GPR SURVEY REPORT: RAVNE TUNNEL LABYRITNH VISOKO, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. Vincenzo Di Gregorio Via Milano, 60 23899 Robbiate (LC) ricerche@ludisrl.com info@aereofoto.it

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

ANALYSIS OF GPR SCANS IN RAVNE TUNNELS
Investigations in Ravne tunnel labyrinth in Visoko, Bosnia were performed with the IDS SpA ground-penetrating radar (GPR) unit, "Detector DUO" on July 22, 2011. This specific GPR unit consists of two transmitting antennas, of which one acts as a receiver. The antennas work at two different frequencies: 200 MHz and 600 MHz, providing detailed, superior-resolution, easy-to-interpret real-time results of both deep and shallow targets. (Fig. 1-2)

The GPR “Detect DUO” is distinguished from other models in that a signal already in the phase of acquisition can be visualized on a computer screen. With this GPR unit, we scanned Ravne tunnel labyrinth after the fill-in material had been removed. We were able to identify separate anomalies of artificial origin which stood out clearly from the natural geological substrate. The subsoil of Ravne tunnel labyrinth is made of natural rock for the most part stratified in parallel layers, at an angle of approximately 45 degrees. The first artificial anomaly detected in Ravne tunnel labyrinth consists of a double layer situated approximately parallel to the existing average grade at a depth ranging from 50 to 80 centimeters below grade. The artificial nature of the layer is evident because it intersects the 45-degree-inclined natural geological strata. However, the specific nature of this anomaly is not able to be determined without excavation.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

(Fig. 3)

artificial level

naturally stratified rock

The most important below-ground anomaly has been located inside a section of Ravne tunnel labyrinth approximately 150 meters along the main tunnel section's winding course, measuring from the main entrance. The anomaly is a structure appearing as a double "X" (one X directly above the other), composed of a material that has been able to survive a very wet environment for thousands of years. Supplemental GPR scans detected a number of other elements. 1) Three different lines of an artificial nature were clearly distinguished. The first line's level is at a depth of 30 centimeters below ground surface. This three-level anomaly is most likely associated with drainage construction in more recent times. 2) Two other below-ground levels were discovered: the first at a depth of 1.5 meters, and the second at a depth of 3 meters, near the double-X anomaly. Since the scanned section exceeds 20 meters it is probable that these levels were constructed at a time contemporary with the entire anomaly structure. One plausible hypothesis for these two below-ground levels is an ancient water drainage system, a hypothesis supported by the presence of a layer of loose soil, soaked with water, surrounding the horizontal structure (indicated in the figure below with a blurred line around the romboidal -diamond-shaped -- structure). This layer could be a thick layer of clay, at least 1 meter in thickness and distributed on both sides. Clay provides good water isolation even in highly permeable fractured rock, and even when water soaked. 3) Another interesting feature seen in supplemental GPR scans is 12 transverse "rods" on both sides of the structure at a distance of approximately 25 centimeters from the "rod" above or below. ("Rods" are highlighted with red dots). These "rods" may not be the only ones present in the structure but may simply be those that have best resisted decay over time.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

(Fig. 4) A GPR scan performed on the opposite side of the same tunnel section (Fig. 4) produced substantially identical results concerning the two levels situated at depths of 1.5 meters and 3 meters. The total length of these two elements (i.e., adding the lengths from both scans) gives a length that exceeds 40 meters, but these elements' actual overall length may be even greater. This scan confirms what all other scans of the structure indicate: a 1.5-meter-thick clay layer providing a type of “protective wrapping” around the structure. GPR scans show two sides of a "cage" composed of a dense system of vertical and horizontal "rods" of an unknown material, and placed stepwise at a distance of approximately 15-20 cm. (The vertical "rods" are not well captured by the GPR waves, but those placed horizontally can be clearly distinguished.) This "cage" has a width of 1.5 meters and seems to be bordered with a protective layer of clay, emphasized by the blurred strata displayed by GPR imaging.

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(Fig. 5) elements used for the embankment of the clay Let's return to the two horizontal lines detected at a depth of 1.5 and 3.0 meters.

CLAY

These lines are very well highlighted in all scans that have been performed by placing the GPR above the center of the structure. They are highlighted in both scans made with two antennas; the antenna that has less penetration provides finer details, and more detailed information only about the first of two lines. To create a better image the second, deeper line, situated at a depth of 1.5 meters, we attached a special filter to the GPR unit in order to highlight the line with artificial colors. This line intersects the previously mentioned geological strata that has a constant inclination of almost 45 degrees. One possibility is that it this 45-degree-inclined strata is artificial (i.e., constructed), but this can be confirmed only with excavation.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

(Fig. 6) Notice the slightly visible rhomboid shape, which indicates the end of the structure. The 1.5-meter-thick layer of clay surrounding the structure is still clearly disitinguishable on both sides, but the two horizontal lines are no longer visible. Therefore, the presence of a type of “pavement,” or that of a layer between 1.0 and 1.5 meters, can be excluded. The most plausible explanation, instead, is that of the presence of a channel or pipe or some analogous feature. The beginning and the end of the "channel/pipe" is visible in the first scan as a double line having a diameter of approximately 10-15 centimeters.

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(Fig. 7) The two channels align perfectly with the structure, and they intersect the structure at two different levels. We have hypothesized that the function of the two channels running through the layer of clay that enwraps the whole structure is to act as a drainage system in order to carry away water and to protect the objects lying inside the structure at depths of 1.5 and 3.0 meters. Evidence that further supports this hypothesis is that these channels/pipes are at least 40 meters long, as confirmed by GPR scans of the entire 40-meter-long area. Future GPR and/or excavation investigations of the directions of these channels/pipes may provide some clues about where the water is carried. If future research conform these channels as parts of a drainage system that serves to carry away water from the structure, the minimal slope ratio of 1/1000 -- a slope necessary to prevent standing water -- should be taken into consideration. If this feature is a drainage channel/pipe, the slope difference between one channel extremity and the

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other of the inspected section of 40 meters should equal at least 4 centimeters. The 1/1000 ratio is a very low value that cannot at this time be detected by GPR measurements.

(Fig.8)

minimal slope ratio necessary to assure the water flow inside the channels

GPR scans could have easily and clearly detected the presence of air inside the channels but did not. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that these channels are filled with soil. At a certain stage of construction, or at some time afterward, structural adjustments may have been necessary, and the channels were either purposely or accidentally filled with soil.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

THE REAL DIMENSIONS OF THE STRUCTURE
GPR data has not revealed the dimensions of the structure. Ground-penetrating radar, for reasons related to its software, does not use the same scale to calculate the longitudinal and vertical measures of the structure, with the result that its images contain a scale distortion.

(Fig. 9)

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

In order to obtain a realistic proportion of the structure it is necessary to squeeze the height of the graph (please refer to the image below). Arrived at this point, it is finally possible to analyze the structure by observing its realistic proportions, and it becomes immediately evident that the elements previously thought to be rhomboid shaped are a series of perfect equilateral triangles. The first triangle with the apex pointing upwards, superimposed on another triangle with the apex pointing downwards, and with a potential burial feature situated at the center.

(Fig. 10)

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

(Fig. 11)

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(Fig. 12)

Shiva male symbol and Shakti female symbol

The structure's shape brings to mind two symbols found over past millennia in different ancient cultures. The symbol of the reversed triangle pointing downwards represents the female yoni of the Earth Mother goddess (the feminine energy or aspect of Creation, also known as, or associated with, the element of water). The triangle with the apex pointing upwards represents the fiery rays of the sun which have been represented by the three-dimensional pyramid and therefore associated with the light ”that floods the Earth.” The Sun and the Earth were the most important elements/principles that were worshiped in many ancient European cultures, but also elsewhere. We find the same symbols also in Vedic-based religions of India, in which the two triangles are called Shiva and Shakti. In esoteric language, religion or mythology, the meeting point of these two triangles is called “axis mundi” (center of the world, or cosmic axis), or the connection between Heaven and Earth. Menhirs, or pyramids, are the most representative three-dimensional representations of such symbolism.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

If we hypothesize that the structure is a tomb, then a body may have been buried exactly in the middle of the two triangles. (The hypothesis of a double tomb will gain even more strength in the proceedings of this study.) Almost every ancient culture that worshipped the Earth Mother goddess (or Mother Earth) did it in shrines located under the ground, possibly in sacred labyrinths, where the presence of water symbolized life and death -- and rebirth. In many cases, in addition to a shrine dedicated to the Earth Mother goddess, there existed a funerary purpose of the labyrinth. One example is the sacred labyrinth dedicated to the Etruscan King Porsenna in Chiusi, Italy.

Photo: Section of underground labyrinth Porsenna in Chiusi, Italy

There may be additional potential burial sites in Ravne tunnel labyrinth. Many of the side tunnels may have been dug into the compressed conglomerate to reach a cavity (perhaps a natural cave) to be used as after-life burial sanctuaries, perhaps even as Mother Earth goddess-protected rebirthing rooms. One fact in support of this hypothesis is that many of the side-branch cavities and tunnels were afterwards filled with "fill-in material" (sand and river stones) and river-stone dry walls of varying heights constructed to contain this fill-in material. Usually, more than one dry-wall of a half-meter or more was constructed in the side tunnels. These "sealing" dry-walls can be found approximately every three meters along the majority of the side tunnels. The side branches might have been inhabited after death by the wealthy or powerful, or simply those most revered in the society, those who had the means to be buried inside the maze. (The permanently transitable main tunnel route passing these side tunnels may have served for ritual
LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

celebrations, funerary or otherwise.) The burial hypothesis must still be investigated, e.g., by scanning with the GPR the tunnel sections from where the fill-material has already been removed. The idea that Ravne tunnel labyrinth was constructed to create a sacred complex dedicated to the Mother Earth Goddess carries more scientific weight than many other hypotheses. For instance, the hypothesis that the tunnel was created for mining purposes has little scientific backing, since ore residues have not been found in significant quantities in or near Ravne tunnel.

Photos: Sealed tunnel sections of Porsenna's tunnel labyrinth dedicated the Mother Earth Goddess. Credits: Stephen Bartlett

Throughout the ages Chiusi's underground network of tunnels, excavated in sandstone with alternate layers of conglomerate (a material very similar to that found in Ravne), has been linked to the famous Etruscan King, Porsenna (VI century B.C.), his legendary mausoleum, as well the Mother Earth Goddess.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

THE PRESENCE OF METALS INSIDE THE STRUCTURE
Another intention was to identify the presence of dateable artifacts inside the underground structure in order to collect more information about the temporal development of the structure itself. Therefore, scans were performed in order to determine if metals were used for the construction of the structure. A new-generation deep-processor radar unit called “Golden King” was used to perform the scans.

Photo: Golden King Deep Processor Radar

This new-generation radar is the most advanced electromagnetic detection system ever created and has several features that make it ideal for this type of research. The Golden King Deep-Processor Radar unit is a first in the world, being the only system that can process targeted images in real-time, i.e., as they are discovered. Its most notable feature is that it can return acquired and processed data (from the buried target/object) with extreme accuracy to the center of a three-dimensional graph. We used this unit to scan the structure, and we received a clear return-signal from the opposite side of the tunnel entrance showing a large metal object beneath the ground. An analysis of the enclosed diagram reveals that the size of the detected object oscillates between 25 and 30 centimeters. The depth indicated by the diagram is 1.75 meters, which means that the metal object is aligned with the axis of the hypothetical burial. The most interesting fact, however, is that it can be declared with certainty that it is a non-ferrous metallic alloy. The nonferrous metals commonly used in antiquity were gold, silver, and copper and its alloys typically brass and bronze. It is also possible that the detected object is an accumulation of different smaller objects gathered
LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

together, and arranged in a 30-centimeter-wide circle. The presence of metal-alloy objects may give us an indication of the location of the head of the deceased, since in many ancient burials it was common practice to place precious objects near the head of the buried individual. If further research confirms that the body was placed with the legs/feet pointing towards the tunnel exit, and the head towards the tunnel center, it might provide further indication that inside the tunnel labyrinth lies something important toward which the buried individual's body points as a sign of respect. Further research and analysis of this object may lend further support to the funerary hypothesis.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

CONCLUSIONS
A summary of this report's conclusions follow: 1. The structure highlighted in Ravne tunnels shows contruction elements in the shape of equilateral triangels. 2. The dimensions of the structure are: approximately 2.0 meters in length, 1.0-1.5 meters in width, and 4.3 meters in height. 3. The structure is composed of two chambers with dimensions as indicated above and a wall thickness of approximately 30-40 centimeters. 4. The whole structure is surrounded by a thick layer of clay having a width of 1.5 meters. 5. The layer of clay was placed inside a cage/formwork consisting of longitudinal elements made of an unknown material and placed at regular intervals of approximately 15-20 centimeters. 6. The thick layer of clay may have been constructed to protect the structure. A system of drainage (or ventilation channels built to mantain a low degree of humidity around and inside the structure) was detected along the entire length of the scanned area of 40 meters. These channels were located at a depth of 1.5 and 3.0 meters and intersect with the hypothesized burial chambers. 7. Scannings performed by a deep-processor radar verified the presence of a large mass of nonferrous metal (an alloy) at a depth of 1.5 meters. So far, it has not been possible to verify the presence of alloys inside the second hypothesized burial chamber because it is out of radar detection range of the deep-processor unit. Enclosed please find an explanatory diagram of the conclusions reached in the GPR survey conducted July 2011 in Ravne tunnel labyrinth.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

EXPLANATORY DIAGRAM

Legend: – – – Beige colour: Formwork made of clay and unknown material. Orange colour: Drainage/ventilation channels. Red colours: Potential burials.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

Notice: The English version of this report has been edited by Nenad M. Djurdjević, independent researcher, and copy edited by Jock Doubleday, Public Relations Director for the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation.

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

LUDI RESEARCH Arch. V. Di Gregorio - Via Milano 60 - 23899 Robbiate (LC) Copyright © 2011 All rights resereved

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