox command. 156 blend:. 297. 243. 366. 179 BI command. 5. surface. 368 Baseball command.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 153.Rhino 2. save button image to file. 154 Between object snap. from center. edit button image. time control. align backgound. 168. 351. 365. 168 Circle toolbar. 365. 145. 90 ChangeDegree command. show hidden background. 232 CATIA file exchange. 316 448 . 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 133. 184. 124. use for tracing. delete toolbar button. 13. undo buffer. place. 164 capture image for toolbar button. clear button image. 160. 152. 165 Chamfer command. 297. 24 circle: by diameter. 5. 198. 5. 392. 90. toolbar layout. ortho angle. 5. place background. 292 Box3Pt command. width. ellipsoid. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 168 check objects for errors. cut. 122. 179. 122.0 file exchange. select. 155 bitmap. 170. center of. 123. 338. 2. 145 chamfer: two curves. 169. 172 built-in aliases. 79 center:. 133. 425 Back command. 351. 160 bi-rail sweep. toolbar button tooltip. show. radius. 113. 322. 165 change. 321. 164 chamfer:. toggle world icon. 171. 157. edit button icons. from three points. 160 Bend command. 56 center: buoyancy. 363. 231 CArcPt command. 250 button. 84 Bezier curve. move. 199. 229. 101. hide. 384. 54 autosave: file location. hide background. use. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 171. 367. 139. 171. 162 bottom view. 384. 172. 365. surface degree. 168. 322 blend: curve. 316. 365. copy to. backdrop for rendering. 384. snap size. scale. 153 BD command. 166. 123. lock. as 256-color bitmap. 170 Circle command. 139. 154. 115. 250 Center object snap. 292 Box command. 170 CircleTTT command. edit toolbar. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. height. selection. 351. 167. 184. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 125. 123. 161 BooleanDifference command. 159. 245. 161 buffer. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 249. 169 CircleD command. area. 180. 122. to current layer. 321. 118.

construction plane coordinates. 217 COff command. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 181 Copy command. 297. 88. list all. 419. set to object. options. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 164. render. 249. 323. 178 control point definition. toolbar button. script. 35 command: alias. 339. 137. 181. view to all viewports. 57 CPDash command. project object snap to. 180. 343. 11. 173. 173. 2. toolbar. 335. 125. set the number of thin gridlines. 181. 180. 178. 375. 179 Coons patch. 362. 419. 10. 125. rendering to Clipboard. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 177 contour curves. 173 commands:. draw curve using. 173 cone:. 75. highlight. 172 ClosestPt command. 84. 10. 179. 176 Conic command. 250. for spotlight editing. 245. 181 CopyClip command. 177. 172 CommandPaste command. make all have same orientation. 5. 173 CommandPrompt command. coordinates. 181. 413 CommandHistory command. 386. 338. 172. display axes. 181 CopyViewToAll command. rotate. 131. 181 CPlaneNext command. set to next. 75 comma-delimited file export. toggle construction plane entry. 154. polygon mesh. 172 cloud of points. 155.Rhino 2. 138. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 155. display recently used. set extents of. 184. 303. 176. 5. 174. 131 ControlPolygon command. 174 conic:. 173 command names. 125. 180. 178 control vertex. 406. 5 command:. 5 CPlaneObject command. 89. 88. world coordinates. 172 CloseViewport command. 5. 406. 5. 75.0 Command Reference close. 338. set origin of all construction planes. 246. render window. curve. render window to Clipboard. 131 command history. 228. move to coordinate location. named construction plane. add to surface. angle. 343. 125. 182. 114. 75. 114. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 173. G0. select previous in u-direction. 131. delete from a curve. 298. set to x-axis. 323. holes in surfaces. 183. 15. 88. 12. 5. extract. relative coordinates. 251 command area. 419 context menu. 183. 184. 338. 184. place point objects on. 181 CPlaneFront command. 182. 195 cone: cone. 234. toggle display. 90. 18. 180 copy:. 181 CPlaneElevation command. viewport. 405. 173 COn command. 234. 339. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 115. next. bend. 136. turn off. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 136. 11. 246. turn on. 4. 179. options. display for a point. taper. 419. 362. 197. view back of. 327 Cob command. 172. 183. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 11. project objects to. toggle world coordinate entry. 181. 136. 184. 180. 419. 379 control polygon. turn grid on or off. add previous in u-direction to selection. 246. 89. 90. 166. 178 CPHighlight command. 133. set to previous. hide. 419. 85. 359. 373. along line. 119. display in clipboard or history. 137. 183. 202. view left of. select next in v-direction. select row on surface. 131 control points. set weight. perpendicular to curve. weld. 419. G2. 379. 359. 2 command line. 172. 166. 380. 335. 303. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 245. 246. truncated. set right. 379. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. read from file. 335. AutoCAD. 104. 181. 398. 177 continuous shading. 422. 123. settings of one construction plane to all. save. 183. 345. import from 3DM file. 339. 89. polar coordinates. show hidden. 173 commands: list of all. 74. dialog box. select next in u-direction. add previous in v-direction to selection. 5. 12. 182. entering coordinates. select previous in v-direction. move along Z. 119. G1. copy settings of one to the all. 88. display. 14. select row in vdirection. set to 3 points. 422. 413 command aliases. 173. list. 104. 342. 11 copy: command shortcut. plan view. paste from clipboard. 11 coordinates. 342. 5. 12. v-. objects to Clipboard. 180. 126. view front of. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 374. set to z-axis. 11. 123. undo. 375. 75. 140. toggle display of. old. 235. 245. set to vertical. move in u-. 2. 303. 182. 373. 245. 11. arguments. 126. 292. 183. 181. 197. 173. distance. 344. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 138. 173. 5. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 14. relative polar coordinates. 84. move all through a point. add next in u-direction to selection. objects. 406 Cone command. 75 continuity. 173. 164. 327. 174. View top of. 245. set top. set to view. 245. set display density. 228. 176 ConicPerp command. macro. move through a point. 11. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 183. set normal to curve. 182. 122. 218 Contour command. set distance between grid lines. 133. 304. layer. 122. 177. curve and surface. 297. history. Esc to cancel. 172 ClosePoint command. 219 coordinate entry. 88. set front. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. shortcut. 175. view right of. 176 constraint. 195 color. 10. 176. view bottom of. 115. 180. 235. 174. 173 Commands command. 178. 398. 5. 298. coincident. set origin. 75. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 126 conic: curve. 336. and ndirections. false. 172 Closest point to an object. 140. 292. 184. 172. 202. 249. 386. 5. 182 CPlaneO. 406 ConfigScript command. 182. previous. 126. add next in v-direction to selection. wheel. 2. create curve from. 15 construction plane. assign to mouse buttons. 13. 11. 21. 181. 182 449 .

143. 339. adjust seam point. 195. 249. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 194. 267. silhouette. 4. place point at end. bounding box. circle by diameter. 235. align in two views. 155. 195. 369 crossing selection. 189 crosshairs. 256. extrude along path. 178. graph off. 231. duplicate border of surface. 143. 164. circle tangent to two curves. 389 CurveStart command. project onto surface. 346 cross sections through profiles. 269 Curve command. 334. 186. conic. 2. menu for selecting from multiple objects. tangent line. 337. 234 CreatePCurves command. 162 CrvDeviation command. 189. 169. 175. periodic. 189. points. 238. arc from start. blend. 268. 388. 389. duplicate edge of surface. 184 CPlaneZ command. 194. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 177. intersect two objects. 15. direction. from point cloud. 187 CrvStart command. circle from center. 2. 248. 141. 24. 351. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 156. 305. 25. 188. 248. 185 CrvBox command. 195. rebuild. 355. 390. offset. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 187. 235. 340. spiral. 183 CPlaneRight command. 198 CutPlane command. 226. 369 Crv2View command. 156. 198 Ctrl+Y. 187 CurveOverlap command. 281. 169. flatten section of. 185. section. bisector line. 390. 218. graph on. 133. 187 CrvEnd command. 258. arc. 323. 305. 197. extract wireframe from surface. 197 curve degree. 387. smooth. 302 Ctrl+O. 255. curvature graph off. 238. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 334. 298. 231. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 388. 269. 3 crossing:. 387 curve:. 298. 226. 218. place point at start. 139. 306. 197. 395. pull to surface. 4. 177. 165. 179. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 133. adjust end bulge. 191. tracking line. 195. 394. 90. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 356. 197 curve. raise degree. 265. sketch on polygon mesh. 191 curvature:. 194. 394 CurveBlend command. simplify. 279. 174. 367. 218. 355. 271. 304. 305. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 170. sketch. constrain to plane. 180 Ctrl+N. add knots. 185. 24. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 144. 15. 255. 156. 258. 330. circle from three points. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. refit. 216. 189 CSec command. convert to polyline. 239. 162. 157. 265. 236. interpolate on surface. 144. contour. 230. 24. 2. 307 Ctrl+P. 351. 141. 389. 190 CullCP command. 232. 165. convert to Beziers. 217. 2 Ctrl+S. 188. 195. 236. mean. constrain parallel to view plane. selection. 4 Ctrl+V. extend to surface boundary. 187. 197. 314. 256. 216. 177. 281. extend by arc to a point. line vertical to construction plane. 184 CPlaneV command. 184 CPlaneX command. 339. 189. 4. 254. 267. 239. 185. 233. 187. 189 CSV export. 270. 326. line normal to a surface. line. 271. 4. 388. 398 CreateUVCrv command. analyze surface. extrude straight. 197. extend. sketch on surface. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 327. 236.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. line tangent to two curves. 170. 184 CPTog command. parabola. from 2 views. 192. 258. 241. 13. 164. divide by number of segments. 314. 330. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 196. 369. constrain to ortho. 4. make periodic. 239. 268. 142. 4. 182 CPlanePrev command. 232. revolve. apply to surface. 323. 162 CurveEnd command. 387. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 236. polyline. 387 Curve toolbar. 4. 254. 257. insert edit point. 333. 348 Ctrl+Z. 339. 304. 391. 183 CPlaneTop command. 221. 217. 168. 232. 327. 183 CPlaneToObject command. extend by arc. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 197. 253. 200 450 . 311. 238. display graph. 270. end. measure between two curves. 174. match ends. 337. fair. interpolate through polyline. 164. 268. 389. surface from network. 174. 162. 139. 2. 235. extend by line. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 413 CullControlPolygon command. Gaussian. 142. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 131. 248. 156 CurveBox command. 337. 343. 187. remove knots. 187 CrvSeam command. 311. 304 Ctrl+A. 281. crosshairs. 253. chamfer. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. extract isoparms from surface. 179. helix. 187 CurveSeam command. 241. 389. 190 cursor. 226. 257. marker. 3 Ctrl+C. extrude to point. 185 CRectangle command. 343. 15. 245 Curvature command. 255. 195. 2. 14. 257. arc tangent to two curves. radius. 239. 340. 305. measure radius. 255. 169. 184 CPlaneView command. 233. 268. 165. 281.Rhino 2. 316 Ctrl+X. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. cross sections through profiles. 241. 369. 256. 141. from interpolated points. point. 202. 343. 156. arc from three points. 170. 183 CPlaneToView command. 367. 230. constrain along line. from control points. 230. 195. 3. 144. 197. 387. 213. 131. single line. polyline through point objects. 326. 217. 333. 2. delete control points. line perpendicular to two curves. fillet. 367. 191. 155. 239. ellipse. 202. 179. 187 CurveSketch command. 213. 195. 222. 221. 90. 168. toggle. line segments. curvature graph. select all. 2. 165.

206 DigSection command. pause input. 279. rotated. 135. 204 DigClick command. change degree of surface. 279 Dragmode. 23 Document Properties dialog box. render mesh settings. 207. select all. 395. 85. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. toggle. 121. change. 338 DisplayBitmap command. border of surface. 88. recenter text. object discription. 123. 135. 384 edge: create curve from. 384. 33 DynamicShading command. 99 disable. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. Notes tab. 167. 214 domain:. 12. 272 date. naked. 216 Drape command. hydrostatic calculation.ini. 166. aligned. 212. 207. create 2-D curves. 206 DigSpacing command. 213 dock a toolbar. persistent object snaps. 251 dot: annotation. 58 delete: all objects. 15. 395. display curve or surface. 372 DetachTrim command. options. sketch curve. 204. show. 3-D digitizing. 213 Divide command. 17. edit points. calibrate. angle between lines. in Split command. 203 develop a surface. edge of surface. 396 edge:. 209. horizontal. 209. 120 document properties: notes. 202. 205 digitize. 260. 165 Delcam file exchange. 385. 205 displacement. 370 DWG file exchange. 344. 385. 425. 216. 272. 18. 396 Edge Tools toolbar.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 22. set scale. 293 data structure for object. 265. 370. 219. 215 Dot command. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 202. tolerances. 330. 288. 22 degree. 19. 218 duplicate. 385. 239. 205. 15 Distance command. 411. 214 domain: match. 208. 206. 202 Deselect All. 34 DXF file exchange. 91. 122. 168. 217. 203 DigCalibrate command. shortcuts. 211. 243. button image. 203. 209 DimVertical command. 22. 220. 108 Dup command. objects. broken edges. join two out of tolerance edges. 384 diameter dimension. 133. 368. 217. 422 Display command. 210 DimHorizontal command. 123 451 . 210 Dir command. 196. 243 DirectionalLight command. 123. 217 draw. 212 disconnect digitizer.Rhino 2. toolbar button. radius. 218. 293 Cylinder command. 168. 127. 208 dimension. 217 drape surface. Rhino. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 218 e_tol. 127. grid axes. 19 DocumentProperties command. 121. 209 DimRotated command. 213 DivideByLength command. 372 Deselect command. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. reverse object direction. raise curve degree. Render Mesh tab. 212 distance display. 330. 210. set spacing between points. 217. 215 dot:. 219. 396 EdgeSrf command. naked edges. 195. intialize. 277 diagnostics. 106. 209. 218. 104. 127. 217 DrapePt command. 107. layer. 205 DigDisconnect command. object. curve. 220. 384. 202 delete:. 207 DimAligned command. split. 207. 10. 372 DeselectAll command. 208. 370. 344. isoparm density. 131 Ebroken command. toolbar button bitmap icons. 210. 265. curve by number of segments. 207. 206. 201. 19. 205. 165. polygon mesh. 250 display: bitmap window. 178. 288. set up function key for click. 17. 210 DirArc command. 288. 22. 260. 15 divide: curve by length. 250. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 212 distance: constraint. in Trim command. 219. surfaces. 218. 201 cylinder:. 3-D polygon mesh face. 205. 197. command button. 144 direction. 208. edit text. 370. 12. 205 DigScale command. summary. toolbar. units. 2. 208 DimOptions command. 45 dirty looking rendering. 19 document properties:. 166. control points. 23 distance:. 385. from last point. 202 DeleteAll command. 251. 211 DirectX file export. display broken. 245. 105. 17. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 197. 207. 209 DimRecenterText command. 217 DupBorder command. points at naked edges. with MicroScribe. Boolean. 217 DupEdge command. 410. merge. 132. 212. 2. 384. 344. planar section. diameter. 251 Domain command. viewport properties. 260. 215 draft angle. annotation text. 119. 19. 122 Delete command. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 245. wallpaper. 124. control polygon. select all objects. 160. disconnect. 212 DisableOsnap command. 330. 212 display:. 218. 196. 202. 210. 215 drafting. 213. 23. 213 divide:. 208 DimRadius command. 207 DimDiameter command. 104. 132. 160 Dig command. 209. grid. 206 DigSketch command. lines. polylines. 10. 298 DigPause command. 208. 206. rebuild. 201. 416 developable surface definition. options. 209. vertical. 208 difference. dimension text. 220. 338. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 207 DimAngle command. with FaroArm.

surface. Applied Geometry (AG). 40 errors in model. 222 ellipse:. Mastercam (IGES). 33. 67. 53. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. control polygon. 396 EvaluatePoint command. POVRay (POV). 238. space and rightmouse click. 55. 228 Excel. AutoCAD (DWG). 228 EvaluateUV command. 174 Elmo command. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 31. 36. NuGraf (IGES). Integrity Ware (IGES).0 (IGES). Maya (IGES). 1 Faro command. 26. 93. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 44. 58. 30. 54. 47. 68. ACIS. GHS. 233 extend:. 65. 119. triangles. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. insert on curve. 133 enter coordinates. 253. Cosmos/M (IGES). 26. 92. Microstation (IGES). 231. 3D Studio MAX 3. FastShip (IGES). 236. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 51. 52. 229. Unigraphics (IGES). IronCAD (IGES). 236 Extrude toolbar. 236. 35. 236. 236 extrude: curve. 253. 3 Enter: command for scripts. Softimage (IGES. 43. SAT file format. 420 EditDim command. 2. 232. 2. 62. 233 ExtendSrf command. 35. 233 ExtendByArc command. 239 fair curve. unable to run program renrib. surface into a solid. 73. mesh to IGES file. 35. DirectX. 229 explode:. 62. Viewpoint Technologies. 71. 72. 73. export to. 4 F9. 234. 220. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 223 ellipsoid:. 63. 51. 231. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 232. 154 Ellipsoid command. 238. 133 EShow command. 44. by line. 40. 235 ExtractSrf command. curve on surface. Lightwave (LWO). 63. 37. 71. 229 Exit command. 55. 37. show. 52. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. SURFCAM (IGES). 230 Extend toolbar. 223 elliptical conic curve. CSV file. raw triangles (RAW). 58. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 55. 3D Studio (3DS). 232. 69. 59. 238. Solid Edge (IGES). FastSURF (IGES). 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. Metastream. 356 extrude:. 228 expand a surface.0 (IGES). Wavefront (OBJ). 29. 69. 13. 57. 224 EMerge command.0 (OBJ). 36. 222 EllipseEnds command. object properties to file. 221. Pro/E (IGES). 233. 232. 54. NASA GridTool. 33. 64. Alias (IGES). 63. Tebis IGES. 228 error messages. polygon mesh. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 123. TekSoft IGES. 68. Delcam (IGES). 92. 133 Escape key. 219. 10. SolidWorks (IGES). 36. 12 ELine command. 59. 59. Alias (OBJ). 60. CADCEUS (IGES). 224 erase objects. 46. 234 Extend command. Solid Designer (IGES). 229. 385 EnakedPt command. 330 End key. 62. LUSAS (IGES). 220 EJoin command. 416 explode: NURBS objects. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 230 extend. 230. 45. 63. turn off. 57. 65. 236. 233. curve. 221 EllipseD command. 41. 60. 229 export:. turn on. SLA. 33. surface. 61. 229 export. 58 452 . 78 EndBulge command. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). ME30 (IGES). 53. 46. 4 Fair command. 26. 356. 233. 61. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 127 Esc key. 31. 344 EMap command. 4 F8. 288 Enaked command. 229 Explode command. 131. 32. wireframe curves from surface. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. AutoShip (IGES). 12. 64. IGES. 222 Ellipse command. by arc. AutoCAD (DXF). 73. 70. 46. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 53. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 55. Plug-in). Windows Metafiles (WMF). 227 environment map. 230. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 42. 230. 236. 227. 228 exit Rhino. VRML. 45. command aliases. 231. 56. 30. curve by offset. 45. OptiCAD (IGES). 42. isoparms from surface. 343 ElmoSrf command. 228 EvaluatePt command. 385 ESplit command. PostScript. 236. 61. 11. AUTOFORM (IGES). 260 elevator mode. 202. 72. 45. 220 EditText command. 128. 13. 42.Rhino 2. 64. 239 FastShip file exchange. Moray (UDO). 131 FAQ. 238 Extrude command. 231. 133. 235. 221. curve to point. 220. Multisurf (IGES). surface from polysurface. 58. 45. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 232 ExtendByLine command. 45. 67. 56. 238 F1. 58. 74. 12 Enter:. 70.0 Command Reference edit points. 35. 235. 54. Commadelimited file. 74 Export command. 239 false color display. CamSoft (IGES). 41. 219 EditPtOn command. 60. 69. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 31. Catia (IGES). STL. 56. 226 endpoint object snap. 41. 73. 3. Moldex DXF. CAD 3D SUM 4. 46. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 234. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. Yamaha ESPRi. 230. 237. 30. 71. 124. 40. 48. 37. 53. 4 F2. curve along path. 45. curve to surface boundary. 233 extract. 2. 3D Studio MAX 3. 58 FastSURF file exchange. from focus points. 231. 35. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). arc to a point. 235 ExtractPt command. 429 End object snap. 32. options. 123 edit:. 29.

244 front view. unlock locked objects. 61. 240 FilletEdge command. object names. 250. 133. 122 font. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 407. 55. 273. edge of polysurface. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 278. 339. 2 hidden layer name. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 277. 250 HideToolbar command. axis lock. set the extents of. 64. 135. text. 133. 46. 262. 425 IGES: file exchange. Osnap dialog box. 1 From object snap. edit using.0. 67. 390. Alias|Wavefront. 122. 133. 273 freeze:. 1 Help command. surface. definition. set the number of lines. 307. 246 HBarSrf command. 174 icon. 3D Studio MAX 3. 203. toolbar. 131. 245 grid:. 122. 239 fillet:. 262. Esc key. 36 glossary terms. 53.Rhino 2. Breault Research's ASAP. 81 Front command. tracking line. 120. 212 frequently asked questions. 131. 396. 56.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. marker. 46. 2. bumpmap. 416. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. command line. normal. 273 ghost:. 262. 1. 249. 245 Grid command. 410. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. command area. 133. 119 HideTrace command. 249 hide:. 229. troubleshooting import problems. 249 HidePts command. 325 FitCrv command. 386. 53. 249 HideSwap command. 245 GridSections command. cursor. 131. 244 Flow command. 50. IGES export type details. turn on or off. 362 file:. 133. 2. 377. 339 HideOsnap command. import. 131. 302. 246 Group objects for selection. edit points. 426. swap hidden status. 249 HidePt command. 251. 407. 379. 246 HBar command. 46. set snap size. 168. 429 Horizon command. 361. Ashlar Vellum. 362 File toolbar. 133. 242 FlatShadeAll command. two surfaces. 53. periodic surface. 330. 362 FileProperties command. seamless mesh. false color. 104 fit a plane through points. 240 filter the layer display. 248 help: display Help file. 250. 416. show selected. 241 FlatShade1 command. Enter key. 72. control points. 120. template. 240 Fillet command. panes. 68. 387 HSV color. 194 GCon command. 380 GridAxes command. 273. 338 history. 380. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 249. 1 help:. 59. AUTOFORM. 194. 244 G0 continuity. 171. save as. 244 Flowline command. 250 hide: background bitmap. 246. 132. 214 fillet. Unicode. 251. 62. 55. 176 G2 continuity. 241 FitPlane command. 119 Hide command. 103 hidden objects. 229. snap to. 386 HideAll command. curve. 379 IGES file types. 249 HidePoints command. center of. 65. 133. run application from inside Rhino. 134. 123. wireframe. keep last used on top. save. 52. 123. 261. 12 Home key. 251. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 130 Flow along a curve. 47. 60. 134. 176 G1 continuity. 453 . 172 hold. CADCEUS. 348. objects. 123. 245 GridOptions command. 171. AutoShip. 360. 307. 249. initial mesh grid. 18. 279. shortcut. 243 Flip command. 131. 249. 247 Helix command. 249. 337. 130. reduce size of model. 134. 246 handlebars. 273. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. status bar panes. 49 IGES export:. edit toolbar button. 236. 251. 119. 360. 46. 132. 386. 176 Gaussian curvature. 243 floatation. tolerance. 12. 54. 384. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 75 hue. 246 Gridsnap command. 246. objects. 239. 246. 273. 302. show hidden control points. set distance between lines. 55. 132. 49. 302. 417 ghost: a layer. 192. 221 fonts. text. 378. 246 group. 250. polysurface. 228. 361. 386. 57. 132. 262. 336. 74. 133. 415 Ghost command. flyout toolbar. 251 floating license. objects. 220. 245. toolbar. 73. NURBS. 385. 131. 220. 135 grid: axes . 255. 380. 229. 415 GHS file export. 361. isoparm. periodic curve. 255. 249 HideCV command. 242 flatten. 229. 48. naked edge. 380 GridThick command. 368. 172. 70. 240. 417 FlattenSrf command. polygon mesh export. 250. new. 119 HideToolbox command. 425. world axes. 246. 246. simple controls. 58. 131. 307. 240 FilletSrf command. open. types. 5. developable surface. 131. 75 Hydrostatics command.turn on or off. 407 freeze: a layer. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 55. 415 Freeze command. spacing. texture mapping coordinates. 235 FltE command. 305. 395. 124. 246 Heightfield command. 1. 249 highlight in rendering. name. 130. 134. 260. 54. 50. 259. section of curve. 377 Group command. 386. 277. 46. 71. 413. 378. 131. technical support. 249. 239. 54. 133. 63. 246 GridSize command. 245. 46. 281 FlatShade command. 69. control point. unlock locked objects. units.

57. 104. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 371. 104. 131 insert: edit point. 253 InsertKink command. 67. Microstation IGES. FastSURF. surface or polysurface. 63. angle from. 103. 104. match attributes. named views from a 3DM file. 257. 103. 59. 265 Length command. 33. triangles. split surface at. 69. 140. new. 46. 52 import. 377. 254. 259. change for an object. 132. 167. Solid Edge. 69. 54. 263. 396. 263. Unigraphics IGES. 46. 263 LayerOn command. 67. 66. 104. 42. 167. Softimage. 71. 70. 254. 60. delete. 152 Leader command. 42. Mastercam IGES. Multisurf IGES. 254 Insert command. 58. 73. 65. 251. 160.0 Command Reference CamSoft. CAD 3D SUM 4. 258 Intersect command. Raw triangles RAW. 351. 126 kink. 121. 73. 135 jagged shadows. Yamaha ESPRi. 29.Rhino 2. 64. 103. insert in surface. 343. ME30. Mechanical Desktop. Solid Edge IGES. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. display for object. 140. 61. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 14. 55. 72. 65. 85. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. turn all layers on. set current. SolidWorks. Boolean. 68. 41. 63. 60. 60. Pro/E. 396. surfaces. 255 Int object snap. 104. 99 JCAD STL export. 252 insert:. 261 Lasso command. set material. 307. OptiCAD. construction planes from 3DM file. 73. 103. 255. FastShip. 307. 60. knot. 14. 41. stereolithography STL. 70. Tebis. 59. 262. 31. 58. one layer on. check out from workgroup license manager. 283. 31. 377 LayerLock command. 62. 72. 264 leader:. management. TekSoft. 15. 168. 73. 262 last point. display density. 253. 59. 32. kink in curve. 62. 55. SURFCAM. 263 Layer command. 253 InsertKnot command. two objects. 10. 261 JPG. 168. 65. 68. 90. 64. 10. 63. SDRC's I-DEAS. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 77. 260. TekSoft IGES. LUSAS. 26. 55. 59 isoparametric curve. 254. Unigraphics. 3D Studio 3DS. 253 InsertKinks command. 56. CamSoft IGES. IronCAD. 61. 15 lathe. 46 IGES:. toolbar from another layout. 258 IntersectCrv command.0 OBJ.0 IGES. 46. 69. 261 JoinSrf command. SUM 4. 322 JScript. 58. 61. 363. arrowhead on curve. 69. 371. 254 InsertKnots command. 260 JoinFaces command. 32. 265 length:. 10. Softimage IGES. 264 length: measure curve. 160. Pro/E IGES. 253 knot. Multisurf. 73. 69. SolidWorks IGES. 140. 2. 264 Left command. 355 layer: change color. 26. SURFCAM IGES. Microstation. CATIA IGES. 53. curve on surface. 61. 263 leader: arrow. ME30 IGES. 366. 71. 130 license:. Solid Designer IGES. rename. 3D Studio MAX 3. 132. 101. 257 InterpPolyline command. 29. Delcam IGES. 258 intersect:. 58. 254 InsertEditPoint command. object snap. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 54. 259. 63. 101. 63. IronCAD IGES. 256 interpolate. purge empty. 63. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. insert in curve. 263. definition. NuGraf IGES. 58. 255. 132. 64. dialog box. AutoShip IGES. remove from curve or surface. 55. 132 isoparm. 3D Studio MAX 3. 71. 103. 78. 425 ini file. 46. Applied Geometry AG. 255. CADCEUS IGES. 42. 307. NASA GridTool. 74 Import command. 168 454 . 67. Delcam. snap to. 91. 74. change to current. Alias IGES. insert on curve or surface. 256. 283. 62. 283. Integrity Ware IGES. 48. definition. 56. Adobe Illustrator AI. 76. 253. 262 lasso selection. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 168. 33. AUTOFORM IGES. 102. CATIA. 68. 81. 71.0 IGES. 70. 56. FastShip IGES. filter display. 338. 67. 160. NASA GridTool IGES. 63. 259 join:. 101. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 41. 312. 377 layer:. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. Mastercam. 251 IncrementalSave command. 160 Invert command. 133 Layer toolbar. 104. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 102. select from list. objects. 59. FastSURF IGES. IGES. 103. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 73. 56. 71. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 251 import:. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. Maya. 71. 253. Tebis IGES. 160. AutoCAD DWG. translate IGES/Rhino. turn off. 258 InvertPt command. set material properties. LUSAS IGES. 367 JPG file format. 81. turn off by selecting an object. Cosmos/M. 60. 59. turn on. select objects by. 53. Solid Designer. 257 intersect: Boolean. 253. 252 information. 343. 46. 56. 78. AutoCAD DXF. 37. 59 InterpCrv command. 119 initial mesh grid. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 152. 53. distance from. Lightwave LWO. match. 70. 377. 167. 260. 312. 261 Join command. 62. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. aliases. 58. 37.0. 104. Maya IGES. 64. 258 intersection. 57. 251. 261 JoinEdge command. 132. 261 JoinMesh command. 251 Improve command. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 101. 61. 254. 152. 101 Layer pane. 121. 33. 425. 57. curve. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 69. Cosmos/M IGES. 307. 262 LayerOff command. 135. 72. 256. 62. 264 left view. 64. wireframe view. 54. Integrity Ware. OptiCAD IGES. 59. 168 license manager.

417 Make2D command. 23. 378. 267. area centroid. clear render mesh for all objects. 266 LineAngle command. 86 lights. seamless. BMRT. 211. 180. 266. 290. 145. 103 locked objects. radius. 294. 145. 270. set properties for layer. 293. 173. 272 LoadScript command. 421 Mastercam file exchange. box. 37 M command. 102. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 342. 266 Line4pts command. 24 menu bar. 255. detailed options. 92. 290. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 74. 74. 288. 281. single line. 288. 345. 283. 334. 261. density for primitives. 86 material:. polyline. 145. select all. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 281 manage: license. 285. 228. 255. 245. 270 LineV command. 75. normal to a surface. 130 map. 273 Logoff command. 290. 284 material: for rendering. 410. 290. extend by. 265 line:. run with middle mouse. 287 Match command. 292. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 265. environment. 333. insert straight segment into curve. tangent to a curve. 88. 420. 357. 288 Merge command. 371. deviation of points and curves from a surface. distance. apply to surface. clear at save time. 225. 251 merge:. 266. from NURBS object. objects. surface. 283 MatchSrf command. 101 manage:. 135. run from external file. set for export. volume. polyline through point objects. 212. 268. 371. 220. 283. 259. 146. 212. axis. 268. 125. 273 lock: a layer. 221. 229. run from shortcut key. unlock locked objects. 365. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 288 Menu command. swap status with unlocked objects. layer attributes. 271 List command. 273. 105. 84. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 288 maximize:. 281 match:. 90 Main toolbar. 261. 269 LineTP command. perpendicular to curve. 334 merge: surface. geometric continuity. 329. area. set for layer. 338. 130 manage layers. 348. 3DFace. plane. texture. 377 Material properties. tangent to two curves. 162. 378 maximize: current viewport. 265. 256. 288 Maya file exchange. 236. 62 ME30 file exchange. 191. 288. 262. 377. 268 Lines toolbar. persistent object snaps. 420. 171. 265. 255. 358. 232. 155. 40. options. deviation between two curves. 265. run from toobar button. 225. two adjacent edges of a surface. select all. 398. 61 MDT IGES options. area moments. 173. 229. 194. volume moments. 213. 179. 328. 156. 334 LineTan command. 131 mass properties. 288 menu:. 326. 420. 292. 284. viewport. 333. 273 Lock command. 338 mapping coordinates. 269. 296 macro. join. 212. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 270. 104. explode. 268. 12. 211. 421 MeasurePoint command. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 191. 268 Lines command. 148. 273 lock:. segments. 349. 192. 396. 41. directional. 140. 273. 267. 273 loft surface. 145. 415 locked layer name. 291. 123. from four points. 240. 421. spotlight. 340. 39. 290. 161. 334 Line4Pt command. Rhino. 333. 187. 270. 155. unlocked objects. definition. 273 Loft command. 421 Measure command. curve curvature. 266. 134. 155. 245. 271. 210. pop up at cursor. export to IGES file. 334. 135. 273. 270 LineTT command. 338. 61 mean curvature. 271 Line command. 330. 38 match: curve ends. clear render mesh. 134 marker definition. 284 MatchLayer command. 281. 415. 337. 340. decrease number of faces. 371. 269. perpendicular to two curves.0 Command Reference Light tab. 267. bisector. 288. 268. 140. 224. 304. cone. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 224. 84. 273 LockOsnap command. 377 maximum curvature. 333. 228 LooseLoft command. 267 LinePerp command. vertical to construction plane. 141. 212. point. create. 60 LWO file exchange. 37 line: at angle from line. 145. 91. toggle display. 339. 293. from closed polyline. 266. 420. 142. 363. 23. reduce density. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. paste script from Clipboard. 265. 272 LoadPlugin command. 455 . 12. 288. run from an alias. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 399. 279 Make2d4View command. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 296. 269. layer. 62 menu: context. snap to. 342. 228 Logout command. 145. 289. 338. 272 list data structure of an object. 194 measure: angle. volume centroid. 329. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 377 Maximize command. bump. 213 measure:. cylinder. 262. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 187. 194 MaxViewport command. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 39. breaking apart. 52. 92. 338. 125. 212. length. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 288 MergeSrf command. 395. 304. 267 LinePP command. 271. 212 LockSwap command. 288 mesh: 3D face. 288 MergeEdge command. set viewport. 268. 371. 294. 270. 304. select naked edges. 232. 348. convert each face to NURBS surface. 239. 328. 286. 33. 123. 296. 141.Rhino 2. 228. 292. 126. 88. 331.

122. 311 OBJ export properties. draw line. and n-directions. 305 notes in Rhino file. improve. export to file. 63 naked edge. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 295. toolbar button. 378. 78. 251. 251. 362. 133. scale and rotate on surface. 298. 302 New command. 295. 385 name. unlock. 425 offset: curve. 296. 132. 3. 204. options. 37 morph target. 79. 311. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 79. 414. definition. 2. 415 object names. 297. 114. 294. 355 NamedCPlane command. 82. 298. 379 Named Colors list. 298. 215. 349. 377. a view. 304. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 297 Mscribe command. 296. 123. 414. 297. 194 Mirror command. 140. 295 MeshToNurb command. 78. 243. 297. 338 OBJ file exchange. 384. group. 84. hide toolbar. 292 MeshCone command. tangent from curve. viewport. 84. read from file. 121. wheel function. 308. 229. 372 non-uniform scale. 296 mirror objects. perpendicular from a curve. surface. unify normals. 12. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 312 mold. 290. v-. 132. viewport. 133. layer. 385. 83. 297. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 2. 80. 93. intersection. 355. 83. 362 named view. 378. 90 Midpoint object snap. 296 minimum curvature. between two points. 82. 79. multiple objects. 216 Moldex command. project to construction plane. 91. objects. snap to a curve. 92. from. 362. 2. export to OBJ. 249. 118 Normal command. 243 456 . 378. 307 Offset command. 261. toggle persistent. 148. 212 object snap:. 379. 309. point. viewport active. 338. an object. reverse direction. objects to new construction plane. 302. 83. 385. 414 NoSnap command. 115. 3. remove flipped. 206. 302 new:. 409 object:. 377. 305. ortho viewport active. disable. 92. 362. 30. center. 323 Microsoft Excel. 343. 103. 81. 322. 81. 306. 296 Metastream file export. 296 minimize:. 82. 64 NURBS. 348. 251. 298 NamedViews command. 79. 134. 423 mesh:. 135. 296 move:. export to IGES. 293. 123. 363. save named construction plane. 304. 80. 12 None command. 385. 423. 132. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 304 NextViewportToTop command. show toolbar. 132. 249. 33. 298. show hidden. 298 NamedView command. 290 Mesh toolbar. 292. 132. perspective viewport active. 385. 103. midpoint. 304 normal:. 141. 212. 80.Rhino 2. 338. 121. 305 offset:. 293. 295. 75 named construction planes. 305 N-sided patch. 302 next. 304. 78 Notes command. surface control points in u-. 338. toolbar button. export to RIB. 120. 171. 294 MeshPolyline command. off construction plane. 79. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 229 Microstation file exchange. 294 MeshSphere command. 302. set persistent. 421 Moray UDO file export. viewport to top. 140. set mesh the same. 80. 52. 41. 309. 90. 234. 229. 147. 338. 296. 296. 63 Near object snap.0 Command Reference sphere. 215. scale and rotate. surface display. 303. 424 Mesh command. save. 80. toolbar. 302 NewViewport command. lock. pull direction. restore. restore. 46 Moldex DXF file export. construction point through point. parameterization. 2. tangent to a curve. 90 move: background bitmap. parting line. 35 object snap: along. 303. 78. 183. 62 middle mouse button function. surface. 113. 120. toolbar. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 366 normal: definition. 92. 82. 349. 84. 343. near. 305. 4. 415. 309. 131 NoElev option. 212. 292 MeshCylinder command. 423 MeshBox command. 387. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 304. 384. perpendicular to a curve. to move objects. 212. 303 NextU command. 205. set for single object. 343. 371. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 363. 30. 387. 303 NextV command. 306 OffsetSrf command. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 81. knot. view. export to. 80. 84. 79. 348. 379. 292. 117. 297. display. 4. move control points. 297 MoveUVN command. 79 minimize: Rhino. 243. on surface. 146. 363 name:. 78. edit. 141. 141 mouse. 113. 81. read from file. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. quadrant. 82. 343. 135. 296 modeling aids. 298 new: file. 251. 145. 290. 229. 85. 311. options. 297 MoveTrace command. 12. 132 O command. object to align with curve. 303 NextViewport command. end. 203. definition. 294. 355. 293 MeshPlane command. set for multiple objects. set properties. 79 NetworkSrf command. 409. 317 nudge. 92. 302. 261. 379. 304 node. 183. 81. reparameterize. 425. 296 Minimize command. weld. 298. 84. turn off. 297. 378 object properties. 46 moments. 293 MeshDensity command. show. 355. 37 object: description. 122 Move command. 308. 243. 84. 306. 35. 414. 79. construction planes through a point. 338. 414.

308 orient objects. place at end of curve. 281. 351. 326. 174 parameterization. 322. 366. 3DS MAX 2. 90. 339. 327 Point command. 90. 326. control polygon appearance. turn on or off. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 133. 206 PlanarSrf command. press shift to toggle.5. 28. 218. 308. 96 options:. 323. 92. 92. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 379. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 329. up. 325. 92. 322. 88. 325 Pline command. 96. 200. 314 Pan command. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 133 Osnap command. 96. 316. lock to axis. target location. on surface from UV coordinates. 2. 322. 379. troublshooting.set. developers. 313 PanRight command. 323 Pa. 324. 96. background bitmap. change interface appearance. 338. 92. object snap radius. left. ortho angle. 379. 84 open: file. 68 PictureFrame command. 97. surface. 339 POffSelected command. 96. 94. 375. 92. 28. 313 Pan:. 290. 92. 94. 317 pause digitizer input. pan distance. 339 point: control. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 313. 330. objects from the clipboard. 131. 290 Organic toolbar. 320 Pipe command. 326 Point object snap. 307 open:. 3DS MAX 2. 90. 84 OneLayerOff command. 88. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 281. 29. 94. 5. 363. 130. 92. 307 OneLayerOn command. place at start of curve. shortcuts. 188 point cloud. 96. 351. 200. 425 Orient. 68. 133 PanLeft command. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 93. trackball motion. 323 planar mode. 321. 96. 133. select all. use for shade. 94. to curve. 119. about. click ortho pane to toggle. no-repeat commands. 64 options: aliases. 314 parabolic curve. 281. digitize. 172. 311 ortho mode. Planar. 311. 2. 5. from three points. 12. saved toolbar layout. Files tab. options. 308 Orient command. 88. 90. 272. Keyboard tab. 220. 27. middle mouse button function. redraw speed. 387 paste. 323. 88. 133. 90. 309. 324 Plane toolbar. 323 Plan command. 2. 101. 318. 307 OnSrf object snap. 262. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 130. shortcuts. 386. 367 pe_tol. undo number. startup commands. isoparm density. right. 206. 330. 133. 321. select method. 96. manager. 98. 325 plug-ins. Ortho. 78 Osnap:. 333 PluginManager command. polygon mesh. 133. toolbar. 324 Plane3Pts command. make surface periodic. set. toggle. 311 Ortho command. 131 pedge.2. Modeling Aids tab. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 258. 328. set. 2. load. 314 PanDown command. Shade tab. trim options. Softimage. 133. 68 PNG file format. options. 326. camera and target location. 82 PerpLine command. 324 plane: cut through objects. 312 Osnap: pane. 314 parabola. 254. 3DS MAX 1. make surface non-periodic. 133 Perp object snap. detailed polygon mesh. 92. 133. shortcut keys. Layer. by three points. 325 plane:. 313. shade. 322 PlaceTarget command. Appearance tab. 92. 90. 314 Parabola command. 422 Point filters. 323 Planar command. 2. 307. place one. 96. 308 OpenWS command. set angle. 325 Plane3Pt command. 312 PageDown key. 253. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 92. 330 457 . View tab. 366. 176 PCX file format. 325. 90. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. Snap. 339. 323 planar section. 312. 205 pause for user input in script. 426 OpenGL:. 4. 367 POff command. 309 OrientOnSrf command. snap increment. 80 Perpendicular line. 130. 90. 316. toggle. 27. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. make curve periodic. 133. 90. grid of. 133.Rhino 2. 92. 320 place. 373. 376. 290. 95. 88. 90. 376. 374. 2 Patch command. 92. 92. 246. 94. 309. Osnap. toggle. 133 P command. 318. 373. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 318 Perspective command. file locations. 2. 200. 281. 249. curve. 96. nudge increment. 312. 190. 98 Options command. 309. 133 OrthoAngle command. 313. 88. 324. 327. 325. 313 PanUp command. 308 Options dialog box. 2 PackTextures command. 2 Pan: down. 79 point objects. 313. 329. 98. place multiple. options. create curve from. 2. 224. fit through points. 311. 373 Point toolbar. 38 parting line. 187. 330. 311. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 308 OpenGL: toggle.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 311 Orient3Pt command. 131 periodic. 307. 29. 133. 379 Ortho pane. 313 Panes. 272. 90. 90. 325 Plane command. 318 perspective view. 40 perspective angle . 213. General tab. 94. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 101. 4. Aliases tab. 253. view. on a surface. 325 PlaneV command. 363. autosave. 92.0. 119 Open command. 88. 318 PConic command.

plane. object. 136. 294. 338. 228 quinitics. 334 Polyline command. 259. 343. 332 PolygonEdge command. 339. 292. 303. knot. 337. 337 ProjCP command.Rhino 2. 296. inscribed. 10. 333. 378. from NURBS object. 339 PointTest command. hide edit and control. 138. draw on mesh. select all. material. add next in v-direction to selection. 344 RebuildSrf command. to Clipboard. 50 Quit command. 12. 68 POn command. apply to surface. 327 PointDeviation command. 137. 86. 136. 197. 190. 68. 353 previous viewport. 254. 414. 86 Properties Text tab. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 339 pull curve to surface. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 35. 340 QRender command. 333 polyline:. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 335. 331 polygon mesh. explode. 343. invert selection. 19. 425. 344 recent commands list display. 249. 235. 338 Projection command. 338 project: curve to surface. 330 PointsFromUV command. clear render mesh. 41 read. 21. 338 properties. 340 radius:. 257. 336 print. 371. 413 Points command. 345 Rebuild command. 291. 340 rail revolve. 150 polar coordinates. create from control points. 135. convert each face to NURBS surface. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 334 PostScript file export. 290. 293. 290. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 85. from edge. 10. 202. hide back. 349. 366. 366 PrintSetup command. select naked edges. density for primitives. 386. 420 Properties command. interpolate curve through. select object to turn off. 353. 414. 340 Radius command. 19. 87. set normals the same. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 85 Properties Material tab. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 292. to file. 249. control points. show edit and control. 259. 331 Polygon command. viewport layout from file. 259. clear render mesh for all objects. relative. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 343. 235. 381 QRender1 command. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 209. 335. 372. twist. 296. 338 Project command. render using OpenGL shade. export to file. box. 64. 361. 229. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 425 PtOff command. 361. render mesh. 330 PointsOff command. 367. image of model. notes. named views from a 3DM file. 420. select with lasso. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 338. 40. 86. 331. 339 Pull command. 303. 333. 372 Polytrans. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 131. render. 121. 36. 339 PointsOn command. 209. edit points. from closed polyline. 340 RailRev command. 254. 2 PrevU command. show control. 339 PtOffSelected command. 257. 187. 135. 171. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 339 purge empty layers. 229. grid. 332 polygon:. 337 project:. 202. 3D face. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 386. through point objects. 141. 423. 328 PointGrid command. 220. toolbar. 343 rebuild:. 137. viewport. 343. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 382 QRenderAll command. 344. 290. 343. 295. 123 Proj command. weld. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 188 PointCloudSection command. 261. 344 RebuildEdges command. 349. 293. 41 POV-Ray file export. 329 PointLight command. join. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 334 PopupToolbar command. 294. 12. 331. 332. select all. select connected. 262. 293. 303. 334. options. 35. 18. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 340 RailRevolve command. 17. 138. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 295. 330 points:. 382 Quad object snap. 335. 229. 223 PolarSphere command. document. 220. 337. select previous in v-direction. 339. cylinder. 179. select next in u-direction. cone. 331. 259. 141. 343 rebuild: curve. surface. 339 PtOn command. 87 properties:. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 229. 336. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 65 program toolbar functions. 19. draw. 328 polar array. 335 PrevV command. 190. measure. objects to construction plane. 379 preview. select next in v-direction. display information about an object. explode. 372. coordinate points. sphere. 344. 368. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 338. 423 Polygon toolbar. 294. 412. 197. absolute. delete control on curve. 136. 371. 339 PopupMenu command. add previous in u-direction to selection. select previous in u-direction. 228 radius: dimension. 337 Print command. add previous in v-direction to selection. 90 458 . 12.0 Command Reference point:. 179. named construction planes from file. 261. 335 PrevViewport command. 424. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 339. 171. 81 QueryDomain command. 260. 334 polysurface. 121. 368. join. Polytrans Softimage translation. 333. 262. 292. 19. 64.

338. 171. highlight. 355 revolved surface. Rhino 1. 346 RectangleCen command. 361. 358. 181.0. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. options. 4. 126. 324. trim curve from surface. 39. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 357 rotate view. toolbar. 398. 96. 355. 3. clear render mesh for all objects. 340 Revolve command. textures. mesh settings. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 2. 355. right. 363. 349 relative coordinates. 379 RenderOptions command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 359 RotateCPlane command. named construction plane. 353 RenderCurves command. 348. corner. 1. 346. 1 Rhino. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 391 SAT file export. 355 revolve:. 351 RemoveKnot command. 352 RenderCrv command. image in the render window. 359. 347 redo: last undone command. edges of polygon meshes. 359. 25. 25 Rhino web page. 353 RenderEdges command. shine. 351 RemoveTrace command. 345. 459 . 19. 338. 354 repeat command exclude list. view continuously. 361 S command. curves. 356 RevV command. scale and move on surface. 325 RectCen command. 340. 39. 30. 338. 352. 148 rectangular surface. 356 Right command. clearing render meshes. 412 Rotate3D command. 94 RIB file export. file. 3. 351. move and scale. 119 Rhinoceros. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 354. 352. 5. 172. 4. 5. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. save image in render window. 360. 353. 346. 2. button image to file. 183 Restore command. 133 right view. 308. preview using OpenGL shade. 1 RhinoScript options. 183. 2. from three points. 99 Render toolbar. 120. 358 RotateCamera command. 181. 338 Ribbon command. 412 Rotate command. Front construction plane. 357. 362. 121 render: BMRT. 355. 125. 2. view change. 3. 353. 352 render plug-in application: options. 75 Rhino 1. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 252. 360 RotateUp command. file to a different file name or file type.ini. 356 RGB color. 348. up. 346. 4. 429 RedoMultiple command. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 251. materials. 347 rectangular array. 348 ReduceMesh command. 351. 347 rectangle:. 309. command aliases. 429 Redo command. 346 RectV command. a surface. 363. 96. 360 Rule command. 324.0 file exchange. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. named view. 90 reshape a toolbar. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 120 restore: current viewport size. 2. copy to Clipboard. 346 RectangleV command.0 Command Reference Rect command. bumpmaps. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 3.Rhino 2. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 288. 353. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. create background image. 355 RestoreView command. 203. length and width. 24. 360. 30 save: as small file. down. 40. 338 Render command. an object. 4. 360. 320. 181. 357 right-click menu. ii roll out a surface. place lights. 382. 4. 348 Redo command shortcut. 3. 416 rotate: construction plane. 2 redo:. vertical to construction plane. objects. 345 Rect3Pt command. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 10. 120. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 355 RevU command. 348 refit a curve. 346. 360 rotate:. 20 render problems. objects in 3D space. 273 ruled surface. surface using rail curve. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 352. 203. named construction plane. 103. 19. 357 right mouse button. 355 restore:. 241 RefreshShade command. vertical. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 308. 360 RotateRight command. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 24. 363. 309. 288. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 4. 346 rectangle: center. transparency. 398. 181. 152. 347 Rectangle command. 352 rename. 39. 338. layer. background bitmap. 355 Rev command. 378. 103. 349 remove. 363. 171. left. through three points. 353 RenderPreview command. why the name. curve knots. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 171. 353. 338. autosave. 360 Run command. 30. 320. 425 render:. 3. 354 reparameterize. 359 RotateDown command. 309. edges. wallpaper. 324. 172. 2. Top construction plane. 39. 358. 352. 360. close render window. 381. 351 RemoveKnots command. 338. 325. 360 RunScript command. 360 RotateLeft command. sequentially numbered versions of model. 355. Rhino from being minimized. 363. 349 RemapCPlane command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 360 RotateView command. 354. object from selection. 338. 357. named view. 363. 362. 351. 2. 230. 353.

172. 415. 90. 365. 371 SelName command. 371. distance between grid lines. 366 ScaleTrace command. 373. 103. spotlights. current layer. 370 SelLayer command. 335. 136. 339. 137. 377. 309. next control point in v-direction. objects to unlock. 262. 366. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. invert point selection. 369 SelCrvs command. add previous control point in u-direction. 372 SelPolylines command. 370. 365. 368 SelectConnected command. construction plane to previously used. invert. 377. digitizing scale. 372. 362. 137. 373. 181. construction plane vertical. 361. 182. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 373 SelUV command. 370 SelDups command. 370. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 383. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 136. 375. 365 screen capture. 252. 365. 369 SelCrv command. 67 Sect command. 372 SelGroup command. 138. 262. 246. 368. 184. 373. 364. 367. 309. 369. 368. 362 save:.0 Command Reference shortcut. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 303. points objects. 371. 366. 363 Save command. with crossing window. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. surfaces. 366.Rhino 2. 372. move and rotate. 376. previous control point in vdirection. 363 SaveWS command. 383. 371. JScript. 373. 259. construction plane with 3 points. 181. layers from list. 24. 368. 361 save template. construction plane to zaxis. toolbar layout. 363 SaveSmall command. 125. 376 set: active viewport by name. 362. 371. construction plane to view. 178. with a window. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 366 scale:. 371. 368. 366. 373 SelSrfs command. 335. row of control points in udirection. 369 SelCurve command. by object ID. 369. 354. polysurfaces. 372. 369 SelDim command. 181. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 136. 24 SelectLayer command. 371 SelLights command. 335. 129 scripting tools. 363. front construction plane. construction plane origins to a point. 367. add previous control point in v-direction. 367. 372 SelPoint command. duplicate objects. meshes. 373 SelU command. objects to shade. 371 SelMesh command. 372. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 138. 379. 308. 367 SelBadObjects command. 126. 373 select:. deselect all objects. objects. objects in one direction. 366. 370 SelID command. 363 SaveView command. construction plane to next used. 367 section curves. 376. construction plane origin. 367 SelAll command. curves. 262. 184. lasso. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 373 SelPts command. 183. 137. 303. 373 SelPolyline command. 25. 374 SelV command. 364. dimensions. 2. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. control polygon display density. 372 SelSrf command. 246. 262. 372 SelSolids command. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 374. 90 Select Color dialog box. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 75 Select Points toolbar. add next control point in v-direction. by layer. in shaded viewport. to file in 256 colors. all objects. maximized viewport by name. 368 SelCrossing command. 375. 152. 365 ScaleNU command. 372. 308. 373 SelSurfaces command. to Clipboard. 184. rows and columns of control points on surface. 258. 372. 182. objects in two dimensions. 303. 363 SaveWSAs command. 371 SelLight command. 182. 372 SelPrev command. 339. 125. 364. 368 SelColor command. objects uniformly. 50. 50. rotate and move on surface. 370. objects by layer number. 367 Section command. 372 SelNone command. 373 SelSurface command. 370. VBScript. 371. 373 SelSolid command. IGES. 258. 369 SelCurves command. 230. 25. 370 SelLast command. 373. template. 51. 376. connected points. polylines. 363 scale: background bitmap. previous control point in udirection. 364 Scale2D command. 136. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 367 screen:. coordinates of points. 24. 335. 383. 246. bad objects. 288. 375 SelWindow command. 460 . 373 SelPt command. extents of grid. 138. 370. 371 SelectName command. 258. 206. 363. 354. subparts of objects. 369. 183. to file. 309 Scale command. 368 SelectID command. 362 SaveCPlane command. 369. 126. construction plane to object. next control point in u-direction. 103. toolbar layout as different name. 184. 375 Select toolbar. 364. 366 Scale1D command. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 368 SelConnected command. 364 Scale toolbar. objects for render preview. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 365. 303. 370 SelDup command. objects by name. 25. objects instead of control points. 259. 126 scripting:. 371 SelMeshes command. objects non-uniformly. construction plane to x axis. 370 selection menu. 367. with mouse method. 374. 374. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 363 SaveAs command.

79. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 383. 184. 2. options. 337. options. vertical. 184. 5. 380 Settings command. 206. scripting tools. 140. 23. 181. to the intersection of two curves. 386 ShowPt command. 380 SetGroupName command. 184. 381. 76. 245 ShowMenu command. 182. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 84. 119. 178. selected objects. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 183. printer. 21 Shear command. 385 ShowPoints command. continuous shaded mode. top construction plane. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. to the end of a curve. 376. 381 set construction plane. 206. 386 Silhouette command. 120. 182. 23. 183. bitmap in a separate window. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 82. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. to a point object. by key. 390 snap: along a line. 379 SetPts command. x-axis. curve on polygon mesh. 241. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 318. 389 Sketch command. to previously used. with no smoothing on mesh. 261. 339 ShowEdges command. 376 SetGridSnap command. viewports. 78. 379 SetOrtho command. 382. to the midpoint of a curve. 81. 218. to a knot. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. Osnap toolbar. OpenGL. 391. to surface isoparm. 261. Top. 381. 173 ShowCV command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. continuous in perspective view. curve with digitizer. 84. 359. pane. 84. 425 Shade1 command. 78. 98. 220. 94. 377. 212. 337. 384. 426 ShowAll command. to next used. 298. 78 461 . 80. 322. 183. 244. on surface. 92. 388. 339. 81. 318. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 378 SetObjectName command. turn off object snaps. 386. 386 ShowPts command. 220 ShowGrid command. along a line tangent to a curve. 5. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 264. 98. display context menu. 80. 181. 388 sketch:. 184. to construction plane. 242. 183. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 81. 218. 409. from a point. 92. 381 shade: continuous. perpendicular to a curve. 242. 183. 384. 125. 377 SetHotspot command. selected hidden objects. change size. 386. 79. perspective angle. hidden control points. 133. grid. to the view. 384 show:. 242. tangent to a curve. 82. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 79. z-buffer. 338 shortcuts. flat in all viewports. selected objects in all viewports. 380. 400 ShowTitle command. 250. 183. 119.Rhino 2. 382. 242. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 392. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. control points. 355. 206. 385. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. with wireframe. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 241. object. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. flat in one viewport. hidden objects. broken edges. with grid. 182. 181. spotlight hotspot. 119 ShowToolbox command. edges of surface or polysurface. working directory. 426 Show command.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 425 Shade command. 42 SLC file exchange. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 96. 207 SetSnap command. 246. 2. 183. 339. 78. 298. 182. 2. 382. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 184. 379 SetPt command. to the center of a circle. 383 ShadedViewport command. 355. 218. 250. 379. 183. 323. 183. 383. 162. 212. toolbar. 389 skinning. 2. flat with grid. 383 ShadeSelected command. near a curve. 318. onto a curve. 95. 4 Shift+PageDown. 5 shine in rendering. 77. 384. 246. 94. in all viewports. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 381 shade:. to an object. 273 SLA export. 389. shortcuts. 382. 80. 383 shear objects. 94. 409 ShowToolbar command. 363. 362 Set View toolbar. 2. project object snaps to construction plane. 94. 376 SetGLShade command. 386. 246. 383 shadow. 343. 357. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 386 ShowStatusBar command. midway between two points. 78. 385 ShowGrev command. edit points. 241. 385. 385. 3. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. built-in aliases. 388. 384 ShowCamera command. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 409 set:. 119 ShowTrace command. 382 ShadeAll command. 125 show: background bitmap. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. z-axis. 318 SetPlanar command. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 2. 382 shaded display. 386 ShowSelected command. 3 Points. toggle object snaps. 383. 153. 74. to a surface. 384. 92. 250 SetLayer command. 184. 83. 5 Shift+PageUp. right construction plane. 383 ShadeOptions command. 181. 220. 385 ShowOsnap command. 79. 385. toggle OpenGL mode. 383 Shift key. 387 silhouette curves. 76. 84. Right. naked edges. keys. 387 sketch: curve. 390 smooth curve or surface. 42 Smooth command. 376. handlebars. 376. by function. 381 SetActiveViewport command.

317. 414. 426. 162. 307. extrude. 320. 339. 133. 395. plane vertical to construction plane. 406. from grid of control points. 413. 324. 398 spreadsheet. 132. toolbar. 189 SrfMatch command. 421. 307. 2. surface at isoparms. from heightfield bitmap. 355. 160. 126 Stretch command. 166. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 234. 306. tolerance. 385. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 398. rule. baseball sphere. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 240. 324. 19. 377. 173. 224. 352. X_T file export. 162. 229. 237. X_T file export. 229. 417. 238. skin. 281. from planar curves. 166. 216. 273. 236. 243 Surface toolbar. 173. 236. 356. panes. 157. viewport horizontally. 165. 166. 92. 240 solid:. 192 Surface menu. 317. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 393 Sphere2Pt. shortcuts. 36. 158. 229. offset. 400 STEP file exchange. 324. 88. 2. 38. 399. 236. 192. 238. 250. 247. tube. 344. make periodic. 395 split:. 320. 399 SrfPoints command. 273. 360. 398. patch. 84 snap:. 69. 399 SrfPts command. 114. 189. 411. 361. 392. 223. 200.0 Command Reference Snap command. file exchange. 161. 373. extrude curve to point. match. 426 462 . 218. 5. 82. 160. 165. 182. 154. 69 Solid Edge. 189. 400 StatusBar command. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 430 startup commands.Rhino 2. 163. 423 STL:. 317. 228. 373. 281. 348. 396 SplitSrf command. 398. pipe. 417. turn on or off. 392. ellipsoid. 249. 281. 2. 371 Spotlight command. 385. 133. 393 Spiral command. 68 Softimage plug-in. 42. 218. 411 SolidWorks. 79. 251. 203. 70. 398 SrfCV command. rebuild. 364 SubCrv command. 386. 236. 391. extend. 409 SnapSize command. 416. 354. 163. Booleans. by diameter. 399 SrfPt command. 81. 417 surface:. 42 Stereograms. 173. 236. plane from three points. mean curvature. 84 Softimage file exchange. draw curve through control points. 132. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 273. 286. 380. 96. 410. 393 sphere:. 229 SrfAlign command. 421. 223. 233. 392. 78. 344. 162. sweep along path. 344. 217. 277. 355. 198. 153. 243. 250. 334 spacebar. create. 372. 395. 372. 133 sphere. 238. 233. 406. from grid of points. 395. 321. 38. develop. 402. 263. 70. 386. 104. comma-delimited file export. 392 SnapToLocked command. 381. export object properties to. 201. 192. 163. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. hide backfacing control points. 192. 288. 160 summary information. loft. 409. 35. cutting plane. 69. select all. 171. 160. 428. 391. 325. 223. change degree. 309 SrfBlend command. 153. 84. 157. 35. 398 spotlight:. 42 StopScript command. periodic. 288. 113. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 15. box. 371. 255 split: edge of a surface. 426 surface analysis:. 401. 399. 298. 90. 277. truncated cone. 273. 429. 238. 398. 290. create fillet between. 399. 101. trim. 16. 216. 397 SplitEdge command. reverse direction. 417. cylinder. display. 394 spline. select all. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 80. 393 SphereD command. blend. 306. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 164. from curve network. 218. Boolean intersection. 396. 262. 402. 396. 399 SrfSum command. 287. torus. 340. 396. viewport vertically. 42. 200. 284. 38 Solid toolbar. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 366. 372. 289. 159. 382. 397 Split command. 10. 192. box from three points. 118. 240. 247. split. 340. 241. 396. 330. 401. drape. polygon mesh. 398. cap planar ends. 288. chamfer. extract from polysurface. 320. 164. 201. 240. IGES file exchange. untrim. 393. 242. 284. 328. 68 solid: Boolean difference. turn on or off. 406. 410. reparameterize. 165. cone. merge. 399. 238. 157. 114. 325. 317. 273. 15. 115. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 278. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 76. 243. 407. toggle. sweep two rails. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 133. 324. 426 STL: ascii tag. 398. 354. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 316. 238. developable. 400 SubCurve command. extrude into solid. 298. maximum radius of curvature. from 3 or 4 curves. 251. 392. IGES file exchange. 307. create variable radius fillet between. 284. 288 SrfPointGrid command. make nonperiodic. 295. minimum radius of curvature. 392. 135. extrude curve along path. 285. 279. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 393. 395. 233. from three points. 238 Standard toolbar. unroll. from 3 or 4 points. 393 Sphere2Pts. 416. 306. 83. center. 161. 367. 201. 38 SortPoints command. 391 snap mode. 90 status bar. 105 surface normal. 3. 94. 10. 384. revolved. 324. 161. 160. 275. 400. 22 support. 180. 202. 391. 284 SrfMerge command. 276. 302. 92. hotspot. 249. 338. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 261. 397. 281. 277. 190. 401. 164. 392 Sphere toolbar. 295 Sphere command. 1. 313. plane. 190. 410. 392. 361. 247. 133. one object with another. 416. 4. 380. 288. 133. Boolean union. select all. for rendering. 103. 298. 216. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 153. 380 snap to locked objects.

Curve From Object. 195. 328. 121. display viewport. 399. 226. 382. 121. 187. 308. 288. 271. 143. 391. 293. 389. 324. 205. 409 TogglePerspective command. model size. 292. 164. 352. 134. 407 text:. ortho. 123. 363. IGES export. 153. 235. 420. 218. save. hide toolbar. 157. 320.Rhino 2. open toolbar. 265. 90. 409. 119. 192. 78. 360. 407. 342. 220. 92. 383. 123. grid axes on or off. 201. 142. 120. relative. 305. 270. 185. 413. 94. 338. 156. 425 Toggle34View command. 425. 124. 82 tangent line. along path. 412. float toolbar. 406. 284. 39. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 221. 245. Curve. CPlane View. 189. 172. 182. 140. clear the bitmap image. 409 title bar. 154. 279. 3-D Digitize. 148. 463 . 198. 370. 408 Text command. 401. 120 ToggleToolbox command. save layout as different name. 156. 40. 230. 80 TanFrom object snap. 409. 405. 236. edit. 150. 409 toolbar layout. 422. 358. copy. 345. 248. 239. surface u and v. display of command prompt. 169. 379. 325. 404 Sweep1 command. 165. 168. 206. 125. 123. toolbar on and off. 143. 185. 210. 405 target. 302. 229. clear button image. 379. 125. 409 toggle. 122. 197. 120. 233. capture button image. 426. 402. 1. 163. 51. edit button image. 163. 323. 125. 216. 246. 145. 263. 168. 120. 387. 15. 356. 165. 343. 88. 334. save button image to file. display program. 223. capture icon. 224. crosshairs on and off. edit 2-dimensional. 23. 173. Analyze. 203. 207. 240. 392. 346. 140. 363. 407. 409. 302. Ellipse. 359. 352. 377. 357. 228. pop up with middle mouse. open. 379. 203. 209. 223. 374. 119. float icon to top of cascade. 353. 204. 50. 170. 384. 338. 344. 151. 353. 409. 416. 121. 309. 73 template. 148. 269 TanLine command. 83. 255. 152. 171. control polygon display. Array. 369. 210. 120. 123. 256. angle. 353. 184. 389. BMRT Lights toolbar. 333. 121. 124. 121. 241. 409. 222. 119. 124. persistent object snaps. 189. 298. 409. 221. programming. 249. 121. 340. 120. 122. 330. 400 SwapView command. 256. 178. 363. 243. 121. 337. 400. 122. 125 Toolbar command. planar curves. display of status bar. 385. 72 technical support. 232. 273. 336. Annotate. 245. 323 TCone command. 171. 198. 231. 351. 373. 215. 195. 366. 187. 217. 179. 362 text: annotation dot. 212. 323. Arc. 216. 414. 151. 222. 297. 177. 392. 262. 185. 122. delete toolbar. 401. new file. scaled size. 125. 395. 249. 144. 149. 409. 192. 247. 306. Box. 407. 330. 166. 197. 134. move button. 386. scripting. 216. Curve Tools. 402 Sxtrd command. 139. 294. 144. 173. 162. properties. 120. import from another layout. 39. dragging based on view plane. 390. 205. 173. dock. 265. 351. 122. 204. 288. 362. 90. 81. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 13. 119. 14 Tan object snap. 174. 71 Swap. 239. 251. 230. 400 SwapUV command. 375. 96. 316. 141. 269. 367. 407 Texture command. 122. 387. import button image. 257. 365. 362. 39. 180. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. edit bitmap icon. 210. display of viewport title. 347. world axes on or off. 124. set viewport. 170. 409 TiltRight command. 398. move. 269 Taper command. 122. 363. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 218. 344. 121. show toolbar. 394. rendering of curves. 267. 423. 15. 244. Background Bitmap. 400. 337. 264. 311. 368. ortho mode. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. left. 402. 124. 388. 321. 238. 120. new button. right. 330. 390. 213. 90. viewport title. 395. 364. 215.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 22. 200. 420 Title command. 419. 420. 281. 409 TiltLeft command. new toolbar. 120. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 101. 120 tolerance. 295. 236. 408. 162. 407. 242. 385. 122. 303. 121. 138. 135. 339. tear off flyout. 207. cascade. 410. 253. copy button. 430. 330. Dimensions. move toolbar. 400. create cascading toolbar. 420. 208. 283. unlink flyout. 381. 80. 366. 400 sweep. 340. 409. 288. 248. 322. 245. display of title bar. two rails. 401. 368. 168. 187. 104. 235. 279. 338. 349. 288. 311. 3-D Digitizing. 161. 332. edit annotation. 260. Extend. 245. 123. 322. 84. 259. 272. 226. surfaces. 152. 409. 313. 281. 241. 363. close. 139. 255. 79. 190. 379. 174. 231. 353. perspective view on and off. 296. 429. 220. change. change button size. 384. 122. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 331. 183. 137. 258. 179. 311. 209. 212. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 217. 290. grid on and off. change name. file location. 135. 260. 417. 120. 307. 396. 305. reshape toolbar. 5. 221. 194. 230. 323. 288. 335. 168. 420. 208. 409. 82. 401 Sweep2 command. 155. 367 Thaw command. 142. display of menu bar. 254. 164. BMRT Materials. 355. rename toolbar. menu bar. 403. 120. 255. 215. 90. 372. 261. rendering of edges. 385. 361. 124. status bar on or off. 234. delete button. 257. 384. 103. save. 123 Toolbars. 181. viewports. control polygon highlight. 404 TAB key. 258. 162. 272. 387. 178. 220. 339. 317. 338 texture for rendering. 123. 407. 149. 134 TGA file format. 391. 22 toolbar buttons. planar mode. 326. 415 tilt view. 352. 322. toggle toolbar on and off. 119. 409. 51. 206. 308. 266. 400. 141. 338 ToggleToolbar command. solids. 425. 124. 179. 22. 368. 215. 415. 371. 419. 348. 400. 308. snap mode. 160. 232. 323. 169. 365. Edge Tools. 367. 150. 302. 245. 120. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 388. 19. 396. save. 407 TextObject command. 268. 124. 136. Circle. 407. 90. 397. 428. 221. 420. 167. 343. Diagnostics. 177. 135. 411. 321. definition. hide flyout. 404. 421. 297. title bar on or off. 393. 323. 304. 220. 318.

90. 365. Point. 16. Scale2D command. 349. 367. 358. 2. 203. 262. 413. 94. 365. 2 Torus command. 303. 383. 357. 220. 413 u-direction: move control points. 423. Booleans. 400. 356. 247. 369. 374. 238. 339. POV Materials. 337. 412 U command. 410 TraceBitmap command. grid axes. 384. 153. 396. 307. 240. 155. grid. 338. redo. 363. 339. 333. 349. 90. 218. 265. 229. 172. 379. Select. 296. 164. 338. 153. 263. File. 412 transform:. 148. 316. 153. 365. 261. 317. 385. 318. 412 Twist command. Mass Properties. 390. 213. 82. 245. 173. 386. 372. 355. 361. 381. 94. 377. Move command. 352. 48. 208. 168. 258. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 345. 249. 342. along a line tangent to a curve. 386. 357. 243. 263. Taper command. Surface Tools. 337. 326. 236. 339. 299. 428. 105. OrientOnSrf command. 142. Point Editing. 266. Lines. 386. 342. 256. 309. 251. 294. 368. 255. Plane. 218. 355. 382. Main. menu bar. 229. IGES export type details. Set View. 413. 330. 244. 214. 409. 137. 81. 2. 259. 41. 138. 336. 182. 346. 401. 373. 273. 414. 236. 409. 221. SetPt command. 261. shortcut. 251. 420. 364. 150. 400. 236. 96. 229. 162. 383. 330. 140. 249. Orient command. 219. view change. 179. 379. 339. Flow command. 92. 133. 409 Tools toolbar. 324. 321. Smooth command. 338. 407. Rotate command. 356 u-direction:. 172. 136. 398. 262. Solid. 103. 82. 374. 338. 296. 414 UndoSelected command. 352. 288. 296. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 365. 423. options. 323. layer. 145. 251. 370. 410. 249. 267. command. RemapCPlane command. 415 units systems. 171. 90. 88. 148. 416 UnGhost command. 357. 412. 405. 313. control points. 412. Solid Tools. 358. 399. 229. 82. Visibility. 92. Viewport Layout. 275. 391. 417. 332. 184. Rectangle. 364. 244. 141. 140. 425. Standard. 233. shortcuts. 258. 429 UndoMultiple command. 338. 343. 398. 375. 152. 79. 322. 295. 425. 148. 358. 328. 161. 154. Boolean. 180. 383. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 271. 236. Microscribe. 245. Render. 262. 296. 173. Transform. 334. 397. 140. 223. 173. 321. 304. 424. 392. Geometry Fix. 427. 413. 96. 15 Units command. 341. 309. 333. reverse. 206. 104. 330. 409. 103. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. layer. 403. 355. 363. 50. world axes. 48. 382. 386. Scale command. 244. 409. 366. Extrude. 19. 123 464 . 263. OrientPerpToCrv command. 390. 241. 165. 78. 367. 83. 167. 339. 426 Turntable command. 307. 228. 349. Object Snap. 417. 273. 2. 358. 373. 363. 399. 210. 384. 173. Scale. 236. 335. 212. 263. 429. 405. 180. 1. 296. 254. 283. 392. 108. 414. control points on selected objects. 173. 203. 405. 246. 238. 366. 366. 362. 398. pop up at cursor. 296. POV Lights. 148. 300. 229. 416. 321 track. menu bar. 154. Tools. grid. 51. 180. 174. 420. in text. 357. 151. 259. 92. 377. control points. IGES export file types. 242. 253. 290. 293. 311. 364. 201. 429. 101. 49. Organic. 356. IGES. 298. 276. 396. 309. 384. 154. 348. 142. 183. 224. 245. 240. along a line. 307. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 220. 243. 203. 361. 317. 348. 263. 410. 73 union. 351. 395. 390. 208. 216. 83. 348. 318. 309. 411 turn off. 161. 260. layers. 172. ArrayCrv command. 15 truncated cone. OpenGL. world axes. 288. 409 top view. Twist command. 269. 404. 308. 361. 249. 134. 161 unit systems. 412 transparency in rendering. 229. 409. trimmed surfaces. 239. 263. command line. all layers. command line. 245. 148. 131 transform: Array command. Select Points. Mesh. 421. 326. Surface. 359. 153. 154. 372. 348. 406 Tube command. 309. 180. 203 trimmed surfaces. 345. 349. 288. 371. 245. Orient3Pt command. 90. 292. 430. 395. 173. 414 UnhidePoints command. 339. 166. 101. 134. 417. 281. 2. 173. 308. 413. 261. ArraySrf command. 386 Unicode fonts. STL Tools. 203. 307. 425 turn on. Set CPlane. Sphere. 348. 284. 368. 96. 347. 366. 228. 339. rendering.0 Command Reference 233. Shear command. 19. 83. 205. 351. Layer. 234. 162. 203. 322. autosave. 308. 161. 151. 304. 305. 334. 88. 414 unfold a surface. 324. 154. 298. 331. 365. 390. 202. 88. 357. 297 u-direction curves. 240. Bend command. Surface Analysis. 422. 249. 353. 99. 338. 358. Mirror command. Copy command. 302. 90. 194. 261. ScaleNU command. 405. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 307. 339. 288. Rotate3D command. 135. 409. Scale1D command. 409. ArrayPolar command. 344. 386. title bar. 150. 270. 357. 343. 160. 373. 288. 425. 415 Toolbox command. 264. 80. 268. 399. shrink to trim boundary. 244. Surface 2. 325. 342. 415 Ungroup command. 339. 348. 400. 302. 84. 181. title bar. 180. status bar. 16. 108. 311. 412 Transform toolbar. 102. 410 trim:. 262. 41. 262.Rhino 2. 362. 386. 182. 406. 2. 409 Top command. 94. 360. 113. Fillets and chamfers. 277. 162. 180. 245. 140. 204. 104. 425. 308. 365. 192. 253. 311. 135. 203. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 393. 92 Trim command. 149. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 400. 101. 190. 288. 100. status bar. 82 tracking line. 244. 375. 290. set. 379. 408. 331. 386 troubleshooting. 415. 402. 149. 379. 198. 306. 410. 409. definition. 429 Undo command. 172. 50. 19. 409. 364. 152. 200. 381. 338. ProjectToCPlane command. 92. 311. 339. 383. 307. 185 u-direction definition. Polygon. 135. 157. 190. 425. 298. 413 undo:. 323. autosave. 268. 414 Ungroup objects. 171. 330. 349. grid axes.

343. 153. rotate down. zoom out. 430. split horizontal. zoom window. zoom window and set a target point. 90 window selection. 288. 314. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 376 Wallpaper command. object. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 264. 430. 420. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 184 VDA file exchange. 24. 379. 420 views. 420. 313. 96. 271 Volume command. 314. 96. properties. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 429. set to wireframe display. set maximized by name. 325. 168 465 . 343. 400. 244. 325. 430 view:. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 24. zoom extents in one viewport. 302. 425. 429. reverse. plane. 271. 415 UnLockSelected command. front view. zoom in and out by a percentage. 168. 249. maximize. 430. place camera and target. 430. 404. 288. unlock objects. next active. 249. 318. 44 W command. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 409. 244. 384. 323. 304. 430 viewport:. place target. 297 v-direction curves. 409. 421 VolumeMoments command. 419. bottom view. 376. 131 vertical. 343. 336. 249. 416 untrim a surface. 412. 419. 163. 318. 162. 181. wireframe viewport.Rhino 2. 419. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 298. 302. save named. 162. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 379 Weld command. 428 Windows Clipboard. check out license. camera. 135. set active by name. 90. 264. 313. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 405. 313. 304. zoom. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 162. 162. 422 weight:. construction plane bottom. display. 135. edit named. 321. 2. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 132. control points. 416 UpDeg command. 420. top view. 325 Vrbf command. 24. 400. rectangle. 322. 360. 355. construction plane right. 343. 383. zoom all to the same scale. 1 window: select. 302. 429 viewport layout:. 131. 273. 419. 304. 23. next perspective active. 355. 419. 135. shade. pan down. 3 window:. 376. 302. 423. 23. 288. 135 WireframeViewport command. pan left. print. 415 Visibility toolbar. 420 viewport title menu. 409. set top view. zoom in. pan up. new. 422 Weight command. 404. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. set perspective view. 135. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. right view. object snaps. 420. zoom window. 318. swap viewports. 409. 250 What command. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 318. set back view. 185 v-direction definition. selected objects. 430. 23. 165 UpDegSrf command. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 417 Untrim command. target. 163. 322. 423 weld:. 425 wireframe:. 264. zoom extents selected. 360. 323. 347. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 244. 336. 409. 190. 190. 244. hide back. 198. 429. 425 ViewportProperties command. 134. 425 WMF file export. 357. restore named. 416 UnrollSrf command. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 409. tilt left. make previous active. 288. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. line. set density. 377. 323. 384. 376. 338 wireframe display. 249. 415 Visual Basic script. 45 workgroup: check in license. 273. 185. 153. redraw speed. 400. menu. 397. 386. set left view. split vertical. 212. 172. left view. tilt right. 415 UnPackTextures command. set bottom view. 383. perspective view. 397. 425 WireShade1 command. 357. 313. 132. rotate. 397. move next to top. 224. 264. 363. 430. 236. 51 weight: edit control point. 126 VCPlane command. 323. set to shaded display. 336. 384. 422 water level. read from file. rotate up. 386. 11 user input in script. 420 ViewportTitle command. zoom extents in all viewports. construction plane front. 135. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. plan view. set right view. layout. 386. 425. with mouse. 347 VRML file export. 421 VRectangle command. close. 302. 423 wetted surface area. 415 UnLock command. maximize viewport. construction plane back. 153. continuously rotate. 404 visibility: control points. 303. 153. 134 VBscript. 273. 303. 429. next ortho active. 429. read named from file. 288. 298. 415 unroll a surface. rotate left. 421 VPlane command. 360. 313. 54 vertex. 190. copy to all. create from surface. 429. 420. 322. 415 unlock:. synchronize. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. set front view. 397. 45 viewport: bring to top. pan. 377. 172. 357. 322. lock objects. 428. 415 visibility:. show control points. 360. 417 unwrap a surface. 400 viewport properties. 356 v-direction:. 250 water plane area. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. zoom extents. set viewport. 383. 360. 318. isoparm. three viewports. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. set all to match. create new. 43 v-direction: move control points. 347 view: back view. 343. 357. swap. 126 Vline command. 360. 429. construction plane left. 338. pan right. 412. 363. 415. 25. 428. 271. 304. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 181. control point. 419. 250. rotate right. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 421 VRBSrf command.

130 zoom: dynamic. in. check out license. 217 ZBufferPt command. 426 ZM command. 38 XtndB command. 96. 308. 430. 429 ZS command. previous view. 429. in and out by a percentage. 429 ZoomOut command. 3. 308. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. save. 426 ZBufferPoints command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 430 ZoomX command. set colors. 429. 168 working directory. 2. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 130. 429 Zebra command. toggle display. 216 ZE command. 217 ZBufferPts command. 168 workgroup:. 233 Xtra command. 428 ZoomExtents command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 428. 430 ZSA command. 97. 425. 430. 428 Zoo. 430 zoom window. 430 ZBuffer command. 4. 363. 430 ZoomWindow command. window. open. 429 ZEA command. 2. 429 ZoomMouse command. 428. 429 ZoomP command. 11 WorldAxes command. 430 466 . 2. 428. 429. 74 Z command. extents in all viewports. 429. 425 world coordinates. 168. save as different name. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 168. 425 WRL file export. 381 workspace. 3 zoom:. 430 ZoomTarget command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 363. 429 ZoomIn command. 3.Rhino 2. 233 XtndF command. 429. 430. 430 ZP command. check in license. 430 Zoom command. out. 2. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 428. 5. 4. 96. 428 ZoomNext command. 429 ZoomPrev command. options. window and set a new target point. 363 world axes. extents in one viewport. 430.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 44 X_T file export. 425. 430 ZoomDynamic command.

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